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Sample records for 3gev rapid cycling

  1. Development of the Collimator System for the 3GEV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

    Yamamoto, Kazami

    2005-01-01

    In order to localize the beam loss in the restricted area, the beam collimation system is prepared in the 3GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) Project. The amount of the localized beam loss on the one collimator is estimated about 1.2kW, and that loss generates a large quantity of the secondary radiations. So the beam collimator must be designed that it is covered with enough shielding. We calculated the radiation level of the collimator and decided necessary shielding thickness. This result indicated that the residual dose rate at the outside surface of the shielding is mostly under 1mSv/h. We developed the remote cramp system and rad-hard components in order to reduce the radiation exposure during maintenance of the collimator. And also we coated Titanium Nitride (TiN) film on the inside surface of the vacuum chamber in order to reduce the secondary electron emission from the collimator and chamber surface. Now we investigate the possibility of another coatin...

  2. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [13 km

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  3. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [20 km

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  4. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  5. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  6. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  7. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  8. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  9. Improvements in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron1 (RCS), originally designed as an injection energy booster for the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS), operated under contraints imposed by ZGS operation until December 1979. Once these restraints were removed, the RCS made rapid strides toward its nearterm goals of 8 μA of protons for Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) program. Reliable 30 Hz operation was achieved in the spring of 1980 with beams as high as 2 x 1012 protons per pulse and weekly average intensities of over 6 μA on target. These gains resulted from better injection matching, more efficient RF turn-on and dynamic chromatricity control. A high intensity small diameter synchrotron, such as the RCS, has special problems with loss control which dictate prudence during intensity improvment activities. Additional improvements were made to the machine starting in August of 1980 while the extraction magnets were relocated for operation with the IPNS-I target. These improvements have now been completed. Startup of the accelerator is now underway, and it is clear that these modifications have resulted in a radio-actively cleaner operation. It is too early to evaluate the effects of the improvements on intensity and reliability, but a single pulse extracted intensity of 2.4 x 1012 protons has been achieved, a 20% increase. The studies and equipment leading to the intensity gains are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Improvements in the rapid cycling synchrotron

    The Rapid Cycling Snychrotron1 (RCS), originally designed as an injection energy booster for the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS), operated under constraints imposed by ZGS operation until December 1979. Once these restraints were removed, the RCS made rapid strides toward its nearterm goals of 8 μA of protons for Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) program. Reliable 30 Hz operation was achieved in the spring of 1980 with beams as high as 2 x 1012 protons per pulse and weekly average intensities of over 6 μA on target. These gains resulted from better injection matching, more efficient RF turn-on and dynamic chromaticity control. A high intensity small diameter synchrotron, such as the RCS, has special problems with loss control which dictate prudence during intensity improvement activities. Additional improvements were made to the machine starting in August of 1980 while the extraction magnets were relocated for operation with the IPNS-I target. These improvements have now been completed. Startup of the accelerator is now underway, and it is clear that these modifications have resulted in a radioactively cleaner operation. It is too early to evaluate the effects of the improvements on intensity and reliability, but a single pulse extracted intensity of 2.4 x 1012 protons has been achieved, a 20% increase. The studies and equipment leading to the intensity gains are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  12. Rapid lithification masks the Venus sedimentary cycle

    Ghail, R.

    2015-10-01

    Venera lander data are usually assumed to indicate basaltic lavas but a significant fraction of the rock material must be volatiles, such as sulphur, implying at least strongly weathered basalts. The lander images most closely resemble sedimentary material, with layered strata (which may be pyroclastic in origin)that are sometimes broken into cobbles and fine grained sediment. The Magellan SAR was relatively insensitive to loose fine-grained material under Venus surface conditions but the reprocessed data reveal a range of weathering processes, particularly at higher elevations, and mass wasting of steep slopes. Mean wind speeds are strongly altitude dependent and are able to erode and transport material throughout the highland regions. In some areas, this material is deposited on adjacent plains where, under the extreme Venus surface conditions, lithification is an apparently rapid process. Thus the largely featureless plains may not be igneous at all but sedimentary in origin. The settling out and lithification of sedimentary material is consistent with observed crater degradation, in which low-lying crater floors are infilled first.

  13. LIFE CYCLE BIOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS USING RAPID CYCLING OF BRASSICA

    Initial evaluation of a new plant life cycle bioassay for the assessment of the effects of toxic chemicals is presented. he bioassay features a rapid cycling Brassica species that can complete its life cycle in as little as 36 days. he herbicide dalapon (2,2 dichloropropionic aci...

  14. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    Peggs, Stephen G.; Brennan, J. Michael; Tuozzolo, Joseph E.; Zaltsman, Alexander

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  15. Hearthfire reference concept No. 3. A rapid cycling synchrotron system

    This report describes a reference design for an accelerator system for heavy ion fusion based on a rapid cycling synchrotron and storage rings. The system irradiates one fusion target per second with 1 MJ, 100 TW (peak) pulses of 20 GeV Xe+8. The major components are a 550 MV linac, eight 60 Hz synchrotrons, four matching rings, 16 storage rings, and 24 final beam lines and lenses

  16. High precision tracking control for rapid cycling magnets

    Rapid cycling magnets are excited using a resonant circuit and the current waveform is a DC-biased sinusoidal pattern. However, non-linear characteristic of the magnet produces harmonic components in the magnetic field. The harmonic components are different for each type of magnet depending upon the degree of saturation, and it causes a tracking error. This paper proposes harmonic current control in the resonant circuit to reduce harmonic components in the magnetic field. (author)

  17. Rapid cycling synchrotron magnet with separate ac and dc circuit

    In present rapid cycling synchrotron magnets ac and dc currents flow in the same coil to give the desired field. The circuit reactance is made zero at dc and the operating frequency by running the magnet in series with an external parallel resonant LC current. We propose to return the ac flux in a gap next to the synchrotron. The dc coil encloses the ac magnetic circuit and thus links no ac flux. A shorted turn between the dc coil and ac flux enhances the separation of the two circuits. Several interesting developments are possible. The dc coil could be a stable superconductor to save power. The ac flux return gap could be identical with the synchrotron gap and contain a second synchrotron. This would double the output of the system. If the return flux gap were used for a booster, the ac coil power could be greatly reduced or radiation hardening of the ac coil could be simplified

  18. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    Swerdlow, Harold P.; Wittwer, Carl T.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

  19. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  20. Anxiety Disorders and Rapid Cycling Data From a Cohort of 8129 Youths With Bipolar Disorder

    Castilla-Puentes, Ruby; Sala, Regina; Ng, Bernardo; Galvez, Juan; Camacho, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (ADs) are common in youths with bipolar disorder (BD). We examine psychiatric comorbidity, hospitalization, and treatment in youths with versus without AD and rapid cycling (four or more cycles per year). Data from the Integrated Healthcare Information Services cohort were used and included 8129 youths (ages ≤18 years). Prevalence of AD, demographic, type of AD, hospitalization, and use of psychotropics were compared between rapid and nonrapid cycling. Overall, 51% of the yo...

  1. Detection of Bordetella pertussis by rapid-cycle PCR and colorimetric microwell hybridization.

    Buck, G E

    1996-01-01

    The use of rapid-cycle PCR combined with colorimetric microwell hybridization for detecting Bordetella pertussis was investigated. Rapid cycling was performed with an air thermocycler (model 1605; Idaho Technology, Idaho Falls, Idaho). Although the instrument was originally designed to be used with capillary tubes, an adapter that allows this instrument to be used with PCR tubes has recently been introduced. Because of the low heat capacity of air, the thermocycler has rapid transition rates ...

  2. CRY2 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder patients.

    Louise K Sjöholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder patients often display abnormalities in circadian rhythm, and they are sensitive to irregular diurnal rhythms. CRY2 participates in the core clock that generates circadian rhythms. CRY2 mRNA expression in blood mononuclear cells was recently shown to display a marked diurnal variation and to respond to total sleep deprivation in healthy human volunteers. It was also shown that bipolar patients in a depressive state had lower CRY2 mRNA levels, nonresponsive to total sleep deprivation, compared to healthy controls, and that CRY2 gene variation was associated with winter depression in both Swedish and Finnish cohorts. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four CRY2 SNPs spanning from intron 2 to downstream 3'UTR were analyzed for association to bipolar disorder type 1 (n = 497, bipolar disorder type 2 (n = 60 and bipolar disorder with the feature rapid cycling (n = 155 versus blood donors (n = 1044 in Sweden. Also, the rapid cycling cases were compared with bipolar disorder cases without rapid cycling (n = 422. The haplotype GGAC was underrepresented among rapid cycling cases versus controls and versus bipolar disorder cases without rapid cycling (OR = 0.7, P = 0.006-0.02, whereas overrepresentation among rapid cycling cases was seen for AAAC (OR = 1.3-1.4, P = 0.03-0.04 and AGGA (OR = 1.5, P = 0.05. The risk and protective CRY2 haplotypes and their effect sizes were similar to those recently suggested to be associated with winter depression in Swedes. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the circadian gene CRY2 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. This is the first time a clock gene is implicated in rapid cycling, and one of few findings showing a molecular discrimination between rapid cycling and other forms of bipolar disorder.

  3. Rapid-fire improvement with short-cycle kaizen.

    Heard, E

    1999-05-01

    Continuous improvement is an attractive idea, but it is typically more myth than reality. SCK is no myth. It delivers dramatic improvements in traditional measures quickly. SCK accomplishes this via kaizens: rapid, repeated, time-compressed changes for the better in bite-sized chunks of the business. PMID:10387776

  4. Rapid cycling of reactive nitrogen in the marine boundary layer

    Ye, Chunxiang; Zhou, Xianliang; Pu, Dennis; Stutz, Jochen; Festa, James; Spolaor, Max; Tsai, Catalina; Cantrell, Christopher; Mauldin, Roy L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; Guenther, Alex; Kaser, Lisa; Yuan, Bin; Karl, Thomas; Haggerty, Julie; Hall, Samuel; Ullmann, Kirk; Smith, James N.; Ortega, John; Knote, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides are essential for the formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols and of atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and the hydroxyl radical, which controls the self-cleansing capacity of the atmosphere. Nitric acid, a major oxidation product of nitrogen oxides, has traditionally been considered to be a permanent sink of nitrogen oxides. However, model studies predict higher ratios of nitric acid to nitrogen oxides in the troposphere than are observed. A ‘renoxification’ process that recycles nitric acid into nitrogen oxides has been proposed to reconcile observations with model studies, but the mechanisms responsible for this process remain uncertain. Here we present data from an aircraft measurement campaign over the North Atlantic Ocean and find evidence for rapid recycling of nitric acid to nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides in the clean marine boundary layer via particulate nitrate photolysis. Laboratory experiments further demonstrate the photolysis of particulate nitrate collected on filters at a rate more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of gaseous nitric acid, with nitrous acid as the main product. Box model calculations based on the Master Chemical Mechanism suggest that particulate nitrate photolysis mainly sustains the observed levels of nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides at midday under typical marine boundary layer conditions. Given that oceans account for more than 70 per cent of Earth’s surface, we propose that particulate nitrate photolysis could be a substantial tropospheric nitrogen oxide source. Recycling of nitrogen oxides in remote oceanic regions with minimal direct nitrogen oxide emissions could increase the formation of tropospheric oxidants and secondary atmospheric aerosols on a global scale.

  5. Thermal Behavior of Small Lithium-Ion Secondary Battery during Rapid Charge and Discharge Cycles

    Ohshima, Takamasa; Nakayama, Masato; Fukuda, Kenichi; Araki, Takuto; Onda, Kazuo

    The secondary batteries for the electric vehicle (EV) generate much heat during rapid charge and discharge cycles than the rated condition, when EV starts quickly consuming the battery power and stops suddenly recovering the inertia energy. During rapid charge and discharge cycles, the cell temperature rises significantly and may increase more than the allowable temperature. So we calculated the temperature rise of a small lithium-ion secondary battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles using our battery thermal behavior model, which we have developed being confirmed its validity during discharge cycle at the smaller current than the discharge rate of 1C. The heat source factors were measured by the methods described in our previous study, because the present batteries have been improved in their performance and have low overpotential resistance. The battery heat capacity was measured by a twin-type heat conduction calorimeter, and determined to be a linear function of temperature. Further, the heat transfer coefficient was measured again precisely by the method described in our previous study, and was arranged as a function of cell and ambient temperatures. The calculated temperature by our battery thermal behavior model using these measured data agrees well with the cell temperature measured by thermocouple. Therefore we can confirm the validity of this model again during rapid charge and discharge cycles.

  6. Daytime spikes in dopaminergic activity drive rapid mood-cycling in mice

    Sidor, Michelle M.; Spencer, Sade M.; Dzirasa, Kafui; Parekh, Puja K.; Tye, Kay M; Warden, Melissa R.; Arey, Rachel N.; Enwright, John F; Jacobsen, Jacob PR; Kumar, Sunil; Remillard, Erin M; Marc G Caron; Deisseroth, Karl; McClung, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in circadian rhythms and dopaminergic activity are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, though their interaction remains unclear. Moreover, a lack of animal models that display spontaneous cycling between mood states has hindered our mechanistic understanding of mood switching. Here we find that mice with a mutation in the circadian Clock gene (ClockΔ19) exhibit rapid mood-cycling, with a profound manic-like phenotype emerging during the day following a period of e...

  7. Tests of scotchlite holography in the rapid-cycling bubble chamber

    Among several possibilities for a holographic set-up in the rapid-cycling bubble chamber (RCBC), the simplest one is probably to use RCBC as it is, with the Scotchlite as a reflector, and without modifying the optical ports. The aim of this report is to investigate the possibilities and the limitations of this approach. (orig./HSI)

  8. Computer, Video, and Rapid-Cycling Plant Projects in an Undergraduate Plant Breeding Course.

    Michaels, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Studies the perceived effectiveness of four student projects involving videotape production, computer conferencing, microcomputer simulation, and rapid-cycling Brassica breeding for undergraduate plant breeding students in two course offerings in consecutive years. Linking of the computer conferencing and video projects improved the rating of the…

  9. Demonstrated Ways to Use Rapid Cycling "Brassica Rapa" in Ecology Instruction and Research

    Kelly, Martin G.

    2004-01-01

    The National Science Foundation has a long supported the use of "Wisconsin Fast Plants" (rapid cycling "B. rapa") in the teaching of Biology (K-12). I believe that the opportunity is at hand for biologists to significantly extend past efforts made by our colleagues at the K-12 level to higher education. Biology faculty can realize the many…

  10. Thermal behavior of small lithium-ion battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles

    Onda, Kazuo; Ohshima, Takamasa; Nakayama, Masato; Fukuda, Kenichi; Araki, Takuto

    The secondary batteries for electric vehicles (EV) generate much heat during rapid charge and discharge cycles at current levels exceeding the batteries' rating, such as when the EV quickly starts consuming battery power or when recovering inertia energy during sudden stops. During these rapid charge and discharge cycles, the cell temperature may increase above allowable limits. We calculated the temperature rise of a small lithium-ion secondary battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles. The heat-source factors were measured again by the methods described in our previous study, because the performance of the battery reported here has been improved, showing lower overpotential resistance. Battery heat capacity was measured by a twin-type heat conduction calorimeter, and determined to be a linear function of temperature. Further, the heat transfer coefficient, measured again precisely by the method described in our previous study, was arranged as a function of cell and ambient temperatures. The temperature calculated by our battery thermal behavior model using these measured data agrees well with the cell temperature measured by thermocouple during rapid charge and discharge cycles. Also, battery radial temperature distributions were calculated to be small, and confirmed experimentally.

  11. Degradation of Teflon(tm) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    Townsend, Jacqueline; Powers, Charles; Viens, Michael; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Munoz, Bruno

    1998-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(R) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(R) FEP.

  12. Degradation of Teflon(trademark) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    Townsend, Jacqueline; Powers, Charles; Viens, Michael; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Munoz, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon(trademark) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(trademark) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(trademark) FEP.

  13. Degradation of Teflon(tm) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Powers, Charles E.; Viens, Michael J.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary T.; Munoz, Bruno F.

    1998-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon' FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(registered trademark) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(registered trademark) FEP.

  14. Thermal Behavior of Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery during Rapid Charge and Discharge Cycles

    Araki, Takuto; Wakahara, Kenji; Fukuda, Kenichi; Ohmori, Yositake; Nakayama, Masato; Onda, Kazuo

    The temperature of secondary batteries may increase above allowable limits and deteriorate its performance, during rapid charge and discharge cycles. Therefore, assessing thermal behavior of battery is essential. On the other hand, rectangular parallelepiped shape batteries are supposedly going to be used more commonly for cars and electrical devices because of their better space efficiency. Then, we constructed a two dimensional Cartesian coordinates battery thermal behavior model for a prismatic lithium-ion secondary battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles. It was extended from one dimensional cylindrical coordinates model, which had been developed and experimentally verified. As parameters of the numerical model, battery heat source factors such as overpotential resistance, entropy change, heat transfer coefficient and heat capacity have been measured. The radiation thermometer was used for obtaining battery surface temperature variance and distributions. Battery temperature generally increases as charge and discharge cycle proceeds, nevertheless temperature drops were observed at begging of low rate charge cycle and vicinity of SOC=0.8 in discharge cycle. Our modified model could predict these phenomena and agreed well with experimental results. Then the reliability of our numerical model and measuring techniques of heat source factors are confirmed each other.

  15. A new concept of maternity blues: Is there a subgroup of women with rapid cycling mood symptoms?

    Pop, V.J.M.; Truijens, E.M.; Wijnen, H.A.; van Son, M.J.M.; Bergink, V.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapid cycling mood symptoms during the first postpartum week are an important aspect of maternity blues. The aim of this study is to identify women with these rapid cycling mood symptoms in the general population and to investigate possible risk factors of these symptoms. METHODS: The Ma

  16. Sun-Like Magnetic Cycles in the Rapidly-Rotating Young Solar Analog HD 30495

    Egeland, Ricky; Hall, Jeffrey C; Henry, Gregory W

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that multiple dynamo mechanisms can drive magnetic variability on different timescales, not only in the Sun but also in other stars. Many solar activity proxies exhibit a quasi-biennial ($\\sim$2 year) variation, which is superimposed upon the dominant 11 year cycle. A well-characterized stellar sample suggests at least two different relationships between rotation period and cycle period, with some stars exhibiting long and short cycles simultaneously. Within this sample, the solar cycle periods are typical of a more rapidly rotating star, implying that the Sun might be in a transitional state or that it has an unusual evolutionary history. In this work, we present new and archival observations of dual magnetic cycles in the young solar analog HD 30495, an $\\sim$1 Gyr-old G1.5V star with a rotation period near 11 days. This star falls squarely on the relationships established by the broader stellar sample, with short-period variations at $\\sim$1.7 years and a long cycle of $...

  17. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel;

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control desi......Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3...... were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder...

  18. Thermal Behavior of Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery during Rapid Charge and Discharge Cycles

    Nakayama, Masato; Fukuda, Kenichi; Araki, Takuto; Onda, Kazuo

    The secondary batteries for the electric vehicle (EV) generate much heat during rapid charge and discharge cycles, when the EV starts quickly consuming the battery power and stops suddenly recovering the inertia energy. The generated heat increases significantly the cell temperature and causes possibly bad influences on the battery performance and the safely requirement. So we have studied the thermal behavior of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles, applying our previous battery thermal model, which have been confirmed to agree with the experimental results at smaller charge current than the rated current. The heat sources by the entropy change, the hydrogen occlusion and the side reaction have been referred to the published data, and the overpotential resistance and the current efficiency, the ratio of main reaction current to charge current, have been measured experimentally through the rapid charge and discharge characteristics with constant current. By using these data our thermal model for Ni/MH battery has estimated its temperature increase, which agrees well with the measured temperature rise, with the root mean square error of 1.5°C and 2.1°C for charge and discharge cycles, respectively.

  19. Magnetic Cycles and Buoyant Magnetic Structures in a Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Nelson, Nicholas J.; Brown, B. P.; Brun, S.; Miesch, M. S.; Toomre, J.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of sun-like stars rotating faster than our current sun show that they exhibit solar-like magnetic cycles and features, such as star spots. Using global 3-D simulations to study the coupling of large-scale convection, rotation, and magnetism in a younger sun, we have probed the effects of more rapid rotation on stellar dynamos and the nature of magnetic cycles. Our anelastic spherical harmonics (ASH) code allows study of the convective envelope, occupying the outer 30% by radius of a sun-like star. Major MHD simulations carried out at three times the current solar rotation rate reveal magnetic dynamo action that can produce wreaths of strong toroidal magnetic field at low latitudes, often with opposite polarity in the two hemispheres. The presence of the wreaths is quite surprising, for they arise as quite persistent global structures amidst the vigorous and turbulent convection. We have recently explored behavior in systems with considerably lower diffusivities, achieved with a dynamic Smagorinsky treatment of unresolved turbulence. The lower levels of diffusion create magnetic wreaths that undergo prominent variations in field strength, even exhibiting global magnetic cycles that involve polarity reversals. Additionally, during the cycle maximum, when magnetic energies and mean magnetic fields peak, the wreaths possess buoyant magnetic structures that rise coherently through much of the convective envelope via a combination of advection by convective upflows and magnetic buoyancy. We explore aspects of these rising magnetic structures and the evolving global dynamo action which produces them.

  20. Estimation of secondary electron effect in the J-PARC rapid cycling synchrotron after first study

    The J-PARC 3 GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS) is required to provide 1 MW pulsed protons to the spallation neutron target and the 50 GeV main ring. Since the RCS finally accelerates very high intensity beam such as 8.3 x 1013 ppp, the secondary electron cloud may affect the accelerator performance. We measured the secondary electron emission from the TiN coating surface and the ferrite sample. By using these measurement results, we estimated the effect of the electron cloud made by the emitted secondary electron at present beam parameters.

  1. Development and characterization of aluminum stranded water cooled conductor for rapid cycling synchrotron magnets

    Magnet coils of rapid cycling synchrotron are subjected to time varying magnetic fields and a special water cooled stranded conductor is preferred for making magnet coils to reduce eddy current losses, magnetic field inhomogeneity and operating costs of magnets. A continuous length (∼ 50 m) aluminum stranded water cooled conductor is indigenously developed. Five stranded magnet coils are wound and epoxy resin impregnated as per the technical requirements. The stranded conductor magnet coils are assembled with a laminated dipole magnet core for their electrical characterization. The development of water cooled aluminum stranded conductor, characterization of stranded magnet coils will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Study of a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron to replace the CERN PS Booster

    Hanke, K; Angoletta, M E; Balhan, B; Bartmann, W; Benedikt, M; Borburgh, J; Bozzini, D; Carli, C; Dahlen, P; Dobers, T; Fitterer, M; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hansen, J; Hermanns, T; Lopez-Hernandez, L A; Hourican, M; Jensen, S; Kosmicki, A; Meddahi, M; Mikulec, B; Newborough, A; Nonis, M; Olek, S; Paoluzzi, M; Pittet, S; Puccio, B; Raginel, V; Ruehl, I; Schönauer, H; Sermeus, L; Steerenberg, R; Tan, J; Tückmantel, J; Vretenar, M; Widorski, M

    2011-01-01

    CERN’s proton injector chain is undergoing a massive consolidation and upgrade program in order to deliver beams meeting the needs of the LHC Luminosity Upgrade. As an alternative to the upgrade of the existing Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the construction of a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) has been studied. This machine would replace the PSB and deliver beams to the LHC as well as to CERN’s rich fixed-target physics program. This paper summarizes the outcome of the feasibility study along with a tentative RCS design.

  3. Effects of Rapid Cycle Annealing Temperature on TbFe Magnetostrictive Films

    JIANG Hong-Chuan; ZHANG Jin-Ping; ZHANG Wan-Li; PENG Bin; ZHANG Wen-Xu; YANG Shi-Qing; ZHANG Huai-Wu

    2004-01-01

    @@ The effects of annealing temperature on TbFe films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering were discussed. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that these polycrystalline films consisting mainly of α-Fe and TbFe2 lave phase with grain sizes less than 25 nm can be obtained by a rapid cycle annealing process. Grain sizes can be controlled by varying annealing temperatures. Film hysteresis loop studies show that annealing treatment can improve TbFe film in-plane soft magnetic performances.

  4. Rapid alterations of cell cycle control proteins in human T lymphocytes in microgravity

    Thiel Cora S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In our study we aimed to identify rapidly reacting gravity-responsive mechanisms in mammalian cells in order to understand if and how altered gravity is translated into a cellular response. In a combination of experiments using "functional weightlessness" provided by 2D-clinostats and real microgravity provided by several parabolic flight campaigns and compared to in-flight-1g-controls, we identified rapid gravity-responsive reactions inside the cell cycle regulatory machinery of human T lymphocytes. In response to 2D clinorotation, we detected an enhanced expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 protein within minutes, less cdc25C protein expression and enhanced Ser147-phosphorylation of cyclinB1 after CD3/CD28 stimulation. Additionally, during 2D clinorotation, Tyr-15-phosphorylation occurred later and was shorter than in the 1 g controls. In CD3/CD28-stimulated primary human T cells, mRNA expression of the cell cycle arrest protein p21 increased 4.1-fold after 20s real microgravity in primary CD4+ T cells and 2.9-fold in Jurkat T cells, compared to 1 g in-flight controls after CD3/CD28 stimulation. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitor curcumin was able to abrogate microgravity-induced p21 mRNA expression, whereas expression was enhanced by a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor. Therefore, we suppose that cell cycle progression in human T lymphocytes requires Earth gravity and that the disturbed expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins could contribute to the breakdown of the human immune system in space.

  5. Effects of rapid quenching on structure and cycle stability of La-Mg-Ni-Co type hydrogen storage alloy

    DONG Xiaoping; Lü Fanxiu; ZHANG Yanghuan; YANG Liying; FENG Meng; WANG Xinlin

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the cycle stability of La-Mg-Ni-Co type alloy electrode, rapid quenching technology was employed. The effects of rapid quenching on the microstructure and cycle stability of the alloy were investigated. The obtained results show that the La2Mg(Ni0.85Co0.15)9M0.1 (M=B, Cr) alloy electrodes are composed of (La, Mg)Ni3 phase, LaNi5 phase and a small amount of the LaNi2 phase. A trace of the Ni2B phase exists in the as-cast MB alloy, and the Ni2B phase in the alloy nearly disappears after rapid quenching. Rapid quenching technology can slightly improve the cycling life of the alloy. When the quenching rate increases from 0 m·s -1 (As-cast is defined as quenching rate of 0 m·s-1 ) to 30 m·s -1 , the cycle lives of the MB, M Cr alloys enhance from 86 and 87 cycles to 106 and 119 cycles, respectively. On the other hand, the average capacity decay rates of the MB, M Cr alloys decrease from 1.7172 and 1.7178 mAh·g-1·cycle-1 to 1.5751 and 1.3060 mAh·g-1·cycle-1 after 86 charge-discharges cycling, respectively.

  6. Hoarding Symptoms Respond to Treatment for Rapid Cycling Bipolar II Disorder.

    Laurito, Luana D; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Kahn, David A

    2016-01-01

    Although some studies have reported a relationship between hoarding and bipolar disorder, we are unaware of any previous description of how they may interact with each other and how they should be managed appropriately. A 48-year-old male depressed patient with hoarding symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was diagnosed with bipolar II disorder after 2 hypomanic episodes. The patient was treated unsuccessfully with different high-dose serotonin reuptake inhibitors and atypical antipsychotics, maintaining a pattern of 6 to 8 discrete, but severe, depressive episodes each year, always in association with a drastic worsening of his OCD and hoarding symptoms. T.he patient did not improve until the dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor was decreased and a combination of lamotrigine and methylphenidate was initiated. On this treatment regimen, the patient did not show clinically significant levels of depression or hoarding or other OCD symptoms. This case suggests that, in some patients, (1) hoarding-related cognitions and behaviors may be a part of bipolar depression, (2) the episodic nature of rapid cycling bipolar II disorder may protect against the development of severe clutter, and (3) treatment focusing on bipolar depression (eg, lamotrigine plus methylphenidate) may result in an improvement of hoarding symptoms when these are present in patients with rapid cycling bipolar II disorder. PMID:26813488

  7. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    Chen, Pao-Huan; Huang, Yu-Jui

    2015-01-01

    The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipolar 1 disorder for 12 years who developed a breakthrough rapid cycling course and first-onset clinical hypothyroidism at the age...

  8. Daytime spikes in dopaminergic activity drive rapid mood-cycling in mice.

    Sidor, M M; Spencer, S M; Dzirasa, K; Parekh, P K; Tye, K M; Warden, M R; Arey, R N; Enwright, J F; Jacobsen, J P R; Kumar, S; Remillard, E M; Caron, M G; Deisseroth, K; McClung, C A

    2015-11-01

    Disruptions in circadian rhythms and dopaminergic activity are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, though their interaction remains unclear. Moreover, a lack of animal models that display spontaneous cycling between mood states has hindered our mechanistic understanding of mood switching. Here, we find that mice with a mutation in the circadian Clock gene (ClockΔ19) exhibit rapid mood-cycling, with a profound manic-like phenotype emerging during the day following a period of euthymia at night. Mood-cycling coincides with abnormal daytime spikes in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels and dopamine synthesis. To determine the significance of daytime increases in VTA dopamine activity to manic behaviors, we developed a novel optogenetic stimulation paradigm that produces a sustained increase in dopamine neuronal activity and find that this induces a manic-like behavioral state. Time-dependent dampening of TH activity during the day reverses manic-related behaviors in ClockΔ19 mice. Finally, we show that CLOCK acts as a negative regulator of TH transcription, revealing a novel molecular mechanism underlying cyclic changes in mood-related behavior. Taken together, these studies have identified a mechanistic connection between circadian gene disruption and the precipitation of manic episodes in bipolar disorder. PMID:25560763

  9. Realizing the potential of rapid-cycling Brassica as a model system for use in plant biology research

    Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid-cycling Brassica populations were initially developed as a model for probing the genetic basis of plant disease. Paul Williams and co-workers selected accessions of the six main species for short time to flower and rapid seed maturation. Over multiple generations of breeding and selection, rapid-cycling populations of each of the six species were developed. Because of their close relationship with economically important Brassica species, rapid-cycling Brassica populations, especially those of B. rapa (RCBr) and B. oleracea, have seen wide application in plant and crop physiology investigations. Adding to the popularity of these small, short-lived plants for research applications is their extensive use in K-12 education and outreach.

  10. Numerical analysis and experiment to identify origin of buckling in rapid cycling synchrotron core

    The accelerating cavities used in the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) are loaded with magnetic alloy (MA) cores. Over lengthly periods of RCS operation, significant reductions in the impedance of the cavities resulting from the buckling of the cores were observed. A series of thermal structural simulations and compressive strength tests showed that the buckling can be attributed to the low-viscosity epoxy resin impregnation of the MA core that causes the stiffening of the originally flexible MA–ribbon–wound core. Our results showed that thermal stress can be effectively reduced upon using a core that is not epoxy-impregnated. -- Highlights: • Study to identify the origin of buckling in the MA cores is presented. • Thermal stress simulations and compressive strength tests were carried out. • Results show that thermal stress is the origin of core buckling. • Thermal stress can be reduced by using cores without epoxy impregnation

  11. Reconsidering Tree Fruit as Candidate Crops Through the Use of Rapid Cycle Crop Breeding Technologies

    Graham, Gary Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Tree fruit, although desirable from a crew nutrition and menu diversity perspective, have long been dismissed as candidate crops based on their long juvenile phase, large architecture, low short-term harvest index, and dormancy requirements. Recent developments in Rapid Cycle Crop Breeding (RCCB) have overcome these historical limitations, opening the door to a new era in candidate crop research. Researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have developed FT-construct (Flowering Locus T) dwarf plum lines that have a very short juvenile phase, vine-like architecture, and no obligate dormancy period. In a collaborative research effort, NASA and the USDA are evaluating the performance of these FT-lines under controlled environment conditions relevant to spaceflight.

  12. β-Arrestin biosensors reveal a rapid, receptor-dependent activation/deactivation cycle.

    Nuber, Susanne; Zabel, Ulrike; Lorenz, Kristina; Nuber, Andreas; Milligan, Graeme; Tobin, Andrew B; Lohse, Martin J; Hoffmann, Carsten

    2016-03-31

    (β-)Arrestins are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They bind to active, phosphorylated GPCRs and thereby shut off 'classical' signalling to G proteins, trigger internalization of GPCRs via interaction with the clathrin machinery and mediate signalling via 'non-classical' pathways. In addition to two visual arrestins that bind to rod and cone photoreceptors (termed arrestin1 and arrestin4), there are only two (non-visual) β-arrestin proteins (β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2, also termed arrestin2 and arrestin3), which regulate hundreds of different (non-visual) GPCRs. Binding of these proteins to GPCRs usually requires the active form of the receptors plus their phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The binding of receptors or their carboxy terminus as well as certain truncations induce active conformations of (β-)arrestins that have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography. Here we investigate both the interaction of β-arrestin with GPCRs, and the β-arrestin conformational changes in real time and in living human cells, using a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based β-arrestin2 biosensors. We observe receptor-specific patterns of conformational changes in β-arrestin2 that occur rapidly after the receptor-β-arrestin2 interaction. After agonist removal, these changes persist for longer than the direct receptor interaction. Our data indicate a rapid, receptor-type-specific, two-step binding and activation process between GPCRs and β-arrestins. They further indicate that β-arrestins remain active after dissociation from receptors, allowing them to remain at the cell surface and presumably signal independently. Thus, GPCRs trigger a rapid, receptor-specific activation/deactivation cycle of β-arrestins, which permits their active signalling. PMID:27007855

  13. Parasitic slow extraction of extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron

    Zou, Ye [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Jingyu, E-mail: tangjy@ihep.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Zheng; Jing, Hantao [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-02-11

    This paper proposes a novel method to extract extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the parasitic mode, while maintaining the normal fast extraction. The usual slow extraction method from a synchrotron by employing third-order resonance cannot be applied in a high-intensity RCS due to a very short flat-top at the extraction energy and the strict control on beam loss. The proposed parasitic slow extraction method moves the beam to scrape a scattering foil prior to the fast beam extraction by employing either a local orbit bump or momentum deviation or their combination, so that the halo part of the beam will be scattered. A part of the scattered particles will be extracted from the RCS and guided to the experimental area. The slow extraction process can last about a few milliseconds before the beam is extracted by the fast extraction system. The method has been applied to the RCS of China Spallation Neutron Source. With 1.6 GeV in the extraction energy, 62.5 μA in the average current and 25 Hz in the repetition rate for the RCS, the proton intensity by the slow extraction method can be up to 2×10{sup 4} protons per cycle or 5×10{sup 5} protons per second. The extracted beam has also a good time structure of approximately uniform in a spill which is required for many applications such as detector tests. Detailed studies including the scattering effect in the foil, the local orbit bump by the bump magnets and dispersive orbit bump by modifying the RF pattern, the multi-particle simulations by ORBIT and TURTLE codes, and some technical features for the extraction magnets are presented.

  14. Resistive wall instability in rapid Cycling synchrotron of China spallation neutron source

    Huang, Liangsheng; Liu, Yudong; Wang, Sheng, E-mail: wangs@ihep.ac.cn

    2013-11-11

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a high intensity proton accelerator based facility, and its accelerator complex includes two main parts: an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The RCS accumulates the 80 MeV proton beam, and accelerates it to 1.6 GeV, with a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The 1.6 GeV beam is fast extracted for striking the neutron target with average beam power of 100 kW. The collective effect caused by the coupling impedance is one of the serious issues which limit the highest beam power. The impedance estimation of RCS components showed that the resistive wall impedance and its instability are serious. Based on the estimated impedance, the resistive wall instability growth time is theoretically calculated. In order to confirm the analytical results of resistive wall instability, a simplified resistive wall wake field model is used to track the bunch oscillation, and the growth time of resistive wall instability is obtained. In this model, the continuous resistive wall wake field is expressed as an equivalent wake field of one point in the ring, and the long bunch is sliced into many slices longitudinally. By tracking the dynamics of the slices, transverse growth time is obtained. The simulation results with constant energy agree well with the analytical results. The studies of energy ramping process show that if the damping effect of the chromaticity is not considered, the growth time of resistive wall instability is faster than the period of an RCS cycle, and the damping effect of chromaticity will play a key role in suppressing the instability. -- Highlights: • Resistive wall instability growth time is calculated theoretically. • The growth time with different chromaticities is also given theoretically. • The simulation code of transverse resistive wall instability is found. • The growth time of transverse resistive wall instability is obtained by the code. • The growth time with different chromaticities is simulated

  15. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-18 in manic and hypomanic states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    Munkholm, Klaus; Weikop, Pia; Kessing, Lars Vedel;

    2015-01-01

    obtained in affective states of varying polarity during 6-12 months in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and compared with repeated measurements in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects, using rigorous laboratory-, clinical- and statistical methodology. Adjusting for demographical......, clinical- and lifestyle factors, levels of IL-6 (p<0.05) and IL-18 (p<0.005) were significantly elevated in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients in a manic/hypomanic state, compared with a depressed and a euthymic state. Compared with healthy control subjects, unadjusted levels of IL-6 (p<0.05) and IL...

  16. Rapid response of the steatosis-sensing hepatokine LECT2 during diet-induced weight cycling in mice.

    Chikamoto, Keita; Misu, Hirofumi; Takayama, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Ishii, Kiyo-Aki; Lan, Fei; Takata, Noboru; Tajima-Shirasaki, Natsumi; Takeshita, Yumie; Tsugane, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Shuichi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2016-09-23

    Dieting often leads to body weight cycling involving repeated weight loss and regain. However, little information is available regarding rapid-response serum markers of overnutrition that predict body weight alterations during weight cycling. Here, we report the rapid response of serum leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), a hepatokine that induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, during diet-induced weight cycling in mice. A switch from a high-fat diet (HFD) to a regular diet (RD) in obese mice gradually decreased body weight but rapidly decreased serum LECT2 levels within 10 days. In contrast, a switch from a RD to a HFD rapidly elevated serum LECT2 levels. Serum LECT2 levels showed a positive correlation with liver triglyceride contents but not with adipose tissue weight. This study demonstrates the rapid response of LECT2 preceding body weight alterations during weight cycling in mice and suggests that measurement of serum LECT2 may be clinically useful in the management of obesity. PMID:27562717

  17. Rapid Quench Cold-Seal Apparatus with Computer-Controlled Pressure and Temperature Cycling

    Johnston, A.; Senkovich, D.

    2007-12-01

    We have constructed two computer-controlled, rapid quench, hydrothermal apparatuses that are ideal for experimentation on volcanological, geothermal, and ore deposit research problems. The devices can achieve maximum pressures of about 2 kbar and temperatures to 1100C, have the ability for experiments to be quenched very rapidly in a water-cooled environment, and are interfaced with computers which can control any regimen of pressure and/or temperature cycling that may be desired, accomplished via Lab-View software and data acquisition and motion control boards from National Instruments. The rapid quench aspects of the design were developed originally by Dr. Phil Ihinger and have subsequently been adopted by many labs around the world; a good summary description of these aspects of the equipment, and the use of filler-rods for controlling redox conditions in such equipment, are provided by Matthews et al. (2004, Am. Mineral., 88: 701-707). Our design has fixed Rene 41 pressure vessels, furnaces that are raised and lowered by computer controlled pneumatic cylinders and water cooling systems that are controlled by computer operated solenoid valves. The novel feature of our design is the pressure generation and control systems. We coupled the seal-ends of commercially available (HIP) pressure generators to shop-built linear actuators consisting of nearly frictionless ball lead screws within thick walled stainless steel housings. These in turn are driven by NEMA size 23 stepper motors coupled to 100:1 gear reduction units. The actuators require 21 revolutions to achieve their full stroke of 12.7 cm which displaces about 10 cc of fluid. Operating the motors at the relatively low resolution of 800 steps per revolution leads to about 132,000 steps per cm of travel of the pressure-generating piston, providing exceptionally high precision and excellent pressure control. Instantaneous decompression can be achieved by simply opening a valve while motor

  18. Beam loss monitor system of the rapid cycling synchrotron of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    The 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) provides more than 300 kW beam to the Material and Life Science Facility (MLF) and the Main Ring (MR). In such high intensity hadron accelerator, the lost protons that are a fraction of the beam less than 0.1% cause many problems. Those particles bring about a serious radioactivation and a malfunction of the accelerator components. Therefore, the beam loss monitor (BLM) is one of the most important equipment to observe the state of the beam during operation, and to keep a steady operation. Moreover, if we set operation parameters of BLM adequately, it can detect the beam loss that is 10-6 fraction of the beam. Thus it enables fine-tuning of the accelerator. In the J-PARC RCS, a proportional counter and a plastic scintillation counter are used for the beam commission and the stable operation as BLM. We report present status of the BLM system in J-PARC RCS. (author)

  19. Fast Plants for Finer Science--An Introduction to the Biology of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Campestris (rapa) L.

    Tomkins, Stephen P.; Williams, Paul H.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid-cycling brassicas can be used in the classroom to teach concepts such as plant growth, tropisms, floral reproduction, pollination, embryonic development, and plant genetics. Directions on how to obtain them for classroom use and how they may be grown are included. Practical physiology and genetics exercises are listed. (KR)

  20. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  1. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    Chen PH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipolar 1 disorder for 12 years who developed a breakthrough rapid cycling course and first-onset clinical hypothyroidism at the age of 31 years during lithium therapy. After levothyroxine augmentation therapy was introduced, the patient had remission from the rapid cycling illness course along with normalization of serum levels of free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone in the subsequent year. This observation suggested that investigation of both levothyroxine pharmacology and thyroid pathology in male patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder might be of much value. Keywords: mood disorder, therapy, thyroid hormone

  2. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-10-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  3. SU-E-T-303: Spot Scanning Dose Delivery with Rapid Cycling Proton Beams From RCMS

    Purpose: A rapid cycling proton beam has several distinct characteristics superior to a slow extraction synchrotron: The beam energy and energy spread, beam intensity and spot size can be varied spot by spot. The feasibility of using a spot scanning beam from a rapidc-ycling-medical-synchrotron (RCMS) at 10 Hz repetition frequency is investigated in this study for its application in proton therapy. Methods: The versatility of the beam is illustrated by two examples in water phantoms: (1) a cylindrical PTV irradiated by a single field and (2) a spherical PTV irradiated by two parallel opposed fields. A uniform dose distribution is to be delivered to the volumes. Geant4 Monte Carlo code is used to validate the dose distributions in each example. Results: Transverse algorithms are developed to produce uniform distributions in each transverseplane in the two examples with a cylindrical and a spherical PTV respectively. Longitudinally, different proton energies are used in successive transverse planes toproduce the SOBP required to cover the PTVs. In general, uniformity of dosedistribution within 3% is obtained for the cylinder and 3.5% for the sphere. The transversealgorithms requires only few hundred beam spots for each plane The algorithms may beapplied to larger volumes by increasing the intensity spot by spot for the same deliverytime of the same dose. The treatment time can be shorter than 1 minute for any fieldconfiguration and tumor shape. Conclusion: The unique beam characteristics of a spot scanning beam from a RCMS at 10 Hz repetitionfrequency are used to design transverse and longitudinal algorithms to produce uniformdistribution for any arbitrary shape and size of targets. The proposed spot scanning beam ismore versatile than existing spot scanning beams in proton therapy with better beamcontrol and lower neutron dose. This work is supported in part by grants from the US Department of Energy under contract; DE-FG02-12ER41800 and the National Science

  4. Sun-Like Magnetic Cycles in the Rapidly-Rotating Young Solar Analog HD 30495

    Egeland, Ricky; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that multiple dynamo mechanisms can drive magnetic variability on different timescales, not only in the Sun but also in other stars. Many solar activity proxies exhibit a quasi-biennial ($\\sim$2 year) variation, which is superimposed upon the dominant 11 year cycle. A well-characterized stellar sample suggests at least two different relationships between rotation period and cycle period, with some stars exhibiting long and short cycles simultaneously. Withi...

  5. Clinical response of quetiapine in rapid cycling manic bipolar patients and lactate level changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Dajung J Kim; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung J; Choi, Taeyoung; Lee, Byungchol; Kim, Jieun E.; Lee, Joonsun S.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between quetiapine’s effect on the improvement of mood symptoms in bipolar patients and brain metabolite level changes as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Rapid cycling bipolar patients in the manic state were recruited and treated with quetiapine for 12 weeks. Clinical assessment was performed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Clinical...

  6. DNA-Based Genetic Markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica Rapa (Fast Plants Type) Designed for the Teaching Laboratory

    Slankster, Eryn E.; Chase, Jillian M.; Jones, Lauren A.; Wendell, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr), also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for B. rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers and 14 variable number tand...

  7. Mapping the Anthocyaninless (anl) Locus in Rapid-Cycling Brassica rapa (RBr) to Linkage Group R9

    Wendell Douglas L; Burdzinski Carrie

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Anthocyanins are flavonoid pigments that are responsible for purple coloration in the stems and leaves of a variety of plant species. Anthocyaninless (anl) mutants of Brassica rapa fail to produce anthocyanin pigments. In rapid-cycling Brassica rapa, also known as Wisconsin Fast Plants, the anthocyaninless trait, also called non-purple stem, is widely used as a model recessive trait for teaching genetics. Although anthocyanin genes have been mapped in other plants such as ...

  8. Anti-AMPA-Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as a Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder in a Young Woman with Turner Syndrome

    Giuseppe Quaranta; Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani; Giulio Perugi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune encephalitis is a disorder characterised by the subacute onset of seizures, short-term memory loss, and psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. Initially, it was recognised as a paraneoplastic disorder, but recently a subgroup of patients without systemic cancer was identified. Case Description. We describe a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome presenting with a treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder with cognitive impairment. She was diagnosed with anti-AM...

  9. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    Chen, Pao-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipola...

  10. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    Chen PH; Huang YJ

    2015-01-01

    Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipolar 1 ...

  11. Sex and estrous cycle-dependent rapid protein kinase signaling actions of estrogen in distal colonic cells.

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that 17beta-estradiol (E2) rapidly inhibits Cl(-) secretion in rat and human distal colonic epithelium. The inhibition has been shown to occur via targeting of a basolateral K(+) channel identified as the KCNQ1 (KvLQT1) channel. E2 indirectly modulates the channel activity via a cascade of second messengers which are rapidly phosphorylated in response to E2. The anti-secretory mechanism may be the manner by which E2 induces fluid retention in the intestine during periods of high circulating plasma E2. Here we review the sex-dependent and estrous cycle regulation of this novel rapid response to E2. The inhibition of KCNQ1 channel activity and Cl(-) secretion will be of interest in the future in the investigation of the retentive effects of estrogen in female tissue and also in the study of secretory disorders and drugable targets of the intestine.

  12. Influence of Rapid Freeze-Thaw Cycling on the Mechanical Properties of Sustainable Strain-Hardening Cement Composite (2SHCC

    Seok-Joon Jang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides experimental results to investigate the mechanical properties of sustainable strain-hardening cement composite (2SHCC for infrastructures after freeze-thaw actions. To improve the sustainability of SHCC materials in this study, high energy-consumptive components—silica sand, cement, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fibers—in the conventional SHCC materials are partially replaced with recycled materials such as recycled sand, fly ash, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers, respectively. To investigate the mechanical properties of green SHCC that contains recycled materials, the cement, PVA fiber and silica sand were replaced with 10% fly ash, 25% PET fiber, and 10% recycled aggregate based on preliminary experimental results for the development of 2SHCC material, respectively. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight for 2SHCC material were measured at every 30 cycles of freeze-thaw. The effects of freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties of sustainable SHCC are evaluated by conducting compressive tests, four-point flexural tests, direct tensile tests and prism splitting tests after 90, 180, and 300 cycles of rapid freeze-thaw. Freeze-thaw testing was conducted according to ASTM C 666 Procedure A. Test results show that after 300 cycles of freezing and thawing actions, the dynamic modulus of elasticity and mass loss of damaged 2SHCC were similar to those of virgin 2SHCC, while the freeze-thaw cycles influence mechanical properties of the 2SHCC material except for compressive behavior.

  13. Effects of adding injection–compression to rapid heat cycle molding on the structure of a light guide plate

    This study investigates the effects of adding injection–compression to rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) (rapid heat cycle injection–compression molding (RICM)) on the physical quality and optical anisotropy of a molded light guide plate (LGP). Transcription ratio of microstructure, uniformity of part thickness and birefringence were experimentally evaluated on a 7 inch LGP of nominal thickness of 1.12 mm (including a microstructure array of 30 µm diameter and 14 µm height). The designed mold was equipped with rapid heating and compressing facilities and a microstructured nickel stamper was fabricated by UV LIGA process. In addition, to investigate the efficacy of RICM, experiments involving conventional injection molding (CIM), ICM, and RHCM were conducted in parallel with RICM using the same mold. RHCM and RICM yielded excellent transcription ratios for the microstructure, while CIM and RICM provided high thickness uniformity and low birefringence. Thus, RICM obtains high transcription ratio of microstructure, uniform thickness and low birefringence. (paper)

  14. Justification of rapid prototyping in the development cycle of thermoplastic-based lab-on-a-chip.

    Preywisch, Regina; Ritzi-Lehnert, Marion; Drese, Klaus S; Röser, Tina

    2011-11-01

    During the developmental cycle of lab-on-a-chip devices, various microstructuring techniques are required. While in the designing and assay implementation phase direct structuring or so-called rapid-prototyping methods such as milling or laser ablation are applied, replication methods like hot embossing or injection moulding are favourable for large quantity manufacturing. This work investigated the applicability of rapid-prototyping techniques for thermoplastic chip development in general, and the reproducibility of performances in dependency of the structuring technique. A previously published chip for prenatal diagnosis that preconcentrates DNA via electrokinetic trapping and field-amplified-sample-stacking and afterwards separates it in CGE was chosen as a model. The impact of structuring, sealing, and the integration of membranes on the mobility of the EOF, DNA preconcentration, and DNA separation was studied. Structuring methods were found to significantly change the location where preconcentration of DNA occurs. However, effects on the mobility of the EOF and the separation quality of DNA were not observed. Exchange of the membrane has no effect on the chip performance, whereas the sealing method impairs the separation of DNA within the chip. The overall assay performance is not significantly influenced by different structuring methods; thus, the application of rapid-prototyping methods during a chip development cycle is well justified. PMID:22102495

  15. A role for prostaglandins in rapid cycling suggested by episode-specific gene expression shifts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Gurvich, Artem; Begemann, Martin; Dahm, Liane; Sargin, Derya; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    monopolar depression (n = 97) were recruited over a period of three years. Repeated psychopathology measurements were conducted using standard instruments. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained during as many consecutive episodes as possible and processed for mRNA isolation and......OBJECTIVES: Over 12% of patients with bipolar disorder exhibit rapid cycling. The underlying biological mechanisms of this extreme form of bipolar disease are still unknown. This study aimed at replicating and extending findings of our previously published case report, where an involvement of...

  16. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of...

  17. Velocity tagging by rapid cycling in time-of-flight imaging

    Images of flowing material in a stationary surround have been obtained using a modified spin-echo sequence with the initial 900 pulse replaced by a small-angle excitation. With this sequence, the longitudinal magnetization of a given volume of material alternates in sign and decreases in magnitude with successive excitation cycles. This results in reduced signal intensity from the stationary material and bands of intensity distribution in regions corresponding to the flowing material. The number, size, and intensity of these bands depend on the relaxation times, the velocity distribution of the moving material, and the pulse sequence timing parameters

  18. Hardware In The Loop Simulator in UAV Rapid Development Life Cycle

    Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka

    2008-01-01

    Field trial is very critical and high risk in autonomous UAV development life cycle. Hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation is a computer simulation that has the ability to simulate UAV flight characteristic, sensor modeling and actuator modeling while communicating in real time with the UAV autopilot hardware. HIL simulation can be used to test the UAV autopilot hardware reliability, test the closed loop performance of the overall system and tuning the control parameter. By rigorous testing in the HIL simulator, the risk in the field trial can be minimized.

  19. Eddy current control in the AGS rapid cycling booster accelerator magnets

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.; Spataro, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Dept.

    1994-07-01

    The Booster requires highly variable magnet cycles. When B is large, eddy current induced sextupole, etc., in the dipole vacuum chamber (VC) is large, with a much smaller contribution from magnet ends. Simple passive coils excited automatically by transformer action cancel the B induced sextupole. A self correction coil is not required for the quadrupoles, since B induced aberrations are very small (< 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at full aperture). Iron magnetization does not produce dipole or quadrupole magnet multipole aberrations, so these magnets have been effectively made independent of unwanted multipoles for all cycles. However, variations in the transfer functions and thus the Booster tune have not been automatically eliminated. Iron magnetization contributions are almost matched, but the B induced field retardation in the dipoles VC is larger than in the quadrupoles. Results of measurements will be presented, plus a simple system to overcome the mismatch and make the tune independent of B. Properties of special lattice magnets and their corrections will also be described.

  20. Eddy current control in the AGS rapid cycling booster accelerator magnets

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.; Spataro, C.

    1993-11-01

    The Booster requires highly variable magnet cycles. When B is large, eddy current induced sextupole, etc., in the dipole vacuum chamber (VC) is large, with a much smaller contribution from magnet ends. Simple passive coils excited automatically by transformer action cancel the B induced sextupole. A self correction coil is not required for the quadrupoles, since g induced aberrations are very small (< 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at full aperture). Iron magnetization does not produce dipole or quadrupole magnet multipole aberrations, so these magnets have been effectively made independent of unwanted multipoles for all cycles. However, variations in the transfer functions and thus the Booster tune have not been automatically eliminated. Iron magnetization contributions are almost matched, but the B induced field retardation in the dipoles VC is larger than in the quadrupoles. Results of measurements will be presented, plus a simple system to overcome the mismatch and make the tune independent of B. Properties of special lattice magnets and their corrections will also be described.

  1. 3D noninvasive, high-resolution imaging using a photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system and rapid wavelength-cycling lasers

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Gross, Daniel; Klosner, Marc; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-05-01

    Globally, cancer is a major health issue as advances in modern medicine continue to extend the human life span. Breast cancer ranks second as a cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) provides high molecular contrast at greater depths in tissue without the use of ionizing radiation. In this work, we describe the development of a PA tomography (PAT) system and a rapid wavelength-cycling Alexandrite laser designed for clinical PAI applications. The laser produces 450 mJ/pulse at 25 Hz to illuminate the entire breast, which eliminates the need to scan the laser source. Wavelength cycling provides a pulse sequence in which the output wavelength repeatedly alternates between 755 nm and 797 nm rapidly within milliseconds. We present imaging results of breast phantoms with inclusions of different sizes at varying depths, obtained with this laser source, a 5-MHz 128-element transducer and a 128-channel Verasonics system. Results include PA images and 3D reconstruction of the breast phantom at 755 and 797 nm, delineating the inclusions that mimic tumors in the breast.

  2. Inert matrix fuel concept for the rapid incineration of minor actinides harmonious with a fast reactor cycle system

    We proposed a fast reactor cycle concept that incorporates inert matrix fuels as a high-performance device for rapid incineration of minor actinides and a harmonious system with the existing fast reactor cycle technologies. R and D of minor actinides containing advanced fuels for use in fast reactors is described in relation to inert matrix fuels with MgO, Mo and Si3N4. As related technologies, burn-up characteristics of a fast reactor core loaded with the inert matrix fuel with MgO and Mo were analyzed, mainly in terms of core criticality. Fabrication tests of inert matrix fuels with MgO, Mo and Si3N4 were done by a practical process that could be adapted to the presently-used commercial manufacturing technology. Preliminary investigations for the solubility of inert matrix fuels to the HNO3 were carried out for the evaluation of applicability to existing reprocessing technology. This paper describes a part of our efforts towards the establishment of a fast reactor cycle that incorporates the minor actinides containing inert matrix fuels. (author)

  3. Contrail life cycle and properties from one year of MSG/SEVIRI rapid-scan images

    M. Vázquez-Navarro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Contrail Tracking Algorithm (ACTA -developed to automatically follow contrails as they age, drift and spread- enables the study of a large number of contrails and the evolution of contrail properties with time. In this paper we present a year's worth of tracked contrails, from August 2008 to July 2009 in order to derive statistically significant mean values. The tracking is performed using the 5 min rapid-scan mode of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI on board of the Meteosat Second Generation satellites (MSG. The detection is based on the high spatial resolution of the images provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board of the Terra satellite (Terra/MODIS, where a Contrail Detection Algorithm (CDA is applied. The results show the satellite-derived average lifetimes of contrails and contrail-cirrus along with the probability density function (PDF of other geometric characteristics such as mean coverage, distribution and width. In combination with specifically developed algorithms (RRUMS and COCS, explained below it is possible to derive the radiative forcing (RF, energy forcing (EF, optical thickness (τ, and altitude of the tracked contrails. Mean values here retrieved are: duration, 1 h; length, 130 km; width, 8 km; altitude, 11.7 km; optical thickness, 0.34. Radiative forcing and energy forcing are shown for land/water backgrounds in day/night situations.

  4. Impedance measurements of the extraction kicker system for the rapid cycling synchrotron of China Spallation Neutron Source

    Liang-Sheng, Huang; Sheng, Wang; Yu-Dong, Liu; Yong, Li; Ren-Hong, Liu; Ou-Zheng, Xiao

    2016-04-01

    The fast extraction kicker system is one of the most important accelerator components and the main source of impedance in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of the China Spallation Neutron Source. It is necessary to understand the kicker impedance before its installation into the tunnel. Conventional and improved wire methods are employed in the impedance measurement. The experimental results for the kicker impedance are explained by comparison with simulation using CST PARTICLE STUDIO. The simulation and measurement results confirm that the window-frame ferrite geometry and the end plate are the important structures causing coupling impedance. It is proved in the measurements that the mismatching from the power form network to the kicker leads to a serious oscillation sideband of the longitudinal and vertical impedance and the oscillation can be reduced by ferrite absorbing material. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175193, 11275221)

  5. Anti-AMPA-Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as a Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder in a Young Woman with Turner Syndrome.

    Quaranta, Giuseppe; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune encephalitis is a disorder characterised by the subacute onset of seizures, short-term memory loss, and psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. Initially, it was recognised as a paraneoplastic disorder, but recently a subgroup of patients without systemic cancer was identified. Case Description. We describe a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome presenting with a treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder with cognitive impairment. She was diagnosed with anti-AMPA-receptor encephalitis. She showed marked improvement after starting memantine and valproic acid. Conclusion. This case description emphasises the importance of timely recognition of autoimmune limbic encephalitis in patients with psychiatric manifestations and a possible predisposition to autoimmune conditions, in order to rule out malignancy and to quickly initiate treatment. PMID:26495149

  6. Anti-AMPA-Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as a Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder in a Young Woman with Turner Syndrome

    Giuseppe Quaranta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune encephalitis is a disorder characterised by the subacute onset of seizures, short-term memory loss, and psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. Initially, it was recognised as a paraneoplastic disorder, but recently a subgroup of patients without systemic cancer was identified. Case Description. We describe a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome presenting with a treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder with cognitive impairment. She was diagnosed with anti-AMPA-receptor encephalitis. She showed marked improvement after starting memantine and valproic acid. Conclusion. This case description emphasises the importance of timely recognition of autoimmune limbic encephalitis in patients with psychiatric manifestations and a possible predisposition to autoimmune conditions, in order to rule out malignancy and to quickly initiate treatment.

  7. Anti-AMPA-Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as a Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder in a Young Woman with Turner Syndrome

    Quaranta, Giuseppe; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune encephalitis is a disorder characterised by the subacute onset of seizures, short-term memory loss, and psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. Initially, it was recognised as a paraneoplastic disorder, but recently a subgroup of patients without systemic cancer was identified. Case Description. We describe a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome presenting with a treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder with cognitive impairment. She was diagnosed with anti-AMPA-receptor encephalitis. She showed marked improvement after starting memantine and valproic acid. Conclusion. This case description emphasises the importance of timely recognition of autoimmune limbic encephalitis in patients with psychiatric manifestations and a possible predisposition to autoimmune conditions, in order to rule out malignancy and to quickly initiate treatment. PMID:26495149

  8. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-01

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed. PMID:27517866

  9. DNA-based genetic markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants type designed for the teaching laboratory.

    Eryn E. Slankster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr, also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for Brassica rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a nongenic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology.

  10. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  11. Teaching Human Genetics with Mustard: Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Fast Plants Type) as a Model for Human Genetics in the Classroom Laboratory

    Wendell, Douglas L.; Pickard, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    We have developed experiments and materials to model human genetics using rapid cycling "Brassica rapa", also known as Fast Plants. Because of their self-incompatibility for pollination and the genetic diversity within strains, "B. rapa" can serve as a relevant model for human genetics in teaching laboratory experiments. The experiment presented…

  12. Estimation of eddy current loss for a turbo-molecular pump in the J-PARC rapid cycling synchrotron

    Magnetically suspended turbo-molecular pumps (TMPs) have been widely used in nuclear fusion devices and sometimes used in particle accelerators, because it is much easier for the TMPs with dry backing pumps to achieve and maintain UHV without oil contamination. In these devices the TMPs are influenced by a quasi static magnetic field; the eddy current is induced on the rotating rotor and then forces the rotor to thermally expand. In order to use the TMPs safely we attempted to establish a standard procedure for determining the influence of magnetic fields on TMPs. First of all, this influence was investigated in detail through the experiment with a rather small TMP. As a result, the following are found. (1) The parallel magnetic field has no influence, on the other hand, the driving power and the rotor temperature are greatly affected by the vertical magnetic fields. (2) The eddy current loss is formulated and well estimated with a model where a localized magnetic field and current flow exist within the rotor into the region down to a substantial skin depth δ from the surface. This time we applied the above conclusions to the TMPs with high radioactive resistance which were employed in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). With the evaluation equation of eddy current loss established through the experiment in a uniform magnetic field, the rise of rotor temperature is estimated to be ∼100degC even in the orthogonal magnetic field of 0.003 T. Thus, we concluded that the TMPs are safely operated in the RCS, as the leakage magnetic field at the floor where the TMPs are set is less than 0.001 T. (author)

  13. Development of a Rapid Cycling CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O Removal Sorbent

    Paul, Heather; Alptekin, Goekhan; Cates, Matthew; Bernal, Casey; Dubovik, Margarita; Gershanovich, Yevgenia

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planned future missions set stringent demands on the design of the Portable Life Support System (PLSS), requiring dramatic reductions in weight, decreased reliance on supplies and greater flexibility on the types of missions. Use of regenerable systems that reduce weight and volume of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is of critical importance to NASA, both for low orbit operations and for long duration manned missions. The carbon dioxide and humidity control unit in the existing PLSS design is relatively large, since it has to remove and store 8 hours worth of CO2. If the sorbent regeneration can be carried out during the extravehicular activity (EVA) with a relatively high regeneration frequency, the size of the sorbent canister and weight can be significantly reduced. The progress of regenerable CO2 and humidity control is leading us towards the use of a rapid cycling amine system. TDA Research, Inc. is developing compact, regenerable sorbent materials to control CO2 and humidity in the space suit ventilation loop. The sorbent can be regenerated using space vacuum during the EVA, eliminating all carbon dioxide and humidity duration-limiting elements in the life support system. The material also has applications in other areas of space exploration such as the Orion spacecraft and other longer duration exploration missions requiring regenerable technologies. This paper summarizes the results of the sorbent development, testing, and evaluation efforts to date. The results of a preliminary system analysis are also included, showing the size and volume reductions for PLSS provided by the new system.

  14. Conceptual design of a rapid-cycling synchrotron for the KFA-Juelich spallation neutron source: working papers

    An accelerator group was established at ANL by the request of KFA-Juelich to carry out a conceptual design study and cost estimate for a rapid-cycling synchrotron as a possible first stage program on spallation neutron sources at KFA-Juelich. This set of notes is the individual notes which form the basis of the final report under this proposal prepared in January 1983. The topics covered include: SNQ Synchrotron Lattice-I; injection and extraction orbit; extraction from SNQ-SRA; SRA injection; capture and acceleration considerations in the SNQ-SRA; longitudinal coupling impedance; power supplies for SNQ synchrotron proposals; space charge limits in the SNQ-SRA; error analysis; SNQ-SRA ring magnets preliminary designs and cost; summary of CERN booster 4-ring arrangement; V-lattices for SNQ-SRA and extraction from the V-lattices; rf parameters for capture, acceleration and extraction; some parameters of the SNQ-SRA injector system; Keil-Schnell criterion; risetime of longitudinal resistive wall instability; beam scrapers; a design of the vacuum system; some aspects of vacuum consideration for SNQ-SRA; choice working points; ring magnet power supplies for shaped extaction of 1.1 GeV SNQ; ring magnet design and costs; tune shift due to the fringing field of the quadrupoles; coherent instability due to ions in the residual gas; transverse stabilization of bunched beams; rf acceleration system; injection into the SRA; Landau damping to get transverse stability; chromaticity and amplitude dependent tune controls in the SNQ-SRA; conversion of the SNQ-SRA to a compressor ring; comments on beam loss; summary of longitudinal stability study and transverse stability study for the SNQ-SRA; and the beam stay clear regions of the SNQ-SRA

  15. Characterizing the Performance of a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer with a Rapid Cycling Tenax Preconcentrator

    Garland, S.P.; Alexander, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are species of interest for atmospheric modeling, worker chemical exposure and medical studies. Sometimes the required detection limits for these compounds is below the capability of existing real-time instrumentation. Preconcentrators have been implemented as an inexpensive way to amplify chemical signals and improve detection limits. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used as a tool for studying low concentrations of VOCs, but it lacks the capability to differentiate chemical signal contributions from isobaric compounds. In this work, behavior of a newly designed Tenax TA preconcentrator when coupled with a PTRMS is characterized. This novel preconcentrator design allows rapid temperature cycling, maintaining near real-time response. The preconcentrator was exposed to a sample gas of toluene in varying concentrations and loading times between and then thermally desorbed for analysis by PTR-MS. The effects of preconcentrating multiple analytes simultaneously were also investigated as well as the chromatographic effects of the preconcentrator. A linear behavior was observed when the integrated ion count rates (ICPS) from thermal desorption peaks were regressed against both varying loading times at a constant toluene concentration and varying concentrations with constant loading times. From these trends, it is possible to determine the concentration of a VOC by knowing its ICPS from thermal desorption peaks from a known preconcentration time. Peak height ion count rates representing ultimate detectability were amplified by factors up to 257 times the original signal, extending the range of the PTR-MS from 50pptv to nearly 250 parts per quadrillion. This corresponds to an ultimate sensitivity of 200 parts per quadrillion with 20 minute time resolution. Quantitative preconcentrator behavior was demonstrated using ICPS from these ion peaks and were amplified as much as 148 times their original signal. Results

  16. Design and Development Comparison of Rapid Cycle Amine 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal has been in progress since favorable results were published in 1996. Shortly thereafter, a prototype was designed, developed, and tested successfully and delivered to Johnson Space Center in 1999. An improved prototype (RCA 1.0) was delivered to NASA in 2006 and sized for the extravehicular activity (EVA). The RCA swing-bed technology is a regenerative system which employs two alternating solid-amine sorbent beds to remove CO2 and water. The two-bed design employs a chemisorption process whereby the beds alternate between adsorption and desorption. This process provides for an efficient RCA operation that enables one bed to be in adsorb (uptake) mode, while the other is in the desorb (regeneration) mode. The RCA has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels. Test articles have now been designed, developed, and tested for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS) including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0. The RCA 3.0 was the most recent RCA fabrication and was delivered to NASA-JSC in June 2015. The RCA 1.0 test article was designed with a pneumatically actuated linear motion spool valve. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source. RCA 2.0 and 3.0 also include an embedded controller design to control RCA operation and provide the capability of interfacing with various sensors and other ventilation loop components. The RCA technology is low power, small, and has fulfilled all test requirements levied upon the technology during development testing thus far. This paper will provide an overview of the design and development of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 including detail differences between the design specifications of each. Nomenclature.

  17. Beyond genomic variation - comparison and functional annotation of three Brassica rapa genomes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage

    Lin, Ke; Zhang, Ningwen; Severing, Edouard I.; Nijveen, Harm; Cheng, Feng; Visser, Richard GF; Wang, Xiaowu; de Ridder, Dick; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Background Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. Results To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resulting ge...

  18. Beyond genomic variation - comparison and functional annotation in three Brassica rapa genotypes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage

    Lin, K.; Zhang, N.; Severing, E.I.; Nijveen, H.; Cheng, F; Visser, R.G.F.; Wang, X.; De, Ridder, G.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. Results - To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resultin...

  19. Rapid phase adjustment of melatonin and core body temperature rhythms following a 6-h advance of the light/dark cycle in the horse

    Murphy, Barbara A; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Sessions, Dawn R; Vick, Mandi M; Kennedy, Erin L; Fitzgerald, Barry P

    2007-01-01

    Background: Rapid displacement across multiple time zones results in a conflict between the new cycle of light and dark and the previously entrained program of the internal circadian clock, a phenomenon known as jet lag. In humans, jet lag is often characterized by malaise, appetite loss, fatigue, disturbed sleep and performance deficit, the consequences of which are of particular concern to athletes hoping to perform optimally at an international destination. As a species renowned for its ca...

  20. Nitrogen cycling in canopy soils of tropical montane forests responds rapidly to indirect N and P fertilization.

    Matson, Amanda L; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2014-12-01

    Although the canopy can play an important role in forest nutrient cycles, canopy-based processes are often overlooked in studies on nutrient deposition. In areas of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition, canopy soils may retain a significant proportion of atmospheric inputs, and also receive indirect enrichment through root uptake followed by throughfall or recycling of plant litter in the canopy. We measured net and gross rates of N cycling in canopy soils of tropical montane forests along an elevation gradient and assessed indirect effects of elevated nutrient inputs to the forest floor. Net N cycling rates were measured using the buried bag method. Gross N cycling rates were measured using (15) N pool dilution techniques. Measurements took place in the field, in the wet and dry season, using intact cores of canopy soil from three elevations (1000, 2000 and 3000 m). The forest floor had been fertilized biannually with moderate amounts of N and P for 4 years; treatments included control, N, P, and N + P. In control plots, gross rates of NH4 (+) transformations decreased with increasing elevation; gross rates of NO3 (-) transformations did not exhibit a clear elevation trend, but were significantly affected by season. Nutrient-addition effects were different at each elevation, but combined N + P generally increased N cycling rates at all elevations. Results showed that canopy soils could be a significant N source for epiphytes as well as contributing up to 23% of total (canopy + forest floor) mineral N production in our forests. In contrast to theories that canopy soils are decoupled from nutrient cycling in forest floor soil, N cycling in our canopy soils was sensitive to slight changes in forest floor nutrient availability. Long-term atmospheric N and P deposition may lead to increased N cycling, but also increased mineral N losses from the canopy soil system. PMID:24965673

  1. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min. (paper)

  2. Design Study of the Large Hadron Electron Collider and a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron as Alternative to the PS Booster Upgrade at CERN

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    To further extend the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors. Furthermore it has been suggested to built a new electron accelerator in order to allow for deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this thesis design options for a new LHC injector - a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron - and an electron accelerator for the LHeC are presented.

  3. Reduced mRNA expression of PTGDS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control subjects

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances related to the arachidonic acid cascade and prostaglandin metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, as supported by a recent genome-wide association study meta-analysis; however, evidence from clinical studies on a transcriptional level...... disorder. The sample size was limited; replication of the findings in larger, independent samples is warranted to further explore the role of the arachidonic acid cascade and prostaglandin metabolism as a potential therapeutic target in bipolar disorder....... that mRNA expression of PTGDS and AKR1C3 is deregulated in rapid-cycling disorder patients in a euthymic or current affective state compared with healthy control subjects, and that expression alters with affective states. METHODS: PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...

  4. Cycles uranium et thorium en réacteurs à neutrons rapides refroidis au sodium. Aspects neutroniques et déchets associés.

    Brizi, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Les réacteurs `a neutrons rapides refroidis au sodium `a cycle uranium 238/plutonium 239, dont la faisabilité technique a déj`a ´et´e ´eprouv´ee, permettent de s'affranchir du prob- lème des ressources d'uranium naturel en r´ealisant la r´eg´en´eration de l'´elément fissile du combustible. En outre, une gestion des déchets visant `a réduire la production et la ra- diotoxicité des actinides mineurs produits par le réacteur peut ˆetre mise en oeuvre en transmutant les AM en coeur (transmutation...

  5. Effects of cavity surface temperature on mechanical properties of specimens with and without a weld line in rapid heat cycle molding

    Highlights: ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces tensile strength of non-weldline part. ► Higher cavity surface temperature increases weldline tensile strength for PS and PP. ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces weldline tensile strength for ABS, ABS/PMMA, ABS/PMMA/nano-CaCO3 and FRPP. ► Tensile strength is reduced more by the weldline than impact strength. ► FRPP has the lowest weld line factor than other plastics without reinforced fibers. - Abstract: Rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) is a recently developed injection molding technology to enhance surface esthetic of the parts. By rapid heating and cooling of mold cavity surfaces in molding process, it can greatly alleviate or even eliminate the surface defects such as flow mark, weld line, glass fiber rich surface, silver mark, jetting mark, and swirl mark, and also improve gloss finish and dimensional accuracy without prolonging the molding cycle. Besides surface esthetic, mechanical property is also a very import issue for the molded plastic part. The aim of this study is focusing on the effects of the cavity surface temperature just before filling, Tcs, in RHCM on the mechanical strength of the specimen with and without weld line. Six kinds of typical plastics including polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polymethylmethacrylate (ABS/PMMA), ABS/PMMA/nano-CaCO3 and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) are used in experiments. The specimens with and without a weld line are produced with the different Tcs on the developed electric-heating RHCM system. Tensile tests and notched Izod impact tests are conducted to characterize the mechanical strength of the specimens molded with different cavity surface temperatures. Simulations, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope are implemented to explain the impact mechanism of Tcs on mechanical properties

  6. Integration of BpMADS4 on various linkage groups improves the utilization of the rapid cycle breeding system in apple.

    Weigl, Kathleen; Wenzel, Stephanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cycle breeding in apple is a new approach for the rapid introgression of agronomically relevant traits (e.g. disease resistances) from wild apple species into domestic apple cultivars (Malus × domestica Borkh.). This technique drastically shortens the long-lasting juvenile phase of apple. The utilization of early-flowering apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of the European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in hybridization resulted in one breeding cycle per year. Aiming for the selection of non-transgenic null segregants at the end of the breeding process, the flower-inducing transgene and the gene of interest (e.g. resistance gene) that will be introgressed by hybridization need to be located on different chromosomes. To improve the flexibility of the existing approach in apple, this study was focused on the development and characterization of eleven additional BpMADS4 overexpressing lines of four different apple cultivars. In nine lines, the flowering gene was mapped to different linkage groups. The differences in introgressed T-DNA sequences and plant genome deletions post-transformation highlighted the unique molecular character of each line. However, transgenic lines demonstrated no significant differences in flower organ development and pollen functionality compared with non-transgenic plants. Hybridization studies using pollen from the fire blight-resistant wild species accession Malus fusca MAL0045 and the apple scab-resistant cultivar 'Regia' indicated that BpMADS4 introgression had no significant effect on the breeding value of each transgenic line. PMID:25370729

  7. Saccadic Performance and Cortical Excitability as Trait-Markers and State-Markers in Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder: A Two-Case Follow-Up Study

    Malsert, Jennifer; Guyader, Nathalie; Chauvin, Alan; Polosan, Mircea; Szekely, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Marendaz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background: The understanding of physiopathology and cognitive impairments in mood disorders requires finding objective markers. Mood disorders have often been linked to hypometabolism in the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex, and to GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission dysfunction. The present study aimed to discover whether saccadic tasks (involving DPLFC activity), and cortical excitability (involving GABA/Glutamate neurotransmission) could provide neuropsychophysical markers for mood disorders, and/or of its phases, in patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorders (rcBD). Methods: Two rcBD patients were followed for a cycle, and were compared to nine healthy controls. A saccade task, mixing prosaccades, antisaccades, and nosaccades, and an evaluation of cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation were performed. Results: We observed a deficit in antisaccade in patients independently of thymic phase, and in nosaccade in the manic phase only. Cortical excitability data revealed global intracortical deficits in all phases, switching according to cerebral hemisphere and thymic phase. Conclusion: Specific patterns of performance in saccade tasks and cortical excitability could characterize mood disorders (trait-markers) and its phases (state-markers). Moreover, a functional relationship between oculometric performance and cortical excitability is discussed. PMID:23293609

  8. Saccadic performance and cortical excitability as trait-markers and state-markers in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: a 2-case follow-up study.

    Jennifer eMalsert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The understanding of physiopathology and cognitive impairments in mood disorders requires finding objective markers. Mood disorders have often been linked to hypometabolism in the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex, and to GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission dysfunction. The present study aimed to discover whether saccadic tasks (involving DPLFC activity, and cortical excitability (involving GABA/Glutamate neurotransmission could provide neuropsychophysical markers for mood disorders, and/or of its phases, in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorders (rcBD. Methods: Two rcBD patients were followed for a cycle, and were compared to 9 healthy controls. A saccade task, mixing prosaccades, antisaccades and nosaccades, and an evaluation of cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation were performed. Results: We observed a deficit in antisaccade in patients independently of thymic phase, and in nosaccade in the manic phase only. Cortical excitability data revealed global intracortical deficits in all phases, switching according to cerebral hemisphere and thymic phase. Conclusion: Specific patterns of performance in saccade tasks and cortical excitability could characterize mood disorders (trait-markers and its phases (state-markers. Moreover, a functional relationship between oculometric performance and cortical excitability is discussed.

  9. Neuronal injury external to the retina rapidly activates retinal glia, followed by elevation of markers for cell cycle re-entry and death in retinal ganglion cells.

    Alba Galan

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are neurons that relay visual signals from the retina to the brain. The RGC cell bodies reside in the retina and their fibers form the optic nerve. Full transection (axotomy of the optic nerve is an extra-retinal injury model of RGC degeneration. Optic nerve transection permits time-kinetic studies of neurodegenerative mechanisms in neurons and resident glia of the retina, the early events of which are reported here. One day after injury, and before atrophy of RGC cell bodies was apparent, glia had increased levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-S6, and phospho-ERK1/2; however, these signals were not detected in injured RGCs. Three days after injury there were increased levels of phospho-Rb and cyclin A proteins detected in RGCs, whereas these signals were not detected in glia. DNA hyperploidy was also detected in RGCs, indicative of cell cycle re-entry by these post-mitotic neurons. These events culminated in RGC death, which is delayed by pharmacological inhibition of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Our data show that a remote injury to RGC axons rapidly conveys a signal that activates retinal glia, followed by RGC cell cycle re-entry, DNA hyperploidy, and neuronal death that is delayed by preventing glial MAPK/ERK activation. These results demonstrate that complex and variable neuro-glia interactions regulate healthy and injured states in the adult mammalian retina.

  10. Rapid acceleration of ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate oxidation of organic pollutants by promoting Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle with hydroxylamine.

    Zou, Jing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Liwei; Li, Xuchun; Guan, Yinghong; Xie, Pengchao; Pan, Chao

    2013-10-15

    The reaction between ferrous iron (Fe(II)) with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) generates reactive oxidants capable of degrading refractory organic contaminants. However, the slow transformation from ferric iron (Fe(III)) back to Fe(II) limits its widespread application. Here, we added hydroxylamine (HA), a common reducing agent, into Fe(II)/PMS process to accelerate the transformation from Fe(III) to Fe(II). With benzoic acid (BA) as probe compound, the addition of HA into Fe(II)/PMS process accelerated the degradation of BA rapidly in the pH range of 2.0-6.0 by accelerating the key reactions, including the redox cycle of Fe(III)/Fe(II) and the generation of reactive oxidants. Both sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals were considered as the primary reactive oxidants for the degradation of BA in HA/Fe(II)/PMS process with the experiments of electron spin resonance and alcohols quenching. Moreover, HA was gradually degraded to N2, N2O, NO2 (−), and NO3 (−), while the environmentally friendly gas of N2 was considered as its major end product in the process. The present study might provide a promising idea based on Fe(II)/PMS process for the rapid degradation of refractory organic contaminants in water treatment. PMID:24033112

  11. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    ... improve the lives of people who have mood disorders. The Power of Peers DBSA envisions wellness for people who live with depression and bipolar disorder. Because DBSA was created for and is led ...

  12. The Gene Encoding Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase Is a Candidate for the anthocyaninless Locus of Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants Type).

    Wendell, Douglas L; Vaziri, Anoumid; Shergill, Gurbaksh

    2016-01-01

    Rapid cycling Brassica rapa, also known as Wisconsin Fast Plants, are a widely used organism in both K-12 and college science education. They are an excellent system for genetics laboratory instruction because it is very easy to conduct genetic crosses with this organism, there are numerous seed stocks with variation in both Mendelian and quantitative traits, they have a short generation time, and there is a wealth of educational materials for instructors using them. Their main deficiency for genetics education is that none of the genetic variation in RCBr has yet been characterized at the molecular level. Here we present the first molecular characterization of a gene responsible for a trait in Fast Plants. The trait under study is purple/nonpurple variation due to the anthocyaninless locus, which is one of the Mendelian traits most frequently used for genetics education with this organism. We present evidence that the DFR gene, which encodes dihyroflavonol 4-reductase, is the candidate gene for the anthocyaninless (ANL) locus in RCBr. DFR shows complete linkage with ANL in genetic crosses with a total of 948 informative chromosomes, and strains with the recessive nonpurple phenotype have a transposon-related insertion in the DFR which is predicted to disrupt gene function. PMID:27548675

  13. Rapid shifts in South American montane climates driven by pCO2 and ice volume changes over the last two glacial cycles

    G. Sarmiento

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical montane biome migration patterns in the northern Andes are found to be coupled to glacial-induced mean annual temperature (MAT changes; however, the accuracy and resolution of current records are insufficient to fully explore their magnitude and rates of change. Here we present a ~60-year resolution pollen record over the past 284 000 years from Lake Fúquene (5° N in Colombia. This record shows rapid and extreme MAT changes at 2540 m elevation of up to 10 ± 2 °C within a few hundred of years that concur with the ~100 and 41-kyr (obliquity paced glacial cycles and North Atlantic abrupt climatic events as documented in ice cores and marine sediments. Using transient climate modelling experiments we demonstrate that insolation-controlled ice volume and greenhouse gasses are the major forcing agents causing the orbital MAT changes, but that the model simulations significantly underestimate changes in lapse rates and local hydrology and vegetation feedbacks within the studied region due to its low spatial resolution.

  14. Yield and seed oil content response of dwarf, rapid-cycling Brassica to nitrogen treatments, planting density, and carbon dioxide enrichment

    Frick, J.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of N level (15 to 30 mM), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 +/- 12 micromoles mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mM) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mM) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mM) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

  15. The development of a Pirani vacuum gauge with a platinum wire in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron

    The back pressure of Turbo-Molecular Pumps (TMPs) is constantly monitored using Pirani gauges at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex) RCS (3-GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron) where they are used not only in rough pumping but also evacuations during beam operations. The gauge head needs to be very resistant to vibration and abrupt air inlet etc. in minimizing exposure to radiation during maintenance and hence a 50 μm in diameter W wire was adopted as the filament. This type of Pirani gauge has worked well in monitoring the back pressure of the TMP but it has become difficult to measure the low pressure of less than several Pa with the gauge, which may have been due to changes in the emissivity of the W surface. An attempt was therefore made to develop a gauge head made of Pt wire in allowing pressures as low as 0.1 Pa to be measured. Platinum is one of the best possible materials to use because it is very stable against oxidization. However, ordinary Pt gauge heads are rather weak when it comes to vibrations and abrupt air inlet due to its low tensile strength. In order to improve its toughness the filament was composed of twelve 100 μm in diameter Pt wires that were 65 mm long, resulting in it being capable of enduring a force of 25 N. All the wires were welded in series on metal poles in two separate glass plates, with the poles being electrically insulated. This resulted in the filament, 78 cm long and about 10 Ω at room temperature, being containable in a 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm long cylindrical envelope. The output from the gauge head was then examined as a function of pressure under constant current as the plan was for it to be controlled using the constant current method. Confirmation then took place that the pressures of 0.1 Pa up to 103 Pa were measurable with the gauge using current control in such way that the set value increased with pressure increases in three stages. (author)

  16. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-02-22

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  17. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  18. Recruitment of cells in the small intestine into rapid cell cycle by small doses of external γ or internal β-radiation

    Epithelial cell recruitment was examined in mouse ileum after external γ-irradiation (50 cGy) or internal β-irradiation (0.148 MBq/g of [3H]thymidine), using the per cent-labelled-mitoses method and by analysing the distribution of mitotic cells in the crypts. In the presumptive stem cell zone at the lower cell positions of the crypt, the slowly cycling cells decreased their cell cycle 6 or 12 hours after a dose of 50 cGy. In the higher cell positions, a slight shortening of the cell cycle was also observed. After administration of a high dose of [3H]thymidine, dormant (G0) cells also entered the cell cycle in the lower cell positions. The results suggest that stem cells in the crypt may react to irradiation in two ways: first, by shortening the cell cycle in cycling cells; secondly, by an entry into the cell cycle by other dormant cells. There was destruction of some cycling stem cells before any recruitment. The data support the idea that the stem cell population in the crypt is heterogeneous. (author)

  19. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  1. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen Skotte;

    2013-01-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  2. Rapid and large-scale synthesis of bare Co3O4 porous nanostructures from an oleate precursor as superior Li-ion anodes with long-cycle lives.

    Ge, Danhua; Wu, Junjie; Qu, Genlong; Deng, Yaoyao; Geng, Hongbo; Zheng, Junwei; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-09-14

    In this study, we describe a rapid and environmentally friendly synthesis of bare Co3O4 nanocrystals derived from Co(ii) oleate complexes by calcination treatment. When directly used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the as-prepared nanocrystals could deliver a high reversible capacity of 980 mA h g(-1) after 250 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) and excellent cycling performance, which may be beneficial to promote the further development of the next generation of lithium ion batteries. The synthetic route can offer great advantages for the flash preparation of other metal oxide nanocrystals for energy storage application. PMID:27503555

  3. A rapid and robust assay for detection of S-phase cell cycle progression in plant cells and tissues by using ethynyl deoxyuridine

    Horváth Gábor V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in plant cell cycle research is highly dependent on reliable methods for detection of cells replicating DNA. Frequency of S-phase cells (cells in DNA synthesis phase is a basic parameter in studies on the control of cell division cycle and the developmental events of plant cells. Here we extend the microscopy and flow cytometry applications of the recently developed EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-based S-phase assay to various plant species and tissues. We demonstrate that the presented protocols insure the improved preservation of cell and tissue structure and allow significant reduction in assay duration. In comparison with the frequently used detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and tritiated-thymidine incorporation, this new methodology offers several advantages as we discuss here. Results Applications of EdU-based S-phase assay in microscopy and flow cytometry are presented by using cultured cells of alfalfa, Arabidopsis, grape, maize, rice and tobacco. We present the advantages of EdU assay as compared to BrdU-based replication assay and demonstrate that EdU assay -which does not require plant cell wall digestion or DNA denaturation steps, offers reduced assay duration and better preservation of cellular, nuclear and chromosomal morphologies. We have also shown that fast and efficient EdU assay can also be an efficient tool for dual parameter flow cytometry analysis and for quantitative assessment of replication in thick root samples of rice. Conclusions In plant cell cycle studies, EdU-based S-phase detection offers a superior alternative to the existing S-phase assays. EdU method is reliable, versatile, fast, simple and non-radioactive and it can be readily applied to many different plant systems.

  4. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows. PMID:24871934

  5. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  6. Biogeochemical Cycling

    Bebout, Brad; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This lecture will introduce the concept of biogeochemical cycling. The roles of microbes in the cycling of nutrients, production and consumption of trace gases, and mineralization will be briefly introduced.

  7. Sulfur cycle

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  8. Future fuel cycles

    A fuel cycle must offer both financial and resource savings if it is to be considered for introduction into Ontario's nuclear system. The most promising alternative CANDU fuel cycles are examined in the context of both of these factors over a wide range of installed capacity growth rates and economic assumptions, in order to determine which fuel cycle, or cycles, should be introduced, and when. It is concluded that the optimum path for the long term begins with the prompt introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle. For a wide range of conditions, this cycle remains the optimum throughout the very long term. Conditions of rapid nuclear growth and very high uranium price escalation rates warrant the supersedure of the low-enriched-uranium cycle by either a plutonium-topped thorium cycle or plutonium recycle, beginning between 2010 and 2025. It is also found that the uranium resource position is sound in terms of both known resources and production capability. Moreover, introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle and 1250 MWe reactor units will assure the economic viability of nuclear power until at least 2020, even if uranium prices increase at a rate of 3.5% above inflation. The interrelationship between these two conclusions lies in the tremendous incentive for exploration which will occur if the real uranium price escalation rate is high. From a competitive viewpoint, nuclear power can withstand increases in the price of uranium. However, such increases will likely further expand the resource base, making nuclear an even more reliable energy source. (auth)

  9. Cycling more for safer cycling

    VAN HOUT, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Cycling presents a lot of benefits to the individual and to society. Health, environment, accessibility, local businesses, … all gain when more people cycle. Yet many governments are reluctant when it comes to promoting cycling, mainly because of (perceived) safety issues. Since studies have established a clear and consistent relationship between bicycle use and cyclist accident risk, this lack of bicycle promotion will influence the safety outcome of bicyclists. In this paper the relation be...

  10. Cycling injuries.

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries.

  11. Glacial cycles

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...... to simulate glacial cycles accurately. Also, results suggest that non-linear 10 dynamics, threshold effects, and/or free oscillations may not play an overriding role in glacial cycles....

  12. Fuel cycles

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  13. Fes cycling

    Berkelmans Rik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many research with functional electrical stimulation (FES has been done to regain mobility and for health benefits. Better results have been reported for FES-cycling than for FES-walking. The majority of the subjects during such research are people with a spinal cord injury (SCI, cause they often lost skin sensation. Besides using surface stimulation also implanted stimulators can be used. This solves the skin sensation problem, but needs a surgery. Many physiological effects of FES-cycling has been reported, e.g., increase of muscles, better blood flow, reduction of pressure ulcers, improved self-image and some reduction of bone mineral density (BMD loss. Also people with an incomplete SCI benefit by FES-cycling, e.g. cycling time without FES, muscle strength and also the walking abilities increased. Hybrid exercise gives an even better cardiovascular training. Presently 4 companies are involved in FES-cycling. They all have a stationary mobility trainer. Two of them also use an outdoor tricycle. One combined with voluntary arm cranking. By optimizing the stimulation parameters the power output and fatigue resistance will increase, but will still be less compared to voluntary cycling.

  14. Happy Cycling

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  15. Koszul cycles

    Bruns, Winfreid; Römer, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We prove regularity bounds for Koszul cycles holding for every ideal of dimension at most 1 in a polynomial ring. We generalize the lower bound for the Green-Lazarsfeld index of Veronese rings we proved in arXiv:0902.2431 to the multihomogeneous setting.

  16. Fuel cycle

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.)

  17. Rapid shallow breathing

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  18. Optimisation of the nominal cycle

    Redaelli, S

    2011-01-01

    The energy ramp and the betatron squeeze are critical phases of the LHC operation. During the squeeze, delicate optics manipulations take place when the stored energy is maximum. In 2010, ramp and squeeze were commissioned rapidly and smoothly became operational. On the other hand, during the first commissioning exercise, the focus was put on machine safety and on operational robustness rather then in efficiency for luminosity production. After having accumulated a full year of experience on the operational cycle and having gained important feedback on machine behaviour and operational procedures, it is now time to address the optimization of the LHC cycle, while still respecting safe boundaries. In this paper, the experience with the LHC operational cycle is reviewed, possible bottlenecks are identified and paths for improvements are addressed. Proposals for improvement are based on a critical look at the limiting factors encountered in the different phases of the cycle. More complex operation configurations...

  19. Safe cycling!

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  20. Measurement of the fission cross section induced by fast neutrons of the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U nuclei within the innovating fuel cycles framework; Mesure de la section efficace de fission induite par neutrons rapides des noyaux {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U dans le cadre des cycles de combustible innovants

    Grosjean, C

    2005-03-15

    The thorium-U{sup 233} fuel cycle might provided safer and cleaner nuclear energy than the present Uranium/Pu fuelled reactors. Over the last 10 years, a vast campaign of measurements has been initiated to bring the precision of neutron data for the key nuclei (Th{sup 232}, Pa{sup 233} and U{sup 233}) at the level of those for the U-Pu cycle. This is the framework of these measurements, the energy dependent neutron induced fission cross section of Th{sup 232} and U{sup 233} has been measured from 1 to 7 MeV with a target accuracy lesser than 5 per cent. These measurements imply the accurate determination of the fission rate, the number of the target nuclei as well as the incident neutron flux impinging on the target, the latter has been obtained using the elastic scattering (n,p). The cross section of which is very well known in a large neutron energy domain ({approx} 0,5 % from 1 eV to 50 MeV) compared to the U{sup 235}(n,f) reaction. This technique has been applied for the first time to the Th{sup 232}(n,f) and U{sup 233}(n,f) cases. A Hauser-Feshbach statistical model has been developed. It consists of describing the different decay channels of the compound nucleus U{sup 234} from 0,01 to 10 MeV neutron energy. The parameters of this model were adjusted in order to reproduce the measured fission cross section of U{sup 233}. From these parameters, the cross sections from the following reactions could be extracted: inelastic scattering U{sup 233}(n,n'), radiative capture U{sup 233}(n,{gamma}) and U{sup 233}(n,2n). These cross sections are still difficult to measure by direct neutron reactions. The calculated values have allowed us to fill the lack of experimental data for the major fissile nucleus of the thorium cycle. (author)

  1. Project X with Rapid Cycling and Dual Storage Superconducting Synchrotrons

    Piekarz, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of neutrino oscillations and rare meson decays are main physics goals of Project X. The successful physics outcome relies on the feasibility of high-intensity neutrino and meson (K+ and \\mu) beams. In order to meet this goal we propose accelerator system dominated by the synchrotrons (Option A) as a technologically easier and significantly more cost-effective alternative to the accelerator system dominated by the linear accelerators (Option B). The synchrotron-based accelerator system and its main components are outlined and the expected proton beam power for the neutrino and meson beams production is presented and discussed.

  2. Optimization of data life cycles

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  3. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  4. Innovation, Efficiency Cycle, and Strategy Implications

    Maier, H.; Haustein, H.-D.

    1982-01-01

    Innovation research is now in its third stage, in which most attention is given to the efficiency cycle of industries. The five stages of this efficiency cycle (takeoff, rapid growth, maturation, saturation, and crisis) are very important for the firm's strategy and national innovation policy. Innovation policy should take into account societal goals and objectives. A Social Opportunity Analysis (SOA) is especially important for determining future innovation fields, identifying new alter...

  5. Futile xylitol cycle in Lactobacillus casei.

    Hausman, S Z; Thompson, J; London, J

    1984-01-01

    A futile xylitol cycle appears to be responsible for xylitol-mediated inhibition of growth of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 at the expense of ribitol. The gratuitously induced xylitol-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase accumulates the pentitol as xylitol-5-phosphate, a phosphatase cleaves the latter, and an export system expels the xylitol. Operation of the cycle rapidly dissipates the ribitol-5-phosphate pool (and ultimately the energy supply of the cell), thereby producin...

  6. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  7. Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle

    White, D.J. [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-19

    Solar Turbines, Incorporated (Solar) has a vested interest in the integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuel cells and in particular, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Solar has identified a parallel path approach to the technology developments needed for future products. The primary approach is to move away from the simple cycle industrial machines of the past and develop as a first step more efficient recuperated engines. This move was prompted by the recognition that the simple cycle machines were rapidly approaching their efficiency limits. Improving the efficiency of simple cycle machines is and will become increasingly more costly. Each efficiency increment will be progressively more costly than the previous step.

  8. Rapid depressurization of a compressible fluid

    The rapid depressurization of a plenum is a situation frequently encountered in the dynamical analysis of nuclear gas cycles of the HHT type. Various methods of numerical analyses for a 1-dimensional flow model are examined: finite difference method; control volume method; method of characteristics. Based on the shallow water analogy to compressible flow, the numerical results are compared with those from a water table set up to simulate a standard problem. (Auth.)

  9. RAPID-SELEX for RNA Aptamers

    Szeto, Kylan; Latulippe, David R.; Ozer, Abdullah; Pagano, John M.; Brian S White; Shalloway, David; Lis, John T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2013-01-01

    Aptamers are high-affinity ligands selected from DNA or RNA libraries via SELEX, a repetitive in vitro process of sequential selection and amplification steps. RNA SELEX is more complicated than DNA SELEX because of the additional transcription and reverse transcription steps. Here, we report a new selection scheme, RAPID-SELEX (RNA Aptamer Isolation via Dual-cycles SELEX), that simplifies this process by systematically skipping unnecessary amplification steps. Using affinity microcolumns, we...

  10. The business cycle and the life cycle

    Paul Gomme; Richard Rogerson; Peter Rupert; Randall Wright

    2004-01-01

    The paper documents how cyclical fluctuations in market work vary over the life cycle and then assesses the predictions of a life-cycle version of the growth model for those observations. The analysis yields a simple but striking finding. The main discrepancy between the model and that data lies in the inability of the model to account for fluctuations in hours for individuals in the first half of their life cycle. The predictions for those in the latter half of the life cycle are quite close...

  11. Candu fuel and fuel cycles

    A primary rationale for Indonesia to proceed with a nuclear power program is to diversity its energy sources and achieve freedom from future resource constraints. While other considerations, such as economy of power supply, hedging against potential future increases in the price of fossil fuels, fostering the technological development of the Indonesia economy and minimizing greenhouse and other gaseous emissions are important, the strategic resource issue is key. In considering candidate nuclear power technologies upon which to base such a program, a major consideration will be the potential for those technologies to be economically sustained in the face of large future increases in demand for nuclear fuels. The technology or technologies selected should be amenable to evaluation in a rapidly changing technical, economic, resource and environmental policy. The world's proven uranium resources which can be economically recovered represent a fairly modest energy resource if utilization is based on the currently commercialized fuel cycles, even with the use of recovered plutonium in mixed oxide fuels. In the long term, fuel cycles relying solely on the use of light water reactors will encounter increasing fuel supply constraints. Because of its outstanding neutron economy and the flexibility of on-power refueling, CANDU reactors are the most fuel resource efficient commercial reactors and offer the potential for accommodating an almost unlimited variety of advanced and even more fuel efficient cycles. Most of these cycles utilize nuclear fuels which are too low grade to be used in light water reactors, including many products now considered to be waste, such as spent light water reactor fuel and reprocessing products such as recovered uranium. The fuel-cycle flexibility of the CANDU reactor provides a ready path to sustainable energy development in both the short and the long terms. Most of the potential CANDU fuel cycle developments can be accommodated in existing

  12. SAP Sector Develops Rapidly

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Stable demand growth internationally Super absorbent polymers (SAP) feature high water absorption, high water retention, rapid water absorption, great expanding power,strong thickening, strong anchoring and excellent elasticity.

  13. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  14. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initi...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  15. Solar cycle 25: another moderate cycle?

    Cameron, Robert H; Schuessler, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 $(2.5\\pm1.1\\,$G) is comparable to that observed at the end of cycle 23 (about $2\\,$G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not much higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.

  16. Solar Cycle 25: Another Moderate Cycle?

    Cameron, R. H.; Jiang, J.; Schüssler, M.

    2016-06-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of Cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 (2.5 ± 1.1 G) is comparable to that observed at the end of Cycle 23 (about 2 G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that Cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not much higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.

  17. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  18. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  19. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  20. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  1. Rapid steroid hormone actions via membrane receptors.

    Schwartz, Nofrat; Verma, Anjali; Bivens, Caroline B; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2016-09-01

    Steroid hormones regulate a wide variety of physiological and developmental functions. Traditional steroid hormone signaling acts through nuclear and cytosolic receptors, altering gene transcription and subsequently regulating cellular activity. This is particularly important in hormonally-responsive cancers, where therapies that target classical steroid hormone receptors have become clinical staples in the treatment and management of disease. Much progress has been made in the last decade in detecting novel receptors and elucidating their mechanisms, particularly their rapid signaling effects and subsequent impact on tumorigenesis. Many of these receptors are membrane-bound and lack DNA-binding sites, functionally separating them from their classical cytosolic receptor counterparts. Membrane-bound receptors have been implicated in a number of pathways that disrupt the cell cycle and impact tumorigenesis. Among these are pathways that involve phospholipase D, phospholipase C, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase. The crosstalk between these pathways has been shown to affect apoptosis and proliferation in cardiac cells, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes as well as cancer cells. This review focuses on rapid signaling by 17β-estradiol and 1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 to examine the integrated actions of classical and rapid steroid signaling pathways both in contrast to each other and in concert with other rapid signaling pathways. This new approach lends insight into rapid signaling by steroid hormones and its potential for use in targeted drug therapies that maximize the benefits of traditional steroid hormone-directed therapies while mitigating their less desirable effects. PMID:27288742

  2. Oscillations of cAMP with the cardiac cycle.

    Wikman-Coffelt, J; Sievers, R; Coffelt, R J; Parmley, W W

    1983-03-16

    Oscillations of cAMP with the cardiac cycle were demonstrated in the rat heart using a stimulator-triggered rapid freeze-clamp to decrease the temperature of the heart from 37 degrees C to -80 degrees C in 5 msec (20,000 degrees/sec) at a predetermined phase of the cardiac cycle. The nucleotide, cAMP, oscillated 60% with the cardiac cycle during normal working conditions, the higher cAMP value occurring during systole. PMID:6301471

  3. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on neutron sources, nuclear models using hydrodynamic concepts, the calculation of sorption gas dynamics (adsorption isotherms) of non-dissociative molecules, time-of-flight and pulse shape analysis results with solid scintillation detectors and theoretical work on radial excitations of light mesons. 13 figs., 6 tables

  4. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  5. Rapid Drying Concrete

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    One of the essential problems that are faced during construction is the drying of concrete and the presence of moisture which affects floor coverings that need to be placed. The rapid-drying characteristic in Aridusâ concrete allows for the quick reduction of moisture vapor that travels through the concrete pores of the concrete.

  6. Cycling To Awareness.

    Kozak, Stan

    1999-01-01

    Encourages environmental and outdoor educators to promote bicycling. In the community and the curriculum, cycling connects environmental issues, health and fitness, law and citizenship, appropriate technology, and the joy of being outdoors. Describes the Ontario Cycling Association's cycling strategy and its four components: school cycling…

  7. HIV Life Cycle

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/22/2015; last reviewed 9/22/2015) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  8. Optimization of data life cycles

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project 'Large Scale Data Management and Analysis' (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  9. Bus rapid transit

    Wright, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    Effective public transit is central to development. For the vast majority of developing city residents, public transit is the only practical means to access employment, education, and public services, especially when such services are beyond the viable distance of walking or cycling. Unfortunately, the current state of public transit services in developing cities often does little to serve the actual mobility needs of the population. Bus services are too often unreliable, inconvenient and ...

  10. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  11. Erraticity of rapidity gaps

    The use of rapidity gaps is proposed as a measure of the spatial pattern of an event. When the event multiplicity is low, the gaps between neighboring particles carry far more information about an event than multiplicity spikes, which may occur very rarely. Two moments of the gap distribution are suggested for characterizing an event. The fluctuations of those moments from event to event are then quantified by an entropy-like measure, which serves to describe erraticity. We use ECOMB to simulate the exclusive rapidity distribution of each event, from which the erraticity measures are calculated. The dependences of those measures on the order q of the moments provide single-parameter characterizations of erraticity. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. Rapid Prototyping for Robotics

    Ebert-Uphoff, Imme; Gosselin, Clement M.; Rosen, David W.; Laliberte, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    The rapid prototyping framework presented in this chapter provides fast, simple and inexpensivemethods for the design and fabrication of prototypes of robotic mechanisms.As evidenced by the examples presented above, the prototypes can be of great help togain more insight into the functionality of the mechanisms, as well as to convey theconcepts to others, especially to non-technical people. Furthermore, physical prototypescan be used to validate geometric and kinematic properties such as mech...

  13. Planning rapid transit networks

    G Laporte; Mesa, J. A.; Ortega, F.A.; Perea Rojas Marcos, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Rapid transit construction projects are major endeavours that require long-term planning by several players, including politicians, urban planners, engineers, management consultants, and citizen groups. Traditionally, operations research methods have not played a major role at the planning level but several tools developed in recent years can assist the decision process and help produce tentative network designs that can be submitted to the planners for further evaluation. This article review...

  14. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  15. Rapid Manufactured Textiles

    Bingham, Guy; Hague, Richard; Tuck, Christopher John; Long, Andrew; Crookston, Jonathan Josiah; Sherburn, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Rapid Manufacturing (RM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that are achievable in the area of design complexity. Through the exploration of the design freedom afforded by RM, this paper introduces the concept and novel research area of RM textiles. The paper highlights the design and manufacturing possibilities applied to textiles when considering additive manufacturing techniques, the current limitations of conventional Com...

  16. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  17. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  18. The Solar Cycle

    David H. Hathaway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev–Ohl (even-odd Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  19. A Smartphone Intervention for Cycle Commuting

    Yun-Maw Cheng; Chao-Lung Lee

    2014-01-01

    For those who new to cycling to and from work, how do you inspire yourself to keep up with it? Previous research has identified that having a partner is crucial to create and maintain a new habit. However, the rapidly changing work dynamics pose a challenge on this basis. Frequently failing to show up at the appointed or expected time can cause the motivation breakdown. In this paper, we introduce BikeTogether, a smartphone app that encourages and supports its users to cycle home with each ot...

  20. Emergence of epidemics in rapidly varying networks

    We describe a simple model mimicking disease spreading on a network with dynamically varying connections, and investigate the dynamical consequences of switching links in the network. Our central observation is that the disease cycles get more synchronized, indicating the onset of epidemics, as the underlying network changes more rapidly. This behavior is found for periodically switched links, as well as links that switch randomly in time. We find that the influence of changing links is more pronounced in networks where the nodes have lower degree, and the disease cycle has a longer infective stage. Further, when the switching of links is periodic we observe finer dynamical features, such as beating patterns in the emergent oscillations and resonant enhancement of synchronization, arising from the interplay between the time-scales of the connectivity changes and that of the epidemic outbreaks

  1. Rapid Cellular Turnover in Adipose Tissue

    Alessandra Rigamonti; Kristen Brennand; Frank Lau; Cowan, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that cellular turnover occurs within the human adipocyte population. Through three independent experimental approaches — dilution of an inducible histone 2B-green fluorescent protein (H2BGFP), labeling with the cell cycle marker Ki67 and incorporation of BrdU — we characterized the degree of cellular turnover in murine adipose tissue. We observed rapid turnover of the adipocyte population, finding that 4.8% of preadipocytes are replicating at any time and that between 1–...

  2. A comparison of production system life cycle models

    Attri, Rajesh; Grover, Sandeep

    2012-09-01

    Companies today need to keep up with the rapidly changing market conditions to stay competitive. The main issues in this paper are related to a company's market and its competitors. The prediction of market behavior is helpful for a manufacturing enterprise to build efficient production systems. However, these predictions are usually not reliable. A production system is required to adapt to changing markets, but such requirement entails higher cost. Hence, analyzing different life cycle models of the production system is necessary. In this paper, different life cycle models of the production system are compared to evaluate the distinctive features and the limitations of each model. Furthermore, the difference between product life cycle and production life cycle is summarized, and the effect of product life cycle on production life cycle is explained. Finally, a production system life cycle model, along with key activities to be performed in each stage, is proposed specifically for the manufacturing sector.

  3. Friction Generated Limit Cycles

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Åström, Karl Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper treats limit cycles caused by friction. The goal has been to explain phenomena that have been observed experimentally in mechatronic systems. Experiments have shown that oscillations of qualitatively different types can be obtained simply by changing controller specifications. Stiction is important in some cases but not in others. Necessary conditions for limit cycle are given for the case where stiction is important. Conditions for local stability of the limit cycles are also pres...

  4. Real business cycle realizations

    Smith, Gregor W.; Stanley E. Zin

    1997-01-01

    Much recent business cycle research focuses on moments of macroeconomic aggregates. We construct examples of real business cycle sample paths for output, consumption, and employment for the U.S. economy. Annual sample paths are generated from an initial condition in 1925, measured technology and government spending shocks since then, and a standard, calibrated, one-sector model of the business cycle. Quarterly sample paths are generated similarly, from an initial condition in 1955. The law of...

  5. Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2013-01-01

    Descriptions of phenomena, events, or processes made on the basis of problematic paradigms can be unreasonably complex (e.g. epicycles) or simply wrong (e.g. ultraviolet catastrophe). Supercontinent cycles, also called Wilson cycles, are, I submit, artificial constructs, like epicycles. Here I provide the basis for that assertion and describe published considerations from a fundamentally different, new, indivisible geoscience paradigm which obviate the necessity for assuming supercontinent cycles.

  6. Alternative fuel cycles

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  7. Euro area business cycles

    Atilim Seymen

    2012-01-01

    The role of global, euro area and country-specific shocks in business cycle dynamics of six euro area member countries is assessed with the aid of SVAR models. Output fluctuations are driven by global shocks to a large extent in the euro area, and no Europeanisation of business cycles due to, for example the European Monetary Union, could be established. Business cycle heterogeneity is driven mainly by (asymmetric) country-specific shocks in the euro area and not by heterogeneous responses to...

  8. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    Basic elements of the ex-reactor part of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling and transportation) are described. Possible technical and proliferation measures are evaluated, including current methods of accountability, surveillance and protection. The reference oxide based cycle and advanced cycles based on carbide and metallic fuels are considered utilizing conventional processes; advanced nonaqueous reprocessing is also considered. This contribution provides a comprehensive data base for evaluation of proliferation risks

  9. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and

  10. Historicising the Hydrosocial Cycle

    Jeremy J. Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the historical claims made in support of the hydrosocial cycle. In particular, it considers how arguments advancing the hydrosocial cycle make historical claims regarding modernist conceptions of what water is (i.e. H2O) and its fit with society. The paper gives special emphasis to the society/nature dualism and to the notion of agency as key sites of contest in arguments regarding the hydrosocial cycle. It finds that, while several versions of the hydrosocial cycle seek t...

  11. Edgeworth cycles revisited

    Doyle, Joseph [MIT Sloan School of Management, 50 Memorial Drive, E52-447, Cambridge MA 02142 (United States); Muehlegger, Erich [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Mailbox 25, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Samphantharak, Krislert [Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 1519, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend the model and empirically test its predictions with a new dataset of daily station-level prices in 115 US cities. Consistent with the theory, and often in contrast with previous empirical work, we find the least and most concentrated markets are much less likely to exhibit cycling behavior both within and across cities; areas with more independent convenience-store gas stations are also more likely to cycle. (author)

  12. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  13. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(900) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded...

  15. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on optimized lambda-parametrization for the QCD running coupling constant in spacelike and timelike regions, the new limit of the probability of muonium-antimuonium conversion in SPINP-JINR experiment, a highly charged ion source with double electron-ion trap (DEITIS), integral cross sections of the hypertriton interaction with nuclei at high energies, a positron emission tomograph on the basis of composite scintillator, a study of the high mass dimuon production in heavy ion collisions with CMS and antimatter production in relativistic nuclear collisions. 25 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Rapidly Progressing Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    Hollowed, John; McCullough, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel; Traina, Mahmoud; Hernandez, Salvador; Murillo, Efrain

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, can cause a potentially life-threatening cardiomyopathy in approximately 10-40% of afflicted individuals. The decline in cardiac function characteristically progresses over the course of many years. We report a case of Chagas disease in which the patient experienced an atypical rapid deterioration to severe cardiomyopathy over the course of 16 months. This case argues the need for increased routine surveillance for patients with confirmedT. cruziinfection, who are determined to be at high-risk for worsening cardiomyopathy. PMID:26856912

  17. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on pole contributions in the semileptonic D → P(V) + l + ν bar 1 decays and resolute progress in constrained minimization problem, on the self-similarity properties of light nuclei collisions, a method of data representation and experimental results of the fragmentation reactions investigation, special properties of the refrigeration of the accelerator Nuclotron, the evolution of the Nucleon structure in light nuclei, anisotropy of fission fragments for the reaction 16O+208Pb and a study of exposure dose power of induced gamma-radiation for extended lead target activated by high-energy protons

  18. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s(0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  19. Rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis

    赖伟红; 薛华忠; 韩国柱

    2003-01-01

    Since the sexually transmitted diseases were recognized as a public health problem in China during the early 1980's, the incidence of syphilis has gradually increased. Though there have been case reports of clinical variants of neurosyphilis, including syphilitic cerebrospinal meningitis or meningomyelitis and meningovascular syphilis, occurring in different regions of China,1-3 tabes dorsalis or tabetic neurosyphilis has not yet been reported in China. Here, we report a young man with rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis admitted to our hospital in October 1999.

  20. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Baranec, Christoph; Wright, Shelley A; Tonry, John; Tully, R Brent; Szapudi, István; Takamiya, Marianne; Hunter, Lisa; Riddle, Reed; Chen, Shaojie; Chun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of ~4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with a...

  1. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

  2. The carbon cycle revisited

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  3. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element of the...

  4. Family Life Cycle: 1980.

    Norton, Arthur J.

    1983-01-01

    Used data from a 1980 national sample survey to show differences in the timing of major family life-cycle events according to age, social and economic characteristics, and marital history. Results suggest that age generational differences, more than any other factor, influence timing of life-cycle events. (Author/JAC)

  5. Life cycle management (LCM)

    Remmen, Arne; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  6. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  7. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  8. Nuclear fuel cycles

    The source of energy in the nuclear reactors in fission if a heavy nuclei by absorbing a neutron and giving fission products, few neutrons and gamma radiation. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle may be broadly defined as the set of process and operations needed to manufacture nuclear fuels, to irradiate them in nuclear reactors and to treat and store them, temporarily or permanently, after irradiation. Several nuclear fuel cycles may be considered, depending on the type of reactor and the type of fuel used and whether or not the irradiated fuel will be reprocessed. The nuclear fuel cycle starts with uranium exploration and ends with final disposal of the material used and generated during the cycle. For practical reasons the process has been further subdivided into the front-end and the back-end. The front-end of the cycle occurs before irradiation and the back-end begins with the discharge of spent fuel from the reactor

  9. Predicting the Sunspot Cycle

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The 11-year sunspot cycle was discovered by an amateur astronomer in 1844. Visual and photographic observations of sunspots have been made by both amateurs and professionals over the last 400 years. These observations provide key statistical information about the sunspot cycle that do allow for predictions of future activity. However, sunspots and the sunspot cycle are magnetic in nature. For the last 100 years these magnetic measurements have been acquired and used exclusively by professional astronomers to gain new information about the nature of the solar activity cycle. Recently, magnetic dynamo models have evolved to the stage where they can assimilate past data and provide predictions. With the advent of the Internet and open data policies, amateurs now have equal access to the same data used by professionals and equal opportunities to contribute (but, alas, without pay). This talk will describe some of the more useful prediction techniques and reveal what they say about the intensity of the upcoming sunspot cycle.

  10. Interlinked Cycles for Index Coding: Generalizing Cycles and Cliques

    Thapa, Chandra; Ong, Lawrence; Johnson, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a graphical approach to index coding. While cycles have been shown to provide coding gain, only disjoint cycles and cliques (a specific type of overlapping cycles) have been exploited in existing literature. In this paper, we define a more general form of overlapping cycles, called the interlinked-cycle (IC) structure, that generalizes cycles and cliques. We propose a scheme, called the interlinked-cycle-cover (ICC) scheme, that leverages IC structures in digraphs to construct sca...

  11. Rapid prototyping and time compression

    Chatwin, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping - manufacture by layering processes: Stereolithography Selective Layer Sintering (SLS) Laminated Object Manufacture (LOM) Solid Ground Curing Small batch programmable rapid manufacture with lasers Micro-Engineering – Prototyping and Manufacture Additive - fabrication Subtractive – machining

  12. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θp = 0o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Rapid chemical separations

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  14. Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria

    Clinton K. Murray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria's global impact is expansive and includes the extremes of the healthcare system ranging from international travelers returning to nonendemic regions with tertiary referral medical care to residents in hyperendemic regions without access to medical care. Implementation of prompt and accurate diagnosis is needed to curb the expanding global impact of malaria associated with ever-increasing antimalarial drug resistance. Traditionally, malaria is diagnosed using clinical criteria and/or light microscopy even though both strategies are clearly inadequate in many healthcare settings. Hand held immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have been recognized as an ideal alternative method for diagnosing malaria. Numerous malaria RDTs have been developed and are widely available; however, an assortment of issues related to these products have become apparent. This review provides a summary of RDT including effectiveness and strategies to select the ideal RDT in varying healthcare settings.

  15. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power Ayy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2> of 90 GeV2, cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  16. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F2γ in the reaction e+e- → e+e- + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  17. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate records on pseudoscalar form factor from inverse pion electroproduction and the first radial pion excitation, chiral and parity anomalies at finite temperature and density, the canonical form of an elastoplastic model of nuclear fusion, the peculiarities of the reactions of heavy and superheavy element synthesis within the dinuclear system concept, a study of the photon structure function F2γ in the reaction e+e-→e+e- + hadrons at LEP1 and LEP2, tritons for the study of the charge-exchange reactions with the LHE streamer chamber: status and some possibilities, nonlinear dynamics in nuclotron, current transformers and optical diagnostic monitor of nuclotron beam, the design features of the LHE JINR nuclotron internal target stations, a system of graphics digitization (SGD), numeric simulation of thermal treatment of metal surface by means of high current ion beam

  18. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eleven separate reports on the character of metastable states of the antiprotonic helium, next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of combined data for xF3 structure function and higher-twist contribution, powerful neutron beams from accelerators, accounting of nucleon correlations for study of momentum distributions in nuclei, overlap functions in nuclear correlation methods and direct nucleon removal processes, molecular alterations underlying the spontaneous and γ-ray-induced point mutations at the white locus of Drosophila Melanogaster, superheavy elements' existence in nature, study of deep subbarrier reactions on a Pb target, numerical optimization of actively screened SC magnetic coil geometries, narrow resonances in the system of two π--mesons, a new method of analysis of intermediate energy neutron spectra. 28 figs., 8 tabs

  19. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Higgsstrahlung at forward rapidities

    Pasechnik, Roman; Potashnikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the inclusive and single diffractive heavy flavor (top and bottom) production in association with the Higgs boson at forward rapidities in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The calculations are performed in the framework of the phenomenological dipole approach, which automatically accounts for the absorptive corrections induced by soft interactions, i.e. for the gap survival effects at the amplitude level. Major differential observables including the realistic ATLAS detector constraints are considered. The forward inclusive and diffractive Higgsstrahlung processes are generated essentially by excitation of the valence or sea quarks in the proton. The single diffractive Higgsstrahlung off top quarks is found to dominate compared to the loop-induced mechanism at sufficiently large Higgs boson transverse momenta. The Higgsstrahlung processes offer a direct and precise measurement of Higgs-top and, possibly, Higgs-bottom Yukawa couplings at the LHC, as well as the studies of the intrinsic heavy flav...

  1. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the method to calculate the hole spectral function, a proposal on the measurements of spin correlation in the reaction dp → pd, a suggestion on measurement of the observable in deuteron breakup with polarized proton target, experimental data on an evidence for collective phenomenon in heavy ion collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, MC simulation of zero degree calorimeter for investigation of Pb-Pb interaction in WA-98 experiment, an algorithm for identifying events in the experiment DISTO and determination of the spatial position of sensitive wires in the drift tubes. 34 figs., 1 tab

  2. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate reports on in-medium effects in K+ scattering versus Glauber model with noneikonal corrections, the possibility of relativistic space-time particle scattering description, study of the hadronic jet reconstruction algorithms in π-p and π-C interactions at 40 GeV/c, investigation of processes of total disintegration of nuclei in nucleus-nucleus collisions with impulse 4.2 A GeV/c, simulation and analysis of neutron energy spectra from irradiation channels of the reactor IBR-2, slag formation and poisoning problems in electronuclear reactor, internal target station at the Nuclotron, measurements of proportional mode characteristics of plastic drift tubes, silicon two-coordinate detector with separable pad-strip readout, investigation of the fusion-fission reaction 208Pb + 16O at subbarrier energies. 60 figs., 13 tabs

  3. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  4. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π-, p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  5. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  6. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference ΔσL(np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  7. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum Pd = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  8. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0+(0++0)] meson at a mass of Mπ+π- = 750 ± 5 MeV/c2 observed in π+π- combinations from the reaction np → npπ+π- at an incident momentum of Pn (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π- mesons emitted in 4HeC and 12CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  9. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  10. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  11. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate records on tensor and vector analysing power Ayy and Ay in the 12C(d,p)X and 12C(d,d)X reactions at initial deuteron momentum of 9 GeV/c and emission angle of 85 mrad, tensor analysing power T20 in inelastic (d,d') X scattering at 00 on 1H and 12C from 4.5 to 9.0 GeV/c, monitoring of the tensor polarization of high energy deuteron beams, the influence of inhomogeneities in scintillating fibre electromagnetic calorimeter on its energy resolution and cold quark-gluon plasma

  12. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  13. Bimodality and the Hale cycle

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence is provided of a modulation of between 20 and 24 yr for the Hale cycle, and comparison of consecutive pairs of cycles strongly suggests that even-numbered cycles are preferentially paired with odd-numbered following cycles. The results indicate that cycles 22 and 23 form a new cyle pair. The sum of monthly mean sunspot numbers over consecutively paired sunspot cycles for Hale cycle 12 is found to be about 19,100 + or - 3000.

  14. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Chris Rissel; Cameron Munro; Adrian Bauman

    2013-01-01

    Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney) asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year) estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28....

  15. Cycling across borders

    Jože Kos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the intent and content of the international Velo-City conference 1999, Maribor–Graz and the organisation of this cycling development planning meeting. It focuses on the resolution of the conference concerning cycling traffic policies, the emerging network of European cycling connections and the traffic planning workshop about a difficult square in Maribor. The content framework of particular papers is shown, as well as other post-conference events. In the conclusion certain useful addresses for obtaining added data on sustainable traffic planning are given.

  16. Effect of thermal cycling on 18% Ni maraging steel

    Studies were made to see the effects of thermal cycling on transformation behavior and hardness in 18% Ni maraging steel. The samples were repeatedly thermal cycled between ambient temperature and 800 deg. C. This treatment produced retained austenite in microstructure, the amount of which was increased with increasing thermal cycling. This increase is rapid up 5 cycles and after that is less till 30 cycles. After thermal cycling the samples were cold rolled between 80 to 90% reduction. It was observed the retained austenite thus produced is unstable and transform during cold rolling. The cold rolled samples were aged at different aging temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 deg. C. The hardness values achieved after aging was in the range of 740 to 780 HV which is greater than those obtained by conventional annealing and aging heat treatment. (author)

  17. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and confirm redshifts of the host galaxies. This unique combination of automated detection and characterization of astrophysical

  18. JINR rapid communications

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3He), the results of simulation of e+e-pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at Pn=(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  19. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  20. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  1. The effect of cycling intensity on cycling economy during seated and standing cycling

    Arkesteijn, Marco; Simon A. Jobson; James G Hopker; Passfield, Louis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that cycling in a standing position reduces cycling economy compared with seated cycling. It is unknown whether the cycling intensity moderates the reduction in cycling economy while standing. PURPOSE: The aim was to determine whether the negative effect of standing on cycling economy would be decreased at a higher intensity. METHODS: Ten cyclists cycled in 8 different conditions. Each condition was either at an intensity of 50% or 70% ...

  2. Fuel cycle data survey

    A survey of the fuel cycle cost data published during 1977 and 1978 is presented in tabular and graphical form. Cost trends for the period 1965 onwards are presented for yellow cake, conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing

  3. Fuel cycle studies

    Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

  4. Cycles in graphs

    Alspach, BR

    1985-01-01

    This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

  5. The Pneumocystis life cycle

    Cécile-Marie Aliouat-Denis; Anna Martinez; El Moukhtar Aliouat; Muriel Pottier; Nausicaa Gantois; Eduardo Dei-Cas

    2009-01-01

    First recognised as "schizonts" of Trypanosoma cruzi, Pneumocystis organisms are now considered as part of an early-diverging lineage of Ascomycetes. As no robust long-term culture model is available, most data on the Pneumocystis cell cycle have stemmed from ultrastructural images of infected mammalian lungs. Although most fungi developing in animals do not complete a sexual cycle in vivo, Pneumocystis species constitute one of a few exceptions. Recently, the molecular identification of seve...

  6. Reviewing the Leverage Cycle

    Ana Fostel; John Geanakoplos

    2013-01-01

    We review the theory of leverage developed in collateral equilibrium models with incomplete markets. We explain how leverage tends to boost asset prices, and create bubbles. We show how leverage can be endogenously determined in equilibrium, and how it depends on volatility. We describe the dynamic feedback properties of leverage, volatility, and asset prices, in what we call the Leverage Cycle. We also describe some cross-sectional implications of multiple leverage cycles, including contagio...

  7. Offshore Rankine Cycles

    Brandsar, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The title of the thesis - "Offshore Rankine Cycles" - is very general and cover a large range of engineering fields, e.g. thermodynamic cycles (Rankine, ORC, Brayton, Kalina, etc.), mechanical equipment (gas/steam turbine, heat exchangers and additional equipment) and safety concerns (flammable and/or toxic fluids, high temperature and pressures), to name the most important.The thesis try to give a brief overview of all critical points and alternatives, concerning employment of a wa...

  8. Resuscitating Real Business Cycles

    Robert G. King; Sergio T. Rebelo

    2000-01-01

    The Real Business Cycle (RBC) research program has grown spectacularly over the last decade, as its concepts and methods have diffused into mainstream macroeconomics. Yet, there is increasing skepticism that technology shocks are a major source of business fluctuations. This chapter exposits the basic RBC model and shows that it requires large technology shocks to produce realistic business cycles. While Solow residuals are sufficiently volatile, these imply frequent technological regress. Pr...

  9. Solar Cycle Prediction

    Petrovay, K

    2010-01-01

    A review of solar cycle prediction methods and their performance is given, including forecasts for cycle 24 and focusing on aspects of the solar cycle prediction problem that have a bearing on dynamo theory. The scope of the review is further restricted to the issue of predicting the amplitude (and optionally the epoch) of an upcoming solar maximum no later than right after the start of the given cycle. Prediction methods form three main groups. Precursor methods rely on the value of some measure of solar activity or magnetism at a specified time to predict the amplitude of the following solar maximum. Their implicit assumption is that each numbered solar cycle is a consistent unit in itself, while solar activity seems to consist of a series of much less tightly intercorrelated individual cycles. Extrapolation methods, in contrast, are based on the premise that the physical process giving rise to the sunspot number record is statistically homogeneous, i.e., the mathematical regularities underlying its variati...

  10. Kinetics of the nuclear division cycle of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Bergen, L G; Morris, N R

    1983-01-01

    We have analyzed the cell cycle kinetics of Aspergillus nidulans by using the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) and a temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutant nimT that blocks in G2. HU rapidly inhibits DNA synthesis (S), and as a consequence progression beyond S to mitosis (M) is blocked. Upon removal of HU the inhibition is rapidly reversible. Conidia (asexual spores) of nimT were germinated at restrictive temperature to synchronize germlings in G2 and then downshifted to permissive t...