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Sample records for 3gev rapid cycling

  1. Development of the Collimator System for the 3GEV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

    Yamamoto, Kazami

    2005-01-01

    In order to localize the beam loss in the restricted area, the beam collimation system is prepared in the 3GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) Project. The amount of the localized beam loss on the one collimator is estimated about 1.2kW, and that loss generates a large quantity of the secondary radiations. So the beam collimator must be designed that it is covered with enough shielding. We calculated the radiation level of the collimator and decided necessary shielding thickness. This result indicated that the residual dose rate at the outside surface of the shielding is mostly under 1mSv/h. We developed the remote cramp system and rad-hard components in order to reduce the radiation exposure during maintenance of the collimator. And also we coated Titanium Nitride (TiN) film on the inside surface of the vacuum chamber in order to reduce the secondary electron emission from the collimator and chamber surface. Now we investigate the possibility of another coatin...

  2. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [13 km

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  3. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [20 km

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  4. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  5. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  6. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  7. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  8. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  9. Improvements in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron1 (RCS), originally designed as an injection energy booster for the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS), operated under contraints imposed by ZGS operation until December 1979. Once these restraints were removed, the RCS made rapid strides toward its nearterm goals of 8 μA of protons for Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) program. Reliable 30 Hz operation was achieved in the spring of 1980 with beams as high as 2 x 1012 protons per pulse and weekly average intensities of over 6 μA on target. These gains resulted from better injection matching, more efficient RF turn-on and dynamic chromatricity control. A high intensity small diameter synchrotron, such as the RCS, has special problems with loss control which dictate prudence during intensity improvment activities. Additional improvements were made to the machine starting in August of 1980 while the extraction magnets were relocated for operation with the IPNS-I target. These improvements have now been completed. Startup of the accelerator is now underway, and it is clear that these modifications have resulted in a radio-actively cleaner operation. It is too early to evaluate the effects of the improvements on intensity and reliability, but a single pulse extracted intensity of 2.4 x 1012 protons has been achieved, a 20% increase. The studies and equipment leading to the intensity gains are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Improvements in the rapid cycling synchrotron

    The Rapid Cycling Snychrotron1 (RCS), originally designed as an injection energy booster for the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS), operated under constraints imposed by ZGS operation until December 1979. Once these restraints were removed, the RCS made rapid strides toward its nearterm goals of 8 μA of protons for Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) program. Reliable 30 Hz operation was achieved in the spring of 1980 with beams as high as 2 x 1012 protons per pulse and weekly average intensities of over 6 μA on target. These gains resulted from better injection matching, more efficient RF turn-on and dynamic chromaticity control. A high intensity small diameter synchrotron, such as the RCS, has special problems with loss control which dictate prudence during intensity improvement activities. Additional improvements were made to the machine starting in August of 1980 while the extraction magnets were relocated for operation with the IPNS-I target. These improvements have now been completed. Startup of the accelerator is now underway, and it is clear that these modifications have resulted in a radioactively cleaner operation. It is too early to evaluate the effects of the improvements on intensity and reliability, but a single pulse extracted intensity of 2.4 x 1012 protons has been achieved, a 20% increase. The studies and equipment leading to the intensity gains are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  12. Rapid lithification masks the Venus sedimentary cycle

    Ghail, R.

    2015-10-01

    Venera lander data are usually assumed to indicate basaltic lavas but a significant fraction of the rock material must be volatiles, such as sulphur, implying at least strongly weathered basalts. The lander images most closely resemble sedimentary material, with layered strata (which may be pyroclastic in origin)that are sometimes broken into cobbles and fine grained sediment. The Magellan SAR was relatively insensitive to loose fine-grained material under Venus surface conditions but the reprocessed data reveal a range of weathering processes, particularly at higher elevations, and mass wasting of steep slopes. Mean wind speeds are strongly altitude dependent and are able to erode and transport material throughout the highland regions. In some areas, this material is deposited on adjacent plains where, under the extreme Venus surface conditions, lithification is an apparently rapid process. Thus the largely featureless plains may not be igneous at all but sedimentary in origin. The settling out and lithification of sedimentary material is consistent with observed crater degradation, in which low-lying crater floors are infilled first.

  13. LIFE CYCLE BIOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS USING RAPID CYCLING OF BRASSICA

    Initial evaluation of a new plant life cycle bioassay for the assessment of the effects of toxic chemicals is presented. he bioassay features a rapid cycling Brassica species that can complete its life cycle in as little as 36 days. he herbicide dalapon (2,2 dichloropropionic aci...

  14. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    Peggs, Stephen G.; Brennan, J. Michael; Tuozzolo, Joseph E.; Zaltsman, Alexander

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  15. Hearthfire reference concept No. 3. A rapid cycling synchrotron system

    This report describes a reference design for an accelerator system for heavy ion fusion based on a rapid cycling synchrotron and storage rings. The system irradiates one fusion target per second with 1 MJ, 100 TW (peak) pulses of 20 GeV Xe+8. The major components are a 550 MV linac, eight 60 Hz synchrotrons, four matching rings, 16 storage rings, and 24 final beam lines and lenses

  16. High precision tracking control for rapid cycling magnets

    Rapid cycling magnets are excited using a resonant circuit and the current waveform is a DC-biased sinusoidal pattern. However, non-linear characteristic of the magnet produces harmonic components in the magnetic field. The harmonic components are different for each type of magnet depending upon the degree of saturation, and it causes a tracking error. This paper proposes harmonic current control in the resonant circuit to reduce harmonic components in the magnetic field. (author)

  17. Rapid cycling synchrotron magnet with separate ac and dc circuit

    In present rapid cycling synchrotron magnets ac and dc currents flow in the same coil to give the desired field. The circuit reactance is made zero at dc and the operating frequency by running the magnet in series with an external parallel resonant LC current. We propose to return the ac flux in a gap next to the synchrotron. The dc coil encloses the ac magnetic circuit and thus links no ac flux. A shorted turn between the dc coil and ac flux enhances the separation of the two circuits. Several interesting developments are possible. The dc coil could be a stable superconductor to save power. The ac flux return gap could be identical with the synchrotron gap and contain a second synchrotron. This would double the output of the system. If the return flux gap were used for a booster, the ac coil power could be greatly reduced or radiation hardening of the ac coil could be simplified

  18. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    Swerdlow, Harold P.; Wittwer, Carl T.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

  19. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  20. Anxiety Disorders and Rapid Cycling Data From a Cohort of 8129 Youths With Bipolar Disorder

    Castilla-Puentes, Ruby; Sala, Regina; Ng, Bernardo; Galvez, Juan; Camacho, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (ADs) are common in youths with bipolar disorder (BD). We examine psychiatric comorbidity, hospitalization, and treatment in youths with versus without AD and rapid cycling (four or more cycles per year). Data from the Integrated Healthcare Information Services cohort were used and included 8129 youths (ages ≤18 years). Prevalence of AD, demographic, type of AD, hospitalization, and use of psychotropics were compared between rapid and nonrapid cycling. Overall, 51% of the yo...

  1. Detection of Bordetella pertussis by rapid-cycle PCR and colorimetric microwell hybridization.

    Buck, G E

    1996-01-01

    The use of rapid-cycle PCR combined with colorimetric microwell hybridization for detecting Bordetella pertussis was investigated. Rapid cycling was performed with an air thermocycler (model 1605; Idaho Technology, Idaho Falls, Idaho). Although the instrument was originally designed to be used with capillary tubes, an adapter that allows this instrument to be used with PCR tubes has recently been introduced. Because of the low heat capacity of air, the thermocycler has rapid transition rates ...

  2. CRY2 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder patients.

    Louise K Sjöholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder patients often display abnormalities in circadian rhythm, and they are sensitive to irregular diurnal rhythms. CRY2 participates in the core clock that generates circadian rhythms. CRY2 mRNA expression in blood mononuclear cells was recently shown to display a marked diurnal variation and to respond to total sleep deprivation in healthy human volunteers. It was also shown that bipolar patients in a depressive state had lower CRY2 mRNA levels, nonresponsive to total sleep deprivation, compared to healthy controls, and that CRY2 gene variation was associated with winter depression in both Swedish and Finnish cohorts. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four CRY2 SNPs spanning from intron 2 to downstream 3'UTR were analyzed for association to bipolar disorder type 1 (n = 497, bipolar disorder type 2 (n = 60 and bipolar disorder with the feature rapid cycling (n = 155 versus blood donors (n = 1044 in Sweden. Also, the rapid cycling cases were compared with bipolar disorder cases without rapid cycling (n = 422. The haplotype GGAC was underrepresented among rapid cycling cases versus controls and versus bipolar disorder cases without rapid cycling (OR = 0.7, P = 0.006-0.02, whereas overrepresentation among rapid cycling cases was seen for AAAC (OR = 1.3-1.4, P = 0.03-0.04 and AGGA (OR = 1.5, P = 0.05. The risk and protective CRY2 haplotypes and their effect sizes were similar to those recently suggested to be associated with winter depression in Swedes. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the circadian gene CRY2 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. This is the first time a clock gene is implicated in rapid cycling, and one of few findings showing a molecular discrimination between rapid cycling and other forms of bipolar disorder.

  3. Rapid-fire improvement with short-cycle kaizen.

    Heard, E

    1999-05-01

    Continuous improvement is an attractive idea, but it is typically more myth than reality. SCK is no myth. It delivers dramatic improvements in traditional measures quickly. SCK accomplishes this via kaizens: rapid, repeated, time-compressed changes for the better in bite-sized chunks of the business. PMID:10387776

  4. Rapid cycling of reactive nitrogen in the marine boundary layer

    Ye, Chunxiang; Zhou, Xianliang; Pu, Dennis; Stutz, Jochen; Festa, James; Spolaor, Max; Tsai, Catalina; Cantrell, Christopher; Mauldin, Roy L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; Guenther, Alex; Kaser, Lisa; Yuan, Bin; Karl, Thomas; Haggerty, Julie; Hall, Samuel; Ullmann, Kirk; Smith, James N.; Ortega, John; Knote, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides are essential for the formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols and of atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and the hydroxyl radical, which controls the self-cleansing capacity of the atmosphere. Nitric acid, a major oxidation product of nitrogen oxides, has traditionally been considered to be a permanent sink of nitrogen oxides. However, model studies predict higher ratios of nitric acid to nitrogen oxides in the troposphere than are observed. A ‘renoxification’ process that recycles nitric acid into nitrogen oxides has been proposed to reconcile observations with model studies, but the mechanisms responsible for this process remain uncertain. Here we present data from an aircraft measurement campaign over the North Atlantic Ocean and find evidence for rapid recycling of nitric acid to nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides in the clean marine boundary layer via particulate nitrate photolysis. Laboratory experiments further demonstrate the photolysis of particulate nitrate collected on filters at a rate more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of gaseous nitric acid, with nitrous acid as the main product. Box model calculations based on the Master Chemical Mechanism suggest that particulate nitrate photolysis mainly sustains the observed levels of nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides at midday under typical marine boundary layer conditions. Given that oceans account for more than 70 per cent of Earth’s surface, we propose that particulate nitrate photolysis could be a substantial tropospheric nitrogen oxide source. Recycling of nitrogen oxides in remote oceanic regions with minimal direct nitrogen oxide emissions could increase the formation of tropospheric oxidants and secondary atmospheric aerosols on a global scale.

  5. Thermal Behavior of Small Lithium-Ion Secondary Battery during Rapid Charge and Discharge Cycles

    Ohshima, Takamasa; Nakayama, Masato; Fukuda, Kenichi; Araki, Takuto; Onda, Kazuo

    The secondary batteries for the electric vehicle (EV) generate much heat during rapid charge and discharge cycles than the rated condition, when EV starts quickly consuming the battery power and stops suddenly recovering the inertia energy. During rapid charge and discharge cycles, the cell temperature rises significantly and may increase more than the allowable temperature. So we calculated the temperature rise of a small lithium-ion secondary battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles using our battery thermal behavior model, which we have developed being confirmed its validity during discharge cycle at the smaller current than the discharge rate of 1C. The heat source factors were measured by the methods described in our previous study, because the present batteries have been improved in their performance and have low overpotential resistance. The battery heat capacity was measured by a twin-type heat conduction calorimeter, and determined to be a linear function of temperature. Further, the heat transfer coefficient was measured again precisely by the method described in our previous study, and was arranged as a function of cell and ambient temperatures. The calculated temperature by our battery thermal behavior model using these measured data agrees well with the cell temperature measured by thermocouple. Therefore we can confirm the validity of this model again during rapid charge and discharge cycles.

  6. Daytime spikes in dopaminergic activity drive rapid mood-cycling in mice

    Sidor, Michelle M.; Spencer, Sade M.; Dzirasa, Kafui; Parekh, Puja K.; Tye, Kay M; Warden, Melissa R.; Arey, Rachel N.; Enwright, John F; Jacobsen, Jacob PR; Kumar, Sunil; Remillard, Erin M; Marc G Caron; Deisseroth, Karl; McClung, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in circadian rhythms and dopaminergic activity are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, though their interaction remains unclear. Moreover, a lack of animal models that display spontaneous cycling between mood states has hindered our mechanistic understanding of mood switching. Here we find that mice with a mutation in the circadian Clock gene (ClockΔ19) exhibit rapid mood-cycling, with a profound manic-like phenotype emerging during the day following a period of e...

  7. Computer, Video, and Rapid-Cycling Plant Projects in an Undergraduate Plant Breeding Course.

    Michaels, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Studies the perceived effectiveness of four student projects involving videotape production, computer conferencing, microcomputer simulation, and rapid-cycling Brassica breeding for undergraduate plant breeding students in two course offerings in consecutive years. Linking of the computer conferencing and video projects improved the rating of the…

  8. Demonstrated Ways to Use Rapid Cycling "Brassica Rapa" in Ecology Instruction and Research

    Kelly, Martin G.

    2004-01-01

    The National Science Foundation has a long supported the use of "Wisconsin Fast Plants" (rapid cycling "B. rapa") in the teaching of Biology (K-12). I believe that the opportunity is at hand for biologists to significantly extend past efforts made by our colleagues at the K-12 level to higher education. Biology faculty can realize the many…

  9. Thermal behavior of small lithium-ion battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles

    Onda, Kazuo; Ohshima, Takamasa; Nakayama, Masato; Fukuda, Kenichi; Araki, Takuto

    The secondary batteries for electric vehicles (EV) generate much heat during rapid charge and discharge cycles at current levels exceeding the batteries' rating, such as when the EV quickly starts consuming battery power or when recovering inertia energy during sudden stops. During these rapid charge and discharge cycles, the cell temperature may increase above allowable limits. We calculated the temperature rise of a small lithium-ion secondary battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles. The heat-source factors were measured again by the methods described in our previous study, because the performance of the battery reported here has been improved, showing lower overpotential resistance. Battery heat capacity was measured by a twin-type heat conduction calorimeter, and determined to be a linear function of temperature. Further, the heat transfer coefficient, measured again precisely by the method described in our previous study, was arranged as a function of cell and ambient temperatures. The temperature calculated by our battery thermal behavior model using these measured data agrees well with the cell temperature measured by thermocouple during rapid charge and discharge cycles. Also, battery radial temperature distributions were calculated to be small, and confirmed experimentally.

  10. Tests of scotchlite holography in the rapid-cycling bubble chamber

    Among several possibilities for a holographic set-up in the rapid-cycling bubble chamber (RCBC), the simplest one is probably to use RCBC as it is, with the Scotchlite as a reflector, and without modifying the optical ports. The aim of this report is to investigate the possibilities and the limitations of this approach. (orig./HSI)

  11. Degradation of Teflon(tm) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Powers, Charles E.; Viens, Michael J.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary T.; Munoz, Bruno F.

    1998-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon' FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(registered trademark) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(registered trademark) FEP.

  12. Degradation of Teflon(tm) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    Townsend, Jacqueline; Powers, Charles; Viens, Michael; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Munoz, Bruno

    1998-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(R) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(R) FEP.

  13. Degradation of Teflon(trademark) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    Townsend, Jacqueline; Powers, Charles; Viens, Michael; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Munoz, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon(trademark) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(trademark) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(trademark) FEP.

  14. Thermal Behavior of Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery during Rapid Charge and Discharge Cycles

    Araki, Takuto; Wakahara, Kenji; Fukuda, Kenichi; Ohmori, Yositake; Nakayama, Masato; Onda, Kazuo

    The temperature of secondary batteries may increase above allowable limits and deteriorate its performance, during rapid charge and discharge cycles. Therefore, assessing thermal behavior of battery is essential. On the other hand, rectangular parallelepiped shape batteries are supposedly going to be used more commonly for cars and electrical devices because of their better space efficiency. Then, we constructed a two dimensional Cartesian coordinates battery thermal behavior model for a prismatic lithium-ion secondary battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles. It was extended from one dimensional cylindrical coordinates model, which had been developed and experimentally verified. As parameters of the numerical model, battery heat source factors such as overpotential resistance, entropy change, heat transfer coefficient and heat capacity have been measured. The radiation thermometer was used for obtaining battery surface temperature variance and distributions. Battery temperature generally increases as charge and discharge cycle proceeds, nevertheless temperature drops were observed at begging of low rate charge cycle and vicinity of SOC=0.8 in discharge cycle. Our modified model could predict these phenomena and agreed well with experimental results. Then the reliability of our numerical model and measuring techniques of heat source factors are confirmed each other.

  15. A new concept of maternity blues: Is there a subgroup of women with rapid cycling mood symptoms?

    Pop, V.J.M.; Truijens, E.M.; Wijnen, H.A.; van Son, M.J.M.; Bergink, V.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapid cycling mood symptoms during the first postpartum week are an important aspect of maternity blues. The aim of this study is to identify women with these rapid cycling mood symptoms in the general population and to investigate possible risk factors of these symptoms. METHODS: The Ma

  16. Sun-Like Magnetic Cycles in the Rapidly-Rotating Young Solar Analog HD 30495

    Egeland, Ricky; Hall, Jeffrey C; Henry, Gregory W

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that multiple dynamo mechanisms can drive magnetic variability on different timescales, not only in the Sun but also in other stars. Many solar activity proxies exhibit a quasi-biennial ($\\sim$2 year) variation, which is superimposed upon the dominant 11 year cycle. A well-characterized stellar sample suggests at least two different relationships between rotation period and cycle period, with some stars exhibiting long and short cycles simultaneously. Within this sample, the solar cycle periods are typical of a more rapidly rotating star, implying that the Sun might be in a transitional state or that it has an unusual evolutionary history. In this work, we present new and archival observations of dual magnetic cycles in the young solar analog HD 30495, an $\\sim$1 Gyr-old G1.5V star with a rotation period near 11 days. This star falls squarely on the relationships established by the broader stellar sample, with short-period variations at $\\sim$1.7 years and a long cycle of $...

  17. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel;

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control desi......Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3...... were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder...

  18. Thermal Behavior of Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery during Rapid Charge and Discharge Cycles

    Nakayama, Masato; Fukuda, Kenichi; Araki, Takuto; Onda, Kazuo

    The secondary batteries for the electric vehicle (EV) generate much heat during rapid charge and discharge cycles, when the EV starts quickly consuming the battery power and stops suddenly recovering the inertia energy. The generated heat increases significantly the cell temperature and causes possibly bad influences on the battery performance and the safely requirement. So we have studied the thermal behavior of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles, applying our previous battery thermal model, which have been confirmed to agree with the experimental results at smaller charge current than the rated current. The heat sources by the entropy change, the hydrogen occlusion and the side reaction have been referred to the published data, and the overpotential resistance and the current efficiency, the ratio of main reaction current to charge current, have been measured experimentally through the rapid charge and discharge characteristics with constant current. By using these data our thermal model for Ni/MH battery has estimated its temperature increase, which agrees well with the measured temperature rise, with the root mean square error of 1.5°C and 2.1°C for charge and discharge cycles, respectively.

  19. Magnetic Cycles and Buoyant Magnetic Structures in a Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Nelson, Nicholas J.; Brown, B. P.; Brun, S.; Miesch, M. S.; Toomre, J.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of sun-like stars rotating faster than our current sun show that they exhibit solar-like magnetic cycles and features, such as star spots. Using global 3-D simulations to study the coupling of large-scale convection, rotation, and magnetism in a younger sun, we have probed the effects of more rapid rotation on stellar dynamos and the nature of magnetic cycles. Our anelastic spherical harmonics (ASH) code allows study of the convective envelope, occupying the outer 30% by radius of a sun-like star. Major MHD simulations carried out at three times the current solar rotation rate reveal magnetic dynamo action that can produce wreaths of strong toroidal magnetic field at low latitudes, often with opposite polarity in the two hemispheres. The presence of the wreaths is quite surprising, for they arise as quite persistent global structures amidst the vigorous and turbulent convection. We have recently explored behavior in systems with considerably lower diffusivities, achieved with a dynamic Smagorinsky treatment of unresolved turbulence. The lower levels of diffusion create magnetic wreaths that undergo prominent variations in field strength, even exhibiting global magnetic cycles that involve polarity reversals. Additionally, during the cycle maximum, when magnetic energies and mean magnetic fields peak, the wreaths possess buoyant magnetic structures that rise coherently through much of the convective envelope via a combination of advection by convective upflows and magnetic buoyancy. We explore aspects of these rising magnetic structures and the evolving global dynamo action which produces them.

  20. Development and characterization of aluminum stranded water cooled conductor for rapid cycling synchrotron magnets

    Magnet coils of rapid cycling synchrotron are subjected to time varying magnetic fields and a special water cooled stranded conductor is preferred for making magnet coils to reduce eddy current losses, magnetic field inhomogeneity and operating costs of magnets. A continuous length (∼ 50 m) aluminum stranded water cooled conductor is indigenously developed. Five stranded magnet coils are wound and epoxy resin impregnated as per the technical requirements. The stranded conductor magnet coils are assembled with a laminated dipole magnet core for their electrical characterization. The development of water cooled aluminum stranded conductor, characterization of stranded magnet coils will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  1. Estimation of secondary electron effect in the J-PARC rapid cycling synchrotron after first study

    The J-PARC 3 GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS) is required to provide 1 MW pulsed protons to the spallation neutron target and the 50 GeV main ring. Since the RCS finally accelerates very high intensity beam such as 8.3 x 1013 ppp, the secondary electron cloud may affect the accelerator performance. We measured the secondary electron emission from the TiN coating surface and the ferrite sample. By using these measurement results, we estimated the effect of the electron cloud made by the emitted secondary electron at present beam parameters.

  2. Effects of Rapid Cycle Annealing Temperature on TbFe Magnetostrictive Films

    JIANG Hong-Chuan; ZHANG Jin-Ping; ZHANG Wan-Li; PENG Bin; ZHANG Wen-Xu; YANG Shi-Qing; ZHANG Huai-Wu

    2004-01-01

    @@ The effects of annealing temperature on TbFe films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering were discussed. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that these polycrystalline films consisting mainly of α-Fe and TbFe2 lave phase with grain sizes less than 25 nm can be obtained by a rapid cycle annealing process. Grain sizes can be controlled by varying annealing temperatures. Film hysteresis loop studies show that annealing treatment can improve TbFe film in-plane soft magnetic performances.

  3. Study of a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron to replace the CERN PS Booster

    Hanke, K; Angoletta, M E; Balhan, B; Bartmann, W; Benedikt, M; Borburgh, J; Bozzini, D; Carli, C; Dahlen, P; Dobers, T; Fitterer, M; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hansen, J; Hermanns, T; Lopez-Hernandez, L A; Hourican, M; Jensen, S; Kosmicki, A; Meddahi, M; Mikulec, B; Newborough, A; Nonis, M; Olek, S; Paoluzzi, M; Pittet, S; Puccio, B; Raginel, V; Ruehl, I; Schönauer, H; Sermeus, L; Steerenberg, R; Tan, J; Tückmantel, J; Vretenar, M; Widorski, M

    2011-01-01

    CERN’s proton injector chain is undergoing a massive consolidation and upgrade program in order to deliver beams meeting the needs of the LHC Luminosity Upgrade. As an alternative to the upgrade of the existing Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the construction of a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) has been studied. This machine would replace the PSB and deliver beams to the LHC as well as to CERN’s rich fixed-target physics program. This paper summarizes the outcome of the feasibility study along with a tentative RCS design.

  4. Rapid alterations of cell cycle control proteins in human T lymphocytes in microgravity

    Thiel Cora S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In our study we aimed to identify rapidly reacting gravity-responsive mechanisms in mammalian cells in order to understand if and how altered gravity is translated into a cellular response. In a combination of experiments using "functional weightlessness" provided by 2D-clinostats and real microgravity provided by several parabolic flight campaigns and compared to in-flight-1g-controls, we identified rapid gravity-responsive reactions inside the cell cycle regulatory machinery of human T lymphocytes. In response to 2D clinorotation, we detected an enhanced expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 protein within minutes, less cdc25C protein expression and enhanced Ser147-phosphorylation of cyclinB1 after CD3/CD28 stimulation. Additionally, during 2D clinorotation, Tyr-15-phosphorylation occurred later and was shorter than in the 1 g controls. In CD3/CD28-stimulated primary human T cells, mRNA expression of the cell cycle arrest protein p21 increased 4.1-fold after 20s real microgravity in primary CD4+ T cells and 2.9-fold in Jurkat T cells, compared to 1 g in-flight controls after CD3/CD28 stimulation. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitor curcumin was able to abrogate microgravity-induced p21 mRNA expression, whereas expression was enhanced by a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor. Therefore, we suppose that cell cycle progression in human T lymphocytes requires Earth gravity and that the disturbed expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins could contribute to the breakdown of the human immune system in space.

  5. Effects of rapid quenching on structure and cycle stability of La-Mg-Ni-Co type hydrogen storage alloy

    DONG Xiaoping; Lü Fanxiu; ZHANG Yanghuan; YANG Liying; FENG Meng; WANG Xinlin

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the cycle stability of La-Mg-Ni-Co type alloy electrode, rapid quenching technology was employed. The effects of rapid quenching on the microstructure and cycle stability of the alloy were investigated. The obtained results show that the La2Mg(Ni0.85Co0.15)9M0.1 (M=B, Cr) alloy electrodes are composed of (La, Mg)Ni3 phase, LaNi5 phase and a small amount of the LaNi2 phase. A trace of the Ni2B phase exists in the as-cast MB alloy, and the Ni2B phase in the alloy nearly disappears after rapid quenching. Rapid quenching technology can slightly improve the cycling life of the alloy. When the quenching rate increases from 0 m·s -1 (As-cast is defined as quenching rate of 0 m·s-1 ) to 30 m·s -1 , the cycle lives of the MB, M Cr alloys enhance from 86 and 87 cycles to 106 and 119 cycles, respectively. On the other hand, the average capacity decay rates of the MB, M Cr alloys decrease from 1.7172 and 1.7178 mAh·g-1·cycle-1 to 1.5751 and 1.3060 mAh·g-1·cycle-1 after 86 charge-discharges cycling, respectively.

  6. Hoarding Symptoms Respond to Treatment for Rapid Cycling Bipolar II Disorder.

    Laurito, Luana D; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Kahn, David A

    2016-01-01

    Although some studies have reported a relationship between hoarding and bipolar disorder, we are unaware of any previous description of how they may interact with each other and how they should be managed appropriately. A 48-year-old male depressed patient with hoarding symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was diagnosed with bipolar II disorder after 2 hypomanic episodes. The patient was treated unsuccessfully with different high-dose serotonin reuptake inhibitors and atypical antipsychotics, maintaining a pattern of 6 to 8 discrete, but severe, depressive episodes each year, always in association with a drastic worsening of his OCD and hoarding symptoms. T.he patient did not improve until the dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor was decreased and a combination of lamotrigine and methylphenidate was initiated. On this treatment regimen, the patient did not show clinically significant levels of depression or hoarding or other OCD symptoms. This case suggests that, in some patients, (1) hoarding-related cognitions and behaviors may be a part of bipolar depression, (2) the episodic nature of rapid cycling bipolar II disorder may protect against the development of severe clutter, and (3) treatment focusing on bipolar depression (eg, lamotrigine plus methylphenidate) may result in an improvement of hoarding symptoms when these are present in patients with rapid cycling bipolar II disorder. PMID:26813488

  7. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    Chen, Pao-Huan; Huang, Yu-Jui

    2015-01-01

    The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipolar 1 disorder for 12 years who developed a breakthrough rapid cycling course and first-onset clinical hypothyroidism at the age...

  8. Daytime spikes in dopaminergic activity drive rapid mood-cycling in mice.

    Sidor, M M; Spencer, S M; Dzirasa, K; Parekh, P K; Tye, K M; Warden, M R; Arey, R N; Enwright, J F; Jacobsen, J P R; Kumar, S; Remillard, E M; Caron, M G; Deisseroth, K; McClung, C A

    2015-11-01

    Disruptions in circadian rhythms and dopaminergic activity are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, though their interaction remains unclear. Moreover, a lack of animal models that display spontaneous cycling between mood states has hindered our mechanistic understanding of mood switching. Here, we find that mice with a mutation in the circadian Clock gene (ClockΔ19) exhibit rapid mood-cycling, with a profound manic-like phenotype emerging during the day following a period of euthymia at night. Mood-cycling coincides with abnormal daytime spikes in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels and dopamine synthesis. To determine the significance of daytime increases in VTA dopamine activity to manic behaviors, we developed a novel optogenetic stimulation paradigm that produces a sustained increase in dopamine neuronal activity and find that this induces a manic-like behavioral state. Time-dependent dampening of TH activity during the day reverses manic-related behaviors in ClockΔ19 mice. Finally, we show that CLOCK acts as a negative regulator of TH transcription, revealing a novel molecular mechanism underlying cyclic changes in mood-related behavior. Taken together, these studies have identified a mechanistic connection between circadian gene disruption and the precipitation of manic episodes in bipolar disorder. PMID:25560763

  9. Realizing the potential of rapid-cycling Brassica as a model system for use in plant biology research

    Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid-cycling Brassica populations were initially developed as a model for probing the genetic basis of plant disease. Paul Williams and co-workers selected accessions of the six main species for short time to flower and rapid seed maturation. Over multiple generations of breeding and selection, rapid-cycling populations of each of the six species were developed. Because of their close relationship with economically important Brassica species, rapid-cycling Brassica populations, especially those of B. rapa (RCBr) and B. oleracea, have seen wide application in plant and crop physiology investigations. Adding to the popularity of these small, short-lived plants for research applications is their extensive use in K-12 education and outreach.

  10. Numerical analysis and experiment to identify origin of buckling in rapid cycling synchrotron core

    The accelerating cavities used in the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) are loaded with magnetic alloy (MA) cores. Over lengthly periods of RCS operation, significant reductions in the impedance of the cavities resulting from the buckling of the cores were observed. A series of thermal structural simulations and compressive strength tests showed that the buckling can be attributed to the low-viscosity epoxy resin impregnation of the MA core that causes the stiffening of the originally flexible MA–ribbon–wound core. Our results showed that thermal stress can be effectively reduced upon using a core that is not epoxy-impregnated. -- Highlights: • Study to identify the origin of buckling in the MA cores is presented. • Thermal stress simulations and compressive strength tests were carried out. • Results show that thermal stress is the origin of core buckling. • Thermal stress can be reduced by using cores without epoxy impregnation

  11. Reconsidering Tree Fruit as Candidate Crops Through the Use of Rapid Cycle Crop Breeding Technologies

    Graham, Gary Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Tree fruit, although desirable from a crew nutrition and menu diversity perspective, have long been dismissed as candidate crops based on their long juvenile phase, large architecture, low short-term harvest index, and dormancy requirements. Recent developments in Rapid Cycle Crop Breeding (RCCB) have overcome these historical limitations, opening the door to a new era in candidate crop research. Researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have developed FT-construct (Flowering Locus T) dwarf plum lines that have a very short juvenile phase, vine-like architecture, and no obligate dormancy period. In a collaborative research effort, NASA and the USDA are evaluating the performance of these FT-lines under controlled environment conditions relevant to spaceflight.

  12. β-Arrestin biosensors reveal a rapid, receptor-dependent activation/deactivation cycle.

    Nuber, Susanne; Zabel, Ulrike; Lorenz, Kristina; Nuber, Andreas; Milligan, Graeme; Tobin, Andrew B; Lohse, Martin J; Hoffmann, Carsten

    2016-03-31

    (β-)Arrestins are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They bind to active, phosphorylated GPCRs and thereby shut off 'classical' signalling to G proteins, trigger internalization of GPCRs via interaction with the clathrin machinery and mediate signalling via 'non-classical' pathways. In addition to two visual arrestins that bind to rod and cone photoreceptors (termed arrestin1 and arrestin4), there are only two (non-visual) β-arrestin proteins (β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2, also termed arrestin2 and arrestin3), which regulate hundreds of different (non-visual) GPCRs. Binding of these proteins to GPCRs usually requires the active form of the receptors plus their phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The binding of receptors or their carboxy terminus as well as certain truncations induce active conformations of (β-)arrestins that have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography. Here we investigate both the interaction of β-arrestin with GPCRs, and the β-arrestin conformational changes in real time and in living human cells, using a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based β-arrestin2 biosensors. We observe receptor-specific patterns of conformational changes in β-arrestin2 that occur rapidly after the receptor-β-arrestin2 interaction. After agonist removal, these changes persist for longer than the direct receptor interaction. Our data indicate a rapid, receptor-type-specific, two-step binding and activation process between GPCRs and β-arrestins. They further indicate that β-arrestins remain active after dissociation from receptors, allowing them to remain at the cell surface and presumably signal independently. Thus, GPCRs trigger a rapid, receptor-specific activation/deactivation cycle of β-arrestins, which permits their active signalling. PMID:27007855

  13. Parasitic slow extraction of extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron

    Zou, Ye [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Jingyu, E-mail: tangjy@ihep.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Zheng; Jing, Hantao [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-02-11

    This paper proposes a novel method to extract extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the parasitic mode, while maintaining the normal fast extraction. The usual slow extraction method from a synchrotron by employing third-order resonance cannot be applied in a high-intensity RCS due to a very short flat-top at the extraction energy and the strict control on beam loss. The proposed parasitic slow extraction method moves the beam to scrape a scattering foil prior to the fast beam extraction by employing either a local orbit bump or momentum deviation or their combination, so that the halo part of the beam will be scattered. A part of the scattered particles will be extracted from the RCS and guided to the experimental area. The slow extraction process can last about a few milliseconds before the beam is extracted by the fast extraction system. The method has been applied to the RCS of China Spallation Neutron Source. With 1.6 GeV in the extraction energy, 62.5 μA in the average current and 25 Hz in the repetition rate for the RCS, the proton intensity by the slow extraction method can be up to 2×10{sup 4} protons per cycle or 5×10{sup 5} protons per second. The extracted beam has also a good time structure of approximately uniform in a spill which is required for many applications such as detector tests. Detailed studies including the scattering effect in the foil, the local orbit bump by the bump magnets and dispersive orbit bump by modifying the RF pattern, the multi-particle simulations by ORBIT and TURTLE codes, and some technical features for the extraction magnets are presented.

  14. Resistive wall instability in rapid Cycling synchrotron of China spallation neutron source

    Huang, Liangsheng; Liu, Yudong; Wang, Sheng, E-mail: wangs@ihep.ac.cn

    2013-11-11

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a high intensity proton accelerator based facility, and its accelerator complex includes two main parts: an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The RCS accumulates the 80 MeV proton beam, and accelerates it to 1.6 GeV, with a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The 1.6 GeV beam is fast extracted for striking the neutron target with average beam power of 100 kW. The collective effect caused by the coupling impedance is one of the serious issues which limit the highest beam power. The impedance estimation of RCS components showed that the resistive wall impedance and its instability are serious. Based on the estimated impedance, the resistive wall instability growth time is theoretically calculated. In order to confirm the analytical results of resistive wall instability, a simplified resistive wall wake field model is used to track the bunch oscillation, and the growth time of resistive wall instability is obtained. In this model, the continuous resistive wall wake field is expressed as an equivalent wake field of one point in the ring, and the long bunch is sliced into many slices longitudinally. By tracking the dynamics of the slices, transverse growth time is obtained. The simulation results with constant energy agree well with the analytical results. The studies of energy ramping process show that if the damping effect of the chromaticity is not considered, the growth time of resistive wall instability is faster than the period of an RCS cycle, and the damping effect of chromaticity will play a key role in suppressing the instability. -- Highlights: • Resistive wall instability growth time is calculated theoretically. • The growth time with different chromaticities is also given theoretically. • The simulation code of transverse resistive wall instability is found. • The growth time of transverse resistive wall instability is obtained by the code. • The growth time with different chromaticities is simulated

  15. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-18 in manic and hypomanic states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    Munkholm, Klaus; Weikop, Pia; Kessing, Lars Vedel;

    2015-01-01

    obtained in affective states of varying polarity during 6-12 months in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and compared with repeated measurements in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects, using rigorous laboratory-, clinical- and statistical methodology. Adjusting for demographical......, clinical- and lifestyle factors, levels of IL-6 (p<0.05) and IL-18 (p<0.005) were significantly elevated in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients in a manic/hypomanic state, compared with a depressed and a euthymic state. Compared with healthy control subjects, unadjusted levels of IL-6 (p<0.05) and IL...

  16. Rapid response of the steatosis-sensing hepatokine LECT2 during diet-induced weight cycling in mice.

    Chikamoto, Keita; Misu, Hirofumi; Takayama, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Ishii, Kiyo-Aki; Lan, Fei; Takata, Noboru; Tajima-Shirasaki, Natsumi; Takeshita, Yumie; Tsugane, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Shuichi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2016-09-23

    Dieting often leads to body weight cycling involving repeated weight loss and regain. However, little information is available regarding rapid-response serum markers of overnutrition that predict body weight alterations during weight cycling. Here, we report the rapid response of serum leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), a hepatokine that induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, during diet-induced weight cycling in mice. A switch from a high-fat diet (HFD) to a regular diet (RD) in obese mice gradually decreased body weight but rapidly decreased serum LECT2 levels within 10 days. In contrast, a switch from a RD to a HFD rapidly elevated serum LECT2 levels. Serum LECT2 levels showed a positive correlation with liver triglyceride contents but not with adipose tissue weight. This study demonstrates the rapid response of LECT2 preceding body weight alterations during weight cycling in mice and suggests that measurement of serum LECT2 may be clinically useful in the management of obesity. PMID:27562717

  17. Rapid Quench Cold-Seal Apparatus with Computer-Controlled Pressure and Temperature Cycling

    Johnston, A.; Senkovich, D.

    2007-12-01

    We have constructed two computer-controlled, rapid quench, hydrothermal apparatuses that are ideal for experimentation on volcanological, geothermal, and ore deposit research problems. The devices can achieve maximum pressures of about 2 kbar and temperatures to 1100C, have the ability for experiments to be quenched very rapidly in a water-cooled environment, and are interfaced with computers which can control any regimen of pressure and/or temperature cycling that may be desired, accomplished via Lab-View software and data acquisition and motion control boards from National Instruments. The rapid quench aspects of the design were developed originally by Dr. Phil Ihinger and have subsequently been adopted by many labs around the world; a good summary description of these aspects of the equipment, and the use of filler-rods for controlling redox conditions in such equipment, are provided by Matthews et al. (2004, Am. Mineral., 88: 701-707). Our design has fixed Rene 41 pressure vessels, furnaces that are raised and lowered by computer controlled pneumatic cylinders and water cooling systems that are controlled by computer operated solenoid valves. The novel feature of our design is the pressure generation and control systems. We coupled the seal-ends of commercially available (HIP) pressure generators to shop-built linear actuators consisting of nearly frictionless ball lead screws within thick walled stainless steel housings. These in turn are driven by NEMA size 23 stepper motors coupled to 100:1 gear reduction units. The actuators require 21 revolutions to achieve their full stroke of 12.7 cm which displaces about 10 cc of fluid. Operating the motors at the relatively low resolution of 800 steps per revolution leads to about 132,000 steps per cm of travel of the pressure-generating piston, providing exceptionally high precision and excellent pressure control. Instantaneous decompression can be achieved by simply opening a valve while motor

  18. Beam loss monitor system of the rapid cycling synchrotron of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    The 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) provides more than 300 kW beam to the Material and Life Science Facility (MLF) and the Main Ring (MR). In such high intensity hadron accelerator, the lost protons that are a fraction of the beam less than 0.1% cause many problems. Those particles bring about a serious radioactivation and a malfunction of the accelerator components. Therefore, the beam loss monitor (BLM) is one of the most important equipment to observe the state of the beam during operation, and to keep a steady operation. Moreover, if we set operation parameters of BLM adequately, it can detect the beam loss that is 10-6 fraction of the beam. Thus it enables fine-tuning of the accelerator. In the J-PARC RCS, a proportional counter and a plastic scintillation counter are used for the beam commission and the stable operation as BLM. We report present status of the BLM system in J-PARC RCS. (author)

  19. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  20. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    Chen PH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipolar 1 disorder for 12 years who developed a breakthrough rapid cycling course and first-onset clinical hypothyroidism at the age of 31 years during lithium therapy. After levothyroxine augmentation therapy was introduced, the patient had remission from the rapid cycling illness course along with normalization of serum levels of free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone in the subsequent year. This observation suggested that investigation of both levothyroxine pharmacology and thyroid pathology in male patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder might be of much value. Keywords: mood disorder, therapy, thyroid hormone

  1. Fast Plants for Finer Science--An Introduction to the Biology of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Campestris (rapa) L.

    Tomkins, Stephen P.; Williams, Paul H.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid-cycling brassicas can be used in the classroom to teach concepts such as plant growth, tropisms, floral reproduction, pollination, embryonic development, and plant genetics. Directions on how to obtain them for classroom use and how they may be grown are included. Practical physiology and genetics exercises are listed. (KR)

  2. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-10-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  3. SU-E-T-303: Spot Scanning Dose Delivery with Rapid Cycling Proton Beams From RCMS

    Purpose: A rapid cycling proton beam has several distinct characteristics superior to a slow extraction synchrotron: The beam energy and energy spread, beam intensity and spot size can be varied spot by spot. The feasibility of using a spot scanning beam from a rapidc-ycling-medical-synchrotron (RCMS) at 10 Hz repetition frequency is investigated in this study for its application in proton therapy. Methods: The versatility of the beam is illustrated by two examples in water phantoms: (1) a cylindrical PTV irradiated by a single field and (2) a spherical PTV irradiated by two parallel opposed fields. A uniform dose distribution is to be delivered to the volumes. Geant4 Monte Carlo code is used to validate the dose distributions in each example. Results: Transverse algorithms are developed to produce uniform distributions in each transverseplane in the two examples with a cylindrical and a spherical PTV respectively. Longitudinally, different proton energies are used in successive transverse planes toproduce the SOBP required to cover the PTVs. In general, uniformity of dosedistribution within 3% is obtained for the cylinder and 3.5% for the sphere. The transversealgorithms requires only few hundred beam spots for each plane The algorithms may beapplied to larger volumes by increasing the intensity spot by spot for the same deliverytime of the same dose. The treatment time can be shorter than 1 minute for any fieldconfiguration and tumor shape. Conclusion: The unique beam characteristics of a spot scanning beam from a RCMS at 10 Hz repetitionfrequency are used to design transverse and longitudinal algorithms to produce uniformdistribution for any arbitrary shape and size of targets. The proposed spot scanning beam ismore versatile than existing spot scanning beams in proton therapy with better beamcontrol and lower neutron dose. This work is supported in part by grants from the US Department of Energy under contract; DE-FG02-12ER41800 and the National Science

  4. Sun-Like Magnetic Cycles in the Rapidly-Rotating Young Solar Analog HD 30495

    Egeland, Ricky; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that multiple dynamo mechanisms can drive magnetic variability on different timescales, not only in the Sun but also in other stars. Many solar activity proxies exhibit a quasi-biennial ($\\sim$2 year) variation, which is superimposed upon the dominant 11 year cycle. A well-characterized stellar sample suggests at least two different relationships between rotation period and cycle period, with some stars exhibiting long and short cycles simultaneously. Withi...

  5. DNA-Based Genetic Markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica Rapa (Fast Plants Type) Designed for the Teaching Laboratory

    Slankster, Eryn E.; Chase, Jillian M.; Jones, Lauren A.; Wendell, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr), also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for B. rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers and 14 variable number tand...

  6. Mapping the Anthocyaninless (anl) Locus in Rapid-Cycling Brassica rapa (RBr) to Linkage Group R9

    Wendell Douglas L; Burdzinski Carrie

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Anthocyanins are flavonoid pigments that are responsible for purple coloration in the stems and leaves of a variety of plant species. Anthocyaninless (anl) mutants of Brassica rapa fail to produce anthocyanin pigments. In rapid-cycling Brassica rapa, also known as Wisconsin Fast Plants, the anthocyaninless trait, also called non-purple stem, is widely used as a model recessive trait for teaching genetics. Although anthocyanin genes have been mapped in other plants such as ...

  7. Anti-AMPA-Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as a Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder in a Young Woman with Turner Syndrome

    Giuseppe Quaranta; Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani; Giulio Perugi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune encephalitis is a disorder characterised by the subacute onset of seizures, short-term memory loss, and psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. Initially, it was recognised as a paraneoplastic disorder, but recently a subgroup of patients without systemic cancer was identified. Case Description. We describe a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome presenting with a treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder with cognitive impairment. She was diagnosed with anti-AM...

  8. Clinical response of quetiapine in rapid cycling manic bipolar patients and lactate level changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Dajung J Kim; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung J; Choi, Taeyoung; Lee, Byungchol; Kim, Jieun E.; Lee, Joonsun S.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between quetiapine’s effect on the improvement of mood symptoms in bipolar patients and brain metabolite level changes as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Rapid cycling bipolar patients in the manic state were recruited and treated with quetiapine for 12 weeks. Clinical assessment was performed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Clinical...

  9. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    Chen, Pao-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipola...

  10. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    Chen PH; Huang YJ

    2015-01-01

    Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipolar 1 ...

  11. Sex and estrous cycle-dependent rapid protein kinase signaling actions of estrogen in distal colonic cells.

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that 17beta-estradiol (E2) rapidly inhibits Cl(-) secretion in rat and human distal colonic epithelium. The inhibition has been shown to occur via targeting of a basolateral K(+) channel identified as the KCNQ1 (KvLQT1) channel. E2 indirectly modulates the channel activity via a cascade of second messengers which are rapidly phosphorylated in response to E2. The anti-secretory mechanism may be the manner by which E2 induces fluid retention in the intestine during periods of high circulating plasma E2. Here we review the sex-dependent and estrous cycle regulation of this novel rapid response to E2. The inhibition of KCNQ1 channel activity and Cl(-) secretion will be of interest in the future in the investigation of the retentive effects of estrogen in female tissue and also in the study of secretory disorders and drugable targets of the intestine.

  12. Influence of Rapid Freeze-Thaw Cycling on the Mechanical Properties of Sustainable Strain-Hardening Cement Composite (2SHCC

    Seok-Joon Jang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides experimental results to investigate the mechanical properties of sustainable strain-hardening cement composite (2SHCC for infrastructures after freeze-thaw actions. To improve the sustainability of SHCC materials in this study, high energy-consumptive components—silica sand, cement, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fibers—in the conventional SHCC materials are partially replaced with recycled materials such as recycled sand, fly ash, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers, respectively. To investigate the mechanical properties of green SHCC that contains recycled materials, the cement, PVA fiber and silica sand were replaced with 10% fly ash, 25% PET fiber, and 10% recycled aggregate based on preliminary experimental results for the development of 2SHCC material, respectively. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight for 2SHCC material were measured at every 30 cycles of freeze-thaw. The effects of freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties of sustainable SHCC are evaluated by conducting compressive tests, four-point flexural tests, direct tensile tests and prism splitting tests after 90, 180, and 300 cycles of rapid freeze-thaw. Freeze-thaw testing was conducted according to ASTM C 666 Procedure A. Test results show that after 300 cycles of freezing and thawing actions, the dynamic modulus of elasticity and mass loss of damaged 2SHCC were similar to those of virgin 2SHCC, while the freeze-thaw cycles influence mechanical properties of the 2SHCC material except for compressive behavior.

  13. Effects of adding injection–compression to rapid heat cycle molding on the structure of a light guide plate

    This study investigates the effects of adding injection–compression to rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) (rapid heat cycle injection–compression molding (RICM)) on the physical quality and optical anisotropy of a molded light guide plate (LGP). Transcription ratio of microstructure, uniformity of part thickness and birefringence were experimentally evaluated on a 7 inch LGP of nominal thickness of 1.12 mm (including a microstructure array of 30 µm diameter and 14 µm height). The designed mold was equipped with rapid heating and compressing facilities and a microstructured nickel stamper was fabricated by UV LIGA process. In addition, to investigate the efficacy of RICM, experiments involving conventional injection molding (CIM), ICM, and RHCM were conducted in parallel with RICM using the same mold. RHCM and RICM yielded excellent transcription ratios for the microstructure, while CIM and RICM provided high thickness uniformity and low birefringence. Thus, RICM obtains high transcription ratio of microstructure, uniform thickness and low birefringence. (paper)

  14. Justification of rapid prototyping in the development cycle of thermoplastic-based lab-on-a-chip.

    Preywisch, Regina; Ritzi-Lehnert, Marion; Drese, Klaus S; Röser, Tina

    2011-11-01

    During the developmental cycle of lab-on-a-chip devices, various microstructuring techniques are required. While in the designing and assay implementation phase direct structuring or so-called rapid-prototyping methods such as milling or laser ablation are applied, replication methods like hot embossing or injection moulding are favourable for large quantity manufacturing. This work investigated the applicability of rapid-prototyping techniques for thermoplastic chip development in general, and the reproducibility of performances in dependency of the structuring technique. A previously published chip for prenatal diagnosis that preconcentrates DNA via electrokinetic trapping and field-amplified-sample-stacking and afterwards separates it in CGE was chosen as a model. The impact of structuring, sealing, and the integration of membranes on the mobility of the EOF, DNA preconcentration, and DNA separation was studied. Structuring methods were found to significantly change the location where preconcentration of DNA occurs. However, effects on the mobility of the EOF and the separation quality of DNA were not observed. Exchange of the membrane has no effect on the chip performance, whereas the sealing method impairs the separation of DNA within the chip. The overall assay performance is not significantly influenced by different structuring methods; thus, the application of rapid-prototyping methods during a chip development cycle is well justified. PMID:22102495

  15. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of...

  16. A role for prostaglandins in rapid cycling suggested by episode-specific gene expression shifts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Gurvich, Artem; Begemann, Martin; Dahm, Liane; Sargin, Derya; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    monopolar depression (n = 97) were recruited over a period of three years. Repeated psychopathology measurements were conducted using standard instruments. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained during as many consecutive episodes as possible and processed for mRNA isolation and......OBJECTIVES: Over 12% of patients with bipolar disorder exhibit rapid cycling. The underlying biological mechanisms of this extreme form of bipolar disease are still unknown. This study aimed at replicating and extending findings of our previously published case report, where an involvement of...

  17. Velocity tagging by rapid cycling in time-of-flight imaging

    Images of flowing material in a stationary surround have been obtained using a modified spin-echo sequence with the initial 900 pulse replaced by a small-angle excitation. With this sequence, the longitudinal magnetization of a given volume of material alternates in sign and decreases in magnitude with successive excitation cycles. This results in reduced signal intensity from the stationary material and bands of intensity distribution in regions corresponding to the flowing material. The number, size, and intensity of these bands depend on the relaxation times, the velocity distribution of the moving material, and the pulse sequence timing parameters

  18. Hardware In The Loop Simulator in UAV Rapid Development Life Cycle

    Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka

    2008-01-01

    Field trial is very critical and high risk in autonomous UAV development life cycle. Hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation is a computer simulation that has the ability to simulate UAV flight characteristic, sensor modeling and actuator modeling while communicating in real time with the UAV autopilot hardware. HIL simulation can be used to test the UAV autopilot hardware reliability, test the closed loop performance of the overall system and tuning the control parameter. By rigorous testing in the HIL simulator, the risk in the field trial can be minimized.

  19. Eddy current control in the AGS rapid cycling booster accelerator magnets

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.; Spataro, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Dept.

    1994-07-01

    The Booster requires highly variable magnet cycles. When B is large, eddy current induced sextupole, etc., in the dipole vacuum chamber (VC) is large, with a much smaller contribution from magnet ends. Simple passive coils excited automatically by transformer action cancel the B induced sextupole. A self correction coil is not required for the quadrupoles, since B induced aberrations are very small (< 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at full aperture). Iron magnetization does not produce dipole or quadrupole magnet multipole aberrations, so these magnets have been effectively made independent of unwanted multipoles for all cycles. However, variations in the transfer functions and thus the Booster tune have not been automatically eliminated. Iron magnetization contributions are almost matched, but the B induced field retardation in the dipoles VC is larger than in the quadrupoles. Results of measurements will be presented, plus a simple system to overcome the mismatch and make the tune independent of B. Properties of special lattice magnets and their corrections will also be described.

  20. Eddy current control in the AGS rapid cycling booster accelerator magnets

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.; Spataro, C.

    1993-11-01

    The Booster requires highly variable magnet cycles. When B is large, eddy current induced sextupole, etc., in the dipole vacuum chamber (VC) is large, with a much smaller contribution from magnet ends. Simple passive coils excited automatically by transformer action cancel the B induced sextupole. A self correction coil is not required for the quadrupoles, since g induced aberrations are very small (< 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at full aperture). Iron magnetization does not produce dipole or quadrupole magnet multipole aberrations, so these magnets have been effectively made independent of unwanted multipoles for all cycles. However, variations in the transfer functions and thus the Booster tune have not been automatically eliminated. Iron magnetization contributions are almost matched, but the B induced field retardation in the dipoles VC is larger than in the quadrupoles. Results of measurements will be presented, plus a simple system to overcome the mismatch and make the tune independent of B. Properties of special lattice magnets and their corrections will also be described.

  1. 3D noninvasive, high-resolution imaging using a photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system and rapid wavelength-cycling lasers

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Gross, Daniel; Klosner, Marc; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-05-01

    Globally, cancer is a major health issue as advances in modern medicine continue to extend the human life span. Breast cancer ranks second as a cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) provides high molecular contrast at greater depths in tissue without the use of ionizing radiation. In this work, we describe the development of a PA tomography (PAT) system and a rapid wavelength-cycling Alexandrite laser designed for clinical PAI applications. The laser produces 450 mJ/pulse at 25 Hz to illuminate the entire breast, which eliminates the need to scan the laser source. Wavelength cycling provides a pulse sequence in which the output wavelength repeatedly alternates between 755 nm and 797 nm rapidly within milliseconds. We present imaging results of breast phantoms with inclusions of different sizes at varying depths, obtained with this laser source, a 5-MHz 128-element transducer and a 128-channel Verasonics system. Results include PA images and 3D reconstruction of the breast phantom at 755 and 797 nm, delineating the inclusions that mimic tumors in the breast.

  2. Inert matrix fuel concept for the rapid incineration of minor actinides harmonious with a fast reactor cycle system

    We proposed a fast reactor cycle concept that incorporates inert matrix fuels as a high-performance device for rapid incineration of minor actinides and a harmonious system with the existing fast reactor cycle technologies. R and D of minor actinides containing advanced fuels for use in fast reactors is described in relation to inert matrix fuels with MgO, Mo and Si3N4. As related technologies, burn-up characteristics of a fast reactor core loaded with the inert matrix fuel with MgO and Mo were analyzed, mainly in terms of core criticality. Fabrication tests of inert matrix fuels with MgO, Mo and Si3N4 were done by a practical process that could be adapted to the presently-used commercial manufacturing technology. Preliminary investigations for the solubility of inert matrix fuels to the HNO3 were carried out for the evaluation of applicability to existing reprocessing technology. This paper describes a part of our efforts towards the establishment of a fast reactor cycle that incorporates the minor actinides containing inert matrix fuels. (author)

  3. Contrail life cycle and properties from one year of MSG/SEVIRI rapid-scan images

    M. Vázquez-Navarro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Contrail Tracking Algorithm (ACTA -developed to automatically follow contrails as they age, drift and spread- enables the study of a large number of contrails and the evolution of contrail properties with time. In this paper we present a year's worth of tracked contrails, from August 2008 to July 2009 in order to derive statistically significant mean values. The tracking is performed using the 5 min rapid-scan mode of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI on board of the Meteosat Second Generation satellites (MSG. The detection is based on the high spatial resolution of the images provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board of the Terra satellite (Terra/MODIS, where a Contrail Detection Algorithm (CDA is applied. The results show the satellite-derived average lifetimes of contrails and contrail-cirrus along with the probability density function (PDF of other geometric characteristics such as mean coverage, distribution and width. In combination with specifically developed algorithms (RRUMS and COCS, explained below it is possible to derive the radiative forcing (RF, energy forcing (EF, optical thickness (τ, and altitude of the tracked contrails. Mean values here retrieved are: duration, 1 h; length, 130 km; width, 8 km; altitude, 11.7 km; optical thickness, 0.34. Radiative forcing and energy forcing are shown for land/water backgrounds in day/night situations.

  4. Impedance measurements of the extraction kicker system for the rapid cycling synchrotron of China Spallation Neutron Source

    Liang-Sheng, Huang; Sheng, Wang; Yu-Dong, Liu; Yong, Li; Ren-Hong, Liu; Ou-Zheng, Xiao

    2016-04-01

    The fast extraction kicker system is one of the most important accelerator components and the main source of impedance in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of the China Spallation Neutron Source. It is necessary to understand the kicker impedance before its installation into the tunnel. Conventional and improved wire methods are employed in the impedance measurement. The experimental results for the kicker impedance are explained by comparison with simulation using CST PARTICLE STUDIO. The simulation and measurement results confirm that the window-frame ferrite geometry and the end plate are the important structures causing coupling impedance. It is proved in the measurements that the mismatching from the power form network to the kicker leads to a serious oscillation sideband of the longitudinal and vertical impedance and the oscillation can be reduced by ferrite absorbing material. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175193, 11275221)

  5. Anti-AMPA-Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as a Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder in a Young Woman with Turner Syndrome.

    Quaranta, Giuseppe; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune encephalitis is a disorder characterised by the subacute onset of seizures, short-term memory loss, and psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. Initially, it was recognised as a paraneoplastic disorder, but recently a subgroup of patients without systemic cancer was identified. Case Description. We describe a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome presenting with a treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder with cognitive impairment. She was diagnosed with anti-AMPA-receptor encephalitis. She showed marked improvement after starting memantine and valproic acid. Conclusion. This case description emphasises the importance of timely recognition of autoimmune limbic encephalitis in patients with psychiatric manifestations and a possible predisposition to autoimmune conditions, in order to rule out malignancy and to quickly initiate treatment. PMID:26495149

  6. Anti-AMPA-Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as a Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder in a Young Woman with Turner Syndrome

    Giuseppe Quaranta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune encephalitis is a disorder characterised by the subacute onset of seizures, short-term memory loss, and psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. Initially, it was recognised as a paraneoplastic disorder, but recently a subgroup of patients without systemic cancer was identified. Case Description. We describe a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome presenting with a treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder with cognitive impairment. She was diagnosed with anti-AMPA-receptor encephalitis. She showed marked improvement after starting memantine and valproic acid. Conclusion. This case description emphasises the importance of timely recognition of autoimmune limbic encephalitis in patients with psychiatric manifestations and a possible predisposition to autoimmune conditions, in order to rule out malignancy and to quickly initiate treatment.

  7. Anti-AMPA-Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as a Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder in a Young Woman with Turner Syndrome

    Quaranta, Giuseppe; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune encephalitis is a disorder characterised by the subacute onset of seizures, short-term memory loss, and psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. Initially, it was recognised as a paraneoplastic disorder, but recently a subgroup of patients without systemic cancer was identified. Case Description. We describe a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome presenting with a treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder with cognitive impairment. She was diagnosed with anti-AMPA-receptor encephalitis. She showed marked improvement after starting memantine and valproic acid. Conclusion. This case description emphasises the importance of timely recognition of autoimmune limbic encephalitis in patients with psychiatric manifestations and a possible predisposition to autoimmune conditions, in order to rule out malignancy and to quickly initiate treatment. PMID:26495149

  8. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-01

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed. PMID:27517866

  9. DNA-based genetic markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants type designed for the teaching laboratory.

    Eryn E. Slankster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr, also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for Brassica rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a nongenic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology.

  10. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  11. Teaching Human Genetics with Mustard: Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Fast Plants Type) as a Model for Human Genetics in the Classroom Laboratory

    Wendell, Douglas L.; Pickard, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    We have developed experiments and materials to model human genetics using rapid cycling "Brassica rapa", also known as Fast Plants. Because of their self-incompatibility for pollination and the genetic diversity within strains, "B. rapa" can serve as a relevant model for human genetics in teaching laboratory experiments. The experiment presented…

  12. Development of a Rapid Cycling CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O Removal Sorbent

    Paul, Heather; Alptekin, Goekhan; Cates, Matthew; Bernal, Casey; Dubovik, Margarita; Gershanovich, Yevgenia

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planned future missions set stringent demands on the design of the Portable Life Support System (PLSS), requiring dramatic reductions in weight, decreased reliance on supplies and greater flexibility on the types of missions. Use of regenerable systems that reduce weight and volume of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is of critical importance to NASA, both for low orbit operations and for long duration manned missions. The carbon dioxide and humidity control unit in the existing PLSS design is relatively large, since it has to remove and store 8 hours worth of CO2. If the sorbent regeneration can be carried out during the extravehicular activity (EVA) with a relatively high regeneration frequency, the size of the sorbent canister and weight can be significantly reduced. The progress of regenerable CO2 and humidity control is leading us towards the use of a rapid cycling amine system. TDA Research, Inc. is developing compact, regenerable sorbent materials to control CO2 and humidity in the space suit ventilation loop. The sorbent can be regenerated using space vacuum during the EVA, eliminating all carbon dioxide and humidity duration-limiting elements in the life support system. The material also has applications in other areas of space exploration such as the Orion spacecraft and other longer duration exploration missions requiring regenerable technologies. This paper summarizes the results of the sorbent development, testing, and evaluation efforts to date. The results of a preliminary system analysis are also included, showing the size and volume reductions for PLSS provided by the new system.

  13. Conceptual design of a rapid-cycling synchrotron for the KFA-Juelich spallation neutron source: working papers

    An accelerator group was established at ANL by the request of KFA-Juelich to carry out a conceptual design study and cost estimate for a rapid-cycling synchrotron as a possible first stage program on spallation neutron sources at KFA-Juelich. This set of notes is the individual notes which form the basis of the final report under this proposal prepared in January 1983. The topics covered include: SNQ Synchrotron Lattice-I; injection and extraction orbit; extraction from SNQ-SRA; SRA injection; capture and acceleration considerations in the SNQ-SRA; longitudinal coupling impedance; power supplies for SNQ synchrotron proposals; space charge limits in the SNQ-SRA; error analysis; SNQ-SRA ring magnets preliminary designs and cost; summary of CERN booster 4-ring arrangement; V-lattices for SNQ-SRA and extraction from the V-lattices; rf parameters for capture, acceleration and extraction; some parameters of the SNQ-SRA injector system; Keil-Schnell criterion; risetime of longitudinal resistive wall instability; beam scrapers; a design of the vacuum system; some aspects of vacuum consideration for SNQ-SRA; choice working points; ring magnet power supplies for shaped extaction of 1.1 GeV SNQ; ring magnet design and costs; tune shift due to the fringing field of the quadrupoles; coherent instability due to ions in the residual gas; transverse stabilization of bunched beams; rf acceleration system; injection into the SRA; Landau damping to get transverse stability; chromaticity and amplitude dependent tune controls in the SNQ-SRA; conversion of the SNQ-SRA to a compressor ring; comments on beam loss; summary of longitudinal stability study and transverse stability study for the SNQ-SRA; and the beam stay clear regions of the SNQ-SRA

  14. Estimation of eddy current loss for a turbo-molecular pump in the J-PARC rapid cycling synchrotron

    Magnetically suspended turbo-molecular pumps (TMPs) have been widely used in nuclear fusion devices and sometimes used in particle accelerators, because it is much easier for the TMPs with dry backing pumps to achieve and maintain UHV without oil contamination. In these devices the TMPs are influenced by a quasi static magnetic field; the eddy current is induced on the rotating rotor and then forces the rotor to thermally expand. In order to use the TMPs safely we attempted to establish a standard procedure for determining the influence of magnetic fields on TMPs. First of all, this influence was investigated in detail through the experiment with a rather small TMP. As a result, the following are found. (1) The parallel magnetic field has no influence, on the other hand, the driving power and the rotor temperature are greatly affected by the vertical magnetic fields. (2) The eddy current loss is formulated and well estimated with a model where a localized magnetic field and current flow exist within the rotor into the region down to a substantial skin depth δ from the surface. This time we applied the above conclusions to the TMPs with high radioactive resistance which were employed in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). With the evaluation equation of eddy current loss established through the experiment in a uniform magnetic field, the rise of rotor temperature is estimated to be ∼100degC even in the orthogonal magnetic field of 0.003 T. Thus, we concluded that the TMPs are safely operated in the RCS, as the leakage magnetic field at the floor where the TMPs are set is less than 0.001 T. (author)

  15. Design and Development Comparison of Rapid Cycle Amine 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal has been in progress since favorable results were published in 1996. Shortly thereafter, a prototype was designed, developed, and tested successfully and delivered to Johnson Space Center in 1999. An improved prototype (RCA 1.0) was delivered to NASA in 2006 and sized for the extravehicular activity (EVA). The RCA swing-bed technology is a regenerative system which employs two alternating solid-amine sorbent beds to remove CO2 and water. The two-bed design employs a chemisorption process whereby the beds alternate between adsorption and desorption. This process provides for an efficient RCA operation that enables one bed to be in adsorb (uptake) mode, while the other is in the desorb (regeneration) mode. The RCA has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels. Test articles have now been designed, developed, and tested for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS) including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0. The RCA 3.0 was the most recent RCA fabrication and was delivered to NASA-JSC in June 2015. The RCA 1.0 test article was designed with a pneumatically actuated linear motion spool valve. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source. RCA 2.0 and 3.0 also include an embedded controller design to control RCA operation and provide the capability of interfacing with various sensors and other ventilation loop components. The RCA technology is low power, small, and has fulfilled all test requirements levied upon the technology during development testing thus far. This paper will provide an overview of the design and development of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 including detail differences between the design specifications of each. Nomenclature.

  16. Characterizing the Performance of a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer with a Rapid Cycling Tenax Preconcentrator

    Garland, S.P.; Alexander, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are species of interest for atmospheric modeling, worker chemical exposure and medical studies. Sometimes the required detection limits for these compounds is below the capability of existing real-time instrumentation. Preconcentrators have been implemented as an inexpensive way to amplify chemical signals and improve detection limits. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used as a tool for studying low concentrations of VOCs, but it lacks the capability to differentiate chemical signal contributions from isobaric compounds. In this work, behavior of a newly designed Tenax TA preconcentrator when coupled with a PTRMS is characterized. This novel preconcentrator design allows rapid temperature cycling, maintaining near real-time response. The preconcentrator was exposed to a sample gas of toluene in varying concentrations and loading times between and then thermally desorbed for analysis by PTR-MS. The effects of preconcentrating multiple analytes simultaneously were also investigated as well as the chromatographic effects of the preconcentrator. A linear behavior was observed when the integrated ion count rates (ICPS) from thermal desorption peaks were regressed against both varying loading times at a constant toluene concentration and varying concentrations with constant loading times. From these trends, it is possible to determine the concentration of a VOC by knowing its ICPS from thermal desorption peaks from a known preconcentration time. Peak height ion count rates representing ultimate detectability were amplified by factors up to 257 times the original signal, extending the range of the PTR-MS from 50pptv to nearly 250 parts per quadrillion. This corresponds to an ultimate sensitivity of 200 parts per quadrillion with 20 minute time resolution. Quantitative preconcentrator behavior was demonstrated using ICPS from these ion peaks and were amplified as much as 148 times their original signal. Results

  17. Beyond genomic variation - comparison and functional annotation of three Brassica rapa genomes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage

    Lin, Ke; Zhang, Ningwen; Severing, Edouard I.; Nijveen, Harm; Cheng, Feng; Visser, Richard GF; Wang, Xiaowu; de Ridder, Dick; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Background Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. Results To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resulting ge...

  18. Beyond genomic variation - comparison and functional annotation in three Brassica rapa genotypes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage

    Lin, K.; Zhang, N.; Severing, E.I.; Nijveen, H.; Cheng, F; Visser, R.G.F.; Wang, X.; De, Ridder, G.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. Results - To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resultin...

  19. Rapid phase adjustment of melatonin and core body temperature rhythms following a 6-h advance of the light/dark cycle in the horse

    Murphy, Barbara A; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Sessions, Dawn R; Vick, Mandi M; Kennedy, Erin L; Fitzgerald, Barry P

    2007-01-01

    Background: Rapid displacement across multiple time zones results in a conflict between the new cycle of light and dark and the previously entrained program of the internal circadian clock, a phenomenon known as jet lag. In humans, jet lag is often characterized by malaise, appetite loss, fatigue, disturbed sleep and performance deficit, the consequences of which are of particular concern to athletes hoping to perform optimally at an international destination. As a species renowned for its ca...

  20. Nitrogen cycling in canopy soils of tropical montane forests responds rapidly to indirect N and P fertilization.

    Matson, Amanda L; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2014-12-01

    Although the canopy can play an important role in forest nutrient cycles, canopy-based processes are often overlooked in studies on nutrient deposition. In areas of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition, canopy soils may retain a significant proportion of atmospheric inputs, and also receive indirect enrichment through root uptake followed by throughfall or recycling of plant litter in the canopy. We measured net and gross rates of N cycling in canopy soils of tropical montane forests along an elevation gradient and assessed indirect effects of elevated nutrient inputs to the forest floor. Net N cycling rates were measured using the buried bag method. Gross N cycling rates were measured using (15) N pool dilution techniques. Measurements took place in the field, in the wet and dry season, using intact cores of canopy soil from three elevations (1000, 2000 and 3000 m). The forest floor had been fertilized biannually with moderate amounts of N and P for 4 years; treatments included control, N, P, and N + P. In control plots, gross rates of NH4 (+) transformations decreased with increasing elevation; gross rates of NO3 (-) transformations did not exhibit a clear elevation trend, but were significantly affected by season. Nutrient-addition effects were different at each elevation, but combined N + P generally increased N cycling rates at all elevations. Results showed that canopy soils could be a significant N source for epiphytes as well as contributing up to 23% of total (canopy + forest floor) mineral N production in our forests. In contrast to theories that canopy soils are decoupled from nutrient cycling in forest floor soil, N cycling in our canopy soils was sensitive to slight changes in forest floor nutrient availability. Long-term atmospheric N and P deposition may lead to increased N cycling, but also increased mineral N losses from the canopy soil system. PMID:24965673

  1. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min. (paper)

  2. Design Study of the Large Hadron Electron Collider and a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron as Alternative to the PS Booster Upgrade at CERN

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    To further extend the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors. Furthermore it has been suggested to built a new electron accelerator in order to allow for deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this thesis design options for a new LHC injector - a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron - and an electron accelerator for the LHeC are presented.

  3. Reduced mRNA expression of PTGDS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control subjects

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances related to the arachidonic acid cascade and prostaglandin metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, as supported by a recent genome-wide association study meta-analysis; however, evidence from clinical studies on a transcriptional level...... disorder. The sample size was limited; replication of the findings in larger, independent samples is warranted to further explore the role of the arachidonic acid cascade and prostaglandin metabolism as a potential therapeutic target in bipolar disorder....... that mRNA expression of PTGDS and AKR1C3 is deregulated in rapid-cycling disorder patients in a euthymic or current affective state compared with healthy control subjects, and that expression alters with affective states. METHODS: PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...

  4. Cycles uranium et thorium en réacteurs à neutrons rapides refroidis au sodium. Aspects neutroniques et déchets associés.

    Brizi, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Les réacteurs `a neutrons rapides refroidis au sodium `a cycle uranium 238/plutonium 239, dont la faisabilité technique a déj`a ´et´e ´eprouv´ee, permettent de s'affranchir du prob- lème des ressources d'uranium naturel en r´ealisant la r´eg´en´eration de l'´elément fissile du combustible. En outre, une gestion des déchets visant `a réduire la production et la ra- diotoxicité des actinides mineurs produits par le réacteur peut ˆetre mise en oeuvre en transmutant les AM en coeur (transmutation...

  5. Effects of cavity surface temperature on mechanical properties of specimens with and without a weld line in rapid heat cycle molding

    Highlights: ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces tensile strength of non-weldline part. ► Higher cavity surface temperature increases weldline tensile strength for PS and PP. ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces weldline tensile strength for ABS, ABS/PMMA, ABS/PMMA/nano-CaCO3 and FRPP. ► Tensile strength is reduced more by the weldline than impact strength. ► FRPP has the lowest weld line factor than other plastics without reinforced fibers. - Abstract: Rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) is a recently developed injection molding technology to enhance surface esthetic of the parts. By rapid heating and cooling of mold cavity surfaces in molding process, it can greatly alleviate or even eliminate the surface defects such as flow mark, weld line, glass fiber rich surface, silver mark, jetting mark, and swirl mark, and also improve gloss finish and dimensional accuracy without prolonging the molding cycle. Besides surface esthetic, mechanical property is also a very import issue for the molded plastic part. The aim of this study is focusing on the effects of the cavity surface temperature just before filling, Tcs, in RHCM on the mechanical strength of the specimen with and without weld line. Six kinds of typical plastics including polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polymethylmethacrylate (ABS/PMMA), ABS/PMMA/nano-CaCO3 and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) are used in experiments. The specimens with and without a weld line are produced with the different Tcs on the developed electric-heating RHCM system. Tensile tests and notched Izod impact tests are conducted to characterize the mechanical strength of the specimens molded with different cavity surface temperatures. Simulations, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope are implemented to explain the impact mechanism of Tcs on mechanical properties

  6. Integration of BpMADS4 on various linkage groups improves the utilization of the rapid cycle breeding system in apple.

    Weigl, Kathleen; Wenzel, Stephanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cycle breeding in apple is a new approach for the rapid introgression of agronomically relevant traits (e.g. disease resistances) from wild apple species into domestic apple cultivars (Malus × domestica Borkh.). This technique drastically shortens the long-lasting juvenile phase of apple. The utilization of early-flowering apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of the European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in hybridization resulted in one breeding cycle per year. Aiming for the selection of non-transgenic null segregants at the end of the breeding process, the flower-inducing transgene and the gene of interest (e.g. resistance gene) that will be introgressed by hybridization need to be located on different chromosomes. To improve the flexibility of the existing approach in apple, this study was focused on the development and characterization of eleven additional BpMADS4 overexpressing lines of four different apple cultivars. In nine lines, the flowering gene was mapped to different linkage groups. The differences in introgressed T-DNA sequences and plant genome deletions post-transformation highlighted the unique molecular character of each line. However, transgenic lines demonstrated no significant differences in flower organ development and pollen functionality compared with non-transgenic plants. Hybridization studies using pollen from the fire blight-resistant wild species accession Malus fusca MAL0045 and the apple scab-resistant cultivar 'Regia' indicated that BpMADS4 introgression had no significant effect on the breeding value of each transgenic line. PMID:25370729

  7. Saccadic performance and cortical excitability as trait-markers and state-markers in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: a 2-case follow-up study.

    Jennifer eMalsert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The understanding of physiopathology and cognitive impairments in mood disorders requires finding objective markers. Mood disorders have often been linked to hypometabolism in the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex, and to GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission dysfunction. The present study aimed to discover whether saccadic tasks (involving DPLFC activity, and cortical excitability (involving GABA/Glutamate neurotransmission could provide neuropsychophysical markers for mood disorders, and/or of its phases, in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorders (rcBD. Methods: Two rcBD patients were followed for a cycle, and were compared to 9 healthy controls. A saccade task, mixing prosaccades, antisaccades and nosaccades, and an evaluation of cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation were performed. Results: We observed a deficit in antisaccade in patients independently of thymic phase, and in nosaccade in the manic phase only. Cortical excitability data revealed global intracortical deficits in all phases, switching according to cerebral hemisphere and thymic phase. Conclusion: Specific patterns of performance in saccade tasks and cortical excitability could characterize mood disorders (trait-markers and its phases (state-markers. Moreover, a functional relationship between oculometric performance and cortical excitability is discussed.

  8. Neuronal injury external to the retina rapidly activates retinal glia, followed by elevation of markers for cell cycle re-entry and death in retinal ganglion cells.

    Alba Galan

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are neurons that relay visual signals from the retina to the brain. The RGC cell bodies reside in the retina and their fibers form the optic nerve. Full transection (axotomy of the optic nerve is an extra-retinal injury model of RGC degeneration. Optic nerve transection permits time-kinetic studies of neurodegenerative mechanisms in neurons and resident glia of the retina, the early events of which are reported here. One day after injury, and before atrophy of RGC cell bodies was apparent, glia had increased levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-S6, and phospho-ERK1/2; however, these signals were not detected in injured RGCs. Three days after injury there were increased levels of phospho-Rb and cyclin A proteins detected in RGCs, whereas these signals were not detected in glia. DNA hyperploidy was also detected in RGCs, indicative of cell cycle re-entry by these post-mitotic neurons. These events culminated in RGC death, which is delayed by pharmacological inhibition of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Our data show that a remote injury to RGC axons rapidly conveys a signal that activates retinal glia, followed by RGC cell cycle re-entry, DNA hyperploidy, and neuronal death that is delayed by preventing glial MAPK/ERK activation. These results demonstrate that complex and variable neuro-glia interactions regulate healthy and injured states in the adult mammalian retina.

  9. Saccadic Performance and Cortical Excitability as Trait-Markers and State-Markers in Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder: A Two-Case Follow-Up Study

    Malsert, Jennifer; Guyader, Nathalie; Chauvin, Alan; Polosan, Mircea; Szekely, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Marendaz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background: The understanding of physiopathology and cognitive impairments in mood disorders requires finding objective markers. Mood disorders have often been linked to hypometabolism in the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex, and to GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission dysfunction. The present study aimed to discover whether saccadic tasks (involving DPLFC activity), and cortical excitability (involving GABA/Glutamate neurotransmission) could provide neuropsychophysical markers for mood disorders, and/or of its phases, in patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorders (rcBD). Methods: Two rcBD patients were followed for a cycle, and were compared to nine healthy controls. A saccade task, mixing prosaccades, antisaccades, and nosaccades, and an evaluation of cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation were performed. Results: We observed a deficit in antisaccade in patients independently of thymic phase, and in nosaccade in the manic phase only. Cortical excitability data revealed global intracortical deficits in all phases, switching according to cerebral hemisphere and thymic phase. Conclusion: Specific patterns of performance in saccade tasks and cortical excitability could characterize mood disorders (trait-markers) and its phases (state-markers). Moreover, a functional relationship between oculometric performance and cortical excitability is discussed. PMID:23293609

  10. Rapid acceleration of ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate oxidation of organic pollutants by promoting Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle with hydroxylamine.

    Zou, Jing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Liwei; Li, Xuchun; Guan, Yinghong; Xie, Pengchao; Pan, Chao

    2013-10-15

    The reaction between ferrous iron (Fe(II)) with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) generates reactive oxidants capable of degrading refractory organic contaminants. However, the slow transformation from ferric iron (Fe(III)) back to Fe(II) limits its widespread application. Here, we added hydroxylamine (HA), a common reducing agent, into Fe(II)/PMS process to accelerate the transformation from Fe(III) to Fe(II). With benzoic acid (BA) as probe compound, the addition of HA into Fe(II)/PMS process accelerated the degradation of BA rapidly in the pH range of 2.0-6.0 by accelerating the key reactions, including the redox cycle of Fe(III)/Fe(II) and the generation of reactive oxidants. Both sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals were considered as the primary reactive oxidants for the degradation of BA in HA/Fe(II)/PMS process with the experiments of electron spin resonance and alcohols quenching. Moreover, HA was gradually degraded to N2, N2O, NO2 (−), and NO3 (−), while the environmentally friendly gas of N2 was considered as its major end product in the process. The present study might provide a promising idea based on Fe(II)/PMS process for the rapid degradation of refractory organic contaminants in water treatment. PMID:24033112

  11. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    ... improve the lives of people who have mood disorders. The Power of Peers DBSA envisions wellness for people who live with depression and bipolar disorder. Because DBSA was created for and is led ...

  12. Rapid shifts in South American montane climates driven by pCO2 and ice volume changes over the last two glacial cycles

    G. Sarmiento

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical montane biome migration patterns in the northern Andes are found to be coupled to glacial-induced mean annual temperature (MAT changes; however, the accuracy and resolution of current records are insufficient to fully explore their magnitude and rates of change. Here we present a ~60-year resolution pollen record over the past 284 000 years from Lake Fúquene (5° N in Colombia. This record shows rapid and extreme MAT changes at 2540 m elevation of up to 10 ± 2 °C within a few hundred of years that concur with the ~100 and 41-kyr (obliquity paced glacial cycles and North Atlantic abrupt climatic events as documented in ice cores and marine sediments. Using transient climate modelling experiments we demonstrate that insolation-controlled ice volume and greenhouse gasses are the major forcing agents causing the orbital MAT changes, but that the model simulations significantly underestimate changes in lapse rates and local hydrology and vegetation feedbacks within the studied region due to its low spatial resolution.

  13. The Gene Encoding Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase Is a Candidate for the anthocyaninless Locus of Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants Type).

    Wendell, Douglas L; Vaziri, Anoumid; Shergill, Gurbaksh

    2016-01-01

    Rapid cycling Brassica rapa, also known as Wisconsin Fast Plants, are a widely used organism in both K-12 and college science education. They are an excellent system for genetics laboratory instruction because it is very easy to conduct genetic crosses with this organism, there are numerous seed stocks with variation in both Mendelian and quantitative traits, they have a short generation time, and there is a wealth of educational materials for instructors using them. Their main deficiency for genetics education is that none of the genetic variation in RCBr has yet been characterized at the molecular level. Here we present the first molecular characterization of a gene responsible for a trait in Fast Plants. The trait under study is purple/nonpurple variation due to the anthocyaninless locus, which is one of the Mendelian traits most frequently used for genetics education with this organism. We present evidence that the DFR gene, which encodes dihyroflavonol 4-reductase, is the candidate gene for the anthocyaninless (ANL) locus in RCBr. DFR shows complete linkage with ANL in genetic crosses with a total of 948 informative chromosomes, and strains with the recessive nonpurple phenotype have a transposon-related insertion in the DFR which is predicted to disrupt gene function. PMID:27548675

  14. Yield and seed oil content response of dwarf, rapid-cycling Brassica to nitrogen treatments, planting density, and carbon dioxide enrichment

    Frick, J.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of N level (15 to 30 mM), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 +/- 12 micromoles mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mM) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mM) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mM) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

  15. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-02-22

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  16. The development of a Pirani vacuum gauge with a platinum wire in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron

    The back pressure of Turbo-Molecular Pumps (TMPs) is constantly monitored using Pirani gauges at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex) RCS (3-GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron) where they are used not only in rough pumping but also evacuations during beam operations. The gauge head needs to be very resistant to vibration and abrupt air inlet etc. in minimizing exposure to radiation during maintenance and hence a 50 μm in diameter W wire was adopted as the filament. This type of Pirani gauge has worked well in monitoring the back pressure of the TMP but it has become difficult to measure the low pressure of less than several Pa with the gauge, which may have been due to changes in the emissivity of the W surface. An attempt was therefore made to develop a gauge head made of Pt wire in allowing pressures as low as 0.1 Pa to be measured. Platinum is one of the best possible materials to use because it is very stable against oxidization. However, ordinary Pt gauge heads are rather weak when it comes to vibrations and abrupt air inlet due to its low tensile strength. In order to improve its toughness the filament was composed of twelve 100 μm in diameter Pt wires that were 65 mm long, resulting in it being capable of enduring a force of 25 N. All the wires were welded in series on metal poles in two separate glass plates, with the poles being electrically insulated. This resulted in the filament, 78 cm long and about 10 Ω at room temperature, being containable in a 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm long cylindrical envelope. The output from the gauge head was then examined as a function of pressure under constant current as the plan was for it to be controlled using the constant current method. Confirmation then took place that the pressures of 0.1 Pa up to 103 Pa were measurable with the gauge using current control in such way that the set value increased with pressure increases in three stages. (author)

  17. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  18. Recruitment of cells in the small intestine into rapid cell cycle by small doses of external γ or internal β-radiation

    Epithelial cell recruitment was examined in mouse ileum after external γ-irradiation (50 cGy) or internal β-irradiation (0.148 MBq/g of [3H]thymidine), using the per cent-labelled-mitoses method and by analysing the distribution of mitotic cells in the crypts. In the presumptive stem cell zone at the lower cell positions of the crypt, the slowly cycling cells decreased their cell cycle 6 or 12 hours after a dose of 50 cGy. In the higher cell positions, a slight shortening of the cell cycle was also observed. After administration of a high dose of [3H]thymidine, dormant (G0) cells also entered the cell cycle in the lower cell positions. The results suggest that stem cells in the crypt may react to irradiation in two ways: first, by shortening the cell cycle in cycling cells; secondly, by an entry into the cell cycle by other dormant cells. There was destruction of some cycling stem cells before any recruitment. The data support the idea that the stem cell population in the crypt is heterogeneous. (author)

  19. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  1. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen Skotte;

    2013-01-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  2. Rapid and large-scale synthesis of bare Co3O4 porous nanostructures from an oleate precursor as superior Li-ion anodes with long-cycle lives.

    Ge, Danhua; Wu, Junjie; Qu, Genlong; Deng, Yaoyao; Geng, Hongbo; Zheng, Junwei; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-09-14

    In this study, we describe a rapid and environmentally friendly synthesis of bare Co3O4 nanocrystals derived from Co(ii) oleate complexes by calcination treatment. When directly used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the as-prepared nanocrystals could deliver a high reversible capacity of 980 mA h g(-1) after 250 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) and excellent cycling performance, which may be beneficial to promote the further development of the next generation of lithium ion batteries. The synthetic route can offer great advantages for the flash preparation of other metal oxide nanocrystals for energy storage application. PMID:27503555

  3. A rapid and robust assay for detection of S-phase cell cycle progression in plant cells and tissues by using ethynyl deoxyuridine

    Horváth Gábor V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in plant cell cycle research is highly dependent on reliable methods for detection of cells replicating DNA. Frequency of S-phase cells (cells in DNA synthesis phase is a basic parameter in studies on the control of cell division cycle and the developmental events of plant cells. Here we extend the microscopy and flow cytometry applications of the recently developed EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-based S-phase assay to various plant species and tissues. We demonstrate that the presented protocols insure the improved preservation of cell and tissue structure and allow significant reduction in assay duration. In comparison with the frequently used detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and tritiated-thymidine incorporation, this new methodology offers several advantages as we discuss here. Results Applications of EdU-based S-phase assay in microscopy and flow cytometry are presented by using cultured cells of alfalfa, Arabidopsis, grape, maize, rice and tobacco. We present the advantages of EdU assay as compared to BrdU-based replication assay and demonstrate that EdU assay -which does not require plant cell wall digestion or DNA denaturation steps, offers reduced assay duration and better preservation of cellular, nuclear and chromosomal morphologies. We have also shown that fast and efficient EdU assay can also be an efficient tool for dual parameter flow cytometry analysis and for quantitative assessment of replication in thick root samples of rice. Conclusions In plant cell cycle studies, EdU-based S-phase detection offers a superior alternative to the existing S-phase assays. EdU method is reliable, versatile, fast, simple and non-radioactive and it can be readily applied to many different plant systems.

  4. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows. PMID:24871934

  5. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  6. Biogeochemical Cycling

    Bebout, Brad; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This lecture will introduce the concept of biogeochemical cycling. The roles of microbes in the cycling of nutrients, production and consumption of trace gases, and mineralization will be briefly introduced.

  7. Sulfur cycle

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  8. Future fuel cycles

    A fuel cycle must offer both financial and resource savings if it is to be considered for introduction into Ontario's nuclear system. The most promising alternative CANDU fuel cycles are examined in the context of both of these factors over a wide range of installed capacity growth rates and economic assumptions, in order to determine which fuel cycle, or cycles, should be introduced, and when. It is concluded that the optimum path for the long term begins with the prompt introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle. For a wide range of conditions, this cycle remains the optimum throughout the very long term. Conditions of rapid nuclear growth and very high uranium price escalation rates warrant the supersedure of the low-enriched-uranium cycle by either a plutonium-topped thorium cycle or plutonium recycle, beginning between 2010 and 2025. It is also found that the uranium resource position is sound in terms of both known resources and production capability. Moreover, introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle and 1250 MWe reactor units will assure the economic viability of nuclear power until at least 2020, even if uranium prices increase at a rate of 3.5% above inflation. The interrelationship between these two conclusions lies in the tremendous incentive for exploration which will occur if the real uranium price escalation rate is high. From a competitive viewpoint, nuclear power can withstand increases in the price of uranium. However, such increases will likely further expand the resource base, making nuclear an even more reliable energy source. (auth)

  9. Cycling more for safer cycling

    VAN HOUT, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Cycling presents a lot of benefits to the individual and to society. Health, environment, accessibility, local businesses, … all gain when more people cycle. Yet many governments are reluctant when it comes to promoting cycling, mainly because of (perceived) safety issues. Since studies have established a clear and consistent relationship between bicycle use and cyclist accident risk, this lack of bicycle promotion will influence the safety outcome of bicyclists. In this paper the relation be...

  10. Cycling injuries.

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries.

  11. Glacial cycles

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...... to simulate glacial cycles accurately. Also, results suggest that non-linear 10 dynamics, threshold effects, and/or free oscillations may not play an overriding role in glacial cycles....

  12. Fuel cycles

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  13. Fes cycling

    Berkelmans Rik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many research with functional electrical stimulation (FES has been done to regain mobility and for health benefits. Better results have been reported for FES-cycling than for FES-walking. The majority of the subjects during such research are people with a spinal cord injury (SCI, cause they often lost skin sensation. Besides using surface stimulation also implanted stimulators can be used. This solves the skin sensation problem, but needs a surgery. Many physiological effects of FES-cycling has been reported, e.g., increase of muscles, better blood flow, reduction of pressure ulcers, improved self-image and some reduction of bone mineral density (BMD loss. Also people with an incomplete SCI benefit by FES-cycling, e.g. cycling time without FES, muscle strength and also the walking abilities increased. Hybrid exercise gives an even better cardiovascular training. Presently 4 companies are involved in FES-cycling. They all have a stationary mobility trainer. Two of them also use an outdoor tricycle. One combined with voluntary arm cranking. By optimizing the stimulation parameters the power output and fatigue resistance will increase, but will still be less compared to voluntary cycling.

  14. Koszul cycles

    Bruns, Winfreid; Römer, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We prove regularity bounds for Koszul cycles holding for every ideal of dimension at most 1 in a polynomial ring. We generalize the lower bound for the Green-Lazarsfeld index of Veronese rings we proved in arXiv:0902.2431 to the multihomogeneous setting.

  15. Happy Cycling

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  16. Fuel cycle

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.)

  17. Rapid shallow breathing

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  18. Optimisation of the nominal cycle

    Redaelli, S

    2011-01-01

    The energy ramp and the betatron squeeze are critical phases of the LHC operation. During the squeeze, delicate optics manipulations take place when the stored energy is maximum. In 2010, ramp and squeeze were commissioned rapidly and smoothly became operational. On the other hand, during the first commissioning exercise, the focus was put on machine safety and on operational robustness rather then in efficiency for luminosity production. After having accumulated a full year of experience on the operational cycle and having gained important feedback on machine behaviour and operational procedures, it is now time to address the optimization of the LHC cycle, while still respecting safe boundaries. In this paper, the experience with the LHC operational cycle is reviewed, possible bottlenecks are identified and paths for improvements are addressed. Proposals for improvement are based on a critical look at the limiting factors encountered in the different phases of the cycle. More complex operation configurations...

  19. Safe cycling!

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  20. Measurement of the fission cross section induced by fast neutrons of the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U nuclei within the innovating fuel cycles framework; Mesure de la section efficace de fission induite par neutrons rapides des noyaux {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U dans le cadre des cycles de combustible innovants

    Grosjean, C

    2005-03-15

    The thorium-U{sup 233} fuel cycle might provided safer and cleaner nuclear energy than the present Uranium/Pu fuelled reactors. Over the last 10 years, a vast campaign of measurements has been initiated to bring the precision of neutron data for the key nuclei (Th{sup 232}, Pa{sup 233} and U{sup 233}) at the level of those for the U-Pu cycle. This is the framework of these measurements, the energy dependent neutron induced fission cross section of Th{sup 232} and U{sup 233} has been measured from 1 to 7 MeV with a target accuracy lesser than 5 per cent. These measurements imply the accurate determination of the fission rate, the number of the target nuclei as well as the incident neutron flux impinging on the target, the latter has been obtained using the elastic scattering (n,p). The cross section of which is very well known in a large neutron energy domain ({approx} 0,5 % from 1 eV to 50 MeV) compared to the U{sup 235}(n,f) reaction. This technique has been applied for the first time to the Th{sup 232}(n,f) and U{sup 233}(n,f) cases. A Hauser-Feshbach statistical model has been developed. It consists of describing the different decay channels of the compound nucleus U{sup 234} from 0,01 to 10 MeV neutron energy. The parameters of this model were adjusted in order to reproduce the measured fission cross section of U{sup 233}. From these parameters, the cross sections from the following reactions could be extracted: inelastic scattering U{sup 233}(n,n'), radiative capture U{sup 233}(n,{gamma}) and U{sup 233}(n,2n). These cross sections are still difficult to measure by direct neutron reactions. The calculated values have allowed us to fill the lack of experimental data for the major fissile nucleus of the thorium cycle. (author)

  1. Project X with Rapid Cycling and Dual Storage Superconducting Synchrotrons

    Piekarz, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of neutrino oscillations and rare meson decays are main physics goals of Project X. The successful physics outcome relies on the feasibility of high-intensity neutrino and meson (K+ and \\mu) beams. In order to meet this goal we propose accelerator system dominated by the synchrotrons (Option A) as a technologically easier and significantly more cost-effective alternative to the accelerator system dominated by the linear accelerators (Option B). The synchrotron-based accelerator system and its main components are outlined and the expected proton beam power for the neutrino and meson beams production is presented and discussed.

  2. Optimization of data life cycles

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  3. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  4. Futile xylitol cycle in Lactobacillus casei.

    Hausman, S Z; Thompson, J; London, J

    1984-01-01

    A futile xylitol cycle appears to be responsible for xylitol-mediated inhibition of growth of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 at the expense of ribitol. The gratuitously induced xylitol-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase accumulates the pentitol as xylitol-5-phosphate, a phosphatase cleaves the latter, and an export system expels the xylitol. Operation of the cycle rapidly dissipates the ribitol-5-phosphate pool (and ultimately the energy supply of the cell), thereby producin...

  5. Innovation, Efficiency Cycle, and Strategy Implications

    Maier, H.; Haustein, H.-D.

    1982-01-01

    Innovation research is now in its third stage, in which most attention is given to the efficiency cycle of industries. The five stages of this efficiency cycle (takeoff, rapid growth, maturation, saturation, and crisis) are very important for the firm's strategy and national innovation policy. Innovation policy should take into account societal goals and objectives. A Social Opportunity Analysis (SOA) is especially important for determining future innovation fields, identifying new alter...

  6. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  7. Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle

    White, D.J. [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-19

    Solar Turbines, Incorporated (Solar) has a vested interest in the integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuel cells and in particular, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Solar has identified a parallel path approach to the technology developments needed for future products. The primary approach is to move away from the simple cycle industrial machines of the past and develop as a first step more efficient recuperated engines. This move was prompted by the recognition that the simple cycle machines were rapidly approaching their efficiency limits. Improving the efficiency of simple cycle machines is and will become increasingly more costly. Each efficiency increment will be progressively more costly than the previous step.

  8. Rapid depressurization of a compressible fluid

    The rapid depressurization of a plenum is a situation frequently encountered in the dynamical analysis of nuclear gas cycles of the HHT type. Various methods of numerical analyses for a 1-dimensional flow model are examined: finite difference method; control volume method; method of characteristics. Based on the shallow water analogy to compressible flow, the numerical results are compared with those from a water table set up to simulate a standard problem. (Auth.)

  9. RAPID-SELEX for RNA Aptamers

    Szeto, Kylan; Latulippe, David R.; Ozer, Abdullah; Pagano, John M.; Brian S White; Shalloway, David; Lis, John T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2013-01-01

    Aptamers are high-affinity ligands selected from DNA or RNA libraries via SELEX, a repetitive in vitro process of sequential selection and amplification steps. RNA SELEX is more complicated than DNA SELEX because of the additional transcription and reverse transcription steps. Here, we report a new selection scheme, RAPID-SELEX (RNA Aptamer Isolation via Dual-cycles SELEX), that simplifies this process by systematically skipping unnecessary amplification steps. Using affinity microcolumns, we...

  10. The business cycle and the life cycle

    Paul Gomme; Richard Rogerson; Peter Rupert; Randall Wright

    2004-01-01

    The paper documents how cyclical fluctuations in market work vary over the life cycle and then assesses the predictions of a life-cycle version of the growth model for those observations. The analysis yields a simple but striking finding. The main discrepancy between the model and that data lies in the inability of the model to account for fluctuations in hours for individuals in the first half of their life cycle. The predictions for those in the latter half of the life cycle are quite close...

  11. Candu fuel and fuel cycles

    A primary rationale for Indonesia to proceed with a nuclear power program is to diversity its energy sources and achieve freedom from future resource constraints. While other considerations, such as economy of power supply, hedging against potential future increases in the price of fossil fuels, fostering the technological development of the Indonesia economy and minimizing greenhouse and other gaseous emissions are important, the strategic resource issue is key. In considering candidate nuclear power technologies upon which to base such a program, a major consideration will be the potential for those technologies to be economically sustained in the face of large future increases in demand for nuclear fuels. The technology or technologies selected should be amenable to evaluation in a rapidly changing technical, economic, resource and environmental policy. The world's proven uranium resources which can be economically recovered represent a fairly modest energy resource if utilization is based on the currently commercialized fuel cycles, even with the use of recovered plutonium in mixed oxide fuels. In the long term, fuel cycles relying solely on the use of light water reactors will encounter increasing fuel supply constraints. Because of its outstanding neutron economy and the flexibility of on-power refueling, CANDU reactors are the most fuel resource efficient commercial reactors and offer the potential for accommodating an almost unlimited variety of advanced and even more fuel efficient cycles. Most of these cycles utilize nuclear fuels which are too low grade to be used in light water reactors, including many products now considered to be waste, such as spent light water reactor fuel and reprocessing products such as recovered uranium. The fuel-cycle flexibility of the CANDU reactor provides a ready path to sustainable energy development in both the short and the long terms. Most of the potential CANDU fuel cycle developments can be accommodated in existing

  12. SAP Sector Develops Rapidly

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Stable demand growth internationally Super absorbent polymers (SAP) feature high water absorption, high water retention, rapid water absorption, great expanding power,strong thickening, strong anchoring and excellent elasticity.

  13. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  14. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initi...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  15. Solar cycle 25: another moderate cycle?

    Cameron, Robert H; Schuessler, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 $(2.5\\pm1.1\\,$G) is comparable to that observed at the end of cycle 23 (about $2\\,$G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not much higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.

  16. Solar Cycle 25: Another Moderate Cycle?

    Cameron, R. H.; Jiang, J.; Schüssler, M.

    2016-06-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of Cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 (2.5 ± 1.1 G) is comparable to that observed at the end of Cycle 23 (about 2 G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that Cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not much higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.

  17. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  18. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  19. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  20. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  1. Rapid steroid hormone actions via membrane receptors.

    Schwartz, Nofrat; Verma, Anjali; Bivens, Caroline B; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2016-09-01

    Steroid hormones regulate a wide variety of physiological and developmental functions. Traditional steroid hormone signaling acts through nuclear and cytosolic receptors, altering gene transcription and subsequently regulating cellular activity. This is particularly important in hormonally-responsive cancers, where therapies that target classical steroid hormone receptors have become clinical staples in the treatment and management of disease. Much progress has been made in the last decade in detecting novel receptors and elucidating their mechanisms, particularly their rapid signaling effects and subsequent impact on tumorigenesis. Many of these receptors are membrane-bound and lack DNA-binding sites, functionally separating them from their classical cytosolic receptor counterparts. Membrane-bound receptors have been implicated in a number of pathways that disrupt the cell cycle and impact tumorigenesis. Among these are pathways that involve phospholipase D, phospholipase C, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase. The crosstalk between these pathways has been shown to affect apoptosis and proliferation in cardiac cells, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes as well as cancer cells. This review focuses on rapid signaling by 17β-estradiol and 1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 to examine the integrated actions of classical and rapid steroid signaling pathways both in contrast to each other and in concert with other rapid signaling pathways. This new approach lends insight into rapid signaling by steroid hormones and its potential for use in targeted drug therapies that maximize the benefits of traditional steroid hormone-directed therapies while mitigating their less desirable effects. PMID:27288742

  2. HIV Life Cycle

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/22/2015; last reviewed 9/22/2015) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  3. Cycling To Awareness.

    Kozak, Stan

    1999-01-01

    Encourages environmental and outdoor educators to promote bicycling. In the community and the curriculum, cycling connects environmental issues, health and fitness, law and citizenship, appropriate technology, and the joy of being outdoors. Describes the Ontario Cycling Association's cycling strategy and its four components: school cycling…

  4. Oscillations of cAMP with the cardiac cycle.

    Wikman-Coffelt, J; Sievers, R; Coffelt, R J; Parmley, W W

    1983-03-16

    Oscillations of cAMP with the cardiac cycle were demonstrated in the rat heart using a stimulator-triggered rapid freeze-clamp to decrease the temperature of the heart from 37 degrees C to -80 degrees C in 5 msec (20,000 degrees/sec) at a predetermined phase of the cardiac cycle. The nucleotide, cAMP, oscillated 60% with the cardiac cycle during normal working conditions, the higher cAMP value occurring during systole. PMID:6301471

  5. Rapid Drying Concrete

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    One of the essential problems that are faced during construction is the drying of concrete and the presence of moisture which affects floor coverings that need to be placed. The rapid-drying characteristic in Aridusâ concrete allows for the quick reduction of moisture vapor that travels through the concrete pores of the concrete.

  6. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on neutron sources, nuclear models using hydrodynamic concepts, the calculation of sorption gas dynamics (adsorption isotherms) of non-dissociative molecules, time-of-flight and pulse shape analysis results with solid scintillation detectors and theoretical work on radial excitations of light mesons. 13 figs., 6 tables

  7. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  8. Optimization of data life cycles

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project 'Large Scale Data Management and Analysis' (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  9. Bus rapid transit

    Wright, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    Effective public transit is central to development. For the vast majority of developing city residents, public transit is the only practical means to access employment, education, and public services, especially when such services are beyond the viable distance of walking or cycling. Unfortunately, the current state of public transit services in developing cities often does little to serve the actual mobility needs of the population. Bus services are too often unreliable, inconvenient and ...

  10. Erraticity of rapidity gaps

    The use of rapidity gaps is proposed as a measure of the spatial pattern of an event. When the event multiplicity is low, the gaps between neighboring particles carry far more information about an event than multiplicity spikes, which may occur very rarely. Two moments of the gap distribution are suggested for characterizing an event. The fluctuations of those moments from event to event are then quantified by an entropy-like measure, which serves to describe erraticity. We use ECOMB to simulate the exclusive rapidity distribution of each event, from which the erraticity measures are calculated. The dependences of those measures on the order q of the moments provide single-parameter characterizations of erraticity. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  12. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  13. Rapid Prototyping for Robotics

    Ebert-Uphoff, Imme; Gosselin, Clement M.; Rosen, David W.; Laliberte, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    The rapid prototyping framework presented in this chapter provides fast, simple and inexpensivemethods for the design and fabrication of prototypes of robotic mechanisms.As evidenced by the examples presented above, the prototypes can be of great help togain more insight into the functionality of the mechanisms, as well as to convey theconcepts to others, especially to non-technical people. Furthermore, physical prototypescan be used to validate geometric and kinematic properties such as mech...

  14. Planning rapid transit networks

    G Laporte; Mesa, J. A.; Ortega, F.A.; Perea Rojas Marcos, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Rapid transit construction projects are major endeavours that require long-term planning by several players, including politicians, urban planners, engineers, management consultants, and citizen groups. Traditionally, operations research methods have not played a major role at the planning level but several tools developed in recent years can assist the decision process and help produce tentative network designs that can be submitted to the planners for further evaluation. This article review...

  15. Rapid Manufactured Textiles

    Bingham, Guy; Hague, Richard; Tuck, Christopher John; Long, Andrew; Crookston, Jonathan Josiah; Sherburn, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Rapid Manufacturing (RM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that are achievable in the area of design complexity. Through the exploration of the design freedom afforded by RM, this paper introduces the concept and novel research area of RM textiles. The paper highlights the design and manufacturing possibilities applied to textiles when considering additive manufacturing techniques, the current limitations of conventional Com...

  16. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  17. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  18. The Solar Cycle

    David H. Hathaway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev–Ohl (even-odd Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  19. A Smartphone Intervention for Cycle Commuting

    Yun-Maw Cheng; Chao-Lung Lee

    2014-01-01

    For those who new to cycling to and from work, how do you inspire yourself to keep up with it? Previous research has identified that having a partner is crucial to create and maintain a new habit. However, the rapidly changing work dynamics pose a challenge on this basis. Frequently failing to show up at the appointed or expected time can cause the motivation breakdown. In this paper, we introduce BikeTogether, a smartphone app that encourages and supports its users to cycle home with each ot...

  20. Emergence of epidemics in rapidly varying networks

    We describe a simple model mimicking disease spreading on a network with dynamically varying connections, and investigate the dynamical consequences of switching links in the network. Our central observation is that the disease cycles get more synchronized, indicating the onset of epidemics, as the underlying network changes more rapidly. This behavior is found for periodically switched links, as well as links that switch randomly in time. We find that the influence of changing links is more pronounced in networks where the nodes have lower degree, and the disease cycle has a longer infective stage. Further, when the switching of links is periodic we observe finer dynamical features, such as beating patterns in the emergent oscillations and resonant enhancement of synchronization, arising from the interplay between the time-scales of the connectivity changes and that of the epidemic outbreaks

  1. Rapid Cellular Turnover in Adipose Tissue

    Alessandra Rigamonti; Kristen Brennand; Frank Lau; Cowan, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that cellular turnover occurs within the human adipocyte population. Through three independent experimental approaches — dilution of an inducible histone 2B-green fluorescent protein (H2BGFP), labeling with the cell cycle marker Ki67 and incorporation of BrdU — we characterized the degree of cellular turnover in murine adipose tissue. We observed rapid turnover of the adipocyte population, finding that 4.8% of preadipocytes are replicating at any time and that between 1–...

  2. A comparison of production system life cycle models

    Attri, Rajesh; Grover, Sandeep

    2012-09-01

    Companies today need to keep up with the rapidly changing market conditions to stay competitive. The main issues in this paper are related to a company's market and its competitors. The prediction of market behavior is helpful for a manufacturing enterprise to build efficient production systems. However, these predictions are usually not reliable. A production system is required to adapt to changing markets, but such requirement entails higher cost. Hence, analyzing different life cycle models of the production system is necessary. In this paper, different life cycle models of the production system are compared to evaluate the distinctive features and the limitations of each model. Furthermore, the difference between product life cycle and production life cycle is summarized, and the effect of product life cycle on production life cycle is explained. Finally, a production system life cycle model, along with key activities to be performed in each stage, is proposed specifically for the manufacturing sector.

  3. Euro area business cycles

    Atilim Seymen

    2012-01-01

    The role of global, euro area and country-specific shocks in business cycle dynamics of six euro area member countries is assessed with the aid of SVAR models. Output fluctuations are driven by global shocks to a large extent in the euro area, and no Europeanisation of business cycles due to, for example the European Monetary Union, could be established. Business cycle heterogeneity is driven mainly by (asymmetric) country-specific shocks in the euro area and not by heterogeneous responses to...

  4. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    Basic elements of the ex-reactor part of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling and transportation) are described. Possible technical and proliferation measures are evaluated, including current methods of accountability, surveillance and protection. The reference oxide based cycle and advanced cycles based on carbide and metallic fuels are considered utilizing conventional processes; advanced nonaqueous reprocessing is also considered. This contribution provides a comprehensive data base for evaluation of proliferation risks

  5. Real business cycle realizations

    Smith, Gregor W.; Stanley E. Zin

    1997-01-01

    Much recent business cycle research focuses on moments of macroeconomic aggregates. We construct examples of real business cycle sample paths for output, consumption, and employment for the U.S. economy. Annual sample paths are generated from an initial condition in 1925, measured technology and government spending shocks since then, and a standard, calibrated, one-sector model of the business cycle. Quarterly sample paths are generated similarly, from an initial condition in 1955. The law of...

  6. Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2013-01-01

    Descriptions of phenomena, events, or processes made on the basis of problematic paradigms can be unreasonably complex (e.g. epicycles) or simply wrong (e.g. ultraviolet catastrophe). Supercontinent cycles, also called Wilson cycles, are, I submit, artificial constructs, like epicycles. Here I provide the basis for that assertion and describe published considerations from a fundamentally different, new, indivisible geoscience paradigm which obviate the necessity for assuming supercontinent cycles.

  7. Alternative fuel cycles

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  8. Friction Generated Limit Cycles

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Åström, Karl Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper treats limit cycles caused by friction. The goal has been to explain phenomena that have been observed experimentally in mechatronic systems. Experiments have shown that oscillations of qualitatively different types can be obtained simply by changing controller specifications. Stiction is important in some cases but not in others. Necessary conditions for limit cycle are given for the case where stiction is important. Conditions for local stability of the limit cycles are also pres...

  9. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and

  10. Historicising the Hydrosocial Cycle

    Jeremy J. Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the historical claims made in support of the hydrosocial cycle. In particular, it considers how arguments advancing the hydrosocial cycle make historical claims regarding modernist conceptions of what water is (i.e. H2O) and its fit with society. The paper gives special emphasis to the society/nature dualism and to the notion of agency as key sites of contest in arguments regarding the hydrosocial cycle. It finds that, while several versions of the hydrosocial cycle seek t...

  11. Edgeworth cycles revisited

    Doyle, Joseph [MIT Sloan School of Management, 50 Memorial Drive, E52-447, Cambridge MA 02142 (United States); Muehlegger, Erich [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Mailbox 25, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Samphantharak, Krislert [Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 1519, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend the model and empirically test its predictions with a new dataset of daily station-level prices in 115 US cities. Consistent with the theory, and often in contrast with previous empirical work, we find the least and most concentrated markets are much less likely to exhibit cycling behavior both within and across cities; areas with more independent convenience-store gas stations are also more likely to cycle. (author)

  12. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(900) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded...

  14. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on optimized lambda-parametrization for the QCD running coupling constant in spacelike and timelike regions, the new limit of the probability of muonium-antimuonium conversion in SPINP-JINR experiment, a highly charged ion source with double electron-ion trap (DEITIS), integral cross sections of the hypertriton interaction with nuclei at high energies, a positron emission tomograph on the basis of composite scintillator, a study of the high mass dimuon production in heavy ion collisions with CMS and antimatter production in relativistic nuclear collisions. 25 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Rapidly Progressing Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    Hollowed, John; McCullough, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel; Traina, Mahmoud; Hernandez, Salvador; Murillo, Efrain

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, can cause a potentially life-threatening cardiomyopathy in approximately 10-40% of afflicted individuals. The decline in cardiac function characteristically progresses over the course of many years. We report a case of Chagas disease in which the patient experienced an atypical rapid deterioration to severe cardiomyopathy over the course of 16 months. This case argues the need for increased routine surveillance for patients with confirmedT. cruziinfection, who are determined to be at high-risk for worsening cardiomyopathy. PMID:26856912

  16. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on pole contributions in the semileptonic D → P(V) + l + ν bar 1 decays and resolute progress in constrained minimization problem, on the self-similarity properties of light nuclei collisions, a method of data representation and experimental results of the fragmentation reactions investigation, special properties of the refrigeration of the accelerator Nuclotron, the evolution of the Nucleon structure in light nuclei, anisotropy of fission fragments for the reaction 16O+208Pb and a study of exposure dose power of induced gamma-radiation for extended lead target activated by high-energy protons

  17. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  18. Rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis

    赖伟红; 薛华忠; 韩国柱

    2003-01-01

    Since the sexually transmitted diseases were recognized as a public health problem in China during the early 1980's, the incidence of syphilis has gradually increased. Though there have been case reports of clinical variants of neurosyphilis, including syphilitic cerebrospinal meningitis or meningomyelitis and meningovascular syphilis, occurring in different regions of China,1-3 tabes dorsalis or tabetic neurosyphilis has not yet been reported in China. Here, we report a young man with rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis admitted to our hospital in October 1999.

  19. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s(0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  20. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Baranec, Christoph; Wright, Shelley A; Tonry, John; Tully, R Brent; Szapudi, István; Takamiya, Marianne; Hunter, Lisa; Riddle, Reed; Chen, Shaojie; Chun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of ~4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with a...

  1. Life cycle management (LCM)

    Remmen, Arne; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  2. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

  3. The carbon cycle revisited

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  4. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element of the...

  5. Family Life Cycle: 1980.

    Norton, Arthur J.

    1983-01-01

    Used data from a 1980 national sample survey to show differences in the timing of major family life-cycle events according to age, social and economic characteristics, and marital history. Results suggest that age generational differences, more than any other factor, influence timing of life-cycle events. (Author/JAC)

  6. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  7. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  8. Predicting the Sunspot Cycle

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The 11-year sunspot cycle was discovered by an amateur astronomer in 1844. Visual and photographic observations of sunspots have been made by both amateurs and professionals over the last 400 years. These observations provide key statistical information about the sunspot cycle that do allow for predictions of future activity. However, sunspots and the sunspot cycle are magnetic in nature. For the last 100 years these magnetic measurements have been acquired and used exclusively by professional astronomers to gain new information about the nature of the solar activity cycle. Recently, magnetic dynamo models have evolved to the stage where they can assimilate past data and provide predictions. With the advent of the Internet and open data policies, amateurs now have equal access to the same data used by professionals and equal opportunities to contribute (but, alas, without pay). This talk will describe some of the more useful prediction techniques and reveal what they say about the intensity of the upcoming sunspot cycle.

  9. Nuclear fuel cycles

    The source of energy in the nuclear reactors in fission if a heavy nuclei by absorbing a neutron and giving fission products, few neutrons and gamma radiation. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle may be broadly defined as the set of process and operations needed to manufacture nuclear fuels, to irradiate them in nuclear reactors and to treat and store them, temporarily or permanently, after irradiation. Several nuclear fuel cycles may be considered, depending on the type of reactor and the type of fuel used and whether or not the irradiated fuel will be reprocessed. The nuclear fuel cycle starts with uranium exploration and ends with final disposal of the material used and generated during the cycle. For practical reasons the process has been further subdivided into the front-end and the back-end. The front-end of the cycle occurs before irradiation and the back-end begins with the discharge of spent fuel from the reactor

  10. Interlinked Cycles for Index Coding: Generalizing Cycles and Cliques

    Thapa, Chandra; Ong, Lawrence; Johnson, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a graphical approach to index coding. While cycles have been shown to provide coding gain, only disjoint cycles and cliques (a specific type of overlapping cycles) have been exploited in existing literature. In this paper, we define a more general form of overlapping cycles, called the interlinked-cycle (IC) structure, that generalizes cycles and cliques. We propose a scheme, called the interlinked-cycle-cover (ICC) scheme, that leverages IC structures in digraphs to construct sca...

  11. Rapid prototyping and time compression

    Chatwin, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping - manufacture by layering processes: Stereolithography Selective Layer Sintering (SLS) Laminated Object Manufacture (LOM) Solid Ground Curing Small batch programmable rapid manufacture with lasers Micro-Engineering – Prototyping and Manufacture Additive - fabrication Subtractive – machining

  12. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π-, p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  13. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  14. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference ΔσL(np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  15. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum Pd = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  16. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0+(0++0)] meson at a mass of Mπ+π- = 750 ± 5 MeV/c2 observed in π+π- combinations from the reaction np → npπ+π- at an incident momentum of Pn (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π- mesons emitted in 4HeC and 12CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  17. Rapid chemical separations

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  18. Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria

    Clinton K. Murray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria's global impact is expansive and includes the extremes of the healthcare system ranging from international travelers returning to nonendemic regions with tertiary referral medical care to residents in hyperendemic regions without access to medical care. Implementation of prompt and accurate diagnosis is needed to curb the expanding global impact of malaria associated with ever-increasing antimalarial drug resistance. Traditionally, malaria is diagnosed using clinical criteria and/or light microscopy even though both strategies are clearly inadequate in many healthcare settings. Hand held immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have been recognized as an ideal alternative method for diagnosing malaria. Numerous malaria RDTs have been developed and are widely available; however, an assortment of issues related to these products have become apparent. This review provides a summary of RDT including effectiveness and strategies to select the ideal RDT in varying healthcare settings.

  19. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power Ayy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2> of 90 GeV2, cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  20. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F2γ in the reaction e+e- → e+e- + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  1. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate records on pseudoscalar form factor from inverse pion electroproduction and the first radial pion excitation, chiral and parity anomalies at finite temperature and density, the canonical form of an elastoplastic model of nuclear fusion, the peculiarities of the reactions of heavy and superheavy element synthesis within the dinuclear system concept, a study of the photon structure function F2γ in the reaction e+e-→e+e- + hadrons at LEP1 and LEP2, tritons for the study of the charge-exchange reactions with the LHE streamer chamber: status and some possibilities, nonlinear dynamics in nuclotron, current transformers and optical diagnostic monitor of nuclotron beam, the design features of the LHE JINR nuclotron internal target stations, a system of graphics digitization (SGD), numeric simulation of thermal treatment of metal surface by means of high current ion beam

  2. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eleven separate reports on the character of metastable states of the antiprotonic helium, next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of combined data for xF3 structure function and higher-twist contribution, powerful neutron beams from accelerators, accounting of nucleon correlations for study of momentum distributions in nuclei, overlap functions in nuclear correlation methods and direct nucleon removal processes, molecular alterations underlying the spontaneous and γ-ray-induced point mutations at the white locus of Drosophila Melanogaster, superheavy elements' existence in nature, study of deep subbarrier reactions on a Pb target, numerical optimization of actively screened SC magnetic coil geometries, narrow resonances in the system of two π--mesons, a new method of analysis of intermediate energy neutron spectra. 28 figs., 8 tabs

  3. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Higgsstrahlung at forward rapidities

    Pasechnik, Roman; Potashnikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the inclusive and single diffractive heavy flavor (top and bottom) production in association with the Higgs boson at forward rapidities in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The calculations are performed in the framework of the phenomenological dipole approach, which automatically accounts for the absorptive corrections induced by soft interactions, i.e. for the gap survival effects at the amplitude level. Major differential observables including the realistic ATLAS detector constraints are considered. The forward inclusive and diffractive Higgsstrahlung processes are generated essentially by excitation of the valence or sea quarks in the proton. The single diffractive Higgsstrahlung off top quarks is found to dominate compared to the loop-induced mechanism at sufficiently large Higgs boson transverse momenta. The Higgsstrahlung processes offer a direct and precise measurement of Higgs-top and, possibly, Higgs-bottom Yukawa couplings at the LHC, as well as the studies of the intrinsic heavy flav...

  5. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the method to calculate the hole spectral function, a proposal on the measurements of spin correlation in the reaction dp → pd, a suggestion on measurement of the observable in deuteron breakup with polarized proton target, experimental data on an evidence for collective phenomenon in heavy ion collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, MC simulation of zero degree calorimeter for investigation of Pb-Pb interaction in WA-98 experiment, an algorithm for identifying events in the experiment DISTO and determination of the spatial position of sensitive wires in the drift tubes. 34 figs., 1 tab

  6. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate reports on in-medium effects in K+ scattering versus Glauber model with noneikonal corrections, the possibility of relativistic space-time particle scattering description, study of the hadronic jet reconstruction algorithms in π-p and π-C interactions at 40 GeV/c, investigation of processes of total disintegration of nuclei in nucleus-nucleus collisions with impulse 4.2 A GeV/c, simulation and analysis of neutron energy spectra from irradiation channels of the reactor IBR-2, slag formation and poisoning problems in electronuclear reactor, internal target station at the Nuclotron, measurements of proportional mode characteristics of plastic drift tubes, silicon two-coordinate detector with separable pad-strip readout, investigation of the fusion-fission reaction 208Pb + 16O at subbarrier energies. 60 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  8. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate records on tensor and vector analysing power Ayy and Ay in the 12C(d,p)X and 12C(d,d)X reactions at initial deuteron momentum of 9 GeV/c and emission angle of 85 mrad, tensor analysing power T20 in inelastic (d,d') X scattering at 00 on 1H and 12C from 4.5 to 9.0 GeV/c, monitoring of the tensor polarization of high energy deuteron beams, the influence of inhomogeneities in scintillating fibre electromagnetic calorimeter on its energy resolution and cold quark-gluon plasma

  9. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  10. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θp = 0o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  12. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  13. Bimodality and the Hale cycle

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence is provided of a modulation of between 20 and 24 yr for the Hale cycle, and comparison of consecutive pairs of cycles strongly suggests that even-numbered cycles are preferentially paired with odd-numbered following cycles. The results indicate that cycles 22 and 23 form a new cyle pair. The sum of monthly mean sunspot numbers over consecutively paired sunspot cycles for Hale cycle 12 is found to be about 19,100 + or - 3000.

  14. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Chris Rissel; Cameron Munro; Adrian Bauman

    2013-01-01

    Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney) asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year) estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28....

  15. Cycling across borders

    Jože Kos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the intent and content of the international Velo-City conference 1999, Maribor–Graz and the organisation of this cycling development planning meeting. It focuses on the resolution of the conference concerning cycling traffic policies, the emerging network of European cycling connections and the traffic planning workshop about a difficult square in Maribor. The content framework of particular papers is shown, as well as other post-conference events. In the conclusion certain useful addresses for obtaining added data on sustainable traffic planning are given.

  16. Effect of thermal cycling on 18% Ni maraging steel

    Studies were made to see the effects of thermal cycling on transformation behavior and hardness in 18% Ni maraging steel. The samples were repeatedly thermal cycled between ambient temperature and 800 deg. C. This treatment produced retained austenite in microstructure, the amount of which was increased with increasing thermal cycling. This increase is rapid up 5 cycles and after that is less till 30 cycles. After thermal cycling the samples were cold rolled between 80 to 90% reduction. It was observed the retained austenite thus produced is unstable and transform during cold rolling. The cold rolled samples were aged at different aging temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 deg. C. The hardness values achieved after aging was in the range of 740 to 780 HV which is greater than those obtained by conventional annealing and aging heat treatment. (author)

  17. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and confirm redshifts of the host galaxies. This unique combination of automated detection and characterization of astrophysical

  18. The effect of cycling intensity on cycling economy during seated and standing cycling

    Arkesteijn, Marco; Simon A. Jobson; James G Hopker; Passfield, Louis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that cycling in a standing position reduces cycling economy compared with seated cycling. It is unknown whether the cycling intensity moderates the reduction in cycling economy while standing. PURPOSE: The aim was to determine whether the negative effect of standing on cycling economy would be decreased at a higher intensity. METHODS: Ten cyclists cycled in 8 different conditions. Each condition was either at an intensity of 50% or 70% ...

  19. Cycles in graphs

    Alspach, BR

    1985-01-01

    This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

  20. Fuel cycle data survey

    A survey of the fuel cycle cost data published during 1977 and 1978 is presented in tabular and graphical form. Cost trends for the period 1965 onwards are presented for yellow cake, conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing

  1. Fuel cycle studies

    Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

  2. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3He), the results of simulation of e+e-pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at Pn=(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  4. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  5. The Pneumocystis life cycle

    Cécile-Marie Aliouat-Denis; Anna Martinez; El Moukhtar Aliouat; Muriel Pottier; Nausicaa Gantois; Eduardo Dei-Cas

    2009-01-01

    First recognised as "schizonts" of Trypanosoma cruzi, Pneumocystis organisms are now considered as part of an early-diverging lineage of Ascomycetes. As no robust long-term culture model is available, most data on the Pneumocystis cell cycle have stemmed from ultrastructural images of infected mammalian lungs. Although most fungi developing in animals do not complete a sexual cycle in vivo, Pneumocystis species constitute one of a few exceptions. Recently, the molecular identification of seve...

  6. Reviewing the Leverage Cycle

    Ana Fostel; John Geanakoplos

    2013-01-01

    We review the theory of leverage developed in collateral equilibrium models with incomplete markets. We explain how leverage tends to boost asset prices, and create bubbles. We show how leverage can be endogenously determined in equilibrium, and how it depends on volatility. We describe the dynamic feedback properties of leverage, volatility, and asset prices, in what we call the Leverage Cycle. We also describe some cross-sectional implications of multiple leverage cycles, including contagio...

  7. Offshore Rankine Cycles

    Brandsar, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The title of the thesis - "Offshore Rankine Cycles" - is very general and cover a large range of engineering fields, e.g. thermodynamic cycles (Rankine, ORC, Brayton, Kalina, etc.), mechanical equipment (gas/steam turbine, heat exchangers and additional equipment) and safety concerns (flammable and/or toxic fluids, high temperature and pressures), to name the most important.The thesis try to give a brief overview of all critical points and alternatives, concerning employment of a wa...

  8. Resuscitating Real Business Cycles

    Robert G. King; Sergio T. Rebelo

    2000-01-01

    The Real Business Cycle (RBC) research program has grown spectacularly over the last decade, as its concepts and methods have diffused into mainstream macroeconomics. Yet, there is increasing skepticism that technology shocks are a major source of business fluctuations. This chapter exposits the basic RBC model and shows that it requires large technology shocks to produce realistic business cycles. While Solow residuals are sufficiently volatile, these imply frequent technological regress. Pr...

  9. Solar Cycle Prediction

    Petrovay, K

    2010-01-01

    A review of solar cycle prediction methods and their performance is given, including forecasts for cycle 24 and focusing on aspects of the solar cycle prediction problem that have a bearing on dynamo theory. The scope of the review is further restricted to the issue of predicting the amplitude (and optionally the epoch) of an upcoming solar maximum no later than right after the start of the given cycle. Prediction methods form three main groups. Precursor methods rely on the value of some measure of solar activity or magnetism at a specified time to predict the amplitude of the following solar maximum. Their implicit assumption is that each numbered solar cycle is a consistent unit in itself, while solar activity seems to consist of a series of much less tightly intercorrelated individual cycles. Extrapolation methods, in contrast, are based on the premise that the physical process giving rise to the sunspot number record is statistically homogeneous, i.e., the mathematical regularities underlying its variati...

  10. Kinetics of the nuclear division cycle of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Bergen, L G; Morris, N R

    1983-01-01

    We have analyzed the cell cycle kinetics of Aspergillus nidulans by using the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) and a temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutant nimT that blocks in G2. HU rapidly inhibits DNA synthesis (S), and as a consequence progression beyond S to mitosis (M) is blocked. Upon removal of HU the inhibition is rapidly reversible. Conidia (asexual spores) of nimT were germinated at restrictive temperature to synchronize germlings in G2 and then downshifted to permissive t...

  11. Rapid transfer of photosynthetic carbon through the plant-soil system in differently managed grasslands

    De Deyn, G.B.; Quirk, H.; Oakley, S.; Ostle, N.J.; Bardgett, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Plant-soil interactions are central to short-term carbon (C) cycling through the rapid transfer of recently assimilated C from plant roots to soil biota. In grassland ecosystems, changes in C cycling are likely to be influenced by land use and management that changes vegetation and the associated so

  12. An application generator for rapid prototyping of Ada real-time control software

    Johnson, Jim; Biglari, Haik; Lehman, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The need to increase engineering productivity and decrease software life cycle costs in real-time system development establishes a motivation for a method of rapid prototyping. The design by iterative rapid prototyping technique is described. A tool which facilitates such a design methodology for the generation of embedded control software is described.

  13. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  14. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  15. Helium process cycle

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  16. Helium process cycle

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  17. Carbon cycling in Lake Superior

    Urban, N. R.; Auer, M. T.; Green, S. A.; Lu, X.; Apul, D. S.; Powell, K. D.; Bub, L.

    2005-06-01

    Carbon (C) cycling in Lake Superior was studied within the Keweenaw Interdisciplinary Transport Experiment in Superior (KITES) project to assess (1) whether the lake is net heterotrophic, (2) sources, sinks and residence time for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), (3) importance of terrigenous organic C subsidies, and (4) factors limiting C flow through bacteria. During 3 years of fieldwork, measurements were made of spatial and temporal distributions of C pools and rates of photosynthesis, community respiration, and bacterial production. Measurements were made of the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM), rates of DOM photolysis, lability of DOM toward microbial consumption, and river inputs of DOM. All measurements suggest the lake is net heterotrophic. The C:N ratios of DOM suggest that it is primarily of terrigenous origin, but other characteristics (size distribution, UV absorption) point to the presence of autochthonous DOM and to alteration of terrigenous material. The lake mass balance indicates that the residence time (˜8 years) of the DOC pool (17 Tg) is short relative to the hydrologic residence time (170 years). The known flux of terrigenous DOC (˜1 Tg/yr) is too low to support annual bacterial carbon demand (6-38 Tg/yr), but microbial respiration is the major sink for terrigenous DOC. A rapidly cycling, autochthonous DOC pool must exist. Microbial activity was correlated with temperature, phosphorus availability, and DOC concentration but not with photosynthesis rates. Measurements of respiration (˜40 Tg/yr), photosynthesis (2-7 Tg/yr), and bacterial production (0.5-2 Tg/yr) are not all mutually compatible and result in a discrepancy in the organic carbon budget.

  18. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products or to...... sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here. The...... support decision making toward sustainable production and consumption. In both cases, LCSA results could be too disaggregated and consequently too difficult to understand and interpret by decision makers. As non-experts are usually the target audience of experts and scientists, and are also involved in...

  19. Buoyancy organic Rankine cycle

    Schoenmaker, J.; Rey, J.F.Q. [Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas, Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS-UFABC), Rua Santa Adelia 166, Bairro Bangu, 09210-170 Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    In the scope of renewable energy, we draw attention to a little known technique to harness solar and geothermal energy. The design here proposed and analyzed is a conceptual hybrid of several patents. By means of a modified organic Rankine cycle, energy is obtained utilizing buoyancy force of a working fluid. Based on thermodynamic properties we propose and compare the performance of Pentane and Dichloromethane as working fluids. Theoretical efficiencies up to 0.26 are estimated for a 51 m (Pentane) and 71.5 m (Dichloromethane) high column of water in a regime below 100 C operation temperature. These findings are especially relevant in the scope of distributed energy systems, combined cycle plants, and low-temperature Rankine cycles. (author)

  20. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  1. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of 3He in a single phase 3He-4He solution. The 3He in superfluid 4He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid 3He at an initial concentration in superfluid 4He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of 4He while restricting passage of 3He. The 3He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs

  2. Prediction of ovulation in women using a rapid progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Fleming, R.; Coults, J.R.T. (Glasgow Univ. (UK))

    1982-02-01

    A rapid (3-h) radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone has been developed and used successfully to predict the time of ovulation in women undergoing artificial insemination. The results obtained using progesterone levels to date the stage of the cycle were analysed retrospectively by (1) estimation of the length of the ensuing luteal phases and comparison of these with luteal phase lengths of a control group (2) comparison of the dating using progesterone levels with retrospective determination of LH values and (3) by analysis of the dating in cycles in which conception occurred.

  3. Cycles in fossil diversity

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  4. Global Carbon Cycle

    Probst, Jean-Luc; Faure, Hugues; Veizer, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The European Union of Geosciences held its 9th biannual meeting in Strasbourg, March 23–27, 1997. During this meeting, Symposium N8 18, Global carbon Cycle, was held under the sponsorship of the IGCP 1 n8404 on the «Terrestrial Carbon in the past 125 Ka», the INQUA 2 Carbon Commission and the ESCOBA-Biosphere 3 project of the EC Environment and Climate Programme. The «Global Carbon Cycle» Symposium attracted 28 oral and poster presentations and about one hundred par...

  5. Resurrecting Equilibria Through Cycles

    Barnett, Richard C.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Bunzel, Helle

    equilibria because they asymptotically violate some economic restriction of the model. The literature has always ruled out such paths. This paper studies a pure-exchange monetary overlapping generations economy in which real balances cycle forever between momentary equilibrium points. The novelty is to show...... that segments of the offer curve that have been previously ignored, can in fact be used to produce asymptotically valid cyclical paths. Indeed, a cycle can bestow dynamic validity on momentary equilibrium points that had erstwhile been classified as dynamically invalid....

  6. Global water cycle

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  7. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    A precondition for environmentally conscious management is the awareness of the environmental impact potentials created by an industrial company. There is an obvious need for management tools to support the implementation of relevant environmental criteria into the industrial decision making...... processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...... of the complete set of environmental objects in an industrial manufacturing company....

  8. Carbon cycle makeover

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    remaining in sediments after respiration leave a residual of oxygen in the atmosphere. The source of oxygen to the atmosphere represented by organic matter burial is balanced by oxygen sinks associated with rock weathering and chemical reaction with volcanic gases. This is the long-term carbon and oxygen...... geochemical cycle. But Earth is an old planet, and oxygen levels have changed through time (2). On page 540 of this issue, Schrag et al. (3) challenge the most commonly used geochemical approach to assess long-term changes in the coupled oxygen and carbon cycles....

  9. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  10. The Pneumocystis life cycle

    Cécile-Marie Aliouat-Denis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available First recognised as "schizonts" of Trypanosoma cruzi, Pneumocystis organisms are now considered as part of an early-diverging lineage of Ascomycetes. As no robust long-term culture model is available, most data on the Pneumocystis cell cycle have stemmed from ultrastructural images of infected mammalian lungs. Although most fungi developing in animals do not complete a sexual cycle in vivo, Pneumocystis species constitute one of a few exceptions. Recently, the molecular identification of several key players in the fungal mating pathway has provided further evidence for the existence of conjugation and meiosis in Pneumocystisorganisms. Dynamic follow-up of stage-to-stage transition as well as studies of stage-specific proteins and/or genes would provide a better understanding of the still hypothetical Pneumocystislife cycle. Although difficult to achieve, stage purification seems a reasonable way forward in the absence of efficient culture systems. This mini-review provides a comprehensive overview of the historical milestones leading to the current knowledge available on the Pneumocystis life cycle.

  11. Educational Business Cycles

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...

  12. Educational Business Cycles

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...

  13. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  14. ITER fuel cycle

    Resulting from the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) by the parties involved in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, this document summarizes the design requirements and the Conceptual Design Descriptions for each of the principal subsystems and design options of the ITER Fuel Cycle conceptual design. The ITER Fuel Cycle system provides for the handling of all tritiated water and gas mixtures on ITER. The system is subdivided into subsystems for fuelling, primary (torus) vacuum pumping, fuel processing, blanket tritium recovery, and common processes (including isotopic separation, fuel management and storage, and processes for detritiation of solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes). After an introduction describing system function and conceptual design procedure, a summary of the design is presented including a discussion of scope and main parameters, and the fuel design options for fuelling, plasma chamber vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary and common processes. Design requirements are defined and design descriptions are given for the various subsystems (fuelling, plasma vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary/common processes). The document ends with sections on fuel cycle design integration, fuel cycle building layout, safety considerations, a summary of the research and development programme, costing, and conclusions. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Re-Cycling

    Brown, Robert W.; Covault, Corbin E.

    2015-01-01

    An old comedy routine on Saturday Night Live by Father Guido Sarducci introduced a "Five-Minute University," because five minutes is all that's remembered after graduation anyway. In counterpoint, we discuss "cycling," a teaching method for memory enhancement. Our principal implementation consists of offering a simple version…

  16. Assisted Cycling Tours

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses Assisted Cycling Tours (ACT), a Westminster, Colorado based 501(c)3, non-profit that is offering the joy of bicycle tours in breathtaking, scenic locations to children and adults with developmental and physical disabilities and their families. ACT was founded by Bob Matter and his son David with a goal of opening up the…

  17. The Science of Cycling

    Crompton, Zoe; Daniels, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Children are engaged by finding out about science in the real world (Harlen, 2010). Many children will be cyclists or will have seen or heard about the success of British cyclists in the Olympics and the Tour de France. This makes cycling a good hook to draw children into learning science. It is also a good cross-curricular topic, with strong…

  18. Boundedly rational credit cycles

    S??ez, Mar??a

    1996-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary model of a credit market. We show that the economy exhibits credit cycles. The model predicts dynamics which are consistent with some evidence about the Great Depression. Real shocks trigger episodes of credit--crunch which are observed in the process of adjustment towards the post shock equilibrium.

  19. Fuel cycle. Fuel reprocessing

    Reprocessing includes mechanical and chemical operations on spent fuel for extraction of valuable materials. These operations are a part of the fuel cycle. In this paper are given technical data on spent fuels, transport, storage, decladding, dissolution, Purex process, elaboration of U and Pu and reprocessing engineering. This article is completed by 106 references

  20. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  1. A Smartphone Intervention for Cycle Commuting

    Yun-Maw Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For those who new to cycling to and from work, how do you inspire yourself to keep up with it? Previous research has identified that having a partner is crucial to create and maintain a new habit. However, the rapidly changing work dynamics pose a challenge on this basis. Frequently failing to show up at the appointed or expected time can cause the motivation breakdown. In this paper, we introduce BikeTogether, a smartphone app that encourages and supports its users to cycle home with each other over the Internet. The app employs the metaphor of a bicycle flashlight to represent closeness, leading, and following between two sides. The cycling performance is also recorded so the users can track how they are doing over time. 10 participants were instructed and randomly paired to take a two-phases test ride on different routes. Results indicated that the app can help create the sense of being with each other while cycling and promote not only accompanied but competing ride. In addition, the outcome of the desirability towards the app implies a higher chance it will lead to a behavior change. This provides a new way that we can commit to remain encouraged.

  2. Efficient Enumeration of Chordless Cycles

    Dias, Elisângela Silva; Castonguay, Diane; Longo, Humberto; Jradi, Walid Abdala Rfaei

    2013-01-01

    In a finite undirected simple graph, a {\\it chordless cycle} is an induced subgraph which is a cycle. We propose two algorithms to enumerate all chordless cycles of such a graph. Compared to other similar algorithms, the proposed algorithms have the advantage of finding each chordless cycle only once. To ensure this, we introduced the concepts of vertex labeling and initial valid vertex triplet. To guarantee that the expansion of a given chordless path will always lead to a chordless cycle, w...

  3. Kozai Cycles and Tidal Friction

    L, K; P.P., E

    2009-07-17

    Several studies in the last three years indicate that close binaries, i.e. those with periods of {approx}< 3 d, are very commonly found to have a third body in attendance. We argue that this proves that the third body is necessary in order to make the inner period so short, and further argue that the only reasonable explanation is that the third body causes shrinkage of the inner period, from perhaps a week or more to the current short period, by means of the combination of Kozai cycles and tidal friction (KCTF). In addition, once KCTF has produced a rather close binary, magnetic braking also combined with tidal friction (MBTF) can decrease the inner orbit further, to the formation of a contact binary or even a merged single star. Some of the products of KCTF that have been suggested, either by others or by us, are W UMa binaries, Blue Stragglers, X-ray active BY Dra stars, and short-period Algols. We also argue that some components of wide binaries are actually merged remnants of former close inner pairs. This may include such objects as rapidly rotating dwarfs (AB Dor, BO Mic) and some (but not all) Be stars.

  4. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  5. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Jannika E Boström

    Full Text Available Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively, which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  6. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Boström, Jannika E; Dimitrova, Marina; Canton, Cindy; Håstad, Olle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ödeen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey. PMID:26990087

  7. RapidMic: Rapid Computation of the Maximal Information Coefficient

    Dongming Tang; Mingwen Wang; Weifan Zheng; Hongjun Wang

    2014-01-01

    To discover relationships and associations rapidly in large-scale datasets, we propose a cross-platform tool for the rapid computation of the maximal information coefficient based on parallel computing methods. Through parallel processing, the provided tool can effectively analyze large-scale biological datasets with a markedly reduced computing time. The experimental results show that the proposed tool is notably fast, and is able to perform an all-pairs analysis of a large biological datase...

  8. The Architectural Organization of Human Stem Cell Cycle Regulatory Machinery

    Stein, Gary S.; Stein, Janet L.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lian, Jane B.; Montecino, Martin; Medina, Ricardo(Instituto de Matemática e Computação, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil); Kapinas, Kristie; Ghule, Prachi; Grandy, Rodrigo; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Becker, Klaus A.

    2012-01-01

    Two striking features of human embryonic stem cells that support biological activity are an abbreviated cell cycle and reduced complexity to nuclear organization. The potential implications for rapid proliferation of human embryonic stem cells within the context of sustaining pluripotency, suppressing phenotypic gene expression and linkage to simplicity in the architectural compartmentalization of regulatory machinery in nuclear microenvironments is explored. Characterization of the molecular...

  9. Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler

    Gasser, M. G.; Sherman, A.; Studer, P. A.; Daniels, A.; Goldowsky, M. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications is described. It consists of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section, and respectively includes a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer radially suspended in interconnecting cylindrical housings by active magnetic bearings and has adjacent reduced clearance regions so as to be in noncontacting relationship therewith and wherein one or more of these regions operate as clearance seals. The piston and displacer are reciprocated in their housings by linear drive motors to vary the volume of respectively adjacent compression and expansion spaces which contain a gaseous working fluid and a thermal regenerator to effect Stirling cycle cryogenic cooling.

  10. Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler

    Gasser, M. G.; Sherman, A.; Studer, P. A.; Daniels, A.; Goldowsky, M. P.

    1983-06-01

    A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications is described. It consists of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section, and respectively includes a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer radially suspended in interconnecting cylindrical housings by active magnetic bearings and has adjacent reduced clearance regions so as to be in noncontacting relationship therewith and wherein one or more of these regions operate as clearance seals. The piston and displacer are reciprocated in their housings by linear drive motors to vary the volume of respectively adjacent compression and expansion spaces which contain a gaseous working fluid and a thermal regenerator to effect Stirling cycle cryogenic cooling.

  11. CANDU fuel cycle flexibility

    High neutron economy, on-power refuelling, and a simple bundle design provide a high degree of flexibility that enables CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium; registered trademark) reactors to be fuelled with a wide variety of fuel types. Near-term applications include the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), and recovered uranium (RU) from reprocessed spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Plutonium and other actinides arising from various sources, including spent LWR fuel, can be accommodated, and weapons-origin plutonium could be destroyed by burning in CANDU. In the DUPIC fuel cycle, a dry processing method would convert spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel to CANDU fuel. The thorium cycle remains of strategic interest in CANDU to ensure long-term resource availability, and would be of specific interest to those countries possessing large thorium reserves, but limited uranium resources. (author). 21 refs

  12. Riding the cycle

    The current state of the Canadian oil and natural gas industry is reviewed as part of a discussion of economic cycles focusing in particular on the most recent cycle and the impact it has had on the industry. The review of the state of the industry includes discussion of production, exports, commodity prices, the stimulating effect of price increases on the number of oil and natural gas wells drilled, drilling rig operating days. Also discussed are the effect of foreign exchange rates, capital spending, industry financial performance in terms of return on capital employed, the impact of oil and gas prices on Alberta provincial revenues, estimates of Canada's ultimate crude oil and natural gas resources potential, pipelines and pipeline proposals for northern gas, and projection of crude oil and natural gas production in Canada to 2010

  13. Forecasting grain production costs in the backdrop of economic cycles

    蓝海涛; 姜长云

    2009-01-01

    This research indicates that with the changes in economic cycles, China’s production costs are experiencing "wave-shaped" spiral growth. From 2004 to 2008, China’s grain production costs increased rapidly, with the primary driving force the rapid growth of labor, land and material costs. In the middle stage of industrialization, China’s grain production costs will experience spiral growth following economic cyclical fluctuations, entering relative stability after a certain period. From 2009 to around 2012, grain production costs will drop, but average production costs may be higher than in the current upward cycle. From 2013 to around 2020, grain production costs will rise again and be much higher than in the current upward cycle.

  14. A Kalina cycle with ejector

    A Kalina cycle with ejector (EKalina cycle) is proposed in this paper. In the EKalina cycle, an ejector is used to substitute for the throttle valve and the absorber in the Kalina cycle system 11 (KCS 11). The exhaust pressure of the expander is decreased by the ejector resulted in an increase of the working pressure difference of the expansion, and to increase the power output and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. The thermodynamic analyses and comparisons between the EKalina cycle and the KCS 11 are conducted on the cycle's power output, thermal efficiency with the low-grade heat source (LGHS). Water is chosen as the LGHS fluid, and the same temperature and mass flow rate of the water is the standard condition for the comparative analysis on the EKalina cycle and the KCS 11. Results show that the net power output and thermal efficiency of the EKalina cycle are higher than that of the KCS 11. - Highlights: • A Kalina cycle with ejector (EKalina cycle) based on Kalina cycle system 11 (KCS 11) is proposed. • Substituting ejector for the throttle valve to avoid throttling losses improves the cycle performance. • The net power output and thermal efficiency of EKalina cycle are higher than that of KCS 11

  15. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%. Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%. While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling. The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.

  16. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  17. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  18. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  19. HCl removal using cycled carbide slag from calcium looping cycles

    Highlights: • Cycled carbide slag from calcium looping cycles is used to remove HCl. • The optimum temperature for HCl removal of cycled carbide slag is 700 °C. • The presence of CO2 restrains HCl removal of cycled carbide slag. • CO2 capture conditions have important effects on HCl removal of cycled carbide slag. • HCl removal capacity of carbide slag drops with cycle number rising from 1 to 50. - Abstract: The carbide slag is an industrial waste from chlor-alkali plants, which can be used to capture CO2 in the calcium looping cycles, i.e. carbonation/calcination cycles. In this work, the cycled carbide slag from the calcium looping cycles for CO2 capture was proposed to remove HCl in the flue gas from the biomass-fired and RDFs-fired boilers. The effects of chlorination temperature, HCl concentration, particle size, presence of CO2, presence of O2, cycle number and CO2 capture conditions in calcium looping cycles on the HCl removal behavior of the carbide slag experienced carbonation/calcination cycles were investigated in a triple fixed-bed reactor. The chlorination product of the cycled carbide slag from the calcium looping after absorbing HCl is not CaCl2 but CaClOH. The optimum temperature for HCl removal of the cycled carbide slag from the carbonation/calcination cycles is 700 °C. The chlorination conversion of the cycled carbide slag increases with increasing the HCl concentration. The cycled carbide slag with larger particle size exhibits a lower chlorination conversion. The presence of CO2 decreases the chlorination conversions of the cycled carbide slag and the presence of O2 has a trifling impact. The chlorination conversion of the carbide slag experienced 1 carbonation/calcination cycle is higher than that of the uncycled calcined sorbent. As the number of carbonation/calcination cycles increases from 1 to 50, the chlorination conversion of carbide slag drops gradually. The high calcination temperature and high CO2 concentration in the

  20. Cycles in Nonlinear Macroeconomics

    Voronin, Anatoly V.; Chernyshov, Sergey I.

    2007-01-01

    The monograph is concerned with some key problems of the theory of nonlinear economic dynamics. The authors' concept consists in analyzing the problem of structural instability of economic systems within the framework of the synergetic paradigm. As examples, the classical models of macroeconomics are considered. The authors present the results of the study of the phenomenon of self-organization in open and nonequilibrium economic systems. The generation of limit cycles, as well as of more com...

  1. Pork Barrel Cycles

    Allan Drazen; Marcela Eslava

    2006-01-01

    We present a model of political budget cycles in which incumbents influence voters by targeting government spending to specific groups of voters at the expense of other voters or other expenditures. Each voter faces a signal extraction problem: being targeted with expenditure before the election may reflect opportunistic manipulation, but may also reflect a sincere preference of the incumbent for the types of spending that voter prefers. We show the existence of a political equilibrium in whi...

  2. The carbon dioxide cycle

    James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recycling and Endogenous Cycles

    Fodha, Mouez; Francesco MAGRIS

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions under which deterministic cycles can emerge in a discrete-time model with infinitely lived agents and when the economy is characterized by two sectors producing two perfectly substitutable goods: a virgin good and a recycled one. The occurrence of deterministic fluctuations rests upon the countercyclical behavior of the recycling industry: an increase in present consumption implies a lower future waste activity together with a lower agents' total incom...

  4. Concordance in Business Cycles

    C. John McDermott; Alasdair Scott

    2000-01-01

    We study the properties of a test that determines whether two time series comove. The test computes a simple nonparametric statistic for “concordance,” which describes the proportion of time that the cycles of two series spend in the same phase. We establish the size and power properties of this test. As an illustration, the procedures are applied to output series from selected major industrial countries. We find limited evidence of widespread concordance for these countries.

  5. Steps and cycles

    Chadwick, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Andy Chadwick* explains how interaction between continuous trend with natural climate cycles produces the observed stepped pattern of global warming Climate-change ‘sceptics’ have made great mileage out of the current hiatus in observed global warming. Atmospheric temperatures have not really increased since the turn of the 21st Century, a fact frequently cited as incompatible with, or even disproving, global warming. These same commentators draw a discreet veil over the fact that temper...

  6. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Dale, Deborah J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  7. FUZZY REASONING IN CYCLES

    曹立明

    1990-01-01

    By the similarity between the syllogism in logic and a path proposition in graph theory,a new concept,fuzzy reasoning graph G has been given in this paper. Transitive closure has been studied and used to do reasoning related to self-loop in G,and an algorithm has been designed to cope with reasoning in other cycles in G. Both approaches are applicable and efficient.

  8. The nuclear fuel cycle

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing. (U.K.)

  9. Economical Investigation of Rapid Prototyping

    Péter Ficzere; Lajos Borbás; Ádám Török

    2013-01-01

    Usage of rapid prototyping gain developers, designers and engineers more time and consume less money and save more resources. In this article authors investigated the economic possibilities of rapid prototyping. In concurrent engineering, different tasks are tackled at the same time, and not necessarily in the usual order. Concurrent engineering is a method by which several teams within an organization work simultaneously to develop new products and allows more flexible approach. The concurre...

  10. International Business Cycle

    Marek Lubiński

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prime stylized facts of international business cycle theory refer to positive correlation in the cyclical components of important macroeconomic variables across countries. However a number of indicators of business cycle synchronization do not point to clear trends. It can be ascribed to the fact that different forces influence level of business cycle correlation. When investigating into the forces behind the commonness in aggregate fluctuations economic research seems to have pointed in two directions. One strand of the literature examines the idea of common exogenous shocks that affect economies simultaneously. In addition to that economic interdependencies such as trade in goods and services or capital account transactions may serve as the channels through which disturbances spill over across countries.The observed degree of output co movement reflects both the nature of the shocks that have occurred and the degree of economic interdependence. In the periods when common shocks prevail level of synchronization is usually higher than in times of transmission dominance.

  11. Study on capacitance evolving mechanism of polypyrrole during prolonged cycling.

    Wang, JingPing; Xu, Youlong; Wang, Jie; Zhu, Jianbo; Bai, Yang; Xiong, Lilong

    2014-02-01

    A simple model on the evolution mechanism of PPy capacitance during prolonged cycling offers a reasonably description on the rapid increase and decay of PPy capacitance in 1 M 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/propylene carbonate (EtMeImBF4/PC). The capacitance of PPy films reached a very high specific capacitance of 420 F·g(-1) after 15 cycles when they worked in 1 M MeEt3ImBF4/PC. However, the capacitance rapidly decreased to 5% after only 400 cycles. The electronic conductivity and protonation level on the nitrogen site of PPy films rapidly decreased with the increase of cyclic number. The salt of EtMeImBF4 was monitored in PPy matrix by FTIR spectra after 400 cycles. The EQCM results indicated that a lot of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cations (EtMeIm(+)) were inserted during reduction process and retained in PPy matrix. The detained EtMeIm(+) cations bonded with doped p-toluenesulfonate anions (PTS(-)) in PPy matrix or BF4(-) anions from electrolyte and formed salts. Small amount of salts in PPy matrix can open more channels of ion insertion and resulted in a very high capacitance after 15 cycles. The continuous combination of detained EtMeIm(+) cations with doping anions of PTS(-) resulted in the rapid decrease of PPy protonation level on the nitrogen site and formation of compensate semiconductor state in PPy matrix. This should be responsible for the rapid decay of PPy conductivity and capacitance. The continuous accumulation of salts resulted in the great increase of PPy internal resistance. PMID:24428582

  12. Bifurcation of limit cycles near equivariant compound cycles

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study some equivariant systems on the plane. We first give some criteria for the outer or inner stability of compound cycles of these systems. Then we investigate the number of limit cycles which appear near a compound cycle of a Hamiltonian equivariant system under equivariant perturbations. In the last part of the paper we present an application of our general theory to show that a Z3 equivariant system can have 13 limit cycles.

  13. Cycle-to-cycle variability as an optimal behavioral strategy

    Brezina, Vladimir; Proekt, Alex; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2006-01-01

    Aplysia feeding behavior is highly variable from cycle to cycle. In some cycles, when the variability causes a mismatch between the animal's movements and the requirements of the feeding task, the variability makes the behavior unsuccessful. We propose that the behavior is variable nevertheless because the variability serves a higher-order functional purpose. When the animal is faced with a new and only imperfectly known feeding task in each cycle, the variability implements a trial-and-error...

  14. How well can business cycle accounting account for business cycles?

    Otsu, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The business cycle accounting method introduced by Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2007) is a useful tool to decompose business cycle fluctuations into their contributing factors. However, the model estimated by the maximum likelihood method cannot replicate business cycle moments computed from data. Moment-based estimation might be an attractive alternative if the purpose of the research is to study business cycle properties such as volatility, persistence and cross-correlation of variables inst...

  15. Rapid annealing using the water-wall arc lamp

    Gelpey, Jeffrey C.; Stump, Paul O.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid annealing techniques using graphite strip heaters [1], tungsten-halogen lamps [2], and conventional arc lamps [3] have been gaining favor to provide controllable activation of ion implants while minimizing the diffusion of the implanted dopant. These conventional heat sources have given good results, but they all suffer from limitations in power output and/or the ability to change power levels rapidly. The water-wall d.c. arc lamp overcomes these limitations and allows precise control and excellent reproducability of the anneal cycle. The high power output and excellent optical coupling of the water-wall lamp allows ilumination from one side of the sample. The wafer temperature can then be directly monitored with a pyrometer and the fast response time of the lamp allows the pyrometer output to control the lamp power and, hence, provide direct feedback control of the wafer temperature. Direct control is important to overcome variations caused by different doping levels or dielectric coatings on the wafers. Annealing experiments using the water-wall lamp have shown that good activation and essentially complete removal of implant damage can be achieved while moving the junction only minimally [4,5]. The degree of dopant diffusion (generally on the order of 1000 Å) is small compared to device dimensions but is somewhat more than would be expected from classical diffusion theory using published diffusion coefficients. The differences depend on the implanted species and models are being developed to explain the discrepancies. The vary rapid heating and cooling rates obtainable with the water-wall lamp offer a great deal of flexibility in the time/temperature cycles used for annealing (or other rapid thermal processes). There are indications that the ability to achieve a rapid cooling rate allows more complete activation of high dose implants and rapid heating rates may reduce the residual damage and amount of diffusion.

  16. Rapid annealing using the water-wall arc lamp

    Gelpey, J.C.; Stump, P.O. (Eaton Corp., Beverly, MA (USA). Semiconductor Equipment Operations)

    1985-01-01

    Rapid annealing techniques using graphite strip heaters, tungsten-halogen lamps and conventional arc lamps have been gaining favor to provide controllable activation of ion implants while minimizing the diffusion of the implanted dopant. These conventional heat sources have given good results, but they all suffer from limitations in power output and/or the ability to change power levels rapidly. The water-wall d.c. arc lamp overcomes these limitations and allows precise control and excellent reproducability of the anneal cycle. The high power output and excellent optical coupling of the water-wall lamp allows ilumination from one side of the sample. The wafer temperature can then be directly monitored with a pyrometer and the fast response time of the lamp allows the pyrometer output to control the lamp power and, hence, provide direct feedback control of the wafer temperature. Direct control is important to overcome variations caused by different doping levels or dielectric coatings on the wafers. Annealing experiments using the water-wall lamp have shown that good activation and essentially complete removal of implant damage can be achieved while moving the junction only minimally. The degree of dopant diffusion (generally on the order of 1000 A) is small compared to device dimensions but is somewhat more than would be expected from classical diffusion theory using published diffusion coefficients. The differences depend on the implanted species and models are being developed to explain the discrepancies. The vary rapid heating and cooling rates obtainable with the water-wall lamp offer a great deal of flexibility in the time/temperature cycles used for annealing (or other rapid thermal processes). There are indications that the ability to achieve a rapid cooling rate allows more complete activation of high dose implants and rapid heating rates may reduce the residual damage and amount of diffusion.

  17. Rapid annealing using the water-wall arc lamp

    Rapid annealing techniques using graphite strip heaters, tungsten-halogen lamps and conventional arc lamps have been gaining favor to provide controllable activation of ion implants while minimizing the diffusion of the implanted dopant. These conventional heat sources have given good results, but they all suffer from limitations in power output and/or the ability to change power levels rapidly. The water-wall d.c. arc lamp overcomes these limitations and allows precise control and excellent reproducability of the anneal cycle. The high power output and excellent optical coupling of the water-wall lamp allows ilumination from one side of the sample. The wafer temperature can then be directly monitored with a pyrometer and the fast response time of the lamp allows the pyrometer output to control the lamp power and, hence, provide direct feedback control of the wafer temperature. Direct control is important to overcome variations caused by different doping levels or dielectric coatings on the wafers. Annealing experiments using the water-wall lamp have shown that good activation and essentially complete removal of implant damage can be achieved while moving the junction only minimally. The degree of dopant diffusion (generally on the order of 1000 A) is small compared to device dimensions but is somewhat more than would be expected from classical diffusion theory using published diffusion coefficients. The differences depend on the implanted species and models are being developed to explain the discrepancies. The vary rapid heating and cooling rates obtainable with the water-wall lamp offer a great deal of flexibility in the time/temperature cycles used for annealing (or other rapid thermal processes). There are indications that the ability to achieve a rapid cooling rate allows more complete activation of high dose implants and rapid heating rates may reduce the residual damage and amount of diffusion. (orig.)

  18. Transition Towards a Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    . In this respect, it is considered that the potential future scarcity of uranium resources is not at all unreasonable, but it is a very serious perspective for the regions of the world where the energy demand growth is and will very probably continue to be significant with the use of nuclear energy to meet at least partially that demand. In fact, despite the seriousness of the recent Fukushima Daiichi accident, only a few countries (essentially in the OECD region) have reacted with an abrupt decision to phase out nuclear power. Most countries, where the energy demand growth corresponds to an urgent need to achieve widely improved living standards, have launched or completed extensive reviews of their nuclear programmes, but are also continuing with ongoing construction projects. The results of this study are very much related to the hypotheses made, in particular in terms of energy demand growth. However, some general trends seem to be of a general value and can motivate further studies. It was confirmed in this investigation that a rapid development of fast reactors, especially in areas with expanding economies and strong energy demand growth, is essential for nuclear energy sustainability, for saving natural uranium resources worldwide and for reducing high-level waste generation requiring disposal. A key parameter is the fast reactor doubling time which has to be chosen appropriately in order to meet energy requirements. In the case of an open cycle, a potential increase in pressure on the uranium market could be expected towards the end of the current century. Moreover, the increase in mining needs of unequally distributed resources can be a factor of uncertainty with an impact potentially even more important of uranium cost considerations. It would, however, be a very significant challenge to develop suitable fuel cycle infrastructure especially in the world regions that presently have a limited number of (or no) nuclear power plants. In fact, the needed fuel

  19. Overview of EPA CSS Intramural Research on Life Cycle and Human Exposure Modeling

    Improved human exposure modeling in life cycle assessmentsModeling and assessment for chemicals/products with less extensive dataMore rapid and higher throughput assessmentsLife Cycle-Human Exposure Modeling (LC-HEM) tool usable by Offices/Regions and by external stakeholders

  20. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Healthy couples recruited throughout Denmark...

  1. A Model for Wilson Cycles

    Coakley, B.

    2001-12-01

    While the steady state tectonics of subduction are reasonably well understood, the initiation of subduction is not. Theoretical and modeling studies of subduction initiation require large, sustained in-plane stresses to break the continuous oceanic plate and drive the slab into the mantle before a new subduction zone can be self-sustaining. These studies have identified sediment loading and old, dense oceanic lithosphere associated with passive margins as factors favoring the localization of subduction. Old oceanic lithosphere is also quite strong, increasing the stress necessary to break the plate, making passive margins less appealing as a locale for initiation. In contrast to breaking the plate in-plane, a subduction zone could grow laterally, by crack propagation, extending to join a passive margin. "Primed" by the bouyancy flux of the pre-existing subduction zone, progressive failure along a passive continental margin would disrupt the oceanic lithosphere and become self-sustaining as the dense plate sank into the mantle, accelerating the tear. The Caribbean plate provides an example of how a micro-plate might nucleate a subduction zone through stress concentration. As the Caribbean plate advanced, the subduction zone at its leading, eastern edge was progressively channeled to the south as first Cuba and then Hispanola were jammed against the Bahamas platform. The Antilles arc is the current site of active subduction. The Caribbean plate is being over-ridden at the Muertos trough, south of Puerto Rico, and at the northern limit of South America and is over-riding the Pacific plate on the west and the North American plate on the east. The Caribbean plate is pinned between the three surrounding plates, which may provide the necessary stress concentration which could lead to the development of a new active margin on the East coast of North America. Wilson cycle tectonics, as seen in the Phanerozoic history of North Atlantic passive margins, require that passive

  2. Life-cycle energy of residential buildings in China

    In the context of rapid urbanization and new construction in rural China, residential building energy consumption has the potential to increase with the expected increase in demand. A process-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is used to quantify the life-cycle energy use for both urban and rural residential buildings in China and determine the energy use characteristics of each life cycle phase. An input–output model for the pre-use phases is based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. A process-based life-cycle assessment model for estimating the operation and demolition phases uses historical energy-intensity data. Results show that operation energy in both urban and rural residential buildings is dominant and varies from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. Gaps in living standards as well as differences in building structure and materials result in a life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings that is 20% higher than that of rural residential buildings. The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of operational energy intensity excluding heating energy which depends on both the occupants' energy-saving behavior as well as the performance of the building itself. -- Highlights: •We developed a hybrid LCA model to quantify the life-cycle energy for urban and rural residential buildings in China. •Operation energy in urban and rural residential buildings is dominant, varying from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. •Compared with rural residential buildings, the life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings is 20% higher. •The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of daily activity energy

  3. Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    "Supercontinent cycles" or "Wilson cycles" is the idea that before Pangaea there were a series of supercontinents that each formed and then broke apart and separated before colliding again, re-aggregating, and suturing into a new supercontinent in a continuing sequence. I suggest that "supercontinent cycles" are artificial constructs, like planetary orbit epicycles, attempts to describe geological phenomena within the framework of problematic paradigms, namely, planetesimal Earth formation and plate tectonics' mantle convection. The so-called 'standard model of solar system formation' is problematic as it would lead to insufficiently massive planetary cores and necessitates additional ad hoc hypotheses such as the 'frost line' between Mars and Jupiter to explain planetary differences and whole-planet melting to explain core formation from essentially undifferentiated matter. The assumption of mantle convection is crucial for plate tectonics, not only for seafloor spreading, but also for continental movement; continent masses are assumed to ride atop convection cells. In plate tectonics, plate collisions are thought to be the sole mechanism for fold-mountain formation. Indeed, the occurrence of mountain chains characterized by folding which significantly predate the breakup of Pangaea is the primary basis for assuming the existence of supercontinent cycles with their respective periods of ancient mountain-forming plate collisions. Mantle convection is physically impossible. Rayleigh Number justification has been misapplied. The mantle bottom is too dense to float to the surface by thermal expansion. Sometimes attempts are made to obviate the 'bottom heavy' prohibition by adopting the tacit assumption that the mantle behaves as an ideal gas with no viscous losses, i.e., 'adiabatic'. But the mantle is a solid that does not behave as an ideal gas as evidenced by earthquakes occurring at depths as great as 660 km. Absent mantle convection, plate tectonics is not valid

  4. The world tourism exports cycle

    Gouveia, Pedro; Guerreiro, Raul Filipe; Paulo M.M. Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Considering that tourism is an important industry on a global scale, this study analyses and compares the deviations cycles from the long-term trend of tourism exports for all regions of the world with the cycle of the European Union with 27 member states (EU27). In this context, the approach followed allows us to analyse and determine the synchronization between tourism exports cycles of various regions of interest. In parallel, lagged concordance indices of cycles are id...

  5. GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator

    Koike, Toshio; Lawford, Richard; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    It is critically important to recognize and co-manage the fundamental linkages across the water-dependent domains; land use, including deforestation; ecosystem services; and food-, energy- and health-securities. Sharing coordinated, comprehensive and sustained observations and information for sound decision-making is a first step; however, to take full advantage of these opportunities, we need to develop an effective collaboration mechanism for working together across different disciplines, sectors and agencies, and thereby gain a holistic view of the continuity between environmentally sustainable development, climate change adaptation and enhanced resilience. To promote effective multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary collaboration based on coordinated and integrated efforts, the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). A component of GEOSS now under development is the "GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator (WCI)", which integrates Earth observations, modeling, data and information, management systems and education systems. GEOSS/WCI sets up "work benches" by which partners can share data, information and applications in an interoperable way, exchange knowledge and experiences, deepen mutual understanding and work together effectively to ultimately respond to issues of both mitigation and adaptation. (A work bench is a virtual geographical or phenomenological space where experts and managers collaborate to use information to address a problem within that space). GEOSS/WCI enhances the coordination of efforts to strengthen individual, institutional and infrastructure capacities, especially for effective interdisciplinary coordination and integration. GEO has established the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) and GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Through regional, inter-disciplinary, multi-sectoral integration and inter-agency coordination in Asia and Africa, GEOSS

  6. Liquid air cycle engines

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  7. The nuclear fuel cycle

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  8. The software life cycle

    Ince, Darrel

    1990-01-01

    The Software Life Cycle deals with the software lifecycle, that is, what exactly happens when software is developed. Topics covered include aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, and software project management. The use of mathematics to design and develop computer systems is also discussed. This book is comprised of 20 chapters divided into four sections and begins with an overview of software engineering and software development, paying particular attention to the birth of software engineering and the introduction of formal methods of software develop

  9. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  10. On your bike! a cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school

    Trapp Georgina SA; Giles-Corti Billie; Christian Hayley E; Bulsara Max; Timperio Anna F; McCormack Gavin R; Villaneuva Karen P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Active school transport (AST) has declined rapidly in recent decades. While many studies have examined walking, cycling to school has received very little attention. Correlates of cycling are likely to differ to those from walking and cycling enables AST from further distances. This study examined individual, social and environmental factors associated with cycling to school among elementary school-aged children, stratified by gender. Methods Children (n = 1197) attending ...

  11. Changing global carbon cycle

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  12. Rapid Manufacturing - auch mit SLM

    Spierings, Adriaan; Levy, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    Rapid Manufacturing (RM) wurde als Schlagwort in der letzten Zeit insbesondere aus dem Bereich des Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) bekannt. In dieser inzwischen über 15-jährigen Technologieentwicklung wurden in den vergangenen Jahren bedeutende Fortschritte erzielt, die die Bauteileigenschaften nahe an die Anforderungen für End-Teile heran brachten. So ist das RM denn auch weniger aus der Sicht grösserer Losgrösse zu verstehen. Viel mehr bedeutet Rapid Manufacturing, dass die Bauteile nach ei...

  13. Velenje - Mislinja cycle track regulation

    Vidonja, Klemen

    2013-01-01

    In my graduation thesis, I am planning a cycle track from Velenje to Mislinja, where it will be connected to an existing bike track to Otiški vrh. The cycle track would be placed on a deserted railway route from Velenje to Dravograd. A short section of cycle track is already in use, but it has to be repared. I planned the rest of the cycle track and I regulated it in a turist – recreational manner, suitable for all types of riders. The cycle track is placed away from traffic, does not dema...

  14. Part 5. Fuel cycle options

    The results of the FBR fuel cycle study that supported US contributions to the INFCE are presented. Fuel cycle technology is reviewed from both generic and historical standpoints. Technology requirements are developed within the framework of three deployment scenarios: the reference international, the secured area, and the integral cycle. Reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling, transportation, and safeguards are discussed for each deployment scenario. Fuel cycle modifications designed to increase proliferation defenses are described and assessed for effectiveness and technology feasibility. The present status of fuel cycle technology is reviewed and key issues that require resolution are identified

  15. Effects of Rapid Recurrent Thermal Annealing on Giant Magnetoresistance NiFe/Ag Multilayers

    文岐业; 张怀武; 蒋向东; 唐晓莉; 张万里

    2003-01-01

    NiFe/Ag multilayers were prepared by dc sputtering onto glass-ceramic substrates directly at room temperature.The samples were thermally processed by rapid recurrent thermal anneal (RRTA). We studied the effects of RRTA on giant magnetoresistance (GMR) NiFe/Ag multilayer by controlling the anneal temperature as well as the rapid anneal cycle. The samples after three RRTA cycles have a similar annealing temperature dependence of GMR responses to the ordinary annealed samples. With the increasing anneal cycle, the GMR response improved at first and then reached an unexpected high value of 9% before descent rapidly. Microstructure study shows that this effect is ascribed to the transformation of continuous NiFe layer into discontinuous one, and then into a granular like film in a step-by-step way.

  16. Coral reef evolution on rapidly subsiding margins

    Webster, J.M.; Braga, J.C.; Clague, D.A.; Gallup, C.; Hein, J.R.; Potts, D.C.; Renema, W.; Riding, R.; Riker-Coleman, K.; Silver, E.; Wallace, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A series of well-developed submerged coral reefs are preserved in the Huon Gulf (Papua New Guinea) and around Hawaii. Despite different tectonics settings, both regions have experienced rapid subsidence (2-6??m/ka) over the last 500??ka. Rapid subsidence, combined with eustatic sea-level changes, is responsible for repeated drowning and backstepping of coral reefs over this period. Because we can place quantitative constraints on these systems (i.e., reef drowning age, eustatic sea-level changes, subsidence rates, accretion rates, basement substrates, and paleobathymetry), these areas represent unique natural laboratories for exploring the roles of tectonics, reef accretion, and eustatic sea-level changes in controlling the evolution of individual reefs, as well as backstepping of the entire system. A review of new and existing bathymetric, radiometric, sedimentary facies and numerical modeling data indicate that these reefs have had long, complex growth histories and that they are highly sensitive, recording drowning not only during major deglaciations, but also during high-frequency, small-amplitude interstadial and deglacial meltwater pulse events. Analysis of five generalized sedimentary facies shows that reef drowning is characterized by a distinct biological and sedimentary sequence. Observational and numerical modeling data indicate that on precessional (20??ka) and sub-orbital timescales, the rate and amplitude of eustatic sea-level changes are critical in controlling initiation, growth, drowning or sub-aerial exposure, subsequent re-initiation, and final drowning. However, over longer timescales (> 100-500??ka) continued tectonic subsidence and basement substrate morphology influence broad scale reef morphology and backstepping geometries. Drilling of these reefs will yield greatly expanded stratigraphic sections compared with similar reefs on slowly subsiding, stable and uplifting margins, and thus they represent a unique archive of sea-level and climate

  17. Connecting network properties of rapidly disseminating epizoonotics.

    Ariel L Rivas

    Full Text Available To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure.Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006, two models were compared: 1 'connectivity', a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent's transmission cycle, road topology into indicators designed to measure networks ('nodes' or infected sites with short- and long-range links, and 2 'contacts', which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity.THE CONNECTIVITY MODEL SHOWED FIVE NETWORK PROPERTIES: 1 spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters, 2 links among similar 'nodes' (assortativity, 3 simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity, 4 disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality, and 5 a few nodes accounting for most cases (a "20:80" pattern. In both epizoonotics, 1 not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2 highly connected, small areas (nodes accounted for most cases, 3 several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4 the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads.Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory's nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished classes of cases, nodes, and networks, generating information usable

  18. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  19. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  20. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  1. Rapid mixing and Markov bases

    Windisch, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The mixing behaviour of Markov chains on lattice points of polytopes using Markov bases is examined. It is shown that, in fixed dimension, these Markov chains do not mix rapidly. As a way out, a method of how to adapt Markov bases in order to achieve the fastest mixing behaviour is introduced.

  2. Evolution of rapid nerve conduction.

    Castelfranco, Ann M; Hartline, Daniel K

    2016-06-15

    Rapid conduction of nerve impulses is a priority for organisms needing to react quickly to events in their environment. While myelin may be viewed as the crowning innovation bringing about rapid conduction, the evolution of rapid communication mechanisms, including those refined and enhanced in the evolution of myelin, has much deeper roots. In this review, a sequence is traced starting with diffusional communication, followed by transport-facilitated communication, the rise of electrical signaling modalities, the invention of voltage-gated channels and "all-or-none" impulses, the emergence of elongate nerve axons specialized for communication and their fine-tuning to enhance impulse conduction speeds. Finally within the evolution of myelin itself, several innovations have arisen and have been interactively refined for speed enhancement, including the addition and sealing of layers, their limitation by space availability, and the optimization of key parameters: channel density, lengths of exposed nodes and lengths of internodes. We finish by suggesting several design principles that appear to govern the evolution of rapid conduction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. PMID:26879248

  3. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field. PMID:26763421

  4. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  5. Nutrient Cycling Study

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The particular goal of this study is to develop measurement techniques for understanding how consortia of organisms from geothermal facilities utilize sulfur and iron for metabolic activity; and in turn, what role that activity plays in initiating or promoting the development of a biofilm on plant substrates. Sulfur cycling is of interest because sulfur is produced in the resource. Iron is found in some of the steel formulations used in plant components and is also added as chemical treatment for reducing sulfide emissions from the plants. This report describes the set-up and operation of a bioreactor for evaluating the response of colonies of geothermal organisms to changes in nutrient and environmental conditions. Data from initial experiments are presented and plans for future testing is discussed.

  6. CANDU advanced fuel cycles

    This report is based on informal lectures and presentations made on CANDU Advanced Fuel Cycles over the past year or so, and discusses the future role of CANDU in the changing environment for the Canadian and international nuclear power industry. The changing perspectives of the past decade lead to the conclusion that a significant future market for a CANDU advanced thermal reactor will exist for many decades. Such a reactor could operate in a stand-alone strategy or integrate with a mixed CANDU-LWR or CANDU-FBR strategy. The consistent design focus of CANDU on enhanced efficiency of resource utilization combined with a simple technology to achieve economic targets, will provide sufficient flexibility to maintain CANDU as a viable power producer for both the medium- and long-term future

  7. HTGR fuel cycle

    In the spring of 1987, the HTGR fuel cycle project has been existing for ten years, and for this reason a status seminar has been held on May 12, 1987 in the Juelich Nuclear Research Center, that gathered the participants in this project for a discussion on the state of the art in HTGR fuel element development, graphite development, and waste management. The papers present an overview of work performed so far and an outlook on future tasks and goals, and on taking stock one can say that the project has been very successful so far: The HTGR fuel element now available meets highest requirements and forms the basis of today's HTGR safety philosophy; research work on graphite behaviour in a high-temperature reactor has led to complete knowledge of the temperature or neutron-induced effects, and with the concept of direct ultimate waste disposal, the waste management problem has found a feasible solution. (orig./GL)

  8. Coupled quantum Otto cycle.

    Thomas, George; Johal, Ramandeep S

    2011-03-01

    We study the one-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than in the uncoupled model; in particular, we find an upper bound which is tighter than the Carnot bound. A domain of parameter values is pointed out which was not feasible in the interaction-free model. Locally, each spin seems to cause a flow of heat in a direction opposite to the global temperature gradient. This feature is explained by an analysis of the local effective temperature of the spins. PMID:21517482

  9. The nuclear power cycle

    Fifty years after the first nuclear reactor come on-line, nuclear power is fourth among the world's primary energy sources, after oil, coal and gas. In 2002, there were 441 reactors in operation worldwide. The United States led the world with 104 reactors and an installed capacity of 100,000 MWe, or more than one fourth of global capacity. Electricity from nuclear energy represents 78% of the production in France, 57% in Belgium, 46% in Sweden, 40% in Switzerland, 39% in South Korea, 34% in Japan, 30% in Germany, 30% in Finland, 26% in Spain, 22% in Great Britain, 20% in the United States and 16% in Russia. Worldwide, 32 reactors are under construction, including 21 in Asia. This information document presents the Areva activities in the nuclear power cycle: the nuclear fuel, the nuclear reactors, the spent fuel reprocessing and recycling and nuclear cleanup and dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  10. The uranium cycle

    In identifying uranium provinces, and, more importantly, mineralized zones within these provinces, it is of paramount importance to attempt to trace the geochemical behaviour of an element through all stages of Earth's evolution. Aspects that need to be addressed in this regard include solar abundance levels and fractionation processes during accretion, changing patterns of crustal evolution, effects of an evolving atmosphere, and the weathering cycle. Abundance patterns and partition coefficients of some of the siderophile elements in mantle rocks lend support to a multistage accretionary process. Lack of a terrestrial record in the first 500 Ma necessitates that lunar models be invoked, which suggests that early fractionation of a mafic/ultramafic magma resulted in an anorthositic crust. Fractionation of the mantle and transfer of materials to the upper levels must be central to any model invoked for development of the crust. Given high heat flow conditions in the early Archaean it would seem inescapable that the process of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics was an ongoing process. If the plate tectonic model is taken back to 3500 Ma, and assuming current speading rates, then about half of the mantle has passed through the irreversible differentiation cycle. Arguments in support of recycled material must be balanced against mantle metasomatism effects. With the associated advent of partial melting of the mantle material a partitioning of minor and trace elements into the melt fraction would take place. The early primitive mafic and ultramafic komatiites exemplify this feature by concentrating U and Th by a factor of 5 compared to chondritic abundances. It is of tantamount importance to understand the generation of the magmas in order to predict which are the 'fertile' bodies in terms of radioelement concentrations. In that the granitoid magmas image their source compositions, the association of high radioelements will primarily be source-dependent. Uranium

  11. The Hamburg oceanic carbon cycle circulation model. Cycle 1

    The carbon cycle model calculates the prognostic fields of oceanic geochemical carbon cycle tracers making use of a 'frozen' velocity field provided by a run of the LSG oceanic circulation model (see the corresponding manual, LSG=Large Scale Geostrophic). The carbon cycle model includes a crude approximation of interactions between sediment and bottom layer water. A simple (meridionally diffusive) one layer atmosphere model allows to calculate the CO2 airborne fraction resulting from the oceanic biogeochemical interactions. (orig.)

  12. Money and Business Cycles: A Real Business Cycle Interpretation

    Charles I. Plosser

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of money in economic fluctuations. While money may play an important role in market economies, its role as an important impulse to business cycles remains a highly controversial hypothesis. For years economists have attempted to construct monetary theories of the business cycle with only limited empirical success. Alternatively, recent real theories of the cycle have taken the view that to a first approximation independent variations in the nominal quantity of o...

  13. Solar Cycle #24 and the Solar Dynamo

    Pesnell, W. Dean; Schatten, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    consistent with a weakening polar field, but coronal hole data must be scrutinized carefully as observing techniques have changed. We also discuss new solar dynamo ideas, and the SODA (Solar Dynamo Amplitude) index, which provides the user with the ability to track the Sun s hidden, dynamo magnetic fields throughout the various stages of the Sun s cycle. Our solar dynamo ideas are a modernization and rejuvenation of the Babcock-Leighton original idea of a shallow solar dynamo, using modem observations that appear to support their shallow dynamo viewpoint. We are in awe of being able to see an object the size of the Sun undergoing as dramatic a change as our model provides in a few short years. The Sun, however, has undergone changes as rapid as this before! The weather on the Sun is at least as fickle as the weather on the Earth.

  14. STUDI ANALISIS RAPID APLICATION DEVELOPMENT SEBAGAI SALAH SATU ALTERNATIF METODE PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT LUNAK

    Agustinus Noertjahyana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Application Development is one of the alternatives of System Development Life Cycle which is lately used to cope with the "slowness" of the conventional method. The Strength of using this method is the speed, accuracy and relatively lower cost than the conventional method. Moreover, the user's needs can be fulfilled well by involving the user in the design process. As a result, the user's satisfaction will increase. However, there are several things that should be considered in using the Rapid Application Development such as the team's preparation, the system territory, user's needs, and system operation. Finally, as one of the alternatives of System Development Life Cycle, Rapid Application Development can be used as the fundamental to produce an information system which is able to fulfill the user's needs. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Rapid Application Development (RAD sebagai salah satu alternatif dari System Development Life Cycle belakangan ini seringkali digunakan untuk mengatasi keterlambatan yang terjadi apabila menggunakan metode konvensional. Adapun keunggulan yang bisa didapatkan dengan menggunakan metode ini adalah kecepatan, ketepatan, dan biaya yang relatif lebih rendah dibanding dengan metode konvensional. Di samping itu dengan melibatkan user pada proses desain menyebabkan kebutuhan user dapat terpenuhi dengan baik dan secara otomatis kepuasan user sebagai pengguna sistem semakin meningkat. Akan tetapi di dalam menggunakan metode Rapid Aplication Development perlu untuk memperhatikan hal-hal yang penting, terutama kesiapan tim, ruang lingkup sistem, kebutuhan user, dan kinerja sistem. Pada akhirnya, sebagai salah satu alternatif dari System Development Life Cycle, maka Rapid Aplication Development dapat dijadikan acuan untuk menghasilkan sistem informasi yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan user. Kata kunci: Rapid Application Development (RAD, System Development life Cycle (SDLC.

  15. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  16. The NASA ISS-RapidScat Mission (Invited)

    Rodriguez, E.

    2013-12-01

    between all satellites in the constellation. Of great interest as well will be the ability of RapidScat to observe both the diurnal and semi-diurnal wind cycles. Previously, the diurnal cycle had been partially observed by combining scatterometer pairs, but its seasonal and yearly changes had not been characterized. Due to relative biases, the semi-diurnal cycle has not been observed from space. RapidScat will also be able to observed the diurnal cycle over land, which will improve the knowledge of scatterometer calibration targets and complement soil moisture and vegetation missions. Finally, although it has a smaller swath than QuikSCAT's, RapidScat's data will serve as a useful complement to the winds acquired from other platforms. This may be of significant advantage when covering rapidly developing systems, such as tropical hurricanes.

  17. Removing Cycles in Esterel Programs

    Reinhard von Hanxleden

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Esterel belongs to the family of synchronous programming languages, which are affected by cyclic signal dependencies. This prohibits a static scheduling, limiting the choice of available compilation techniques for programs with such cycles. This work proposes an algorithm that, given a constructive synchronous Esterel program, performs a semantics-preserving source code level transformation that removes cyclic signal dependencies. The transformation is divided into two parts: detection of cycles and iterative resolution of these cycles. It is based on the replacement of cycle signals by a signal expression involving no other cycle signals, thereby breaking the cycle. This transformation of cyclic Esterel programs enables the use of efficient compilation techniques, which are only available for acyclic programs. Furthermore, experiments indicate that the code transformation can even improve code quality produced by compilers that can already handle cyclic programs.

  18. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving

  19. Rapid and sustained cost management

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  20. Enhancing the Efficiency of Removing Support Material from Rapid Prototype Parts using pH Value Compensation Technology

    Chil-Chyuan KUO; Chun-Chieh HUNG

    2015-01-01

    Removing support material from rapid prototyping (RP) parts fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM) is required. Removing the support material rapidly and efficiently is an important concern because the product life cycle is shorter than before. The measurement of pH value in solution is an important issue affecting the efficiency of removing support material. In this work, a method was proposed to enhance the efficiency of removing support material from rapid prototype parts using pH v...

  1. Central autonomic control in spontaneously hypertensive rats: a study on phasic phenomena during rapid-eye-movement sleep

    Berteotti, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular regulation undergoes wide changes in the different states of sleepwake cycle. In particular, the relationship between spontaneous fluctuations in heart period and arterial pressure clearly shows differences between the two sleep states. In non rapid-eye-movement sleep, heart rhythm is under prevalent baroreflex control, whereas in rapid-eye-movement sleep central autonomic commands prevail (Zoccoli et al., 2001). Moreover, during rapid-eye-movement sleep the cardiovascul...

  2. Life cycle of mobile devices

    T.V. Rohal; S.I. Naumenko; G.О Peresadko

    2011-01-01

    Article is devoted features of life cycle of mobile devices. The article highlighted a number of disadvantages associated with managing the life cycle of the product. Disadvantages include the orientation is not on the quality of mobile devices and their design, the obsolescence of digital products. The article drew attention to the need for process improvement life cycle management of mobile devices. For since this type of product is now the most popular among the population, consumers are i...

  3. Entrepreneurship and the business cycle

    Thurik, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has a cyclical component, raising two questions. Is the entrepreneurship cycle related to the business cycle? And is there causality? A two-way relationship between entrepreneurship and the business cycle would be in line with the two faces of entrepreneurs: as agents of change creating upswings (opportunity entrepreneurship) and as rational actors escaping unemployment by setting up a business (necessity entrepreneurship). Nascent entrepreneurship can indeed be precyclical, ...

  4. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hyd...

  5. Rapid VHE variability in blazars

    Volpe, Francesca; Rieger, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are known to show significant variability over a wide frequency range. We review observational results on the variability characteristics of blazars in the very high energy (VHE) domain, focusing on recent findings of rapid VHE variability and evidence for an underlying multiplicative driving process in PKS 2155-304. We explore a physical scenario where the variability is assumed to arise due to accretion disk fluctuations transmitted to the jet, and discuss its i...

  6. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  7. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    Franco Pettenati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, which is reproduced for Figure 1. The general matter of the use of intensities in damage scenarios was discussed in a special session at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Seismological Society of America (http://www.seismosoc.org/meetings/2008/specialsessions.html, and was also discussed in the NIS-1 session of the European Congress in Moscow, in August 2012 (http://www.esc2012-moscow.org/esc_thematicareas.html. The purposes of the present report are to: (i compare different types of intensities; (ii check two rapid scenarios of intensity; and (iii understand whether the KF formula [Sirovich 1996, Sirovich et al. 2009] can be used as a new 'attenuation' relationship to improve rapid scenarios. […

  8. Rapid recalibration to audiovisual asynchrony.

    Van der Burg, Erik; Alais, David; Cass, John

    2013-09-11

    To combine information from different sensory modalities, the brain must deal with considerable temporal uncertainty. In natural environments, an external event may produce simultaneous auditory and visual signals yet they will invariably activate the brain asynchronously due to different propagation speeds for light and sound, and different neural response latencies once the signals reach the receptors. One strategy the brain uses to deal with audiovisual timing variation is to adapt to a prevailing asynchrony to help realign the signals. Here, using psychophysical methods in human subjects, we investigate audiovisual recalibration and show that it takes place extremely rapidly without explicit periods of adaptation. Our results demonstrate that exposure to a single, brief asynchrony is sufficient to produce strong recalibration effects. Recalibration occurs regardless of whether the preceding trial was perceived as synchronous, and regardless of whether a response was required. We propose that this rapid recalibration is a fast-acting sensory effect, rather than a higher-level cognitive process. An account in terms of response bias is unlikely due to a strong asymmetry whereby stimuli with vision leading produce bigger recalibrations than audition leading. A fast-acting recalibration mechanism provides a means for overcoming inevitable audiovisual timing variation and serves to rapidly realign signals at onset to maximize the perceptual benefits of audiovisual integration. PMID:24027264

  9. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  10. RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS IN CHILDREN

    Floria Eva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN is a rare syndrome in children and one of the nephrologyemergency which needs special attention. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis  is determined bysymptoms and signs of glomerulonephritis (GN; edema, hypertension, gross hematuria, and rapid lossof renal function. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment play a critical role in saving renal functionand preventing permanent glomerular damage. Diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratoryfindings. We reported two cases of RPGN in an eleven year old boy and an eight year old boy. The patientcame  to  the pediatric outpatient clinic at sanglah hospital with chief complaint dark  ?cola colored?urine. Laboratory work up showed proteinuria, erythrocyturia, decrease of C3 and normal C4 complementlevel, increased serum urea and creatinine level and loss of renal function in a few days with glomerularfiltration  rate  decreased. Based  on  clinical  and  laboratory  findings,  the  patient was  diagnosed  asrapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The patient was given methylprednisolone pulses for 3 days,followed  by  high  dose  oral methylprednisolone. Prognosis  of  the  patient was  good.  [MEDICINA2015;46:46-51].

  11. Single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing

    Future success in microelectronics will demand rapid innovation, rapid product introduction and ability to react to a change in technological and business climate quickly. These technological advances in integrated electronics will require development of flexible manufacturing technology for VLSI systems. However, the current approach of establishing factories for mass manufacturing of chips at a cost of more than 200 million dollars is detrimental to flexible manufacturing. The authors propose concepts of a micro factory which may be characterized by more economical small scale production, higher flexibility to accommodate many products on several processes, and faster turnaround and learning. In-situ multiprocessing equipment where several process steps can be done in sequence may be a key ingredient in this approach. For this environment to be flexible, the equipment must have ability to change processing environment, requiring extensive in-situ measurements and real time control. This paper describes the development of a novel single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing (RTM) reactor for next generation flexible VLSI manufacturing. This reactor will combine lamp heating, remote microwave plasma and photo processing in a single cold-wall chamber, with applications for multilayer in-situ growth and deposition of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals

  12. Rapidity-Dependent Jet Vetoes

    Gangal, Shireen; Tackmann, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Jet vetoes are a prominent part of the signal selection in various analyses at the LHC. We discuss jet vetoes for which the transverse momentum of a jet is weighted by a smooth function of the jet rapidity. With a suitable choice of the rapidity-weighting function, such jet-veto variables can be factorized and resummed allowing for precise theory predictions. They thus provide a complementary way to divide phase space into exclusive jet bins. In particular, they provide a natural and theoretically clean way to implement a tight veto on central jets with the veto constraint getting looser for jets at increasingly forward rapidities. We mainly focus our discussion on the 0-jet case in color-singlet processes, using Higgs production through gluon fusion as a concrete example. For one of our jet-veto variables we compare the resummed theory prediction at NLL'+NLO with the recent differential cross section measurement by the ATLAS experiment in the $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ channel, finding good agreement. We also propos...

  13. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  14. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  15. Fast reactor fuel cycle facility

    An integrated fuel cycle facility named Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF) is planned to be set up at Kalpakkam to close the fuel cycle of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) that is already under construction there. FRFCF is the first project of its kind in India. Closure of fuel cycle of PFBR will be a significant milestone of the second stage of nuclear power programme of the Department of Atomic Energy. The facility would be ready for operation in 2014. Design work and safety review of FRFCF are presently in progress. (author)

  16. The earth's hydrological cycle

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  17. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  18. The closed fuel cycle

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  19. The nitrogen cycle.

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in cellular biomass, and it comprises the majority of Earth's atmosphere. The interchange between inert dinitrogen gas (N2) in the extant atmosphere and 'reactive nitrogen' (those nitrogen compounds that support, or are products of, cellular metabolism and growth) is entirely controlled by microbial activities. This was not the case, however, in the primordial atmosphere, when abiotic reactions likely played a significant role in the inter-transformation of nitrogen oxides. Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process (the industrial fixation of N2 into ammonia, NH3) in 1909, nearly all of the reactive nitrogen in the biosphere was generated and recycled by microorganisms. Although the Haber-Bosch process more than quadrupled the productivity of agricultural crops, chemical fertilizers and other anthropogenic sources of fixed nitrogen now far exceed natural contributions, leading to unprecedented environmental degradation. PMID:26859274

  20. CANDU: Shortest path to advanced fuel cycles

    Full text: The global nuclear renaissance exhibiting itself in the form of new reactor build programs is rapidly gaining momentum. Many countries are seeking to expand the use of economical and carbon-free nuclear energy to meet growing electricity demand and manage global climate change challenges. Nuclear power construction programs that are being proposed in many countries will dramatically increase the demand on uranium resources. The projected life-long uranium consumption rates for these reactors will surpass confirmed uranium reserves. Therefore, securing sufficient uranium resources and taking corresponding measures to ensure the availability of long-term and stable fuel resources for these nuclear power plants is a fundamental requirement for business success. Increasing the utilization of existing uranium fuel resources and implementing the use of alternate fuels in CANDU reactors is an important element to meet this challenge. The CANDU heavy water reactor has unequalled flexibility for using a variety of fuels, such as Natural Uranium (NU), Low Enriched Uranium (LEU), Recycled Uranium (RU), Mixed Oxide (MOX), and thorium. This CANDU feature has not been used to date simply due to lack of commercial drivers. The capability is anchored around a versatile pressure tube design, simple fuel bundle, on-power refuelling, and high neutron economy of the CANDU concept. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has carried out theoretical and experimental investigations on various advanced fuel cycles, including thorium, over many years. Two fuels are selected as the subject of this paper: Natural Uranium Equivalent (NUE) and thorium. NUE fuel is developed by combining RU and depleted uranium (DU) in such a manner that the resulting NUE fuel is neutronically equivalent to NU fuel. RU is recovered from reprocessed light water reactor (LWR) fuel and has a nominal 235U concentration of approximately 0.9 wt%. This concentration is higher than NU used in CANDU reactors

  1. Some aspects of the thorium fuel cycle in heavy-water-moderated pressure tube reactors

    The use of thorium fuel cycles in heavy-water-moderated pressure tube (CANDU) reactors will allow much more energy to be extracted from a given amount of fuel than is possible with the present natural uranium cycle. The extent to which various factors affect thorium fuel cycle economics and resource consumption with equilibrium 233U levels in the fuel is considered. Resource consumption in growing nuclear power systems is also considered, and it is shown that considerable savings can be achieved even under conditions of rapid growth. The main elements of the development program necessary to provide the technological base for thorium fuel cycles in CANDU reactors are discussed. (author)

  2. Some aspects of the thorium fuel cycle in heavy-water-moderated pressure tube reactors

    The use of thorium fuel cycles in heavy-water-moderated pressure tube (CANDU) reactors will allow much more energy to be extracted from a given amount of fuel than is possible with the present natural uranium cycle. The extent to which various factors affect thorium fuel cycle economics and resource consumption with equilibrium 233U levels in the fuel is considered. Resource consumption in growing nuclear power systems is also considered, and it is shown that considerable savings can be achieved even under conditions of rapid growth. The main elements of the development program necessary to provide the technological base for thorium fuel cycles in CANDU reactors are discussed

  3. Dependability Engineering in Software Life Cycle Process

    Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Recently, with the rapid development of digital computer and information processing technologies, nuclear I and C (Instrument and Control) system which needs safety-critical function has adopted digital technologies. Software used in safety-critical system must have high dependability. Dependability of the software may have several different attributes such as reliability, safety, confidentiality, integrity, availability, and real-time response. Also, such attributes need different levels of adherence. For shaping of the dependability, there are several dependability processes: fault prevention, fault tolerance, fault removal and fault forecasting. In this paper, we present an integrated model of dependability processes and software life cycle processes and dependability task. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes related research by surveying dependability of the software and dependability processes. Section 3 describes our integrated dependability model and Section 4 shows the dependability task by the development phase. Section 5 concludes the paper.

  4. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    Jensen, E.S.

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... weeks of decomposition, due to high rates of residue N net mineralization and subsequent leaching and denitrification losses of N. Lysimeter experiments showed that pea residues may reduce leaching losses of N, probably due to their effect on the mineralization-immobilizalion turnover of N and...... denitrification. Winter barley succeeding field pea recovered 13% of the incorporated pea residue N by early December; the recovery was found to be 15% at maturity in July. A spring-sown crop of barley recovered less than half the amount of pea residue N recovered by winter barley. The residue N-use efficiencies...

  5. The Maidan in movement: diversity and the cycles of protest

    Sasse, G; Onuch, O

    2016-01-01

    The Maidan protests provide us with insights into Ukrainian society and the dynamics of mobilisation more generally. Based on the EuroMaidan Protest Participant Survey, on-site rapid interviews with protesters, interviews with politicians, activists and journalists, and focus groups with ordinary citizens and activists, this essay maps the actors, claims and frames of each phase in the protest cycle. It highlights the diversity of actors and the inability of activists and party leaders to coo...

  6. Technical Progress in Transport and the Tourism Area Life Cycle

    Andrew Kato; James Mak

    2010-01-01

    Richard ButlerÕs tourism area life cycle envisions tourism destinations to evolve in stages from exploration to rapid growth followed by slackening, stagnation, and even decline. The eventual slow-down in tourism growth is attributed to the destinations reaching their physical and social carrying capacities. This article examines the evolution of Hawaii as a tourism destination from 1922 to 2009. We demonstrate that tourism growth in Hawaii has declined but not because the destination has rea...

  7. Rapid Cooling to Quantum Degeneracy with Dynamically Shaped Atom Traps

    Roy, Richard; Bowler, Ryan; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    We report on a general method for the rapid production of quantum degenerate gases. Using 174Yb, we achieve an experimental cycle time as low as (1.6-1.8) s for the production of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of (0.5-1) x 10^5 atoms. While laser cooling to 30\\muK proceeds in a standard way, evaporative cooling is highly optimized by performing it in an optical trap that is dynamically shaped by utilizing the time-averaged potential of a single laser beam moving rapidly in one dimension. We also produce large (>10^6) atom number BECs and successfully model the evaporation dynamics over more than three orders of magnitude in phase space density. Our method provides a simple and general approach to solving the problem of long production times of quantum degenerate gases.

  8. Rapid prototype fabrication processes for high-performance thrust cells

    Hunt, K.; Chwiedor, T.; Diab, J.; Williams, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Thrust Cell Technologies Program (Air Force Phillips Laboratory Contract No. F04611-92-C-0050) is currently being performed by Rocketdyne to demonstrate advanced materials and fabrication technologies which can be utilized to produce low-cost, high-performance thrust cells for launch and space transportation rocket engines. Under Phase 2 of the Thrust Cell Technologies Program (TCTP), rapid prototyping and investment casting techniques are being employed to fabricate a 12,000-lbf thrust class combustion chamber for delivery and hot-fire testing at Phillips Lab. The integrated process of investment casting directly from rapid prototype patterns dramatically reduces design-to-delivery cycle time, and greatly enhances design flexibility over conventionally processed cast or machined parts.

  9. Numerical studies of optical forces from adiabatic rapid passage

    Stack, Daniel; Elgin, John; Metcalf, Harold [Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Anisimov, Petr M. [Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We present a numerical study of the properties of optical forces on moving atoms derived from purely stimulated processes produced by multiple adiabatic rapid-passage sequences. The optical Bloch equations are solved for a carefully timed sequence of frequency-swept pulses that can produce a force much larger than the ordinary radiative force. We describe the effects of the sweep range, peak intensity, sweep direction, number of pulses, atomic velocity, and spontaneous emission. Since the momentum of thermal atoms is much larger than that transferred by a single absorption-stimulated emission cycle, multiple repetitions are needed to make a significant velocity change.

  10. Activity Cycle of Solar Filaments

    K. J. Li; Q. X. Li; P. X. Gao; J. Mu; H. D. Chen; T. W. Su

    2007-06-01

    Long-term variation in the distribution of the solar filaments observed at the Observatorie de Paris, Section de Meudon from March 1919 to December 1989 is presented to compare with sunspot cycle and to study the periodicity in the filament activity, namely the periods of the coronal activity with the Morlet wavelet used. It is inferred that the activity cycle of solar filaments should have the same cycle length as sunspot cycle, but the cycle behavior of solar filaments is globally similar in profile with, but different in detail from, that of sunspot cycles. The amplitude of solar magnetic activity should not keep in phase with the complexity of solar magnetic activity. The possible periods in the filament activity are about 10.44 and 19.20 years. The wavelet local power spectrum of the period 10.44 years is statistically significant during the whole consideration time. The wavelet local power spectrum of the period 19.20 years is under the 95% confidence spectrum during the whole consideration time, but over the mean red-noise spectrum of = 0.72 before approximate Carrington rotation number 1500, and after that the filament activity does not statistically show the period. Wavelet reconstruction indicates that the early data of the filament archive (in and before cycle 16) are more noiseful than the later (in and after cycle 17).

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US

  12. Business Cycles Accounting for Paraguay

    Hnatkovska, Viktoria; Koehler-Geib, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of domestic and external shocks in business cycle fluctuations in Paraguay during 1991–2012. Time-series methods and a structural model-based approach are used to conduct an integrated analysis of business cycles. First, structural vector autoregression is used to assess the role played by external factors and domestic shocks in driving fluctuations in gros...

  13. Variations on the Zilch Cycle

    Binder, P.-M.; Tanoue, C. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Thermo dynamic cycles in introductory physics courses are usually made up from a small number of permutations of isothermal, adiabatic, and constant-pressure and volume quasistatic strokes, with the working fluid usually being an ideal gas. Among them we find the Carnot, Stirling, Otto, Diesel, and Joule-Brayton cycles; in more advanced courses,…

  14. Analysis of Sunspot Activity Cycles

    Greenkorn, Robert A.

    2009-04-01

    A nonlinear analysis of the daily sunspot number for each of cycles 10 to 23 is used to indicate whether the convective turbulence is stochastic or chaotic. There is a short review of recent papers considering sunspot statistics and solar activity cycles. The differences in the three possible regimes - deterministic laminar flow, chaotic flow, and stochastic flow - are discussed. The length of data sets necessary to analyze the regimes is investigated. Chaos is described and a chronology of recent results that utilize chaos and fractals to analyze sunspot numbers follows. The parameters necessary to describe chaos - time lag, phase space, embedding dimension, local dimension, correlation dimension, and the Lyapunov exponents - are determined for the attractor for each cycle. Assuming the laminar regime is unlikely if chaos is not indicated in a cycle by the calculations, the regime must be stochastic. The sunspot numbers in each of cycles 10 to 19 indicate stochastic behavior. There is a transition from stochastic to chaotic behavior of the sunspot numbers in cycles 20, 21, 22, and 23. These changes in cycles 20 - 23 may indicate a change in the scale of turbulence in the convection zone that could result in a change in the convective heat transfer and a change in the size of the convection region for these four cycles.

  15. The LifeCycle model

    Krink, Thiemo; Løvbjerg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive search heuristics are known to be valuable in approximating solutions to hard search problems. However, these techniques are problem dependent. Inspired by the idea of life cycle stages found in nature, we introduce a hybrid approach called the LifeCycle model that simultaneously applies...

  16. The water cycle for kids

    Neno, Stephanie; Morgan, Jim; Zonolli, Gabriele; Perlman, Howard; Gonthier, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have created a water-cycle diagram for use in elementary and middle schools. The diagram is available in many languages. This diagram is part of the USGS's Water Science School, in which the water cycle is described in detail.

  17. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    Jones, Derek C.; Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    We begin by identifying a typical governance life-cycle, defined as changes in ownership structure, and including both the identity of the major owner and ownership concentration. The cycle is marked by key events and phases including start-up, initial growth, mature growth, and possibly a crisis...

  18. Business Cycle Theory before Keynes

    Claude Diebolt

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the development of the theory of business cycles before Keynes. It is impossible to treat fully all the theories or to mention all those who have contributed to the literature. Our main consideration will be the development of cycle theory, with maximum emphasis upon ideas.

  19. Prospects for Predicting Cycle 24

    Arnab Rai Choudhuri

    2008-03-01

    Although we have reliable data of solar polar fields only from the mid-1970s, it seems that the polar field at a minimum is well correlated with the next cycle, but the strength of the cycle is not correlated with the polar field produced at its end. We explain this by suggesting that the Babcock–Leighton mechanism of poloidal field generation from tilted active regions involves randomness, whereas the other aspects of the dynamo process are more ordered. To model actual cycles, we have to ‘correct’ our theoretical dynamo model by ‘feeding’ information about the polar field at the minima. Following this process, we find that our model fits the observed sunspot numbers of cycles 21–23 reasonably well and predicts that cycle 24 will be the weakest in a century.

  20. Reciprocating heat-engine cycles

    The performance of a generalized irreversible reciprocating heat-engine cycle model consisting of two heating branches, two cooling branches and two adiabatic branches with heat-transfer loss and friction-like term loss was analyzed using finite-time thermodynamics. The relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, as well as the optimal relation between the power output and the efficiency of the cycle are derived. Moreover, analysis and optimization of the model were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the cycle process on the performances of the cycles using numerical examples. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of irreversible reciprocating Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Brayton, Dual and Miller cycles

  1. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC

  2. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection 3

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains 5 separate reports concerning Metal Resistive layer Semiconductor Si avalanche detectors with negative feedback for time-of-flight systems, identification of the doubly magic nucleus 100 Sn, multimodal fission of neutron-deficient nuclides of Th and Ac, inclusive energy spectra of light charged particles (p, d, t, 4He) from spontaneous fission of 248Cm and nucleon correlation effects on y-scaling quantities in nuclei. 75 refs.; 22 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles....

  4. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    Emerging technologies in the field of ''Test ampersand Measurement'' have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past

  5. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  6. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R2-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  7. Closed cycle refrigeration for routine magnetotransport measurements

    Gunawardana, Binuka; Ye, Tianyu; Wegscheider, Werner; Mani, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    Condensed matter physics is often interested in the behavior of materials at very low temperatures. Low temperatures have traditionally been realized using liquid helium. However, the recent scarcity of liquid helium and the rapid rise in its cost has encouraged the development of alternative approaches, based on closed cycle refrigerators, for realizing low temperatures. Here, we convey our experiences in developing a home-made, low cost, variable temperature closed cycle refrigeration system for routine magnetotransport measurements down to 10K, and present measurements obtained with this system relating to the electronic properties of the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D semiconductors system. The setup was constructed to examine 0.5cm × 0.5cm semiconductor chips including up to 49 leads and reach ~ 10K within 3 hours. A computer controlled data acquisition system was assembled to collect resistivity and Hall effect data, and extract the carrier Hall mobility and density as a function of the temperature.

  8. Capstan to be used with a camera for rapid cycling bubble chambers

    1978-01-01

    To achieve the high speed film transport required for high camera rate (15 and 25 Hz, for LEBC and RCBC respectively) a new drive mechanism was developed, which moved the frames (up to about 110 mm x 90 mm) by rotating a capstan stepwise through 60 deg, to bring the next face into position for photography (see also photo 7801001). Details are given for instance in J.L. Benichou et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods 190 (1981) 487

  9. Control System of 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron at J-PARC

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Kato, Yuko; Kawase, Masato; Sakaki, Hironao; Sako, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Makoto; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Since the 3GeV RCS produces huge beam power of 1 MW, extreme cares must be taken to design the control system in order to minimize radiation due to beam loss. Another complexity appears in the control system, because each beam bunch of 25 Hz is required to be injected either into the MLF* or into the 50GeV MR.** Therefore, each bunch of 25 Hz must be operated separately, and the data acquisition system must collect synchronized data within each pulse. To achieve these goals, a control system via reflective memory and wave endless recorders has been developed. EPICS is adopted in the control system. Since the number of devices is huge, the management of EPICS records and their configurations require huge amount of time and man power. To reduce this work significantly, a RDB*** for static machine information has been developed. This RDB stores (1) EPICS related information of devices, interfaces, and IOC's**** with a capability to generate EPICS records automatically, and (2) machine geometrical information wit...

  10. Pilot study: rapidly cycling hypobaric pressure improves pain after 5 days in adiposis dolorosa

    Karen L Herbst

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Karen L Herbst1, Thomas Rutledge21Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, California, USAAbstract: Adiposis dolorosa (AD is a rare disorder of painful nodular subcutaneous fat ­accompanied by fatigue, difficulty with weight loss, inflammation, increased fluid in ­adipose ­tissue (lipedema and lymphedema, and hyperalgesia. Sequential compression relieves ­lymphedema pain; we therefore hypothesized that whole body cyclic pneumatic hypobaric compression may relieve pain in AD. To avoid exacerbating hyperalgesia, we utilized a touch-free method, which is delivered via a high-performance altitude simulator, the Cyclic Variations in Altitude ConditioningTM (CVACTM process. As a pilot study, 10 participants with AD completed pain and quality of life questionnaires before and after 20–40 minutes of CVAC process daily for 5 days. Participants lost weight (195.5 ± 17.6–193.8 ± 17.3 lb; P = 0.03, and bioimpedance significantly decreased (510 ± 36–490 ± 38 ohm; P = 0.01. There was a significant decrease in scores on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (P = 0.039, in average (P = 0.002, highest (P = 0.029, lowest (P = 0.04, and current pain severity (P = 0.02 on the Visual Analogue Scale, but there was no change in pain quality by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. There were no significant changes in total and physical SF-36 scores, but the mental score improved significantly (P = 0.049. There were no changes in the Pain Disability Index or Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. These data present a potential, new, noninvasive means of treating pain in AD by whole body pneumatic compression as part of the CVAC process. Although randomized, controlled trials are needed to confirm these data, the CVAC process could potentially help in treating AD pain and other chronic pain disorders.Keywords: bioimpedance, chronic pain, lipedema

  11. 34 kA rapid cycling PFN power supply for driving injection magnets

    The power supply used to furnish excitation current to the orbit bump magnets of the Fermilab 8 GeV Booster Synchrotron is of the pulse forming network type utilizing a constant value of capacitance and variable inductors. Energy stored in the PFN is delivered to the magnet load via a series-parallel array of thyristor switches. The power supply is located in the equipment gallery of the booster synchrotron, and the injection girder is located about 5 meters below the power supply. Connection between the power supply and the magnets is by multiple co-axial cable while the connection between the series connected magnets is by a single flat-strip transmission line

  12. The rapid cycling synchrotron of the Eurisol / Beta-Beam facility

    In order to ask for physicians requests, some neutrinos facilities are under studies to produce pure, intense, well collimated neutrinos beams with a well determined energy spectrum. One of them, the Beta-Beam project, is based on neutrinos production by radioactive ion beams decay after acceleration. The thesis is focused on one step of the complex, namely the low energy ring required for accumulation and injection of ion beams between the post-acceleration linac of the EURISOL complex (dedicated complex for radioactive ion beam production) and the CERN PS. After the description of the EURISOL complex and the Beta-Beam complex, a description of charged particles beams transport formalism is given. Then, in the second part, studies on the definition and the optimisation of the ring are given, starting by optical structure then different simulations concerning beam dynamics, i.e. multiturn injection, synchronous acceleration with beam losses localization and intensity, fast extraction, chromaticity with eddy currents correction and space charge effects. Finally, a preliminary technical design of the RCS main magnets is proposed. (author)

  13. A data acquisition system for longitudinal beam properties in a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Steimel, J

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal beam properties, data acquisition system has been commissioned to operate in the Fermilab booster ring. This system captures real time information including beam synchronous phase, bunch length, and coupled bunch instability amplitudes as the beam is accelerated from 400 MeV to 8 GeV in 33 ms. The system uses an off-the-shelf Tektronix oscilloscope running Labview software and a synchronous pulse generator. This paper describes the hardware configuration and the software configuration used to optimize the data processing rate.

  14. Development of a Rapid Cycling CO2 and H2O Removal Sorbent

    Alptekin, Gokhan; Cates, Matthew; Bernal, Casey; Dubovik, Margarita; Paul, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planned future missions set stringent demands on the design of the Portable Life Support System (PLSS), requiring dramatic reductions in weight, decreased reliance on supplies and greater flexibility on the types of missions. Use of regenerable systems that reduce weight and volume of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is of critical importance to NASA, both for low orbit operations and for long duration manned missions. The carbon dioxide and humidity control unit in the existing PLSS design is relatively large, since it has to remove and store eight hours worth of carbon dioxide (CO2). If the sorbent regeneration can be carried out during the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) with a relatively high regeneration frequency, the size of the sorbent canister and weight can be significantly reduced. TDA Research, Inc. is developing compact, regenerable sorbent materials to control CO2 and humidity in the space suit ventilation loop. The sorbent can be regenerated using space vacuum during the EVA, eliminating all CO2 and humidity duration-limiting elements in the life support system. The material also has applications in other areas of space exploration including long duration exploration missions requiring regenerable technologies and possibly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) spacecraft. This paper summarizes the results of the sorbent development, testing, and evaluation efforts to date.

  15. Diel changes in bacteriochlorophyll a concentration suggest rapid bacterioplankton cycling in the Baltic Sea

    Koblížek, Michal; Ston-Egiert, J.; Sagan, S.; Kolber, Z. S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2005), s. 353-361. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P079; GA MŠk LN00A141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : Aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs * Bacteria l mortality * Bacterioplankton turnover Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.787, year: 2005

  16. An Advanced Rapid Cycling CO2 and H2O Control System for PLSS Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's planned future missions set stringent demands on the design of the Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS) used to cool the astronaut and provide them with air....

  17. Rapid Nitrogen Cycling Following Wet-Up Results from Heterotroph, then Nitrifier Response

    Placella, S.; Herman, D.; Firestone, M.

    2009-12-01

    The first rainfall following the hot, dry summer in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, known as wet-up, results in large pulses of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, two radiatively important gases. Nitrous oxide in general, is produced by nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Using laboratory simulations of wet-up, we monitored soil pools of ammonium and nitrate, gross rates of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification, effluxes of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, and gene expression of archaeal and bacterial amoA, a functional gene for nitrification and nirK, a functional gene for denitrification. Results from a California annual grassland soil show significant increases in the ammonium pool within one hour of water addition followed by a significant increase in the nitrate pool within three hours of water addition. Gross nitrogen mineralization and gross nitrification were very high with nitrogen mineralization being highest within three hours of wet-up. Ammonia-oxidizers were most active at nine hours after water addition. Nitrous oxide emissions followed the same pattern as nitrifiers, suggesting nitrification may play an important role in nitrous oxide emissions during wet-up.

  18. A Global Rapid Integrated Monitoring System for Water Cycle and Water Resource Assessment (Global-RIMS)

    Roads, John; Voeroesmarty, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The main focus of our work was to solidify underlying data sets, the data processing tools and the modeling environment needed to perform a series of long-term global and regional hydrological simulations leading eventually to routine hydrometeorological predictions. A water and energy budget synthesis was developed for the Mississippi River Basin (Roads et al. 2003), in order to understand better what kinds of errors exist in current hydrometeorological data sets. This study is now being extended globally with a larger number of observations and model based data sets under the new NASA NEWS program. A global comparison of a number of precipitation data sets was subsequently carried out (Fekete et al. 2004) in which it was further shown that reanalysis precipitation has substantial problems, which subsequently led us to the development of a precipitation assimilation effort (Nunes and Roads 2005). We believe that with current levels of model skill in predicting precipitation that precipitation assimilation is necessary to get the appropriate land surface forcing.

  19. An Advanced Rapid Cycling CO2 and H2O Control System for PLSS Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's planned future missions set stringent demands on the design of the Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS), requiring dramatic reductions in weight, decreased...

  20. Abnormal Facial Emotion Recognition in Depression: Serial Testing in an Ultra-Rapid-Cycling Patient.

    George, Mark S.; Huggins, Teresa; McDermut, Wilson; Parekh, Priti I.; Rubinow, David; Post, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Mood disorder subjects have a selective deficit in recognizing human facial emotion. Whether the facial emotion recognition errors persist during normal mood states (i.e., are state vs. trait dependent) was studied in one male bipolar II patient. Results of five sessions are presented and discussed. (Author/EMK)

  1. Climate-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in the rapidly warming Antarctic coastal ocean

    Henley, Sian Frances

    2013-01-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a hotspot of climatic and oceanographic change, with a 6°C rise in winter atmospheric temperatures and >1°C warming of the surface ocean since the 1950s. These trends are having a profound impact on the physical environment at the WAP, with widespread glacial retreat, a 40% decline in sea ice coverage and intensification of deep water upwelling. The main objective of this study is to assess the response of phytoplankton productivity to t...

  2. IFR fuel cycle--pyroprocess development

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle is based on the use of a metallic fuel alloy, with nominal composition U-2OPu-lOZr. In its present state of development, this fuel system offers excellent high-burnup capabilities. Test fuel has been carried to burnups in excess of 20 atom % in EBR-II irradiations, and to peak burnups over 15 atom % in FFTF. The metallic fuel possesses physical characteristics, in particular very high thermal conductivity, that facilitate a high degree of passive inherent safety in the IFR design. The fuel has been shown to provide very large margins to failure in overpower transient events. Rapid overpower transient tests carried out in the TREAT reactor have shown the capability to withstand up to 400% overpower conditions before failing. An operational transient test conducted in EBR-II at a power ramp rate of 0.1% per second reached its termination point of 130% of normal power without any fuel failures. The IFR metallic fuel also exhibits superior compatibility with the liquid sodium coolant. Equally as important as the performance advantages offered by the use of metallic fuel is the fact that this fuel system permits the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as ''pyroprocessing,'' featuring fused-salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Development of the IFR pyroprocess has been underway at the Argonne National Laboratory for over five years, and great progress has been made toward establishing a commercially-viable process. Pyroprocessing offers a simple, compact means for closure of the fuel cycle, with anticipated significant savings in fuel cycle costs

  3. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  4. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    Postnov, K A; Kolesnikov, D A; Popov, S B; Porayko, N K

    2016-01-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In the present paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, $\\tau_c$. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations ...

  5. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    Postnov, K. A.; Kuranov, A. G.; Kolesnikov, D. A.; Popov, S. B.; Porayko, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In the present paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, τc. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations of the evolution of a rotating 15 M⊙ star. From comparison of the calculated spin distribution of young neutron stars with the observed one, reported by Popov and Turolla, we infer the value τc ≃ 5 × 105 years. We show that merging of stellar cores in common envelopes can lead to collapses with dynamically unstable proto-neutron stars, with their formation rate being ˜0.1 - 1% of the total core collapses, depending on the common envelope efficiency.

  6. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  7. Kepler rapidly rotating giant stars

    Costa, A D; Bravo, J P; Paz-Chinchón, F; Chagas, M L das; Leão, I C; de Oliveira, G Pereira; da Silva, R Rodrigues; Roque, S; de Oliveira, L L A; da Silva, D Freire; De Medeiros, J R

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of sub-stellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present letter we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points for remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the Sun rotation. These giants are combined with 6 other recently listed in the literature for mid-IR diagnostic based on WISE information, from which a trend for an infrared excess is revealed for at least a half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  8. Urotensin II modulates rapid eye movement sleep through activation of brainstem cholinergic neurons

    Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Sánchez-Alavez, Manuel;

    2005-01-01

    dorsal tegmental nuclei. This distribution suggests that the UII system is involved in functions regulated by acetylcholine, such as the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we tested the hypothesis that UII influences cholinergic PPT neuron activity and alters rapid eye movement (REM) sleep patterns in rats. Local...

  9. Rapid Caspian Sea-level change and its impact on Iranian coasts

    Kakroodi, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene and Holocene evolution as well as recent developments of the southern coast of the Caspian Sea have been studied using remote sensing and core data. This thesis focuses firstly on recent shoreline shifts during the last rapid sea-level cycle between 1929 and 1995, with an amplit

  10. Rapidly pulsed helium droplet source

    Pentlehner, Dominik; Riechers, Ricarda; Dick, Bernhard; Slenczka, Alkwin [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Even, Uzi; Lavie, Nachum; Brown, Raviv; Luria, Kfir [Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2009-04-15

    A pulsed valve connected to a closed-cycle cryostat was optimized for producing helium droplets. The pulsed droplet beam appeared with a bimodal size distribution. The leading part of the pulse consists of droplets suitable for doping with molecules. The average size of this part can be varied between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} helium atoms, and the width of the distribution is smaller as compared to a continuous-flow droplet source. The system has been tested in a single pulse mode and at repetition rates of up to 500 Hz with almost constant intensity. The droplet density was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude as compared to a continuous-flow droplet source.

  11. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader...... day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  12. Introducing Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark AJ

    2015-01-01

    methodology projects and presents the international scientific discussions and methodological consensus attempts in consecutive working groups under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) as well as the UNEP/ SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, and the (almost) parallel......This chapter serves as an introduction to the presentation of the many aspects of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in this volume of the book series ‘LCA Compendium’. It starts with a brief historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment driven by numerous national LCIA...

  13. Prospects for predicting cycle 24

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2008-01-01

    Although we have reliable data of solar polar fields only from the mid-1970s, it seems that the polar field at a minimum is well correlated with the next cycle, but the strength of the cycle is not correlated with the polar field produced at its end. We explain this by suggesting that the Babcock–Leighton mechanism of poloidal field generation from tilted active regions involves randomness, whereas the other aspects of the dynamo process are more ordered. To model actual cycles, we have to 'c...

  14. BWROPT: A multi-cycle BWR fuel cycle optimization code

    Ottinger, Keith E.; Maldonado, G. Ivan, E-mail: Ivan.Maldonado@utk.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A multi-cycle BWR fuel cycle optimization algorithm is presented. • New fuel inventory and core loading pattern determination. • The parallel simulated annealing algorithm was used for the optimization. • Variable sampling probabilities were compared to constant sampling probabilities. - Abstract: A new computer code for performing BWR in-core and out-of-core fuel cycle optimization for multiple cycles simultaneously has been developed. Parallel simulated annealing (PSA) is used to optimize the new fuel inventory and placement of new and reload fuel for each cycle considered. Several algorithm improvements were implemented and evaluated. The most significant of these are variable sampling probabilities and sampling new fuel types from an ordered array. A heuristic control rod pattern (CRP) search algorithm was also implemented, which is useful for single CRP determinations, however, this feature requires significant computational resources and is currently not practical for use in a full multi-cycle optimization. The PSA algorithm was demonstrated to be capable of significant objective function reduction and finding candidate loading patterns without constraint violations. The use of variable sampling probabilities was shown to reduce runtime while producing better results compared to using constant sampling probabilities. Sampling new fuel types from an ordered array was shown to have a mixed effect compared to random new fuel type sampling, whereby using both random and ordered sampling produced better results but required longer runtimes.

  15. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    Thu, Kyaw

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel to desalt the sea or brackish water. Based on an experimental prototype AD plant, the life-cycle cost analysis of AD plants of assorted water production capacities has been simulated and these predictions are translated into unit cost of water production. Our results show that the specific energy consumption of the AD cycle is 1.38 kWh/m3 which is the lowest ever reported. For a plant capacity of 1000 m3/d, the AD cycle offers a unit cost of $0.457/m3 as compared to more than $0.9 for the average RO plants. Besides being cost-effective, the AD cycle is also environment-friendly as it emits less CO2 emission per m3 generated, typically 85% less, by comparison to an RO process. © 2010 Desalination Publications.

  16. BWROPT: A multi-cycle BWR fuel cycle optimization code

    Highlights: • A multi-cycle BWR fuel cycle optimization algorithm is presented. • New fuel inventory and core loading pattern determination. • The parallel simulated annealing algorithm was used for the optimization. • Variable sampling probabilities were compared to constant sampling probabilities. - Abstract: A new computer code for performing BWR in-core and out-of-core fuel cycle optimization for multiple cycles simultaneously has been developed. Parallel simulated annealing (PSA) is used to optimize the new fuel inventory and placement of new and reload fuel for each cycle considered. Several algorithm improvements were implemented and evaluated. The most significant of these are variable sampling probabilities and sampling new fuel types from an ordered array. A heuristic control rod pattern (CRP) search algorithm was also implemented, which is useful for single CRP determinations, however, this feature requires significant computational resources and is currently not practical for use in a full multi-cycle optimization. The PSA algorithm was demonstrated to be capable of significant objective function reduction and finding candidate loading patterns without constraint violations. The use of variable sampling probabilities was shown to reduce runtime while producing better results compared to using constant sampling probabilities. Sampling new fuel types from an ordered array was shown to have a mixed effect compared to random new fuel type sampling, whereby using both random and ordered sampling produced better results but required longer runtimes

  17. Silicone:Worries behind Rapid Growth

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rapid consumption growth Silicone's extensive application scope, sustained production growth and constant technology improvements have benefited from the rapid development of China's economy overall, and particularly the boom in the manufacturing sector.

  18. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  19. Rapid world modelling for robotics

    The ability to use an interactive world model, whether it is for robotics simulation or most other virtual graphical environments, relies on the users ability to create an accurate world model. Typically this is a tedious process, requiring many hours to create 3-D CAD models of the surfaces within a workspace. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop usable methods to rapidly build world models of real world workspaces. This brings structure to an unstructured environment and allows graphical based robotics control to be accomplished in a reasonable time frame when traditional CAD modelling is not enough. To accomplish this, 3D range sensors are deployed to capture surface data within the workspace. This data is then transformed into surface maps, or models. A 3D world model of the workspace is built quickly and accurately, without ever having to put people in the environment

  20. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  1. Rapid adaptation to climate change.

    Hancock, Angela M

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, amid growing concerns that changing climate is affecting species distributions and ecosystems, predicting responses to rapid environmental change has become a major goal. In this issue, Franks and colleagues take a first step towards this objective (Franks et al. 2016). They examine genomewide signatures of selection in populations of Brassica rapa after a severe multiyear drought. Together with other authors, Franks had previously shown that flowering time was reduced after this particular drought and that the reduction was genetically encoded. Now, the authors have sequenced previously stored samples to compare allele frequencies before and after the drought and identify the loci with the most extreme shifts in frequencies. The loci they identify largely differ between populations, suggesting that different genetic variants may be responsible for reduction in flowering time in the two populations. PMID:27463237

  2. Rapid Heat Treatment of Aluminum High-Pressure Diecastings

    Lumley, R. N.; Polmear, I. J.; Curtis, P. R.

    2009-07-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that common high-pressure diecasting (HPDC) alloys, such as those based on the Al-Si-Cu and Al-Si-Mg-(Cu) systems, may be successfully heat treated without causing surface blistering or dimensional instability. In some compositions, the capacity to exploit age hardening may allow the proof stress values to be doubled when compared to the as-cast condition. This heat treatment procedure involves the use of severely truncated solution treatment cycles conducted at lower than normal temperatures, followed by quenching and natural or artificial aging. The potential therefore exists to develop and evaluate secondary HPDC alloys designed specifically for rapid heat treatment, while still displaying high castability. This article reports results of an experimental program in which responses of various alloy compositions to age hardening have been investigated with the primary aim of further reducing the duration and cost of the heat treatment cycle while maintaining high tensile properties. Composition ranges have been established for which values of 0.2 pct proof stress exceeding 300 MPa ( i.e., increases of ~100 pct above as-cast values) can be achieved using a procedure that involves a total time for solution treatment plus age hardening of only 30 minutes. This rapid aging behavior is shown to be related to precipitation of the complex Q' phase, which forms primarily when Mg contents of the alloys are above ~0.2 wt pct.

  3. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In the last 40 years, barriers to compliant and timely disposition of radioactive sealed sources have become apparent. The story starts with the explosive growth of nuclear gauging technologies in the 1960s. Dozens of companies in the US manufactured sources and many more created nuclear solutions to industrial gauging problems. Today they do not yet know how many Cat 1, 2, or 3 sources there are in the US. There are, at minimum, tens of thousands of sources, perhaps hundreds of thousands of sources. Affordable transportation solutions to consolidate all of these sources and disposition pathways for these sources do not exist. The root problem seems to be a lack of necessary regulatory framework that has allowed all of these problems to accumulate with no national plan for solving the problem. In the 1960s, Pu-238 displaced Pu-239 for most neutron and alpha source applications. In the 1970s, the availability of inexpensive Am-241 resulted in a proliferation of low energy gamma sources used in nuclear gauging, well logging, pacemakers, and X-ray fluorescence applications for example. In the 1980s, rapid expansion of worldwide petroleum exploration resulted in the expansion of Am-241 sources into international locations. Improvements of technology and regulation resulted in a change in isotopic distribution as Am-241 made Pu-239 and Pu-238 obsolete. Many early nuclear gauge technologies have been made obsolete as they were replaced by non-nuclear technoogies. With uncertainties in source end of life disposition and increased requirements for sealed source security, nuclear gauging technology is the last choice for modern process engineering gauging solutions. Over the same period, much was learned about licensing LLW disposition facilities as evident by the closure of early disposition facilities like Maxey Flats. The current difficulties in sealed source disposition start with adoption of the NLLW policy act of 1985, which created the state LLW compact system they

  4. Ammonium generation during SRAT cycle

    During the IDMS noble-metal demonstration runs ammonium nitrate deposition was found in the vessel vent system of the feed preparation area. In the bench-scale experiments of studying the hydrogen generation during the sludge treatment cycle, ammonium ion production was also monitored. It was found that: During a simulation of the DWPF Cold Chemical Runs SRAT cycle no detectable amount of ammonium ions was generated when treating a non-noble-metal containing sludge simulant according to the nitric acid flowsheet. Ammonium ions were generated during the SRAT-SME cycle when treating the noble-metal containing sludge with either formic acid or nitric acid/late-washing PHA. This is due to the reaction between formic acid and nitrate catalyzed by the noble metals in the sludge simulant. Ammonium ion production closely followed the hydrogen evolution from the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. This report summarizes the results of the production of ammonia during the SRAT cycle

  5. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Marzia Traverso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is nowadays accepted by all stakeholders as a guiding principle for both public policy making and corporate strategies. However, the biggest challenge for most organizations remains in the real and substantial implementation of the sustainability concept. The core of the implementation challenge is the question, how sustainability performance can be measured, especially for products and processes. This paper explores the current status of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA for products and processes. For the environmental dimension well established tools like Life Cycle Assessment are available. For the economic and social dimension, there is still need for consistent and robust indicators and methods. In addition to measuring the individual sustainability dimensions, another challenge is a comprehensive, yet understandable presentation of the results. The “Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard” and the “Life Cycle Sustainability Triangle” are presented as examples for communication tools for both experts and non expert stakeholders.

  6. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  7. (Auto)Ethnographies and Cycling

    Larsen, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the formation, salience and reformation of everyday bodily routines and resources in relation to cycling; it also examines how we can study them ethnographically in different places. I discuss forms of embodied, sensuous and mobile ethnography that can illuminate how routines......, habits and affective capacities of cycling are cultivated and performed. The article argues that autoethnography is particularly apt at illuminating the embodied qualities of movement, and it sits within established ethnographies of ‘excising’ and ‘mobile bodies’. In the second part of the article, I...... draw upon ongoing autoethnographies of cycling in a familiar place (my hometown, Copenhagen) and by learning to cycle ‘out-of-place’ (in London) and ‘in-a-new–way’ (when commuting long distance on a racer bike). The study challenges static notions of the body by analysing how cyclists’ (and researchers...

  8. DIPS power conversion cycle selection

    This paper presents the results of the dynamic power conversion cycle selection process conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International as part of the Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem (DIPS) Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Rocketdyne is under contract with DOE for the DIPS Program. The objective of the DIPS Program is to demonstrate the technology necessary to provide dynamic radioisotope space electrical power systems in the 1 to 10 kWe range to support evolving military and civilian missions in the early 1990s and beyond. Selecting the most appropriate DIPS power conversion cycle that would support this objective was an integral step in this process. The closed Brayton cycle was selected as the preferred power conversion cycle for the DIPS Program based on an evaluation of several key areas concerning spacecraft power systems performance

  9. Cell cycle control in Alphaproteobacteria.

    Collier, Justine

    2016-04-01

    Alphaproteobacteria include many medically and environmentally important organisms. Despite the diversity of their niches and lifestyles, from free-living to host-associated, they usually rely on very similar mechanisms to control their cell cycles. Studies on Caulobacter crescentus still lay the foundation for understanding the molecular details of pathways regulating DNA replication and cell division and coordinating these two processes with other events of the cell cycle. This review highlights recent discoveries on the regulation and the mode of action of conserved global regulators and small molecules like c-di-GMP and (p)ppGpp, which play key roles in cell cycle control. It also describes several newly identified mechanisms that modulate cell cycle progression in response to stresses or environmental conditions. PMID:26871482

  10. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  11. Mirador - Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. This Focus Area deals with the cycling of carbon in reservoirs and ecosystems as it changes naturally, is changed by humans,...

  12. Mirador - Water and Energy Cycles

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Through water and energy cycle research we can improve hurricane prediction, quantify tropical rainfall and eventually begin...

  13. Glacial Cycles and Milankovitch Forcing

    Raghuraman, Shiv Priyam

    2015-01-01

    Using a recent conceptual model of the glacial-interglacial cycles we present more evidence of Milankovitch cycles being the trigger for retreat and forming of ice sheets in the cycles. This model is based on a finite approximation of an infinite dimensional model which has three components: Budyko's energy balance model describing the annual mean temperatures at latitudes, Widiasih's ODE which describes the behavior of the edge of the ice sheet, and Walsh et al. who introduced a snow line to account for glacial accumulation and ablation zones. Certain variables in the model are made to depend on the Milankovitch cycles, in particular, the obliquity of the Earth's axis and the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. We see as a result that deglaciation and glaciation do occur mostly due to obliquity and to some extent eccentricity.

  14. Grown-up business cycles

    Pugsley, Benjamin; Şahin, Ayşegül

    2014-01-01

    We document two striking facts about U.S. firm dynamics and interpret their significance for aggregate employment dynamics. The first observation is the steady decline in the firm entry rate over the last thirty years, and the second is the gradual shift of employment from younger to older firms over the same period. Both observations hold across industries and geographies. We show that, despite these trends, firms' life-cycle dynamics and business-cycle properties have remained virtually unc...

  15. Limit cycles of effective theories

    Glazek, Stanislaw D.

    2006-01-01

    A simple example is used to show that renormalization group limit cycles of effective quantum theories can be studied in a new way. The method is based on the similarity renormalization group procedure for Hamiltonians. The example contains a logarithmic ultraviolet divergence that is generated by both real and imaginary parts of the Hamiltonian matrix elements. Discussion of the example includes a connection between asymptotic freedom with one scale of bound states and the limit cycle with a...

  16. New Relationship in Carbon Cycle

    Aleksei Naumov

    2012-01-01

    The problem of carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere is closely related to the biological carbon cycle processes insufficiently studied from the global viewpoint. Based on data obtained from the literature on net primary production (NPP) and soil respiration (SR) of world ecosystems, a quantitative analysis of the relationship between these basic parameters of the production/destruction phase of the carbon cycle is offered in this paper. A direct correspondence (equality in carbon equ...

  17. No News in Business Cycles

    Forni, Mario; Gambetti, Luca; Sala, Luca

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a structural, large dimensional factor model to evaluate the role of 'news' shocks (shocks with a delayed effect on productivity) in generating the business cycle. We find that (i) existing small-scale VECM models are affected by 'non-fundamentalness' and therefore fail to recover the correct shock and impulse response functions; (ii) news shocks have a limited role in explaining the business cycle; (iii) their effects are in line with what predicted by standard neoclassical t...

  18. Business Cycle Theory and Econometrics

    Allan W. Gregory; Smith, Gregor W.

    1995-01-01

    We outline in turn criticisms made by econometricians of the methods used in empirical business-cycle research and then criticisms made by business-cycle researchers of some methods used by econometricians. The aim is to clarify and in some cases correct these criticisms. Overall there is no conflict in using rigourous statistical procedures to study modern dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models. We also provide a concise bibliography of recent research on statistical methods for busin...

  19. Social learning and innovation cycles

    Garfagnini, Umberto; Strulovici, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    We study social learning and innovation in an overlapping generations model, emphasizing the trade-off between marginal innovation (combining existing technologies) and radical innovation (breaking new ground). We characterize both short-term and long-term dynamics of innovation, and the intergenerational accumulation of knowledge. Innovation cycles emerge endogenously, but the number of cycles is finite almost surely, and radical innovation terminates in finite time. We identify a negative r...

  20. Muscular & mechanical efficiency in cycling

    Blake, Oliver Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    In cycling some muscle coordination patterns result in high power outputs whereas others are more efficient. This study examined mechanical factors that affect muscle activity to identify coordination patterns used for different power outputs, total muscle activation and muscle activation effectiveness to produce power in cycling. Electromyography, pedal forces, kinematics, power output, cadence and slope were measured and compared indoors and/or outdoors in competitive cyclists at a range of...

  1. Animal spirits and business cycles

    Bidder, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    Animal spirits are often suggested as a cause of business cycles, but they are very difficult to define. Recent research proposes a novel explanation based on the changing level of risk over time and people’s uncertainty about how the world works. The interaction of these two can lead to significant business cycle fluctuations in response to spikes in volatility. This finding gives researchers an alternative to irrational behavior as an explanation for why swings in consumer sentiment appear ...

  2. Few-cycle isolated attosecond pulses

    Complete test of publication follows. In the last few years the field of attosecond science has shown impressive and rapid progress, mainly due to the introduction of novel experimental methods for the characterization of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses and attosecond electron wave packets. This development has been also triggered by significant improvements in the control of the electric field of the driving infrared pulses. Particularly interesting for the applications is the generation of isolated attosecond XUV pulses using few-cycle driving pulses. In this case significant progresses have been achieved thanks to the stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of amplified light pulses. In this work we demonstrate that the polarization gating (PG) method with few-cycle phase-stabilized driving pulses allows one to generate few-cycle isolated attosecond pulses tunable on a very broad spectral region. The PG method is based on temporal modulation of the ellipticity of a light pulse, which confines the XUV emission in the temporal gate where the polarization is close to linear. The time-dependent polarization of phase-stabilized sub-6-fs pulses, generated by the hollow fiber technique, has been obtained using two birefringent plates. It is possible to create a linear polarization gate, whose position is imposed by the intensity profile of the pulse whilst the emission time is linked to the CEP of the electric field. The pulses have been analyzed by using a flat-field spectrometer. Continuous XUV spectra, corresponding to the production of isolated attosecond pulses, have been generated for particular CEP values. Upon changing the rotation of the first plate it was possible to tune the XUV emission in a broad spectra range. We have then achieved a complete temporal characterization of the generated isolated attosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts (FROG CRAB). The measured parabolic phase

  3. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; William, Olson

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  4. Optimization of the fuel cycle

    The nuclear fuel cycle can be optimized subject to a wide range of criteria. Prime amongst these are economics, sustainability of resources, environmental aspects, and proliferation-resistance of the fuel cycle. Other specific national objectives will also be important. These criteria, and their relative importance, will vary from country to country, and with time. There is no single fuel cycle strategy that is optimal for all countries. Within the short term, the industry is attached to dominant thermal reactor technologies, which themselves have two main variants, a cycle closed by reprocessing of spent fuel and subsequent recycling and a once through one where spent fuel is stored in advance of geological disposal. However, even with current technologies, much can be done to optimize the fuel cycles to meet the relevant criteria. In the long term, resource sustainability can be assured for centuries through the use of fast breeder reactors, supporting high-conversion thermal reactors, possibly also utilizing the thorium cycle. These must, however, meet the other key criteria by being both economic and safe. (author)

  5. Thorium fuel cycles in CANDU

    In recent years, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has been examining in detail the implications of using thorium-based fuels tn the CANDU reactor. Various cycles initiated and enriched either with fissile plutonium or with enriched uranium, and with effective conversion ratios ranging up to 1.0, have been evaluated. We have concluded that: 1. Substantial quantities of uranium can be saved by adoption of the thorium fuel cycle, and the long-term security of fissile supply both for the domestic and overseas market can be considerably enhanced. The amount saved will depend on the details of the fuel cycle and the anticipated growth of nuclear power in Canada. 2. The fuel cycle can be introduced into the basic CANDU design without major modifications and without compromising current safety standards. 3. The economic conditions that make thorium competitive with the once-through natural uranium cycle depend a the price of uranium and on the costs both to fabricate α and γ-emitting fuels and to either enrich uranium or to extract fissile material from spent fuel. While timing is difficult to predict, we believe that competitive economic conditions will prevail toward the end of this century. 4. A twenty-year technological development program will be required to establish commercial confidence in the fuel cycle. (author)

  6. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    Brooksbank, R. E.; Bigelow, J. E.; Campbell, D. O.; Kitts, F. G.; Lindauer, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with /sup 238/U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial.

  7. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird specie

    Møller, A.P; E. FLENSTED-JENSEN; W. MARDAL

    2009-01-01

    Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the ent...

  8. Global Warming Potential of a Smartphone : Using Life Cycle Assessment Methodology

    Ercan, Elif Mine

    2013-01-01

    The global development and usage of smartphones are rapidly increasing. Further, the high capacity and functionality of these devices indicate high technological manufacturing processes and complex supply chains. Thus it is of interest to investigate the potential environmental impacts of a smartphone, from a life cycle perspective. This study uses a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology in order to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a smartphone, in particularly the smartphone...

  9. Patterns of cell division revealed by transcriptional regulation of genes during the cell cycle in plants.

    Fobert, P R; Coen, E S; Murphy, G. J.; Doonan, J H

    1994-01-01

    Transcripts from five cell cycle related genes accumulate in isolated cells dispersed throughout the actively dividing regions of plant meristems. We propose that this pattern reflects gene expression during particular phases of the cell division cycle. The high proportion of isolated cells suggests that synchrony between daughter cells is rapidly lost following mitosis. This is the first time that such a cell specific expression pattern has been described in a higher organism. Counterstainin...

  10. Cleavage speed and implantation potential of early-cleavage embryos in IVF or ICSI cycles

    Lee, Meng-Ju; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Lin, Ming-Huei; Hwu, Yuh-Ming

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether there is a correlation among early embryo cleavage, speed of cleavage, and implantation potential for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This retrospective study examined 112 cycles of IVF and 82 cycles of ICSI in patients less than 40 years of age. Early cleavage was defined as embryonic mitosis occurring 25–27 h after insemination. These day-3 embryos were then grouped according to cleavage speed (rapid, normal, and slow) ...

  11. Thermodynamic Cycles--One More Time.

    Nolan, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses interesting aspects of the Carnot cycle and other thermodynamic cycles that are generally not dealt with in elementary physics texts. Presents examples that challenge the student to think about the extraction of net work from a cycle. (JRH)

  12. Binary Brayton cycle with two isothermal processes

    Highlights: • This paper presents binary Brayton cycle with two isothermal processes. • Different parameters affecting the cycle performance have been studied. • The present cycle is a promising cycle for future power generation. - Abstract: The literature introduced isothermal concept and binary Brayton cycle as two promising methods used to enhance the performance of the gas turbine. Consequently, this work presents a cycle based on the blending of the two methods. This cycle is composed of gas turbine topping cycle with isothermal combustion and air turbine bottoming cycle with isothermal heating. Different parameters affecting the cycle performance have been studied. Simulations demonstrate that the present cycle achieves drastic enhancement in performance. The cycle merits justify its potential utilization for future power generation

  13. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  14. Rapid sea-level rise

    Cronin, Thomas M.

    2012-11-01

    Several global and regional factors contribute to observed sea-level change along any particular coast. Global processes include changes in ocean mass (glacio-eustasy from ice melt), ocean volume (steric effects), viscoelastic land movements (glacioisostatic adjustment GIA), and changes in terrestrial water storage. Regional processes, often connected to steric and glacial changes, include changes in ocean circulation (Meridional Overturning Circulation [MOC]), glacial melting, local GIA, regional subsidence and others. Paleoclimate, instrumental and modeling studies show that combinations of these factors can cause relatively rapid rates of sea-level rise exceeding 3 mm yr-1 over various timescales along particular coasts. This paper discusses patterns and causes of sea-level rise with emphasis on paleoclimatological records. It then addresses the hypothesis of late Holocene (pre-20th century) sea-level stability in light of paleoclimatic evidence, notably from reconstructions of sea-surface temperature and glacial activity, for significant climate and sea-level variability during this time. The practical difficulties of assessing regional sea-level (SL) patterns at submillennial timescales will be discussed using an example from the eastern United States.

  15. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  16. Analysis of thermal cycles and working fluids for power generation in space

    Production of power in space for terrestrial use is of great interest in view of the rapidly rising power demand and its environmental impacts. Space also offers a very low temperature, making it a perfect heat sink for power plants, thus offering much higher efficiencies. This paper focuses on the evaluation and analysis of thermal Brayton, Ericsson and Rankine power cycles operating at space conditions on several appropriate working fluids. Under the examined conditions, the thermal efficiency of Brayton cycles reaches 63%, Ericsson 74%, and Rankine 85%. These efficiencies are significantly higher than those for the computed or real terrestrial cycles: by up to 45% for the Brayton, and 17% for the Ericsson; remarkably 44% for the Rankine cycle even when compared with the best terrestrial combined cycles. From the considered working fluids, the diatomic gases (N2 and H2) produce somewhat better efficiencies than the monatomic ones in the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The Rankine cycles require radiator areas that are larger by up to two orders of magnitude than those required for the Brayton and Ericsson cycles. The results of the analysis of the sensitivity of the cycle performance parameters to major parameters such as turbine inlet temperature and pressure ratio are presented, equations or examining the effects of fluid properties on the radiator area and pressure drop were developed, and the effects of the working fluid properties on cycle efficiency and on the power production per unit radiator area were explored to allow decisions on the optimal choice of working fluids

  17. The British cycling economy: 'gross cycling product' report

    Grous, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We believe this is the first-ever attempt to chart the full extent of cycling’s contribution to the British economy. Previous studies have focused on particular sectors such as the bicycle retail trade, but never before has a study been conducted into the true ‘Gross Cycling Product’ (GCP) of UK plc – from bike sales to improved health. The GCP report was conceived by Sky and British Cycling and has been made a reality through the London School of Economics. We commissioned the report, t...

  18. Optimal Life Cycle Portfolio Choice with Housing Market Cycles

    Fischer, Marcel; Stamos, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades U.S. households have experienced residential house prices moving persistently, that is, returns being positively serially correlated. We set up a realistically calibrated life cycle model with slow-moving time variation in expected housing returns, showing that not only age, labor...... income, and pre-existing housing wealth but also the state of the housing market significantly affect household decisions. Consistently with the data, the model predicts that in good states of housing market cycles (1) homeownership rates increase, (2) households buying homes invest a larger share of...

  19. Antifreeze life cycle assessment (LCA

    Kesić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifreeze based on ethylene glycol is a commonly used commercial product The classification of ethylene glycol as a toxic material increased the disposal costs for used antifreeze and life cycle assessment became a necessity. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA considers the identification and quantification of raw materials and energy inputs and waste outputs during the whole life cycle of the analyzed product. The objectives of LCA are the evaluation of impacts on the environment and improvements of processes in order to reduce and/or eliminate waste. LCA is conducted through a mathematical model derived from mass and energy balances of all the processes included in the life cycle. In all energy processes the part of energy that can be transformed into some other kind of energy is called exergy. The concept of exergy considers the quality of different types of energy and the quality of different materials. It is also a connection between energy and mass transformations. The whole life cycle can be described by the value of the total loss of exergy. The physical meaning of this value is the loss of material and energy that can be used. The results of LCA are very useful for the analyzed products and processes and for the determined conditions under which the analysis was conducted. The results of this study indicate that recycling is the most satisfactory solution for the treatment of used antifreeze regarding material and energy consumption but the re-use of antifreeze should not be neglected as a solution.

  20. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  1. Effects of Amiodarone plus Losartan on Electrical Remodeling in Rapid Atrial Pacing in Rabbits

    Liye Wei; Yue Xia; Guoqing Qi; Qingwen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the electrical remodeling and the effects of amiodarone and losartan on electrical remode-ling in rapid atrial pacing on rabbit model. Methods 40 normal rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: the sa-line group (control group), amiodarone group, losartan group, ami + los group. All rabbits were raised drugs in a week. The atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was measured. Then, take a rapid atrial pacing (600 bpm) and the AERP was measured after 0. 5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours pacing and 30 minutes after the termination of rapid pacing. Results ① In control group, after 8 hours rapid pacing, AERP 200 and AERP 150 were significantly shortened 16. 11%± 3. 1% (P <0. 01) and 9. 99%±4. 2% (P <0. 01). And the degree of AERP shortening induced by rapid pacing was greater at basic cycle lengths of 200 ms (BCL200) than that at BCL150. The AERP of amiodarone, losartan group and anti + los group were not shortened during rapid pacing.② In the control group, after the termination of rapid pacing, the AERP gradually increased. The AERP at all of the BCLS examined recovered to almost the 95.78% and 96. 76% of baseline values within the first 10 minutes and recovered to almost the 99. 07% and 99. 39% of baseline values within the first 30 minutes. Condusions Short-term atrial rapid pacing can induce the atrial electrical remodeling. Amiodarone and losartan can prevent the electrical remodeling.

  2. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2001-10-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  3. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-02-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  4. ALMA Cycle 0 Publication Statistics

    Stoehr, Felix; Meakins, Silvia; Bishop, Marsha; Uchida, Ayako; Testi, Leonardo; Iono, Daisuke; Tatematsu, Kenichi; Wootten, Al

    2016-01-01

    The scientific impact of a facility is the most important measure of its success. Monitoring and analysing the scientific return can help to modify and optimise operations and adapt to the changing needs of scientific research. The methodology that we have developed to monitor the scientific productivity of the ALMA Observatory, as well as the first results, are described. We focus on the outcome of the first cycle (Cycle 0) of ALMA Early Science operations. Despite the fact that only two years have passed since the completion of Cycle 0 and operations have already changed substantially, this analysisconfirms the effectiveness of the underlying concepts. We find that ALMA is fulfilling its promise as a transformational facility for the observation of the Universe in the submillimetre.

  5. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    below -½ (at stationary equilibrium). Market power on the labor markets may have the effect that imperfectly competitive cycles are in accordance with certain empirical regularities (some well known, some reported in the paper) concerning fluctuations in output and involuntary unemployment. Since......We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized by...... monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely. In...

  6. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra;

    2004-01-01

    -ing or exit stage. During transition the cycle reflects: privatization often with a high proportion of employee ownership like in Russia and in Slovenia; strong pressures for restructuring and owner-ship changes; limited possibility for external finance because of embryonic development of the fi......-nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly...... ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia....

  7. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  8. CANDU fuel-cycle vision

    The fuel-cycle path chosen by a particular country will depend on a range of local and global factors. The CANDU reactor provides the fuel-cycle flexibility to enable any country to optimize its fuel-cycle strategy to suit its own needs. AECL has developed the CANFLEX fuel bundle as the near-term carrier of advanced fuel cycles. A demonstration irradiation of 24 CANFLEX bundles in the Point Lepreau power station, and a full-scale critical heat flux (CHF) test in water are planned in 1998, before commercial implementation of CANFLEX fuelling. CANFLEX fuel provides a reduction in peak linear element ratings, and a significant enhancement in thermalhydraulic performance. Whereas natural uranium fuel provides many advantages, the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU) in CANDU reactors offers even lower fuel-cycle costs and other benefits, such as uprating capability through flattening the channel power distribution across the core. Recycled uranium (RU) from reprocessing spent PWR fuel is a subset of SEU that has significant economic promise. AECL views the use of SEU/RU in the CANFLEX bundle as the first logical step from natural uranium. High neutron economy enables the use of low-fissile fuel in CANDU reactors, which opens up a spectrum of unique fuel-cycle opportunities that exploit the synergism between CANDU reactors and LWRs. At one end of this spectrum is the use of materials from conventional reprocessing: CANDU reactors can utilize the RU directly without re-enrichment, the plutonium as conventional Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, and the actinide waste mixed with plutonium in an inert-matrix carrier. At the other end of the spectrum is the DUPIC cycle, employing only thermal-mechanical processes to convert spent LWR fuel into CANDU fuel, with no purposeful separation of isotopes from the fuel, and possessing a high degree of proliferation resistance. Between these two extremes are other advanced recycling options that offer particular advantages in exploiting the

  9. CANDU fuel-cycle vision

    The fuel-cycle path chosen by a particular country will depend on a range of local and global factors. The CANDU reactor provides the fuel-cycle flexibility to enable any country to optimize its fuel-cycle strategy to suit its own needs. AECL has developed the CANFLEX fuel bundle as the near-term carrier of advanced fuel cycles. A demonstration irradiation of 24 CANFLEX bundles in the Point Lepreau power station, and a full-scale critical heat flux (CHF) test in water are planned in 1998, before commercial implementation of CANFLEX fuelling. CANFLEX fuel provides a reduction in peak linear element ratings, and a significant enhancement in thermalhydraulic performance. Whereas natural uranium fuel provides many advantages, the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU) in CANDU reactors offers even lower fuel-cycle costs and other benefits, such as uprating capability through flattening the channel power distribution across the core. Recycled uranium (RU) from reprocessing spent PWR fuel is a subset of SEU that has significant economic promise. AECL views the use of SEU/RU in the CANFLEX bundle as the first logical step from natural uranium. High neutron economy enables the use of low-fissile fuel in CANDU reactors, which opens up a spectrum of unique fuel-cycle opportunities that exploit the synergism between CANDU reactors and LWRs. At one end of this spectrum is the use of materials from conventional reprocessing: CANDU reactors can utilize the RU directly without reenrichment, the plutonium as conventional mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, and the actinide waste mixed with plutonium in an inert-matrix carrier. At the other end of the spectrum is the DUPIC cycle, employing only thermal-mechanical processes to convert spent LWR fuel into CANDU fuel, with no purposeful separation of isotopes from the fuel, and possessing a high degree of proliferation resistance. Between these two extremes are other advanced recycling options that offer particular advantages in exploiting the

  10. Cycling in multimodal transport behaviours

    Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2016-01-01

    explores how cycling forms part of multimodal transport behaviour based on survey data on transport modes and travel purposes and the weekly frequency of out-of-home activities and travel mode use in a representative sample of adult Danes (n = 1957). The following five distinct multimodal travel segments...... or 'modality styles' are identified: 'education transport'; 'public-based transport'; 'limited transport'; 'bicycle-based transport'; and 'car-based transport'. Travel behaviour is predominantly multimodal with few unimodal car-drivers being identified. Substantial cycling takes place in all modality...... urban settings and small towns. Thus, the way in which travel modes relate to the urban environment and variations in modality styles must serve as the starting point for policies aiming to fulfil the potential of multimodal transport behaviour and promote cycling....

  11. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  12. SIRTF Cycle-1 Research Opportunities

    Soifer, B. T.; Bicay, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    The Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the fourth and final element in NASA's family of Great Observatories, was successfully launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit on August 25, 2003. The SIRTF Science Center (SSC) at Caltech is now soliciting Cycle-1 research proposals from the worldwide scientific community. Proposals must be submitted electronically to the SSC by February 14, 2004. A preliminary version of the Cycle-1 Call for Proposals (CP) was issued by the SSC in November 2002. A CP Update and supporting technical documentation, which incorporates the on-orbit performance of the observatory, were released in December 2003. Investigations may be proposed for new SIRTF observations, through the General Observer (GO) program, or for archival research. About 3700 hours of observing time is being offered for the Cycle-1 GO Program, in small (less than 50 hours) and medium (50 to 200 hours) categories. More than \\15 million in NASA data analysis support is available to qualified GO investigators. For GO proposals, a detailed list of proposed observations, generated by the SIRTF Planning Observations Tool, must accompany the research proposal. The Archival Research (AR) Program in Cycle-1 is limited to the analysis of data from the First-Look Survey, a 100-hour program to be executed by the SSC at the start of the science mission. Up to \\750,000 in NASA data analysis support is available to qualified AR investigators. All documents supporting the Cycle-1 solicitation are available online in the Proposal Kit section of the SSC public Web site (http://sirtf.caltech.edu/SSC/). Questions pertaining to the Cycle-1 CP should be sent electronically to the SSC HelpDesk at sirtf@ipac.caltech.edu. SIRTF is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA.

  13. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    Caldeira, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffert, M.I. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth System Sciences; Siegenthaler, U. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  14. Fuel cycle math - part two

    This article is Part 2 of a two part series on simple mathematics associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. While not addressing any of the financial aspects of the fuel cycle, this article does discuss the following: conversion between English and metric systems; uranium content expressed in equivalent forms, such as U3O8, and the method of determining these equivalencies; the uranium conversion process, considering different input and output compounds; and the enrichment process, including feed, tails, and product assays, as well as SWU and feed requirements

  15. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities as...

  16. Life cycle of remanufactured engines

    YANG Ming; CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The life cycle index of remanufactured engines was assessed by using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA). A remanufactured engine of a certain domestic brand was taken as researching object. Engine reproducing engineering was investigated from three aspects which were energy, material and environment. The application of LCA on remanufacturing engines was discussed in detail with a practical case. The results indicate that remanufackg CO2 , 6.09 kg CO, 1.01 kg NOx, 3. 985 kg SOx and 288. 725 kg solid waste. The remanufacturing of engines possesses great economic value and practicability.

  17. SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling

    Walsh, David O; Grunewald, Elliot D

    2013-11-12

    Technologies applicable to SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling are disclosed, including SNMR acquisition apparatus and methods, SNMR processing apparatus and methods, and combinations thereof. SNMR acquisition may include transmitting two or more SNMR pulse sequences and applying a phase shift to a pulse in at least one of the pulse sequences, according to any of a variety cycling techniques. SNMR processing may include combining SNMR from a plurality of pulse sequences comprising pulses of different phases, so that desired signals are preserved and indesired signals are canceled.

  18. WWER-1000 fuel cycle improvement

    The problems of organization of fuel cycles with different operation time of stationary load for the reactor WWER-1000 are considered. The outcomes of matching of the characteristics for stationary load constructed on fuel cells of existing and improved designs are presented. Improved designs of a fuel cell are include increase of an altitude of a fuel stake, change of outside and axial diameters of a fuel pellet, change thickness of a cladding of a fuel cell. Effect of the layout solutions on improving of a fuel cycle WWER-1000 also considered (Authors)

  19. Long operating cycle simplified BWR

    Considering next generation requirement for nuclear plants, a long cycle operating simplified BWR (LSBWR) concept is proposed. The major features of LSBWR are; 1) Long cycle operation core using uranium fuels; 2) Simplified system and component as well as passive systems; 3) Combined building concept with ship hull structure. This concept have potential to reduce construction cost and to Increase availability. Safety feature of LSBWR makes possible to attain no evacuation capability in case of a severe accident. Further research and development is underway. (author)

  20. Digital calculations of engine cycles

    Starkman, E S; Taylor, C Fayette

    1964-01-01

    Digital Calculations of Engine Cycles is a collection of seven papers which were presented before technical meetings of the Society of Automotive Engineers during 1962 and 1963. The papers cover the spectrum of the subject of engine cycle events, ranging from an examination of composition and properties of the working fluid to simulation of the pressure-time events in the combustion chamber. The volume has been organized to present the material in a logical sequence. The first two chapters are concerned with the equilibrium states of the working fluid. These include the concentrations of var