WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d-ddtc pixel detectors

  1. Characterization of 3D-DDTC detectors on p-type substrates

    Betta, G -F Dalla; Bosisio, Luciano; Darbo, Giovanni; Gabos, Paolo; Gemme, Claudia; Koehler, Michael; La Rosa, Alessandro; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pernegger, Heinz; Piemonte, Claudio; Povoli, Marco; Rachevskaia, Irina; Ronchin, Sabina; Wiik, Liv; Zoboli, Aanrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    We report on the electrical and functional characterization of 3D Double-side, Double-Type-Column (3D- DDTC) detectors fabricated on p-type substrates. Results relevant to detectors in the diode, strip and pixel configurations are presented, and demonstrate a clear improvement in the charge collection performance compared to the first prototypes of these detectors.

  2. Pixel detectors

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  3. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  4. Diamond pixel detectors

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bognai, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Doroshenko, J; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foster, J; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Gobbi, B; Grim, G P; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lander, R; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rott, C; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles. (3 refs).

  5. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  6. The pixelated detector

    Sutton, C

    1990-01-01

    "Collecting data as patterns of light or subatomic particles is vitally important in all the sciences. The new generation of solid-state detectors called pixel devices could transform experimental research at all levels" (4 pages).

  7. SOI monolithic pixel detector

    Miyoshi, T.; Ahmed, M. I.; Arai, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Ikemoto, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tauchi, K.

    2014-05-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel detector using fully-depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel process technology. The SOI substrate is high resistivity silicon with p-n junctions and another layer is a low resistivity silicon for SOI-CMOS circuitry. Tungsten vias are used for the connection between two silicons. Since flip-chip bump bonding process is not used, high sensor gain in a small pixel area can be obtained. In 2010 and 2011, high-resolution integration-type SOI pixel sensors, DIPIX and INTPIX5, have been developed. The characterizations by evaluating pixel-to-pixel crosstalk, quantum efficiency (QE), dark noise, and energy resolution were done. A phase-contrast imaging was demonstrated using the INTPIX5 pixel sensor for an X-ray application. The current issues and future prospect are also discussed.

  8. The ATLAS pixel detector

    Cristinziani, M.

    2007-01-01

    After a ten years planning and construction phase, the ATLAS pixel detector is nearing its completion and is scheduled to be integrated into the ATLAS detector to take data with the first LHC collisions in 2007. An overview of the construction is presented with particular emphasis on some of the major and most recent problems encountered and solved.

  9. Pixel detector readout chip

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  10. Pixel detector insertion

    CMS

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  11. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  12. Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors

    Mathieson, K

    2001-01-01

    expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

  13. Gallium arsenide pixel detectors

    Bates, R.; DaVia, C.; O`Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Heijne, E.M.; Middelkamp, P.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Snoeys, W. [CERN, ECP Div., CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); D`Auria, S.; Papa, C. del [Department of Physics, University of Udine and INFN Trieste, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); RD8 Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV {pi}{sup -} beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e{sup -}. (orig.) 10 refs.

  14. Alpine Pixel Detector Layout

    Delebecque, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Geffroy, N; Massol, N; Rambure, T; Todorov, T

    2013-01-01

    A description of an optimized layout of pixel sensors based on a stave that combines both barrel and endcap module orientations. The mechanical stiffness of the structure is provided by carbon fiber shells spaced by carbon foam. The cooling of the modules is provided by two-phase $CO_{2}$ flowing in a thin titanium pipe glued inside the carbon fiber foam. The electrical services of all modules are provided by a single stave flex. This layout eliminates the need for separate barrel and endcap detector structures, and therefore the barrel services material in front of the endcap. The transition from barrel to endcap module orientation is optimized separately for each layer in order to minimize the active pixel area and the traversed material. The sparse module spacing in the endcap part of the stave allows for multiple fixation points, and for a stiff overall structure composed only of staves interconnected by stiff disks.

  15. ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience

    Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  16. The ALICE Pixel Detector

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well

  17. The ALICE pixel detector

    Mercado Perez, J

    2002-01-01

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well. (3 refs).

  18. Status of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Saavedra Aldo, F

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is currently being constructed and will be installed in 2006 to be ready for commissioning at the Large Hadron Collider. The complete pixel detector is composed of three concentric barrels and six disks that are populated by 1744 ATLAS Pixel modules. The main components of the pixel module are the readout electronics and the silicon sensor whose active region is instrumented with rectangular pixels. The module has been designed to be able to survive 10 years of operation within the ATLAS detector. A brief description of the pixel detector will be presented with results and problems encountered during the production stage.

  19. Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2005-01-01

    report on the performance of 3 mm thick prototype CZT drift pixel detectors fabricated using material from eV-products. We discuss issues associated with detector module performance. Characterization results obtained from several prototype drift pixel detectors are presented. Results of position...

  20. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System (SPD)

    Kluge, A; Antinori, Federico; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Ceresa, S; Dima, R; Elias, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, Marian; Librizzi, F; Manzari, Vito; Morel, M; Moretto, Sandra; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato De Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjo, H; Viesti, G; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 detector modules (half-staves) each consisting of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors and one multi-chip read-out module. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so that the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈ 107. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The constraints on material budget and detector module dimensions are very demanding.

  1. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Marcisovsky, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  2. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel detector

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  3. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost element of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  4. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  5. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  6. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  7. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Lantzsch, Kerstin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with new service quarter panels to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run 1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning, operation and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector will be presented.

  8. Cooling Tests for the Silion Pixel Detectors

    Pepato, Adriano; CERN. Geneva; Giarin, M; Antinori, Federico; Carrer, N; Morando, M; Soramel, F; Segato, G F; Turrisi, R; Scarlassara, F

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Cooling tests have been performed on dummy prototypes of the Silicon Pixel Detector ladders of the Inner Tracking System of ALICE, in order to assess the merits of the proposed cooling schemes. The tests provide insight into the problems of cooling of the pixel detectors and also yield experimental parameters necessary for a numerical simulation.

  9. Development of SOI pixel detector in Cracow

    Bugiel, Szymon; Dasgupta, Roma; Glab, Sebastian; Idzik, Marek; Moron, Jakub; Kapusta, Piotr Julian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new monolithic Silicon-On-Insulator pixel sensor in $200~nm$ SOI CMOS technology. The main application of the proposed pixel detector is the spectroscopy, but it can also be used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) tracking in particle physics experiments. For this reason few different versions of pixel cells are developed: a source-follower based pixel for tracking, a low noise pixel with preamplifier for spectroscopy, and a self-triggering pixel for t...

  10. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    Jarron, P.; Moraes, D.; Despeisse, M.; Dissertori, G.; Dunand, S.; Kaplon. J.; Miazza, C.; Shah, Arvind; Viertel, G M.; Wyrsch, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS)...

  11. Upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Hügging, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector (Phase 1) consists in the construction of a new pixel layer, which will be installed during the 1st long shutdown of the LHC machine (LS1) in 2013/14. The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of about 3.2 cm. The IBL requires the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of radiation and pixel occupancy as well as to improve the physics performance of the existing pixel detector. The pixel size is reduced and the material budget is minimized by using new lightweight mechanical support materials and a CO2 based cooling system. For Phase 2 upgrade of LHC a complete new 4-layer pixel system is planned as part of a new all silicon Inner Detector. The increase in luminosity to about $5\\cdot 10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ together with a total expected lifetime of ab...

  12. Development of SOI pixel detector in Cracow

    Bugiel, Szymon; Glab, Sebastian; Idzik, Marek; Moron, Jakub; Kapusta, Piotr Julian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new monolithic Silicon-On-Insulator pixel sensor in $200~nm$ SOI CMOS technology. The main application of the proposed pixel detector is the spectroscopy, but it can also be used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) tracking in particle physics experiments. For this reason few different versions of pixel cells are developed: a source-follower based pixel for tracking, a low noise pixel with preamplifier for spectroscopy, and a self-triggering pixel for time and amplitude measurements. In addition the design of a Successive Approximation Register Analog-to-Digital Converter (SAR ADC) is also presented. A 10-bit SAR ADC is developed for spectroscopic measurements and a lower resolution 6-bit SAR ADC is integrated in the pixel matrix as a column ADC, for tracking applications.

  13. Parallel encoders for pixel detectors

    A new method of fast encoding and determining the multiplicity and coordinates of fired pixels is described. A specific example construction of parallel encodes and MCC for n=49 and t=2 is given. 16 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Hybrid pixel detector development for medical radiography

    A 7-year project has been initiated to develop hybrid pixel detectors for medical radiography. Crystalline semiconductor will be bonded to a pixellated readout chip where individual integrated circuits process each event, transferring the position, energy and timing information to the data acquisition controller. Chips will be tiled to produce a large area detector, capable of energy dispersive photon counting at moderate spatial resolution. Preliminary results from studies examining the design features and operation of the device are presented

  15. Overview of the CMS Pixel Detector

    Cerati, Giuseppe B

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) will start taking data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2009. It will investigate the proton-proton collisions at $14~TeV$. A robust tracking combined with a precise vertex reconstruction is crucial to address the physics challenge of proton collisions at this energy. To this extent an all-silicon tracking system with very fine granularity has been built and now is in the final commissioning phase. It represents the largest silicon tracking detector ever built. The system is composed by an outer part, made of micro-strip detectors, and an inner one, made of pixel detectors. The pixel detector consists of three pixel barrel layers and two forward disks at each side of the interaction region. Each pixel sensor, both for the barrel and forward detectors, has $100 \\times 150$ $\\mu m^2$ cells for a total of 66 million pixels covering a total area of about $1~m^2$. The pixel detector will play a crucial role in the pattern recognition and the track reconstruction both...

  16. Pixel Hit Reconstruction with the CMS Detector

    Giurgiu, Gavril; Maksimovic, P; Swartz, M

    2008-01-01

    We present a new technique for pixel hit reconstruction with the CMS pixel detector. The technique is based on fitting the pixel cluster projections to templates obtained using a detailed simulation called Pixelav. Pixelav successfully describes the profiles of clusters measured in beam tests of radiation-damaged sensors. Originally developed to optimally estimate the coordinates of hits after the radiation damage, the technique has superior performance before irradiation as well, reducing the resolution tails of reconstructed track parameters and significantly reducing the light quark background of tagged b-quarks. It is the only technique currently available to simulate hits from a radiation-damaged detector.

  17. Pixel detectors from fundamentals to applications

    Rossi, Leonardo; Rohe, Tilman; Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel detectors are a particularly important class of particle and radiation detection devices. They have an extremely broad spectrum of applications, ranging from high-energy physics to the photo cameras of everyday life. This book is a general purpose introduction into the fundamental principles of pixel detector technology and semiconductor-based hybrid pixel devices. Although these devices were developed for high-energy ionizing particles and radiation beyond visible light, they are finding new applications in many other areas. This book will therefore benefit all scientists and engineers working in any laboratory involved in developing or using particle detection.

  18. High efficiency pixellated CdTe detector

    Position sensitive detectors constructed from compound semiconductors (CdTe, CdZnTe, HgI2) are being developed for a variety of applications where high sensitivity and improved energy resolution are significant advantages over scintillator or gas based systems. We have investigated the possibility of using a CdTe detector array in a SPECT gamma camera that would require a high efficiency at 140 keV. The problem of worsening photopeak efficiencies in thick detectors (due to incomplete charge collection) makes it difficult to maintain a high efficiency which, ironically, is the primary reason for choosing a thicker detector. Recent research has shown that following a simple geometrical design criterion can greatly reduce this deleterious effect. This paper reports on the results from a small prototype pixellated array fabricated using this design. We verify the 'small pixel effect' for a detector thickness and pixel size significantly larger than those used in most other work. A 9-element detector (1 x 1 mm pixels, 4 mm thick) has been fabricated and characterized in terms of energy resolution, peak-to-valley ratio and detection efficiency. Testing of the detector in a fast pulse mode to obtain its high count rate response has also been performed. (orig.)

  19. ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

  20. Proceedings of PIXEL98 -- International pixel detector workshop

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    Experiments around the globe face new challenges of more precision in the face of higher interaction rates, greater track densities, and higher radiation doses, as they look for rarer and rarer processes, leading many to incorporate pixelated solid-state detectors into their plans. The highest-readout rate devices require new technologies for implementation. This workshop reviewed recent, significant progress in meeting these technical challenges. Participants presented many new results; many of them from the weeks--even days--just before the workshop. Brand new at this workshop were results on cryogenic operation of radiation-damaged silicon detectors (dubbed the Lazarus effect). Other new work included a diamond sensor with 280-micron collection distance; new results on breakdown in p-type silicon detectors; testing of the latest versions of read-out chip and interconnection designs; and the radiation hardness of deep-submicron processes.

  1. Development of a CMOS SOI pixel detector

    Ishino, Hirokazu; Hazumi, M; Ikegami, Y; Kohriki, T; Tajima, O; Terada, S; Tsuboyama, T; Unno, Y; Ushiroda, Y; Ikeda, H; Hara, K; Ishino, H; Kawasaki, T; Miyake, H; Martin, E; Varner, G; Tajima, H; Ohno, M; Fukuda, K; Komatsubara, H; Ida, J

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a monolithic radiation pixel detector using silicon on insulator (SOI) with a commercial 0.15 m fullydepleted- SOI technology and a Czochralski high resistivity silicon substrate in place of a handle wafer. The SOI TEG (Test Element Group) chips with a size of 2.5 x 2.5mm2 consisting of 20 x 20 um2 pixels have been designed and manufactured. Performance tests with a laser light illumination and a . ray radioactive source indicate successful operation of the detector. We also brie y discuss the back gate effect as well as the simulation study.

  2. Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector

    ATLAS Collaboration; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and summer 2008, and is ready for the imminent LHC turn-on. The highlights of the past and future commissioning activities of the ATLAS pixel system are presented.

  3. Commissioning the CMS pixel detector with Cosmic Rays

    Heyburn, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    commissioning activities in the CMS pixel detector. Results from cosmic ray studies will be presented, in addition to results obtained from the integration of the pixel detector within the CMS detector and various calibration and alignment analyses.

  4. The ALICE silicon pixel detector readout electronics

    Krivda, M; Burns, M; Caselle, M; Kluge, A; Manzari, V; Torcato de Matos, C; Morel, M; Riedler, P; Aglieri Rinella, G; Sandor, L; Stefanini, G

    2010-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracking system (ALICE Collaboration, 1999) [1]. The SPD is built with 120 detector modules (half-staves) and contains about 10 million pixels in total. The half-staves are connected to the off-detector electronics, housed in a control room 100 m away, via bidirectional optical links. The stream of data from the front-end electronics is processed in 20 VME readout modules, called routers, based on FPGAs. Three 2-channel link-receiver daughter cards, also based on FPGAs, are plugged in each router. Each link-receiver card receives data via the optical link from two half-staves, applies the zero suppression and passes them to the router to be processed and sent to the ALICE–DAQ system through the detector data link (DDL). The SPD control, configuration and data monitoring are performed using the VME interface embedded in the router.

  5. The ALICE silicon pixel detector readout electronics

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracking system (ALICE Collaboration, 1999) . The SPD is built with 120 detector modules (half-staves) and contains about 10 million pixels in total. The half-staves are connected to the off-detector electronics, housed in a control room 100 m away, via bidirectional optical links. The stream of data from the front-end electronics is processed in 20 VME readout modules, called routers, based on FPGAs. Three 2-channel link-receiver daughter cards, also based on FPGAs, are plugged in each router. Each link-receiver card receives data via the optical link from two half-staves, applies the zero suppression and passes them to the router to be processed and sent to the ALICE-DAQ system through the detector data link (DDL). The SPD control, configuration and data monitoring are performed using the VME interface embedded in the router.

  6. Charge sharing in silicon pixel detectors

    Mathieson, K; Seller, P; Prydderch, M L; O'Shea, V; Bates, R L; Smith, K M; Rahman, M

    2002-01-01

    We used a pixellated hybrid silicon X-ray detector to study the effect of the sharing of generated charge between neighbouring pixels over a range of incident X-ray energies, 13-36 keV. The system is a room temperature, energy resolving detector with a Gaussian FWHM of 265 eV at 5.9 keV. Each pixel is 300 mu m square, 300 mu m deep and is bump bonded to matching read out electronics. The modelling packages MEDICI and MCNP were used to model the complete X-ray interaction and the subsequent charge transport. Using this software a model is developed which reproduces well the experimental results. The simulations are then altered to explore smaller pixel sizes and different X-ray energies. Charge sharing was observed experimentally to be 2% at 13 keV rising to 4.5% at 36 keV, for an energy threshold of 4 keV. The models predict that up to 50% of charge may be lost to the neighbouring pixels, for an X-ray energy of 36 keV, when the pixel size is reduced to 55 mu m.

  7. Commissioning of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Golling, Tobias; ATLAS Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and su...

  8. Optical Link of the Atlas Pixel Detector

    Gan, K. K.

    2007-01-01

    The on-detector optical link of the ATLAS pixel detector contains radiation-hard receiver chips to decode bi-phase marked signals received on PIN arrays and data transmitter chips to drive VCSEL arrays. The components are mounted on hybrid boards (opto-boards). We present results from the irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 32 Mrad (1.2 x 10^15 p/cm^2) and the experience from the production.

  9. Electrical characteristics of silicon pixel detectors

    Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Mata-Bruni, V.; Santistevan, G.; Seidel, S.C. E-mail: seidel@dot.phys.unm.edu; Ciocio, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Emes, J.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Marchesini, R.; McCormack, F.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Pengg, F.; Richardson, J.; Zizka, G.; Ackers, M.; Comes, G.; Fischer, P.; Keil, M.; Martinez, G.; Peric, I.; Runolfsson, O.; Stockmanns, T.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.; Goessling, C.; Huegging, F.; Klaiber-Lodewigs, J.; Krasel, O.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wunstorf, R.; Barberis, D.; Beccherle, R.; Caso, C.; Cervetto, M.; Darbo, G.; Gagliardi, G.; Gemme, C.; Morettini, P.; Netchaeva, P.; Osculati, B.; Rossi, L.; Charles, E.; Fasching, D.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnon, P.; Calvet, D.; Clemens, J.-C.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Laugier, D.; Mouthuy, T.; Rozanov, A.; Valin, I.; Andreazza, A.; Caccia, M.; Citterio, M.; Lari, T.; Meroni, C.; Ragusa, F.; Troncon, C.; Vegni, G.; Lutz, G.; Richter, R.H.; Rohe, T.; Boyd, G.R.; Skubic, P.L.; Sicho, P.; Tomasek, L.; Vrba, V.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Cauz, D.; Cobal-Grassmann, M.; D' Auria, S.; De Lotto, B.; Del Papa, C.; Grassmann, H.; Santi, L.; Becks, K.H.; Lenzen, G.; Linder, C

    2002-08-21

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been electrically characterized. The current and voltage characteristics, charge-collection efficiencies, and resolutions have been examined. Devices were fabricated on oxygenated and standard detector-grade silicon wafers. Results from prototypes which examine p-stop and standard and moderated p-spray isolation are presented for a variety of geometrical options. Some of the comparisons relate unirradiated sensors with those that have received fluences relevant to LHC operation.

  10. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    Jarron, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Pierre.Jarron@cern.ch; Moraes, D. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Danielle.Moraes@cern.ch; Despeisse, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dissertori, G. [ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dunand, S. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Kaplon, J. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Miazza, C. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Shah, A. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Viertel, G.M. [ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wyrsch, N. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2006-05-01

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS) devices. We present results obtained with a-Si:H sensor films deposited on a glass substrate and on ASIC, including the radiation hardness of this material up to a fluence of 3.5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}.

  11. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS) devices. We present results obtained with a-Si:H sensor films deposited on a glass substrate and on ASIC, including the radiation hardness of this material up to a fluence of 3.5x1015 p/cm2

  12. Development of silicon micropattern pixel detectors

    Successive versions of high speed, active silicon pixel detectors with integrated readout electronics have been developed for particle physics experiments using monolithic and hybrid technologies. Various matrices with binary output as well as a linear detector with analog output have been made. The hybrid binary matrix with 1024 cells (dimension 75 μmx500 μm) can capture events at similar 5 MHz and a selected event can then be read out in 109Cd source a noise level of 170 e-r.m.s. (1.4 keV fwhm) has been measured with a threshold non-uniformity of 750 e- r.m.s. Objectives of the development work are the increase of the size of detecting area without loss of efficiency, the design of an appropriate readout architecture for collider operation, the reduction of material thickness in the detector, understanding of the threshold non-uniformity, study of the sensitivity of the pixel matrices to light and low energy electrons for scintillating fiber detector readout and last but not least, the optimization of cost and yield of the pixel detectors in production. ((orig.))

  13. SOIKID, SOI pixel detector combined with superconducting detector KID

    Ishino, Hirokazu; Kida, Yosuke; Yamada, Yousuke

    2015-01-01

    We present the development status of the SOIKID, a detector combining the SOI pixel detector and the superconducting detector KID (Kinetic Inductance Detector). The aim of the SOIKID is to measure X-ray photon energy with the resolution better than that of the semiconductor detector. The silicon substrate is used as the X-ray photon absorber. The recoiled electron creates athermal phonons as well as the ionizing electron-hole pairs. The KID formed at one side of the substrate surface detects the phonons to measure the total energy deposited, while the SOI pixel detector formed on the other side of the substrate detects the ionized carries to measure the position. Combining the position and energy measurements, it is in principle possible to have the extremely high energy resolution.

  14. Characterization of the CMS Pixel Detectors

    Gu, Weihua

    2002-01-01

    In 2005 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start the pp collisions at a high luminosity and at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. The primary goal of the experimental programme is the search of the Higgs boson(s) and the supersymmetric particles. The programme is also proposed to detect a range of diverse signatures in order to provide guidance for future physics. The pixel detector system makes up the innermost part of the CMS experiment, which is one of the two general purpose detectors at the LHC. The main tasks of the system are vertex detection and flavor tagging. The high luminosity and the high particle multiplicity as well as the small bunch spacing at the LHC impose great challenges on the pixel detectors: radiation hardness of sensors and electronics, fast signal processing and a high granularity are the essential requirements. This thesis concentrates on the study of the suitability of two test stands, which are implemented to characterize the CMS pixel detectors: one is con-cerned with test puls...

  15. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    The Japanese flavour factory (KEKB) accumulated a total integrated luminosity of 1000 fb-1 over more than a decade of operation. Despite this great success, an upgrade of the existing machine is under construction, and is foreseen for commissioning by the end of 2015. This new electron-positron machine (SuperKEKB) will deliver an instantaneous luminosity 40 times higher than the world record set by KEKB. To fully exploit the huge number of events and measure precisely the decay vertex of the B mesons in a large background environment, the SuperKEKB partner, the Belle detector, will be also upgraded. In the Belle II project, a highly granular silicon vertex detector (PXD) based on the DEPFET pixel technology, will be the innermost subsystem, operated very close to the interaction point. The new pixel detector has to have an excellent single point resolution (10 μm) and a fast readout (20 μs), while keeping the material budget under very low levels (0.2% X0). This talk summarizes the Belle II pixel detector concept, from the DEPFET sensor to the laboratory tests results, all the way up the electronics chain, the DAQ system and the cooling concept.

  16. Readout architecture of the CMS pixel detector

    Baur, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe the readout architecture of the CMS pixel chip. In column drain architecture the complex tasks of data buffering and trigger verification are performed in the circuit periphery. This allows to use a rather simple pixel unit cell which requires only a small number of transistors. The column periphery logic is designed for readout and trigger rates expected for full LHC luminosity. At LHC the high particle flux can create single event upsets in the readout chips. At small radii the upsets of logic cells could severely affect the performance of the pixel detector readout. We have therefore performed a measurement of the upset rate at the PSI pion beam and describe the consequences for the design of the readout chip. (5 refs).

  17. Radiation Experience with the CMS Pixel Detector

    Veszpremi, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracker occupying the region around the centre of CMS, where the LHC beams are crossed, between 4.3~cm and 30~cm in radius and 46.5~cm along the beam axis. It operates in a high-occupancy and high-radiation environment created by particle collisions. Studies of radiation damage effects to the sensors were performed throughout the first running period of the LHC. Leakage current, depletion voltage, pixel read-out thresholds, and hit finding efficiencies were monitored as functions of the increasing particle fluence. The methods and results of these measurements will be described together with their implications to detector operation as well as to performance parameters in offline hit reconstruction.

  18. Radiation experience with the CMS pixel detector

    Veszpremi, V.

    2015-04-01

    The CMS pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracker occupying the region around the centre of CMS, where the LHC beams are crossed, between 4.3 cm and 30 cm in radius and 46.5 cm along the beam axis. It operates in a high-occupancy and high-radiation environment created by particle collisions. Studies of radiation damage effects to the sensors were performed throughout the first running period of the LHC . Leakage current, depletion voltage, pixel readout thresholds, and hit finding efficiencies were monitored as functions of the increasing particle fluence. The methods and results of these measurements will be described together with their implications to detector operation as well as to performance parameters in offline hit reconstruction.

  19. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Characterization of the CMS pixel detectors

    Gu, Weihua

    2002-01-01

    In 2005 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start the pp collisions at a high luminosity and at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. The primary goal of the experimental programme is the search of the Higgs boson(s) and the supersymmetric particles. The programme is also proposed to detect a range of diverse signatures in order to provide guidance for future physics. The pixel detector system makes up the innermost part of the CMS experiment, which is one of the two general purpose detectors a...

  1. Optical links for the ATLAS Pixel detector

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  2. optical links for the atlas pixel detector

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  3. Survey of the ATLAS Pixel Detector Components

    This document provides a description of the survey performed on different components of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at different stages of its assembly. During the production of the ATLAS pixel detector great care was put in the geometrical survey of the location of the sensitive area of modules. This had a double purpose: (1) to provide a check of the quality of the assembly procedure and assure tolerances in the geometrical assembly were met; and (2) to provide an initial point for the alignment (the so called 'as-built detector'), better than the ideal geometry. Since direct access to the sensitive area becomes more and more difficult with the progress of the assembly, the survey needed to be performed at different stages: after module loading on the local supports (sectors and staves) and after assembly of the local supports in disks or halfshells. Different techniques were used, including both optical 2D and 3D surveys and mechanical survey. This document summarizes the survey procedures, the analysis done on the collected data and how survey data are stored in case they will need to be accessed in the future

  4. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System

    Fadmar Osmic, FO

    2006-01-01

    The European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva is currently constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will allow the study of the subnuclear ranges of physics with an accuracy never achieved before. Within the LHC project, ALICE is to the study of strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. ALICE as many other modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments uses silicon pixel detectors for tracking close to the interaction point (IP). The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) will constitute the two innermost layers of ALICE, and will due to its high granularity provide precise tracking information. In heavy ion collisions, the track density could be as high as 80 tracks/cm2 in the first SPD layer. The SPD will provide tracking information at radii of 3.9 and 7.6 cm from the IP. It is a fundamental element for the study of the weak decays of the particles carrying heavy flavour, whose typical signature will be a secondary vertex separated from the primary verte...

  5. ATLAS rewards two pixel detector suppliers

    2007-01-01

    Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, presented the ATLAS supplier award to Herbert Reichl, IZM director, and to Simonetta Di Gioia, from the SELEX company.Two of ATLAS’ suppliers were awarded prizes at a ceremony on Wednesday 13 June attended by representatives of the experiment’s management and of CERN. The prizes went to the Fraunhofer Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM) in Berlin and the company SELEX Sistemi Integrati in Rome for the manufacture of modules for the ATLAS pixel detector. SELEX supplied 1500 of the modules for the tracker, while IZM produced a further 1300. The modules, each made up of 46080 channels, form the active part of the ATLAS pixel detector. IZM and SELEX received the awards for the excellent quality of their work: the average number of faulty channels per module was less than 2.10-3. They also stayed within budget and on schedule. The difficulty they faced was designing modules based on electronic components and sensor...

  6. Commissioning the CMS pixel detector with Cosmic Rays

    Heyburn, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of two general purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. The CMS experiment prides itself on an ambitious, all silicon based, tracking system. After almost 20 years of design and construction the CMS tracker detector has been installed and commissioned. The tracker detector consists of ten layers of silicon microstrip detectors while three layers of pixel detector modules are situated closest to the interaction point. The pixel detector consists of 66 million pixels of 100mm 150mm size, and is designed to use the shape of the actual charge distribution of charged particles to gain hit resolutions down to 12mm. This paper will focus on commissioning activities in the CMS pixel detector. Results from cosmic ray studies will be presented, in addition to results obtained from the integration of the pixel detector within the CMS detector and various calibration and alignment analyses.

  7. Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    Cavicchioli, C

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within approximate to 1\\%X(0) per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the...

  8. Background capabilities of pixel detectors for double beta decay measurements

    Cermak, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.cermak@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, 12800 Prague (Czech Republic); Stekl, Ivan; Bocarov, Viktor; Jose, Joshy M.; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, 12800 Prague (Czech Republic); Fiederle, Michael; Fauler, Alex [Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Zuber, Kai [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Loaiza, Pia [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, 73500 Modane (France); Shitov, Yuriy [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    We discuss the possible use of a progressive detection technique based on pixel detectors for the study of double beta decay ({beta}{beta}) processes. A series of background measurements in various environments (surface laboratory, underground laboratory, with and without Pb shielding) was performed using the TimePix silicon hybrid pixel device. The pixel detector response to the natural background and intrinsic background properties measured by a low-background HPGe detector are presented.

  9. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    Lapoire, C.; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as B-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy is sufficiently low and hit efficiency exceed the design specification.

  10. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.7% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  11. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  12. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    Deluca, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5\\% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, ...

  13. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.8% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  14. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    Lapoire, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  15. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    Lapoire, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as B-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification.

  16. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    Lange, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump- bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, a...

  17. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    Deluca, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  18. Pixel detector modules performance for ATLAS IBL and future pixel detectors

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00355104; Pernegger, Heinz

    2015-11-06

    The ATLAS Detector is one of the four big particle physics experiments at CERN’s LHC. Its innermost tracking system consisted of the 3-Layer silicon Pixel Detector (~80M readout channels) in the first run (2010-2012). Over the past two years it was refurbished and equipped with new services as well as a new beam monitor. The major upgrade, however, was the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). It adds ~12M readout channels for improved vertexing, tracking robustness and b-tagging performance for the upcoming runs, before the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC will take place. This thesis covers two main aspects of Pixel detector performance studies: The main work was the planning, commissioning and operation of a test bench that meets the requirements of current pixel detector components. Each newly built ATLAS IBL stave was thoroughly tested, following a specifically developed procedure, and initially calibrated in that setup. A variety of production accompanying measurements as well as preliminary results after integ...

  19. Semiconductor Pixel detectors and their applications in life sciences

    Recent advances in semiconductor technology allow construction of highly efficient and low noise pixel detectors of ionizing radiation. Steadily improving quality of front end electronics enables fast digital signal processing in each pixel which offers recording of more complete information about each detected quantum (energy, time, number of particles). All these features improve an extend applicability of pixel technology in different fields. Some applications of this technology especially for imaging in life sciences will be shown (energy and phase sensitive X-ray radiography and tomography, radiography with heavy charged particles, neutron radiography, etc). On the other hand a number of obstacles can limit the detector performance if not handled. The pixel detector is in fact an array of individual detectors (pixels), each of them has its own efficiency, energy calibration and also noise. The common effort is to make all these parameters uniform for all pixels. However an ideal uniformity can be never reached. Moreover, it is often seen that the signal in one pixel can affect the neighbouring pixels due to various reasons (e.g. charge sharing). All such effects have to be taken into account during data processing to avoid false data interpretation. A brief view into the future of pixel detectors and their applications including also spectroscopy, tracking and dosimetry is given too. Special attention is paid to the problem of detector segmentation in context of the charge sharing effect.

  20. STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade-HFT Pixel Development

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

  1. STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade—HFT Pixel Development

    Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James H.; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.

    2009-03-01

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

  2. Status of the digital pixel array detector for protein crystallography

    Datte, P; Beuville, E; Endres, N; Druillole, F; Luo, L; Millaud, J E; Xuong, N H

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional photon counting digital pixel array detector is being designed for static and time resolved protein crystallography. The room temperature detector will significantly enhance monochromatic and polychromatic protein crystallographic through-put data rates by more than three orders of magnitude. The detector has an almost infinite photon counting dynamic range and exhibits superior spatial resolution when compared to present crystallographic phosphor imaging plates or phosphor coupled CCD detectors. The detector is a high resistivity N-type Si with a pixel pitch of 150x150 mu m, and a thickness of 300 mu m, and is bump bonded to an application specific integrated circuit. The event driven readout of the detector is based on the column architecture and allows an independent pixel hit rate above 1 million photons/s/pixel. The device provides energy discrimination and sparse data readout which yields minimal dead-time. This type of architecture allows a continuous (frameless) data acquisition, a f...

  3. Simulation of signal in irradiated silicon pixel detectors

    Kramberger, G

    2003-01-01

    Induced currents in silicon pixel detectors of different geometries were simulated. The general properties of charge collection in irradiated segmented devices were investigated. A significant difference in charge collection efficiency (CCE) between n**+-n and p **+-n detectors was predicted after irradiation to the LHC fluences. A possible use of silicon detectors for the LHC upgrade was investigated by simulation of thin pixel sensors. The reduced CCE due to charge trapping seems to be the largest obstacle for their use.

  4. Calibration/Survey/Alignment studies of STAR HFT Pixel Detector

    Ma, Long

    2013-10-01

    As a critical component of the STAR inner tracking detector - Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), the pixel detector consists of 10 sectors with 400 million 20x20-micrometer pixels forming the two innermost layers of the HFT at radii of 2.5 and 8 cm, respectively. In Run-13, a three-sector prototype was installed and successfully integrated into STAR. To achieve physics goals of HFT, the alignment calibration of pixel detector to a high precision of ~10 microns is essential. The precision alignment to map out each pixel position within the sector is carried out via a survey measurement utilizing a Coordinate Measurement Machine with a repeatability of a few micrometers. The global position parameters of the pixel sectors with respect to the STAR TPC will be obtained via a track-based alignment method with beam collisions. Particularly, the sensitive area of the pixel detector is designed to have some overlaps in order to complete the relative alignment between sectors using tracks passing through the overlap region. In this presentation, we will present the alignment calibration procedure for the HFT pixel detector. Status of the alignment calibration for the pixel detector prototype in Run-13 will be discussed. for the STAR Collaboration

  5. Small pixel CZT detector for hard X-ray spectroscopy

    Wilson, Matthew David; Cernik, Robert; Chen, Henry; Hansson, Conny; Iniewski, Kris; Jones, Lawrence L.; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C.

    2011-10-01

    A new small pixel cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has been developed for hard X-ray spectroscopy. The X-ray performance of four detectors is presented and the detectors are analysed in terms of the energy resolution of each pixel. The detectors were made from CZT crystals grown by the travelling heater method (THM) bonded to a 20×20 application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and data acquisition (DAQ) system. The detectors had an array of 20×20 pixels on a 250 μm pitch, with each pixel gold-stud bonded to an energy resolving circuit in the ASIC. The DAQ system digitised the ASIC output with 14 bit resolution, performing offset corrections and data storage to disc in real time at up to 40,000 frames per second. The detector geometry and ASIC design was optimised for X-ray spectroscopy up to 150 keV and made use of the small pixel effect to preferentially measure the electron signal. A 241Am source was used to measure the spectroscopic performance and uniformity of the detectors. The average energy resolution (FWHM at 59.54 keV) of each pixel ranged from 1.09±0.46 to 1.50±0.57 keV across the four detectors. The detectors showed good spectral performance and uniform response over almost all pixels in the 20×20 array. A large area 80×80 pixel detector will be built that will utilise the scalable design of the ASIC and the large areas of monolithic spectroscopic grade THM grown CZT that are now available. The large area detector will have the same performance as that demonstrated here.

  6. A low mass pixel detector upgrade for CMS

    Kaestli, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    and commissioning of the present pixel detector, we intend to upgrade the whole pixel detector in 2015. The main focus is on lowering the material budget and adding more tracking points. We will present the design of a new low mass pixel system consisting of 4 barrel layers and 3 end cap disks on each side. The design comprises of thin detector modules and a lightweight mechanical support structure using CO2 cooling. In addition, large efforts have been made to move material from the services out of the tracking regi...

  7. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-15

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  8. DAQ Hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment was extended by about 12 million pixels with the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented by employing newly designed read-out hardware, which supports the full detector bandwidth even for calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the read-out boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the read-out bandwidth for the two outermost layers of the ATLAS Pixel Barrel (54 million pixels). We present the IBL read-out hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  9. New pixelized Micromegas detector for the COMPASS experiment

    Neyret, Damien; Bedfer, Yann; Burtin, Etienne; d'Hose, Nicole; Giganon, Arnaud; Ketzer, Bernhard; Konorov, Igor; Kunne, Fabienne; Magnon, Alain; Marchand, Claude; Paul, Bernard; Platchkov, Stéphane; Vandenbroucke, Maxence

    2009-01-01

    New Micromegas (Micro-mesh gaseous detectors) are being developed in view of the future physics projects planned by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN. Several major upgrades compared to present detectors are being studied: detectors standing five times higher luminosity with hadron beams, detection of beam particles (flux up to a few hundred of kHz/mm^2, 10 times larger than for the present detectors) with pixelized read-out in the central part, light and integrated electronics, and improved robustness. Studies were done with the present detectors moved in the beam, and two first pixelized prototypes are being tested with muon and hadron beams in real conditions at COMPASS. We present here this new project and report on two series of tests, with old detectors moved into the beam and with pixelized prototypes operated in real data taking condition with both muon and hadron beams.

  10. Status of the CMS Phase I Pixel Detector Upgrade

    Spannagel, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview of the design of the upgraded pixel detector and the status of the upgrade project, and presents test beam performance measurements of the production read-out chip.

  11. Monolithic CMOS pixel detector for international linear collider vertex detection

    J E Brau; O Igonkina; N Sinew; D Strom; C Baltay; W Emmet; H Neal; D Rabinowitz

    2007-12-01

    A monolithic CMS pixel detector is under development for an ILC experiment. This chronopixel array provides a time stamp resolution of one bunch crossing, a critical feature for background suppression. The status of this effort is summarized.

  12. A new CMS pixel detector for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    Favaro, Carlotta; Collaboration, for the CMS

    2011-01-01

    The CMS inner pixel detector system is planned to be replaced during the first phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The plans foresee an ultra low mass system with four barrel layers and three disks on either end. With the expected increase in particle rates, the electronic readout chain will be changed for fast digital signals. An overview of the envisaged design options for the upgraded CMS pixel detector is given, as well as estimates of the tracking and vertexing performance.

  13. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  14. The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS silicon pixel detector

    Menichelli, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The present CMS pixel detector will be replaced in the shutdown period 2016/17 by an upgraded version due to the following reasons: increased luminosity at reduced bunch spacing ( from 7 x 10 33 cm - 2 s - 1 at 50 ns bunch spacing to 2 x 10 34 cm - 2 s - 1 at 25 ns bunch spacing) in the LHC , and radiation damage effects that will significantly degrade the present detector. The new upgraded detector will have higher tracking efficiency and lower mass with four barrel layer and three forward/backward disks to provide higher hit pixel coverage out to pseudorapidities of ±2.5. In this paper we will describe the new pixel detector focus ing mostly on the barrel detector design, construction and expected performances

  15. Vertex measurement at a hadron collider. The ATLAS pixel detector

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system and will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the Pixel Detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, fast read-out, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability, all combined with a low material budget. The new design concepts used to meet the challenging requirements are discussed with their realisation in the Pixel Detector, followed by a description of a refined and extensive set of measurements to assess the detector performance during and after its construction. (orig.)

  16. The Phase-1 Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    Klein, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment features a pixel detector with three barrel layers and two disks per side, corresponding to an active silicon area of 1\\,m$^2$. The detector delivered high-quality data during LHC Run~1. However, the CMS pixel detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of $1\\cdot 10^{34}\\,$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. It is expected that the instantaneous luminosity will increase and reach twice the design value before Long Shutdown 3, scheduled for 2023. Under such conditions, the present readout chip would suffer from data loss due to buffer overflow, leading to significant inefficiencies of up to~16\\,\\%. The CMS collaboration is presently constructing a new pixel detector to replace the present device during the winter shutdown 2016/2017. The design of this new detector will be outlined, the construction status summarized and the performance described.

  17. First Results of the Pixel Detector Performance in 2015

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector consists of 66 million pixels arranged in three cylindric layers in the barrel region and two end-cap disks on each side of the barrel. It is used for seeding in track reconstruction. It is also the most important tool for vertex reconstruction. This report documents the good fraction of the pixel detector at the start of data-taking in 2015, its efficiency at low luminosity and 50 ns bunch-spacing, and the first measurements of the Lorentz-angle. Details are also given on the timing adjustment in the first collisions, and verification of the full depletion voltage.

  18. DAQ hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has been extended by about 12 million pixels thanks to the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented along with newly designed read-out hardware to support high bandwidth for data readout and calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the read-out boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the read-out bandwidth for the two outermost layers of the ATLAS Pixel Barrel (54 million pixels). We present the IBL read-out hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  19. Characterization of active CMOS sensors for capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    Hirono, Toko; Gonella, Laura; Janssen, Jens; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensor is one of the most attractive candidates for detectors of upcoming particle physics experiments. In contrast to conventional sensors of hybrid detectors, signal processing circuit can be integrated in the active CMOS sensor. The characterization and optimization of the pixel circuit are indispensable to obtain a good performance from the sensors. The prototype chips of the active CMOS sensor were fabricated in the AMS 180nm and L-Foundry 150 nm CMOS processes, respectively a high voltage and high resistivity technology. Both chips have a charge sensitive amplifier and a comparator in each pixel. The chips are designed to be glued to the FEI4 pixel readout chip. The signals from 3 pixels of the prototype chips are capacitively coupled to the FEI4 input pads. We have performed lab tests and test beams to characterize the prototypes. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  20. DAQ hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has been extended by about 12 million pixels thanks to the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented along with newly designed readout hardware to support high bandwidth for data readout and calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the readout boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the readout bandwidth for the two outermost barrel layers of the ATLAS Pixel Detector. We present the IBL readout hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel Detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  1. Challenges of small-pixel infrared detectors: a review

    Rogalski, A.; Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.

    2016-04-01

    In the last two decades, several new concepts for improving the performance of infrared detectors have been proposed. These new concepts particularly address the drive towards the so-called high operating temperature focal plane arrays (FPAs), aiming to increase detector operating temperatures, and as a consequence reduce the cost of infrared systems. In imaging systems with the above megapixel formats, pixel dimension plays a crucial role in determining critical system attributes such as system size, weight and power consumption (SWaP). The advent of smaller pixels has also resulted in the superior spatial and temperature resolution of these systems. Optimum pixel dimensions are limited by diffraction effects from the aperture, and are in turn wavelength-dependent. In this paper, the key challenges in realizing optimum pixel dimensions in FPA design including dark current, pixel hybridization, pixel delineation, and unit cell readout capacity are outlined to achieve a sufficiently adequate modulation transfer function for the ultra-small pitches involved. Both photon and thermal detectors have been considered. Concerning infrared photon detectors, the trade-offs between two types of competing technology—HgCdTe material systems and III-V materials (mainly barrier detectors)—have been investigated.

  2. Micro-pixel accuracy centroid displacement estimation and detector calibration

    Zhai, Chengxing; Goullioud, Renaud; Nemati, Bijan

    2011-01-01

    Precise centroid estimation plays a critical role in accurate astrometry using telescope images. Conventional centroid estimation fits a template point spread function (PSF) to the image data. Because the PSF is typically not known to high accuracy due to wavefront aberrations and uncertainties in optical system, a simple Gaussian function is commonly used. PSF knowledge error leads to systematic errors in the conventional centroid estimation. In this paper, we present an accurate centroid estimation algorithm by reconstructing the PSF from well sampled (above Nyquist frequency) pixelated images. In the limit of an ideal focal plane array whose pixels have identical response function (no inter-pixel variation), this method can estimate centroid displacement between two 32$\\times$32 images to sub-micropixel accuracy. Inter-pixel response variations exist in real detectors, {\\it e.g.}~CCDs, which we can calibrate by measuring the pixel response of each pixel in Fourier space. The Fourier transforms of the inter...

  3. A low mass pixel detector upgrade for CMS

    Kästli, H C

    2010-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector has been designed for a peak luminosity of 10^34cm-2s-1 and a total dose corresponding to 2 years of LHC operation at a radius of 4 cm from the interaction region. Parts of the pixel detector will have to be replaced until 2015. The detector performance will be degraded for two reasons: radiation damage of the innermost layers and the planned increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 2-3. Based on the experience in planning, constructing and commissioning of the present pixel detector, we intend to upgrade the whole pixel detector in 2015. The main focus is on lowering the material budget and adding more tracking points. We will present the design of a new low mass pixel system consisting of 4 barrel layers and 3 end cap disks on each side. The design comprises of thin detector modules and a lightweight mechanical support structure using CO2 cooling. In addition, large efforts have been made to move material from the services out of the tracking region.

  4. Spectroscopic X-ray imaging with photon counting pixel detectors

    Tlustos, L

    2010-01-01

    Single particle counting hybrid pixel detectors simultaneously provide low noise, high granularity and high readout speed and make it possible to build detector systems offering high spatial resolution paired with good energy resolution. A limiting factor for the spectroscopic performance of such detector systems is charge sharing between neighbouring pixels in the sensor part of the detector. The signal spectrum at the collection electrodes of the readout electronics deviates significantly from the photonic spectrum when planar segmented sensor geometries are used. The Medipix3 implements a novel, distributed signal processing architecture linking neighbouring pixels and aims at eliminating the spectral distortion produced in the sensor by charge sharing and at reducing the impact of fluorescence photons generated in the sensor itself. Preliminary results from the very first Medipix3 readouts bump bonded to 300 pm Si sensor are presented. Material reconstruction is a possible future application of spectrosco...

  5. The Level 0 Pixel Trigger System for the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector: implementation, testing and commissioning

    Aglieri-Rinella, G

    2008-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector transmits 1200 Fast-OR signals every 100 ns on 120 optical readout channels. They indicate the presence of at least one hit in the pixel matrix of each readout chip. The ALICE Level 0 Pixel Trigger System extracts them, processes them and delivers an input signal to the Central Trigger Processor for the first level trigger decision within a latency of 800 ns. This paper describes tests and measurements made on the system during the qualification and commissioning phases. These included Bit Error Rate tests on the Fast-OR data path, the measurement of the overall process latency and the recording of calibration data with cosmic rays. The first results of the operation of the Pixel Trigger System with the SPD detector in the ALICE experiment are also presented.

  6. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  7. The CMS pixel detector and challenges for its upgrade

    Bean, A

    2009-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector was installed in July 2008 in the innermost region of CMS. It consists of 66M pixels of 100um*150um size over 3 barrel layers and 2 forward disks. The pixel system has been successfully commissioned. Over 80K muon tracks were taken during the CMS cosmic runs and the detector is ready for the first physics run. The pixel detector, so close to the interaction point, will be exposed to a very high radiation dose. The estimation is that the first barrel layer, located at 4.3 cm from the beam pipe, after 3 years of LHC running at full luminosity, will become inefficient for position resolution reconstruction. For this reason, a substitution of a new pixel detector in 2014 has been already scheduled. At the same time an LHC luminosity upgrade is also planned. While a simple rebuild of the current detector could be done, the expectation is to design a new one, optimized for higher luminosity. This paper describes the present system and its performance as well as possible solutions for the upgr...

  8. Initial Measurements on Pixel Detector Modules for the ATLAS Upgrades

    Gallrapp, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Delicate conditions in terms of peak and integrated luminosity in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will raise the ATLAS Pixel Detector to its performance limits. Silicon planar, silicon 3D and diamond pixel sensors are three possible sensor technologies which could be implemented in the upcoming Pixel Detector upgrades of the ATLAS experiment. Measurements of the IV-behavior and measurements with radioactive Americium-241 and Strontium-90 are used to characterize the sensor properties and to understand the interaction between the ATLAS FE-I4 front-end chip and the sensor. Comparisons of results from before and after irradiation for silicon planar and 3D pixel sensors, which give a first impression on the charge collection properties of the different sensor technologies, are presented.

  9. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Szelezniak, Michal A.

    2008-01-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations of MAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of t...

  10. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah [Northwestern U. (main); Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermilab; Hoff, James R. [Fermilab; Mohseni, Hooman [Northwestern U. (main)

    2015-08-28

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  11. Calibration analysis software for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    The calibration of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC fulfils two main purposes: to tune the front-end configuration parameters for establishing the best operational settings and to measure the tuning performance through a subset of scans. An analysis framework has been set up in order to take actions on the detector given the outcome of a calibration scan (e.g. to create a mask for disabling noisy pixels). The software framework to control all aspects of the Pixel Detector scans and analyses is called calibration console. The introduction of a new layer, equipped with new FE-I4 chips, required an update of the console architecture. It now handles scans and scan analyses applied together to chips with different characteristics. An overview of the newly developed calibration analysis software will be presented, together with some preliminary results.

  12. Calibration Analysis Software for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The calibration of the Pixel detector fulfills two main purposes: to tune front-end registers for establishing the best operational settings and to measure the tuning performance through a subset of scans. An analysis framework has been set up in order to take actions on the detector given the outcome of a calibration scan (e.g. to create a mask for disabling noisy pixels). The software framework to control all aspects of the Pixel detector scans and analyses is called Calibration Console. The introduction of a new layer, equipped with new Front End-I4 Chips, required an update the Console architecture. It now handles scans and scans analyses applied toghether to chips with dierent characteristics. An overview of the newly developed Calibration Analysis Software will be presented, together with some preliminary result.

  13. Calibration Analysis Software for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The calibration of the ATLAS Pixel detector at LHC fulfils two main purposes: to tune the front-end configuration parameters for establishing the best operational settings and to measure the tuning performance through a subset of scans. An analysis framework has been set up in order to take actions on the detector given the outcome of a calibration scan (e.g. to create a mask for disabling noisy pixels). The software framework to control all aspects of the Pixel detector scans and analyses is called Calibration Console. The introduction of a new layer, equipped with new Front End-I4 Chips, required an update the Console architecture. It now handles scans and scans analyses applied together to chips with different characteristics. An overview of the newly developed Calibration Analysis Software will be presented, together with some preliminary result.

  14. Characterization of 36 pixel silicon PAD detectors

    As silicon detectors offer good energy resolution and high reliability, these are ideally suited for tracking and calorimetric applications in nuclear and particle physics experiments. The band gap of silicon is small enough to produce a good number of charge carriers per unit energy loss of the ionizing particles. Further, the high material density (2.33 g/cm3) leads to a large energy loss per traversed length for ionizing particle (3.8 MeV/cm for a minimum ionizing particle). The semiconductor fabrication technology is now mature enough to produce low leakage and fast response detectors, as the mobility degradation is minimum due to doping

  15. Thick Pixelated CZT Detectors With Isolated Steering Grids

    Jung, I; Perkins, J S; Krawczynski, H; Matteson, J; Skelton, R T; Bürger, A; Groza, M

    2005-01-01

    We explore the possibility to improve the performance of 0.5 cm thick Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors with the help of steering grids on the anode side of the detectors. Steering grids can improve the energy resolution of CZT detectors by enhancing the small pixel effect; furthermore, they can increase their detection efficiency by steering electrons to the anode pixels which otherwise would drift to the area between pixels. Previously, the benefit of steering grids had been compromised by additional noise associated with currents between the steering grids and the anode pixels. We use thin film deposition techniques to isolate the steering grid from the CZT substrate by a 150 nm thick layer of the isolator Aluminiumoxide. While the thin layer does not affect the beneficial effect of the steering grid on the weighting potentials and the electric field inside the detector, it suppresses the currents between the steering grid and the anode pixels. In this contribution, we present first results from a 2 x...

  16. Radiation damage monitoring of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Seidel, Sally; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module record of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  17. A prototype hybrid pixel detector ASIC for the CLIC experiment

    Valerio, P; Arfaoui, S; Ballabriga, R; Benoit, M; Bonacini, S; Campbell, M; Dannheim, D; De Gaspari, M; Felici, D; Kulis, S; Llopart, X; Nascetti, A; Poikela, T; Wong, W S

    2014-01-01

    A prototype hybrid pixel detector ASIC specifically designed to the requirements of the vertex detector for CLIC is described and first electrical measurements are presented. The chip has been designed using a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology and comprises a matrix of 64x64 square pixels with 25 μm pitch. The main features include simultaneous 4-bit measure- ment of Time-over-Threshold (ToT) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) with 10 ns accuracy, on-chip data compression and power pulsing capability.

  18. Overview of the BTeV Pixel Detector

    BTeV is a new Fermilab beauty and charm experiment designed to operate in the CZero region of the Tevatron collider. Critical to the success of BTeV is its pixel detector. The unique features of this pixel detector include its proximity to the beam, its operation with a beam crossing time of 132 ns, and the need for the detector information to be read out quickly enough to be used for the lowest level trigger. This talk presents an overview of the pixel detector design, giving the motivations for the technical choices made. The status of the current RandD on detector components is also reviewed. Additional Pixel 2002 talks on the BTeV pixel detector are given by Dave Christian[1], Mayling Wong[2], and Sergio Zimmermann[3]. Table 1 gives a selection of pixel detector parameters for the ALICE, ATLAS, BTeV, and CMS experiments. Comparing the progression of this table, which I have been updating for the last several years, has shown a convergence of specifications. Nevertheless, significant differences endure. The BTeV data-driven readout, horizontal and vertical position resolution better than 9 (micro)m with the ± 300 mr forward acceptance, and positioning in vacuum and as close as 6 mm from the circulating beams remain unique. These features are driven by the physics goals of the BTeV experiment. Table 2 demonstrates that the vertex trigger performance made possible by these features is requisite for a very large fraction of the B meson decay physics which is so central to the motivation for BTeV. For most of the physics quantities of interest listed in the table, the vertex trigger is essential. The performance of the BTeV pixel detector may be summarized by looking at particular physics examples; e.g., the Bs meson decay Bs → Ds- K+. For that decay, studies using GEANT3 simulations provide quantitative measures of performance. For example, the separation between the Bs decay point and the primary proton-antiproton interaction can be measured with an rms

  19. Planar pixel detector module development for the HL-LHC ATLAS pixel system

    Bates, Richard L., E-mail: richard.bates@glasgow.ac.uk [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Buttar, C.; Stewart, A.; Blue, A.; Doonan, K.; Ashby, J. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Tsurin, I. [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Brown, S.; Pater, J. [The Univiersty of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-11

    The ATLAS pixel detector for the HL-LHC requires the development of large area pixel modules that can withstand doses up to 10{sup 16} 1 MeV n{sub eq} cm{sup −2}. The area of the pixel detector system will be over 5 m{sup 2} and as such low cost, large area modules are required. The development of a quad module based on 4 FE-I4 readout integrated chips (ROIC) will be discussed. The FE-I4 ROIC is a large area chip and the yield of the flip-chip process to form an assembly is discussed for single chip assemblies. The readout of the quad module for laboratory tests will be reported.

  20. Planar pixel detector module development for the HL-LHC ATLAS pixel system

    Bates, Richard L.; Buttar, C.; Stewart, A.; Blue, A.; Doonan, K.; Ashby, J.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Tsurin, I.; Brown, S.; Pater, J.

    2013-12-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector for the HL-LHC requires the development of large area pixel modules that can withstand doses up to 1016 1 MeV neq cm-2. The area of the pixel detector system will be over 5 m2 and as such low cost, large area modules are required. The development of a quad module based on 4 FE-I4 readout integrated chips (ROIC) will be discussed. The FE-I4 ROIC is a large area chip and the yield of the flip-chip process to form an assembly is discussed for single chip assemblies. The readout of the quad module for laboratory tests will be reported.

  1. Planar pixel detector module development for the HL-LHC ATLAS pixel system

    The ATLAS pixel detector for the HL-LHC requires the development of large area pixel modules that can withstand doses up to 1016 1 MeV neq cm−2. The area of the pixel detector system will be over 5 m2 and as such low cost, large area modules are required. The development of a quad module based on 4 FE-I4 readout integrated chips (ROIC) will be discussed. The FE-I4 ROIC is a large area chip and the yield of the flip-chip process to form an assembly is discussed for single chip assemblies. The readout of the quad module for laboratory tests will be reported

  2. Design Methodology: ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for Pixel Detectors

    Fahim, Farah [Fermilab

    2014-10-31

    The development of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) for pixel detectors with complex in-pixel processing using Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools that are, themselves, mainly developed for the design of conventional digital circuits requires a specialized approach. Mixed signal pixels often require parasitically aware detailed analog front-ends and extremely compact digital back-ends with more than 1000 transistors in small areas below 100μm x 100μm. These pixels are tiled to create large arrays, which have the same clock distribution and data readout speed constraints as in, for example, micro-processors. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout.

  3. 3D electronics for hybrid pixel detectors – TWEPP-09

    Godiot, S; Chantepie, B; Clémens, J C; Fei, R; Fleury, J; Fougeron, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Krueger, H; Mekkaoui, A; Pangaud, P; Rozanov, A; Wermes, N

    2009-01-01

    Future hybrid pixel detectors are asking for smaller pixels in order to improve spatial resolution and to deal with an increasing counting rate. Facing these requirements is foreseen to be done by microelectronics technology shrinking. However, this straightforward approach presents some disadvantages in term of performances and cost. New 3D technologies offer an alternative way with the advantage of technology mixing. For the upgrade of ATLAS pixel detector, a 3D conception of the read-out chip appeared as an interesting solution. Splitting the pixel functionalities into two separate levels will reduce pixel size and open the opportunity to take benefit of technology's mixing. Based on a previous prototype of the read-out chip FE-I4 (IBM 130nm), this paper presents the design of a hybrid pixel read-out chip using threedimensional Tezzaron-Chartered technology. In order to disentangle effects due to Chartered 130nm technology from effects involved by 3D architecture, a first translation of FEI4 prototype had ...

  4. Leakage current measurements on pixelated CdZnTe detectors

    In the field of the R and D of a new generation hard X-ray cameras for space applications we focus on the use of pixelated CdTe or CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. They are covered with 64 (0.9x0.9 mm2) or 256 (0.5x0.5 mm2) pixels, surrounded by a guard ring and operate in the energy ranging from several keV to 1 MeV, at temperatures between -20 and +20 oC. A critical parameter in the characterisation of these detectors is the leakage current per pixel under polarisation (∼50-500 V/mm). In operation mode each pixel will be read-out by an integrated spectroscopy channel of the multi-channel IDeF-X ASIC currently developed in our lab. The design and functionality of the ASIC depends directly on the direction and value of the current. A dedicated and highly insulating electronics circuit is designed to automatically measure the current in each individual pixel, which is in the order of tens of pico-amperes. Leakage current maps of different CdZnTe detectors of 2 and 6 mm thick and at various temperatures are presented and discussed. Defect density diagnostics have been performed by calculation of the activation energy of the material

  5. Readout chip for the CMS pixel detector upgrade

    For the CMS experiment a new pixel detector is planned for installation during the extended shutdown in winter 2016/2017. Among the changes of the detector modified front end electronics will be used for higher efficiency at peak luminosity of the LHC and faster readout. The first prototype versions of the new readout chip have been designed and produced. The results of qualification and calibration for the new chip are presented in this paper

  6. Readout chip for the CMS pixel detector upgrade

    Rossini, Marco

    2014-11-01

    For the CMS experiment a new pixel detector is planned for installation during the extended shutdown in winter 2016/2017. Among the changes of the detector modified front end electronics will be used for higher efficiency at peak luminosity of the LHC and faster readout. The first prototype versions of the new readout chip have been designed and produced. The results of qualification and calibration for the new chip are presented in this paper.

  7. Monitoring Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Schorlemmer, André Lukas; Große-Knetter, Jörn; Rembser, Christoph; Di Girolamo, Beniamino

    2014-11-05

    Radiation hardness is one of the most important features of the ATLAS pixel detector in order to ensure a good performance and a long lifetime. Monitoring of radiation damage is crucial in order to assess and predict the expected performance of the detector. Key values for the assessment of radiation damage in silicon, such as the depletion voltage and depletion depth in the sensors, are measured on a regular basis during operations. This thesis summarises the monitoring program that is conducted in order to assess the impact of radiation damage and compares it to model predictions. In addition, the physics performance of the ATLAS detector highly depends on the amount of disabled modules in the ATLAS pixel detector. A worrying amount of module failures was observed during run I. Thus it was decided to recover repairable modules during the long shutdown (LS1) by extracting the pixel detector. The impact of the module repairs and module failures on the detector performance is analysed in this thesis.

  8. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline. High-eta particles will therefore hit these sensors at shallow angles, leaving elongated charge clusters. The length of such a charge cluster can be used to estimate the angle of the passing particle. This information can then be used in track reconstruction to improve tracking efficiency and reduce fake rates. Inclined designs ...

  9. KPIX a pixel detector imaging chip

    Cadeddu, S; Caria, M

    2002-01-01

    We present a VLSI custom device, named KPIX, developed in a 0.6 mu m CMOS technology. The circuit is dedicated to readout solid-state detectors covering large areas (on the order of square centimetre) and featuring very small currents. KPIX integrates 1024 channels (current amplifiers) and 8 ADCs on a 15.5x4 mm sup 2 area. Both an analogue and digital readout are allowed, with a 10 bit amplitude resolution. Amplifiers are organized in 8 columns of 128 rows. When choosing the digital or the analogue readout, the complete set of channels can be read out in about 30 ms. The specific design of the amplification cells allows to measure very small input current levels, on the order of fractions of pico-ampere. Power consumption has also been kept at the level of 80 mu W per cell and 150 mW (peak value) in total. The specific chip architecture and geometry allow use of many KPIX circuits together in order to serve a large detector sensitive area. The KPIX structure is presented along with some measurements character...

  10. Initial Measurements On Pixel Detector Modules For The ATLAS Upgrades

    Gallrapp, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Sophisticated conditions in terms of peak and integrated luminosity in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will raise the ATLAS Pixel detector to its performance limits. Silicon planar, silicon 3D and diamond pixel sensors are three possible sensor technologies which could be implemented in the upcoming pixel detector upgrades of the ATLAS experiment. Measurements of the IV-behavior and measurements with radioactive Americium-241 and Strontium-90 are used to characterize the sensor properties and to understand the interaction between the ATLAS FE-I4 front-end chip and the sensor. Comparisons of results from before and after irradiation, which give a first impression on the charge collection properties of the different sensor technologies are presented.

  11. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pan, L. S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 μm was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  12. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    Bugg, W.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z.; Bartz, E.; Doroshenko, J.; Hits, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Atramentov, O.; Patel, R.; Barker, A.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Ryjov, V.; Farrow, C.; Pernicka, M.; Steininger, H.; Johns, W.; Halyo, V.; Harrop, B.; Hunt, A.; Marlow, D.; Hebda, P.

    2011-09-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLT's mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope.

  13. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    Bartz, E; Atramentov, O; Yang, Z; Hall-Wilton, R; Schnetzer, S; Patel, R; Bugg, W; Hebda, P; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Marlow, D; Steininger, H; Ryjov, V; Hits, D; Spanier, S; Pernicka, M; Johns, W; Doroshenko, J; Hollingsworth, M; Harrop, B; Farrow, C; Stone, R

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLTs mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Fried, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Palmieri, V G; Pan, L S; Peitz, A; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Steuerer, J; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M; Charles, E; Ciocio, A; Dao, K; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fasching, D; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Richardson, J; Sinervo, P K; Zizka, G

    1999-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98565544f the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 mu m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch. (13 refs).

  15. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W. E-mail: william@physics.utoronto.ca; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 {mu}m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  16. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 μm was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch

  17. CMS Technical Design Report for the Pixel Detector Upgrade

    Dominguez, A; Arndt, K; Bacchetta, N; Ball, A; Bartz, E; Bertl, W; Bilei, G M; Bolla, G; Cheung, H W K; Chertok, M; Costa, S; Demaria, N; Dominguez, A; Ecklund, K; Erdmann, W; Gill, K; Hall, G; Harder, K; Hartmann, F; Horisberger, R; Johns, W; Kaestli, H C; Klein, K; Kotlinski, D; Kwan, S; Pesaresi, M; Postema, H; Rohe, T; Schäfer, C; Starodumov, A; Streuli, S; Tricomi, A; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Vasey, F; Zeuner, W

    2012-01-01

    The original design goal of the LHC was to operate at $1 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}s^{−1}$ with 25 ns bunch spacing, where approximately 25 simultaneous inelastic collisions per crossing (“pile-up”) occur. With the upgrade of the accelerators, the lumi- nosity and pile-up will more than double. The current pixel detector is crucial to charged particle tracking, but was not designed to perform effectively in such collision conditions and the physics program of CMS would suffer as a result. We propose to replace the current pixel tracker with a new high efficiency and low mass detector with four barrel layers and three forward/backward disks to provide four-hit pixel coverage out to pseudorapidities of ±2.5. This new detector will meet or exceed the original design specifications in these high luminosity environments. In this report, we provide details on the design, construction and installation of the upgraded pixel detector as well as estimates of its expected performance.

  18. Pixelated Single-crystal Diamond Detector for fast neutron measurements

    Single-crystal Diamond Detectors (SDDs), due to their high radiation hardness, fast response time and small size, are good candidates as fast neutron detectors in those environments where the high neutron flux is an issue, such as spallation neutron sources and the next generation thermonuclear fusion plasmas, i.e. the ITER experiment. Neutron detection in SDDs is based on the collection of electron-hole pairs produced by charged particles generated by neutron interactions with 12C. Recent measurements have demonstrated the SDD capability of measuring the neutron flux with a good energy resolution and at high rates. In this work a novel detector based on a 12-pixels SDD matrix will be presented. Each pixel is equipped with an independent electronic chain: the fast shaping preamplifier coupled to a digitizer is able to combine the high rate capability and the good energy resolution. Two CAEN digitizers are compared and the possibility of performing good energy resolution measurements (<2%) and at high rates (>1 MHz per channel) is described. Each pixel was characterized and calibrated using an 241Am source: the energy resolution was evaluated and gives a mean value of 1.73% at 5.5 MeV. The good energy resolution achieved and its uniformity between pixels are the demonstration of the capability of this novel detector as a spectrometer. This system will be installed during the next Deuterium-Tritium campaign on a collimated vertical line of sight at JET for 14 MeV neutron measurements

  19. Properties of Neutron Pixel Detector Based on Medipix-2 Device

    Jakůbek, J.; Holý, T.; Lehmann, E.; Pospíšil, S.; Uher, J.; Vacík, J.; Vavřík, Daniel

    Řím : Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society, 2004, s. 54. [Nuclear Science Symposium IEEE 2003. Řím (IT), 16.10.2004-22.10.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : neutron radiography * neutron pixel detector * digital radiography Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  20. Spatial Resolution of the Medipix-2 as Neutron Pixel Detector

    Jakůbek, J.; Holý, T.; Lehmann, E.; Pospíšil, S.; Uher, J.; Vacík, J.; Vavřík, Daniel

    Glasgow, Scotland : Glasgow University, 2004, s. 1. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /6./. Glasgow, Scotland (GB), 25.07.2004-29.07.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : Neutron Radiography * Digital Radiography * Single Photon Counting Pixel Device Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  1. Spatial resolution of Medipix-2 device as neutron pixel detector

    Jakůbek, J.; Holý, T.; Lehmann, E.; Pospíšil, S.; Uher, J.; Vacík, Jiří; Vavřík, D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 546, - (2005), s. 164-169. ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron detection * pixel detectors * neutronography Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  2. A Sealed Gas Pixel Detector for X-ray Astronomy

    Bellazzini, R.; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Baldini, L; Brez, A.; Latronico, L; Omodei, N.; Razzano, M.; Massai, M. M.; Pinchera, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; SGRO, C.; Costa, E; P. Soffitta(a); Sipila, H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of a new, sealed, Gas Pixel Detector. The very compact design and the absence of the gas flow system, make this detector substantially ready for use as focal plane detector for future X-ray space telescopes. The instrument brings high sensitivity to X-ray polarimetry, which is the last unexplored field of X-ray astronomy. It derives the polarization information from the track of the photoelectrons that are imaged by a high gain (>1000), fine pitch GEM that matches the...

  3. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors

    This paper reviews the development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors. MAPS are developed in a standard CMOS technology. In the imaging field, where the technology found its first applications, they are also known as CMOS Image Sensors. The use of MAPS as a detector for particle physics was first proposed at the end of 1999. Since then, their good performance in terms of spatial resolution, efficiency, radiation hardness have been demonstrated and work is now well under way to deliver the first MAPS-based vertex detectors

  4. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors

    Turchetta, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors. MAPS are developed in a standard CMOS technology. In the imaging field, where the technology found its first applications, they are also known as CMOS Image Sensors. The use of MAPS as a detector for particle physics was first proposed at the end of 1999. Since then, their good performance in terms of spatial resolution, efficiency, radiation hardness have been demonstrated and work is now well under way to deliver the first MAPS-based vertex detectors.

  5. Optical Links for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Gregor, Ingrid-Maria

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird eine strahlentolerante optische Datenstrecke mit hoher Datenrate für den Einsatz in dem Hochenergiephysikexperiment Atlas am Lhc Beschleuniger entwickelt. Da die Lhc-Experimente extremen Strahlenbelastungen ausgesetzt sind, müssen die Komponenten spezielle Ansprüche hinsichtlich der Strahlentoleranz erfüllen. Die Qualifikation der einzelnen Bauteile wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit durchgeführt. Die zu erwartenden Fluenzen im Atlas Inner Detector für Silizium und Gallium Arsenid (GaAs) wurden berechnet. Siliziumbauteile werden einer Fluenz von bis zu 1.1.1015neq /cm2 in 1 MeV äquivalenten Neutronen ausgesetzt sein, wohingegen GaAs Bauteile bis zu 7.8.1015neq /cm2 ausgesetzt sein werden. Die Strahlentoleranz der einzelnen benötigten Komponenten wie z.B. der Laserdioden sowie der jeweiligen Treiberchips wurde untersucht. Sowohl die Photo- als auch die Laserdioden haben sich als strahlentolerant für die Fluenzen an dem vorgesehenen Radius erwiesen. Aus de...

  6. Compensation of radiation damages for SOI pixel detector via tunneling

    Yamada, Miho; Kurachi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel detectors based on SOI technology for high energy physics, X-ray applications and so on.To employ SOI pixel detector on such radiation environments, we have to solve effects of total ionization damages (TID) for transistors which are enclosed in oxide layer.The holes which are generated and trapped in the oxide layers after irradiation affect characteristics of near-by transistors due to its positive electric field.Annealing and radiation of ultraviolet are not realistic to remove trapped holes for a fabricated detector due to thermal resistance of components and difficulty of handling. We studied compensation of TID effects by tunneling using a high-voltage. For decrease of trapped holes, applied high-voltage to buried p-well which is under oxide layer to inject the electrons into the oxide layer.In this report, recent progress of this study is shown.

  7. GaAs Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    Kostamo, P; Vähänen, S; Tlustos, L; Fröjdh, C; Campbell, M; Zhilyaev, Y; Lipsanen, H

    2008-01-01

    A GaAs Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector based on high purity epitaxial GaAs material was successfully fabricated. The mesa type GaAs sensor with 256×256 pixels and total area of 1.4×1.4 cm2 was made of a 140-μm-thick epitaxial p–i–n structure utilizing reactive ion etching. A final thickness of approximately 110 μm for the all-epitaxial sensor element is achieved by back-thinning procedure. The sensor element is bump bonded to a Medipix2 read-out ASIC. The detector is capable of room temperature spectroscopic operation and it demonstrates the potential of GaAs for high resolution X-ray imaging systems operating at room temperature. This work describes the manufacturing process and electrical properties of the GaAs Medipix2 hybrid detector.

  8. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    Rubinskiy, I

    2015-01-01

    Ahigh resolution(σ< 2 μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. EUDET was a coordinated detector R&D programme for the future International Linear Collider providing test beam infrastructure to detector R&D groups. The telescope consists of six sensor planes with a pixel pitch of either 18.4 μm or 10 μmand canbe operated insidea solenoidal magnetic fieldofupto1.2T.Ageneral purpose cooling, positioning, data acquisition (DAQ) and offine data analysis tools are available for the users. The excellent resolution, readout rate andDAQintegration capabilities made the telescopea primary beam tests tool also for several CERN based experiments. In this report the performance of the final telescope is presented. The plans for an even more flexible telescope with three differentpixel technologies(ATLASPixel, Mimosa,Timepix) withinthenew European detector infrastructure project AIDA are presented.

  9. Development of a counting pixel detector for 'Digitales Roentgen'

    The development of a single photon counting X-ray imaging detector for medical applications using hybrid pixel detectors is reported. The electronics development from the first prototype derived from detector development for particle physics experiments (ATLAS) to the imaging chip MPEC (multi picture element counters) for medical applications is described. This chip consists of 32 x 32 pixels of 200 μm x 200 μm size, each containing the complete read out electronics, i.e. an amplifier, two discriminators with adjustable thresholds and two 18-bit linear feedback shift-counters allowing energy windowing for contrast increase. Results on electronics performance are shown as well as measurements with several semiconductor materials (Si, GaAs, CdTe). Important aspects like detection efficiency, sensor homogeneity, linearity and spatial resolution are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Pixel hybrid photon detectors for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of LHCb

    Somerville, L

    2005-01-01

    A Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (pixel HPD) has been developed for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. The pixel HPD is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photocathode, high-voltage cross- focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a CMOS readout chip; the readout chip is thus fully encapsulated in the device. The pixel HPD fulfils the stringent requirements for the RICH detectors of LHCb, combining single photon sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio and fast readout with an ~8cm diameter active area and an effective pixel size of 2.5mm 2.5mm at the photocathode. The performance and characteristics of two prototype pixel HPDs have been studied in laboratory measurements and in recent beam tests. The results of all measurements agree with expectations and fulfil the LHCb RICH requirements. In readiness for production of the ~500pixel HPDs for the RICH detectors, a test programme was designed and implemented to ensure component quality control at eac...

  11. Use of silicon pixel detectors in double electron capture experiments

    Cermak, P; Stekl, I; Mamedov, F; Rukhadze, E N; Jose, J M; Cermak, J [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Shitov, Yu A; Rukhadze, N I; Brudanin, V B [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Loaiza, P, E-mail: pavel.cermak@utef.cvut.cz [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, 73500 Modane (France)

    2011-01-15

    A novel experimental approach to search for double electron capture (EC/EC) is discussed in this article. R and D for a new generation EC/EC spectrometer based on silicon pixel detectors (SPDs) has been conducted since 2009 for an upgrade of the TGV experiment. SPDs built on Timepix technology with a spectroscopic readout from each individual pixel are an effective tool to detect the 2{nu}EC/EC signature of the two low energy X-rays hitting two separate pixels. The ability of SPDs to indentify {alpha}/{beta}/{gamma} particles and localize them precisely leads to effective background discrimination and thus considerable improvement of the signal-to-background ratio (S/B). A multi-SPD system, called a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT), is planned based on the experimental approach of the TGV calorimeter which measures thin foils of enriched EC/EC-isotope sandwiched between HPGe detectors working in coincidence mode. The sources of SPD internal background have been identified by measuring SPD radiopurity with a low-background HPGe detector as well as by long-term SPD background runs in the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France), and results of these studies are presented.

  12. Use of silicon pixel detectors in double electron capture experiments

    Cermak, P.; Stekl, I.; Shitov, Yu A.; Mamedov, F.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Jose, J. M.; Cermak, J.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Loaiza, P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel experimental approach to search for double electron capture (EC/EC) is discussed in this article. R&D for a new generation EC/EC spectrometer based on silicon pixel detectors (SPDs) has been conducted since 2009 for an upgrade of the TGV experiment. SPDs built on Timepix technology with a spectroscopic readout from each individual pixel are an effective tool to detect the 2νEC/EC signature of the two low energy X-rays hitting two separate pixels. The ability of SPDs to indentify α/β/γ particles and localize them precisely leads to effective background discrimination and thus considerable improvement of the signal-to-background ratio (S/B). A multi-SPD system, called a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT), is planned based on the experimental approach of the TGV calorimeter which measures thin foils of enriched EC/EC-isotope sandwiched between HPGe detectors working in coincidence mode. The sources of SPD internal background have been identified by measuring SPD radiopurity with a low-background HPGe detector as well as by long-term SPD background runs in the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France), and results of these studies are presented.

  13. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm×4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40×32 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  14. Hybrid Pixel Detector Development for the Linear Collider Vertex Tracker

    Battaglia, Marco; Campagnolo, R; Caccia, M; Kucewicz, W; Jalocha, P; Palka, J; Zalewska-Bak, A

    2001-01-01

    In order to fully exploit the physics potential of the future high energy e+e- linear collider, a Vertex Tracker able to provide particle track extrapolation with very high resolution is needed. Hybrid Si pixel sensors are an attractive technology due to their fast read-out capabilities and radiation hardness. A novel pixel detector layout with interleaved cells has been developed to improve the single point resolution. Results of the characterisation of the first processed prototypes by electrostatic measurements and charge collection studies are discussed.

  15. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors a review of the beginnings

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with µW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm2, retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at > 10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities > 10 cm-2. The noise in a channel was ~100 e- r.m.s. and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level 30 Mrad, respectively.

  16. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    Centis Vignali, Matteo

    2015-12-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φ{sub eq}=2.10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip

  17. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.1034 cm-2s-1. A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.1034 cm-2s-1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2s-1, twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φeq=2.1016 cm-2 and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip. The maximum rate experienced by the modules produced in Hamburg will be 120 MHz

  18. Pixel readout electronics development for the ALICE pixel vertex and LHCb RICH detector

    Snoeys, W; Cantatore, E; Cencelli, V; Dinapoli, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Lamanna, P; Minervini, D; O'Shea, V; Quiquempoix, V; San Segundo-Bello, D; Van Koningsveld, B; Wyllie, Ken H

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE1LHCB pixel readout chip emerged from previous experience at CERN. The RD-19 collaboration provided the basis for the installation of a pixel system in the WA97 and NA57 experiments. Operation in these experiments was key in the understanding of the system issues. In parallel the RD-49 collaboration provided the basis to obtain radiation tolerance in commercial submicron CMOS through special circuit layout. The new ALICE1LMB chip was developed to serve two different applications: particle tracking in the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector and particle identification in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. To satisfy the different needs for these two experiments, the chip can be operated in two different modes. In tracking mode all the 50 mu m*435 mu m pixel cells in the 256*32 array are read out individually, whilst in particle identification mode they are combined in groups of 8 to form a 32*32 array of 400 mu m*425 mu m cells. The circuit is currently being manufactured in a commercial 0.25 mu m CMO...

  19. Pixel readout electronics development for the ALICE pixel vertex and LHCb RICH detector

    The ALICE1LHCB pixel readout chip emerged from previous experience at CERN. The RD-19 collaboration provided the basis for the installation of a pixel system in the WA97 and NA57 experiments. Operation in these experiments was key in the understanding of the system issues. In parallel the RD-49 collaboration provided the basis to obtain radiation tolerance in commercial submicron CMOS through special circuit layout. The new ALICE1LHB chip was developed to serve two different applications: particle tracking in the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector and particle identification in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. To satisfy the different needs for these two experiments, the chip can be operated in two different modes. In tracking mode all the 50 μmx425 μm pixel cells in the 256x32 array are read out individually, whilst in particle identification mode they are combined in groups of 8 to form a 32x32 array of 400 μmx425 μm cells. The circuit is currently being manufactured in a commercial 0.25 μm CMOS technology

  20. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector Control and Calibration Systems

    Calì, Ivan Amos; Manzari, Vito; Stefanini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) group of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SPD is the innermost part (two cylindrical layers of silicon pixel detec- tors) of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). During the last three years I have been strongly involved in the SPD hardware and software development, construction and commissioning. This thesis is focused on the design, development and commissioning of the SPD Control and Calibration Systems. I started this project from scratch. After a prototyping phase now a stable version of the control and calibration systems is operative. These systems allowed the detector sectors and half-barrels test, integration and commissioning as well as the SPD commissioning in the experiment. The integration of the systems with the ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS), DAQ and Trigger system has been accomplished and the SPD participated in the experimental December 2007 commissioning run. The complex...

  1. Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout

    The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10-4. A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.

  2. Descent of the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) for ALICE Experiment

    2007-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) at radii of 3.9 cm and 7.6 cm, respectively. It is a fundamental element for the determination of the position of the primary vertex as well as for the measurement of the impact parameter of secondary tracks originating from the weak decays of strange, charm and beauty particles.

  3. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    Besson, A.; Pérez, A. Pérez; Spiriti, E.; Baudot, J.; Claus, G; Goffe, M.; de Winter, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming ...

  4. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2016-09-06

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  5. Pixel diamond detectors for excimer laser beam diagnostics

    Girolami, M.; Allegrini, P.; Conte, G.; Salvatori, S.

    2011-05-01

    Laser beam profiling technology in the UV spectrum of light is evolving with the increase of excimer lasers and lamps applications, that span from lithography for VLSI circuits to eye surgery. The development of a beam-profiler, able to capture the excimer laser single pulse and process the acquired pixel current signals in the time period between each pulse, is mandatory for such applications. 1D and 2D array detectors have been realized on polycrystalline CVD diamond specimens. The fast diamond photoresponse, in the ns time regime, suggests the suitability of such devices for fine tuning feedback of high-power pulsed-laser cavities, whereas solar-blindness guarantees high performance in UV beam diagnostics, also under high intensity background illumination. Offering unique properties in terms of thermal conductivity and visible-light transparency, diamond represents one of the most suitable candidate for the detection of high-power UV laser emission. The relatively high resistivity of diamond in the dark has allowed the fabrication of photoconductive vertical pixel-detectors. A semitransparent light-receiving back-side contact has been used for detector biasing. Each pixel signal has been conditioned by a multi-channel read-out electronics made up of a high-sensitive integrator and a Σ-Δ A/D converter. The 500 μs conversion time has allowed a data acquisition rate up to 2 kSPS (Sample Per Second).

  6. Timing performance of pixellated CdZnTe detectors

    Recently introduced nuclear medicine cameras in which Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and the traditional Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT), are combined opened new horizon for the nuclear medicine field These systems applying NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors we very well tested and mailable for some time in the medical imaging field However the traditional NaI(Tl) cameras, optimized for low energy radiation imaging, suffer some severe limitations. The relatively low density (3.67 g/cm2) of NaI(Tl) limits the sensitivity. By incarcerating the NaI(Tl) thickness, the spatial resolution decreases. The long decay time (230 nsec) of the light emitted in NaI(Tl) restricts the the use of coincidence technique , as well as the count rate. In recent years CdZn Te (CZT) detectors are studied for the purpose of SPECT nuclear medical radiation imaging in the form of pixellated and microstrip detectors. CZT detector can served as a good candidate for replacing NaI(Tl) for PET and SPECT imaging due to their relatively high stopping power (density = (6.0 g/im3, high Z(48, 30, 52)) and their high count rate capability. Unfortunately there are several difficulties in PET application due to the difficulty in manufacturing thick crystals, registration of the full energy deposited in several pixels and their timing capabilities. The latter is due to large ballistic signal variation induced. This variations caused by the pulse shape, which is composed of two main components, the electron and the hole. The electrons travel about ten times faster than the holes. A photon absorbed clear the cathode plane will cause a large and fast signal induced by the electron and a small and slow signal induced due to the holes. Photons absorbed near the anode plane will induce the opposite signals. The distribution of photon absorption depth in the crystal causes signal splits over a number of pixels, due to the well-known 'small pixel effect'. The different pulses slope

  7. The data acquisition system of the Belle II Pixel Detector

    At the future Belle II experiment the DEPFET (DEPleted Field Effect Transistor) pixel detector will consist of about 8 million channels and is placed as the innermost detector. Because of its small distance to the interaction region and the high luminosity in Belle II, for a trigger rate of about 30 kHz with an estimated occupancy of about 3 % a data rate of about 22 GB/s is expected. Due to the high data rate, a data reduction factor higher than 30 is needed in order to stay inside the specifications of the event builder. The main hardware to reduce the data rate is a xTCA based Compute Node (CN) developed in cooperation between IHEP Beijing and University Giessen. Each node has as main component a Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGA and is equipped with 2 × 2 GB RAM , GBit Ethernet and 4 × 6.25 Gb/s optical links. An ATCA carrier board is able to hold up to four CN and supplies high bandwidth connections between the four CNs and to the ATCA backplane. To achieve the required data reduction on the CNs, regions of interest (ROI) are used. These regions are calculated in two independent systems by projecting tracks back to the pixel detector. One is the High Level Trigger (HLT) which uses data from the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD), a silicon strip detector, and outer detectors. The other is the Data Concentrator (DATCON) which calculates ROIs based on SVD data only, in order to get low momentum tracks. With this information, only PXD data inside these ROIs will be forwarded to the event builder, while data outside of these regions will be discarded. First results of the test beam time in January 2014 at DESY with a Belle II vertex detector prototype and full DAQ chain will be presented

  8. Application of Hybrid Pixel Detectors for Searches of Rare Decays

    Durst, J.; Anton, Gisela; Boehnel, Michael; Gleixner, Thomas; Lueck, Ferdinand; Michel, Thilo [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Schwenke, Maria; Zuber, Kai [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The new generation of hybrid pixel detectors like the Timepix detector provides access to the track information of the energy deposition in the used sensor, which allows better background discrimination in experiments for searches of rare decays. Due to the hybrid design several combinations of an ASIC with a sensor are possible. Assemblies are available with an attached Silicon sensor or CdTe sensor respectively. The detector measures the energy deposition using the time over threshold method. In this contribution we present simulation results of the detector response of the Timepix detector in applications for searches of rare decays. One application would be the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 116}Cd using Timepix detectors with enriched CdTe as sensor material. In addition to the simulation results we present first experimental background measurements using a Timepix detector with Silicon sensor in the underground laboratory in Dresden. Using cluster analysis methods it is possible to categorise the single events.

  9. Pixel hybrid photon detector magnetic distortions characterization and compensation

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Forty, Roger W; Gys, Thierry; Patel, Mitesh; Piedigrossi, Didier; Van Lysebetten, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb experiment requires positive kaon identification in the momentum range 2-100 GeV/c. This is provided by two ring imaging Cherenkov detectors. The stringent requirements on the photon detectors are fully satisfied by the novel pixel hybrid photon detector, HPD. The HPD is a vacuum tube with a quartz window, S20 photo-cathode, cross-focusing electron optics and a silicon anode encapsulated within the tube. The anode is a 32*256 pixels hybrid detector, with a silicon sensor bump-bonded onto a readout chip containing 8192 channels with analogue front-end and digital read-out circuitry. An external magnetic field influences the trajectory of the photoelectrons and could thereby degrade the inherent excellent space resolution of the HPD. The HPDs must be operational in the fringe magnetic field of the LHCb magnet. This paper reports on an extensive experimental characterization of the distortion effects. The characterization has allowed the development of parameterisations and of a compensation algorithm. ...

  10. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    Rubinskiy, I

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution (σ∼2μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. The telescope consists of six monolithic active pixel sensor planes (Mimosa26) with a pixel pitch of 18.4 \\mu m and thinned down to 50 \\mu m. The excellent resolution, readout rate and DAQ integration capabilities made the telescope a primary test beam tool for many groups including several CERN based experiments. Within the European detector infrastructure project AIDA the test beam telescope is being further extended in terms of cooling and powering infrastructure, read-out speed, area of acceptance, and precision. In order to provide a system optimized for the different requirements by the user community a combination of various state-of-the-art pixel technologies is foreseen. Furthermore, new central dead-time-free trigger logic unit (TLU) has been developed to provide LHC-speed response with one-trigger-per-particle operating mode and a synchronous clock for all conn...

  11. On the basic mechanism of Pixelized Photon Detectors

    Otono, H; Yamashita, S; Yoshioka, T

    2008-01-01

    A Pixelized Photon Detector (PPD) is a generic name for the semiconductor devices operated in the Geiger-mode, such as Silicon PhotoMultiplier and Multi-Pixel Photon Counter, which has high photon counting capability. While the internal mechanisms of the PPD have been intensively studied in recent years, the existing models do not include the avalanche process. We have simulated the multiplication and quenching of the avalanche process and have succeeded in reproducing the output waveform of the PPD. Furthermore our model predicts the existence of dead-time in the PPD which has never been numerically predicted. For serching the dead-time, we also have developed waveform analysis method using deconvolution which has the potential to distinguish neibouring pulses precisely. In this paper, we discuss our improved model and waveform analysis method.

  12. Capacitively coupled hybrid pixel assemblies for the CLIC vertex detector

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Benoit, Mathieu; Dannheim, Dominik; Dette, Karola; Hynds, Daniel; Kulis, Szymon; Peric, Ivan; Petric, Marko; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva; Valerio, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    The vertex detector at the proposed CLIC multi-TeV linear e+e- collider must have minimal material content and high spatial resolution, combined with accurate time-stamping to cope with the expected high rate of beam-induced backgrounds. One of the options being considered is the use of active sensors implemented in a commercial high-voltage CMOS process, capacitively coupled to hybrid pixel ASICs. A prototype of such an assembly, using two custom designed chips (CCPDv3 as active sensor glued to a CLICpix readout chip), has been characterised both in the lab and in beam tests at the CERN SPS using 120 GeV/c positively charged hadrons. Results of these characterisation studies are presented both for single and dual amplification stages in the active sensor. Pixel cross-coupling results are also presented, showing the sensitivity to placement precision and planarity of the glue layer.

  13. A Sealed Gas Pixel Detector for X-ray Astronomy

    Bellazzini, R; Minuti, M; Baldini, L; Brez, A; Latronico, L; Omodei, N; Razzano, M; Massai, M M; Pinchera, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Sgro, C; Costa, E; Soffitta, P; Sipilä, H; Lempinen, E

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of a new, sealed, Gas Pixel Detector. The very compact design and the absence of the gas flow system, make this detector substantially ready for use as focal plane detector for future X-ray space telescopes. The instrument brings high sensitivity to X-ray polarimetry, which is the last unexplored field of X-ray astronomy. It derives the polarization information from the track of the photoelectrons that are imaged by a high gain (>1000), fine pitch GEM that matches the pitch of a pixel ASIC which is the collecting anode of the GPD (105k, 50 micron wide, hexagonal cells). The device is able to simultaneously perform good imaging (50-60 micron), moderate spectroscopy (~15% at 6 keV) as well as fast, high rate timing in the 1-10keV range. Moreover, being truly 2D, it is non dispersive and does not require any rotation. The great improvement of sensitivity, at least two orders of magnitude with respect to traditional polarimeters (based on Bragg crystals or Thomson scattering), will allow ...

  14. Low energy polarization sensitivity of the Gas Pixel Detector

    Muleri, F; Baldini, L; Bellazzini, R; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Costa, E; Frutti, M; Latronico, L; Minuti, M; Negri, M B; Omodei, N; Pinchera, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Razzano, M; Rubini, A; Sgro', C; Spandre, G

    2007-01-01

    An X-ray photoelectric polarimeter based on the Gas Pixel Detector has been proposed to be included in many upcoming space missions to fill the gap of about 30 years from the first (and to date only) positive measurement of polarized X-ray emission from an astrophysical source. The estimated sensitivity of the current prototype peaks at an energy of about 3 keV, but the lack of readily available polarized sources in this energy range has prevented the measurement of detector polarimetric performances. In this paper we present the measurement of the Gas Pixel Detector polarimetric sensitivity at energies of a few keV and the new, light, compact and transportable polarized source that was devised and built to this aim. Polarized photons are produced, from unpolarized radiation generated with an X-ray tube, by means of Bragg diffraction at nearly 45 degrees. The employment of mosaic graphite and flat aluminum crystals allow the production of nearly completely polarized photons at 2.6, 3.7 and 5.2 keV from the di...

  15. A photon counting pixel detector for X-ray imaging

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detector technology is presented in this thesis as an alternative to current imaging systems in medical imaging and synchrotron radiation applications. The technology has been developed from research performed in High Energy Physics, in particular, for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, planned for 2005. This thesis describes work done by the author on behalf of the MEDIPIX project, a collaboration between 13 international institutions for the development of hybrid pixel detectors for non-HEP applications. Chapter 1 describes the motivation for these detectors, the origin of the technology, and the current state of the art in imaging devices. A description of the requirements of medical imaging on X-ray sensors is described, and the properties of film and CCDs are discussed. The work of the RD19 collaboration is introduced to show the evolution of these devices. Chapter 2 presents the basic semiconductor theory required to understand the operation of these detectors, and a section on image theory introduces the fundamental parameters which are necessary to define the quality of an imaging device. Chapter 3 presents measurements made by the author on a photon counting detector (PCD1) comprising a PCC1 (MEDIPIX1) readout chip bumpbonded to silicon and gallium arsenide pixel detectors. Tests on the seperate readout chip and the bump-bonded assembly are shown with comparisons between the performance of the two materials. Measurements of signal-to-noise ratio, detection efficiency and noise performance are presented, along with an MTF measurement made by the Freiburg group. The X-ray tube energy spectrum was calibrated by REGAM. The performance of the PCD in a powder diffraction experiment using a synchrotron radiation source is described in chapter 4. This chapter reports the first use of a true 2-D hybrid pixel detector in a synchrotron application, and a comparison with the existing scintillator based technology is made. The measurements made

  16. Status of the CMS Phase I Pixel Detector Upgrade

    Spannagel, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Based on the strong performance of the LHC accelerator, it is anticipated that peak luminosities of two times the design luminosity of L = 2 x10^34 cm^-2s^-1 are likely to be reached before 2018 and probably significantly exceeded in the so-called Phase I period until 2022. At this higher luminosity and increased hit occupancies the current CMS pixel detector would be subject to severe dead time and inefficiencies introduced by limited buffers in the analog read-out chip and effects of radiat...

  17. Radiation damage of pixelated photon detector by neutron irradiation

    Nakamura, Isamu

    2009-10-01

    Radiation Damage of Pixelated Photon Detector by neutron irradiation is reported. MPPC, one of PPD or Geiger-mode APD, developed by Hamamatsu Photonics, is planned to be used in many high energy physics experiments. In such experiments radiation damage is a serious issue. A series of neutron irradiation tests is performed at the Reactor YAYOI of the University of Tokyo. MPPCs were irradiated at the reactor up to 1012 neutron/cm2. In this paper, the effect of neutron irradiation on the basic characteristics of PPD including gain, noise rate, photon detection efficiency is presented.

  18. DAQ Development for Silicon-On-Insulator Pixel detectors

    Nishimura, Ryutaro; Miyoshi, Toshinobu

    2015-01-01

    We are developing DAQ for Si-pixel detectors by using a Slicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. This DAQ consists of firmware works on SEABAS (Soi EvAluation BoArd with Sitcp) DAQ board and software works on PC. We have been working on the development of firmware/software. Now we accomplished to speed up the readout (~90Hz) and to add a function for frame rate control. This is the report of our development work for the High Speed DAQ system.

  19. The pixel detector for the CMS phase-II upgrade

    The high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires a major pixel detector R and D effort to develop both readout chip and sensor that are capable to withstand unprecedented extremely high radiation. The target integrated luminosity of 3000 fb−1, that the HL-LHC is expected to deliver over about 10 years of operation, translates into a hadron fluence of 2×1016 1 MeV eq.n. / cm2, or equivalently 10 MGy of radiation dose in silicon, at about 3 cm from the interaction region where the first layer of the pixel detector could be located. The CMS collaboration has undertaken two baseline sensor R and D programs on thin n-on-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. Together with the ATLAS collaboration it has also been established a common R and D effort for the development of the readout chip in the 65 nm CMOS technology. Status, progresses, and prospects of the CMS R and D effort are presented and discussed in this article

  20. The pixel detector for the CMS phase-II upgrade

    Dinardo, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires a major pixel detector R\\&D effort to develop both readout chip and sensor that are capable to withstand unprecedented extremely high radiation. The target integrated luminosity of 3000~fb$^{-1}$, that the HL-LHC is expected to deliver over about 10 years of operation, translates into a hadron fluence of $2\\times10^{16}$~1MeV~eq.n.~/~cm$^2$, or equivalently 10~MGy of radiation dose in silicon, at about 3~cm from the interaction region where the first layer of the pixel detector could be located. The CMS collaboration has undertaken two baseline sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-on-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. Together with the ATLAS collaboration it has also been established a common R\\&D effort for the development of the readout chip in the 65~nm CMOS technology. Status, progresses, and prospects of the CMS R\\&D effort are presented and discussed in this article.

  1. The pixel detector for the CMS phase-II upgrade

    Dinardo, M. E.

    2015-04-01

    The high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires a major pixel detector R&D effort to develop both readout chip and sensor that are capable to withstand unprecedented extremely high radiation. The target integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, that the HL-LHC is expected to deliver over about 10 years of operation, translates into a hadron fluence of 2×1016 1 MeV eq.n. / cm2, or equivalently 10 MGy of radiation dose in silicon, at about 3 cm from the interaction region where the first layer of the pixel detector could be located. The CMS collaboration has undertaken two baseline sensor R&D programs on thin n-on-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. Together with the ATLAS collaboration it has also been established a common R&D effort for the development of the readout chip in the 65 nm CMOS technology. Status, progresses, and prospects of the CMS R&D effort are presented and discussed in this article.

  2. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 1016 particles per cm2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 μm2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  3. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  4. Simulation of gas mixture drift properties for GasPixel detector for modernization of ATLAS

    Results of simulation of gas mixture drift properties for GasPixel detector are presented. The properties of gaseous mixtures for the GasPixel detector have been studied in view of its use in high luminosity tracking applications for the ATLAS Inner Detector in a future super-LHC collider

  5. A sealed Gas Pixel Detector for X-ray astronomy

    We report on the results of a new, sealed Gas Pixel Detector. The very compact design and the absence of the gas flow system make this detector substantially ready for use as focal plane detector for future X-ray space telescopes. The instrument brings high sensitivity to X-ray polarimetry, which is the last unexplored field of X-ray astronomy. It derives the polarization information from the track of the photoelectrons that are imaged by a high-gain (>1000), fine pitch GEM that matches the pitch of a pixel ASIC which is the collecting anode of the GPD (105k, 50 μm wide, hexagonal cells). The device is able to simultaneously perform good imaging (50-60 μm), moderate spectroscopy (∼15% at 6 keV) as well as fast, high-rate timing in the 1-10 keV range. Moreover, being truly 2D, it is non-dispersive and does not require any rotation. The great improvement of sensitivity, at least two orders of magnitude with respect to traditional polarimeters (based on Bragg crystals or Thomson scattering), will allow the direct exploration of the most dramatic objects of the X-ray sky. At the focus of the large mirror area of the XEUS telescope it will be decisive in reaching many of the scientific goals of the mission. With integration times of the order of 1 day, polarimetry of Active Galactic Nuclei at the percent level will be possible, making for a real breakthrough in high-energy astrophysics

  6. A sealed Gas Pixel Detector for X-ray astronomy

    Bellazzini, R. [INFN sez.Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: ronaldo.bellazzini@pi.infn.it; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N. [INFN sez.Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Razzano, M.; Massai, M.M. [INFN sez.Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C. [INFN sez.Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Costa, Enrico; Soffitta, Paolo [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133, Roma (Italy); Sipila, H.; Lempinen, E. [Oxford Instruments Analytical Oy, Nihtisillankuja 5, FI-02631 Espoo (Finland)

    2007-09-01

    We report on the results of a new, sealed Gas Pixel Detector. The very compact design and the absence of the gas flow system make this detector substantially ready for use as focal plane detector for future X-ray space telescopes. The instrument brings high sensitivity to X-ray polarimetry, which is the last unexplored field of X-ray astronomy. It derives the polarization information from the track of the photoelectrons that are imaged by a high-gain (>1000), fine pitch GEM that matches the pitch of a pixel ASIC which is the collecting anode of the GPD (105k, 50 {mu}m wide, hexagonal cells). The device is able to simultaneously perform good imaging (50-60 {mu}m), moderate spectroscopy ({approx}15% at 6 keV) as well as fast, high-rate timing in the 1-10 keV range. Moreover, being truly 2D, it is non-dispersive and does not require any rotation. The great improvement of sensitivity, at least two orders of magnitude with respect to traditional polarimeters (based on Bragg crystals or Thomson scattering), will allow the direct exploration of the most dramatic objects of the X-ray sky. At the focus of the large mirror area of the XEUS telescope it will be decisive in reaching many of the scientific goals of the mission. With integration times of the order of 1 day, polarimetry of Active Galactic Nuclei at the percent level will be possible, making for a real breakthrough in high-energy astroph0011ysi.

  7. Capacitively coupled hybrid pixel assemblies for the CLIC vertex detector

    Tehrani, N. Alipour; Arfaoui, S.; Benoit, M.; Dannheim, D.; Dette, K.; Hynds, D.; Kulis, S.; Perić, I.; Petrič, M.; Redford, S.; Sicking, E.; Valerio, P.

    2016-07-01

    The vertex detector at the proposed CLIC multi-TeV linear e+e- collider must have minimal material content and high spatial resolution, combined with accurate time-stamping to cope with the expected high rate of beam-induced backgrounds. One of the options being considered is the use of active sensors implemented in a commercial high-voltage CMOS process, capacitively coupled to hybrid pixel ASICs. A prototype of such an assembly, using two custom designed chips (CCPDv3 as active sensor glued to a CLICpix readout chip), has been characterised both in the lab and in beam tests at the CERN SPS using 120 GeV/c positively charged hadrons. Results of these characterisation studies are presented both for single and dual amplification stages in the active sensor, where efficiencies of greater than 99% have been achieved at -60 V substrate bias, with a single hit resolution of 6.1 μm . Pixel cross-coupling results are also presented, showing the sensitivity to placement precision and planarity of the glue layer.

  8. Pixel Detector Trial Assembly Test in the SR1 building

    D. Giugni

    2004-01-01

    During the last two months the Pixel group [LBL, Milan and Wuppertal] made a successful integration test on the mechanics of the barrel. The scope of the test was to qualify the integration procedures and the various assembling tools. The test took place in the clean room of the SR1 building at CERN, where the detector has been assembled around a dummy beam pipe made of Stainless Steel. The process is rather complex: the shells come in two parts and they have to be clamped together to get the full shell. This operation is carried out by a dedicated tool which is shown to the right in the picture below. The layer 1 shell is clamped around a "service" pipe that will be used for moving the full layer to the integration tool [ITT] which is visible on the left. View of the tools devoted to the Pixel barrel integration in the SR1 building Also visible in the picture is the global frame that is actually held by the tool. It will engage the layers sliding onto the rails. The first two layers are sequentially...

  9. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile-ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed

  10. ATLAS pixel detector timing optimisation with the back of crate card of the optical pixel readout system

    Flick, T; Gerlach, P; Reeves, K; Maettig, P [Department of Physics, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    As with all detector systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the assignment of data to the correct bunch crossing, where bunch crossings will be separated in time by 25 ns, is one of the challenges for the ATLAS pixel detector. This document explains how the detector system will accomplish this by describing the general strategy, its implementation, the optimisation of the parameters, and the results obtained during a combined testbeam of all ATLAS subdetectors.

  11. High-speed readout of high-Z pixel detectors with the LAMBDA detector

    High-frame-rate X-ray pixel detectors make it possible to perform time-resolved experiments at synchrotron beamlines, and to make better use of these sources by shortening experiment times. LAMBDA is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector based on the Medipix3 chip, designed to combine a small pixel size of 55 μm, a large tileable module design, high speed, and compatibility with ''high-Z'' sensors for hard X-ray detection. This technical paper focuses on LAMBDA's high-speed-readout functionality, which allows a frame rate of 2000 frames per second with no deadtime between successive images. This takes advantage of the Medipix3 chip's ''continuous read-write'' function and highly parallelised readout. The readout electronics serialise this data and send it back to a server PC over two 10 Gigabit Ethernet links. The server PC controls the detector and receives, processes and stores the data using software designed for the Tango control system. As a demonstration of high-speed readout of a high-Z sensor, a GaAs LAMBDA detector was used to make a high-speed X-ray video of a computer fan

  12. Data Concentrator for the BELLE II DEPFET pixel detector

    The innermost two layers of the BELLE II detector located at the KEK facility in Tsukuba, Japan, will be covered by high granularity DEPFET pixel (PXD) sensors. This leads to a high data rate of around 60 Gbps, which has to be significantly reduced by the Data Acquisition System. To perform the data reduction the hit information of the surrounding silicon strip detector (SVD) is used to define so-called Regions of Interest (ROI) and only hits inside these ROIs are saved. The ROIs are computed by reconstructing track segments from SVD data. A data reduction of up to a factor of 10 can be achieved this way. All the necessary processing stages, the receiving and multiplexing of the data on many optical links from the SVD, the track reconstruction and the definition of the ROIs, are performed by the Data Concentrator. The planned hardware design is based on a distributed set of Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMC) each equipped with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip. In this talk, the firmware development of the algorithms and the hardware implementation of the Data Concentrator are discussed. In addition, preliminary studies of track reconstruction algorithms, that could be used for FPGA-based tracking, are presented.

  13. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    Besson, A; Spiriti, E; Baudot, J; Claus, G; Goffe, M; Winter, M

    2016-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming applications like the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), which requires sensors with one order of magnitude improvement on readout speed and improved radiation tolerance. This triggered the exploration of a deeper sub-micron CMOS technology, Tower-Jazz 180 nm, for the design of a CPS well adapted for the new ALICE-ITS running conditions. This paper reports the R&D results for the conception of a CPS well adapted for the ALICE-ITS.

  14. Design and implementation of an expert system for the detector control systems of the ATLAS pixel detector

    In the framework of this thesis an expert system ''Pixel-Advisor'' for the control system of the pixel detector was designed and implemented. This supports the operational personnel in the diagnosis and removal of possible problems, which are in connection with the detector control system and unburdens the few available DCS experts

  15. Charge Sharing Effect on 600 {\\mu}m Pitch Pixelated CZT Detector for Imaging Applications

    Yin, Yongzhi; Xu, Dapeng; Chen, Ximeng

    2013-01-01

    We are currently investigating the spatial resolution of highly pixelated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector for imaging applications. A 20 mm {\\times} 20 mm {\\times} 5 mm CZT substrate was fabricated with 600 {\\mu}m pitch pixels (500 {\\mu}m anode pixels with 100 {\\mu}m gap) and coplanar cathode. Charge sharing between two pixels was studied using collimated 122 keV gamma ray source. Experiments show a resolution of 125 {\\mu}m FWHM for double-pixel charge sharing events when the 600 {\\mu}m pixelated and 5 mm thick CZT detector biased at -1000 V. In addition, we analyzed the energy response of the 600 {\\mu}m pitch pixelated CZT detector.

  16. X-ray imaging using single photon processing with semiconductor pixel detectors

    More than 10 years experience with semiconductor pixel detectors for vertex detection in high-energy physics experiments together with the steady progress in CMOS technology opened the way for the development of single photon processing pixel detectors for various applications including medical X-ray imaging. The state of the art of such pixel devices consists of pixel dimensions as small as 55x55 μm2, electronic noise per pixel 100 e- rms, signal-to-noise discrimination levels around 1000 e- with a spread 50 e- and a dynamic range up to 32 bits/pixel. Moreover, the high granularity of hybrid pixel detectors makes it possible to probe inhomogeneities of the attached semiconductor sensor

  17. X-ray imaging using single photon processing with semiconductor pixel detectors

    Mikulec, Bettina; Heijne, Erik H M; Llopart-Cudie, Xavier; Tlustos, Lukas

    2003-01-01

    More than 10 years experience with semiconductor pixel detectors for vertex detection in high energy physics experiments together with the steady progress in CMOS technology opened the way for the development of single photon processing pixel detectors for various applications including medical X-ray imaging. The state of the art of such pixel devices consists of pixel dimensions as small as 55x55 um2, electronic noise per pixel <100 e- rms, signal-to-noise discrimination levels around 1000 e- with a spread <50 e- and a dynamic range up to 32 bits per pixel. Moreover, the high granularity of hybrid pixel detectors makes it possible to probe inhomogeneities of the attached semiconductor sensor.

  18. Characterization of M-π-n CdTe pixel detectors coupled to HEXITEC readout chip

    Veale, M. C.; Kalliopuska, J.; Pohjonen, H.; Andersson, H.; Nenonen, S.; Seller, P.; Wilson, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of the anode-side of an M-π-n CdTe diode, where the pn-junction is diffused into the detector bulk, produces large improvements in the spatial and energy resolution of CdTe pixel detectors. It has been shown that this fabrication technique produces very high inter-pixel resistance and low leakage currents are obtained by physical isolation of the pixels of M-π-n CdTe detectors. In this paper the results from M-π-n CdTe detectors stud bonded to a spectroscopic readout ASIC are reported. The CdTe pixel detectors have 250 μm pitch and an area of 5 × 5 mm2 with thicknesses of 1 and 2 mm. The polarization and energy resolution dependence of the M-π-n CdTe detectors as a function of detector thickness are discussed.

  19. Display of cosmic ray event going through the pixel detector taken on October 18th 2008

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    Shown are the XY view (of SCT and pixels and of pixels alone) and an RZ view. The track has a hit in each of the layers in both the upper and the lower hemisphere. In the bottom of L0 there are even two hits due to a module overlap. Apart from the signal hits there is only one other hit in the pixel detector demonstrating the very low noise level in the detector.

  20. Development and Characterization of Diamond and 3D-Silicon Pixel Detectors with ATLAS-Pixel Readout Electronics

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10^16 particles per cm^2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 × 50 um^2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm^2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 × 6 cm^2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge c...

  1. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    Dobos, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as early performance tests using cosmic rays and beam data will be presented.

  2. Status and future of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of disks in each forward end-cap. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. Intensive calibration, tuning, timing optimization and monitoring resulted in the successful five years of operation with good detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7×1033cm−2s−1 recently surpassed at the LHC generated a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulated, the first effects of radiation damage became observable in the silicon sensors as an increase in the silicon leakage current and the change of the voltage required to fully deplete the sensor. A fourth pixel layer at a radius of 3.3 cm will be added during the long shutdown (2013–2014) together with the replacement of pixel services. A letter of intent was submitted for a completely new Pixel Detector after 2023, capable to take data with extremely high leveled luminosities of 5×1034cm−2s−1 at the high luminosity LHC. -- Highlights: •The ATLAS Pixel Detector provides hermetic coverage with three layers with 80 million pixels. •Calibration, tuning, timing optimization and monitoring resulted in the successful five years of operation with good detector performance. •First effects of radiation damage became observable in the silicon sensors. •A fourth pixel layer at a radius of 3.3 cm will be added during the long shutdown (2013–2014). •Replacement of pixel services in 2013–2014. •A letter of intent was submitted for new Pixel Detector after 2023 for high luminosity LHC

  3. Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

    2008-10-10

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

  4. Modelling and 3D optimisation of CdTe pixels detector array geometry - Extension to small pixels

    Zumbiehl, A. E-mail: zumbiehl@phase.c-strasbourg.fr; Hage-Ali, M.; Fougeres, P.; Koebel, J.M.; Regal, R.; Rit, C.; Ayoub, M.; Siffert, P

    2001-08-11

    CdTe and CdZnTe pixel detectors offer great interest for many applications, especially for medical and industrial imaging. Up to now, the material, generally, used and investigated for pixel arrays was CZT (Hamel et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43 (3) (1996) 1422; Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1) (1995) 156; Bennett et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 392 (1997) 260; Eskin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85 (2) (1999) 647; Brunett et al., J. Appl. Phys. 86 (7) (1999) 3926; Luke, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380 (1996) 232), but cadmium telluride can also be an appropriate choice, as shown here. However, we clearly demonstrate here that the optimal pixel configuration is highly dependent on the electrical transport properties of the material. Depending on the field of primary interest, either energy resolution or counting rate efficiency in the photopeak, the geometry for each case has to be optimised. For that purpose, we have developed a calculation of the signal induced onto the pixel. Two distinct parts are used: after showing our approach for the weighting potential calculation, we present our results performed by a 'pseudo-Monte Carlo' simulation. Results are supported by a few experimental comparisons. We argue about the optimum sizes with clarifying the problems caused by too small and too large pixel sizes. The study field is chosen to be vast, i.e. pixel size to detector thickness ratios (W/L) of 1/8-1, and detector thickness of 1.0-8.0 mm. In addition, several electrical transport properties are used. Since efficiency is often of primary interest, thick detectors could be very attractive, which are shown to be really feasible even on CdTe.

  5. Modelling and 3D optimisation of CdTe pixels detector array geometry - Extension to small pixels

    Zumbiehl, A.; Hage-Ali, M.; Fougeres, P.; Koebel, J. M.; Regal, R.; Rit, C.; Ayoub, M.; Siffert, P.

    2001-08-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe pixel detectors offer great interest for many applications, especially for medical and industrial imaging. Up to now, the material, generally, used and investigated for pixel arrays was CZT (Hamel et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43 (3) (1996) 1422; Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1) (1995) 156; Bennett et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 392 (1997) 260; Eskin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85 (2) (1999) 647; Brunett et al., J. Appl. Phys. 86 (7) (1999) 3926; Luke, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380 (1996) 232), but cadmium telluride can also be an appropriate choice, as shown here. However, we clearly demonstrate here that the optimal pixel configuration is highly dependent on the electrical transport properties of the material. Depending on the field of primary interest, either energy resolution or counting rate efficiency in the photopeak, the geometry for each case has to be optimised. For that purpose, we have developed a calculation of the signal induced onto the pixel. Two distinct parts are used: after showing our approach for the weighting potential calculation, we present our results performed by a "pseudo-Monte Carlo" simulation. Results are supported by a few experimental comparisons. We argue about the optimum sizes with clarifying the problems caused by too small and too large pixel sizes. The study field is chosen to be vast, i.e. pixel size to detector thickness ratios ( W/ L) of 1/8-1, and detector thickness of 1.0-8.0 mm. In addition, several electrical transport properties are used. Since efficiency is often of primary interest, thick detectors could be very attractive, which are shown to be really feasible even on CdTe.

  6. Performance of common-grid pixelated CZT detector with different array geometries

    A 4 × 4 common-grid pixelated CZT detector with four different array geometries has been designed and fabricated. The impact of small pixel effect, guide effect of the steering grid and edge effect on detector performance has been investigated. Both the weighting potential and the real electric field distributions have been calculated for better understanding the charge induction and collection. Results show that with constant pixel pitch, smaller anode pixel suffers from serious charge loss in volume and surface layer between anode pixels and steering grid. The small pixel effect is not strong enough to remove hole trailing for lager anode pixel. A relative high potential difference between anode pixels and steering grid leads to sufficient charge collection resulting in a better detector performance, especially for smaller anode pixels. In addition to edge and corner effects due to faulty or imperfect fabrication of the detector, the weighting potential distribution difference is an inherent physical effect that alter the profile of the induced signals in edge and corner pixels

  7. Development of hybrid photon detectors with integrated silicon pixel readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    Alemi, M; Formenti, F; Gys, Thierry; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based $9 on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a fast, binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The $9 performance of a half-scale prototype is presented, together with the developments and tests of a full-scale tube with large active area. Specific requirements for pixel front-end and readout electronics in LHCb are outlined, and $9 recent results obtained from pixel chips applicable to hybrid photon detector design are summarized.

  8. Performance Studies of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH Counters

    Aglieri Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2004-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  9. Performance studies of pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH counters

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2006-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  10. Test Results on the Silicon Pixel Detector for the TTF-FEL Beam Trajectory Monitor

    Hillert, S; Müller, U C; Roth, S; Hansen, K; Holl, P; Karstensen, S; Kemmer, J; Klanner, Robert; Lechner, P; Leenen, M; Ng, J S T; Schmüser, P; Strüder, L

    2001-01-01

    Test measurements on the silicon pixel detector for the beam trajectory monitor at the free electron laser of the TESLA test facility are presented. To determine the electronic noise of detector and read-out and to calibrate the signal amplitude of different pixels the 6 keV photons of the manganese K line are used. Two different methods determine the spatial accuracy of the detector: In one setup a laser beam is focused to a straight line and moved across the pixel structure. In the other the detector is scanned using a low-intensity electron beam of an electron microscope. Both methods show that the symmetry axis of the detector defines a straight line within 0.4 microns. The sensitivity of the detector to low energy X-rays is measured using a vacuum ultraviolet beam at the synchrotron light source HASYLAB. Additionally, the electron microscope is used to study the radiation hardness of the detector.

  11. Uncooled infrared detectors toward smaller pixel pitch with newly proposed pixel structure

    Tohyama, Shigeru; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Endoh, Tsutomu; Sano, Masahiko; Kato, Koji; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Yamazaki, Takao; Ueno, Munetaka; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Imai, Tadashi

    2013-12-01

    An uncooled infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) with 23.5 μm pixel pitch has been successfully demonstrated and has found wide commercial applications in the areas of thermography, security cameras, and other applications. One of the key issues for uncooled IRFPA technology is to shrink the pixel pitch because the size of the pixel pitch determines the overall size of the FPA, which, in turn, determines the cost of the IR camera products. This paper proposes an innovative pixel structure with a diaphragm and beams placed in different levels to realize an uncooled IRFPA with smaller pixel pitch (≦17 μm). The upper level consists of a diaphragm with VOx bolometer and IR absorber layers, while the lower level consists of the two beams, which are designed to be placed on the adjacent pixels. The test devices of this pixel design with 12, 15, and 17 μm pitch have been fabricated on the Si read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) of quarter video graphics array (QVGA) (320×240) with 23.5 μm pitch. Their performances are nearly equal to those of the IRFPA with 23.5 μm pitch. For example, a noise equivalent temperature difference of 12 μm pixel is 63.1 mK for F/1 optics with the thermal time constant of 14.5 ms. Then, the proposed structure is shown to be effective for the existing IRFPA with 23.5 μm pitch because of the improvements in IR sensitivity. Furthermore, the advanced pixel structure that has the beams composed of two levels are demonstrated to be realizable.

  12. Commissioning and Operation of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the CERN LHC Collider

    Djama, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Physics program at the CERN LHC collider started in autumn 2009. Since then, LHC daily delivers collisions between its two proton beams. This talk was devoted to the commissioning and early operation of the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The Pixel Detector is working nicely and all the required performances like efficiency, resolution and low noise were met. The fraction of working modules is as high as 97.4 %. The Pixel Detector fully participates in the reconstruction of charged particles trajectories, and is a key element in finding primary and secondary verticies and in tagging of short-lived particles.

  13. Test Results on the Silicon Pixel Detector for the TTF-FEL Beam Trajectory Monitor

    Hillert, S.; Ischebeck, R.; Müller, U. C.; Roth, S.; Hansen, K.; Holl, P.; Karstensen, S.; Kemmer, J.; Klanner, R.; Lechner, P.; Leenen, M; Ng, J. S. T.; Schmüser, P.; Strüder, L.

    2000-01-01

    Test measurements on the silicon pixel detector for the beam trajectory monitor at the free electron laser of the TESLA test facility are presented. To determine the electronic noise of detector and read-out and to calibrate the signal amplitude of different pixels the 6 keV photons of the manganese K line are used. Two different methods determine the spatial accuracy of the detector: In one setup a laser beam is focused to a straight line and moved across the pixel structure. In the other th...

  14. Modeling Inter-Pixel Crosstalk in Teledyne Imaging Sensors H4RG Detectors

    Dudik, R P; Dorland, B N; Veillette, D; Waczynski, A; Lane, B; Loose, M; Kan, E; Waterman, J; Pravdo, S

    2012-01-01

    CMOS-hybrid arrays have recently surfaced as competitive optical detectors for use in ground- and space-based astronomy. One source of error in these detectors that does not appear in more traditional CCD arrays is the inter-pixel capacitance component of crosstalk. In this paper we use a single pixel reset method to model inter-pixel capacitance (IPC). We combine this IPC model with a model for charge diffusion to estimate the total crosstalk on H4RG arrays. Finally, we compare our model results to Fe55 data obtained using an astrometric camera built to test the H4RG-B0 generation detectors.

  15. X-CSIT: a toolkit for simulating 2D pixel detectors

    A new, modular toolkit for creating simulations of 2D X-ray pixel detectors, X-CSIT (X-ray Camera SImulation Toolkit), is being developed. The toolkit uses three sequential simulations of detector processes which model photon interactions, electron charge cloud spreading with a high charge density plasma model and common electronic components used in detector readout. In addition, because of the wide variety in pixel detector design, X-CSIT has been designed as a modular platform so that existing functions can be modified or additional functionality added if the specific design of a detector demands it. X-CSIT will be used to create simulations of the detectors at the European XFEL, including three bespoke 2D detectors: the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD), Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and DePFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC). These simulations will be used by the detector group at the European XFEL for detector characterisation and calibration. For this purpose, X-CSIT has been integrated into the European XFEL's software framework, Karabo. This will further make it available to users to aid with the planning of experiments and analysis of data. In addition, X-CSIT will be released as a standalone, open source version for other users, collaborations and groups intending to create simulations of their own detectors

  16. The simulation of charge sharing in semiconductor X-ray pixel detectors

    Mathieson, K; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Rahman, M; Smith, K M; Watt, J; Whitehill, C

    2002-01-01

    Two simulation packages were used to model the sharing of charge, due to the scattering and diffusion of carriers, between adjacent pixel elements in semiconductors X-ray detectors. The X-ray interaction and the consequent multiple scattering was modelled with the aid of the Monte Carlo package, MCNP. The resultant deposited charge distribution was then used to create the charge cloud profile in the finite element semiconductor simulation code MEDICI. The analysis of the current pulses induced on pixel electrodes for varying photon energies was performed for a GaAs pixel detector. For a pixel pitch of 25 mu m, the charge lost to a neighbouring pixel was observed to be constant, at 0.6%, through the energies simulated. Ultimately, a fundamental limit on the pixel element size for imaging and spectroscopic devices may be set due to these key physical principles.

  17. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    Manolopoulos, S; Campbell, M; Snoeys, W; Heijne, Erik H M; Pernigotti, E; Raine, C; Smith, K; Watt, J; O'Shea, V; Ludwig, J; Schwarz, C

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the OMEGA 3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  18. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    Manolopoulos, S.; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Snoeys, W.; Heijne, E.; Pernigotti, E.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. E-mail: k.smith@physics.gla.ac.uk; Watt, J.; O' Shea, V.; Ludwig, J.; Schwarz, C

    1999-09-11

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the {omega}3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  19. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part II: Optimisation of imaging conditions

    In Part I of this series of two papers, we demonstrated the formation of a high efficiency phase-contrast image at atomic resolution using a pixelated detector in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with ptychography. In this paper we explore the technique more quantitatively using theory and simulations. Compared to other STEM phase contrast modes including annular bright field (ABF) and differential phase contrast (DPC), we show that the ptychographic phase reconstruction method using pixelated detectors offers the highest contrast transfer efficiency and superior low dose performance. Applying the ptychographic reconstruction method to DPC segmented detectors also improves the detector contrast transfer and results in less noisy images than DPC images formed using difference signals. We also find that using a minimum array of 16×16 pixels is sufficient to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for imaging beam sensitive weak phase objects. Finally, the convergence angle can be adjusted to enhance the contrast transfer based on the spatial frequencies of the specimen under study. - Highlights: • High efficiency phase contrast transfer function (PCTF) can be achieved using pixelated detectors followed by a ptychographic reconstruction. • Ptychographic reconstruction offers the highest PCTF across the entire spatial frequency range compared to DPC and ABF. • Image simulations show that a ptychographic reconstruction using pixelated detectors offers a superior low dose performance for imaging weak phase objects. • Optimisation of imaging conditions using pixelated detectors are discussed by considering the contrast transfer function for various cases

  20. The Upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run-2

    Ferrere, Didier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented, using collision data.

  1. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part II: Optimisation of imaging conditions

    Yang, Hao, E-mail: hao.yang@materials.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Department of Materials. Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Pennycook, Timothy J.; Nellist, Peter D. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials. Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    In Part I of this series of two papers, we demonstrated the formation of a high efficiency phase-contrast image at atomic resolution using a pixelated detector in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with ptychography. In this paper we explore the technique more quantitatively using theory and simulations. Compared to other STEM phase contrast modes including annular bright field (ABF) and differential phase contrast (DPC), we show that the ptychographic phase reconstruction method using pixelated detectors offers the highest contrast transfer efficiency and superior low dose performance. Applying the ptychographic reconstruction method to DPC segmented detectors also improves the detector contrast transfer and results in less noisy images than DPC images formed using difference signals. We also find that using a minimum array of 16×16 pixels is sufficient to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for imaging beam sensitive weak phase objects. Finally, the convergence angle can be adjusted to enhance the contrast transfer based on the spatial frequencies of the specimen under study. - Highlights: • High efficiency phase contrast transfer function (PCTF) can be achieved using pixelated detectors followed by a ptychographic reconstruction. • Ptychographic reconstruction offers the highest PCTF across the entire spatial frequency range compared to DPC and ABF. • Image simulations show that a ptychographic reconstruction using pixelated detectors offers a superior low dose performance for imaging weak phase objects. • Optimisation of imaging conditions using pixelated detectors are discussed by considering the contrast transfer function for various cases.

  2. X-CSIT: a toolkit for simulating 2D pixel detectors

    Joy, Ashley; Hauf, Steffen; Kuster, Markus; Rüter, Tonn

    2015-01-01

    A new, modular toolkit for creating simulations of 2D X-ray pixel detectors, X-CSIT (X-ray Camera SImulation Toolkit), is being developed. The toolkit uses three sequential simulations of detector processes which model photon interactions, electron charge cloud spreading with a high charge density plasma model and common electronic components used in detector readout. In addition, because of the wide variety in pixel detector design, X-CSIT has been designed as a modular platform so that existing functions can be modified or additional functionality added if the specific design of a detector demands it. X-CSIT will be used to create simulations of the detectors at the European XFEL, including three bespoke 2D detectors: the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD), Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and DePFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC). These simulations will be used by the detector group at the European XFEL for detector characterisation and calibration. For this purpose, X-CSIT has been integrat...

  3. Exploration of Pixelated detectors for double beta decay searches within the COBRA experiment

    The aim of the COBRA experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay events in Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) room temperature semiconductor detectors. The development of pixelated detectors provides the potential for clear event identification and thus major background reduction. The tracking option of a semiconductor is a unique approach in this field. For initial studies, several possible detector systems are considered with a special regard for low background applications: the large volume system Polaris with a pixelated CdZnTe sensor, Timepix detectors with Si and enriched CdTe sensor material and a CdZnTe pixel system developed at the Washington University in St. Louis, USA. For all detector systems first experimental background measurements taken at underground laboratories (Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy, LNGS and the Niederniveau Messlabor Felsenkeller in Dresden, Germany) and additionally for the Timepix detectors simulation results are presented.

  4. Si and CdTe pixel detector developments at SPring-8

    Single X-ray photon counting pixel detectors have become the most advanced detector technology in synchrotron radiation experiments recently. In particular, the PILATUS detector based on a silicon sensor has reached a very mature state and represents the world's largest detector in this field. This paper first reports on threshold energy calibrations and the capability of applying an energy-resolved X-ray imaging with PILATUS. Second the design of a cadmium telluride (CdTe) pixel detector is described. A high density and high-atomic number sensor material is required in high energy X-ray applications available at SPring-8. For this purpose we are developing a CdTe pixel detector with the SP8-01 readout ASIC covering a wide dynamic range between 10 and 100 keV and containing lower and upper discriminators.

  5. Exploration of Pixelated detectors for double beta decay searches within the COBRA experiment

    Schwenke, M., E-mail: schwenke@asp.tu-dresden.de [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Zuber, K.; Janutta, B. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany); He, Z.; Zeng, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Anton, G.; Michel, T.; Durst, J.; Lueck, F.; Gleixner, T. [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Goessling, C.; Schulz, O.; Koettig, T. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Physik E IV, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Krawczynski, H.; Martin, J. [Department of Physics, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1105, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 (United States); Stekl, I.; Cermak, P. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-11

    The aim of the COBRA experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay events in Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) room temperature semiconductor detectors. The development of pixelated detectors provides the potential for clear event identification and thus major background reduction. The tracking option of a semiconductor is a unique approach in this field. For initial studies, several possible detector systems are considered with a special regard for low background applications: the large volume system Polaris with a pixelated CdZnTe sensor, Timepix detectors with Si and enriched CdTe sensor material and a CdZnTe pixel system developed at the Washington University in St. Louis, USA. For all detector systems first experimental background measurements taken at underground laboratories (Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy, LNGS and the Niederniveau Messlabor Felsenkeller in Dresden, Germany) and additionally for the Timepix detectors simulation results are presented.

  6. The 025 mum front-end for the CMS pixel detector

    Erdmann, W

    2005-01-01

    The front-end for the CMS pixel detector has been translated from the radiation hard DMILL process to a commercial 0.25 mum technology. The smaller feature size of this technology permitted a reduction of the pixel size and other improvements. First results obtained with the translated chip are discussed.

  7. Optimization of CZT Detectors with Sub-mm Pixel Pitches Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and optimize 0.5 cm thick Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors with very small pixel pitches, i.e. 350 micron and 600 micron. The proposed...

  8. Performance study of new pixel hybrid photon detector prototypes for the LHCb RICH counters

    Moritz, M; Allebone, L; Campbell, M; Gys, Thierry; Newby, C; Pickford, A; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    A pixel Hybrid Photon Detector was developed according to the specific requirements of the LHCb ring imaging Cerenkov counters. This detector comprises a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary readout chip to achieve a 25 ns fast readout and a high signal-to-noise ratio. The detector performance was characterized by varying the pixel threshold, the tube high voltage, the silicon bias voltage and by the determination of the photoelectron detection efficiency. Furthermore accelerated aging and high pixel occupancy tests were performed to verify the long term stability. The results were obtained using Cerenkov light and a fast pulsed light emitting diode. All measurements results are within the expectations and fulfill the design goals. (8 refs).

  9. 320x240 GaAs pixel detectors with improved X-ray imaging quality

    Irsigler, R.; Andersson, J.; Alverbro, J.; Fakoor-Biniaz, Z.; Froejdh, C.; Helander, P.; Martijn, H.; Meikle, D.; Oestlund, M.; O' Shea, V.; Smith, K

    2001-03-11

    We report on gain and offset corrections for GaAs X-ray pixel detectors, which were hybridised to silicon CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs). The whole detector array contains 320x240 square-shaped pixels with a pitch of 38 {mu}m. The GaAs pixel detectors are based on semi-insulating and VPE grown substrates. The ROIC operates in the charge integration mode and provides snapshot as well as real time video images. Previously we have reported that the image quality of semi-insulating GaAs pixel detectors suffer from local variations in X-ray sensitivity. We have now developed a method to compensate for the sensitivity variations by applying suitable offset and gain corrections. The improvement in image quality is demonstrated in the measured signal-to-noise ratio of flood exposure images.

  10. 320x240 GaAs pixel detectors with improved X-ray imaging quality

    We report on gain and offset corrections for GaAs X-ray pixel detectors, which were hybridised to silicon CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs). The whole detector array contains 320x240 square-shaped pixels with a pitch of 38 μm. The GaAs pixel detectors are based on semi-insulating and VPE grown substrates. The ROIC operates in the charge integration mode and provides snapshot as well as real time video images. Previously we have reported that the image quality of semi-insulating GaAs pixel detectors suffer from local variations in X-ray sensitivity. We have now developed a method to compensate for the sensitivity variations by applying suitable offset and gain corrections. The improvement in image quality is demonstrated in the measured signal-to-noise ratio of flood exposure images

  11. Digital column readout architectures for hybrid pixel detector readout chips

    Poikela, T; Westerlund, T; Buytaert, J; Campbell, M; De Gaspari, M; Llopart, X; Wyllie, K; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; van Beuzekom, M; Zappon, F; Zivkovic, V; Brezina, C; Desch, K; Fu, Y; Kruth, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two digital column architectures suitable for sparse readout of data from a pixel matrix in trigger-less applications are presented. Each architecture reads out a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 µm. The first architecture has been implemented in the Timepix3 chip, and this is presented together with initial measurements. Simulation results and measured data are compared. The second architecture has been designed for Velopix, a readout chip planned for the LHCb VELO upgrade. Unlike Timepix3, this has to be tolerant to radiation-induced single-event effects. Results from post-layout simulations are shown with the circuit architectures.

  12. Modular pixelated detector system with the spectroscopic capability and fast parallel read-out

    Vavřík, D. (Daniel); Holík, M.; Jakůbek, J; Jakůbek, M.; Kraus, V.; Krejčí, F.; Soukup, P. (Pavel); Tureček, D.; Vacík, J. (Jiří); Žemlička, J.

    2014-01-01

    A modular pixelated detector system was developed for imaging applications, where spectroscopic analysis of detected particles is advantageous e.g. for energy sensitive X-ray radiography, fluorescent and high resolution neutron imaging etc. The presented system consists of an arbitrary number of independent versatile modules. Each module is equipped with pixelated edgeless detector with spectroscopic ability and has its own fast read-out electronics. Design of the modules allows assembly of v...

  13. Low-noise analog front-end signal processing channel integration for pixelated semiconductor radiation detector

    Lin, Ming-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    In the research development of the medical nuclear imaging, the low noise performance has always been a mandatory requirement in the design of the semiconductor pixelated radiation detector system in order to achieve the high detectability of the charge signal. The noise-optimized analog front-end signal processing channel composed of the charge sensitive amplifier and the pulse shaper is used extensively in processing the radiation charge signals from the pixelated semiconductor detector. Th...

  14. Accessing photon bunching with photon number resolving multi-pixel detector

    Kalashnikov, Dmitry A.; Tan, Si-Hui; Chekhova, Maria V.; Krivitsky, Leonid A.

    2010-01-01

    In quantum optics and its applications, there is an urgent demand for photon-number resolving detectors. Recently, there appeared multi-pixel detectors (MPPC) that are able to distinguish between 1,2,..10 photons. At the same time, strong coupling between different pixels (cross-talk) hinders their photon-number resolution. In this work, we suggest a method for `filtering out' the cross-talk effect in the measurement of intensity correlation functions.

  15. Characterization of edgeless pixel detectors coupled to Medipix2 readout chip

    Kalliopuska, Juha; Tlustos, Lukas; Eränen, Simo; Virolainen, Tuula

    2011-08-01

    VTT has developed a straightforward and fast process to fabricate four-side buttable (edgeless) microstrip and pixel detectors on 6 in. (150 mm) wafers. The process relies on advanced ion implantation to activate the edges of the detector instead of using polysilicon. The article characterizes 150 μm thick n-on-n edgeless pixel detector prototypes with a dead layer at the edge below 1 μm. Electrical and radiation response characterization of 1.4×1.4 cm2 n-on-n edgeless detectors has been done by coupling them to the Medipix2 readout chips. The distance of the detector's physical edge from the pixels was either 20 or 50 μm. The leakage current of flip-chip bonded edgeless Medipix2 detector assembles were measured to be ˜90 nA/cm2 and no breakdown was observed below 110 V. Radiation response characterization includes X-ray tube and radiation source responses. The characterization results show that the detector's response at the pixels close to the physical edge of the detector depend dramatically on the pixel-to-edge distance.

  16. Screen printing and chip flipping techniques for large area hybrid pixel detectors bonding

    In the last few years hybrid silicon pixel detectors came to use in high energy physics. One of the most serious problems is the realization of detectors and read out electronics interconnection at high density and low cost. For the upgrade in the forward direction of the DELPHI silicon vertex detector, it has been successfully carried out the bonding of pixel detectors to VLSI read out chips by means of conductive glue screen printing followed by a precise chip flipping procedure. The measured missing contact rate is (0.05±0.03)%. (orig.)

  17. Investigation of photon counting pixel detectors for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    Talla, Patrick Takoukam

    2011-04-07

    The Medipix2 and Medipix3 detectors are hybrid pixelated photon counting detectors with a pixel pitch of 55 {mu}m. The sensor material used in this thesis was silicon. Because of their small pixel size they suffer from charge sharing i.e. an incoming photon can be registered by more than one pixel. In order to correct for charge sharing due to lateral diffusion of charge carriers, the Medipix3 detector was developed: with its Charge Summing Mode, the charge collected in a cluster of 2 x 2 pixel is added up and attributed to only one pixel whose counter is incremented. The adjustable threshold of the detectors allows to count the photons and to gain information on their energy. The main purposes of the thesis are to investigate spectral and imaging properties of pixelated photon counting detectors from the Medipix family such as Medipix2 and Medipix3. The investigations are based on simulations and measurements. In order to investigate the spectral properties of the detectors measurements were performed using fluorescence lines of materials such as molybdenum, silver but also some radioactive sources such as Am-241 or Cd-109. From the measured data, parameters like the threshold dispersion and the gain variation from pixel-to-pixel were extracted and used as input in the Monte Carlo code ROSI to model the responses of the detector to monoenergetic photons. The measured data are well described by the simulations for Medipix2 and for Medipix3 operating in Charge Summing Mode. Due to charge sharing and due to the energy dependence of attenuation processes in silicon and to Compton scattering the incoming and the measured spectrum differ substantially from each other. Since the responses to monoenergetic photons are known, a deconvolution was performed to determine the true incoming spectrum. Several direct and iterative methods were successfully applied on measured and simulated data of an X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is

  18. Investigation of photon counting pixel detectors for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    The Medipix2 and Medipix3 detectors are hybrid pixelated photon counting detectors with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. The sensor material used in this thesis was silicon. Because of their small pixel size they suffer from charge sharing i.e. an incoming photon can be registered by more than one pixel. In order to correct for charge sharing due to lateral diffusion of charge carriers, the Medipix3 detector was developed: with its Charge Summing Mode, the charge collected in a cluster of 2 x 2 pixel is added up and attributed to only one pixel whose counter is incremented. The adjustable threshold of the detectors allows to count the photons and to gain information on their energy. The main purposes of the thesis are to investigate spectral and imaging properties of pixelated photon counting detectors from the Medipix family such as Medipix2 and Medipix3. The investigations are based on simulations and measurements. In order to investigate the spectral properties of the detectors measurements were performed using fluorescence lines of materials such as molybdenum, silver but also some radioactive sources such as Am-241 or Cd-109. From the measured data, parameters like the threshold dispersion and the gain variation from pixel-to-pixel were extracted and used as input in the Monte Carlo code ROSI to model the responses of the detector to monoenergetic photons. The measured data are well described by the simulations for Medipix2 and for Medipix3 operating in Charge Summing Mode. Due to charge sharing and due to the energy dependence of attenuation processes in silicon and to Compton scattering the incoming and the measured spectrum differ substantially from each other. Since the responses to monoenergetic photons are known, a deconvolution was performed to determine the true incoming spectrum. Several direct and iterative methods were successfully applied on measured and simulated data of an X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is

  19. The Dosepix detector—an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector for spectrometric measurements

    The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation was carried out to use the Dosepix detector as a kVp-meter, that means to determine the applied acceleration voltage from measured X-ray tubes spectra

  20. Radiationhard components for the control system of a future ATLAS pixel detector

    Becker, K; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Mättig, P; Püllen, L; Zeitnitz, C

    2015-01-01

    will include a new pixel detector. A completely new detector control system (DCS) for this pixel detector will be required in order to cope with the substantial increase in radiation at the HL-LHC. The DCS has to have a very high reliability and all components installed within the detector volume have to be radiationhard. This will ensure a safe operation of the pixel detector and the experiment. A further design constraint is the minimization of the used material and cables in order to limit the impact on the tracking performance to a minimum. To meet these requirements we propose a DCS network which consists of a DCS chip and a DCS controller. In the following we present the development of the first prototypes for the DCS chip and the DCS controller with a special focus on the communication interface, radiation hardness and robustness against single event upsets.

  1. Beam test results of the BTeV silicon pixel detector

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2000-09-28

    The authors have described the results of the BTeV silicon pixel detector beam test. The pixel detectors under test used samples of the first two generations of Fermilab pixel readout chips, FPIX0 and FPIX1, (indium bump-bonded to ATLAS sensor prototypes). The spatial resolution achieved using analog charge information is excellent for a large range of track inclination. The resolution is still very good using only 2-bit charge information. A relatively small dependence of the resolution on bias voltage is observed. The resolution is observed to depend dramatically on the discriminator threshold, and it deteriorates rapidly for threshold above 4000e{sup {minus}}.

  2. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  3. Simulation on the Charged Particle Response of the STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker Pixel Detector

    Cimaroli, Alex; Li, Xin

    2009-10-01

    The main task of the STAR experiment, located at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, is to study the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), which is believed to have been created a few microseconds after the ``Big Bang.'' Heavy quarks are ideal tools for studying the properties of QGP. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is the central part of the STAR future heavy flavor physics program and will enable STAR to directly measure heavy flavor mesons. The core of HFT is a pixel detector (PIXEL) using CMOS Active PIXEL Sensor. This poster will describe the development of a detailed simulation of the pixel detector response to charged particles and the corresponding fast simulation that dramatically enhances the simulation speed with little sacrifice in accuracy. The full simulation randomly generates ionized electrons along an incoming track and diffuses the electrons inside the pixel array until they are collected by the electronics or recombined inside a pixel. With the same result, the fast simulation, which quickens processing time from one hour to 5 seconds, generates a grid inside a single pixel and create a map of probability distribution functions for a single ionized electron generated from a grid point. We will also discuss the study of pixel detector position resolution using a simple clustering algorithm.

  4. Fabrication of pixelated CdTe and CdZnTe radiation detectors

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) are compound semiconductor characterized by wide semiconducting band gap and high photon stopping power due to its high atomic number and density. The mobility-life time product (μ t product) for holes in the materials is smaller than that for electrons. Hence, the effect of trapping losses is more pronounced on holes than on electrons. The trapping losses for holes limit achievable energy resolutions for planar detectors. In this study, pixelated CdTe detectors and pixelated CdZnTe detectors were fabricated and tested by 662 KeV gamma-rays of 137Cs at room temperature. Electrodes were formed on both sides of CdTe crystals and CdZnTe crystals by vacuum evaporation of gold. For purpose of comparison, a planar CdTe detector and a planar CdZnTe detector were evaluated. Since the pixelated CdTe detectors and the pixelated CdZnTe detectors operated as a single-polarity charge sensing device, the obtained energy resolutions were significantly higher than those for the planar detectors. Further improvement of energy resolutions of the detectors will be achieved by optimizing electrode structures. (M. Suetake)

  5. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 μm pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 μm pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-μm thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 μm circular holes with 170 μm pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order to investigate the general feasibility of this imaging probe and its resolving power. Measurements show the high resolution but low efficiency performance of the detector-collimator set, which is able to image the 122 keV source with <1 mm FWHM resolution

  6. Results on 0.7% X0 thick pixel modules for the ATLAS detector

    Netchaeva, P; Darbo, G; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Gilchriese, M G D; Oppizzi, P; Richardson, J; Rossi, L; Ruscino, E; Vernocchi, F; Znizka, G

    2001-01-01

    Modules are the basic building blocks of the ATLAS pixel detector system, they are made of a silicon sensor tile containing ~46000 pixel cells of 50 mu m*400 mu m, 16 front-end chips connected to the sensor through bump bonding, a kapton flex circuit and the module controller chip. The pixel detector is the first to encounter particles emerging from LHC interactions, minimization of radiation length of pixel modules is therefore very important. We report here on the construction techniques and on the operation of the first ATLAS pixel modules of 0.7% radiation length thickness. We have operated these modules with threshold of 3700*10+or-300*10, mean noise value of 225*10 and 0.3% dead channels. (3 refs).

  7. Results on 0.7% X0 thick pixel modules for the ATLAS detector

    Modules are the basic building blocks of the ATLAS pixel detector system, they are made of a silicon sensor tile containing ∼46 000 pixel cells of 50 μmx400 μm, 16 front-end chips connected to the sensor through bump bonding, a kapton flex circuit and the module controller chip. The Pixel detector is the first to encounter particles emerging from LHC interactions, minimization of radiation length of pixel modules is therefore very important. We report here on the construction techniques and on the operation of the first ATLAS pixel modules of 0.7% radiation length thickness. We have operated these modules with threshold of 3700x10±300x10, mean noise value of 225x10 and 0.3% dead channels

  8. A study on the shielding mechanisms of SOI pixel detector

    Lu, Yunpeng; Wu, Zhigang; Ouyang, Qun; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    In order to tackle the charge injection issue that had perplexed the counting type SOI pixel for years, two successive chips CPIXTEG3 and CPIXTEG3b were developed utilizing two shielding mechanisms, Nested-well and Double-SOI, in the LAPIS process. A TCAD simulation showed the shielding effectiveness influenced by the high sheet resistance of shielding layers. Test structures specially designed to measure the crosstalk associated to charge injection were implemented in CPIXTEG3/3b. Measurement results proved that using shielding layer is indispensable for counting type pixel and Double-SOI is superior to Nested-well in terms of shielding effectiveness and design flexibility.

  9. X-ray analog pixel array detector for single synchrotron bunch time-resolved imaging

    Koerner, Lucas J

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic x-ray studies may reach temporal resolutions limited by only the x-ray pulse duration if the detector is fast enough to segregate synchrotron pulses. An analog integrating pixel array detector with in-pixel storage and temporal resolution of around 150 ns, sufficient to isolate pulses, is presented. Analog integration minimizes count-rate limitations and in-pixel storage captures successive pulses. Fundamental tests of noise and linearity as well as high-speed laser measurements are shown. The detector resolved individual bunch trains at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) at levels of up to 3.7x10^3 x-rays/pixel/train. When applied to turn-by-turn x-ray beam characterization single-shot intensity measurements were made with a repeatability of 0.4% and horizontal oscillations of the positron cloud were detected. This device is appropriate for time-resolved Bragg spot single crystal experiments.

  10. 4.3 μm quantum cascade detector in pixel configuration.

    Harrer, A; Schwarz, B; Schuler, S; Reininger, P; Wirthmüller, A; Detz, H; MacFarland, D; Zederbauer, T; Andrews, A M; Rothermund, M; Oppermann, H; Schrenk, W; Strasser, G

    2016-07-25

    We present the design simulation and characterization of a quantum cascade detector operating at 4.3μm wavelength. Array integration and packaging processes were investigated. The device operates in the 4.3μm CO2 absorption region and consists of 64 pixels. The detector is designed fully compatible to standard processing and material growth methods for scalability to large pixel counts. The detector design is optimized for a high device resistance at elevated temperatures. A QCD simulation model was enhanced for resistance and responsivity optimization. The substrate illuminated pixels utilize a two dimensional Au diffraction grating to couple the light to the active region. A single pixel responsivity of 16mA/W at room temperature with a specific detectivity D* of 5⋅107 cmHz/W was measured. PMID:27464155

  11. Module Production and Qualification for the Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086689

    2015-01-01

    After consolidation of the LHC in 2013/14 its centre-of-mass energy will increase to 13TeV and the luminosity will reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}\\, \\textnormal{cm}^{-2} \\textnormal{s}^{-1}$, which is twice the design luminosity. The latter will result in more simultaneous particle collisions, which would significantly increase the dead time of the current readout chip of the CMS pixel detector. Therefore the entire CMS pixel detector is replaced in 2016/17 and a new digital readout with larger buffers will be used to handle increasing pixel hit rates. An additional fourth barrel-layer provides more space points to improve track reconstruction. Half of the required modules for layer four is being produced at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This poster deals with the smallest discrete subunit of the pixel detector, the module and its assembly process. Moreover first production experience will be shown.

  12. Progress in the use of pixel detectors in double beta decay experiment TGV

    The TGV collaboration has been investigating two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in 106Cd since 2000. The double beta experiments would answer some of the puzzling problems about neutrinos (e.g. nature and mass) but one of the main challenges is the background events. The collaboration is investigating the use of pixel detectors in such rare decay experiments. Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus provides useful information to reduce the background. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) for the next generation experiment; where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. A prototype unit of SPT has been constructed and results of preliminary background measurements performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories are presented

  13. Progress in the use of pixel detectors in double beta decay experiment TGV

    Jose, J. M.; TGV Collaboration

    2013-12-01

    The TGV collaboration has been investigating two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in 106Cd since 2000. The double beta experiments would answer some of the puzzling problems about neutrinos (e.g. nature and mass) but one of the main challenges is the background events. The collaboration is investigating the use of pixel detectors in such rare decay experiments. Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus provides useful information to reduce the background. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) for the next generation experiment; where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. A prototype unit of SPT has been constructed and results of preliminary background measurements performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories are presented.

  14. Progress in the use of pixel detectors in double beta decay experiment TGV

    Jose, J. M. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Collaboration: TGV Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    The TGV collaboration has been investigating two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in {sup 106}Cd since 2000. The double beta experiments would answer some of the puzzling problems about neutrinos (e.g. nature and mass) but one of the main challenges is the background events. The collaboration is investigating the use of pixel detectors in such rare decay experiments. Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus provides useful information to reduce the background. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) for the next generation experiment; where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. A prototype unit of SPT has been constructed and results of preliminary background measurements performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories are presented.

  15. Si pixel detectors in the detection of EC/EC decay

    The SPT collaboration has been investigating the applicability of pixel detectors in the detection of two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in106Cd. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. The Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus helps to identify and remove the background signals. Four units of SPT prototype (using 0.5 and 1 mm Si sensors) were fabricated and installed in the LSM underground laboratory, France. Recent progress in the SPT experiment and preliminary results from background measurements are presented

  16. Pixellated CdZnTe detector for emission/transmission computed tomography

    A small pixellated CdZnTe array is tested for suitability in a prototype SPECT system designed to acquire both emission and transmission data. Determining the optimum contact design and obtaining performance estimates of single photon acquisition are the primary focus. Flood field and collimated 57Co sources irradiated the 16 pixel array (5 mm thick and 1.5 mm pixels) to determine photopeak efficiencies and detector response with different event collection techniques. Intrinsic full energy peak efficiency averaged 72% for an 18 keV acceptance window. A small irradiation spot scanned an array region, revealing detector response from nearby pixels. Post processing spectra compare coincident and anti-coincident acquisition. Additionally, current mode tests compare linearity with a CdWO4/Si p-i-n detector

  17. High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Tate, Mark W; Purohit, Prafull; Chamberlain, Darol; Nguyen, Kayla X; Hovden, Robert; Chang, Celesta S; Deb, Pratiti; Turgut, Emrah; Heron, John T; Schlom, Darrell G; Ralph, Daniel C; Fuchs, Gregory D; Shanks, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Muller, David A; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-02-01

    We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit. The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as local sample thickness can be directly determined. This paper describes the detector architecture, data acquisition system, and preliminary results from experiments with 80-200 keV electron beams. PMID:26750260

  18. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for LHC Run-2

    Pernegger, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as ...

  19. The ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run II at the Large Hadron Collider

    Marx, Marilyn; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as ...

  20. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Backhaus, Malte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed as well as a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm technology and with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. The new detector is the first large scale application of of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. An overview of the lessons learned during the IBL project will be presented, focusing on the challenges and highlighting the issues met during the productio...

  1. X-ray Characterization of a Multichannel Smart-Pixel Array Detector

    Ross, Steve; Haji-Sheikh, Michael; Huntington, Andrew; Kline, David; Lee, Adam; Li, Yuelin; Rhee, Jehyuk; Tarpley, Mary; Walko, Donald A.; Westberg, Gregg; Williams, George; Zou, Haifeng; Landahl, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Voxtel VX-798 is a prototype X-ray pixel array detector (PAD) featuring a silicon sensor photodiode array of 48 x 48 pixels, each 130 mu m x 130 mu m x 520 mu m thick, coupled to a CMOS readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The first synchrotron X-ray characterization of this detector is presented, and its ability to selectively count individual X-rays within two independent arrival time windows, a programmable energy range, and localized to a single pixel is demonstrated. During our first trial run at Argonne National Laboratory's Advance Photon Source, the detector achieved a 60 ns gating time and 700 eV full width at half-maximum energy resolution in agreement with design parameters. Each pixel of the PAD holds two independent digital counters, and the discriminator for X-ray energy features both an upper and lower threshold to window the energy of interest discarding unwanted background. This smart-pixel technology allows energy and time resolution to be set and optimized in software. It is found that the detector linearity follows an isolated dead-time model, implying that megahertz count rates should be possible in each pixel. Measurement of the line and point spread functions showed negligible spatial blurring. When combined with the timing structure of the synchrotron storage ring, it is demonstrated that the area detector can perform both picosecond time-resolved X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements.

  2. X-ray characterization of a multichannel smart-pixel array detector.

    Ross, Steve; Haji-Sheikh, Michael; Huntington, Andrew; Kline, David; Lee, Adam; Li, Yuelin; Rhee, Jehyuk; Tarpley, Mary; Walko, Donald A; Westberg, Gregg; Williams, George; Zou, Haifeng; Landahl, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Voxtel VX-798 is a prototype X-ray pixel array detector (PAD) featuring a silicon sensor photodiode array of 48 × 48 pixels, each 130 µm × 130 µm × 520 µm thick, coupled to a CMOS readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The first synchrotron X-ray characterization of this detector is presented, and its ability to selectively count individual X-rays within two independent arrival time windows, a programmable energy range, and localized to a single pixel is demonstrated. During our first trial run at Argonne National Laboratory's Advance Photon Source, the detector achieved a 60 ns gating time and 700 eV full width at half-maximum energy resolution in agreement with design parameters. Each pixel of the PAD holds two independent digital counters, and the discriminator for X-ray energy features both an upper and lower threshold to window the energy of interest discarding unwanted background. This smart-pixel technology allows energy and time resolution to be set and optimized in software. It is found that the detector linearity follows an isolated dead-time model, implying that megahertz count rates should be possible in each pixel. Measurement of the line and point spread functions showed negligible spatial blurring. When combined with the timing structure of the synchrotron storage ring, it is demonstrated that the area detector can perform both picosecond time-resolved X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. PMID:26698064

  3. The Dosepix detector—an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector for spectrometric measurements

    Zang, A; Ballabriga, R; Bisello, F; Campbell, M; Celi, J C; Fauler, A; Fiederle, M; Jensch, M; Kochanski, N; Llopart, X; Michel, N; Mollenhauer, U; Ritter, I; Tennert, F; Wölfel, S; Wong, W; Michel, T

    2015-01-01

    The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation wa...

  4. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Takubo, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair the modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using light weight staves and CO$_{2}$ based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and the IBL pr...

  5. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    ATLAS Pixel Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as ...

  6. Pixel detectors for diffraction-limited storage rings

    Denes, Peter; Schmitt, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic advances in synchrotron radiation sources produce ever-brighter beams of X-rays, but those advances can only be used if there is a corresponding improvement in X-ray detectors. With the advent of storage ring sources capable of being diffraction-limited (down to a certain wavelength), advances in detector speed, dynamic range and functionality is required. While many of these improvements in detector capabilities are being pursued now, the orders-of-magnitude increases in brightness ...

  7. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    Bertolucci, Ennio; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Russo, P

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 mu m pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 mu m pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-mu m thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 mu m circular holes with 170 mu m pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order ...

  8. Modelling and 3D optimisation of CdTe pixels detector array geometry - Extension to small pixels

    Zumbiehl, A; Fougeres, P; Koebel, J M; Regal, R; Rit, C; Ayoub, M; Siffert, P

    2001-01-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe pixel detectors offer great interest for many applications, especially for medical and industrial imaging. Up to now, the material, generally, used and investigated for pixel arrays was CZT (Hamel et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43 (3) (1996) 1422; Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1) (1995) 156; Bennett et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 392 (1997) 260; Eskin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85 (2) (1999) 647; Brunett et al., J. Appl. Phys. 86 (7) (1999) 3926; Luke, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380 (1996) 232), but cadmium telluride can also be an appropriate choice, as shown here. However, we clearly demonstrate here that the optimal pixel configuration is highly dependent on the electrical transport properties of the material. Depending on the field of primary interest, either energy resolution or counting rate efficiency in the photopeak, the geometry for each case has to be optimised. For that purpose, we have developed a calculation of the signal induced onto the pixel. Two distinct parts are used: af...

  9. Pixel array detector for X-ray free electron laser experiments

    Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hromalik, Marianne [Electrical and Computer Engineering, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY 13126 (United States); Tate, Mark; Koerner, Lucas [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wilson Laboratory, Cornell University, CHESS, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) promise to revolutionize X-ray science with extremely high peak brilliances and femtosecond X-ray pulses. This will require novel detectors to fully realize the potential of these new sources. There are many current detector development projects aimed at the many challenges of meeting the XFEL requirements . This paper describes a pixel array detector (PAD) that has been developed for the Coherent X-ray Imaging experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Laboratory . The detector features 14-bit in-pixel digitization; a 2-level in-pixel gain setting that can be used to make an arbitrary 2-D gain pattern that is adaptable to a particular experiment; the ability to handle instantaneous X-ray flux rates of 10{sup 17} photons per second; and continuous frames rates in excess of 120 Hz. The detector uses direct detection of X-rays in a silicon diode. The charge produced by the diode is integrated in a pixilated application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which digitizes collected holes with single X-ray photon capability. Each ASIC is 194x185 pixels, each pixel is 110{mu}mx110{mu}m on a side. Each pixel can detect up to 2500 X-rays per frame in low-gain mode, yet easily detects single photons at high-gain. Cooled, single-chip detectors have been built and meet all the required specifications. SLAC National Laboratory is engaged in constructing a tiled, multi-chip 1516x1516 pixel detector.

  10. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects

  11. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors

    Calderón, Y.; Chmeissani, M.; Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm2 area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm3. The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(G...

  12. Simulation of guard ring influence on the performance of ATLAS pixel detectors for inner layer replacement

    Benoit, M; Lounis, A; Dinu, N [Laboratoire de l' accelerateur lineaire, Orsay (France)], E-mail: Benoit@lal.in2p3.fr

    2009-03-15

    Electric field magnitude and depletion in the bulk of silicon pixel detectors, which influence its breakdown behaviour, was studied using finite-element method to solve the drift-diffusion equation coupled to Poisson's equation in a simplified two dimensional model of the ATLAS pixel sensor. Based on this model, the number of guard rings and dead edges width were modified to investigate their influence on the detector's depletion at the edge and on its internal electrical field distribution. Finally, the 3 level model was implemented into the simulation to study the behaviour of such detector under different level of irradiation.

  13. The Layer 1 / Layer 2 readout upgrade for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Mullier, Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The increase of instantaneous luminosity foreseen during the LHC Run 2, will lead to an increased detector occupancy that is expected to saturate the readout links of the outermost layers of the pixel detector: Layers 1 and 2. To ensure a smooth data taking under such conditions, the read out system of the recently installed fourth innermost pixel layer, the Insertable B-Layer, was modified to accomodate the needs of the older detector. The Layer 2 upgrade installation took place during the 2015 winter shutdown, with the Layer 1 installation scheduled for 2016. A report of the successful installation, together with the design of novel dedicated optical to electrical converters and the software and firmware updates will be presented.

  14. The pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb-RICH project

    Gys, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout to be used in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The paper starts with the general specification of the baseline option. Followed by a summary of the main results achieved so far during the R&D phase. It concludes with a description of the remaining work towards the final photon detector. (17 refs).

  15. Design, production and first operation of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector system

    Kluge, A; Antinori, F; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Cavicchioli, C; Dima, R; Elia, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, M; Librizzi, F; Manzari, V; Marangio, G; Morel, M; Moretto, S; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjol, H; Viesti, G

    2008-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost barrel layers of the ALICE experiment. The SPD is the detector closest to the interaction point, mounted around the beam pipe with the two layers at r=3.9 cm and 7.6 cm distance from beam axis. In order to reduce multiple scattering the material budget per layer in the active region has been limited to ≈1% X0. The SPD consists of 120 hybrid silicon pixel detectors modules with a total of ~107 cells. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The readout electronics, located in the control room, is housed in 20 VME boards; it is the interface to the ALICE trigger, data acquisition, control system and detector electronics. In this contribution the SPD detector components design and production are reviewed. First operation results are reported.

  16. DEPFET Active Pixel Detectors for a Future Linear e(+}e({-)) Collider

    Alonso, O.; Casanova, R.; Dieguez, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Hemperek, T.; Kishishita, T.; Kleinohl, T.; Koch, M.; Kruger, H.; Lemarenko, M.; Lutticke, F.; Marinas, C.; Schnell, M.; Wermes, N.; Campbell, A.; Ferber, T.; Kleinwort, C.; Niebuhr, C.; Soloviev, Y.; Steder, M.; Volkenborn, R.; Yaschenko, S.; Fischer, P.; Kreidl, C.; Peric, I.; Knopf, J.; Ritzert, M.; Curras, E.; Lopez-Virto, A.; Moya, D.; Vila, I.; Boronat, M.; Esperante, D.; Fuster, J.; Garcia, I. Garcia; Lacasta, C.; Oyanguren, A.; Ruiz, P.; Timon, G.; Vos, M.; Gessler, T.; Kuhn, W.; Lange, S.; Munchow, D.; Spruck, B.; Frey, A.; Geisler, C.; Schwenker, B.; Wilk, F.; Barvich, T.; Heck, M.; Heindl, S.; Lutz, O.; Muller, Th.; Pulvermacher, C.; Simonis, H. J.; Weiler, T.; Krausser, T.; Lipsky, O.; Rummel, S.; Schieck, J.; Schluter, T.; Ackermann, K.; Andricek, L.; Chekelian, V.; Chobanova, V.; Dalseno, J.; Kiesling, C.; Koffmane, C.; Gioi, L. Li; Moll, A.; Moser, H. G.; Muller, F.; Nedelkovska, E.; Ninkovic, J.; Petrovics, S.; Prothmann, K.; Richter, R.; Ritter, A.; Ritter, M.; Simon, F.; Vanhoefer, P.; Wassatsch, A.; Dolezal, Z.; Drasal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Kvasnicka, P.; Scheirich, J.

    2013-04-01

    The DEPFET collaboration develops highly granular, ultra-transparent active pixel detectors for high-performance vertex reconstruction at future collider experiments. The characterization of detector prototypes has proven that the key principle, the integration of a first amplification stage in a detector-grade sensor material, can provide a comfortable signal to noise ratio of over 40 for a sensor thickness of 50-75 $\\mathrm{\\mathbf{\\mu m}}$. ASICs have been designed and produced to operate a DEPFET pixel detector with the required read-out speed. A complete detector concept is being developed, including solutions for mechanical support, cooling and services. In this paper the status of DEPFET R & D project is reviewed in the light of the requirements of the vertex detector at a future linear $\\mathbf{e^+ e^-}$ collider.

  17. DEPFET active pixel detectors for a future linear e+e− collider

    Vos, M

    2010-01-01

    The DEPFET collaboration develops highly granular, ultra-transparent active pixel detectors for high-performance vertex reconstruction at future collider experiments. The characterization of detector prototypes has proven that the key principle, the integration of a first amplification stage in a detector-grade sensor material, can provide a comfortable signal to noise ratio of over 40 for a sensor thickness of 50-75 µm. ASICs have been designed and produced to operate a DEPFET pixel detector with the required read-out speed. A complete detector concept is being developed, including solutions for mechanical support, cooling and services. In this paper the status of DEPFET R & D project is reviewed in the light of the requirements of the vertex detector at a future linear e^+e^− collider.

  18. Calibration of the CMS Pixel Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    Vami, Tamas Almos

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of two general-purpose detectors that reconstruct the products of high energy particle interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. It determines the trajectories of charged particles originating from the interaction region in three points with high resolution enabling precise momentum and impact parameter measurements in the tracker. The pixel detector is exposed to intense ionizing radiation generated by particle collisions in the LHC. This irradiation could result in temporary or permanent malfunctions of the sensors and could decrease the efficiency of the detector. We have developed procedures in order to correct for these effects. In this paper, we present the types of malfunctions and the offline calibration procedures. We will also show the efficiency and the resolution of the detector in 2012.

  19. Physics performance and upgrade for Run II of the ATLAS pixel detector

    The ATLAS pixel detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle trajectories in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. The operation and performance of the pixel detector during the first years of LHC running are described. More than 96% of the detector modules were operational during this period, with an average intrinsic hit efficiency larger than 99%. The alignment of the detector was found to be stable at the few-micron level over long periods of time. Detector material description, tracking performances in Run I and expectations for the upcoming Run II are presented

  20. Simulation and laboratory test results of 3D CMS pixel detectors for HL-LHC

    Alagoz, E.; Bubna, M.; Krzywda, A.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Povoli, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Solano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Arndt, K.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Boscardin, M.; Kwan, S.; Rivera, R.; Shipsey, I.; Uplegger, L.

    2012-08-01

    The CMS pixel detector is the innermost tracking device at the LHC, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The current planar sensors located in the innermost layer of the pixel detector will be exposed to very high fluences which will degrade their performances. As a possible replacement for planar pixel sensors in the High Luminosity-LHC (HL-LHC), 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its expected good performance in harsh radiation environments. Studies are also in progress for using 3D silicon pixel detectors in near-beam proton spectrometers at the LHC. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) plays a key role in fabricating 3D silicon detectors in which readout and ohmic electrodes are processed through the silicon substrate instead of being implanted on the silicon surface. 3D pixel devices considered in this study were processed at FBK (Trento, Italy), bump bonded to the CMS pixel readout chip, and characterized in the laboratory. Numerical simulations were also carried out. We report on selected results from laboratory measurements and TCAD simulations.

  1. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Takubo, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detect or and of the IBL project as...

  2. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . Taking advantage of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) during 2014/2015, the Pixel Detector was brought to surface to equip it with new service panels and to repair modules. The Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel sensors, was installed in-between the existing Pixel Detector and a new beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and increased pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) were used and a new readout chip has been designed with CMOS 130 nm technology with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. Dedicated design features in combination with a new composite material were considered and used in order to reduce the material budget of the support structure while keeping the optimal thermo-mechanical performance. An overview of the lessons learned during the IBL project is presented, focusing on the challenges and highlighting the issues met during the production, integration, installation and commissioning phases of the detector. Early performance tests using cosmic and beam data are also presented

  3. High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Tate, Mark W; Chamberlain, Darol; Nguyen, Kayla X; Hovden, Robert M; Chang, Celesta S; Deb, Pratiti; Turgut, Emrah; Heron, John T; Schlom, Darrell G; Ralph, Daniel C; Fuchs, Gregory D; Shanks, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Muller, David A; Gruner, Sol M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (EMPAD - electron microscope pixel array detector) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128 x 128 pixel detector consists of a 500 um thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as loc...

  4. A study on the shielding mechanisms of SOI pixel detector

    Lu, Yunpeng; Liu, Yi; Wu, Zhigang; Ouyang, Qun; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    In order to tackle the charge injection issue that had perplexed the counting type SOI pixel for years, two successive chips CPIXTEG3 and CPIXTEG3b were developed utilizing two shielding mechanisms, Nested-well and Double-SOI, in the LAPIS process. A TCAD simulation showed the shielding effectiveness influenced by the high sheet resistance of shielding layers. Test structures specially designed to measure the crosstalk associated to charge injection were implemented in CPIXTEG3/3b. Measuremen...

  5. Energy loss and online directional track visualization of fast electrons with the pixel detector Timepix

    Granja, C.; Krist, Pavel; Chvátil, David; Šolc, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Jakubek, J.; Opalka, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, DEC (2013), s. 245-261. ISSN 1350-4487 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) MSM6840770029 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : interaction of radiation with matter * dE/dx detector s * particle tracking detector s * hybrid pixel detector s * active nuclear emulsion * energy loss Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2013

  6. Interconnect and bonding techniques for pixelated X-ray and gamma-ray detectors

    In the last decade, the Detector Development Group at the Technology Department of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), U.K., established a variety of fabrication and bonding techniques to build pixelated X-ray and γ-ray detector systems such as the spectroscopic X-ray imaging detector HEXITEC [1]. The fabrication and bonding of such devices comprises a range of processes including material surface preparation, photolithography, stencil printing, flip-chip and wire bonding of detectors to application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC). This paper presents interconnect and bonding techniques used in the fabrication chain for pixelated detectors assembled at STFC. For this purpose, detector dies (∼ 20× 20 mm2) of high quality, single crystal semiconductors, such as cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) are cut to the required thickness (up to 5mm). The die surfaces are lapped and polished to a mirror-finish and then individually processed by electroless gold deposition combined with photolithography to form 74× 74 arrays of 200 μ m ×  200 μ m pixels with 250 μ m pitch. Owing to a lack of availability of CZT wafers, lithography is commonly carried out on individual detector dies which represents a significant technical challenge as the edge of the pixel array and the surrounding guard band lies close to the physical edge of the crystal. Further, such detector dies are flip-chip bonded to readout ASIC using low-temperature curing silver-loaded epoxy so that the stress between the bonded detector die and the ASIC is minimized. In addition, this reduces crystalline modifications of the detector die that occur at temperature greater than 150/r{ }C and have adverse effects on the detector performance. To allow smaller pitch detectors to be bonded, STFC has also developed a compression cold-weld indium bump bonding technique utilising bumps formed by a photolithographic lift-off technique

  7. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker and Pixel Detector: Status and Performance

    Reeves, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector are the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is a silicon strip detector and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. The Pixel Detector consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In the talk the current status of the SCT and Pixel Detector will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detectors including an overview of the issues we encountered and the observation of significant increases in leakage currents (as expected) from bulk ...

  8. Track parameter resolution study of a pixel only detector for LHC geometry and future high rate experiments

    Recent progress in pixel detector technology in general and in the HV-MAPS technology in particular make it feasible to construct an all-silicon pixel detector for large scale particle experiments like ATLAS or CMS. Previous studies have indicated that six to nine layers of pixel sensors, in comparison to the 14 detector layers planned for Inner Tracker ATLAS upgrade, are sufficient to reliably reconstruct particle trajectories. The performance of an all-pixel detector and the minimum number of required pixel layers is studied based on a full GEANT simulation for high luminosity conditions at the upgraded LHC. Furthermore, the ability of an all-pixel detector to form trigger decisions using a special triplet pixel layer design is studied. Such a design could be used to reconstruct all tracks originating from the proton-proton interaction at the first hardware level at 40 MHz collision frequency.

  9. Track parameter resolution study of a pixel only detector for LHC geometry and future high rate experiments

    Blago, Michele Piero; Schoening, Andre [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Recent progress in pixel detector technology in general and in the HV-MAPS technology in particular make it feasible to construct an all-silicon pixel detector for large scale particle experiments like ATLAS or CMS. Previous studies have indicated that six to nine layers of pixel sensors, in comparison to the 14 detector layers planned for Inner Tracker ATLAS upgrade, are sufficient to reliably reconstruct particle trajectories. The performance of an all-pixel detector and the minimum number of required pixel layers is studied based on a full GEANT simulation for high luminosity conditions at the upgraded LHC. Furthermore, the ability of an all-pixel detector to form trigger decisions using a special triplet pixel layer design is studied. Such a design could be used to reconstruct all tracks originating from the proton-proton interaction at the first hardware level at 40 MHz collision frequency.

  10. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for LHC Run-2

    Pernegger, Heinz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and hit occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as we...

  11. A new generation of small pixel pitch/SWaP cooled infrared detectors

    Espuno, L.; Pacaud, O.; Reibel, Y.; Rubaldo, L.; Kerlain, A.; Péré-Laperne, N.; Dariel, A.; Roumegoux, J.; Brunner, A.; Kessler, A.; Gravrand, O.; Castelein, P.

    2015-10-01

    Following clear technological trends, the cooled IR detectors market is now in demand for smaller, more efficient and higher performance products. This demand pushes products developments towards constant innovations on detectors, read-out circuits, proximity electronics boards, and coolers. Sofradir was first to show a 10μm focal plane array (FPA) at DSS 2012, and announced the DAPHNIS 10μm product line back in 2014. This pixel pitch is a key enabler for infrared detectors with increased resolution. Sofradir recently achieved outstanding products demonstrations at this pixel pitch, which clearly demonstrate the benefits of adopting 10μm pixel pitch focal plane array-based detectors. Both HD and XGA Daphnis 10μm products also benefit from a global video datapath efficiency improvement by transitioning to digital video interfaces. Moreover, innovative smart pixels functionalities drastically increase product versatility. In addition to this strong push towards a higher pixels density, Sofradir acknowledges the need for smaller and lower power cooled infrared detector. Together with straightforward system interfaces and better overall performances, latest technological advances on SWAP-C (Size, Weight, Power and Cost) Sofradir products enable the advent of a new generation of high performance portable and agile systems (handheld thermal imagers, unmanned aerial vehicles, light gimbals etc...). This paper focuses on those features and performances that can make an actual difference in the field.

  12. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Backhaus, Malte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During Run-1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This includes the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanic...

  13. Pre- and post-irradiation performance of FBK 3D silicon pixel detectors for CMS

    Krzywda, A., E-mail: akrzywda@purdue.edu [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Alagoz, E.; Bubna, M. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Obertino, M. [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Solano, A. [Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Arndt, K. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Uplegger, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Betta, G.F. Dalla [TIFPA INFN and Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 9, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Centro per Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Ngadiuba, J. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Rivera, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Terzo, S. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bortoletto, D. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Prosser, A.; Adreson, J.; Kwan, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Osipenkov, I. [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Bolla, G. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    In preparation for the tenfold luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (the HL-LHC) around 2020, three-dimensional (3D) silicon pixel sensors are being developed as a radiation-hard candidate to replace the planar ones currently being used in the CMS pixel detector. This study examines an early batch of FBK sensors (named ATLAS08) of three 3D pixel geometries: 1E, 2E, and 4E, which respectively contain one, two, and four readout electrodes for each pixel, passing completely through the bulk. We present electrical characteristics and beam test performance results for each detector before and after irradiation. The maximum fluence applied is 3.5×10{sup 15} n {sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  14. NIRSpec detectors: noise properties and the effect of signal dependent inter-pixel crosstalk

    Giardino, Giovanna; Sirianni, Marco; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Lindler, Don; Boeker, Torsten; Ferruit, Pierre; De Marchi, Guido; Stuhlinger, Martin; Jensen, Peter; Strada, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    NIRSpec (Near Infrared Spectrograph) is one of the four science instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and its focal plane consists of two HAWAII-2RG sensors operating in the wavelength range 0.6-5.0μm. As part of characterizing NIRSpec, we studied the noise properties of these detectors under dark and illuminated conditions. Under dark conditions, and as already known, 1/f noise in the detector system produces somewhat more noise than can be accounted for by a simple model that includes white read noise and shot noise on integrated charge. More surprisingly, at high flux, we observe significantly lower total noise levels than expected. We show this effect to be due to pixel-to-pixel correlations introduced by signal dependent inter-pixel crosstalk, with an inter-pixel coupling factor, α, that ranges from ~ 0.01 for zero signal to ~ 0.03 close to saturation.

  15. Evaluation of a Wobbling Method Applied to Correcting Defective Pixels of CZT Detectors in SPECT Imaging.

    Xie, Zhaoheng; Li, Suying; Yang, Kun; Xu, Baixuan; Ren, Qiushi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a wobbling method to correct bad pixels in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors, using information of related images. We build up an automated device that realizes the wobbling correction for small animal Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging. The wobbling correction method is applied to various constellations of defective pixels. The corrected images are compared with the results of conventional interpolation method, and the correction effectiveness is evaluated quantitatively using the factor of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM). In summary, the proposed wobbling method, equipped with the automatic mechanical system, provides a better image quality for correcting defective pixels, which could be used for all pixelated detectors for molecular imaging. PMID:27240368

  16. Development of innovative silicon radiation detectors

    Balbuena, JuanPablo

    Silicon radiation detectors fabricated at the IMB-CNM (CSIC) Clean Room facilities using the most innovative techniques in detector technology are presented in this thesis. TCAD simulation comprises an important part in this work as becomes an essential tool to achieve exhaustive performance information of modelled detectors prior their fabrication and subsequent electrical characterization. Radiation tolerance is also investigated in this work using TCAD simulations through the potential and electric field distributions, leakage current and capacitance characteristics and the response of the detectors to the pass of different particles for charge collection efficiencies. Silicon detectors investigated in this thesis were developed for specific projects but also for applications in experiments which can benefit from their improved characteristics, as described in Chapter 1. Double-sided double type columns 3D (3D-DDTC) detectors have been developed under the NEWATLASPIXEL project in the framework of the CERN ...

  17. Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance

    Medipix3 is a 256x256 channel hybrid pixel detector readout chip working in a single photon counting mode with a new inter-pixel architecture, which aims to improve the energy resolution in pixelated detectors by mitigating the effects of charge sharing between channels. Charges are summed in all 2x2 pixel clusters on the chip and a given hit is allocated locally to the pixel summing circuit with the biggest total charge on an event-by-event basis. Each pixel contains also two 12-bit binary counters with programmable depth and overflow control. The chip is configurable such that either the dimensions of each detector pixel match those of one readout pixel or detector pixels are four times greater in area than the readout pixels. In the latter case, event-by-event summing is still possible between the larger pixels. Each pixel has around 1600 transistors and the analog static power consumption is below 15 μW in the charge summing mode and 9 μW in the single pixel mode. The chip has been built in an 8-metal 0.13 μm CMOS technology. This paper describes the chip from the pixel to the periphery and first electrical results are summarized.

  18. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    Caselle, M.; Blank, T.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Husemann, U.; Kudella, S.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15 μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30 μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The short setup time for the bumping process makes gold-stud bump-bonding highly attractive (and affordable) for the flip-chipping of single prototype ICs, which is the main limitation of the current photolithography processes.

  19. \\title{Low-Cost Bump-Bonding Processes for High Energy Physics Pixel Detectors}

    Caselle, Michele; Colombo, Fabio; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Husemann, Ulrich; Kudella, Simon; Weber, M

    2015-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area at reasonable costs are required. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of the production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin ($15\\,\\rm{\\mu m}$) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to $30\\,\\rm{\\mu m}$ without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bu...

  20. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The short setup time for the bumping process makes gold-stud bump-bonding highly attractive (and affordable) for the flip-chipping of single prototype ICs, which is the main limitation of the current photolithography processes

  1. Studies for the detector control system of the ATLAS pixel at the HL-LHC

    In the context of the LHC upgrade to the HL-LHC the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced completely. As part of this redesign there will also be a new pixel detector. This new pixel detector requires a control system which meets the strict space requirements for electronics in the ATLAS experiment. To accomplish this goal we propose a DCS (Detector Control System) network with the smallest form factor currently available. This network consists of a DCS chip located in close proximity to the interaction point and a DCS controller located in the outer regions of the ATLAS detector. These two types of chips form a star shaped network with several DCS chips being controlled by one DCS controller. Both chips are manufactured in deep sub-micron technology. We present prototypes with emphasis on studies concerning single event upsets.

  2. Status and Plan for The Upgrade of The CMS Pixel Detector

    Lu, Rong-Shyang

    2014-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system and plays a crucial role in the all-silicon CMS tracker. While the current pixel tracker is designed for and performing well at an instantaneous luminosity of up to $\\rm 1\\times 10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$, it can no longer be operated efficiently at significantly higher values. Based on the strong performance of the LHC accelerator, it is anticipated that peak luminosities of two times the design luminosity are likely to be reached before 2018 and perhaps significantly exceeded in the running period until 2022, referred to as LHC Run 3. Therefore, an upgraded pixel detector, referred to as the phase 1 upgrade, is planned for the year-end technical stop in 2016. With a new pixel readout chip (ROC), an additional fourth layer, two additional endcap disks, and a significantly reduced material budget the upgraded pixel detector will be able to sustain the efficiency of the pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high lumin...

  3. Accumulated-carrier screening effect based investigation for pixellated CdZnTe radiation detector

    Using the pixellated CdZnTe detector,the radiation imaging experiment for the Rh target X-ray source was accomplished. The experimental results indicate that the response signals of the anode pixels, which distribute over the center irradiated area,are completely shut-off when the tube Jantage is 45 kV and the tube current increases to 20 μA. Moreover, the non-response pixel area expands with the increase of the tube current, and the total event count of the CdZnTe detector reduces obviously. Furthermore, the inner electric potential and electric field distributions of the pixellated CdZnTe detector were simulated based on the Poisson equation. The simulation results reveal that the accumulation of the hole carriers, which results from the extremely low drift ability of the hole carrier, leads to a relatively high space-charge-density area in the CdZnTe bulk when the irradiated photon flux increases to 5 x 105 mm-2·s-1. And thus, the induced signal screen effect of the anode pixels in the center irradiated area is mainly attributed to the distorted electric field which makes electron carriers drift toward the high potential area in the CdZnTe crystal instead of the pixel anodes. (authors)

  4. Novel module production methods for the CMS pixel detector, upgrade phase I

    Blank, T.; Caselle, M.; Weber, M.; Kudella, S.; Colombo, F.; Hansen, K.; Arab, S.

    2015-02-01

    For the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), phase I, the CMS pixel detector needs to be replaced. In order to improve the tracking resolution even at high luminosity the pixel detector is upgraded by a fourth barrel layer. This paper describes the production process and results for the fourth barrel layer for the CMS silicon pixel detector, upgrade phase I. The additional barrel layer will be produced by KIT and DESY. Both research centers have commonly developed and investigated new production processes, including SAC solder bump jetting, gold stud bumping and "Precoat by Powder Processes" (PPS) to bump the sensor tiles and prepare them for the flip-chip process. First bare modules have been produced with the new digital ROC.

  5. Operating characteristics of radiation-hardened silicon pixel detectors for the CMS experiment

    Hyosung, Cho

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will have forward silicon pixel detectors as its innermost tracking device. The pixel devices will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. Prototype silicon pixel detectors have been designed to meet the specification of the CMS experiment. No guard ring is required on the n/sup +/ side, and guard rings on the p/sup +/ side are always kept active before and after type inversion. The whole n/sup +/ side is grounded and connected to readout chips, which greatly simplifies detector assembling and improves the stability of bump-bonded readout chips on the n/sup +/ side. Operating characteristics such as the leakage current, the full depletion voltage, and the potential distributions over guard rings were tested using standard techniques. The tests are discussed in this paper. (9 refs).

  6. Test of prototypes of the ALICE silicon pixel detector in a multi-track environment

    Pulvirenti, A.; Anelli, G.; Antinori, F.; Badalà, A.; Bruno, G. E.; Burns, M.; Cali, I. A.; Campbell, M.; Caselle, M.; Ceresa, S.; Chocula, P.; Cinausero, M.; Conrad, J.; Dima, R.; Elia, D.; Fabris, D.; Fini, R. A.; Fioretto, E.; Kapusta, S.; Kluge, A.; Krivda, M.; Lenti, V.; Librizzi, F.; Lunardon, M.; Manzari, V.; Morel, M.; Moretto, S.; Osmic, F.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Paticchio, V.; Pepato, A.; Prete, G.; Riedler, P.; Riggi, F.; Sandor, L.; Santoro, R.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.; Soramel, F.; Stefanini, G.; Torcato de Matos, C.; Turrisi, R.; Vannucci, L.; Viesti, G.; Virgili, T.

    2006-09-01

    The silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It is instrumented with arrays of hybrid pixels made out of 150 μm thick ASICs, each containing 8192 readout cells, bump bonded to 200 μm thick silicon sensors. The dimensions of the pixel cells are 50 μm ( rϕ)×425 μm ( z). Prototype assemblies have been tested in high-energy particle beams at the CERN SPS. The results of measurements in a multi-track environment, from interactions of an In beam at 158 AGeV on a Pb target, are reported.

  7. Study of the internal mechanisms of Pixelized Photon Detectors operated in Geiger-mode

    Otono, H.(Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan); Oide, H.; Yamashita, S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yamamoto, K; Yamamura, K; Sato, K.

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, a novel semiconductor photon-sensor operated in Geiger-mode was invented in Russia (Silicon PhotoMultiplier), which consists of many tiny pixels and has a single photon level sensitivity. Since then, various types of the sensor with this scheme, Pixelized Photon Detectors (PPD), have been developed in many places in the world. For instance, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. in Japan produces the PPD as a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter. While the internal mechanisms of the PPD have been inten...

  8. 14C autoradiography with an energy-sensitive silicon pixel detector

    The first performance tests are presented of a carbon-14 (14C) beta-particle digital autoradiography system with an energy-sensitive hybrid silicon pixel detector based on the Timepix readout circuit. Timepix was developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration and it is similar to the photon-counting Medipix2 circuit, except for an added time-based synchronization logic which allows derivation of energy information from the time-over-threshold signal. This feature permits direct energy measurements in each pixel of the detector array. Timepix is bump-bonded to a 300 μm thick silicon detector with 256 x 256 pixels of 55 μm pitch. Since an energetic beta-particle could release its kinetic energy in more than one detector pixel as it slows down in the semiconductor detector, an off-line image analysis procedure was adopted in which the single-particle cluster of hit pixels is recognized; its total energy is calculated and the position of interaction on the detector surface is attributed to the centre of the charge cluster. Measurements reported are detector sensitivity, (4.11 ± 0.03) x 10-3 cps mm-2 kBq-1 g, background level, (3.59 ± 0.01) x 10-5 cps mm-2, and minimum detectable activity, 0.0077 Bq. The spatial resolution is 76.9 μm full-width at half-maximum. These figures are compared with several digital imaging detectors for 14C beta-particle digital autoradiography.

  9. Performance of the Insertable B-Layer for the ATLAS Pixel Detector during Quality Assurance and a Novel Pixel Detector Readout Concept based on PCIe

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00356268; Pernegger, Heinz

    2016-07-27

    During the first long shutdown of the LHC the Pixel detector has been upgraded with a new 4th innermost layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL will increase the tracking performance and help with higher than nominal luminosity the LHC will produce. The IBL is made up of 14 staves and in total 20 staves have been produced for the IBL. This thesis presents the results of the final quality tests performed on these staves in an detector-like environment, in order to select the 14 best of the 20 staves for integration onto the detector. The test setup as well as the testing procedure is introduced and typical results of each testing stage are shown and discussed. The overall performance of all staves is presented in regards to: tuning performance, radioactive source measurements, and number of failing pixels. Other measurement, which did not directly impact the selection of staves, but will be important for the operation of the detector or production of a future detector, are included. Based on the experienc...

  10. High resolution radiography of ambers with pixel detectors

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Beneš, J.; Sopko, V.; Jandejsek, I.; Pflegerová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2013), C03024. ISSN 1748-0221. [Conference: International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detector s /14./. Figueira da Foz, 01.07.2012-05.07.2012] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101; GA Mšk(CZ) LA08032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : X-ray detector s * Inspection with x-rays * X-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/8/03/C03024/

  11. Performance and applications of a high rate imaging pixel detector

    Pavel, N A; Menk, R; Sarvestani, A; Sauer, N; Stiehler, R; Walenta, Albert H

    2002-01-01

    In the past years a large variety of gas filled micro pattern detectors have been developed for applications in high energy physics as well as for X-ray imaging in synchrotron light experiments. Here, we present the most recent developments on the MicroCAT detector with resistive position encodeing readout, which has been demonstrated to meet even the strong requirements in high resolution protein crystallography and time resolved small angle scattering at synchrotron light sources of the third generation. Recent test measurements with the prototype under the working conditions of a synchrotron light source as well as high time resolved measurements in the laboratory are presented.

  12. The ONSEN Data Reduction System for the Belle II Pixel Detector

    Geßler, Thomas; Lange, Jens Sören; Liu, Zhen'An; Münchow, David; Spruck, Björn; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2015-01-01

    We present an FPGA-based online data reduction system for the pixel detector of the future Belle II experiment. The occupancy of the pixel detector is estimated at 3 %. This corresponds to a data output rate of more than 20 GB/s after zero suppression, dominated by background. The Online Selection Nodes (ONSEN) system aims at reducing the background data by a factor of 30. It consists of 33 MicroTCA cards, each equipped with a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA and 4 GiB DDR2 RAM. These cards are hosted by 9 AdvancedTCA carrier boards. The ONSEN system buffers the entire output data from the pixel detector for up to 5 seconds. During this time, the Belle II high-level trigger PC farm performs an online event reconstruction, using data from the other Belle II subdetectors. It extrapolates reconstructed tracks to the layers of the pixel detector and defines regions of interest around the intercepts. Based on this information, the ONSEN system discards all pixels not inside a region of interest before sending the remaining hi...

  13. Beam test characterization of CMS silicon pixel detectors for the phase-1 upgrade

    The Silicon Pixel Detector forms the innermost part of the CMS tracking system and is critical to track and vertex reconstruction. Being in close proximity to the beam interaction point, it is exposed to the highest radiation levels in the silicon tracker. In order to preserve the tracking performance with the LHC luminosity increase which is foreseen for the next years, the CMS collaboration has decided to build a new pixel detector with four barrel layers mounted around a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution. Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking efficiency and position resolution before and after irradiation with 24 GeV protons from the CERN Proton Synchroton equivalent to the fluence expected after 500 fb−1 of integrated luminosity in the fourth layer of the pixel tracker. High efficiency and an excellent position resolution have been observed which are well maintained even after the proton irradiation. The results are well described by the CMS pixel detector simulation

  14. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for the Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Mandelli, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run 1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO$_2$ based cooling system have been adopted. The IBL construction and installation in the ATLAS Experiment has been completed very successfu...

  15. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Mandelli, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and will be installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project as well as the ...

  16. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Oide, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and will be installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project as well as the ...

  17. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Oide, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run 1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is the fourth layer of the Run 2 Pixel Detector, and it was installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and the new smaller-radius beam pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project...

  18. Effects of bulk and surface conductivity on the performance of CdZnTe pixel detectors

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Chen, C.M.H.; Cook, W.R.;

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of bulk and surface conductivity on the performance of high-resistivity CdZnTe (CZT) pixel detectors with Pt contacts. We emphasize the difference in mechanisms of the bulk and surface conductivity as indicated by their different temperature behaviors. In addition, the exis......We studied the effects of bulk and surface conductivity on the performance of high-resistivity CdZnTe (CZT) pixel detectors with Pt contacts. We emphasize the difference in mechanisms of the bulk and surface conductivity as indicated by their different temperature behaviors. In addition......, the existence of a thin (10-100 A) oxide layer on the surface of CZT, formed during the fabrication process, affects both bulk and surface leakage currents. We demonstrate that the measured I-V dependencies of bulk current can be explained by considering the CZT detector as a metal-semiconductor-metal system...... between the pixel contacts. When the grid is negatively biased, the strong electric field in the gaps between the pixels forces the electrons landing on the surface to move toward the contacts, preventing the charge loss. We have investigated these effects by using CZT pixel detectors indium bump...

  19. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Mullier, Geoffrey Andre; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and increased pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. A new readout chip has been developed within CMOS 130nm technology with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. Dedicated design features in combination with a new composite material were considered and used in order to reduce the material budget of the support structure while keeping the optimal thermo-mechanical performan...

  20. Geneva University: Pixel Detectors – trends and options for the future

    Geneva University

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Wednesday 25 April 2012 SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE Science III, Auditoire 1S081 30Science III, Auditoire 1S081 30 Pixel Detectors – trends and options for the future Prof. Norbert Wermes - University of Bonn  Pixel detectors have been invented in the early 90s with the advancement of micro technologies. With the advent of the LHC, big vertex detectors have demonstrated that the pixel detector type is holding many of the promises it had made before. Meanwhile new, different or just improved variants of the pixel technology are being studied for their suitability for future experiments or experiment upgrades. The talk will address the various pro's and con's comparing hybrid and monolithic pixel technologies and their su...

  1. Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC and its performance after three years of operation

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: ~96 % of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit ...

  2. Simulation of active-edge pixelated CdTe radiation detectors

    Duarte, DD; Lipp, JD; Schneider, A.; Seller, P; Veale, MC; Wilson, MD; Baker, MA; Sellin, PJ

    2016-01-01

    The edge surfaces of single crystal CdTe play an important role in the electronic properties and performance of this material as an X-ray and γ-ray radiation detector. Edge effects have previously been reported to reduce the spectroscopic performance of the edge pixels in pixelated CdTe radiation detectors without guard bands. A novel Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) model based on experimental data has been developed to investigate these effects. The results presented in this paper sh...

  3. A Leakage Current-based Measurement of the Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Gorelov, Igor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module measurement of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  4. Scintillator detectors with long WLS fibers and multi-pixel photodiodes

    Mineev, O; Musienko, Yu; Polyansky, I; Yershov, N

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the possibility of using Geiger mode multi-pixel photodiodes to read out long scintillator bars with a single wavelength-shifting fiber embedded along the bar. This detector configuration can be used in large volume detectors in future long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Prototype bars of 0.7 cm thickness and different widths have been produced and tested using two types of multi-pixel photodiodes: MRS APD (CPTA, Moscow) and MPPC (Hamamatsu). A minimum light yield of 7.2 p.e./MeV was obtained for a 4 cm wide bar.

  5. A history of hybrid pixel detectors, from high energy physics to medical imaging

    Delpierre, P.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the development of hybrid pixel detectors from the origin to the application on medical imaging. We are going to recall the need for fast 2D detectors in the high energy physics experiments and to follow the different pixel electronic circuits created to satisfy this demand. The adaptation of these circuits for X-rays will be presented as well as their industrialization. Today, a number of applications are open for these cameras, particularly for biomedical imaging applications. Some developments for clinical CT will also be shown.

  6. Gamma spectroscopic measurements using the PID350 pixelated CdTe radiation detector

    Karafasoulis, K; Seferlis, S; Papadakis, I; Loukas, D; Lambropoulos, C; Potiriadis, C

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements are presented using the PID350 pixelated gamma radiation detectors. A high-speed data acquisition system has been developed in order to reduce the data loss during the data reading in case of a high flux of photons. A data analysis framework has been developed in order to improve the resolution of the acquired energy spectra, using specific calibration parameters for each PID350's pixel. Three PID350 detectors have been used to construct a stacked prototype system and spectroscopic measurements have been performed in order to test the ability of the prototype to localize radioactive sources.

  7. Design Optimization of Pixel Structure for α-Si based Uncooled Infrared Detector

    Sudha Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors present the design and simulation results achieved for pixel structure of amorphous Si (α-Si based bolometer array. Most uncooled IR detectors in the world are based on VOx material. But this is not a standard material in IC technology and has many inherent disadvantages. The α-Si, an alternative material with high TCR is becoming as popular. However, large TCR values, in this material are achieved only in films of high resistivity. To achieve TCR value more than 2.5%/K, α-Si film resistivity is ~ 80 ohms-cm. This gives rise to very large pixel resistance of the order of 100 Mega ohms depending upon the design of the leg structure. This high pixel resistance causes very large noise and hence lower sensitivity. If leg width or membrane thickness is increased in order to reduce the pixel resistance, then this results in higher thermal conductance which also decreases sensitivity. To overcome this problem, pixel structure is so designed that within a pixel, only part of the electrical conduction is through α-Si and rest is through metal. Simulation using Coventorware software has been done to optimize pixel resistance as well as thermal conductance through legs so that maximum sensitivity could be obtained. Optimization is also carried out in order to reduce sensitivity of pixel resistance to variation in material resistivity.

  8. Development of Micromegas-like gaseous detectors using a pixel readout chip as collecting anode

    This thesis reports on the fabrication and test of a new gaseous detector with a very large number of readout channels. This detector is intended for measuring the tracks of charged particles with an unprecedented sensitivity to single electrons of almost 100 %. It combines a metal grid for signal amplification called the Micromegas with a pixel readout chip as signal collecting anode and is dubbed GridPix. GridPix is a potential candidate for a sub-detector at a future electron linear collider (ILC) foreseen to work in parallel with the LHC around 2020--2030. The tracking capability of GridPix is best exploited if the Micromegas is integrated on the pixel chip. This integrated grid is called InGrid and is precisely fabricated by wafer post-processing. The various steps of the fabrication process and the measurements of its gain, energy resolution and ion back-flow property are reported in this document. Studies of the response of the complete detector formed by an InGrid and a TimePix pixel chip to X-rays and cosmic particles are also presented. In particular, the efficiency for detecting single electrons and the point resolution in the pixel plane are measured. Implications for a GridPix detector at ILC are discussed. (author)

  9. Test results on the silicon pixel detector for the TTF-FEL beam trajectory monitor

    Hillert, S.; Ischebeck, R.; Müller, U. C.; Roth, S.; Hansen, K.; Holl, P.; Karstensen, S.; Kemmer, J.; Klanner, R.; Lechner, P.; Leenen, M.; Ng, J. S. T.; Schmüser, P.; Strüder, L.

    2001-02-01

    Test measurements on the silicon pixel detector for the beam trajectory monitor at the free-electron laser of the TESLA test facility are presented. To determine the electronic noise of the detector and the read-out electronics and to calibrate the signal amplitude of different pixels, the 6 keV photons of the manganese K α/K β line are used. Two different methods determine the spatial accuracy of the detector: in one setup a laser beam is focused to a straight line and moves across the pixel structure. In the other, the detector is scanned using a low-intensity electron beam of an electron microscope. Both methods show that the symmetry axis of the detector defines a straight line within 0.4 μm. The sensitivity of the detector to low-energy X-rays is measured using a vacuum ultraviolet beam at the synchrotron light source HASYLAB. Additionally, the electron microscope is used to study the radiation hardness of the detector.

  10. Silicon pixel detectors of a double-sided guard ring structure for radiation hardness

    Cho, Hyo Sung [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Chien, Chih Yung [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore (United States)

    2003-08-01

    The lifetime of silicon detectors in a severe radiation environment at CERN LHC depends strongly upon careful detector design and material selection due to the anticipated radiation -induced damage. We recently fabricated more radiation-tolerant silicon pixel detectors of a double-sided guard ring structure. The electrical characterization of such detectors was performed before and after irradiation to neutron fluence (1Mev equivalent ) up to 6 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} by measuring the leakage current, the full depletion voltage, and the potential distribution over the guard rings.

  11. Pixel detectors for use in retina neurophysiology studies

    Cunningham, W; Chichilnisky, E J; Horn, M; Litke, A M; Mathieson, K; McEwan, F A; Melone, J; O'Shea, V; Rahman, M; Smith, K M

    2003-01-01

    One area of major inter-disciplinary co-operation is between the particle physics and bio-medical communities. The type of large detector arrays and fast electronics developed in laboratories like CERN are becoming used for a wide range of medical and biological experiments. In the present work fabrication technology developed for producing semiconductor radiation detectors has been applied to produce arrays which have been used in neuro-physiological experiments on retinal tissue. We have exploited UVIII, a low molecular weight resist, that has permitted large area electron beam lithography. This allows the resolution to go below that of conventional photolithography and hence the production of densely packed similar to 500 electrode arrays with feature sizes down to below 2 mum. The neural signals from significant areas of the retina may thus be captured.

  12. Modular pixelated detector system with the spectroscopic capability and fast parallel read-out

    A modular pixelated detector system was developed for imaging applications, where spectroscopic analysis of detected particles is advantageous e.g. for energy sensitive X-ray radiography, fluorescent and high resolution neutron imaging etc. The presented system consists of an arbitrary number of independent versatile modules. Each module is equipped with pixelated edgeless detector with spectroscopic ability and has its own fast read-out electronics. Design of the modules allows assembly of various planar and stacked detector configurations, to enlarge active area or/and to improve detection efficiency, while each detector is read-out separately. Consequently read-out speed is almost the same as that for a single module (up to 850 fps). The system performance and application examples are presented

  13. Silicon micro-fluidic cooling for NA62 GTK pixel detectors

    Romagnoli, G; Brunel, B; Catinaccio, A; Degrange, J; Mapelli, A; Morel, M; Noel, J; Petagna, P

    2015-01-01

    Silicon micro-channel cooling is being studied for efficient thermal management in application fields such as high power computing and 3D electronic integration. This concept has been introduced in 2010 for the thermal management of silicon pixel detectors in high energy physics experiments. Combining the versatility of standard micro-fabrication processes with the high thermal efficiency typical of micro-fluidics, it is possible to produce effective thermal management devices that are well adapted to different detector configurations. The production of very thin cooling devices in silicon enables a minimization of material of the tracking sensors and eliminates mechanical stresses due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between detectors and cooling systems. The NA62 experiment at CERN will be the first high particle physics experiment that will install a micro-cooling system to perform the thermal management of the three detection planes of its Gigatracker pixel detector.

  14. Test of a fine pitch SOI pixel detector with laser beam

    Liu, Yi; Ju, Xudong; Ouyang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    A fine pitch pixel detector, developed on SOI (Silicon on Insulator) technology, has been tested under the illumination of infrared laser pulses. As an alternative way beside particel beam test, the laser pulses are tuned to very short duration and small transverse profile to simulate tracks of MIPs (Minimum Ionization Particles) in silicon. Hit cluster size and substrate depletion characteristics of this SOI detector are obtained. When focused laser pulses propagate through SOI detector perpendicularly to its surface, the hit cluster is measured, and most of signal charges are collected directly by the seed pixel. The signal amplitude as a function of applied bias voltage has been measured on this SOI detector for the first time, which helps us better understand of depletion characteristics.

  15. Studies for the detector control system of the ATLAS pixel at the HL-LHC

    Püllen, L; Boek, J; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Mättig, P; Zeitnitz, C

    2012-01-01

    experiment will be replaced completely. As part of this redesign there will also be a new pixel detector. This new pixel detector requires a control system which meets the strict space requirements for electronics in the ATLAS experiment. To accomplish this goal we propose a DCS (Detector Control System) network with the smallest form factor currently available. This network consists of a DCS chip located in close proximity to the interaction point and a DCS controller located in the outer regions of the ATLAS detector. These two types of chips form a star shaped network with several DCS chips being controlled by one DCS controller. Both chips are manufactured in deep sub-micron technology. We present prototypes with emphasis on studies concerning single event upsets.

  16. Pixel array detector for time-resolved x-ray scattering

    This paper describes the development of a large area hybrid pixel detector designed for time-resolved synchrotron x-ray scattering experiments in which limited frames, with a high framing rate, are required. The final design parameters call for a 1024x1024 pixel array device with 150-micron pixels that is 100% quantum efficient for x-rays with energy up to 20 keV, with a framing rate in the microsecond range. The device will consist of a fully depleted diode array bump bonded to a CMOS electronic storage capacitor array with eight frames per pixel. The two devices may be separated by a x-ray blocking layer that protects the radiation-sensitive electronics layer from damage. The signal is integrated in the electronics layer and stored in one of eight CMOS capacitors. After eight frames are taken, the data are then read out, using clocking electronics external to the detector, and stored in a RAM disk. Results will be presented on the development of a prototype 4x4 pixel electronics layer that is capable of storing at least 10,000 12-keV x-ray photons for a capacity of over 50 million electrons with a noise corresponding to 2 x-ray photons per pixel. The diode detective layer and electronics storage layer along with the radiation damage and blocking layers will be discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Testbeam and laboratory test results of irradiated 3D CMS pixel detectors

    Bubna, Mayur; Alagoz, Enver; Cervantes, Mayra; Krzywda, Alex; Arndt, Kirk; Obertino, Margherita; Solano, Ada; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Menace, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Rivera, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Andresen, Jeff; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boscardin, Maurizio; Marie Brom, Jean; Brosius, Richard; Chramowicz, John; Cumalat, John; Dinardo, Mauro; Dini, Paolo; Jensen, Frank; Kumar, Ashish; Kwan, Simon; Lei, C. M.; Povoli, Marco; Prosser, Alan; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Perera, Lalith; Shipsey, Ian; Tan, Ping; Tentindo, Silvia; Terzo, Stefano; Tran, Nhan; Wagner, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    The CMS silicon pixel detector is the tracking device closest to the LHC p-p collisions, which precisely reconstructs the charged particle trajectories. The planar technology used in the current innermost layer of the pixel detector will reach the design limit for radiation hardness at the end of Phase I upgrade and will need to be replaced before the Phase II upgrade in 2020. Due to its unprecedented performance in harsh radiation environments, 3D silicon technology is under consideration as a possible replacement of planar technology for the High Luminosity-LHC or HL-LHC. 3D silicon detectors are fabricated by the Deep Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) technique which allows p- and n-type electrodes to be processed through the silicon substrate as opposed to being implanted through the silicon surface. The 3D CMS pixel devices presented in this paper were processed at FBK. They were bump bonded to the current CMS pixel readout chip, tested in the laboratory, and testbeams carried out at FNAL with the proton beam of 120 GeV/c. In this paper we present the laboratory and beam test results for the irradiated 3D CMS pixel devices.

  18. Neural network based cluster reconstruction in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    The hit signals read out from pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters, to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through. The spatial resolution of the pixel detector can be improved significantly using the information from the cluster of adjacent pixels. Such analogue cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years giving an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, it is likely that the charge deposited by two or more close-by tracks merges into one single cluster. A clusterization algorithm based on neural network methods has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. This can identify the shared clusters, split them if necessary, and estimate the positions of all particles traversing the cluster. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurements to tracks within jets, and improves the positional accuracy with respect to standard interpolation techniques, by the use of the 2-dimensional charge distribution information. The reconstruction using the neural network reduces strongly the number of hits shared by more than one track and improves the resolution of the impact parameter by about 15%.

  19. Radiation-Hard Opto-Link for the Atlas Pixel Detector

    Gan, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    The on-detector optical link of the ATLAS pixel detector contains radiation-hard receiver chips to decode bi-phase marked signals received on PIN arrays and data transmitter chips to drive VCSEL arrays. The components are mounted on hybrid boards (opto-boards). We present results from the opto-boards and from irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 33 Mrad (1.2 x 10^15 p/cm^2).

  20. Low-flux measurements with Cornell's LCLS integrating pixel array detector

    Next generation light sources are revolutionizing x-ray science by delivering ultra-intense, hard x-ray pulses many orders of magnitude brighter and shorter in duration than previously achievable. Maximizing the scientific potential of these light sources requires the development of suitable detectors. Experiments such as coherent x-ray imaging of single particles require detectors that can record extremely high instantaneous flux rates produced by femtosecond x-ray pulses (i.e. thousands of photons incident on a single pixel of an area detector in a few femtoseconds) while also being able to accurately distinguish single photon events so that many thousands of frames of data can be used to reconstruct extremely low flux information (e.g. less than 1/1000 photons per pixel per frame). This paper presents data from an integrating pixel array detector (PAD) possessing the ability to record high- and low-flux x-ray data at an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL). Methods are presented to process extremely low-flux data (less than 1/10000 8-keV x-rays per pixel per frame) to accurately recover diffraction patterns from thousands of frames. The data were collected using a detector developed by Cornell for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Lab. A copy of this detector was delivered to SLAC in the middle of 2008. The ASIC developed for this detector was used by SLAC as the basis for the CS-PAD (Cornell SLAC-PAD) being used on the Coherent X-ray Imaging beamline at the LCLS. These methods extend beyond XFEL applications because they allow for the suppression of dark accumulation noise which typically limits the low-flux capability of integrating detectors on conventional x-ray sources.

  1. Novel Multi-pixel Silicon Photon Detectors and Applications in T2K

    Beznosko, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, numerous fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP), medical imaging devices, portable radiation detectors etc., require a robust, miniature, reliable and readily available photon detector that is stable in a variety of environments, such as the presence of strong magnetic fields. The recently available $\\sim$1mm$^{\\textrm{2}}$ active area Multi-pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) sensors, produced by Hamamatsu Photonics, have been found to be reliable and an attractive choice for the HEP app...

  2. Test of pixel detectors for laser-driven accelerated particle beams

    Laser-driven accelerated (LDA) particle beams have due to the unique acceleration process very special properties. In particular they are created in ultra-short bunches of high intensity exceeding more than 107 (particles)/cm2·ns per bunch. Characterization of these beams is very limited with conventional particle detectors. Non-electronic detectors such as imaging plates or nuclear track detectors are, therefore, conventionally used at present. Moreover, all these detectors give only offline information about the particle pulse position and intensity as they require minutes to hours to be processed, calling for a new highly sensitive online device. Here, we present tests of different pixel detectors for real time detection of LDA ion pulses. Experiments have been performed at the Munich 14MV Tandem accelerator with 8–20 MeV protons in dc and pulsed beam, the latter producing comparable flux as a LDA ion pulse. For detection tests we chose the position-sensitive quantum-counting semiconductor pixel detector Timepix which also provides per-pixel energy- or time-sensitivity. Additionally other types of commercially available pixel detectors are being evaluated such as the RadEye™1, a large area (25 x 50 mm2) CMOS image sensor. All of these devices are able to resolve individual ions with high spatial- and energy-resolution down to the level of μm and tens of keV, respectively. Various beam delivering parameters of the accelerator were thus evaluated and verified. The different readout modes of the Timepix detector which is operated with an integrated USB-based readout interface allow online visualization of single and time-integrated events. Therefore Timepix offers the greatest potential in analyzing the beam parameters.

  3. 3 mega-pixel InSb detector with 10μm pitch

    Gershon, G.; Albo, A.; Eylon, M.; Cohen, O.; Calahorra, Z.; Brumer, M.; Nitzani, M.; Avnon, E.; Aghion, Y.; Kogan, I.; Ilan, E.; Shkedy, L.

    2013-06-01

    SCD has developed a new 1920x1536 / 10 μm digital Infrared detector for the MWIR window named Blackbird. The Blackbird detector features a Focal Plane Array (FPA) that incorporates two technological building blocks developed over the past few years. The first one is a 10 μm InSb pixel based on the matured planar technology. The second building block is an innovative 10 μm ReadOut Integrated Circuit (ROIC) pixel. The InSb and the ROIC arrays are connected using Flip-Chip technology by means of indium bumps. The digital ROIC consists a matrix of 1920x1536 pixels and has an analog to digital (A/D) converter per-channel (total of 1920x2 A/Ds). It allows for full frame readout at a high frame rate of up to 120 Hz. Such an on-chip A/D conversion eliminates the need for several A/D converters with fairly high power consumption at the system level. The ROIC power consumption at maximum bandwidth is less than 400 mW. It features a wide range of pixel-level functionality such as several conversion gain options and a 2x2 pixel binning. The ROIC design makes use of the advanced and matured CMOS technology, 0.18 μm, which allows for high functionality and relatively low power consumption. The FPA is mounted on a Cold-Finger by a specially designed ceramic substrate. The whole assembly is housed in a stiffened Dewar that withstands harsh environmental conditions while minimizing the environment heat load contribution to the heat load of the detector. The design enables a 3-megapixel detector with overall low size, weight, and power (SWaP) with respect to comparable large format detectors. In this work we present in detail the characteristic performance of the new Blackbird detector.

  4. Physical characterization and performance comparison of active- and passive-pixel CMOS detectors for mammography.

    Elbakri, I A; McIntosh, B J; Rickey, D W

    2009-03-21

    We investigated the physical characteristics of two complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) mammography detectors. The detectors featured 14-bit image acquisition, 50 microm detector element (del) size and an active area of 5 cm x 5 cm. One detector was a passive-pixel sensor (PPS) with signal amplification performed by an array of amplifiers connected to dels via data lines. The other detector was an active-pixel sensor (APS) with signal amplification performed at each del. Passive-pixel designs have higher read noise due to data line capacitance, and the APS represents an attempt to improve the noise performance of this technology. We evaluated the detectors' resolution by measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) using a tilted edge. We measured the noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQE) using mammographic beam conditions specified by the IEC 62220-1-2 standard. Our measurements showed the APS to have much higher gain, slightly higher MTF, and higher NPS. The MTF of both sensors approached 10% near the Nyquist limit. DQE values near dc frequency were in the range of 55-67%, with the APS sensor DQE lower than the PPS DQE for all frequencies. Our results show that lower read noise specifications in this case do not translate into gains in the imaging performance of the sensor. We postulate that the lower fill factor of the APS is a possible cause for this result. PMID:19242050

  5. X-ray imaging using a hybrid photon counting GaAs pixel detector

    The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 μm thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 μm x 170 μm) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-characteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (NDT). Because of the separation of detector and readout chip, different materials can be investigated and compared

  6. Robustness of the Artificial Neural Networks Used for Clustering in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A study of the robustness of the ATLAS pixel neural network clustering algorithm is presented. The sensitivity to variations to its input is evaluated. These variations are motivated by potential discrepancies between data and simulation due to uncertainties in the modelling of pixel clusters in simulation, as well as uncertainties from the detector calibration. Within reasonable variation magnitudes, the neural networks prove to be robust to most variations. The neural network used to identify pixel clusters created by multiple charged particles, is most sensitive to variations affecting the total amount of charge collected in the cluster. Modifying the read-out threshold has the biggest effect on the clustering's ability to estimate the position of the particle's intersection with the detector.

  7. Simulation of active-edge pixelated CdTe radiation detectors

    Duarte, D. D.; Lipp, J. D.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Veale, M. C.; Wilson, M. D.; Baker, M. A.; Sellin, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The edge surfaces of single crystal CdTe play an important role in the electronic properties and performance of this material as an X-ray and γ-ray radiation detector. Edge effects have previously been reported to reduce the spectroscopic performance of the edge pixels in pixelated CdTe radiation detectors without guard bands. A novel Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) model based on experimental data has been developed to investigate these effects. The results presented in this paper show how localized low resistivity surfaces modify the internal electric field of CdTe creating potential wells. These result in a reduction of charge collection efficiency of the edge pixels, which compares well with experimental data.

  8. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  9. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-15

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  10. TSV last for hybrid pixel detectors: Application to particle physics and imaging experiments

    Henry, D; Berthelot, A; Cuchet, R; Chantre, C; Campbell, M

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly [1]. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the a...

  11. Performance of a chip for hybrid pixel detectors with two counters for X-ray imaging

    A semiconductor hybrid pixel detector for dynamic X-ray imaging is developed. The detector, called DIXI, consists of a semiconductor sensor mounted onto a readout chip. A detector module with a 500 μm silicon sensor is currently being assembled with the use of anisotropic conductive film as interconnection between the sensor and the readout chip. The basic building block of the detector is 1 cm2 in size and consists of 992 square pixel cells arranged in 31 columns and 32 rows. The pixels have a side of 270 μm. The readout chip is capable of performing photon counting and has an externally adjustable threshold. The readout chip has been characterised by charge injection in the absence of a sensor. The threshold dispersion is measured to 365 e- for hole collection. Even if the chip was not originally designed for electron collection a threshold dispersion of 1650 e- has been achieved. Two counters are implemented in every single pixel cell and the threshold can be changed from one image to the next in order to select different parts of the X-ray spectrum

  12. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for the Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Guescini, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radial distance of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. The realization of the IBL required the development of several new technologies and solutions in order to overcome the challenges introduced by the extreme environment and working conditions, such as the high radiation levels, the high pixel occupancy and the need of an exceptionally low material budget. Two silicon sensor technologies have been adopted for the IBL modules: planar n-in-n and 3D. Both of these are connected via bump bonding to the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 ...

  13. Design and TCAD simulation of double-sided pixelated low gain avalanche detectors

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco, E-mail: gianfranco.dallabetta@unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Pancheri, Lucio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Paternoster, Giovanni [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Piemonte, Claudio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca [INFN Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 2, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, Mara [Dipartimento di FIsica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Giovanni Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a double-sided variant of low gain avalanche detector, suitable for pixel arrays without dead-area in between the different read-out elements. TCAD simulations were used to validate the device concept and predict its performance. Different design options and selected simulation results are presented, along with the proposed fabrication process.

  14. Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors

    Welsh, Stephen S.; Edgar, Matthew P.; Bowman, Richard; Sun, Baoqing; Padgett, Miles J.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we demonstrate a polarization sensitive computational imaging system based on a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and several single-pixel photodetectors. By taking advantage of computational imaging techniques, the light measured by each single-pixel detector can reconstruct a 2D image for a specific linear polarization state. Using the rapid 22 kHz frame-rate of the DMD to continuously project a series of spatially orthogonal illumination patterns, near video-rate reconstructions can be achieved. In addition we extend this approach to provide full-colour images through a process of sequential colour selection (RGB). Taking the difference between photodetector signals from orthogonal linear polarization states, we obtain images corresponding to the linear Stokes parameters. We apply this rapid polarization sensitive imaging system to inert and biological material. Since the spatial information in the images reconstructed by this approach are determined by the projection system, rather than the detectors, the approach provides perfect pixel registration between the various polarization selective images and associated Stokes parameters. Furthermore, the use of single-pixel detectors and the large operational bandwidth afforded by DMD's means that the approach can readily be extended for imaging at wavelengths where detector arrays are unavailable or limited.

  15. Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors

    In this work we demonstrate a polarization sensitive computational imaging system based on a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and several single-pixel photodetectors. By taking advantage of computational imaging techniques, the light measured by each single-pixel detector can reconstruct a 2D image for a specific linear polarization state. Using the rapid 22 kHz frame-rate of the DMD to continuously project a series of spatially orthogonal illumination patterns, near video-rate reconstructions can be achieved. In addition we extend this approach to provide full-colour images through a process of sequential colour selection (RGB). Taking the difference between photodetector signals from orthogonal linear polarization states, we obtain images corresponding to the linear Stokes parameters. We apply this rapid polarization sensitive imaging system to inert and biological material. Since the spatial information in the images reconstructed by this approach are determined by the projection system, rather than the detectors, the approach provides perfect pixel registration between the various polarization selective images and associated Stokes parameters. Furthermore, the use of single-pixel detectors and the large operational bandwidth afforded by DMD's means that the approach can readily be extended for imaging at wavelengths where detector arrays are unavailable or limited. (paper)

  16. Study of planar pixel sensors hardener to radiations for the upgrade of the ATLAS vertex detector

    In this work, we present a study, using TCAD (Technology Computer-Assisted Design) simulation, of the possible methods of designing planar pixel sensors by reducing their inactive area and improving their radiation hardness for use in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project and for SLHC upgrade phase for the ATLAS experiment. Different physical models available have been studied to develop a coherent model of radiation damage in silicon that can be used to predict silicon pixel sensor behavior after exposure to radiation. The Multi-Guard Ring Structure, a protection structure used in pixel sensor design was studied to obtain guidelines for the reduction of inactive edges detrimental to detector operation while keeping a good sensor behavior through its lifetime in the ATLAS detector. A campaign of measurement of the sensor process parameters and electrical behavior to validate and calibrate the TCAD simulation models and results are also presented. A model for diode charge collection in highly irradiated environment was developed to explain the high charge collection observed in highly irradiated devices. A simple planar pixel sensor digitization model to be used in test beam and full detector system is detailed. It allows for easy comparison between experimental data and prediction by the various radiation damage models available. The digitizer has been validated using test beam data for unirradiated sensors and can be used to produce the first full scale simulation of the ATLAS detector with the IBL that include sensor effects such as slim edge and thinning of the sensor. (author)

  17. 640 x 480 pixel uncooled infrared FPA with SOI diode detectors

    Ueno, Masashi; Kosasayama, Yasuhiro; Sugino, Takaki; Nakaki, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Yoshio; Inoue, Hiromoto; Kama, Keisuke; Seto, Toshiki; Takeda, Munehisa; Kimata, Masafumi

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the structure and performance of a 25-micron pitch 640 x 480 pixel uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) diode detectors. The uncooled IR FPA is a thermal type FPA that has a temperature sensor of single crystal PN junction diodes formed in an SOI layer. In the conventional pixel structure, the temperature sensor and two support legs for thermal isolation are made in the lower level of the pixel, and an IR absorbing structure is made in the upper pixel level to cover almost the entire pixel area. The IR absorption utilizes IR reflections from the lower level. Since the reflection from the support leg portions is not perfect due to the slits in the metal reflector, the reflection becomes smaller as the support leg section increases in reduced pixel pitches. In order to achieve high thermal isolation and high IR absorption simultaneously, we have developed a new pixel structure that has an independent IR reflector between the lower and upper levels. The structure assures perfect IR reflection and thus improves IR absorption. The FPA shows a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 40 mK (f/1.0) and a responsivity non-uniformity of less than 0.9%. The good uniformity is due to the high uniformity of the electrical characteristics of SOI diodes made of single crystal silicon (Si). We have confirmed that the SOI diodes architecture is suitable for large format uncooled IR FPAs.

  18. Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors.

    Edgar, Matthew P; Gibson, Graham M; Bowman, Richard W; Sun, Baoqing; Radwell, Neal; Mitchell, Kevin J; Welsh, Stephen S; Padgett, Miles J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cameras rely upon a pixelated sensor to provide spatial resolution. An alternative approach replaces the sensor with a pixelated transmission mask encoded with a series of binary patterns. Combining knowledge of the series of patterns and the associated filtered intensities, measured by single-pixel detectors, allows an image to be deduced through data inversion. In this work we extend the concept of a 'single-pixel camera' to provide continuous real-time video at 10 Hz , simultaneously in the visible and short-wave infrared, using an efficient computer algorithm. We demonstrate our camera for imaging through smoke, through a tinted screen, whilst performing compressive sampling and recovering high-resolution detail by arbitrarily controlling the pixel-binning of the masks. We anticipate real-time single-pixel video cameras to have considerable importance where pixelated sensors are limited, allowing for low-cost, non-visible imaging systems in applications such as night-vision, gas sensing and medical diagnostics. PMID:26001092

  19. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e− and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e− rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  20. Uncooled infrared detector with 12μm pixel pitch video graphics array

    Endoh, Tsutomu; Tohyama, Shigeru; Yamazaki, Takao; Tanaka, Yutaka; Okuyama, Kuniyuki; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Katoh, Kouji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Okuda, Yuuhi; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Ishizaki, Haruo; Nakajima, Tomohiko; Shinoda, Kentaro; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo

    2013-06-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors with 12μm pixel pitch video graphics array (VGA) have been developed. To improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for 12μm pixel pitch, a highly sensitive bolometer material, an advanced pixel structure for thermal isolation and a newly designed read-out IC (ROIC) have been also developed. The bolometer material has been improved by using vanadium niobate. Over a wide range of temperature, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is achieved higher level than -3.6%/K, which is 2 times higher than that for the conventional bolometer material. For thermal isolation, thermal conductance (Gth) value for the new pixel structure, fabricated by using triple level sacrificial layer process, is estimated to be 5nW/K, which is 1/5 times lower than that for the conventional pixel structure. On the other hand, since the imaging area is reduced by the pixel pitch, the uniformity of pixel can be improved. This enables to remove the non-uniformity correction (NUC) circuit in the ROIC. Removal of this circuit is effective for low power and low noise. This 12μm pixel pitch VGA detector is packaged in a compact (24 × 24 × 6.5 mm) and lightweight (11g) ceramic package. In addition, it has been incorporated in a newly developed prototype miniature imager. The miniature imager has dimension of 25(H) ×25(W) ×28(L) mm and weight of 30g. This imager is compact and small enough to fit in your hand. Hereafter, this imager is greatly expected to be applied to mobile systems.

  1. Optimal fine ϕ-slicing for single-photon-counting pixel detectors

    Fine ϕ-slicing substantially improves scaling statistics and anomalous signal for diffraction data collection with hybrid pixel detectors. The data-collection parameters used in a macromolecular diffraction experiment have a strong impact on data quality. A careful choice of parameters leads to better data and can make the difference between success and failure in phasing attempts, and will also result in a more accurate atomic model. The selection of parameters has to account for the application of the data in various phasing methods or high-resolution refinement. Furthermore, experimental factors such as crystal characteristics, available experiment time and the properties of the X-ray source and detector have to be considered. For many years, CCD detectors have been the prevalent type of detectors used in macromolecular crystallography. Recently, hybrid pixel X-ray detectors that operate in single-photon-counting mode have become available. These detectors have fundamentally different characteristics compared with CCD detectors and different data-collection strategies should be applied. Fine ϕ-slicing is a strategy that is particularly well suited to hybrid pixel detectors because of the fast readout time and the absence of readout noise. A large number of data sets were systematically collected from crystals of four different proteins in order to investigate the benefit of fine ϕ-slicing on data quality with a noise-free detector. The results show that fine ϕ-slicing can substantially improve scaling statistics and anomalous signal provided that the rotation angle is comparable to half the crystal mosaicity

  2. Fixed pattern deviations in Si pixel detectors measured using the Medipix 1 readout chip

    Tlustos, L; Davidson, D; Heijne, Erik H M; Mikulec, B

    2003-01-01

    Dopant fluctuations and other defects in silicon wafers can lead to systematic errors in several parameters in particle or single-photon detection. In imaging applications non-uniformities in sensors or readout give rise to fixed pattern image noise and degradation of achievable spatial resolution for a given flux. High granularity pixel detectors offer the possibility to investigate local properties of the detector material on a microscopic scale. In this paper, we study fixed pattern detection fluctuations and detector inhomogeneities using the Medipix 1 readout chip. Low-frequency fixed pattern signal deviations due to dopant inhomogeneities can be separated from high-frequency deviations.

  3. X-ray Imaging Using a Hybrid Photon Counting GaAs Pixel Detector

    Schwarz, C; Göppert, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Ludwig, J; Meddeler, G; Mikulec, B; Pernigotti, E; Rogalla, M; Runge, K; Smith, K M; Snoeys, W; Söldner-Rembold, S; Watt, J

    1999-01-01

    The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 mu-m thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 mu-m x 170 mu-m) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm**2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-charcteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (...

  4. Boundary scan test of Belle II pixel detector electronics

    For the upgrade of the Vertex Detector at the Belle II experiment, DEPFET sensors will be used. These sensors need Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for control, readout and data processing. Because of high demands for a low material budget in the sensitive area, there is only little space left for these ASICs. Using state-of-the-art technologies like Ball Grid Array (BGA) chips, which are flip-chip mounted, the requirement of 14 ASICs on each of the 40 half ladders can be fulfilled. However, this highly integrated on-sensor ASIC solution results in a lack of physical access to the electrical connections, which is a problem for traditional testing methods. To overcome these limitations, the JTAG standard IEEE 1149.1 is used to check if the circuit is in working condition. This method provides electrical access to the boundary scan cells implemented in the ASICs. Therefore it is possible to perform connectivity tests and verify if the production of the circuit was successful.

  5. Test results of the Data Handling Processor for the DEPFET Pixel Vertex Detector

    Lemarenko, M.; Hemperek, T.; Krüger, H.; Koch, M.; Lütticke, F.; Marinas, C.; Wermes, N.

    2013-01-01

    In the new Belle II detector, which is currently under construction at the SuperKEKB accelerator, a two layer pixel detector will be introduced to improve the vertex reconstruction in a ultra high luminosity environment. The pixel detector will be produced using the DEPFET technology. A new ASIC (Data Handling Processor or DHP) designed to steer the readout process, pre-process and compress the raw data has been developed. The DHP will be directly bump bonded to the balcony of the all-silicon DEPFET module. The current chip prototype has been produced in CMOS 90 nm. Its test results, including the data processing quality, the signal integrity of the gigabit transmission lines will be presented here. For the final chip, which will be produced using CMOS 65 nm, single event upset (SEU) cross sections were measured. An additional chip, containing memory blocks to be tested, was submitted and produced using this technology.

  6. The Belle II DEPFET pixel vertex detector. Development of a full-scale module prototype

    The Belle II experiment, which will start after 2015 at the SuperKEKB accelerator in Japan, will focus on the precision measurement of the CP-violation mechanism and on the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. A new detection system with an excellent spatial resolution and capable of coping with considerably increased background is required. To address this challenge, a pixel detector based on DEPFET technology has been proposed. A new all silicon integrated circuit, called Data Handling Processor (DHP), is implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It is designed to steer the detector and preprocess the generated data. The scope of this thesis covers DHP tests and optimization as well the development of its test environment, which is the first Full-Scale Module Prototype of the DEPFET Pixel Vertex detector.

  7. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Gonella, Laura; Desch, Klaus

    2013-11-11

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are dis...

  8. Development of the Pixelated Photon Detector Using Silicon on Insulator Technology for TOF-PET

    Koyama, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Orita, Tadashi; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nio, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    To measure light emission pattern in scintillator, higher sensitivity and faster response are required to photo detector. Such as single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), conventional pixelated photo detector is operated at Geiger avalanche multiplication. However higher gain of SPAD seems very attractive, photon detection efficiency per unit area is low. This weak point is mainly caused by Geiger avalanche mechanism. To overcome these difficulties, we designed Pixelated Linear Avalanche Integration Detector using Silicon on Insulator technology (SOI-Plaid). To avoid dark count noise and dead time comes from quench circuit, we are planning to use APD in linear multiplication mode. SOI technology enables laminating readout circuit and APD layer, and high-speed and low-noise signal reading regardless smaller gain of linear APD. This study shows design of linear APD by using SOI fabrication process. We designed test element group (TEG) of linear APD and inspected optimal structure of linear APD.

  9. Test of a fine pitch SOI pixel detector with laser beam

    Yi, Liu; Yunpeng, Lu; Xudong, Ju; Qun, Ou-Yang

    2016-01-01

    A silicon pixel detector with fine pitch size of 19 μm × 19 μm, developed based on SOI (silicon-on-insulator) technology, was tested under the illumination of infrared laser pulses. As an alternative method for particle beam tests, the laser pulses were tuned to very short duration and small transverse profile to simulate the tracks of MIPs (minimum ionization particles) in silicon. Hit cluster sizes were measured with focused laser pulses propagating through the SOI detector perpendicular to its surface and most of the induced charge was found to be collected inside the seed pixel. For the first time, the signal amplitude as a function of the applied bias voltage was measured for this SOI detector, deepening understanding of its depletion characteristics. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375226)

  10. TCAD simulations of High-Voltage-CMOS Pixel structures for the CLIC vertex detector

    Buckland, Matthew Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for precision physics and the experimental conditions at CLIC result in stringent constraints for the vertex detector. Capacitively coupled active pixel sensors with 25 μm pitch implemented in a commercial 180 nm High-Voltage CMOS (HV-CMOS) process are currently under study as a candidate technology for the CLIC vertex detector. Laboratory calibration measurements and beam tests with prototypes are complemented by detailed TCAD and electronic circuit simulations, aiming for a comprehensive understanding of the signal formation in the HV-CMOS sensors and subsequent readout stages. In this note 2D and 3D TCAD simulation results of the prototype sensor, the Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detector version three (CCPDv3), will be presented. These include the electric field distribution, leakage current, well capacitance, transient response to minimum ionising particles and charge-collection.

  11. Testbeam and laboratory test results of irradiated 3D CMS pixel detectors

    Bubna, Mayur [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Purdue University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Alagoz, Enver, E-mail: enver.alagoz@cern.ch [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Cervantes, Mayra; Krzywda, Alex; Arndt, Kirk [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Obertino, Margherita; Solano, Ada [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienzadella Informazione, Universitá di Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Menace, Dario; Moroni, Luigi [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Uplegger, Lorenzo; Rivera, Ryan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Osipenkov, Ilya [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Andresen, Jeff [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Boscardin, Maurizio [Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Marie Brom, Jean [Strasbourg IPHC, Institut Pluriedisciplinaire Hubert Curien, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Brosius, Richard [State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY), Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Chramowicz, John [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); and others

    2013-12-21

    The CMS silicon pixel detector is the tracking device closest to the LHC p–p collisions, which precisely reconstructs the charged particle trajectories. The planar technology used in the current innermost layer of the pixel detector will reach the design limit for radiation hardness at the end of Phase I upgrade and will need to be replaced before the Phase II upgrade in 2020. Due to its unprecedented performance in harsh radiation environments, 3D silicon technology is under consideration as a possible replacement of planar technology for the High Luminosity-LHC or HL-LHC. 3D silicon detectors are fabricated by the Deep Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) technique which allows p- and n-type electrodes to be processed through the silicon substrate as opposed to being implanted through the silicon surface. The 3D CMS pixel devices presented in this paper were processed at FBK. They were bump bonded to the current CMS pixel readout chip, tested in the laboratory, and testbeams carried out at FNAL with the proton beam of 120 GeV/c. In this paper we present the laboratory and beam test results for the irradiated 3D CMS pixel devices. -- Highlights: •Pre-irradiation and post-irradiation electrical properties of 3D sensors and 3D diodes from various FBK production batches were measured and analyzed. •I–T measurements of gamma irradiated diodes were analyzed to understand leakage current generation mechanism in 3D diodes. •Laboratory measurements: signal to noise ratio and charge collection efficiency of 3D sensors before and after irradiation. •Testbeam measurements: pre- and post-irradiation pixel cell efficiency and position resolution of 3D sensors.

  12. A CMOS pixel sensor prototype for the outer layers of linear collider vertex detector

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) expresses a stringent requirement for high precision vertex detectors (VXD). CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have been considered as an option for the VXD of the International Large Detector (ILD), one of the detector concepts proposed for the ILC. MIMOSA-31 developed at IPHC-Strasbourg is the first CPS integrated with 4-bit column-level ADC for the outer layers of the VXD, adapted to an original concept minimizing the power consumption. It is composed of a matrix of 64 rows and 48 columns. The pixel concept combines in-pixel amplification with a correlated double sampling (CDS) operation in order to reduce the temporal noise and fixed pattern noise (FPN). At the bottom of the pixel array, each column is terminated with a self-triggered analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The ADC design was optimized for power saving at a sampling frequency of 6.25 MS/s. The prototype chip is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. This paper presents the details of the prototype chip and its test results

  13. Data concentrator with FPGA-based track reconstruction for the Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    The innermost two layers of the Belle II vertex detector at the KEK facility in Tsukuba, Japan, will be covered by high-granularity DEPFET pixel sensors. The large number of pixels leads to a high data rate of around 60 Gbps, which has to be significantly reduced by the Data Acquisition System. For the data reduction the hit information of the surrounding Silicon strip Vertex Detector (SVD) is utilized to define so-called Regions of Interest (ROI). Only hit information of the pixels located inside these ROIs are saved. The ROIs for the Pixel Detector (PXD) are computed by reconstructing track segments from SVD data and back extrapolation to the PXD. A data reduction of up to a factor of 10 is intended to be achieved by this design. All the necessary processing stages, the receiving and multiplexing of the data from the SVD on 48 optical fibers, the track reconstruction and the definition of the ROIs, will be performed by the Data Concentrator. The planned hardware design is based on a distributed set of Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMC) each equipped with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip and 4 optical transceivers. In this talk, the hardware and the FPGA-based tracking algorithm is introduced with some preliminary simulation results. In addition, the acquisition and pre-processing of the SVD data are discussed. The presentation concludes with an outlook on a distributed tracking design.

  14. A CMOS pixel sensor prototype for the outer layers of linear collider vertex detector

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Himmi, A.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) expresses a stringent requirement for high precision vertex detectors (VXD). CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have been considered as an option for the VXD of the International Large Detector (ILD), one of the detector concepts proposed for the ILC. MIMOSA-31 developed at IPHC-Strasbourg is the first CPS integrated with 4-bit column-level ADC for the outer layers of the VXD, adapted to an original concept minimizing the power consumption. It is composed of a matrix of 64 rows and 48 columns. The pixel concept combines in-pixel amplification with a correlated double sampling (CDS) operation in order to reduce the temporal noise and fixed pattern noise (FPN). At the bottom of the pixel array, each column is terminated with a self-triggered analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The ADC design was optimized for power saving at a sampling frequency of 6.25 MS/s. The prototype chip is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. This paper presents the details of the prototype chip and its test results.

  15. Signal and noise of Diamond Pixel Detectors at High Radiation Fluences

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Hügging, Fabian; Kagan, Harris; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    CVD diamond is an attractive material option for LHC vertex detectors because of its strong radiation-hardness causal to its large band gap and strong lattice. In particular, pixel detectors operating close to the interaction point profit from tiny leakage currents and small pixel capacitances of diamond resulting in low noise figures when compared to silicon. On the other hand, the charge signal from traversing high energy particles is smaller in diamond than in silicon by a factor of about 2.2. Therefore, a quantitative determination of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of diamond in comparison with silicon at fluences in excess of 10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$ cm$^{-2}$, which are expected for the LHC upgrade, is important. Based on measurements of irradiated diamond sensors and the FE-I4 pixel readout chip design, we determine the signal and the noise of diamond pixel detectors irradiated with high particle fluences. To characterize the effect of the radiation damage on the materials and the signal decrease, the chang...

  16. 3D Particle Track Reconstrution in a Single Layer Cadmium-Telluride Hybrid Active Pixel Detector

    Filipenko, Mykhaylo; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years the search for neutrinoless double beta decay has driven many developements in all kind of detector technology. A new branch in this field are highly-pixelated semiconductor detectors - such as the CdTe-Timepix detectors. It compromises a cadmium-telluride sensor of 14 mm x 14 mm x 1 mm size with an ASIC which has 256 x 256 pixel of 55 \\textmu m pixel pitch and can be used to obtain either spectroscopic or timing information in every pixel. In regular operation it can provide a 2D projection of particle trajectories; however, three dimensional trajectories are desirable for neutrinoless double beta decay and other applications. In this paper we present a method to obtain such trajectories. The method was developed and tested with simulations that assume some minor modifications to the Timepix ASIC. Also, we were able to test the method experimentally and in the best case achieved a position resolution of about 90 \\textmu m with electrons of 4.4 GeV.

  17. The power supply system for the DEPFET pixel detector at BELLE II

    Rummel, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Rummel@lmu.de [Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-01-21

    The upgrade of the KEKB accelerator towards 8×10{sup 35}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} poses several challenges for the BELLE II detector. Especially the innermost detector will be faced with a significant radiation of several MRad per year as well as a high hit density. To cope with this a silicon pixel detector will be used for the inner layers of the silicon tracker. The pixel detector (PXD) consists of two layers of DEPFET active pixel sensors. The DEPFET technology has an unique set of advantages like low power dissipation in the active area, flexible device size, radiation hardness and a thinning procedure allowing to adjust the thickness of the device over a wide range. The two layers close to the interaction point together with a low material budget will improve the IP resolution by a factor of 2 compared to the previous installed silicon detector. In addition silicon stand-alone pattern recognition will be possible together with the four layers of double sided strip detectors (DSSD) of the strip detector. The PXD detector system consists of the DEPFET modules with integrated readout chips, the data handling hybrid receiving the data and sending them to compute nodes performing an online pattern recognition. Moreover the power supply system provides the supply voltages for the DEPFET from a position outside of the detector. The power distribution is designed to provide low output impedance over all frequencies and transient response with appropriate overshoots. The PXD pose several challenges to the power distribution system—number of voltages, tight requirements on regulation and noise. -- Highlights: ► The KEKB accelerator receive a luminosity upgrade towards 8×10{sup 35}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1}. ► A two layer pixel detector based on the DEPFET technology will be installed. ► An improvement of a factor of 2 in. impact parameter resolution is expected. ► The 34 A dedicated power supply system for the detector is under development which aims for low

  18. Development of a Prototype for the Fluorescence Detector Array of Single-Pixel Telescopes

    Fujii, T.; Malacari, M.; Bertaina, M.; Casolino, M.; Dawson, B.; Jiang, J.; Matalon, A.; Matthews, J. N.; Motloch, P.; Privitera, P.; Takizawa, Y.; Yamazaki, K.

    We present a concept for large-area, low-cost detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with a Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes (FAST), addressing the requirements for the next generation of UHECR experiments. In the FAST design, a large field of view is covered by a few pixels at the focal plane of a mirror or Fresnel lens. We report preliminary results of a FAST prototype installed at the Telescope Array site, consisting of a single 200 mm photo-multiplier tube at the focal plane of a 1 m2 Fresnel lens system taken from the prototype of the JEM-EUSO experiment.

  19. Accessing photon bunching with a photon number resolving multi-pixel detector.

    Kalashnikov, Dmitry A; Tan, Si Hui; Chekhova, Maria V; Krivitsky, Leonid A

    2011-05-01

    In quantum optics and its applications, there is an urgent demand for photon-number resolving detectors. Recently, there appeared multi-pixel counters (MPPC) that are able to distinguish between 1,2,..10 photons. At the same time, strong coupling between different pixels (crosstalk) hinders their photon-number resolution. In this work, we suggest a method for `filtering out' the crosstalk effect in the measurement of intensity correlation functions. The developed approach can be expanded to the analysis of higher-order intensity correlations by using just a single MPPC. PMID:21643191

  20. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371978; Gößling, Claus; Pernegger, Heinz

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ...

  1. Production quality characterisation techniques of sensors and prototypes for the BELLE II Pixel Detector

    The Belle II detector is a system currently under upgrade at the B-factory SuperKEKB in Tsukuba, Japan. The main novelty is the introduction of an additional position sensitive sub-detector in the vertex detector, between the beam pipe and the strip detector system. The sensor of choice for the Belle II Pixel Detector is the Depleted p-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) sensor. In this paper the latest production of sensors and prototypes performed at the semiconductor Laboratory of the Max Planck Society, i.e. the PXD9 and the Electrical Multi-Chip Module (EMCM), are described. Wafer-level characterisation methods and techniques for faults in the metal system are also reported

  2. Design optimization of Pixel Structure for α-Si based uncooled Infrared detector

    Sudha Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors present the design and simulation results achieved for pixel structure of amorphous Si (α-Si based bolometer array. Most uncooled IR detectors in the world are based on VOx material. But this is not a standard material in IC technology and has many inherent disadvantages. The α-Si, an alternative material with high TCR is becoming as popular. However, large TCR values, in this material are achieved only in films of high resistivity. To achieve TCR value more than 2.5%/K, α-Si film resistivity is ~ 80 ohms-cm. This gives rise to very large pixel resistance of the order of 100 Mega ohms depending upon the design of the leg structure. This high pixel resistance causes very large noise and hence lower sensitivity. If leg width or membrane thickness is increased in order to reduce the pixel resistance, then this results in higher thermal conductance which also decreases sensitivity. To overcome this problem, pixel structure is so designed that within a pixel, only part of the electrical conduction is through α-Si and rest is through metal. Simulation using Coventorware software has been done to optimize pixel resistance as well as thermal conductance through legs so that maximum sensitivity could be obtained. Optimization is also carried out in order to reduce sensitivity of pixel resistance to variation in material resistivity.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.581-588, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5758

  3. Experimental study for an intraoperative probe for 18F imaging with a silicon pixel detector

    Using a silicon pixel detector we have developed an imaging probe for intraoperative detection of tumor masses labeled with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) positron emitting radiotracer. The design goal is high efficiency for positron detection from tumor tissue and high rejection of the γ-ray background (511 keV annihilation quanta), coupled to imaging capabilities with submillimeter resolution. In this paper, we report on initial tests of the detector unit (linearity, sensitivity, spatial resolution, γ to β+ ratio), based on a room temperature silicon pixel detector (300 μm thick, ∼2 cm2 sensitive area) with 256x256 pixels of 55 μm pitch, coupled to the Medipix2 readout circuit. The laboratory tests carried out using 18FDG droplets showed counting linearity in the range 37-37,000 Bq, a sensitivity for (γ+β+) of 0.35 cps/Bq, an intrinsic spatial resolution of 230±5 μm with the source in contact with the detector, and a ratio γ/β+ of about 2% due to annihilation quanta

  4. Experimental study for an intraoperative probe for {sup 18}F imaging with a silicon pixel detector

    Lauria, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Naples (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: adele.lauria@na.infn.it; Mettivier, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Montesi, M.C. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Aloj, L. [Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione G. Pascale, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Lastoria, S. [Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione G. Pascale, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Aurilio, M. [Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione G. Pascale, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Russo, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2007-06-11

    Using a silicon pixel detector we have developed an imaging probe for intraoperative detection of tumor masses labeled with {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) positron emitting radiotracer. The design goal is high efficiency for positron detection from tumor tissue and high rejection of the {gamma}-ray background (511 keV annihilation quanta), coupled to imaging capabilities with submillimeter resolution. In this paper, we report on initial tests of the detector unit (linearity, sensitivity, spatial resolution, {gamma} to {beta}{sup +} ratio), based on a room temperature silicon pixel detector (300 {mu}m thick, {approx}2 cm{sup 2} sensitive area) with 256x256 pixels of 55 {mu}m pitch, coupled to the Medipix2 readout circuit. The laboratory tests carried out using {sup 18}FDG droplets showed counting linearity in the range 37-37,000 Bq, a sensitivity for ({gamma}+{beta}{sup +}) of 0.35 cps/Bq, an intrinsic spatial resolution of 230{+-}5 {mu}m with the source in contact with the detector, and a ratio {gamma}/{beta}{sup +} of about 2% due to annihilation quanta.

  5. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  6. Integral silicon pixel-infrared detector on the up-conversion

    Mathematical modeling of the thermal detector, containing coating absorbing infrared radiation and thermally coupled sensitive element, which constitute microresonator, fulfilling in shape of the closed optical silicon waveguide, are performed. It is shown that the utilizing nontraditional absorbing coatings, made, for example, from the metal-dielectric materials makes it possible to attain the simultaneous increase speed and sensitivity of pixel-infrared detector. Critical parameters of a pixel-detector, providing transformation of the infrared radiation in the spectral range: from 2 μm to 20 μm to the radiation with a wavelength of 1.5 μm are calculated. Principal parameters of a pixel-infrared detector for two types of used absorbing coatings: gold black - frequency of the survey 50 Hz, energy of infrared radiation on the one information channel 7,4 · 10-11 J and SiOx metal-dielectric film with the ratio: SiOx (77 %) and Fe (23 %) - frequency of the survey 100 Hz, energy of infrared radiation on the one information channel 2.45·10-11 J are obtained on the basis of the numerical solution of unsteady one-dimensional heat equation. (authors)

  7. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  8. {sup 18}F-FDG positron autoradiography with a particle counting silicon pixel detector

    Russo, P; Lauria, A; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Marotta, M [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Aloj, L; Lastoria, S [Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione G. Pascale, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adele.lauria@na.infn.it

    2008-11-07

    We report on tests of a room-temperature particle counting silicon pixel detector of the Medipix2 series as the detector unit of a positron autoradiography (AR) system, for samples labelled with {sup 18}F-FDG radiopharmaceutical used in PET studies. The silicon detector (1.98 cm{sup 2} sensitive area, 300 {mu}m thick) has high intrinsic resolution (55 {mu}m pitch) and works by counting all hits in a pixel above a certain energy threshold. The present work extends the detector characterization with {sup 18}F-FDG of a previous paper. We analysed the system's linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, background count rate, noise, and its imaging performance on biological samples. Tests have been performed in the laboratory with {sup 18}F-FDG drops (37-37 000 Bq initial activity) and ex vivo in a rat injected with 88.8 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG. Particles interacting in the detector volume produced a hit in a cluster of pixels whose mean size was 4.3 pixels/event at 11 keV threshold and 2.2 pixels/event at 37 keV threshold. Results show a sensitivity for {beta}{sup +} of 0.377 cps Bq{sup -1}, a dynamic range of at least five orders of magnitude and a lower detection limit of 0.0015 Bq mm{sup -2}. Real-time {sup 18}F-FDG positron AR images have been obtained in 500-1000 s exposure time of thin (10-20 {mu}m) slices of a rat brain and compared with 20 h film autoradiography of adjacent slices. The analysis of the image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in a rat brain slice indicated that Poisson noise-limited imaging can be approached in short (e.g. 100 s) exposures, with {approx}100 Bq slice activity, and that the silicon pixel detector produced a higher image quality than film-based AR.

  9. Energy calibration of the pixels of spectral X-ray detectors.

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Walsh, Michael F; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-03-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have developed a technique for calibrating the energy response of individual pixels using X-ray fluorescence generated by metallic targets directly irradiated with polychromatic X-rays, and additionally γ-rays from (241)Am. This technique was used to measure the energy response of individual pixels in CdTe-Medipix3RX by characterizing noise performance, threshold dispersion, gain variation and spectral resolution. The comparison of these two techniques shows the energy difference of 1 keV at 59.5 keV which is less than the spectral resolution of the detector (full-width at half-maximum of 8 keV at 59.5 keV). Both techniques can be used as quality control tools in a pre-clinical multi-energy CT scanner using spectral X-ray detectors. PMID:25051546

  10. Influence of electromagnetic interference on the analog part of hybrid Pixel detectors

    Holik, M.; Kraus, V.; Granja, C.; Jakubek, J.; Georgiev, V.; Hromadka, M.; Skala, J.; Kubik, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The analog signal from the sensor of hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors is prone to electro-magnetic interference. The study and diagnosis of induced and common electro-magnetic coupling between the analog part and digital part of these devices is required. The influence of electro-magnetic interference was tested on the setup with a pixel detector Timepix or Medipix and a FITPix read-out interface. Measurements were carried out of external as well as internal interference. We evaluated the influence of both sources of electro-magnetic interference to the noise recorded by pixels. We measured the local spatial intensity distribution and frequency spectrum of the electro-magnetic field originating inside the readout chip during its own operation. In context of this test we exposed the detector chip to a locally generated artificial electro-magnetic field evaluating its sensitivity to induced interference. Consequently, the whole setup of the detector and read-out interface was exposed to a distant source of electro-magnetic radiation, during which we tested efficiency of the electro-magnetic shielding of various arrangements. Further, tests measured the coupling over power supply lines. In particular, the noise generated by the operation of the detector itself was determined. In addition, the detector sensitivity to deliberately induced noise was evaluated. By means of these tests weak points of the setup sensitive to the intrusion of electro-magnetic interference are revealed. When locations of susceptible places are identified proper methods can be applied to increase immunity of the detector setup against the electro-magnetic interference. Experiences gained are planned to be used in development of the EMI shielded version of the FITPIX interface shielded to electro-magnetic interference.

  11. Comparison of CCD, CMOS and Hybrid Pixel x-ray detectors: detection principle and data quality

    Allé, P.; Wenger, E.; Dahaoui, S.; Schaniel, D.; Lecomte, C.

    2016-06-01

    We compare, from a crystallographic point of view, the data quality obtained using laboratory x-ray diffractometers equipped with a Molybdenum micro-source using different detector types: CCD, CMOS and XPAD hybrid pixel. First we give an overview of the working principle of these different detector types with a focus on their principal differences and their impact on the data quality. Then, using the example of an organic crystal, a comparison between the detector systems concerning the raw data statistics, the refinement agreement factors, the deformation electron density maps, and the residual density after multipolar refinement is presented. It is found that the data quality obtained with the XPAD detector is the best, even though the detection efficiency at the Mo energy (17.5 keV) is only 37% due to the Si-sensor layer thickness of 300 μm. Finally, we discuss the latest x-ray detector developments with an emphasis on the sensor material, where replacing Si by another material such as GaAs would yield detection efficiencies close to 100%, up to energies of 40 keV for hybrid pixel detectors.

  12. FPGA Based Data Read-Out System of the Belle 2 Pixel Detector

    Levit, Dmytro; Greenwald, Daniel; Paul, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The upgrades of the Belle experiment and the KEKB accelerator aim to increase the data set of the experiment by the factor 50. This will be achieved by increasing the luminosity of the accelerator which requires a significant upgrade of the detector. A new pixel detector based on DEPFET technology will be installed to handle the increased reaction rate and provide better vertex resolution. One of the features of the DEPFET detector is a long integration time of 20 {\\mu}s, which increases detector occupancy up to 3 %. The detector will generate about 2 GB/s of data. An FPGA-based two-level read-out system, the Data Handling Hybrid, was developed for the Belle 2 pixel detector. The system consists of 40 read-out and 8 controller modules. All modules are built in {\\mu}TCA form factor using Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA and can utilize up to 4 GB DDR3 RAM. The system was successfully tested in the beam test at DESY in January 2014. The functionality and the architecture of the Belle 2 Data Handling Hybrid system as well a...

  13. Qualification measurements of the voltage supply system as well as conceptionation of a state machine for the detector control of the ATLAS pixel detector

    The supply system and the control system of the ATLAS pixel detector represent important building blocks of the pixel detector. Corresponding studies of the supply system, which were performed within a comprehensive test system, the so-called system test, with nearly all final components and the effects on the pixel detector are object of this thesis. A further point of this thesis is the coordination and further development of the detector-control-system software under regardment of the different partial systems. A main topic represents thereby the conceptionation of the required state machine as interface for the users and the connection to the data acquisition system

  14. Study of the internal mechanisms of Pixelized Photon Detectors operated in Geiger-mode

    Otono, H; Yamashita, S; Yoshioka, T; Yamamoto, K; Yamamura, K; Sato, K

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, a novel semiconductor photon-sensor operated in Geiger-mode was invented in Russia (Silicon PhotoMultiplier), which consists of many tiny pixels and has a single photon level sensitivity. Since then, various types of the sensor with this scheme, Pixelized Photon Detectors (PPD), have been developed in many places in the world. For instance, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. in Japan produces the PPD as a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter. While the internal mechanisms of the PPD have been intensively studied in recent years, the existing models do not succeeded to fully reproduce the output characteristic, such as waveforms at low temperature. We have developed a new model with the transient multiplication and quenching of the realistic avalanche process and have succeeded in reproducing the output waveform of the PPD at various temperature. In this paper, we discuss our improved model.

  15. A CMOS analog front-end for silicon pixel detectors for γ imaging in medical application

    In recent works we presented the γ0, a chip expressely designed for γ imaging in medical application. The chip was designed to be the anode of an Integrated Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA) tube. This chip consists of a matrix of 1024 pixels each 135u by 135u, each pixel comprises a CSA, designed to handle signals of few thousand electrons, a shaper, a discriminator and a 10 bit event buffer. The chip addresses many issues that are essential for the realization of cheap and fast detectors. Particularly it integrates a DAC controlled biasing network and an energy discrimination system. In this work, we present the test system and the first test results for the γ0

  16. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector as well as for applications in the ATLAS Experiment at HL-LHC conditions. The sensors considered in this work include various designs based on silicon and diamond as sensor material. The investigated designs include a planar silicon pixel design currently used in the ATLAS Experiment as well as a 3D pixel design which uses electrodes penetrating the entire sensor material. The diamond designs implement electrodes similar to the design used by the planar technology with diamond sensors made out of single- and poly-crystalline material. To investigate the sensor properties characterization tests are performed before and after irradiation with protons or neutrons. The measurements are used to determine the interaction between the read-out electronics and the sensors to ensure the signal transfer after irradiation. Further tests focus on the sensor performance itself which includes the analysis of the leakage current behavior and the charge

  17. Gas filled prototype of a CdZnTe pixel detector

    CdZnTe pixel structures are currently the most promising detectors for the focal planes of hard X-ray telescopes, for astronomical observation in the range 5-100 keV. In Sharma et al. (Proc. SPIE 3765 (1999) 822) and Ramsey et al. (Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 458 (2001) 55) we presented preliminary results on the development of prototype 4x4 CdZnTe imaging detectors operated under vacuum. These pixel detectors were installed inside vacuum chambers on three-stage Peltier coolers providing detector temperatures down to -40 deg. C. A miniature sputter ion pump inside each chamber maintained the necessary vacuum of 10-5 Torr. At a temperature of -20 deg. C we achieved an FWHM energy resolution of between 2% and 3% at 60 keV and ∼15% at 5.9 keV; however, the dependency on temperature was weak and at +20 deg. C the respective resolutions were 3% and 20%. As the detectors could be operated at room temperature without loss of their good characteristics it was possible to exclude the sputter ion pump and fill the chamber with dry nitrogen instead. We have tested a nitrogen-filled CdZnTe (5x5x1 mm3) prototype having 0.65x0.65 mm2 readout pads on a 0.75 mm pitch. The interpixel resistance at an applied voltage of 10 V was higher than 50 GΩ and the pixel leakage currents at room temperature with a bias of 200 V between each pad and the common electrode did not exceed 0.8 nA. The pixel detector inside the microassembly, which also contained the input stages of the preamplifiers, was installed on a Peltier cooler to maintain the detector temperature at +20 deg. C. To define real leakage currents of the pixels in their switched-on state we have checked the voltage on the preamplifiers feedback resistors. The resulting currents were 10-50 pA at a detector bias of 500 V. Under test, the typical energy resolution per pixel at +20 deg. C was ∼3% at energy 59.6 keV and ∼20% at energy 5.9 keV, which are similar to the values obtained in the vacuum prototype at room temperature

  18. Gas filled prototype of a CdZnTe pixel detector

    Ramsey, B.; Sharma, D.; Sipila, H.; Gostilo, V. E-mail: bsi@bsi.lv; Loupilov, A

    2001-06-01

    CdZnTe pixel structures are currently the most promising detectors for the focal planes of hard X-ray telescopes, for astronomical observation in the range 5-100 keV. In Sharma et al. (Proc. SPIE 3765 (1999) 822) and Ramsey et al. (Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 458 (2001) 55) we presented preliminary results on the development of prototype 4x4 CdZnTe imaging detectors operated under vacuum. These pixel detectors were installed inside vacuum chambers on three-stage Peltier coolers providing detector temperatures down to -40 deg. C. A miniature sputter ion pump inside each chamber maintained the necessary vacuum of 10{sup -5} Torr. At a temperature of -20 deg. C we achieved an FWHM energy resolution of between 2% and 3% at 60 keV and {approx}15% at 5.9 keV; however, the dependency on temperature was weak and at +20 deg. C the respective resolutions were 3% and 20%. As the detectors could be operated at room temperature without loss of their good characteristics it was possible to exclude the sputter ion pump and fill the chamber with dry nitrogen instead. We have tested a nitrogen-filled CdZnTe (5x5x1 mm{sup 3}) prototype having 0.65x0.65 mm{sup 2} readout pads on a 0.75 mm pitch. The interpixel resistance at an applied voltage of 10 V was higher than 50 G{omega} and the pixel leakage currents at room temperature with a bias of 200 V between each pad and the common electrode did not exceed 0.8 nA. The pixel detector inside the microassembly, which also contained the input stages of the preamplifiers, was installed on a Peltier cooler to maintain the detector temperature at +20 deg. C. To define real leakage currents of the pixels in their switched-on state we have checked the voltage on the preamplifiers feedback resistors. The resulting currents were 10-50 pA at a detector bias of 500 V. Under test, the typical energy resolution per pixel at +20 deg. C was {approx}3% at energy 59.6 keV and {approx}20% at energy 5.9 keV, which are similar to the values obtained in the

  19. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Pixel Detector Deficiencies for Scientific Applications

    Fahim, Farah [Northwestern U. (main); Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermilab; Hoff, James R. [Fermilab; Mohseni, Hooman [Northwestern U. (main)

    2015-08-28

    Semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors often consist of a pixellated sensor layer bump bonded to a matching pixelated readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor can range from high resistivity Si to III-V materials, whereas a Si CMOS process is typically used to manufacture the ROIC. Independent, device physics and electronic design automation (EDA) tools are used to determine sensor characteristics and verify functional performance of ROICs respectively with significantly different solvers. Some physics solvers provide the capability of transferring data to the EDA tool. However, single pixel transient simulations are either not feasible due to convergence difficulties or are prohibitively long. A simplified sensor model, which includes a current pulse in parallel with detector equivalent capacitor, is often used; even then, spice type top-level (entire array) simulations range from days to weeks. In order to analyze detector deficiencies for a particular scientific application, accurately defined transient behavioral models of all the functional blocks are required. Furthermore, various simulations, such as transient, noise, Monte Carlo, inter-pixel effects, etc. of the entire array need to be performed within a reasonable time frame without trading off accuracy. The sensor and the analog front-end can be modeling using a real number modeling language, as complex mathematical functions or detailed data can be saved to text files, for further top-level digital simulations. Parasitically aware digital timing is extracted in a standard delay format (sdf) from the pixel digital back-end layout as well as the periphery of the ROIC. For any given input, detector level worst-case and best-case simulations are performed using a Verilog simulation environment to determine the output. Each top-level transient simulation takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The impact of changing key parameters such as sensor Poissonian shot noise, analog front-end bandwidth, jitter due to

  20. Towards hybrid pixel detectors for energy-dispersive or soft X-ray photon science.

    Jungmann-Smith, J H; Bergamaschi, A; Brückner, M; Cartier, S; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Huthwelker, T; Maliakal, D; Mayilyan, D; Medjoubi, K; Mezza, D; Mozzanica, A; Ramilli, M; Ruder, Ch; Schädler, L; Schmitt, B; Shi, X; Tinti, G

    2016-03-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications at free-electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. The JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype presented here is specifically geared towards low-noise performance and hence soft X-ray detection. The design, geometry and readout architecture of JUNGFRAU 0.4 correspond to those of other JUNGFRAU pixel detectors, which are charge-integrating detectors with 75 µm × 75 µm pixels. Main characteristics of JUNGFRAU 0.4 are its fixed gain and r.m.s. noise of as low as 27 e(-) electronic noise charge (eV) with no active cooling. The 48 × 48 pixels JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype can be combined with a charge-sharing suppression mask directly placed on the sensor, which keeps photons from hitting the charge-sharing regions of the pixels. The mask consists of a 150 µm tungsten sheet, in which 28 µm-diameter holes are laser-drilled. The mask is aligned with the pixels. The noise and gain characterization, and single-photon detection as low as 1.2 keV are shown. The performance of JUNGFRAU 0.4 without the mask and also in the charge-sharing suppression configuration (with the mask, with a `software mask' or a `cluster finding' algorithm) is tested, compared and evaluated, in particular with respect to the removal of the charge-sharing contribution in the spectra, the detection efficiency and the photon rate capability. Energy-dispersive and imaging experiments with fluorescence X-ray irradiation from an X-ray tube and a synchrotron light source are successfully demonstrated with an r.m.s. energy resolution of 20% (no mask) and 14% (with the mask) at 1.2 keV and of 5% at 13.3 keV. The performance evaluation of the JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype suggests that this detection system could be the starting point for a future detector development effort for either applications in the soft X-ray energy regime or for an energy-dispersive detection

  1. Modeling and analysis of hybrid pixel detector deficiencies for scientific applications

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-01

    Semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors often consist of a pixellated sensor layer bump bonded to a matching pixelated readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor can range from high resistivity Si to III-V materials, whereas a Si CMOS process is typically used to manufacture the ROIC. Independent, device physics and electronic design automation (EDA) tools are used to determine sensor characteristics and verify functional performance of ROICs respectively with significantly different solvers. Some physics solvers provide the capability of transferring data to the EDA tool. However, single pixel transient simulations are either not feasible due to convergence difficulties or are prohibitively long. A simplified sensor model, which includes a current pulse in parallel with detector equivalent capacitor, is often used; even then, spice type top-level (entire array) simulations range from days to weeks. In order to analyze detector deficiencies for a particular scientific application, accurately defined transient behavioral models of all the functional blocks are required. Furthermore, various simulations, such as transient, noise, Monte Carlo, inter-pixel effects, etc. of the entire array need to be performed within a reasonable time frame without trading off accuracy. The sensor and the analog front-end can be modeling using a real number modeling language, as complex mathematical functions or detailed data can be saved to text files, for further top-level digital simulations. Parasitically aware digital timing is extracted in a standard delay format (sdf) from the pixel digital back-end layout as well as the periphery of the ROIC. For any given input, detector level worst-case and best-case simulations are performed using a Verilog simulation environment to determine the output. Each top-level transient simulation takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The impact of changing key parameters such as sensor Poissonian shot noise, analog front-end bandwidth, jitter due to

  2. Calibration of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627; Arfaoui, Samir; Benoit, Mathieu; Celeste, Damiano; Dannheim, Dominik; Pfleger, Florentina; Redford, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of vertex detector R&D for a future Compact Linear Collider, the charac- terisation of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies comprising 50 − 300 μm thick silicon sensors and Timepix readout ASICs is underway through beam tests at DESY and CERN. The work presented here supports the beam test data analysis by providing an energy calibra- tion of certain assemblies, so giving access to energy measurements in addition to recorded Time Over Threshold counts. Photons from a variety of radioactive sources and X-ray fluorescence are used to measure the response of the assemblies in the region of 3 − 60 keV. Threshold measurements are also performed. Global and pixel-by-pixel calibrations of the assemblies are parametrised and the uniformity of the response of the pixel matrices are discussed. Data samples recorded in beam tests are calibrated and the resulting energy spectra presented. For the first time calibration parameters are estimated for two 50 μm thick sensors which are forese...

  3. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS Pixel Detector / IBL ROD card

    Gabrielli, A.; Backhaus, M.; Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Chen, S. P.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Hauck, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Kretz, M.; Kugel, A.; Lama, L.; Travaglini, R.; Wensing, M.

    2015-03-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector has inserted an additional inner layer called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL's off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBL ROD firmware development was three-fold: keeping as much of the Pixel ROD datapath firmware logic as possible, employing a complete new scheme of steering and calibration firmware, and designing the overall system to prepare for a future unified code version integrating IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBL DAQ test bench using a realistic front-end chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBL ROD data path implementation, test on the test bench and ROD prototypes, will be reported. Recent Pixel collaboration efforts focus on finalizing hardware and firmware tests for the IBL. The plan is to approach a complete IBL DAQ hardware-software installation by the end of 2014.

  4. Microelectronics Radiation Hardness: Test Set-up for the ALICE Pixel Detector

    Meddi, F; CERN. Geneva; Morando, M; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Vannucci, Luigi; Di Liberto, S

    2000-01-01

    Two different test apparatus were set up to check the radiation hardness of the pixel detector electronic components designed for the ALICE ITS. Motivations and the mainfeatures are described as well as results we reached. Preliminary results on the OMEGA3/LHC1 chip are also presented. List of figures: Figure 1 Expected irradiation dose in ten years for the first layer (r=3.9 cm) of the pixel detectors operating in ALICE Figure 2 a) Chip digital part current (at bias of +3.5V) and b) chip analogue part current (at bias of +1.5V) as function of the cumulated dose for gamma irradiation Figure 3 Pixel efficiency as a function of the strobe delay a) and the annealing elapsed time b) after gamma irradiation Figure 4 a) Chip digital part current (at bias of +3.5V) and b) chip analogue part current (at bias of +1.5V) as function of the cumulated dose for proton irradiation. Pixel efficiency, at different time intervals after proton irradiation, as a function of the strobe delay d) and the threshold scanning c)

  5. The LHC1 pixel detector studied in a 120 GeV/c pion test beam

    Hybrid assemblies of LHC1 read-out chips and 300 μm thick silicon pixel detectors have been tested with a 120 GeV/c pion beam at the CERN SPS. The equivalent noise charge at the input of the preamplifier is ∼200 e-. The particle detection efficiency is higher than 99.9%. A 30 ns wide efficiency plateau is reached for a 60 ns wide trigger pulse applied after a ∼2 μs delay. The 50 μmx50 μm pixels yield a spatial precision of σ=129.4±0.2 μm in the large pitch direction. In the other direction the precision is σ=12.2±0.2 μm for single-pixel clusters and σ=8.2±0.2 μm for double-pixel clusters, yielding an average of σ=11.4±0.2 μm. Three different detector layouts on the same pitch were characterized

  6. The LHC1 pixel detector studied in a 120 GeV/c pion test beam

    Ropotar, I. E-mail: iztok.ropotar@cern.ch; Buis, E.-J.; Antinori, F.; Barberis, D.; Becks, K.H.; Beker, H.; Burger, P.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Casagrande, L.; Catanesi, M.G.; Chesi, E.; Corsi, F.; D' Auria, S.; Da Via, C.; Danielyan, V.; Darbo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Eijk, B. van; Elberich, J.; Gagliardi, G.; Geppert, R.; Gowdy, S.; Goessling, C.; Grigoriev, E.; Gys, T.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Howard, A.S.; Humpston, G.; Jakubek, J.; Jarron, P.; Leitner, R.; Lenti, V.; Letheren, M.; Lisowski, B.; Loukas, D.; Ludwig, J.; Martinengo, P.; Mazzoni, A.; Meddi, F.; Middelkamp, P.; Mikulec, B.; Morando, M.; Morettini, P.; O' Shea, V.; Pernigotti, E.; Pospisil, S.; Quercigh, E.; Redaelli, N.; Ridky, J.; Rossi, L.; Saladino, S.; Santiard, J.C.; Scharfetter, L.; Segato, G.; Shahoian, R.; Simone, S.; Smith, K.M.; Snoeys, W.; Sonderegger, P.; Sopko, B.; Stekl, I.; Tomasek, L.; Vardanyan, H.; Vrba, V

    2000-01-11

    Hybrid assemblies of LHC1 read-out chips and 300 {mu}m thick silicon pixel detectors have been tested with a 120 GeV/c pion beam at the CERN SPS. The equivalent noise charge at the input of the preamplifier is {approx}200 e{sup -}. The particle detection efficiency is higher than 99.9%. A 30 ns wide efficiency plateau is reached for a 60 ns wide trigger pulse applied after a {approx}2 {mu}s delay. The 50 {mu}mx50 {mu}m pixels yield a spatial precision of {sigma}=129.4{+-}0.2 {mu}m in the large pitch direction. In the other direction the precision is {sigma}=12.2{+-}0.2 {mu}m for single-pixel clusters and {sigma}=8.2{+-}0.2 {mu}m for double-pixel clusters, yielding an average of {sigma}=11.4{+-}0.2 {mu}m. Three different detector layouts on the same pitch were characterized.

  7. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS Pixel Detector / IBL ROD card

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector has inserted an additional inner layer called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL's off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBL ROD firmware development was three-fold: keeping as much of the Pixel ROD datapath firmware logic as possible, employing a complete new scheme of steering and calibration firmware, and designing the overall system to prepare for a future unified code version integrating IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBL DAQ test bench using a realistic front-end chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBL ROD data path implementation, test on the test bench and ROD prototypes, will be reported. Recent Pixel collaboration efforts focus on finalizing hardware and firmware tests for the IBL. The plan is to approach a complete IBL DAQ hardware-software installation by the end of 2014

  8. Pixelized Gas Micro-well Detectors for Advanced Gamma-ray Telescopes

    Bloser, P F

    2004-01-01

    We describe possible applications of pixelized micro-well detectors (PMWDs) as three-dimensional charged particle trackers in advanced gamma-ray telescope concepts. A micro-well detector consists of an array of individual micro-patterned gas proportional counters opposite a planar drift electrode. When combined with pixelized thin film transistor (TFT) array readouts, large gas volumes may be imaged with very good spatial and energy resolution at reasonable cost. The third dimension is determined by timing the drift of the ionization electrons. The primary advantage of this technique is the very low scattering that the charged particles experience in a gas tracking volume, and the very accurate determination of the initial particle momenta that is thus achieved. We consider two applications of PMWDs to gamma-ray astronomy: 1) A tracker for an Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) in which the recoil electron from the initial Compton scatter may be accurately tracked, greatly reducing the telescope's point spread f...

  9. The HIP Algorithm for Track Based Alignment and its Application to the CMS Pixel Detector

    Karimäki, Veikko; Schilling, Frank-Peter

    2006-01-01

    Good geometrical alignment is essential to fully benefit from the excellent intrinsic resolution of the CMS silicon tracker. Since the tracker consists of about 20000 independent silicon sensors, of the order 100k parameters are needed for the alignment. The determination of these constants with the required precision of about 10 um is an extremely challenging task. In this paper an effective and computationally practical alignment algorithm is presented. it is suitable for performing fine-calibration of the position and orientation of detector structures consisting of a number of pixel or strip modules as well as the alignment of individual modules. The performance of the algorithm is studied by applying it to the alignment of the CMS Pixel detector.

  10. A front-end for silicon pixel detectors in ALICE and LHCb

    A new front-end for a pixel detector readout chip was designed. A non-standard topology was used to achieve low noise and fast return to zero of the preamplifier to be immune to pile-up of subsequent input signals. This front-end has been implemented on a pixel detector readout chip developed in a commercial 0.25 μm CMOS technology for the ALICE and LHCb experiments. This technology proved to be radiation tolerant when special layout techniques are used, and provides sufficient density for these applications. The chip is a matrix of 32 columns each containing 256 readout cells. Each readout cell comprises this front-end and digital readout circuitry, and has a static power consumption of about 60 μW

  11. Charge-sensitive poly-silicon TFT amplifiers for a-Si:H pixel particle detectors

    Prototype charge-sensitive poly-Si TFT amplifiers have been made for the amplification of signals (from an a-Si:H pixel diode used as an ionizing particle detector). They consist of a charge-sensitive gain stage, a voltage gain stage and a source follower output stage. The gain-bandwidth product of the amplifier is ∼ 300 MHz. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of 0.2 pF, it gives a charge-to-voltage gain of ∼ 0.02 mV/electrons with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec. An equivalent noise charge of the front-end TFT is ∼ 1000 electrons for a shaping time of 1 μsec

  12. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy using a fast pixel array detector with a grid mask resolution enhancer

    The performance of a fast pixel array detector with a grid mask resolution enhancer has been demonstrated for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiments. The performance of a fast pixel array detector with a grid mask resolution enhancer has been demonstrated for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measurements to investigate fast dynamics on a microscopic scale. A detecting system, in which each pixel of a single-photon-counting pixel array detector, PILATUS, is covered by grid mask apertures, was constructed for XPCS measurements of silica nanoparticles in polymer melts. The experimental results are confirmed to be consistent by comparison with other independent experiments. By applying this method, XPCS measurements can be carried out by customizing the hole size of the grid mask to suit the experimental conditions, such as beam size, detector size and sample-to-detector distance

  13. Analysis of painted arts by energy sensitive radiographic techniques with the Pixel Detector Timepix

    Žemlička, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Kroupa, M.; Hradil, David; Hradilová, J.; Mislerová, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2011), C01066/1-C01066/7. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : inspection with x-rays * pixelated detector s and associated VLSI electronics * X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems * X-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  14. TSV last for hybrid pixel detectors: Application to particle physics and imaging experiments

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the advantages of 3D Integration come from reduced inter chip dead area even on large surfaces and from improved detector construction yield resulting from the use of single chip 4-side buttable tiles. For many years, numerous R and D centres and companies have put a lot of effort into developing 3D integration technologies and today, some mature technologies are ready for prototyping and production. The core technology of 3D integration is the TSV (Through Silicon Via) and for many years LETI has developed those technologies for various types of applications. In this paper we will present how one of the TSV approaches developed by LETI, called TSV last, has been applied to a readout wafer containing readout chips intended for a hybrid pixel detector assembly. (authors)

  15. Review of hybrid pixel detector readout ASICs for spectroscopic X-ray imaging

    Semiconductor detector readout chips with pulse processing electronics have made possible spectroscopic X-ray imaging, bringing an improvement in the overall image quality and, in the case of medical imaging, a reduction in the X-ray dose delivered to the patient. In this contribution we review the state of the art in semiconductor-detector readout ASICs for spectroscopic X-ray imaging with emphasis on hybrid pixel detector technology. We discuss how some of the key challenges of the technology (such as dealing with high fluxes, maintaining spectral fidelity, power consumption density) are addressed by the various ASICs. In order to understand the fundamental limits of the technology, the physics of the interaction of radiation with the semiconductor detector and the process of signal induction in the input electrodes of the readout circuit are described. Simulations of the process of signal induction are presented that reveal the importance of making use of the small pixel effect to minimize the impact of the slow motion of holes and hole trapping in the induced signal in high-Z sensor materials. This can contribute to preserve fidelity in the measured spectrum with relatively short values of the shaper peaking time. Simulations also show, on the other hand, the distortion in the energy spectrum due to charge sharing and fluorescence photons when the pixel pitch is decreased. However, using recent measurements from the Medipix3 ASIC, we demonstrate that the spectroscopic information contained in the incoming photon beam can be recovered by the implementation in hardware of an algorithm whereby the signal from a single photon is reconstructed and allocated to the pixel with the largest deposition

  16. Development of Fast and High Precision CMOS Pixel Sensors for an ILC Vertex Detector

    Hu-Guo, Christine; Collaboration, IPHC; Collaboration, IRFU

    2010-01-01

    The development of CMOS pixel sensors with column parallel read-out and integrated zero-suppression has resulted in a full size, nearly 1 Megapixel, prototype with ~100 \\mu s read-out time. Its performances are quite close to the ILD vertex detector specifications, showing that the sensor architecture can presumably be evolved to meet these specifications exactly. Starting from the existing architecture and achieved performances, the paper will expose the details of how the sensor will be evo...

  17. FITPix data preprocessing pipeline for the Timepix single particle pixel detector

    The semiconductor pixel detector Timepix contains an array of 256 × 256 square pixels with a pitch of 55 μm. The single quantum counting detector Timepix can also provide information about the energy or arrival time of a particle from every single pixel. This device is a powerful tool for radiation imaging and ionizing particle tracking. The Timepix device can be read-out via a serial or parallel interface enabling speeds of 100 fps or 3200 fps, respectively. The device can be connected to a PC via the USB 2.0 based interface FITPix, which currently supports the serial output of Timepix reaching a speed of 90 fps. FITPix supports adjustable clock frequency and hardware triggering which is a useful tool for the synchronized operation of multiple devices. The FITPix interface can handle up to 16 detectors in daisy chain. The complete system including the FITPix interface and Timepix detector is controlled from the PC by the Pixelman software package. A pipeline structure is now implemented in the new version of the readout interface of FITPix. This version also supports parallel Timepix readout. The pipeline architecture brings the possibility of data preprocessing directly in the hardware. The first pipeline stage converts the raw Timepix data into the form of a matrix or stream of pixel values. Another stage performs further data processing such as event thresholding and data compression. Complex data processing currently performed by Pixelman in the PC is significantly reduced in this way. The described architecture together with the parallel readout increases data throughput reaching a higher frame-rate and reducing the dead time. Significant data compression is performed directly in the hardware especially for sparse data sets from particle tracking applications. The data frame size is typically compressed by factor of 10-100.

  18. Review of hybrid pixel detector readout ASICs for spectroscopic X-ray imaging

    Ballabriga, R.; Alozy, J.; Campbell, M.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E. H. M.; Koenig, T.; Llopart, X.; Marchal, J.; Pennicard, D.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.; Zuber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor detector readout chips with pulse processing electronics have made possible spectroscopic X-ray imaging, bringing an improvement in the overall image quality and, in the case of medical imaging, a reduction in the X-ray dose delivered to the patient. In this contribution we review the state of the art in semiconductor-detector readout ASICs for spectroscopic X-ray imaging with emphasis on hybrid pixel detector technology. We discuss how some of the key challenges of the technology (such as dealing with high fluxes, maintaining spectral fidelity, power consumption density) are addressed by the various ASICs. In order to understand the fundamental limits of the technology, the physics of the interaction of radiation with the semiconductor detector and the process of signal induction in the input electrodes of the readout circuit are described. Simulations of the process of signal induction are presented that reveal the importance of making use of the small pixel effect to minimize the impact of the slow motion of holes and hole trapping in the induced signal in high-Z sensor materials. This can contribute to preserve fidelity in the measured spectrum with relatively short values of the shaper peaking time. Simulations also show, on the other hand, the distortion in the energy spectrum due to charge sharing and fluorescence photons when the pixel pitch is decreased. However, using recent measurements from the Medipix3 ASIC, we demonstrate that the spectroscopic information contained in the incoming photon beam can be recovered by the implementation in hardware of an algorithm whereby the signal from a single photon is reconstructed and allocated to the pixel with the largest deposition.

  19. Active pixels of transverse field detector based on a charge preamplifier

    Langfelder, G.; Buffa, C.; Longoni, A. F.; Pelamatti, A.; Zaraga, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Transverse Field Detector (TFD), a filter-less and tunable color sensitive pixel, is based on the generation of specific electric field configurations within a depleted Silicon volume. Each field configuration determines a set of three or more spectral responses that can be used for direct color acquisition at each pixel position. In order to avoid unpredictable changes of the electric field configuration during the single image capture, a specific active pixel (AP) has been designed. In this AP the dark- and photo-generated charge is not integrated directly on the junction capacitance, but, for each color, it is integrated on the feedback capacitance of a single-transistor charge pre-amplifier. The AP further includes a bias transistor, a reset transistor and a follower. In this work the design of such a pixel is discussed and the experimental results obtained on a 2x2 matrix of these active pixels are analyzed in terms of spectral response, linearity, noise, dynamic range and repeatability.

  20. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gabriella, Carini [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Enquist, Paul [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grybos, Pawel [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Holm, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lipton, Ronald [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maj, Piotr [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Patti, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Siddons, David Peter [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Szczygiel, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yarema, Raymond [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch, yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 μV/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.

  1. Development of high data readout rate pixel module and detector hybridization at Fermilab

    Sergio Zimmermann et al.

    2001-03-20

    This paper describes the baseline design and a variation of the pixel module to handle the data rate required for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. The present prototype has shown good electrical performance characteristics. Indium bump bonding is proven to be capable of successful fabrication at 50 micron pitch on real detectors. For solder bumps at 50 micron pitch, much better results have been obtained with the fluxless PADS processed detectors. The results are adequate for our needs and our tests have validated it as a viable technology.

  2. A sub-millimeter resolution PET detector module using a multi-pixel photon counter array

    Song, Tae Yong; Wu, Heyu; Komarov, Sergey; Siegel, Stefan B; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    A PET block detector module using an array of sub-millimeter lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) crystals read out by an array of surface-mount, semiconductor photosensors has been developed. The detector consists of a LSO array, a custom acrylic light guide, a 3 × 3 multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) array (S10362-11-050P, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) and a readout board with a charge division resistor network. The LSO array consists of 100 crystals, each measuring 0.8 × 0.8 × 3 mm3 and arranged i...

  3. Development of high data readout rate pixel module and detector hybridization at Fermilab

    This paper describes the baseline design and a variation of the pixel module to handle the data rate required for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. The present prototype has shown good electrical performance characteristics. Indium bump bonding is proven to be capable of successful fabrication at 50 micron pitch on real detectors. For solder bumps at 50 micron pitch, much better results have been obtained with the fluxless PADS processed detectors. The results are adequate for our needs and our tests have validated it as a viable technology

  4. Neutron imaging detector based on the muPIC micro-pixel chamber

    Parker, J. D.; Hattori, K.; Fujioka, H.; Harada, M; Iwaki, S.; Kabuki, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kurosawa, S.; Miuchi, K; Nagae, T.; Nishimura, H; Oku, T; SAWANO, T.; Shinohara, T

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a prototype time-resolved neutron imaging detector employing the micro-pixel chamber (muPIC), a micro-pattern gaseous detector, coupled with a field programmable gate array-based data acquisition system for applications in neutron radiography at high-intensity neutron sources. The prototype system, with an active area of 10cm x 10cm and operated at a gas pressure of 2 atm, measures both the energy deposition (via time-over-threshold) and 3-dimensional track of each neutron-i...

  5. Towards Implementing Multi-Pixel Photon Counters as Light Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    Vasquez, Jaime; Saavedra, Arthur; Ramos, Roxana; Tavares, Pablo; Wade, Marcus; Fan, Sewan; Haag, Brooke

    2013-04-01

    There has been tremendous effort in recent years to implement multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) in diverse areas of particle physics and positron emission tomography. The MPPC detectors possess certain favorable properties such as fast response time, high sensitivity to weak light signals, compact size, low operating voltage, and lower cost compared to photomultiplier tubes. However, constructing a working MPPC detector assembly is not a unique process; there are various working setups. In this poster, we present our particular experimental setup for a working MPPC detector assembly. In particular, we describe our efforts to implement the MPPC as a readout detector to be coupled to wavelength shifting fibers that are implanted within plastic scintillators for the measurement of cosmic rays.

  6. XNAP: a hybrid pixel detector with nanosecond resolution for time resolved synchrotron radiation studies

    Fajardo, P.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Dautet, H.; Davies, M.; Fischer, P.; Göttlicher, P.; Graafsma, H.; Hervé, C.; Rüffer, R.; Thil, C.

    2013-03-01

    The XNAP collaboration is constructing a hybrid pixel X-ray detector based on a monolithic silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) sensor array aiming at applications in synchrotron radiation facilities. The 2D detector is capable of identifying which individual electron bunch produces each detected X-ray photon, even when the storage ring operates in multibunch filling modes. This instrument is intended to be used in X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Nuclear Resonance experiments and serve as a demonstrator for various kind of time resolved diffraction and scattering applications as well as a very high count rate device. The detector is a 1 kilopixel device with 280 μm pitch that implements both counting mode up to MHz frame rates and event-by-event readout with sub-nanosecond time resolution. The paper describes the detector design and some results obtained with small 4×4 pixel prototypes that have been built and measured to make and validate the most critical choices for the final detector.

  7. Tracking and b-tagging with pixel vertex detector in ATLAS experiment at LHC

    The capability of the ATLAS detector to tag b-jets is studied, using the impact parameter of charged tracks. High b-tagging performance is needed at LHC, especially during the first years of running, in order to see evidence of the Higgs boson if its mass lies between 80 and 120 GeV/c2. A pattern-recognition algorithm has been developed for this purpose, using a detailed simulation of the ATLAS inner detector. Track-finding starts from the pixel detector layers. A 'hyper-plane' concept allows the use of a simple tracking algorithm though the complex geometry. High track-finding efficiency and reconstruction quality ensure the discrimination of b-jets from other kinds of jets. After full simulation and reconstruction of H → bb-bar, H → gg, H → uu-bar, H → ss-bar and H → cc-bar events (mH = 100 GeV/c2), the mean rejections achieved against non-b-jets for a 50% b-jet tagging efficiency are as follows: Rg=39±5 Ru = 60 ± 9 Rs = 38 ± 5 Rc = 9 ± 1 The analysis of data from the first radiation-hard pixel detector prototypes justifies the potential of these detectors for track-finding and high-precision impact parameter measurement at LHC. (author)

  8. Fast spectroscopic imaging with pixel semiconductor detector Timepix and parallel data reading

    Non-invasive techniques utilizing X-ray radiation offer a powerful tool for the inspection of the inner composition of a wide variety of objects. The highly sensitive hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix is capable of detecting and resolving subtle and low-contrast differences in radiography measurements. Moreover the Timepix detector offers 65536 individual pixels with spectrometric capabilities. With proper per-pixel energy calibration this feature enables the application of various energy based imaging techniques - from basic energy windowing to fully spectroscopic imaging. The main limitations of these methods are the detector energy resolution and data acquisition speed of 100 frames per second - the necessity of taking frames with low occupancy for event by event cluster analysis leads to several hours long measurements. The latter nuisance can be overcome by the utilization of the newly developed modular read-out FITPix3 with the adapter chipboard designed for parallel data reading. This read-out version can acquire over 850 compressed frames per second which reduces the measurement time of many spectroscopic measurements by factor of ten (spectra with high enough statistics are taken in tens of minutes). The short description of the new FITPix3 parallel read-out together with the progression in spectroscopic multi-channel energy imaging demonstrated on model samples are presented in this contribution

  9. High bandwidth pixel detector modules for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    The investigation of the nature of the recently discovered electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism of the standard model of particle physics as well as the search for physics beyond the standard model with the LHC require to collect even more data. To achieve this goal, the luminosity of the LHC will be increased in two steps. The increased luminosity results in serious challenges for the inner tracking systems of the experiments at the LHC. The ATLAS pixel detector will also be upgraded in a two stage program. During the shutdown in 2013 and 2014 a fourth hybrid pixel detector layer, the socalled Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is inserted inside the existing pixel detector. This thesis focuses on the characterization, performance measurement, and production quality assurance of the central sensitive elements of the IBL, the modules. This includes a full characterization of the readout chip (FE-I4) and of the assembled modules. A completely new inner tracking system is mandatory in ATLAS after the second luminosity increase in the shutdown of 2022 and 2023. The final chapter of this thesis introduces a new module concept that uses an industrial high voltage CMOS technology as sensor layer, which is capacitively coupled to the FE-I4 readout chip.

  10. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    Watt, J; Campbell, M; Mathieson, K; Mikulec, B; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Schwarz, C; Smith, K M; Whitehill, C

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 mu m thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64*64 array of 170 mu m pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO/sub 3/ have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the Omega 3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the Omega 3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and...

  11. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs

  12. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P. M.; Green, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.; Parker, D. J.; Poludniowski, G.; Price, T.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  13. High bandwidth pixel detector modules for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    Backhaus, Malte

    2014-01-15

    The investigation of the nature of the recently discovered electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism of the standard model of particle physics as well as the search for physics beyond the standard model with the LHC require to collect even more data. To achieve this goal, the luminosity of the LHC will be increased in two steps. The increased luminosity results in serious challenges for the inner tracking systems of the experiments at the LHC. The ATLAS pixel detector will also be upgraded in a two stage program. During the shutdown in 2013 and 2014 a fourth hybrid pixel detector layer, the socalled Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is inserted inside the existing pixel detector. This thesis focuses on the characterization, performance measurement, and production quality assurance of the central sensitive elements of the IBL, the modules. This includes a full characterization of the readout chip (FE-I4) and of the assembled modules. A completely new inner tracking system is mandatory in ATLAS after the second luminosity increase in the shutdown of 2022 and 2023. The final chapter of this thesis introduces a new module concept that uses an industrial high voltage CMOS technology as sensor layer, which is capacitively coupled to the FE-I4 readout chip.

  14. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    Watt, J.; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Mathieson, K.; Mikulec, B.; O'Shea, V.; Passmore, M.-S.; Schwarz, C.; Smith, K. M.; Whitehill, C.; XIMAGE Project

    2001-03-01

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 μm thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64×64 array of 170 μm pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO 3 have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the Ω3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the Ω3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and image processing are given, showing a marked reduction in patient dose and dead time compared with film.

  15. High bandwidth pixel detector modules for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    Backhaus, Malte

    2014-02-19

    The investigation of the nature of the recently discovered electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism of the standard model of particle physics as well as the search for physics beyond the standard model with the LHC require to collect even more data. To achieve this goal, the luminosity of the LHC will be increased in two steps. The increased luminosity results in serious challenges for the inner tracking systems of the experiments at the LHC. The ATLAS pixel detector will also be upgraded in a two stage program. During the shutdown in 2013 and 2014 a fourth hybrid pixel detector layer, the so-called Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is inserted inside the existing pixel detector. This thesis focuses on the characterization, performance measurement, and production quality assurance of the central sensitive elements of the IBL, the modules. This includes a full characterization of the readout chip (FE-I4) and of the assembled modules. A completely new inner tracking system is mandatory in ATLAS after the second luminosi...

  16. System test and noise performance studies at the ATLAS pixel detector

    The central component of the ATLAS Inner Tracker is the pixel detector. It consists of three barrel layers and three disk-layers in the end-caps in both forward directions. The innermost barrel layer is mounted at a distance of about 5 cm from the interaction region. With its very high granularity, truly two-dimensional hit information, and fast readout it is well suited to cope with the high densities of charged tracks, expected this close to the interaction region. The huge number of readout channels necessitates a very complex services infrastructure for powering, readout and safety. After a description of the pixel detector and its services infrastructure, key results from the system test at CERN are presented. Furthermore the noise performance of the pixel detector, crucial for high tracking and vertexing efficiencies, is studied. Measurements of the single-channel random noise are presented together with studies of common mode noise and measurements of the noise occupancy using a random trigger generator. (orig.)

  17. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    Watt, J. E-mail: j.watt@physics.gla.ac.uk; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Mathieson, K.; Mikulec, B.; O' Shea, V.; Passmore, M-S.; Schwarz, C.; Smith, K.M.; Whitehill, C

    2001-03-11

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 {mu}m thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64x64 array of 170 {mu}m pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO{sub 3} have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the {omega}3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the {omega}3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and image processing are given, showing a marked reduction in patient dose and dead time compared with film.

  18. System test and noise performance studies at the ATLAS pixel detector

    Weingarten, J.

    2007-09-15

    The central component of the ATLAS Inner Tracker is the pixel detector. It consists of three barrel layers and three disk-layers in the end-caps in both forward directions. The innermost barrel layer is mounted at a distance of about 5 cm from the interaction region. With its very high granularity, truly two-dimensional hit information, and fast readout it is well suited to cope with the high densities of charged tracks, expected this close to the interaction region. The huge number of readout channels necessitates a very complex services infrastructure for powering, readout and safety. After a description of the pixel detector and its services infrastructure, key results from the system test at CERN are presented. Furthermore the noise performance of the pixel detector, crucial for high tracking and vertexing efficiencies, is studied. Measurements of the single-channel random noise are presented together with studies of common mode noise and measurements of the noise occupancy using a random trigger generator. (orig.)

  19. Modelling and simulation of pixelated photon counting X-ray detectors for imaging

    First of all the physics processes generating the energy deposition in the sensor volume are investigated. The spatial resolution limits of photon interactions and the range of secondary electrons are discussed. The signatures in the energy deposition spectrum in pixelated detectors with direct conversion layers are described. The energy deposition for single events can be generated by the Monte-Carlo-Simulation package ROSI. The basic interactions of photons with matter are evaluated, resulting in the ability to use ROSI as a basis for the simulation of photon counting pixel detectors with direct conversion. In the context of this thesis a detector class is developed to simulate the response of hybrid photon counting pixel detectors using high-Z sensor materials like Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) in addition to silicon. To enable the realisation of such a simulation, the relevant physics processes and properties have to be implemented: processes in the sensor layer (provided by EGS4/LSCAT in ROSI), generation of charge carriers as electron hole pairs, diffusion and repulsion of charge carriers during drift and lifetime. Furthermore, several noise contributions of the electronics can be taken into account. The result is a detector class which allows the simulation of photon counting detectors. In this thesis the multiplicity framework is developed, including a formula to calculate or measure the zero frequency detective quantum efficiency (DQE). To enable the measurement of the multiplicity of detected events a cluster analysis program was developed. Random and systematic errors introduced by the cluster analysis are discussed. It is also shown that the cluster analysis method can be used to determine the averaged multiplicity with high accuracy. The method is applied to experimental data. As an example using the implemented detector class, the discriminator threshold dependency of the DQE and modulation transfer function is investigated in

  20. Development of pixel detectors for the IBL and HL-LHC ATLAS experiment upgrade

    Baselga Bacardit, Marta

    2016-03-18

    This thesis presents the development of advanced silicon technology detectors fabricated at CNM-Barcelona for High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. The pixel size of the tracking silicon detectors for the upgrade of the HL-LHC will have to decrease in size in order to enhance the resolution in position for the measurements and they need to have lower occupancy for the electronics. The future experiments at CERN will cope with fuences up to 2 x 10^^16 neq/cm2, and the smaller 3D silicon detectors will have less trapping of the electron-holes generated in the bulk leading to a better performance under high radiation environment. This thesis studies silicon detectors fabricated at CNM-Barcelona applied to HEP experiments with two different kinds of novel technologies: 3D and Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD). The 3D detectors make it possible to reduce the size of the depleted region inside the detector and to work at lower voltages, whereas the LGAD detectors have an intrinsic gain which increases the collec...

  1. The color of X-rays: Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    E.J. Schioppa

    2014-01-01

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray flu

  2. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  3. Development of a detector control system for the serially powered ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    Puellen, Lukas

    2015-02-10

    In the years around 2020 the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. In terms of this upgrade, the ATLAS detector will also be upgraded. This also includes the pixel detector, the innermost of the sub-detectors in ATLAS. Thereby the powering concept of the pixel detector will be changed to reduce the material budget of the detector. From individual powering of each detector module, the concept changes to serial powering, where all modules of a powering group are connected in series. This change makes the development of a new detector control system (DCS) mandatory. Therefore, a new concept for the ATLAS pixel DCS is being developed at the University of Wuppertal. This concept is split into three paths: a safety path, a control path, and a diagnostics path. The safety path is a hard wired interlock system. The concept of this system will not differ significantly, compared to the interlock system of the current detector. The diagnostics path is embedded into the optical data read-out of the detector and will be used for detector tuning with high precision and granularity. The control path supervises the detector and provides a user interface to the hardware components. A concept for this path, including a prototype and proof-of-principle studies, has been developed in terms of this thesis. The control path consists of the DCS network, a read-out and controlling topology created by two types of ASICs: the DCS controller and the DCS chip. These ASICs measure and control all values, necessary for a safe detector operation in situ. This reduces the number of required cables and hence the material budget of the system. For the communication between these ASICs, two very fault tolerant bus protocols have been chosen: CAN bus carries data from the DCS computers, outside of the detector, to the DCS controllers at the edge of the pixel detector. For the communication between the DCS controller and the DCS chip, which is located close to each detector module, an enhanced I2C

  4. Development of a detector control system for the serially powered ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    In the years around 2020 the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. In terms of this upgrade, the ATLAS detector will also be upgraded. This also includes the pixel detector, the innermost of the sub-detectors in ATLAS. Thereby the powering concept of the pixel detector will be changed to reduce the material budget of the detector. From individual powering of each detector module, the concept changes to serial powering, where all modules of a powering group are connected in series. This change makes the development of a new detector control system (DCS) mandatory. Therefore, a new concept for the ATLAS pixel DCS is being developed at the University of Wuppertal. This concept is split into three paths: a safety path, a control path, and a diagnostics path. The safety path is a hard wired interlock system. The concept of this system will not differ significantly, compared to the interlock system of the current detector. The diagnostics path is embedded into the optical data read-out of the detector and will be used for detector tuning with high precision and granularity. The control path supervises the detector and provides a user interface to the hardware components. A concept for this path, including a prototype and proof-of-principle studies, has been developed in terms of this thesis. The control path consists of the DCS network, a read-out and controlling topology created by two types of ASICs: the DCS controller and the DCS chip. These ASICs measure and control all values, necessary for a safe detector operation in situ. This reduces the number of required cables and hence the material budget of the system. For the communication between these ASICs, two very fault tolerant bus protocols have been chosen: CAN bus carries data from the DCS computers, outside of the detector, to the DCS controllers at the edge of the pixel detector. For the communication between the DCS controller and the DCS chip, which is located close to each detector module, an enhanced I2C

  5. An investigation of performance characteristics of a pixellated room-temperature semiconductor detector for medical imaging

    Guerra, P; Santos, A [Centro de Investigacion Biomedica de Bioningenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CEEI-Modulo 3, C/ Maria de Luna, 11, 50018 Zaragoza (United States); Darambara, D G, E-mail: pguerra@ciber-bbn.e [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-07

    The operation of any semiconductor detector depends on the movement of the charge carriers, which are created within the material when radiation passes through, as a result of energy deposition. The carrier movement in the bulk semiconductor induces charges on the metal electrodes, and therefore a current on the electrodes and the external circuit. The induced charge strongly depends on the material transport parameters as well as the geometrical dimensions of a pixellated semiconductor detector. This work focuses on the performance optimization in terms of energy resolution, detection efficiency and intrinsic spatial resolution of a room-temperature semiconductor pixellated detector based on CdTe/CdZnTe. It analyses and inter-relates these performance figures for various dimensions of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors and for an energy range spanning from x-ray (25 keV) to PET (511 keV) imaging. Monte Carlo simulations, which integrate a detailed and accurate noise model, are carried out to investigate several CdTe/CdZnTe configurations and to determine possible design specifications. Under the considered conditions, the simulations demonstrate the superiority of the CdZnTe over the CdTe in terms of energy resolution and sensitivity in the photopeak. Further, according to the results, the spatial resolution is maximized at high energies and the energy resolution at low energies, while a reasonable detection efficiency is achieved at high energies, with a 1 x 1 x 6 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe pixellated detector.

  6. Electrical-modelling, design and simulation of cumulative radiation effects in semiconductor pixels detectors: prospects and limits

    Fourches, Nicolas T; Chipaux, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    Silicon detectors have gained in popularity since silicon became a widely used micro/nanoelectronic semiconductor material. Silicon detectors are used in particle physics as well as imaging for pixel based detecting systems. Over the past twenty years a lot of experimental efforts have been focused on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on silicon pixels. Some of this research was done in the framework of high luminosity particle physics experiments, along with radiation hardness studies of basic semiconductors devices. In its simplest form the semiconductor pixel detectors reduce to a PIN or PN structure partially or totally depleted, or in some MOS and APD (Avalanche PhotoDiode) structures. Bulk or surface defects affect considerably transport of free carriers. We propose guidelines for pixel design, which will be tested through a few pixel structures. This design method includes into the design the properties of defects. The electrical properties reduce to parameters, which can be introduced...

  7. Detection of secondary electrons with pixelated hybrid semiconductor detectors; Sekundaerelektronennachweis mit pixelierten hybriden Halbleiterdetektoren

    Gebert, Ulrike Sonja

    2011-09-14

    Within the scope of this thesis, secondary electrons were detected with a pixelated semiconductor detector named Timepix. The Timepix detector consists of electronics and a sensor made from a semiconductor material. The connection of sensor and electronics is done for each pixel individually using bump bonds. Electrons with energies above 3 keV can be detected with the sensor. One electron produces a certain amount of electron-hole pairs according to its energy. The charge then drifts along an electric field to the pixel electronics, where it induces an electric signal. Even without a sensor it is possible to detect an electric signal from approximately 1000 electrons directly in the pixel electronics. Two different detector systems to detect secondary electrons using the Timepix detector were investigated during this thesis. First of all, a hybrid photon detector (HPD) was used to detect single photoelectrons. The HPD consists of a vacuum vessel with an entrance window and a cesium iodine photocathode at the inner surface of the window. Photoelectrons are released from the photocathode by incident light and are accelerated in an electric field towards the Timepix detector, where the point of interaction and the arrival time of the electron is determined. With a proximity focusing setup, a time resolution of 12 ns (with an acceleration voltage of 20 kV between photocathode and Timepix detector) was obtained. The HPD examined in this thesis showed a strong dependence of the dark rate form the acceleration voltage and the pressure in the vacuum vessel. At a pressure of few 10{sup -5} mbar and an acceleration voltage of 20 kV, the dark rate was about 800 Hz per mm{sup 2} area of the read out photocathode. One possibility to reduce the dark rate is to identify ion feedback events. With a slightly modified setup it was possible to reduce the dark rate to 0.5 Hz/mm{sup 2}. To achieve this, a new photocathode was mounted in a shorter distance to the detector. The

  8. ATLAS Pixel Detector ROD card from IBL towards Layers 2 and 1

    Balbi, G.; Falchieri, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Lama, L.; Giangiacomi, N.; Travaglini, R.

    2016-01-01

    The incoming and future upgrades of LHC will require better performance by the data acquisition system, especially in terms of throughput due to the higher luminosity that is expected. For this reason, during the first shutdown of the LHC collider in 2013/14, the ATLAS Pixel Detector has been equipped with a fourth layer— the Insertable B-Layer or IBL—located at a radius smaller than the present three layers. To read out the new layer of pixels, with a smaller pixel size with respect to the other outer layers, a front end ASIC (FE-I4) was designed as well as a new off-detector read-out chain. The latter, accordingly to the structure of the other layers of pixels, is composed mainly of two 9U-VME read-out off-detector cards called the Back-Of-Crate (BOC) and Read-Out Driver (ROD). The ROD is used for data and event formatting and for configuration and control of the overall read-out electronics. After some prototyping samples were completed, a pre-production batch of 5 ROD cards was delivered with the final layout. Another production of 15 ROD cards was done in Fall 2013, and commissioning was completed in 2014. Altogether 14 cards are necessary for the 14 staves of the IBL detector, one additional card is required by the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), and additional spare ROD cards were produced for a total initial batch of 20 boards. This paper describes some integration tests that were performed and our plan to install the new DAQ chain for the layer 2, which is the outermost, and layer 1, which is external to the B-layer. This latter is the only layer that will not be upgraded to a higher readout speed. Rather, it will be switched off in the near future as it has too many damaged sensors that were not possible to rework. To do that, slices of the IBL read-out chain have been instrumented, and ROD performance is verified on a test bench mimicking a small-sized final setup. Thus, this contribution reports also how the adoption of the IBL ROD for ATLAS Pixel

  9. Advanced numerical modeling and hybridization techniques for third-generation infrared detector pixel arrays

    Schuster, Jonathan

    Infrared (IR) detectors are well established as a vital sensor technology for military, defense and commercial applications. Due to the expense and effort required to fabricate pixel arrays, it is imperative to develop numerical simulation models to perform predictive device simulations which assess device characteristics and design considerations. Towards this end, we have developed a robust three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation model for IR detector pixel arrays. We used the finite-difference time-domain technique to compute the optical characteristics including the reflectance and the carrier generation rate in the device. Subsequently, we employ the finite element method to solve the drift-diffusion equations to compute the electrical characteristics including the I(V) characteristics, quantum efficiency, crosstalk and modulation transfer function. We use our 3D numerical model to study a new class of detector based on the nBn-architecture. This detector is a unipolar unity-gain barrier device consisting of a narrow-gap absorber layer, a wide-gap barrier layer, and a narrow-gap collector layer. We use our model to study the underlying physics of these devices and to explain the anomalously long lateral collection lengths for photocarriers measured experimentally. Next, we investigate the crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon-trapping (PT) structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. The PT region drastically reduces the crosstalk; making the use of the PT structures not only useful to obtain broadband operation, but also desirable for reducing crosstalk, especially in small pitch detector arrays. Then, the power and flexibility of the nBn architecture is coupled with a PT structure to engineer spectrally filtering detectors. Last, we developed a technique to reduce the cost of large-format, high performance HgCdTe detectors by nondestructively screen-testing detector arrays prior

  10. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems

  11. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    Visvikis, D.; Lefevre, T.; Lamare, F.; Kontaxakis, G.; Santos, A.; Darambara, D.

    2006-12-01

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems.

  12. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    Visvikis, D. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France)]. E-mail: Visvikis.Dimitris@univ-brest.fr; Lefevre, T. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France); Lamare, F. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France); Kontaxakis, G. [ETSI Telecomunicacion Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n 28040, Madrid (Spain); Santos, A. [ETSI Telecomunicacion Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n 28040, Madrid (Spain); Darambara, D. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-20

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems.

  13. LePix—A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 μm to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back-processing the chip and collecting the charge from the full substrate it is hence possible to efficiently detect soft X-rays up to 10 keV. Test results from first successfully processed detectors will be presented and discussed

  14. SMARTPIX, a photon-counting pixel detector for synchrotron applications based on Medipix3RX readout chip and active edge pixel sensors

    Photon-counting pixel detectors are now routinely used on synchrotron beamlines. Many applications benefit from their noiseless mode of operation, single-pixel point spread function and high frame rates. One of their drawbacks is a discontinuous detection area due to the space-consuming wirebonded connections of the readout chips. Moreover, charge sharing limits their efficiency and their energy discrimination capabilities. In order to overcome these issues the ESRF is developing SMARTPIX,a scalable and versatile pixel detector system with minimized dead areas and with energy resolving capabilities based on the MEDIPIX3RX readout chip. SMARTPIX exploits the through-silicon via technology implemented on MEDIPIX3RX, the active edge sensor processing developed in particular at ADVACAM, and the on-chip analog charge summing feature of MEDIPIX3RX. This article reports on system architecture, unit module structure, data acquisition electronics, target characteristics and applications

  15. SMARTPIX, a photon-counting pixel detector for synchrotron applications based on Medipix3RX readout chip and active edge pixel sensors

    Ponchut, C.; Collet, E.; Hervé, C.; Le Caer, T.; Cerrai, J.; Siron, L.; Dabin, Y.; Ribois, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Photon-counting pixel detectors are now routinely used on synchrotron beamlines. Many applications benefit from their noiseless mode of operation, single-pixel point spread function and high frame rates. One of their drawbacks is a discontinuous detection area due to the space-consuming wirebonded connections of the readout chips. Moreover, charge sharing limits their efficiency and their energy discrimination capabilities. In order to overcome these issues the ESRF is developing SMARTPIX,a scalable and versatile pixel detector system with minimized dead areas and with energy resolving capabilities based on the MEDIPIX3RX readout chip. SMARTPIX exploits the through-silicon via technology implemented on MEDIPIX3RX, the active edge sensor processing developed in particular at ADVACAM, and the on-chip analog charge summing feature of MEDIPIX3RX. This article reports on system architecture, unit module structure, data acquisition electronics, target characteristics and applications.

  16. Neutron imaging detector based on the muPIC micro-pixel chamber

    Parker, J D; Fujioka, H; Harada, M; Iwaki, S; Kabuki, S; Kishimoto, Y; Kubo, H; Kurosawa, S; Miuchi, K; Nagae, T; Nishimura, H; Oku, T; Sawano, T; Shinohara, T; Suzuki, J; Takada, A; Tanimori, T; Ueno, K

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a prototype time-resolved neutron imaging detector employing the micro-pixel chamber (muPIC), a micro-pattern gaseous detector, coupled with a field programmable gate array-based data acquisition system for applications in neutron radiography at high-intensity neutron sources. The prototype system, with an active area of 10cm x 10cm and operated at a gas pressure of 2 atm, measures both the energy deposition (via time-over-threshold) and 3-dimensional track of each neutron-induced event, allowing the reconstruction of the neutron interaction point with improved accuracy. Using a simple position reconstruction algorithm, a spatial resolution of 349 +/- 36 microns was achieved, with further improvement expected. The detailed tracking allows strong rejection of background gamma-rays, resulting in an effective gamma sensitivity of 10^-12 or less, coupled with stable, robust neutron identification. The detector also features a time resolution of 0.6 microseconds.

  17. A 10 MHz micropower CMOS front end for direct readout of pixel detectors

    In the framework of the CERN-LAA project for detector R and D, a micropower circuit of 200 μmx200 μm with a current amplifier, a latched comparator and a digital memory element has been tested electrically and operated in connection with linear silicon detector arrays. The experimental direct-readout (DRO) chip comprises a matrix of 9x12 circuit cells and has been manufactured in a 3 μm CMOS technology. Particles and X-ray photons below 22 keV were detected, and thresholds can be set between 2000 and 20000 e-. The noise is less than 4 keV FWHM or 500 e- rms and the power dissipation per pixel element is 30 μW. The chip can be coupled to a detector matrix using bump bonding. (orig.)

  18. Radiation tolerance of the readout chip for the phase I upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    Hoss, Jan

    2015-01-01

    For the Phase I upgrade of the CMS pixel detector a new digital readout chip (ROC) has been developed. An important part of the design verification are irradiation studies to ensure sufficient radiation tolerance. The paper summarizes results of the irradiation studies on the final ROC design for the detector layers~$2-4$. Samples have been irradiated with 23\\,MeV protons to accumulate the expected lifetime dose of 0.5\\,MGy and up to 1.1\\,MGy to project the performance of the ROC for layer~1 of the detector. It could be shown that the design is sufficiently radiation tolerant and that all performance parameters stay within their specifications. Additionally, very high doses of up to 4.2\\,MGy have been tested to explore the limits of the current chip design on 250\\,nm CMOS technology. The study confirmed that samples irradiated up to the highest dose could be successfully operated with test pulses.

  19. A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.

  20. Beam Test Performance and Simulation of Prototypes for the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    Conrad, J; Antinori, F; Badalà, A; Barbera, R; Boccardi, A; Bruno, G E; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Ceresa, S; Chochula, P; Cinausero, M; Dima, R; Elia, D; Fabris, D; Fini, R A; Fioretto, E; Kapusta, S; Kluge, A; Krivda, M; Lenti, V; Librizzi, F; Lunardon, M; Manzari, V; Morel, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Nilsson, P; Noriega, M L; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Paticchio, V; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Stefanini, G; Sándor, L; Torcatode-Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G; Virgili, T

    2007-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector (SPD) of the ALICE experiment in preparation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to provide the precise vertex reconstruction needed for measuring heavy flavor production in heavy ion collisions at very high energies and high multiplicity. The SPD forms the innermost part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) which also includes silicon drift and silicon strip detectors. Single assembly prototypes of the ALICE SPD have been tested at the CERN SPS using high energy proton/pion beams in 2002 and 2003. We report on the experimental determination of the spatial precision. We also report on the first combined beam test with prototypes of the other ITS silicon detector technologies at the CERN SPS in November 2004. The issue of SPD simulation is briefly discussed.

  1. Pixelated detectors and improved efficiency for magnetic imaging in STEM differential phase contrast.

    Krajnak, Matus; McGrouther, Damien; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Shea, Val O'; McVitie, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The application of differential phase contrast imaging to the study of polycrystalline magnetic thin films and nanostructures has been hampered by the strong diffraction contrast resulting from the granular structure of the materials. In this paper we demonstrate how a pixelated detector has been used to detect the bright field disk in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and subsequent processing of the acquired data allows efficient enhancement of the magnetic contrast in the resulting images. Initial results from a charged coupled device (CCD) camera demonstrate the highly efficient nature of this improvement over previous methods. Further hardware development with the use of a direct radiation detector, the Medipix3, also shows the possibilities where the reduction in collection time is more than an order of magnitude compared to the CCD. We show that this allows subpixel measurement of the beam deflection due to the magnetic induction. While the detection and processing is data intensive we have demonstrated highly efficient DPC imaging whereby pixel by pixel interpretation of the induction variation is realised with great potential for nanomagnetic imaging. PMID:27085170

  2. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS Pixel Detector / IBL ROD card

    Gabrielli, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration; Balbi, Gabriele; Bindi, Marcello; Chen, Shaw-pin; Falchieri, Davide; Flick, Tobias; Hauck, Scott Alan; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Kretz, Moritz; Kugel, Andreas; Lama, Luca; Travaglini, Riccardo; Wensing, Marius; ATLAS Pixel Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector has inserted an additional inner layer called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL’s off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBL ROD firmware development was three-fold: keeping as much of the Pixel ROD datapath firmware logic as possible, employing a complete new scheme of steering and calibration firmware and designing the overall system to prepare for a future unified code version integrating IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBL DAQ testbench using realistic frontend chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBL ROD data pat...

  3. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS Pixel Detector / IBL ROD card

    Balbi, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Gabrielli, A; Lama, L; Travaglini, R; Backhaus, M; Bindi, M; Chen, S-P; Flick, T; Kretz, M; Kugel, A; Wensing, M

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector has inserted an additional inner layer called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL’s off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBLROD firmware development was three-fold: keeping as much of the PixelROD datapath firmware logic as possible, employing a complete new scheme of steering and calibration firmware and designing the overall system to prepare for a future unified code version integrating IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBLDAQ testbench using realistic frontend chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBLROD data path im...

  4. Biological Tissue Imaging with a Position and Time Sensitive Pixelated Detector

    Jungmann, Julia H; MacAleese, Luke; Klinkert, Ivo; Visser, Jan; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the capabilities of a highly parallel, active pixel detector for large-area, mass spectrometric imaging of biological tissue sections. A bare Timepix assembly (512x512 pixels) is combined with chevron microchannel plates on an ion microscope matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI TOF-MS). The detector assembly registers position- and time-resolved images of multiple m/z species in every measurement frame. We prove the applicability of the detection system to bio-molecular mass spectrometry imaging on biologically relevant samples by mass-resolved images from Timepix measurements of a peptide-grid benchmark sample and mouse testis tissue slices. Mass-spectral and localization information of analytes at physiological concentrations are measured in MALDI-TOF-MS imaging experiments. We show a high spatial resolution (pixel size down to 740x740 nm2 on the sample surface) and a spatial resolving power of 6 {\\mu}m with a microscope mode laser field of view of 100-335 ...

  5. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  6. A Triple-GEM Detector with Pixel Readout for High-Rate Beam Tracking in COMPASS

    Nagel, T; Haas, F; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Krämer, M; Mann, A; Paul, S

    2008-01-01

    For its physics program with a high-intensity hadron beam of $2 · 10^{7}$ particles/s, the COMPASS experiment at CERN requires tracking of charged particles scattered by very small angles with respect to the incident beam direction. While good resolution in time and space is mandatory, the challenge is imposed by the high beam intensity, requiring radiation-hard detectors which add very little material to the beam path in order to minimise secondary interactions. To this end, a set of triple-GEM detectors with pixel readout in the beam region and 2-D strip readout in the periphery is currently being built. The pixel size has been chosen to be 1×1 mm2, which constitutes a compromise between the spatial resolution achievable and the number of readout channels. Surrounding the pixel area, a 2-D strip readout with a pitch of 400 μm has been realised on the same printed circuit foil. In total an active area of 10 × 10 cm2 is covered using 2048 readout channels. Analogue readout by the APV25 ASIC has been chose...

  7. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    Lange, Jörn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Paz, Ivan Lopez

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2-3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100-200 $\\mu$m width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 $\\mu$m width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al ma...

  8. Directional detection of fast neutrons by the Timepix pixel detector coupled to plastic scintillator with silicon photomultiplier array

    Fast neutrons are conventionally detected by scintillators of large volume, low spatial resolution and poor, if any, directional sensitivity. In this paper we present a detection technique based on the tracking of protons recoiled by fast neutrons. In this approach we use the silicon pixel detector Timepix attached in contact planar geometry to a fast plastic scintillator. The protons recoiled by neutrons in the scintillator are detected by the pixel detector while scintillation light is sensed by a 4 × 4 array of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). Each photomultiplier is equipped with an independent amplifier and discriminator providing a fast trigger signal to the pixel detector. Variable threshold level allows adjustment of the trigger sensitivity. Single events in the pixel detector can be tagged and triggered by the scintillating detector. Position and energy sensitivity of the scintillator together with the position and the energy sensitivity of the pixel detector allow obtaining information about the position and the spectrum of the neutron source. The Timepix detector is operated with the FITPix readout interface and the Pixelman software package providing control, DAQ and online visualization. The assembled prototype has been tested with fast neutrons from a laboratory radioactive source (AmBe) and a Van de Graaff accelerator (D-T reaction). The detector architecture, comprising the Timepix device, the scintillator and the segmented SiPM, allows stacking several such units for increased detection efficiency and enhanced directional sensitivity.

  9. New concept of a submillimetric pixellated Silicon detector for intracerebral application

    A new beta+ radiosensitive microprobe implantable in rodent brain dedicated to in vivo and autonomous measurements of local time activity curves of beta radiotracers in a volume of brain tissue of a few mm3 has been developed recently. This project expands the concept of the previously designed beta microprobe, which has been validated extensively in neurobiological experiments performed on anesthetized animals. Due to its limitations considering recordings on awake and freely moving animals, we have proposed to develop a wireless setup that can be worn by an animal without constraining its movements. To that aim, we have chosen a highly beta sensitive Silicon-based detector to devise a compact pixellated probe. Miniaturized wireless electronics is used to read-out and transfer the measurement data. Initial Monte-Carlo simulations showed that high resistive Silicon pixels are appropriate for this purpose, with their dimensions to be adapted to our specific signals. More precisely, we demonstrated that 200 μm thick pixels with an area of 200 μm×500 μm are optimized in terms of beta+sensitivity versus relative transparency to the gamma background. Based on this theoretical study, we now present the development of the novel sensor, including the system simulations with technology computer-assisted design (TCAD) to investigate specific configurations of guard rings and their potential to increase the electrical isolation and stabilization of the pixel, as well as the corresponding physical tests to validate the particular geometries of this new sensor.

  10. New concept of a submillimetric pixellated Silicon detector for intracerebral application

    Benoit, M.; Märk, J.; Weiss, P.; Benoit, D.; Clemens, J. C.; Fougeron, D.; Janvier, B.; Jevaud, M.; Karkar, S.; Menouni, M.; Pain, F.; Pinot, L.; Morel, C.; Laniece, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new beta+ radiosensitive microprobe implantable in rodent brain dedicated to in vivo and autonomous measurements of local time activity curves of beta radiotracers in a volume of brain tissue of a few mm3 has been developed recently. This project expands the concept of the previously designed beta microprobe, which has been validated extensively in neurobiological experiments performed on anesthetized animals. Due to its limitations considering recordings on awake and freely moving animals, we have proposed to develop a wireless setup that can be worn by an animal without constraining its movements. To that aim, we have chosen a highly beta sensitive Silicon-based detector to devise a compact pixellated probe. Miniaturized wireless electronics is used to read-out and transfer the measurement data. Initial Monte-Carlo simulations showed that high resistive Silicon pixels are appropriate for this purpose, with their dimensions to be adapted to our specific signals. More precisely, we demonstrated that 200 μm thick pixels with an area of 200 μm×500 μm are optimized in terms of beta+sensitivity versus relative transparency to the gamma background. Based on this theoretical study, we now present the development of the novel sensor, including the system simulations with technology computer-assisted design (TCAD) to investigate specific configurations of guard rings and their potential to increase the electrical isolation and stabilization of the pixel, as well as the corresponding physical tests to validate the particular geometries of this new sensor.

  11. Experiences with module-production and system tests for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Grosse-Knetter, Jörn; Hügging, Fabian; Mättig, Peter; Reeves, Kendall; Schultes, Joachim; Weingarten, Jens; Wermes, Norbert

    2006-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is built from 1744 modules which are organized in three barrel layers and three disk layers in forward direction. The modules consist of an oxygen-enriched silicon sensor with an active area of 60.8×16.4 mm2. Its 46 080 pixels are read out by 16 frontend chips, bump bonded to the sensor using a state-of-the-art hybridization technique. After extensive characterization of the single modules they are mounted on support structures, made from a carbon-carbon composite material, which make up the barrel or the disc layers. The first of these assemblies are used to study the behavior of the modules outside the lab environment.

  12. A Medipix2-based imaging system for digital mammography with silicon pixel detectors

    Bisogni, M G; Fantacci, M E; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Novelli, M; Quattrocchi, M; Rosso, V; Russo, P; Stefanini, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the first tests of a digital imaging system based on a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to an integrated circuit operating in single photon counting mode. The X-rays sensor is a 300 mu m thick silicon, 14 by 14 mm/sup 2/, upon which a matrix of 256 * 256 pixels has been built. The read-out chip, named MEDIPIX2, has been developed at CERN within the MEDIPIX2 Collaboration and it is composed by a matrix of 256 * 256 cells, 55 * 55 mu m/sup 2/. The spatial resolution properties of the system have been assessed by measuring the square wave resolution function (SWRF) and first images of a standard mammographic phantom were acquired using a radiographic tube in the clinical irradiation condition. (5 refs).

  13. Prototypes for components of a control system for the ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    Boek, J; Kind, P; Mättig, P; Püllen, L; Zeitnitz, C

    2013-01-01

    inner detector of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced entirely including the pixel detector. This new pixel detector requires a specific control system which complies with the strict requirements in terms of radiation hardness, material budget and space for the electronics in the ATLAS experiment. The University ofWuppertal is developing a concept for a DCS (Detector Control System) network consisting of two kinds of ASICs. The first ASIC is the DCS Chip which is located on the pixel detector, very close to the interaction point. The second ASIC is the DCS Controller which is controlling 4x4 DCS Chips from the outer regions of ATLAS via differential data lines. Both ASICs are manufactured in 130 nm deep sub micron technology. We present results from measurements from new prototypes of components for the DCS network.

  14. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider -- Plot Approval (Pixel, IBL) : This is a submission of plot approval request for Pixel+IBL, facing on a talk at ICHEP 2014 conference

    Mandelli, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and will be installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project as well as the ...

  15. Hybrid pixel-waveform CdTe/CZT detector for use in an ultrahigh resolution MRI compatible SPECT system

    Cai, Liang; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will present a new small pixel CdTe/CZT detector for sub-500 μm resolution SPECT imaging application inside MR scanner based on a recently developed hybrid pixel-waveform (HPWF) readout circuitry. The HPWF readout system consists of a 2-D multi-pixel circuitry attached to the anode pixels to provide the X–Y positions of interactions, and a high-speed digitizer to read out the pulse-waveform induced on the cathode. The digitized cathode waveform could provide energy depositio...

  16. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-01-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to dig...

  17. Studies of the possibility to use Gas Pixel Detector as a fast trigger tracking device

    Sinev, N.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Korotkova, N.; Romaniouk, A.; Tikhomirov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) technology offers new possibilities, which make them very attractive for application in existing and future accelerator experiments and beyond. GPDs combine advantages of silicon and gaseous detectors. They can be produced radiation hard and with low power consumption using relatively cheap technology. Low capacitance of the individual pixel channel allows us to obtain a large signal to noise ratio. Using a time projection method for GPD readout one obtains 3D track image with precise coordinate (31 µm) and angular information (0.40°). This feature would allow us to achieve performance of one GPD layer equal to a few layers of silicon detectors. Implementation of a fast readout and data processing at the front-end level allows one to reconstruct a track segment in less than 1 μs, and to use this information for the first level trigger generation. The relevant algorithms of data acquisition and analysis are described and the results of simulations are presented in this paper.

  18. A proposed STAR microvertex detector using Active Pixel Sensors with some relevant studies on APS performance

    A vertex detector that can measure particles with charm or bottom quarks would dramatically expand the physics capability of the STAR detector at RHIC. To accomplish this, we are proposing to build the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) using 2x2 cm Active Pixels Sensors (APS). Ten of these APS chips will be arranged on a ladder (0.28% of a radiation length) at radii of 1.5 and at 5.0 cm. We have examined several properties of APS chips, so that we can characterize the performance of this detector. Using 1.5 GeV/c electrons, we have measured the charge collected and compared it to the expected charge. To achieve high efficiency, we have considered two different cluster finding algorithms and found that the choice of algorithm is dependent on noise level. We have demonstrated that a Scanning Electron Microscope can probe properties of an APS chip. In particular, we studied several position resolution algorithms. Finally, we studied the properties of pixel pitches from 5 to 30 μm

  19. Energy Calibration of the Pixels of Spectral X-ray Detectors

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have deve...

  20. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors.

    Calderón, Y; Chmeissani, M; Kolstein, M; De Lorenzo, G

    2014-06-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm(2) area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm(3). The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(GAMOS) and the Origin Ensemble(OE) algorithm is used for the image reconstruction. The simulation shows that the camera can operate with up to 10(4) Bq source activities with equal efficiency and is completely saturated at 10(9) Bq. The efficiency of the system is evaluated using a simulated (18) F point source phantom in the center of the Field-of-View (FOV) achieving an intrinsic efficiency of 0.4 counts per second per kilobecquerel. The spatial resolution measured from the point spread function (PSF) shows a FWHM of 1.5 mm along the direction perpendicular to the scatterer, making it possible to distinguish two points at 3 mm separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8. PMID:24932209

  1. PICsIT detector for gamma-ray astronomy pixels qualification campaign

    Di Cocco, G; Labanti, C; Malaguti, G; Pinazza, O; Rossi, E; Schiavone, F

    2002-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors coupled to coded masks are used for imaging in high energy astronomy. PICsIT is the gamma-ray position sensitive detector of the IBIS telescope to be flown onboard the INTEGRAL satellite in 2001. PICsIT detector functionalities and scientific performances as a whole are described in details elsewhere in this Conference (Labanti et al. (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, this conference)). In this work, we present the aim, methodology, and results of the tests and calibrations performed on the first qualification lot of 136 PICsIT pixels carried out at SCIONIX laboratories in The Netherlands, in April 1999. Before being accepted for PICsIT, each detection unit has in fact to be fully characterized in terms of energy resolution and lower energy threshold. The principal aim of PICsIT pixel qualification campaign described in this work has been to measure the key parameters of each CsI(Tl)+photodiode detection unit: CsI(Tl) crystals light output, gain variation with temperature, energy resolut...

  2. PICsIT detector for γ-ray astronomy: pixels qualification campaign

    Position sensitive detectors coupled to coded masks are used for imaging in high energy astronomy. PICsIT is the γ-ray position sensitive detector of the IBIS telescope to be flown onboard the INTEGRAL satellite in 2001. PICsIT detector functionalities and scientific performances as a whole are described in details elsewhere in this Conference (Labanti et al. (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, this conference)). In this work, we present the aim, methodology, and results of the tests and calibrations performed on the first qualification lot of 136 PICsIT pixels carried out at SCIONIX laboratories in The Netherlands, in April 1999. Before being accepted for PICsIT, each detection unit has in fact to be fully characterized in terms of energy resolution and lower energy threshold. The principal aim of PICsIT pixel qualification campaign described in this work has been to measure the key parameters of each CsI(Tl)+photodiode detection unit: CsI(Tl) crystals light output, gain variation with temperature, energy resolution degradation due to scintillation light production and collection, inhomogeneity in the crystal, and the variation of these quantities after a thermo-vacuum stress treatment

  3. LePix-A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    Giubilato, P; Mugnier, H; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Snoeys, W; Denes, P; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 mu m to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back processin...

  4. PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications

    The hybrid pixel technology combines silicon sensors with CMOS-processing chips by a 2D micro bump-bonding interconnection technology developed at Paul Scherrer Institute [C. Broennimann, E.F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, A. Wagner. J. Synchrotron Rad. 13 (2005) 120 ; T. Rohe, C. Broennimann, F. Glaus, J. Gobrecht, S. Heising, M. Horisberger, R. Horisberger, H.C. Kaestl, J. Lehmann, S. Streuli, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. A 565 (2006) 303 ]. PILATUS hybrid pixel detectors like other instruments [X. Llopart, M. Campell, R. Dinapoli, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49 (2002) 2279 ; N. Boudet, J.-F. Berar, L. Blanquart, P. Breugon, B. Caillot, J.-C. Clemens, I. Koudobine, P. Delpierre, C. Mouget, R. Potheau, I. Valin, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. A 510 (2003) 41 ] are operating in the so-called 'single photon counting mode': Every X-ray quantum is directly converted into an electrical signal and counted by the detector system. Several prototype detectors in various geometries were produced, tested and established at different synchrotron beamlines worldwide. We explain the technology and present some recent highlights from various fields of applications.

  5. PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications

    Henrich, B. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail: beat.henrich@psi.ch; Bergamaschi, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Broennimann, C. [DECTRIS AG, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinapoli, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Eikenberry, E.F. [DECTRIS AG, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Johnson, I. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kobas, M. [DECTRIS AG, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kraft, P.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2009-08-01

    The hybrid pixel technology combines silicon sensors with CMOS-processing chips by a 2D micro bump-bonding interconnection technology developed at Paul Scherrer Institute [C. Broennimann, E.F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, A. Wagner. J. Synchrotron Rad. 13 (2005) 120 ; T. Rohe, C. Broennimann, F. Glaus, J. Gobrecht, S. Heising, M. Horisberger, R. Horisberger, H.C. Kaestl, J. Lehmann, S. Streuli, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. A 565 (2006) 303 ]. PILATUS hybrid pixel detectors like other instruments [X. Llopart, M. Campell, R. Dinapoli, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49 (2002) 2279 ; N. Boudet, J.-F. Berar, L. Blanquart, P. Breugon, B. Caillot, J.-C. Clemens, I. Koudobine, P. Delpierre, C. Mouget, R. Potheau, I. Valin, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. A 510 (2003) 41 ] are operating in the so-called 'single photon counting mode': Every X-ray quantum is directly converted into an electrical signal and counted by the detector system. Several prototype detectors in various geometries were produced, tested and established at different synchrotron beamlines worldwide. We explain the technology and present some recent highlights from various fields of applications.

  6. The upgraded Pixel detector and the commissioning of the Inner Detector tracking of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00019188; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with the high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130~nm technology. In addition, the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during Run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. Complementing detector improvements, many improvements to Inner Detector track and vertex reconstr...

  7. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-12-07

    The aim of the work presented here was to measure X-ray spectra with a pixelated detector. Due to effects in the sensor the spectrum cannot be measured directly and has to be calculated by a deconvolution of the measured data. In the scope of this work the deconvolution of the measured spectra could be enhanced considerably by - amongst other things - the introduction of the Bayesian deconvolution method. Those improvements opened the possibilities for further measurements. For the measurements the detectors of the Medipix family have been used. They are nowadays used for a wide range of applications and scientific research. Their main advantage is the very high position resolution gained by a pixel pitch of 55 μm and a high number of 65536 pixels. The Timepix detector has, in particular, two special possibilities of measurement: the ToA mode and the ToT mode. In ToA mode the arrival time of an impinging photon is measured and in ToT mode the amount of deposited charge is measured. The most common method of operation is counting the number of impinging photons that release a charge higher than a preset threshold in each pixel. As this released charge is proportional to the energy deposition of the impinging photon, one can perform energy-sensitive measurements. To perform the deconvolution of the measured energy distribution there is a need of an energy response matrix describing the detector response on radiation. For some detectors it is possible to obtain an analytic model of the response functions. Due to the high discrepancy between the impinging spectrum and the measured spectrum in case of detectors of the Medipix family, there is so far no analytic model. Thus, the detector response has to be simulated. As I could improve the precision of the measurement quite extensively, I also intended to tune the simulation with more accurate and appropriate models to gain the same level of accuracy. The results of measurement and simulation have then been compared and

  8. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    The aim of the work presented here was to measure X-ray spectra with a pixelated detector. Due to effects in the sensor the spectrum cannot be measured directly and has to be calculated by a deconvolution of the measured data. In the scope of this work the deconvolution of the measured spectra could be enhanced considerably by - amongst other things - the introduction of the Bayesian deconvolution method. Those improvements opened the possibilities for further measurements. For the measurements the detectors of the Medipix family have been used. They are nowadays used for a wide range of applications and scientific research. Their main advantage is the very high position resolution gained by a pixel pitch of 55 μm and a high number of 65536 pixels. The Timepix detector has, in particular, two special possibilities of measurement: the ToA mode and the ToT mode. In ToA mode the arrival time of an impinging photon is measured and in ToT mode the amount of deposited charge is measured. The most common method of operation is counting the number of impinging photons that release a charge higher than a preset threshold in each pixel. As this released charge is proportional to the energy deposition of the impinging photon, one can perform energy-sensitive measurements. To perform the deconvolution of the measured energy distribution there is a need of an energy response matrix describing the detector response on radiation. For some detectors it is possible to obtain an analytic model of the response functions. Due to the high discrepancy between the impinging spectrum and the measured spectrum in case of detectors of the Medipix family, there is so far no analytic model. Thus, the detector response has to be simulated. As I could improve the precision of the measurement quite extensively, I also intended to tune the simulation with more accurate and appropriate models to gain the same level of accuracy. The results of measurement and simulation have then been compared and

  9. Development of an Indium bump bond process for silicon pixel detectors at PSI

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high-energy physics experiments currently under construction use a vertical connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100μm, required in these applications, cannot be fulfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflowed indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R and D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflowed afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a second reflow is performed for self-alignment and obtaining high mechanical strength. For the placement of the chips a manual and an automatic machine were constructed. The former is very flexible in handling different chip and module geometries but has a limited throughput while the latter features a much higher grade of automatization and is therefore much more suited for producing hundreds of modules with a well-defined geometry. The reliability of this process was proven by the successful construction of the PILATUS detector. The construction of PILATUS 6M (60 modules) and the CMS pixel barrel (roughly 800 modules) has started in early 2006

  10. Hybrid pixel-waveform CdTe/CZT detector for use in an ultrahigh resolution MRI compatible SPECT system

    Cai, Liang; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we will present a new small pixel CdTe/CZT detector for sub-500 μm resolution SPECT imaging application inside MR scanner based on a recently developed hybrid pixel-waveform (HPWF) readout circuitry. The HPWF readout system consists of a 2-D multi-pixel circuitry attached to the anode pixels to provide the X-Y positions of interactions, and a high-speed digitizer to read out the pulse-waveform induced on the cathode. The digitized cathode waveform could provide energy deposition information, precise timing and depth-of-interaction information for gamma ray interactions. Several attractive features with this HPWF detector system will be discussed in this paper. To demonstrate the performance, we constructed several prototype HPWF detectors with pixelated CZT and CdTe detectors of 2-5 mm thicknesses, connected to a prototype readout system consisting of energy-resolved photon-counting ASIC for readout anode pixels and an Agilent high-speed digitizer for digitizing the cathode signals. The performances of these detectors based on HPWF are discussed in this paper.

  11. Hybrid pixel-waveform CdTe/CZT detector for use in an ultrahigh resolution MRI compatible SPECT system

    In this paper, we will present a new small pixel CdTe/CZT detector for sub-500 μm resolution SPECT imaging application inside MR scanner based on a recently developed hybrid pixel-waveform (HPWF) readout circuitry. The HPWF readout system consists of a 2-D multi-pixel circuitry attached to the anode pixels to provide the X–Y positions of interactions, and a high-speed digitizer to read out the pulse-waveform induced on the cathode. The digitized cathode waveform could provide energy deposition information, precise timing and depth-of-interaction information for gamma ray interactions. Several attractive features with this HPWF detector system will be discussed in this paper. To demonstrate the performance, we constructed several prototype HPWF detectors with pixelated CZT and CdTe detectors of 2–5 mm thicknesses, connected to a prototype readout system consisting of energy-resolved photon-counting ASIC for readout anode pixels and an Agilent high-speed digitizer for digitizing the cathode signals. The performances of these detectors based on HPWF are discussed in this paper

  12. Hybrid pixel-waveform CdTe/CZT detector for use in an ultrahigh resolution MRI compatible SPECT system

    Cai, Liang, E-mail: cai7@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 216 Talbot Laboratory, 104 S Wrig, Urbana, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Meng, Ling-Jian [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 216 Talbot Laboratory, 104 S Wrig, Urbana, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2013-02-21

    In this paper, we will present a new small pixel CdTe/CZT detector for sub-500 μm resolution SPECT imaging application inside MR scanner based on a recently developed hybrid pixel-waveform (HPWF) readout circuitry. The HPWF readout system consists of a 2-D multi-pixel circuitry attached to the anode pixels to provide the X–Y positions of interactions, and a high-speed digitizer to read out the pulse-waveform induced on the cathode. The digitized cathode waveform could provide energy deposition information, precise timing and depth-of-interaction information for gamma ray interactions. Several attractive features with this HPWF detector system will be discussed in this paper. To demonstrate the performance, we constructed several prototype HPWF detectors with pixelated CZT and CdTe detectors of 2–5 mm thicknesses, connected to a prototype readout system consisting of energy-resolved photon-counting ASIC for readout anode pixels and an Agilent high-speed digitizer for digitizing the cathode signals. The performances of these detectors based on HPWF are discussed in this paper.

  13. Material specific X-ray imaging using an energy-dispersive pixel detector

    By imaging the X-ray spectral properties or ‘colours’ we have shown how material specific imaging can be performed. Using a pixelated energy-dispersive X-ray detector we record the absorbed and emitted hard X-radiation and measure the energy (colour) and intensity of the photons. Using this technology, we are not only able to obtain attenuation contrast but also to image chemical (elemental) variations inside objects, potentially opening up a very wide range of applications from materials science to medical diagnostics

  14. Material specific X-ray imaging using an energy-dispersive pixel detector

    Egan, Christopher K., E-mail: christopher.egan@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Seller, Paul [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Jacques, Simon D.M.; Cernik, Robert J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    By imaging the X-ray spectral properties or ‘colours’ we have shown how material specific imaging can be performed. Using a pixelated energy-dispersive X-ray detector we record the absorbed and emitted hard X-radiation and measure the energy (colour) and intensity of the photons. Using this technology, we are not only able to obtain attenuation contrast but also to image chemical (elemental) variations inside objects, potentially opening up a very wide range of applications from materials science to medical diagnostics.

  15. 3D integration technology for hybrid pixel detectors designed for particle physics and imaging experiments

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and are becoming established at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the advantages of 3D Integration come from reduced inter chip dead area even on large surfaces and from improved detector construction yield resulting from the use of single chip 4-side buttable tiles. For many years, numerous R and centres and companies have put a lot of effort into developing 3D integration technologies and today, some mature technologies are ready for prototyping and production. The core technology of the 3D integration is the TSV (Through Silicon Via) and for many years, LETI has developed those technologies for various types of applications. In this paper we present how one of the TSV approaches developed by LETI, called TSV last, has been applied to a readout wafer containing readout chips intended for a hybrid pixel detector assembly. In the first part of this paper, the 3D design adapted to the read-out chip will be described. Then the complete process flow will be explained and, finally, the test strategy adopted and

  16. Beam Test Characterization of CMS Silicon Pixel Detectors for the Phase-1 Upgrade

    Korol, Ievgen

    2015-01-01

    a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution.\\\\ Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking effici...

  17. Electrical characterization of irradiated medium resistivity n sup + /n/p sup + pixel detectors

    Chen, W; Dezillie, B; Eremin, V; Li, Z; Menichelli, D; Xie, X

    1999-01-01

    Several n sup + /n/p sup + pixel detectors with medium resistivity (rho=1.9 k OMEGA cm) and reduced thickness (200 mu m) have been characterized after irradiation up to 5x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2 , as an extension of measurements carried out in as-processed devices in the past. Results are really satisfactory: the leakage bulk current is quite low, and no breakdown is observed up to 300 V, which is the design bias in irradiated devices. Moreover, the use of medium resistivity material gives slightly higher radiation tolerance as compared with high resistivity case.

  18. Electrical characterization of irradiated medium resistivity n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} pixel detectors

    Chen, W.; Chien, C.Y.; Dezillie, B.; Eremin, V.; Li, Z. E-mail: zhengl@bnl.gov; Menichelli, D.; Xie, X

    1999-04-21

    Several n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} pixel detectors with medium resistivity ({rho}=1.9 k{omega} cm) and reduced thickness (200 {mu}m) have been characterized after irradiation up to 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}, as an extension of measurements carried out in as-processed devices in the past. Results are really satisfactory: the leakage bulk current is quite low, and no breakdown is observed up to 300 V, which is the design bias in irradiated devices. Moreover, the use of medium resistivity material gives slightly higher radiation tolerance as compared with high resistivity case.

  19. Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors fully adapted to the ILD Vertex Detector Requirements

    Winter, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Dorokhov, Andrei; Goffe, Mathieu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Morel, Frederic; Valin, Isabelle; Voutsinas, Georgios; Zhang, Liang

    2012-01-01

    CMOS Pixel Sensors are making steady progress towards the specifications of the ILD vertex detector. Recent developments are summarised, which show that these devices are close to comply with all major requirements, in particular the read-out speed needed to cope with the beam related background. This achievement is grounded on the double- sided ladder concept, which allows combining signals generated by a single particle in two different sensors, one devoted to spatial resolution and the other to time stamp, both assembled on the same mechanical support. The status of the development is overviewed as well as the plans to finalise it using an advanced CMOS process.

  20. Studies and development of a readout ASIC for pixelated CdTe detectors for space applications

    The work presented in this thesis is part of a project where a new instrument is developed: a camera for hard X-rays imaging spectroscopy. It is dedicated to fundamental research for observations in astrophysics, at wavelengths which can only be observed using space-borne instruments. In this domain the spectroscopic accuracy as well as the imaging details are of high importance. This work has been realized at CEA/IRFU (Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l'Univers), which has a long-standing and successful experience in instruments for high energy physics and space physics instrumentation. The objective of this thesis is the design of the readout electronics for a pixelated CdTe detector, suitable for a stacked assembly. The principal parameters of this integrated circuit are a very low noise for reaching a good accuracy in X-ray energy measurement, very low power consumption, a critical parameter in space-borne applications, and a small dead area for the full system combining the detector and the readout electronics. In this work I have studied the limits of these three parameters in order to optimize the circuit. In terms of the spectral resolution, two categories of noise had to be distinguished to determine the final performance. The first is the Fano noise limit, related to detector interaction statistics, which cannot be eliminated. The second is the electronic noise, also unavoidable; however it can be minimized through optimization of the detection chain. Within the detector, establishing a small pixel pitch of 300 μm reduces the input capacitance and the dark current. This limits the effects of the electronic noise. Also in order to limit the input capacitance the future camera is designed as a stacked assembly of the detector with the readout ASIC. This allows to reach extremely good input parameters seen by the readout electronics: a capacitance in range of 0.3 pF-1 pF and a dark current below 5 pA. In the frame of this thesis I have