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Sample records for 3d ultrasound imaging

  1. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... and removes the need to integrate custom made electronics into the probe. A downside of row-column addressing 2-D arrays is the creation of secondary temporal lobes, or ghost echoes, in the point spread function. In the second part of the scientific contributions, row-column addressing of 2-D arrays...... was investigated. An analysis of how the ghost echoes can be attenuated was presented.Attenuating the ghost echoes were shown to be achieved by minimizing the first derivative of the apodization function. In the literature, a circular symmetric apodization function was proposed. A new apodization layout...

  2. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability. (fast track communication)

  3. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  4. Fully automatic plaque segmentation in 3-D carotid ultrasound images.

    Cheng, Jieyu; Li, He; Xiao, Feng; Fenster, Aaron; Zhang, Xuming; He, Xiaoling; Li, Ling; Ding, Mingyue

    2013-12-01

    Automatic segmentation of the carotid plaques from ultrasound images has been shown to be an important task for monitoring progression and regression of carotid atherosclerosis. Considering the complex structure and heterogeneity of plaques, a fully automatic segmentation method based on media-adventitia and lumen-intima boundary priors is proposed. This method combines image intensity with structure information in both initialization and a level-set evolution process. Algorithm accuracy was examined on the common carotid artery part of 26 3-D carotid ultrasound images (34 plaques ranging in volume from 2.5 to 456 mm(3)) by comparing the results of our algorithm with manual segmentations of two experts. Evaluation results indicated that the algorithm yielded total plaque volume (TPV) differences of -5.3 ± 12.7 and -8.5 ± 13.8 mm(3) and absolute TPV differences of 9.9 ± 9.5 and 11.8 ± 11.1 mm(3). Moreover, high correlation coefficients in generating TPV (0.993 and 0.992) between algorithm results and both sets of manual results were obtained. The automatic method provides a reliable way to segment carotid plaque in 3-D ultrasound images and can be used in clinical practice to estimate plaque measurements for management of carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:24063959

  5. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging.:3-D Synthetic Aperture Imaging and Row-column Addressing of 2-D Transducer Arrays

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinic...

  6. Three dimensional (3d) transverse oscillation vector velocity ultrasound imaging

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (300) includes a transducer array (302) with a two- dimensional array of transducer elements configured to transmit an ultrasound signal and receive echoes, transmit circuitry (304) configured to control the transducer array to transmit the ultrasound signal so as to...... the same received set of two dimensional echoes form part of the imaging system...

  7. Towards 3D ultrasound image based soft tissue tracking: a transrectal ultrasound prostate image alignment system

    Baumann, Michael; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of real-time 3D ultrasound (US) makes it possible to consider image-based tracking of subcutaneous soft tissue targets for computer guided diagnosis and therapy. We propose a 3D transrectal US based tracking system for precise prostate biopsy sample localisation. The aim is to improve sample distribution, to enable targeting of unsampled regions for repeated biopsies, and to make post-interventional quality controls possible. Since the patient is not immobilized, since the prostate is mobile and due to the fact that probe movements are only constrained by the rectum during biopsy acquisition, the tracking system must be able to estimate rigid transformations that are beyond the capture range of common image similarity measures. We propose a fast and robust multi-resolution attribute-vector registration approach that combines global and local optimization methods to solve this problem. Global optimization is performed on a probe movement model that reduces the dimensionality of the search space a...

  8. Segmentation of Carotid Arteries from 3D and 4D Ultrasound Images

    Mattsson, Per; Eriksson, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    This thesis presents a 3D semi-automatic segmentation technique for extracting the lumen surface of the Carotid arteries including the bifurcation from 3D and 4D ultrasound examinations. Ultrasound images are inherently noisy. Therefore, to aid the inspection of the acquired data an adaptive edge preserving filtering technique is used to reduce the general high noise level. The segmentation process starts with edge detection with a recursive and separable 3D Monga-Deriche-Canny operator. To r...

  9. A framework for human spine imaging using a freehand 3D ultrasound system

    Purnama, Ketut E.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Ooijen, van Peter M.A.; Lubbers, Jaap; Burgerhof, Johannes G.M.; Sardjono, Tri A.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of 3D ultrasound imaging to follow the progression of scoliosis, i.e., a 3D deformation of the spine, is described. Unlike other current examination modalities, in particular based on X-ray, its non-detrimental effect enables it to be used frequently to follow the progression of scoliosis wh

  10. Development and evaluation of a semiautomatic 3D segmentation technique of the carotid arteries from 3D ultrasound images

    Gill, Jeremy D.; Ladak, Hanif M.; Steinman, David A.; Fenster, Aaron

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, we report on a semi-automatic approach to segmentation of carotid arteries from 3D ultrasound (US) images. Our method uses a deformable model which first is rapidly inflated to approximately find the boundary of the artery, then is further deformed using image-based forces to better localize the boundary. An operator is required to initialize the model by selecting a position in the 3D US image, which is within the carotid vessel. Since the choice of position is user-defined, and therefore arbitrary, there is an inherent variability in the position and shape of the final segmented boundary. We have assessed the performance of our segmentation method by examining the local variability in boundary shape as the initial selected position is varied in a freehand 3D US image of a human carotid bifurcation. Our results indicate that high variability in boundary position occurs in regions where either the segmented boundary is highly curved, or the 3D US image has poorly defined vessel edges.

  11. Computer-Assisted Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ablation Planning Based on 3-D Ultrasound Imaging.

    Li, Kai; Su, Zhongzhen; Xu, Erjiao; Guan, Peishan; Li, Liu-Jun; Zheng, Rongqin

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate computer-assisted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ablation planning based on 3-D ultrasound, 3-D ultrasound images of 60 HCC lesions from 58 patients were obtained and transferred to a research toolkit. Compared with virtual manual ablation planning (MAP), virtual computer-assisted ablation planning (CAP) consumed less time and needle insertion numbers and exhibited a higher rate of complete tumor coverage and lower rate of critical structure injury. In MAP, junior operators used less time, but had more critical structure injury than senior operators. For large lesions, CAP performed better than MAP. For lesions near critical structures, CAP resulted in better outcomes than MAP. Compared with MAP, CAP based on 3-D ultrasound imaging was more effective and achieved a higher rate of complete tumor coverage and a lower rate of critical structure injury; it is especially useful for junior operators and with large lesions, and lesions near critical structures. PMID:27126243

  12. GPU-Based Block-Wise Nonlocal Means Denoising for 3D Ultrasound Images

    Liu Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Speckle suppression plays an important role in improving ultrasound (US image quality. While lots of algorithms have been proposed for 2D US image denoising with remarkable filtering quality, there is relatively less work done on 3D ultrasound speckle suppression, where the whole volume data rather than just one frame needs to be considered. Then, the most crucial problem with 3D US denoising is that the computational complexity increases tremendously. The nonlocal means (NLM provides an effective method for speckle suppression in US images. In this paper, a programmable graphic-processor-unit- (GPU- based fast NLM filter is proposed for 3D ultrasound speckle reduction. A Gamma distribution noise model, which is able to reliably capture image statistics for Log-compressed ultrasound images, was used for the 3D block-wise NLM filter on basis of Bayesian framework. The most significant aspect of our method was the adopting of powerful data-parallel computing capability of GPU to improve the overall efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can enormously accelerate the algorithm.

  13. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation for assistant diagnosis of breast cancer

    Wang, Yuxin; Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

    2016-04-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  14. Integrated Interventional Devices For Real Time 3D Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    Smith, Stephen W.; Lee, Warren; Gentry, Kenneth L.; Pua, Eric C.; Light, Edward D.

    2006-05-01

    Two recent advances have expanded the potential of medical ultrasound: the introduction of real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging with catheter, transesophageal and laparoscopic probes and the development of interventional ultrasound therapeutic systems for focused ultrasound surgery, ablation and ultrasound enhanced drug delivery. This work describes devices combining both technologies. A series of transducer probes have been designed, fabricated and tested including: 1) a 12 French side scanning catheter incorporating a 64 element matrix array for imaging at 5MHz and a piston ablation transducer operating at 10 MHz. 2) a 14 Fr forward-scanning catheter integrating a 112 element 2-D array for imaging at 5 MHz encircled by an ablation annulus operating at 10 MHz. Finite element modeling was then used to simulate catheter annular and linear phased array transducers for ablation. 3) Linear phased array transducers were built to confirm the finite element analysis at 4 and 8 MHz including a mechanically focused 86 element 9 MHz array which transmits an ISPTA of 29.3 W/cm2 and creates a lesion in 2 minutes. 4) 2-D arrays of 504 channels operating at 5 MHz have been developed for transesophageal and laparascopic 3D imaging as well as therapeutic heating. All the devices image the heart anatomy including atria, valves, septa and en face views of the pulmonary veins.

  15. Integrated endoscope for real-time 3D ultrasound imaging and hyperthermia: feasibility study.

    Pua, Eric C; Qiu, Yupeng; Smith, S W

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research is to determine the feasibility of using a single endoscopic probe for the combined purpose of real-time 3D (RT3D) ultrasound imaging of a target organ and the delivery of ultrasound therapy to facilitate the absorption of compounds for cancer treatment. Recent research in ultrasound therapy has shown that ultrasound-mediated drug delivery improves absorption of treatments for prostate, cervical and esophageal cancer. The ability to combine ultrasound hyperthermia and 3D imaging could improve visualization and targeting of cancerous tissues. In this study, numerical modeling and experimental measurements were developed to determine the feasibility of combined therapy and imaging with a 1 cm diameter endoscopic RT3D probe with 504 transmitters and 252 receive channels. This device operates at 5 MHz and has a 6.3 mm x 6.3 mm aperture to produce real time 3D pyramidal scans of 60-120 degrees incorporating 64 x 64 = 4096 image lines at 30 volumes/sec interleaved with a 3D steerable therapy beam. A finite-element mesh was constructed with over 128,000 elements in LS-DYNA to simulate the induced temperature rise from our transducer with a 3 cm deep focus in tissue. Quarter-symmetry of the transducer was used to reduce mesh size and computation time. Based on intensity values calculated in Field II using the transducer's array geometry, a minimum I(SPTA) of 3.6 W/cm2 is required from our endoscope probe in order to induce a temperature rise of 4 degrees C within five minutes. Experimental measurements of the array's power output capabilities were conducted using a PVDF hydrophone placed 3 cm away from the face of the transducer in a watertank. Using a PDA14 Signatec data acquisition board to capture full volumes of transmitted ultrasound data, it was determined that the probe can presently maintain intensity values up to 2.4 W/cm2 over indefinite times for therapeutic applications combined with intermittent 3D scanning to maintain targeting

  16. Automatic 3D ultrasound calibration for image guided therapy using intramodality image registration

    Many real time ultrasound (US) guided therapies can benefit from management of motion-induced anatomical changes with respect to a previously acquired computerized anatomy model. Spatial calibration is a prerequisite to transforming US image information to the reference frame of the anatomy model. We present a new method for calibrating 3D US volumes using intramodality image registration, derived from the ‘hand-eye’ calibration technique. The method is fully automated by implementing data rejection based on sensor displacements, automatic registration over overlapping image regions, and a self-consistency error metric evaluated continuously during calibration. We also present a novel method for validating US calibrations based on measurement of physical phantom displacements within US images. Both calibration and validation can be performed on arbitrary phantoms. Results indicate that normalized mutual information and localized cross correlation produce the most accurate 3D US registrations for calibration. Volumetric image alignment is more accurate and reproducible than point selection for validating the calibrations, yielding <1.5 mm root mean square error, a significant improvement relative to previously reported hand-eye US calibration results. Comparison of two different phantoms for calibration and for validation revealed significant differences for validation (p = 0.003) but not for calibration (p = 0.795). (paper)

  17. 3D ultrasound Nakagami imaging for radiation-induced vaginal fibrosis

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Shelton, Joseph; Bruner, Debrorah; Tridandapani, Srini; Liu, Tian

    2014-03-01

    Radiation-induced vaginal fibrosis is a debilitating side-effect affecting up to 80% of women receiving radiotherapy for their gynecological (GYN) malignancies. Despite the significant incidence and severity, little research has been conducted to identify the pathophysiologic changes of vaginal toxicity. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that ultrasound Nakagami shape and PDF parameters can be used to quantify radiation-induced vaginal toxicity. These Nakagami parameters are derived from the statistics of ultrasound backscattered signals to capture the physical properties (e.g., arrangement and distribution) of the biological tissues. In this paper, we propose to expand this Nakagami imaging concept from 2D to 3D to fully characterize radiation-induced changes to the vaginal wall within the radiation treatment field. A pilot study with 5 post-radiotherapy GYN patients was conducted using a clinical ultrasound scanner (6 MHz) with a mechanical stepper. A serial of 2D ultrasound images, with radio-frequency (RF) signals, were acquired at 1 mm step size. The 2D Nakagami shape and PDF parameters were calculated from the RF signal envelope with a sliding window, and then 3D Nakagami parameter images were generated from the parallel 2D images. This imaging method may be useful as we try to monitor radiation-induced vaginal injury, and address vaginal toxicities and sexual dysfunction in women after radiotherapy for GYN malignancies.

  18. Comparison of 3-D Synthetic Aperture Phased-Array Ultrasound Imaging and Parallel Beamforming

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that synthetic apertureimaging (SAI) can be used to achieve real-time 3-D ultra-sound phased-array imaging. It investigates whether SAI in-creases the image quality compared with the parallel beam-forming (PB) technique for real-time 3-D imaging. Data areobtained using both...... simulations and measurements with anultrasound research scanner and a commercially available 3.5-MHz 1024-element 2-D transducer array. To limit the probecable thickness, 256 active elements are used in transmit andreceive for both techniques. The two imaging techniques weredesigned for cardiac imaging, which...... requires sequences de-signed for imaging down to 15cm of depth and a frame rateof at least 20Hz. The imaging quality of the two techniquesis investigated through simulations as a function of depth andangle. SAI improved the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) at low steering angles by 35%, and the 20-d...

  19. 3D Elastic Registration of Ultrasound Images Based on Skeleton Feature

    LI Dan-dan; LIU Zhi-Yan; SHEN Yi

    2005-01-01

    In order to eliminate displacement and elastic deformation between images of adjacent frames in course of 3D ultrasonic image reconstruction, elastic registration based on skeleton feature was adopt in this paper. A new automatically skeleton tracking extract algorithm is presented, which can extract connected skeleton to express figure feature. Feature points of connected skeleton are extracted automatically by accounting topical curvature extreme points several times. Initial registration is processed according to barycenter of skeleton. Whereafter, elastic registration based on radial basis function are processed according to feature points of skeleton. Result of example demonstrate that according to traditional rigid registration, elastic registration based on skeleton feature retain natural difference in shape for organ's different part, and eliminate slight elastic deformation between frames caused by image obtained process simultaneously. This algorithm has a high practical value for image registration in course of 3D ultrasound image reconstruction.

  20. Optimizing nonrigid registration performance between volumetric true 3D ultrasound images in image-guided neurosurgery

    Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Roberts, David W.; Hartov, Alex; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2011-03-01

    Compensating for brain shift as surgery progresses is important to ensure sufficient accuracy in patient-to-image registration in the operating room (OR) for reliable neuronavigation. Ultrasound has emerged as an important and practical imaging technique for brain shift compensation either by itself or through computational modeling that estimates whole-brain deformation. Using volumetric true 3D ultrasound (3DUS), it is possible to nonrigidly (e.g., based on B-splines) register two temporally different 3DUS images directly to generate feature displacement maps for data assimilation in the biomechanical model. Because of a large amount of data and number of degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) involved, however, a significant computational cost may be required that can adversely influence the clinical feasibility of the technique for efficiently generating model-updated MR (uMR) in the OR. This paper parametrically investigates three B-splines registration parameters and their influence on the computational cost and registration accuracy: number of grid nodes along each direction, floating image volume down-sampling rate, and number of iterations. A simulated rigid body displacement field was employed as a ground-truth against which the accuracy of displacements generated from the B-splines nonrigid registration was compared. A set of optimal parameters was then determined empirically that result in a registration computational cost of less than 1 min and a sub-millimetric accuracy in displacement measurement. These resulting parameters were further applied to a clinical surgery case to demonstrate their practical use. Our results indicate that the optimal set of parameters result in sufficient accuracy and computational efficiency in model computation, which is important for future application of the overall biomechanical modeling to generate uMR for image-guidance in the OR.

  1. Development of a Wireless and Near Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Strain Imaging System.

    Chen, Zhaohong; Chen, Yongdong; Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an important medical imaging tool for characterization of lesions. In this paper, we present a wireless and near real-time 3D ultrasound strain imaging system. It uses a 3D translating device to control a commercial linear ultrasound transducer to collect pre-compression and post-compression radio-frequency (RF) echo signal frames. The RF frames are wirelessly transferred to a high-performance server via a local area network (LAN). A dynamic programming strain estimation algorithm is implemented with the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) on the graphic processing unit (GPU) in the server to calculate the strain image after receiving a pre-compression RF frame and a post-compression RF frame at the same position. Each strain image is inserted into a strain volume which can be rendered in near real-time. We take full advantage of the translating device to precisely control the probe movement and compression. The GPU-based parallel computing techniques are designed to reduce the computation time. Phantom and in vivo experimental results demonstrate that our system can generate strain volumes with good quality and display an incrementally reconstructed volume image in near real-time. PMID:26954841

  2. Registration of Real-Time 3-D Ultrasound to Tomographic Images of the Abdominal Aorta.

    Brekken, Reidar; Iversen, Daniel Høyer; Tangen, Geir Arne; Dahl, Torbjørn

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an image-based method for registration of real-time 3-D ultrasound to computed tomography (CT) of the abdominal aorta, targeting future use in ultrasound-guided endovascular intervention. We proposed a method in which a surface model of the aortic wall was segmented from CT, and the approximate initial location of this model relative to the ultrasound volume was manually indicated. The model was iteratively transformed to automatically optimize correspondence to the ultrasound data. Feasibility was studied using data from a silicon phantom and in vivo data from a volunteer with previously acquired CT. Through visual evaluation, the ultrasound and CT data were seen to correspond well after registration. Both aortic lumen and branching arteries were well aligned. The processing was done offline, and the registration took approximately 0.2 s per ultrasound volume. The results encourage further patient studies to investigate accuracy, robustness and clinical value of the approach. PMID:27156015

  3. A new combined prior based reconstruction method for compressed sensing in 3D ultrasound imaging

    Uddin, Muhammad S.; Islam, Rafiqul; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew J.; Pickering, Mark R.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is one of the most popular medical imaging modalities, with 3D US imaging gaining popularity recently due to its considerable advantages over 2D US imaging. However, as it is limited by long acquisition times and the huge amount of data processing it requires, methods for reducing these factors have attracted considerable research interest. Compressed sensing (CS) is one of the best candidates for accelerating the acquisition rate and reducing the data processing time without degrading image quality. However, CS is prone to introduce noise-like artefacts due to random under-sampling. To address this issue, we propose a combined prior-based reconstruction method for 3D US imaging. A Laplacian mixture model (LMM) constraint in the wavelet domain is combined with a total variation (TV) constraint to create a new regularization regularization prior. An experimental evaluation conducted to validate our method using synthetic 3D US images shows that it performs better than other approaches in terms of both qualitative and quantitative measures.

  4. Model fitting using RANSAC for surgical tool localization in 3-D ultrasound images.

    Uhercík, Marián; Kybic, Jan; Liebgott, Hervé; Cachard, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Ultrasound guidance is used for many surgical interventions such as biopsy and electrode insertion. We present a method to localize a thin surgical tool such as a biopsy needle or a microelectrode in a 3-D ultrasound image. The proposed method starts with thresholding and model fitting using random sample consensus for robust localization of the axis. Subsequent local optimization refines its position. Two different tool image models are presented: one is simple and fast and the second uses learned a priori information about the tool's voxel intensities and the background. Finally, the tip of the tool is localized by finding an intensity drop along the axis. The simulation study shows that our algorithm can localize the tool at nearly real-time speed, even using a MATLAB implementation, with accuracy better than 1 mm. In an experimental comparison with several alternative localization methods, our method appears to be the fastest and the most robust one. We also show the results on real 3-D ultrasound data from a PVA cryogel phantom, turkey breast, and breast biopsy. PMID:20483680

  5. 3D transrectal ultrasound prostate biopsy using a mechanical imaging and needle-guidance system

    Bax, Jeffrey; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Montreuil, Jacques; Gil, Elena; Bluvol, Jeremy; Knight, Kerry; Smith, David; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-03-01

    Prostate biopsy procedures are generally limited to 2D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging for biopsy needle guidance. This limitation results in needle position ambiguity and an insufficient record of biopsy core locations in cases of prostate re-biopsy. We have developed a multi-jointed mechanical device that supports a commercially available TRUS probe with an integrated needle guide for precision prostate biopsy. The device is fixed at the base, allowing the joints to be manually manipulated while fully supporting its weight throughout its full range of motion. Means are provided to track the needle trajectory and display this trajectory on a corresponding TRUS image. This allows the physician to aim the needle-guide at predefined targets within the prostate, providing true 3D navigation. The tracker has been designed for use with several end-fired transducers that can be rotated about the longitudinal axis of the probe to generate 3D images. The tracker reduces the variability associated with conventional hand-held probes, while preserving user familiarity and procedural workflow. In a prostate phantom, biopsy needles were guided to within 2 mm of their targets, and the 3D location of the biopsy core was accurate to within 3 mm. The 3D navigation system is validated in the presence of prostate motion in a preliminary patient study.

  6. Simulation Study of Real Time 3-D Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming for Ultrasound Imaging

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Stuart, Matthias Bo;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new beamforming method for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging using a 2-D matrix transducer. To obtain images with sufficient resolution and contrast, several thousand elements are needed. The proposed method reduces the required channel count from the...... transducer to the main imaging system, by including electronics in the transducer handle. The reduction of element channel count is achieved using a sequential beamforming scheme. The beamforming scheme is a combination of a fixed focus beamformer in the transducer and a second dynamic focus beamformer in...... the main system. The real-time imaging capability is achieved using a synthetic aperture beamforming technique, utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual elements that in combination can generate an image. The two core capabilities in combination is named Synthetic Aperture Sequential...

  7. A preliminary evaluation work on a 3D ultrasound imaging system for 2D array transducer

    Zhong, Xiaoli; Li, Xu; Yang, Jiali; Li, Chunyu; Song, Junjie; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a preliminary evaluation work on a pre-designed 3-D ultrasound imaging system. The system mainly consists of four parts, a 7.5MHz, 24×24 2-D array transducer, the transmit/receive circuit, power supply, data acquisition and real-time imaging module. The row-column addressing scheme is adopted for the transducer fabrication, which greatly reduces the number of active channels . The element area of the transducer is 4.6mm by 4.6mm. Four kinds of tests were carried out to evaluate the imaging performance, including the penetration depth range, axial and lateral resolution, positioning accuracy and 3-D imaging frame rate. Several strong reflection metal objects , fixed in a water tank, were selected for the purpose of imaging due to a low signal-to-noise ratio of the transducer. The distance between the transducer and the tested objects , the thickness of aluminum, and the seam width of the aluminum sheet were measured by a calibrated micrometer to evaluate the penetration depth, the axial and lateral resolution, respectively. The experiment al results showed that the imaging penetration depth range was from 1.0cm to 6.2cm, the axial and lateral resolution were 0.32mm and 1.37mm respectively, the imaging speed was up to 27 frames per second and the positioning accuracy was 9.2%.

  8. Evaluation of Gastric Volumes: Comparison of 3-D Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Buisman, Wijnand J; Mauritz, Femke A; Westerhuis, Wouter E; Gilja, Odd Helge; van der Zee, David C; van Herwaarden-Lindeboom, Maud Y A

    2016-07-01

    To investigate gastric accommodation, accurate measurements of gastric volumes are necessary. An excellent technique to measure gastric volumes is dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Unfortunately, dynamic MRI is expensive and not always available. A new 3-D ultrasound (US) method using a matrix transducer was developed to measure gastric volumes. In this prospective study, 14 healthy volunteers underwent a dynamic MRI and a 3-D US. Gastric volumes were calculated with intra-gastric liquid content and total gastric volume. Mean postprandial liquid gastric content was 397 ± 96.5 mL. Mean volume difference was 1.0 mL with limits of agreement of -8.9 to 10.9 mL. When gastric air was taken into account, mean total gastric volume was 540 ± 115.4 mL SD. Mean volume difference was 2.3 mL with limits of agreement of -21.1 to 26.4 mL. The matrix 3-D US showed excellent agreement with dynamic MRI. Therefore matrix 3-D US is a reliable alternative to measure gastric volumes. PMID:27067418

  9. Craniosynostosis: prenatal diagnosis by 2D/3D ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography.

    Helfer, Talita Micheletti; Peixoto, Alberto Borges; Tonni, Gabriele; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2016-09-01

    Craniosynostosis is defined as the process of premature fusion of one or more of the cranial sutures. It is a common condition that occurs in about 1 to 2,000 live births. Craniosynostosis may be classified in primary or secondary. It is also classified as nonsyndromic or syndromic. According to suture commitment, craniosynostosis may affect a single suture or multiple sutures. There is a wide range of syndromes involving craniosynostosis and the most common are Apert, Pffeifer, Crouzon, Shaethre-Chotzen and Muenke syndromes. The underlying etiology of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is unknown. Mutations in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling pathway play a crucial role in the etiology of craniosynostosis syndromes. Prenatal ultrasound`s detection rate of craniosynostosis is low. Nowadays, different methods can be applied for prenatal diagnosis of craniosynostosis, such as two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan and, finally, molecular diagnosis. The presence of craniosynostosis may affect the birthing process. Fetuses with craniosynostosis also have higher rates of perinatal complications. In order to avoid the risks of untreated craniosynostosis, children are usually treated surgically soon after postnatal diagnosis. PMID:27622416

  10. Segmentation of the common carotid artery with active shape models from 3D ultrasound images

    Yang, Xin; Jin, Jiaoying; He, Wanji; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue

    2012-03-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a major cause of stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a new segmentation method for outlining both lumen and adventitia (inner and outer walls) of common carotid artery (CCA) from three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) images for carotid atherosclerosis diagnosis and evaluation. The data set consists of sixty-eight, 17× 2× 2, 3D US volume data acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of seventeen patients (eight treated with 80mg atorvastain and nine with placebo), who had carotid stenosis of 60% or more, at baseline and after three months of treatment. We investigate the use of Active Shape Models (ASMs) to segment CCA inner and outer walls after statin therapy. The proposed method was evaluated with respect to expert manually outlined boundaries as a surrogate for ground truth. For the lumen and adventitia segmentations, respectively, the algorithm yielded Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 93.6%+/- 2.6%, 91.8%+/- 3.5%, mean absolute distances (MAD) of 0.28+/- 0.17mm and 0.34 +/- 0.19mm, maximum absolute distances (MAXD) of 0.87 +/- 0.37mm and 0.74 +/- 0.49mm. The proposed algorithm took 4.4 +/- 0.6min to segment a single 3D US images, compared to 11.7+/-1.2min for manual segmentation. Therefore, the method would promote the translation of carotid 3D US to clinical care for the fast, safety and economical monitoring of the atherosclerotic disease progression and regression during therapy.

  11. Semiautomatic registration of 3D transabdominal ultrasound images for patient repositioning during postprostatectomy radiotherapy

    Purpose: The aim of the present work is to propose and evaluate registration algorithms of three-dimensional (3D) transabdominal (TA) ultrasound (US) images to setup postprostatectomy patients during radiation therapy. Methods: Three registration methods have been developed and evaluated to register a reference 3D-TA-US image acquired during the planning CT session and a 3D-TA-US image acquired before each treatment session. The first method (method A) uses only gray value information, whereas the second one (method B) uses only gradient information. The third one (method C) combines both sets of information. All methods restrict the comparison to a region of interest computed from the dilated reference positioning volume drawn on the reference image and use mutual information as a similarity measure. The considered geometric transformations are translations and have been optimized by using the adaptive stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Validation has been carried out using manual registration by three operators of the same set of image pairs as the algorithms. Sixty-two treatment US images of seven patients irradiated after a prostatectomy have been registered to their corresponding reference US image. The reference registration has been defined as the average of the manual registration values. Registration error has been calculated by subtracting the reference registration from the algorithm result. For each session, the method has been considered a failure if the registration error was above both the interoperator variability of the session and a global threshold of 3.0 mm. Results: All proposed registration algorithms have no systematic bias. Method B leads to the best results with mean errors of −0.6, 0.7, and −0.2 mm in left–right (LR), superior–inferior (SI), and anterior–posterior (AP) directions, respectively. With this method, the standard deviations of the mean error are of 1.7, 2.4, and 2.6 mm in LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively

  12. Semiautomatic registration of 3D transabdominal ultrasound images for patient repositioning during postprostatectomy radiotherapy

    Presles, Benoît, E-mail: benoit.presles@creatis.insa-lyon.fr; Rit, Simon; Sarrut, David [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Lyon F-69621, France and Léon Bérard Cancer Center, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69373 (France); Fargier-Voiron, Marie; Liebgott, Hervé [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Lyon F-69621 (France); Biston, Marie-Claude; Munoz, Alexandre; Pommier, Pascal [Léon Bérard Cancer Center, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69373 (France); Lynch, Rod [The Andrew Love Cancer Centre, University Hospital Geelong, Geelong 3220 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present work is to propose and evaluate registration algorithms of three-dimensional (3D) transabdominal (TA) ultrasound (US) images to setup postprostatectomy patients during radiation therapy. Methods: Three registration methods have been developed and evaluated to register a reference 3D-TA-US image acquired during the planning CT session and a 3D-TA-US image acquired before each treatment session. The first method (method A) uses only gray value information, whereas the second one (method B) uses only gradient information. The third one (method C) combines both sets of information. All methods restrict the comparison to a region of interest computed from the dilated reference positioning volume drawn on the reference image and use mutual information as a similarity measure. The considered geometric transformations are translations and have been optimized by using the adaptive stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Validation has been carried out using manual registration by three operators of the same set of image pairs as the algorithms. Sixty-two treatment US images of seven patients irradiated after a prostatectomy have been registered to their corresponding reference US image. The reference registration has been defined as the average of the manual registration values. Registration error has been calculated by subtracting the reference registration from the algorithm result. For each session, the method has been considered a failure if the registration error was above both the interoperator variability of the session and a global threshold of 3.0 mm. Results: All proposed registration algorithms have no systematic bias. Method B leads to the best results with mean errors of −0.6, 0.7, and −0.2 mm in left–right (LR), superior–inferior (SI), and anterior–posterior (AP) directions, respectively. With this method, the standard deviations of the mean error are of 1.7, 2.4, and 2.6 mm in LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively

  13. Ultrasound and 3D Skin Imaging: Methods to Evaluate Efficacy of Striae Distensae Treatment

    Mariella Bleve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over time, the striae rubra develop into striae alba that appear white, flat, and depressed. It is very important to determine the optimum striae management. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography and PRIMOS can be used to obtain an objective assessment of stretch marks type and stage; furthermore, we aim to apply these techniques to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. Methods. 20 volunteers were enrolled with a two-month study. A marketed cosmetic product was used as the active over one body area. The controlateral area with stretch marks was treated with a “placebo” formulation without active, as a control. The instrumental evaluation was carried out at the beginning of the trial (baseline values or 0, after 1 month (1, and at the end of the study (2. Results. PRIMOS was able to measure and document striae distensae maturation; furthermore, ultrasound imaging permitted to visualize and diagnose the striae. Statistical analysis of skin roughness demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of Rp value only in a treated group. In fact, the Rp value represented a maximum peak height in the area selected. These results demonstrated that after two months of treatment only the striae rubra can be treated successfully. Conclusions. This work demonstrated that the 22MHz ultrasound can diagnose stretch marks; PRIMOS device can detect and measure striae distensae type and maturation. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound and the 3D image device, described in this work, can be successfully employed in order to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment.

  14. 3-D Ultrasound Imaging Performance of a Row-Column Addressed 2-D Array Transducer: A Measurement Study

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    A real-time 3-D ultrasound measurement using only 32 elements and 32 emissions is presented. The imaging quality is compared to a conventionally fully addressed array using 1024 elements and 256 emissions. The main-lobe of the measured line spread function is almost identical, but the side...

  15. Multi-modality fusion of CT, 3D ultrasound, and tracked strain images for breast irradiation planning

    Foroughi, Pezhman; Csoma, Csaba; Rivaz, Hassan; Fichtinger, Gabor; Zellars, Richard; Hager, Gregory; Boctor, Emad

    2009-02-01

    Breast irradiation significantly reduces the risk of recurrence of cancer. There is growing evidence suggesting that irradiation of only the involved area of the breast, partial breast irradiation (PBI), is as effective as whole breast irradiation. Benefits of PBI include shortened treatment time, and perhaps fewer side effects as less tissue is treated. However, these benefits cannot be realized without precise and accurate localization of the lumpectomy cavity. Several studies have shown that accurate delineation of the cavity in CT scans is very challenging and the delineated volumes differ dramatically over time and among users. In this paper, we propose utilizing 3D ultrasound (3D-US) and tracked strain images as complementary modalities to reduce uncertainties associated with current CT planning workflow. We present the early version of an integrated system that fuses 3D-US and real-time strain images. For the first time, we employ tracking information to reduce the noise in calculation of strain image by choosing the properly compressed frames and to position the strain image within the ultrasound volume. Using this system, we provide the tools to retrieve additional information from 3D-US and strain image alongside the CT scan. We have preliminarily evaluated our proposed system in a step-by-step fashion using a breast phantom and clinical experiments.

  16. Carotid artery lumen segmentation in 3D free-hand ultrasound images using surface graph cuts.

    Lorza, Andrés M Arias; Carvalho, Diego D B; Petersen, Jens; van Dijk, Anouk C; van der Lugt, Aad; Niessen, Wiro J; Klein, Stefan; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach for automated segmentation of the carotid lumen bifurcation from 3D free-hand ultrasound using a 3D surface graph cut method. The method requires only the manual selection of single seed points in the internal, external, and common carotid arteries. Subsequently, the centerline between these points is automatically traced, and the optimal lumen surface is found around the centerline using graph cuts. To refine the result, the latter process was iterated. The method was tested on twelve carotid arteries from six subjects including three patients with a moderate carotid artery stenosis. Our method successfully segmented the lumen in all cases. We obtained an average dice overlap with respect to a manual segmentation of 84% for healthy volunteers. For the patient data, we obtained a dice overlap of 66.7%. PMID:24579183

  17. Measurement of the 3D arterial wall strain tensor using intravascular B-mode ultrasound images: a feasibility study

    Liang, Yun; Zhu, Hui; Friedman, Morton H.

    2010-11-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography is a promising tool for studying atherosclerotic plaque composition and assessing plaque vulnerability. Current IVUS elastography techniques can measure the 1D or 2D strain of the vessel wall using various motion tracking algorithms. Since biological soft tissue tends to deform non-uniformly in 3D, measurement of the complete 3D strain tensor is desirable for more rigorous analysis of arterial wall mechanics. In this paper, we extend our previously developed method of 2D arterial wall strain measurement based on non-rigid image registration into 3D strain measurement. The new technique registers two image volumes acquired from the same vessel segment under different levels of luminal pressure and longitudinal stress. The 3D displacement field obtained from the image registration is used to calculate the local 3D strain tensor. From the 3D strain tensor, radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain distributions can be obtained and displayed. This strain tensor measurement method is validated and evaluated using IVUS images of healthy porcine carotid arteries subjected to a luminal pressure increase and longitudinal stretch. The ability of the algorithm to overcome systematic noise was tested, as well as the consistency of the results under different longitudinal frame resolutions.

  18. A computational model for estimating tumor margins in complementary tactile and 3D ultrasound images

    Shamsil, Arefin; Escoto, Abelardo; Naish, Michael D.; Patel, Rajni V.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional surgical methods are effective for treating lung tumors; however, they impose high trauma and pain to patients. Minimally invasive surgery is a safer alternative as smaller incisions are required to reach the lung; however, it is challenging due to inadequate intraoperative tumor localization. To address this issue, a mechatronic palpation device was developed that incorporates tactile and ultrasound sensors capable of acquiring surface and cross-sectional images of palpated tissue. Initial work focused on tactile image segmentation and fusion of position-tracked tactile images, resulting in a reconstruction of the palpated surface to compute the spatial locations of underlying tumors. This paper presents a computational model capable of analyzing orthogonally-paired tactile and ultrasound images to compute the surface circumference and depth margins of a tumor. The framework also integrates an error compensation technique and an algebraic model to align all of the image pairs and to estimate the tumor depths within the tracked thickness of a palpated tissue. For validation, an ex vivo experimental study was conducted involving the complete palpation of 11 porcine liver tissues injected with iodine-agar tumors of varying sizes and shapes. The resulting tactile and ultrasound images were then processed using the proposed model to compute the tumor margins and compare them to fluoroscopy based physical measurements. The results show a good negative correlation (r = -0.783, p = 0.004) between the tumor surface margins and a good positive correlation (r = 0.743, p = 0.009) between the tumor depth margins.

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be ...

  20. Automated segmentation method for the 3D ultrasound carotid image based on geometrically deformable model with automatic merge function

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Zigang; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2002-05-01

    Stenosis of the carotid is the most common cause of the stroke. The accurate measurement of the volume of the carotid and visualization of its shape are helpful in improving diagnosis and minimizing the variability of assessment of the carotid disease. Due to the complex anatomic structure of the carotid, it is mandatory to define the initial contours in every slice, which is very difficult and usually requires tedious manual operations. The purpose of this paper is to propose an automatic segmentation method, which automatically provides the contour of the carotid from the 3-D ultrasound image and requires minimum user interaction. In this paper, we developed the Geometrically Deformable Model (GDM) with automatic merge function. In our algorithm, only two initial contours in the topmost slice and four parameters are needed in advance. Simulated 3-D ultrasound image was used to test our algorithm. 3-D display of the carotid obtained by our algorithm showed almost identical shape with true 3-D carotid image. In addition, experimental results also demonstrated that error of the volume measurement of the carotid based on the three different initial contours is less that 1% and its speed was a very fast.

  1. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  2. Determining inter-fractional motion of the uterus using 3D ultrasound imaging during radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    Baker, Mariwan; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Behrens, Claus F.

    2014-01-01

    Uterine positional changes can reduce the accuracy of radiotherapy for cervical cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to; 1) Quantify the inter-fractional uterine displacement using a novel 3D ultrasound (US) imaging system, and 2) Compare the result with the bone match shift determined...... by Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) imaging.Five cervical cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Three of them underwent weekly CBCT imaging prior to treatment and bone match shift was applied. After treatment delivery they underwent a weekly US scan. The transabdominal scans were conducted using a Clarity US...

  3. In vivo validation of a 3D ultrasound system for imaging the lateral ventricles of neonates

    Kishimoto, J.; Fenster, A.; Chen, N.; Lee, D.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2014-03-01

    Dilated lateral ventricles in neonates can be due to many different causes, such as brain loss, or congenital malformation; however, the main cause is hydrocephalus, which is the accumulation of fluid within the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus can raise intracranial pressure resulting in secondary brain damage, and up to 25% of patients with severely enlarged ventricles have epilepsy in later life. Ventricle enlargement is clinically monitored using 2D US through the fontanels. The sensitivity of 2D US to dilation is poor because it cannot provide accurate measurements of irregular volumes such as the ventricles, so most clinical evaluations are of a qualitative nature. We developed a 3D US system to image the cerebral ventricles of neonates within the confines of incubators that can be easily translated to more open environments. Ventricle volumes can be segmented from these images giving a quantitative volumetric measurement of ventricle enlargement without moving the patient into an imaging facility. In this paper, we report on in vivo validation studies: 1) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes before and after clinically necessary interventions removing CSF, and 2) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes to those from MRI. Post-intervention ventricle volumes were less than pre-intervention measurements for all patients and all interventions. We found high correlations (R = 0.97) between the difference in ventricle volume and the reported removed CSF with the slope not significantly different than 1 (p MR images taken 4 (±3.8) days of each other did not show significant difference (p=0.44) between 3D US and MRI through paired t-test.

  4. Three dimensional level set based semiautomatic segmentation of atherosclerotic carotid artery wall volume using 3D ultrasound imaging

    Hossain, Md. Murad; AlMuhanna, Khalid; Zhao, Limin; Lal, Brajesh K.; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2014-03-01

    3D segmentation of carotid plaque from ultrasound (US) images is challenging due to image artifacts and poor boundary definition. Semiautomatic segmentation algorithms for calculating vessel wall volume (VWV) have been proposed for the common carotid artery (CCA) but they have not been applied on plaques in the internal carotid artery (ICA). In this work, we describe a 3D segmentation algorithm that is robust to shadowing and missing boundaries. Our algorithm uses distance regularized level set method with edge and region based energy to segment the adventitial wall boundary (AWB) and lumen-intima boundary (LIB) of plaques in the CCA, ICA and external carotid artery (ECA). The algorithm is initialized by manually placing points on the boundary of a subset of transverse slices with an interslice distance of 4mm. We propose a novel user defined stopping surface based energy to prevent leaking of evolving surface across poorly defined boundaries. Validation was performed against manual segmentation using 3D US volumes acquired from five asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis using a linear 4D probe. A pseudo gold-standard boundary was formed from manual segmentation by three observers. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), Hausdor distance (HD) and modified HD (MHD) were used to compare the algorithm results against the pseudo gold-standard on 1205 cross sectional slices of 5 3D US image sets. The algorithm showed good agreement with the pseudo gold standard boundary with mean DSC of 93.3% (AWB) and 89.82% (LIB); mean MHD of 0.34 mm (AWB) and 0.24 mm (LIB); mean HD of 1.27 mm (AWB) and 0.72 mm (LIB). The proposed 3D semiautomatic segmentation is the first step towards full characterization of 3D plaque progression and longitudinal monitoring.

  5. 3D perfused brain phantom for interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy and imaging: design, construction and characterization

    Thermal therapy has emerged as an independent modality of treating some tumors. In many clinics the hyperthermia, one of the thermal therapy modalities, has been used adjuvant to radio- or chemotherapy to substantially improve the clinical treatment outcomes. In this work, a methodology for building a realistic brain phantom for interstitial ultrasound low dose-rate thermal therapy of the brain is proposed. A 3D brain phantom made of the tissue mimicking material (TMM) had the acoustic and thermal properties in the 20–32 °C range, which is similar to that of a brain at 37 °C. The phantom had 10–11% by mass of bovine gelatin powder dissolved in ethylene glycol. The TMM sonicated at 1 MHz, 1.6 MHz and 2.5 MHz yielded the amplitude attenuation coefficients of 62  ±  1 dB m−1, 115  ±  4 dB m−1 and 175  ±  9 dB m−1, respectively. The density and acoustic speed determination at room temperature (∼24 °C) gave 1040  ±  40 kg m−3 and 1545  ±  44 m s−1, respectively. The average thermal conductivity was 0.532 W m−1 K−1. The T1 and T2 values of the TMM were 207  ±  4 and 36.2  ±  0.4 ms, respectively. We envisage the use of our phantom for treatment planning and for quality assurance in MRI based temperature determination. Our phantom preparation methodology may be readily extended to other thermal therapy technologies. (paper)

  6. Segmentation of the lumen and media-adventitia boundaries of the common carotid artery from 3D ultrasound images

    Ukwatta, E.; Awad, J.; Ward, A. D.; Samarabandu, J.; Krasinski, A.; Parraga, G.; Fenster, A.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) vessel wall volume (VWV) measurements provide high measurement sensitivity and reproducibility for the monitoring and assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. In this paper, we describe a semiautomated approach based on the level set method to delineate the media-adventitia and lumen boundaries of the common carotid artery from 3D US images to support the computation of VWV. Due to the presence of plaque and US image artifacts, the carotid arteries are challenging to segment using image information alone. Our segmentation framework combines several image cues with domain knowledge and limited user interaction. Our method was evaluated with respect to manually outlined boundaries on 430 2D US images extracted from 3D US images of 30 patients who have carotid stenosis of 60% or more. The VWV given by our method differed from that given by manual segmentation by 6.7% +/- 5.0%. For the media-adventitia and lumen segmentations, respectively, our method yielded Dice coefficients of 95.2% +/- 1.6%, 94.3% +/- 2.6%, mean absolute distances of 0.3 +/- 0.1 mm, 0.2 +/- 0.1 mm, maximum absolute distances of 0.8 +/- 0.4 mm, 0.6 +/- 0.3 mm, and volume differences of 4.2% +/- 3.1%, 3.4% +/- 2.6%. The realization of a semi-automated segmentation method will accelerate the translation of 3D carotid US to clinical care for the rapid, non-invasive, and economical monitoring of atherosclerotic disease progression and regression during therapy.

  7. SU-E-J-135: An Investigation of Ultrasound Imaging for 3D Intra-Fraction Prostate Motion Estimation

    Purpose: This study investigates the use of a mechanically swept 3D ultrasound (US) probe to estimate intra-fraction motion of the prostate during radiation therapy using an US phantom and simulated transperineal imaging. Methods: A 3D motion platform was used to translate an US speckle phantom while simulating transperineal US imaging. Motion patterns for five representative types of prostate motion, generated from patient data previously acquired with a Calypso system, were using to move the phantom in 3D. The phantom was also implanted with fiducial markers and subsequently tracked using the CyberKnife kV x-ray system for comparison. A normalised cross correlation block matching algorithm was used to track speckle patterns in 3D and 2D US data. Motion estimation results were compared with known phantom translations. Results: Transperineal 3D US could track superior-inferior (axial) and anterior-posterior (lateral) motion to better than 0.8 mm root-mean-square error (RMSE) at a volume rate of 1.7 Hz (comparable with kV x-ray tracking RMSE). Motion estimation accuracy was poorest along the US probe's swept axis (right-left; RL; RMSE < 4.2 mm) but simple regularisation methods could be used to improve RMSE (< 2 mm). 2D US was found to be feasible for slowly varying motion (RMSE < 0.5 mm). 3D US could also allow accurate radiation beam gating with displacement thresholds of 2 mm and 5 mm exhibiting a RMSE of less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: 2D and 3D US speckle tracking is feasible for prostate motion estimation during radiation delivery. Since RL prostate motion is small in magnitude and frequency, 2D or a hybrid (2D/3D) US imaging approach which also accounts for potential prostate rotations could be used. Regularisation methods could be used to ensure the accuracy of tracking data, making US a feasible approach for gating or tracking in standard or hypo-fractionated prostate treatments

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ... not stain or discolor clothing. In some ultrasound studies, the transducer is attached to a probe and ...

  9. Automatic segmentation and 3D reconstruction of intravascular ultrasound images for a fast preliminar evaluation of vessel pathologies.

    Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Moratal, David; García-Sánchez, Diego Ramón; Bodí, Vicente; Rieta, José Joaquín; Sanchis, Juan Manuel

    2007-03-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is used along with X-ray coronary angiography to detect vessel pathologies. Manual analysis of IVUS images is slow and time-consuming and it is not feasible for clinical purposes. A semi-automated method is proposed to generate 3D reconstructions from IVUS video sequences, so that a fast diagnose can be easily done, quantifying plaque length and severity as well as plaque volume of the vessels under study. The methodology described in this work has four steps: a pre-processing of IVUS images, a segmentation of media-adventitia contour, a detection of intima and plaque and a 3D reconstruction of the vessel. Preprocessing is intended to remove noise from the images without blurring the edges. Segmentation of media-adventitia contour is achieved using active contours (snakes). In particular, we use the gradient vector flow (GVF) as external force for the snakes. The detection of lumen border is obtained taking into account gray-level information of the inner part of the previously detected contours. A knowledge-based approach is used to determine which level of gray corresponds statistically to the different regions of interest: intima, plaque and lumen. The catheter region is automatically discarded. An estimate of plaque type is also given. Finally, 3D reconstruction of all detected regions is made. The suitability of this methodology has been verified for the analysis and visualization of plaque length, stenosis severity, automatic detection of the most problematic regions, calculus of plaque volumes and a preliminary estimation of plaque type obtaining for automatic measures of lumen and vessel area an average error smaller than 1mm(2) (equivalent aproximately to 10% of the average measure), for calculus of plaque and lumen volume errors smaller than 0.5mm(3) (equivalent approximately to 20% of the average measure) and for plaque type estimates a mismatch of less than 8% in the analysed frames. PMID:17215103

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Variational Surface Reconstruction from Sparse Point Clouds in Freehand 3D Ultrasound Imaging during Image-Guided Tumor Ablation

    Shuangcheng Deng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface reconstruction for freehand 3D ultrasound is used to provide 3D visualization of a VOI (volume of interest during image-guided tumor ablation surgery. This is a challenge because the recorded 2D B-scans are not only sparse but also non-parallel. To solve this issue, we established a framework to reconstruct the surface of freehand 3D ultrasound imaging in 2011. The key technique for surface reconstruction in that framework is based on variational interpolation presented by Greg Turk for shape transformation and is named Variational Surface Reconstruction (VSR. The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the quality of surface reconstructions, especially when the input data are extremely sparse point clouds from freehand 3D ultrasound imaging, using four methods: Ball Pivoting, Power Crust, Poisson, and VSR. Four experiments are conducted, and quantitative metrics, such as the Hausdorff distance, are introduced for quantitative assessment. The experiment results show that the performance of the proposed VSR method is the best of the four methods at reconstructing surface from sparse data. The VSR method can produce a close approximation to the original surface from as few as two contours, whereas the other three methods fail to do so. The experiment results also illustrate that the reproducibility of the VSR method is the best of the four methods.

  11. Engineering a 3D ultrasound system for image-guided vascular modelling

    Hammer, Steven James

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is often diagnosed using an ultrasound (US) examination in the carotid and femoral arteries and the abdominal aorta. A decision to operate requires two measures of disease severity: the degree of stenosis measured using B-mode US; and the blood flow patterns in the artery measured using spectral Doppler US. However other biomechanical factors such as wall shear stress (WSS) and areas of flow recirculation are also important in disease development and rupture. Th...

  12. Determining inter-fractional motion of the uterus using 3D ultrasound imaging during radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    Baker, Mariwan; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Behrens, Claus F.

    2014-03-01

    Uterine positional changes can reduce the accuracy of radiotherapy for cervical cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to; 1) Quantify the inter-fractional uterine displacement using a novel 3D ultrasound (US) imaging system, and 2) Compare the result with the bone match shift determined by Cone- Beam CT (CBCT) imaging.Five cervical cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Three of them underwent weekly CBCT imaging prior to treatment and bone match shift was applied. After treatment delivery they underwent a weekly US scan. The transabdominal scans were conducted using a Clarity US system (Clarity® Model 310C00). Uterine positional shifts based on soft-tissue match using US was performed and compared to bone match shifts for the three directions. Mean value (+/-1 SD) of the US shifts were (mm); anterior-posterior (A/P): (3.8+/-5.5), superior-inferior (S/I) (-3.5+/-5.2), and left-right (L/R): (0.4+/-4.9). The variations were larger than the CBCT shifts. The largest inter-fractional displacement was from -2 mm to +14 mm in the AP-direction for patient 3. Thus, CBCT bone matching underestimates the uterine positional displacement due to neglecting internal uterine positional change to the bone structures. Since the US images were significantly better than the CBCT images in terms of soft-tissue visualization, the US system can provide an optional image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. US imaging might be a better IGRT system than CBCT, despite difficulty in capturing the entire uterus. Uterine shifts based on US imaging contains relative uterus-bone displacement, which is not taken into consideration using CBCT bone match.

  13. 3D vector flow imaging

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  14. Significant acceleration of 2D-3D registration-based fusion of ultrasound and x-ray images by mesh-based DRR rendering

    Kaiser, Markus; John, Matthias; Borsdorf, Anja; Mountney, Peter; Ionasec, Razvan; Nöttling, Alois; Kiefer, Philipp; Seeburger, Jörg; Neumuth, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    For transcatheter-based minimally invasive procedures in structural heart disease ultrasound and X-ray are the two enabling imaging modalities. A live fusion of both real-time modalities can potentially improve the workflow and the catheter navigation by combining the excellent instrument imaging of X-ray with the high-quality soft tissue imaging of ultrasound. A recently published approach to fuse X-ray fluoroscopy with trans-esophageal echo (TEE) registers the ultrasound probe to X-ray images by a 2D-3D registration method which inherently provides a registration of ultrasound images to X-ray images. In this paper, we significantly accelerate the 2D-3D registration method in this context. The main novelty is to generate the projection images (DRR) of the 3D object not via volume ray-casting but instead via a fast rendering of triangular meshes. This is possible, because in the setting for TEE/X-ray fusion the 3D geometry of the ultrasound probe is known in advance and their main components can be described by triangular meshes. We show that the new approach can achieve a speedup factor up to 65 and does not affect the registration accuracy when used in conjunction with the gradient correlation similarity measure. The improvement is independent of the underlying registration optimizer. Based on the results, a TEE/X-ray fusion could be performed with a higher frame rate and a shorter time lag towards real-time registration performance. The approach could potentially accelerate other applications of 2D-3D registrations, e.g. the registration of implant models with X-ray images.

  15. Rigid Registration of Freehand 3D Ultrasound and CT-Scan Kidney Images

    Leroy, A; Payan, Y; Troccaz, J; Leroy, Antoine; Mozer, Pierre; Payan, Yohan; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method to register a preoperative CT volume to a sparse set of intraoperative US slices. In the context of percutaneous renal puncture, the aim is to transfer a planning information to an intraoperative coordinate system. The spatial position of the US slices is measured by localizing a calibrated probe. Our method consists in optimizing a rigid 6 degree of freedom (DOF) transform by evaluating at each step the similarity between the set of US images and the CT volume. The images have been preprocessed in order to increase the relationship between CT and US pixels. Correlation Ratio turned out to be the most accurate and appropriate similarity measure to be used in a Powell-Brent minimization scheme. Results are compared to a standard rigid point-to-point registration involving segmentation, and discussed.

  16. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound scans.

    Tan, Tao; Platel, Bram; Mann, Ritse M; Huisman, Henkjan; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method to segment the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images. Determining the location of the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images is necessary in computer-aided detection systems to remove automatically detected cancer candidates beyond the chest wall and it can be of great help for inter- and intra-modal image registration. We show that the visible part of the chest wall in an automated 3D breast ultrasound image can be accurately modeled by a cylinder. We fit the surface of our cylinder model to a set of automatically detected rib-surface points. The detection of the rib-surface points is done by a classifier using features representing local image intensity patterns and presence of rib shadows. Due to attenuation of the ultrasound signal, a clear shadow is visible behind the ribs. Evaluation of our segmentation method is done by computing the distance of manually annotated rib points to the surface of the automatically detected chest wall. We examined the performance on images obtained with the two most common 3D breast ultrasound devices in the market. In a dataset of 142 images, the average mean distance of the annotated points to the segmented chest wall was 5.59 ± 3.08 mm. PMID:23273891

  17. [An integrated segmentation method for 3D ultrasound carotid artery].

    Yang, Xin; Wu, Huihui; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hongwei; Liang, Huageng; Cai, Wenjuan; Fang, Mengjie; Wang, Yujie

    2013-07-01

    An integrated segmentation method for 3D ultrasound carotid artery was proposed. 3D ultrasound image was sliced into transverse, coronal and sagittal 2D images on the carotid bifurcation point. Then, the three images were processed respectively, and the carotid artery contours and thickness were obtained finally. This paper tries to overcome the disadvantages of current computer aided diagnosis method, such as high computational complexity, easily introduced subjective errors et al. The proposed method could get the carotid artery overall information rapidly, accurately and completely. It could be transplanted into clinical usage for atherosclerosis diagnosis and prevention. PMID:24195385

  18. Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for 3-D Imaging

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    Real-time ultrasound imaging is a widely used technique in medical diagnostics. Recently, ultrasound systems offering real-time imaging in 3-D has emerged. However, the high complexity of the transducer probes and the considerable increase in data to be processed compared to conventional 2-D...... ultrasound imaging results in expensive systems, which limits the more wide-spread use and clinical development of volumetric ultrasound. The main goal of this thesis is to demonstrate new transducer technologies that can achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging without the complexity and cost...... capable of producing 62+62-element row-column addressed CMUT arrays with negligible charging issues. The arrays include an integrated apodization, which reduces the ghost echoes produced by the edge waves in such arrays by 15:8 dB. The acoustical cross-talk is measured on fabricated arrays, showing a 24 d...

  19. Evaluation of a prototype 3D ultrasound system for multimodality imaging of cervical nodes for adaptive radiation therapy

    Fraser, Danielle; Fava, Palma; Cury, Fabio; Vuong, Te; Falco, Tony; Verhaegen, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Sonography has good topographic accuracy for superficial lymph node assessment in patients with head and neck cancers. It is therefore an ideal non-invasive tool for precise inter-fraction volumetric analysis of enlarged cervical nodes. In addition, when registered with computed tomography (CT) images, ultrasound information may improve target volume delineation and facilitate image-guided adaptive radiation therapy. A feasibility study was developed to evaluate the use of a prototype ultrasound system capable of three dimensional visualization and multi-modality image fusion for cervical node geometry. A ceiling-mounted optical tracking camera recorded the position and orientation of a transducer in order to synchronize the transducer's position with respect to the room's coordinate system. Tracking systems were installed in both the CT-simulator and radiation therapy treatment rooms. Serial images were collected at the time of treatment planning and at subsequent treatment fractions. Volume reconstruction was performed by generating surfaces around contours. The quality of the spatial reconstruction and semi-automatic segmentation was highly dependent on the system's ability to track the transducer throughout each scan procedure. The ultrasound information provided enhanced soft tissue contrast and facilitated node delineation. Manual segmentation was the preferred method to contour structures due to their sonographic topography.

  20. Automatic registration between 3D intra-operative ultrasound and pre-operative CT images of the liver based on robust edge matching

    The registration of a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) image with a computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance image is beneficial in various clinical applications such as diagnosis and image-guided intervention of the liver. However, conventional methods usually require a time-consuming and inconvenient manual process for pre-alignment, and the success of this process strongly depends on the proper selection of initial transformation parameters. In this paper, we present an automatic feature-based affine registration procedure of 3D intra-operative US and pre-operative CT images of the liver. In the registration procedure, we first segment vessel lumens and the liver surface from a 3D B-mode US image. We then automatically estimate an initial registration transformation by using the proposed edge matching algorithm. The algorithm finds the most likely correspondences between the vessel centerlines of both images in a non-iterative manner based on a modified Viterbi algorithm. Finally, the registration is iteratively refined on the basis of the global affine transformation by jointly using the vessel and liver surface information. The proposed registration algorithm is validated on synthesized datasets and 20 clinical datasets, through both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Experimental results show that automatic registration can be successfully achieved between 3D B-mode US and CT images even with a large initial misalignment.

  1. 3D Flow reconstruction using ultrasound PIV

    Poelma, C.; Mari, J. M.; Foin, N.; Tang, M.-X.; Krams, R; Caro, C.G.; Weinberg, P.D.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be used to obtain velocity fields in non-transparent geometries and/or fluids. In the current study, we use this technique to document the flow in a curved tube, using ultrasound contrast bubbles as flow tracer particles. The performance of the technique is first tested in a straight tube, with both steady laminar and pulsatile flows. Both experiments confirm that the technique is capable of reliable measurements. A number of adaptations are int...

  2. Position tracking of moving liver lesion based on real-time registration between 2D ultrasound and 3D preoperative images

    Weon, Chijun; Hyun Nam, Woo; Lee, Duhgoon; Ra, Jong Beom, E-mail: jbra@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Registration between 2D ultrasound (US) and 3D preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) (or computed tomography, CT) images has been studied recently for US-guided intervention. However, the existing techniques have some limits, either in the registration speed or the performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a real-time and fully automatic registration system between two intermodal images of the liver, and subsequently an indirect lesion positioning/tracking algorithm based on the registration result, for image-guided interventions. Methods: The proposed position tracking system consists of three stages. In the preoperative stage, the authors acquire several 3D preoperative MR (or CT) images at different respiratory phases. Based on the transformations obtained from nonrigid registration of the acquired 3D images, they then generate a 4D preoperative image along the respiratory phase. In the intraoperative preparatory stage, they properly attach a 3D US transducer to the patient’s body and fix its pose using a holding mechanism. They then acquire a couple of respiratory-controlled 3D US images. Via the rigid registration of these US images to the 3D preoperative images in the 4D image, the pose information of the fixed-pose 3D US transducer is determined with respect to the preoperative image coordinates. As feature(s) to use for the rigid registration, they may choose either internal liver vessels or the inferior vena cava. Since the latter is especially useful in patients with a diffuse liver disease, the authors newly propose using it. In the intraoperative real-time stage, they acquire 2D US images in real-time from the fixed-pose transducer. For each US image, they select candidates for its corresponding 2D preoperative slice from the 4D preoperative MR (or CT) image, based on the predetermined pose information of the transducer. The correct corresponding image is then found among those candidates via real-time 2D registration based on a

  3. Intensity-Based Registration of Freehand 3D Ultrasound and CT-scan Images of the Kidney

    Leroy, Antoine; Payan, Yohan; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method to register a pre-operative Computed-Tomography (CT) volume to a sparse set of intra-operative Ultra-Sound (US) slices. In the context of percutaneous renal puncture, the aim is to transfer planning information to an intra-operative coordinate system. The spatial position of the US slices is measured by optically localizing a calibrated probe. Assuming the reproducibility of kidney motion during breathing, and no deformation of the organ, the method consists in optimizing a rigid 6 Degree Of Freedom (DOF) transform by evaluating at each step the similarity between the set of US images and the CT volume. The correlation between CT and US images being naturally rather poor, the images have been preprocessed in order to increase their similarity. Among the similarity measures formerly studied in the context of medical image registration, Correlation Ratio (CR) turned out to be one of the most accurate and appropriate, particularly with the chosen non-derivative minimization scheme, n...

  4. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  5. Glasses for 3D ultrasound computer tomography: phase compensation

    Zapf, M.; Hopp, T.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT), developed at KIT, is a promising new imaging system for breast cancer diagnosis, and was successfully tested in a pilot study. The 3D USCT II prototype consists of several hundreds of ultrasound (US) transducers on a semi-ellipsoidal aperture. Spherical waves are sequentially emitted by individual transducers and received in parallel by many transducers. Reflectivity volumes are reconstructed by synthetic aperture focusing (SAFT). However, straight forward SAFT imaging leads to blurred images due to system imperfections. We present an extension of a previously proposed approach to enhance the images. This approach includes additional a priori information and system characteristics. Now spatial phase compensation was included. The approach was evaluated with a simulation and clinical data sets. An increase in the image quality was observed and quantitatively measured by SNR and other metrics.

  6. Non-rigid registration of a 3D ultrasound and a MR image data set of the female pelvic floor using a biomechanical model

    Rexilius Jan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The visual combination of different modalities is essential for many medical imaging applications in the field of Computer-Assisted medical Diagnosis (CAD to enhance the clinical information content. Clinically, incontinence is a diagnosis with high clinical prevalence and morbidity rate. The search for a method to identify risk patients and to control the success of operations is still a challenging task. The conjunction of magnetic resonance (MR and 3D ultrasound (US image data sets could lead to a new clinical visual representation of the morphology as we show with corresponding data sets of the female anal canal with this paper. Methods We present a feasibility study for a non-rigid registration technique based on a biomechanical model for MR and US image data sets of the female anal canal as a base for a new innovative clinical visual representation. Results It is shown in this case study that the internal and external sphincter region could be registered elastically and the registration partially corrects the compression induced by the ultrasound transducer, so the MR data set showing the native anatomy is used as a frame for the US data set showing the same region with higher resolution but distorted by the transducer Conclusion The morphology is of special interest in the assessment of anal incontinence and the non-rigid registration of normal clinical MR and US image data sets is a new field of the adaptation of this method incorporating the advantages of both technologies.

  7. Investigation of variability in image acquisition and contouring during 3D ultrasound guidance for partial breast irradiation

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) at simulation compared to 3DUS at treatment is an image guidance option for partial breast irradiation (PBI). This study assessed if user dependence in acquiring and contouring 3DUS (operator variability) contributed to variation in seroma shifts calculated for breast IGRT. Eligible patients met breast criteria for current randomized PBI studies. 5 Operators participated in this study. For each patient, 3 operators were involved in scan acquisitions and 5 were involved in contouring. At CT simulation (CT1), a 3DUS (US1) was performed by a single radiation therapist (RT). 7 to 14 days after CT1 a second CT (CT2) and 3 sequential 3DUS scans (US2a,b,c) were acquired by each of 3 RTs. Seroma shifts, between US1 and US2 scans were calculated by comparing geometric centers of the seromas (centroids). Operator contouring variability was determined by comparing 5 RT’s contours for a single image set. Scanning variability was assessed by comparing shifts between multiple scans acquired at the same time point (US1-US2a,b,c). Shifts in seromas contoured on CT (CT1-CT2) were compared to US data. From an initial 28 patients, 15 had CT visible seromas, met PBI dosimetric constraints, had complete US data, and were analyzed. Operator variability contributed more to the overall variability in seroma localization than the variability associated with multiple scan acquisitions (95% confidence mean uncertainty of 6.2 mm vs. 1.1 mm). The mean standard deviation in seroma shift was user dependent and ranged from 1.7 to 2.9 mm. Mean seroma shifts from simulation to treatment were comparable to CT. Variability in shifts due to different users acquiring and contouring 3DUS for PBI guidance were comparable to CT shifts. Substantial inter-observer effect needs to be considered during clinical implementation of 3DUS IGRT

  8. 3D Imager and Method for 3D imaging

    Kumar, P.; Staszewski, R.; Charbon, E.

    2013-01-01

    3D imager comprising at least one pixel, each pixel comprising a photodetectorfor detecting photon incidence and a time-to-digital converter system configured for referencing said photon incidence to a reference clock, and further comprising a reference clock generator provided for generating the re

  9. Probe Trajectory Interpolation for 3D Reconstruction of Freehand Ultrasound

    Coupé, Pierrick; Hellier, Pierre; Morandi, Xavier; Barillot, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Freehand ultrasound uses the acquisition of non parallel B-scans localized in 3D by a tracking system (optic, mechanical or magnetic). Using the positions of the irregularly spaced B-scans, a regular 3D lattice volume can be reconstructed, to which conventional 3D computer vision algorithms (registration and segmentation) can be applied. This paper presents a new 3D reconstruction method which explicitly accounts for the probe trajectory. Experiments were conducted on p...

  10. Intensity-Based Registration of Freehand 3D Ultrasound and CT-scan Images of the Kidney

    LEROY, Antoine; Mozer, Pierre; Payan, Yohan; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method to register a pre-operative Computed-Tomography (CT) volume to a sparse set of intra-operative Ultra-Sound (US) slices. In the context of percutaneous renal puncture, the aim is to transfer planning information to an intra-operative coordinate system. The spatial position of the US slices is measured by optically localizing a calibrated probe. Assuming the reproducibility of kidney motion during breathing, and no deformation of the organ, the method consists in op...

  11. Breast tumour visualization using 3D quantitative ultrasound methods

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Raheem, Abdul; Tadayyon, Hadi; Liu, Simon; Hadizad, Farnoosh; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types accounting for 29% of all cancer cases. Early detection and treatment has a crucial impact on improving the survival of affected patients. Ultrasound (US) is non-ionizing, portable, inexpensive, and real-time imaging modality for screening and quantifying breast cancer. Due to these attractive attributes, the last decade has witnessed many studies on using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods in tissue characterization. However, these studies have mainly been limited to 2-D QUS methods using hand-held US (HHUS) scanners. With the availability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) technology, this study is the first to develop 3-D QUS methods for the ABUS visualization of breast tumours. Using an ABUS system, unlike the manual 2-D HHUS device, the whole patient's breast was scanned in an automated manner. The acquired frames were subsequently examined and a region of interest (ROI) was selected in each frame where tumour was identified. Standard 2-D QUS methods were used to compute spectral and backscatter coefficient (BSC) parametric maps on the selected ROIs. Next, the computed 2-D parameters were mapped to a Cartesian 3-D space, interpolated, and rendered to provide a transparent color-coded visualization of the entire breast tumour. Such 3-D visualization can potentially be used for further analysis of the breast tumours in terms of their size and extension. Moreover, the 3-D volumetric scans can be used for tissue characterization and the categorization of breast tumours as benign or malignant by quantifying the computed parametric maps over the whole tumour volume.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm3 or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each tumor was

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    Martin, Peter R., E-mail: pmarti46@uwo.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Cool, Derek W. [Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada and Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Romagnoli, Cesare [Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Fenster, Aaron [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ward, Aaron D. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm{sup 3} or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures ... limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  15. 3D ultrasound imaging performance of a row-column addressed 2D array transducer: a simulation study

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the imaging performance of a 128+128 element row-column addressed array with a fully addressed 1616 2D array. The comparison is made via simulations of the point spread function with Field II. Both arrays have lambda-pitch, a center frequency of 3:5MHz and use 256 active...

  16. Segmentation of Right Ventricle in 3D Ultrasound Recordings

    Engås, Asbjørn Breivik

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents segmentation of the right ventricle of the heart in real-time tracking of 3D ultrasound recordings. A simple deformable model for the right ventricle is developed based on statistical data from manual segmentations, and the model has been tested out in a set of 3D ultrasound recordings and compared to manually segmented right ventricular volumes. The manual segmentation method with volume approximation is also developed. The segmentation tests on the recordings are pe...

  17. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: update from a clinical study

    Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Kretzek, E.; Henrich, J.; Tukalo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Kaiser, C.; Knaudt, J.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising new imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis. We developed a 3D USCT system and tested it in a pilot study with encouraging results: 3D USCT was able to depict two carcinomas, which were present in contrast enhanced MRI volumes serving as ground truth. To overcome severe differences in the breast shape, an image registration was applied. We analyzed the correlation between average sound speed in the breast and the breast density estimated from segmented MRIs and found a positive correlation with R=0.70. Based on the results of the pilot study we now carry out a successive clinical study with 200 patients. For this we integrated our reconstruction methods and image post-processing into a comprehensive workflow. It includes a dedicated DICOM viewer for interactive assessment of fused USCT images. A new preview mode now allows intuitive and faster patient positioning. We updated the USCT system to decrease the data acquisition time by approximately factor two and to increase the penetration depth of the breast into the USCT aperture by 1 cm. Furthermore the compute-intensive reflectivity reconstruction was considerably accelerated, now allowing a sub-millimeter volume reconstruction in approximately 16 minutes. The updates made it possible to successfully image first patients in our ongoing clinical study.

  18. Framework for 3D TransRectal Ultrasound

    Mozer, Pierre; Chevreau, G; Daanen, Vincent; Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    Prostate biopsies are mainly performed under 2D TransRectal UltraSound (TRUS) control by sampling the prostate according to a predefined pattern. In case of first biopsies, this pattern follows a random systematic plan. Sometimes, repeat biopsies can be needed to target regions unsampled by previous biopsies or resample critical regions (for example in case of cancer expectant management or previous prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia findings). From a clinical point of view, it could be useful to control the 3D spatial distribution of theses biopsies inside the prostate. Modern 3D-TRUS probes allow acquiring high-quality volumes of the prostate in few seconds. We developed a framework to track the prostate in 3D TRUS images. It means that if one acquires a reference volume at the beginning of the session and another during each biopsy, it is possible to determine the relationship between the prostate in the reference and the others volumes by aligning images. We used this tool to evaluate the ability of a si...

  19. Reproducibility of Two 3-D Ultrasound Carotid Plaque Quantification Methods

    Graebe, Martin; Entrekin, Robert; Collet-Billon, Antoine; Harrison, Gerard; Sillesen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -sectional, 2-D freehand sweep and a mechanical 3-D ultrasound investigation of 62 carotid artery plaques is reported with intra-class correlation coefficients (with 95% confidence intervals). Inter-observer agreement was 0.60 (0.29-0.77) for the freehand method and 0.89 (0.83-0.93) for the mechanical 3-D...

  20. Py3DFreeHandUS: A PURE PYTHON LIBRARY FOR 3D VOXEL-ARRAY RECONSTRUCTION BY USING 3D FREEHAND ULTRASOUND

    Monari, Davide; Cenni, Francesco; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION and AIM 3D Freehand ultrasound (3DUS) is a technique that combines ultrasound images and position + orientation sensors (POS) with the aim to reconstruct large 3D anatomical parts. However, the few existing applications for applying this technique have at least one of the following disadvantages: i) not open-source; ii) only supporting data streams from a limited number of ultrasound or POS devices; iii) they are written in low-level languages such as C++, making rapid develop...

  1. 4D ultrasound and 3D MRI registration of beating heart

    To realize intra-cardiac surgery without cardio-pulmonary bypass, a medical imaging technique with both high image quality and data acquisition rate that is fast enough to follow heart beat movements is required. In this research, we proposed a method that utilized the image quality of MRI and the speed of ultrasound. We developed a 4D image reconstruction method using image registration of 3D MRI and 4D ultrasound images. The registration method consists of rigid registration between 3D MRI and 3D ultrasound with the same heart beat phase, and non-rigid registration between 3D ultrasound images from different heart beat phases. Non-rigid registration was performed with B-spline based registration using variable spring model. In phantom experiment using balloon phantom, registration accuracy was less than 2 mm for total heart volume variation range of 10%. We applied our registration method on 3D MRI and 4D ultrasound images of a volunteer's beating heart data and confirmed through visual observation that heart beat pattern was well reproduced. (orig.)

  2. Preliminary comparison of 3D synthetic aperture imaging with Explososcan

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Hansen, Jens Munk; Ferin, Guillaume; Dufait, Remi; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Explososcan is the 'gold standard' for real-time 3D medical ultrasound imaging. In this paper, 3D synthetic aperture imaging is compared to Explososcan by simulation of 3D point spread functions. The simulations mimic a 32x32 element prototype transducer. The transducer mimicked is a dense matrix phased array with a pitch of 300 μm, made by Vermon. For both imaging techniques, 289 emissions are used to image a volume spanning 60 in both the azimuth and elevation direction and 150mm in depth. ...

  3. Investigation of the feasability for 3D synthetic aperture imaging

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of implementing real-time synthetic aperture 3D imaging on the experimental system developed at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging using a 2D transducer array. The target array is a fully populated 32 × 32 3 MHz array with a half wavelength pitch. The...

  4. 3D freehand ultrasound for medical assistance in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer: preliminary results

    Torres, Fabian; Fanti, Zian; Arambula Cosío, F.

    2013-11-01

    Image-guided interventions allow the physician to have a better planning and visualization of a procedure. 3D freehand ultrasound is a non-invasive and low-cost imaging tool that can be used to assist medical procedures. This tool can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. There are common medical practices that involve large needles to obtain an accurate diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. In this study we propose the use of 3D freehand ultrasound for planning and guiding such procedures as core needle biopsy and radiofrequency ablation. The proposed system will help the physician to identify the lesion area, using image-processing techniques in the 3D freehand ultrasound images, and guide the needle to this area using the information of position and orientation of the surgical tools. We think that this system can upgrade the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures.

  5. Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  6. Development of 3D ultrasound techniques for carotid artery disease assessment and monitoring

    Quantitative measurements of carotid plaque burden are used to monitor patients and evaluate established interventions as well as new treatment options. Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) techniques were developed to noninvasively monitor the progression of carotid artery disease in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Three-dimensional carotid US images were acquired and reconstructed, and methods for quantitative assessment were developed. The measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT) based on two-dimensional ultrasound (2D US) images was extended to a 3D vessel-wall-plus- plaque thickness (VWT), obtained by computing the distance between the carotid wall and lumen surfaces on a point-by-point basis. VWT measurements were superimposed on the arterial wall to produce 3D VWT maps. VWT changes were determined by comparing the 3D VWT maps obtained at two different time points. To facilitate the visualization and interpretation of the VWT and VWT-Change maps, a technique to flatten these maps was developed. Carotid remodeling involving changes in both arterial wall and plaque thickness was assessed with VWT maps obtained from in vivo 3D ultrasound images. 3D carotid ultrasound image evaluation with VWT mapping provides a feasible means for the analysis of plaque burden volumes and changes. (orig.)

  7. Preliminary examples of 3D vector flow imaging

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents 3D vector flow images obtained using the 3D Transverse Oscillation (TO) method. The method employs a 2D transducer and estimates the three velocity components simultaneously, which is important for visualizing complex flow patterns. Data are acquired using the experimental...... ultrasound scanner SARUS on a flow rig system with steady flow. The vessel of the flow-rig is centered at a depth of 30 mm, and the flow has an expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic prole with a peak velocity of 1 m/s. Ten frames of 3D vector flow images are acquired in a cross-sectional plane orthogonal...... acquisition as opposed to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The results demonstrate that the 3D TO method is capable of performing 3D vector flow imaging....

  8. 3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption

    Pawan N. Khade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substitution to the encrypted image. The Chebyshev map is used for public key encryption and distribution of generated private keys.

  9. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing.

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation) in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF) and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes. PMID:27164066

  10. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing

    Yufeng Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes.

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, ...

  12. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Peter Izak; Milan Smetana; Libor Hargas; Miroslav Hrianka; Pavol Spanik

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  13. A 3D Freehand Ultrasound System for Multi-view Reconstructions from Sparse 2D Scanning Planes

    Agurto Carla; Pattichis Marios S; Yu Honggang; Beth Goens M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A significant limitation of existing 3D ultrasound systems comes from the fact that the majority of them work with fixed acquisition geometries. As a result, the users have very limited control over the geometry of the 2D scanning planes. Methods We present a low-cost and flexible ultrasound imaging system that integrates several image processing components to allow for 3D reconstructions from limited numbers of 2D image planes and multiple acoustic views. Our approach is ...

  14. Efficient reconfigurable architectures for 3D medical image compression

    Afandi, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Recently, the more widespread use of three-dimensional (3-D) imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and ultrasound (US) have generated a massive amount of volumetric data. These have provided an impetus to the development of other applications, in particular telemedicine and teleradiology. In thes...

  15. Preliminary comparison of 3D synthetic aperture imaging with Explososcan

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Hansen, Jens Munk; Ferin, Guillaume;

    2012-01-01

    Explososcan is the 'gold standard' for real-time 3D medical ultrasound imaging. In this paper, 3D synthetic aperture imaging is compared to Explososcan by simulation of 3D point spread functions. The simulations mimic a 32x32 element prototype transducer. The transducer mimicked is a dense matrix...... phased array with a pitch of 300 μm, made by Vermon. For both imaging techniques, 289 emissions are used to image a volume spanning 60 in both the azimuth and elevation direction and 150mm in depth. This results for both techniques in a frame rate of 18 Hz. The implemented synthetic aperture technique...... cystic resolution, which expresses the ability to detect anechoic cysts in a uniform scattering media, at all depths except at Explososcan's focus point. Synthetic aperture reduced the cyst radius, R20dB, at 90mm depth by 48%. Synthetic aperture imaging was shown to reduce the number of transmit channels...

  16. Optimizing ultrasound detection for sensitive 3D photoacoustic breast tomography

    Xia, Wenfeng

    2013-01-01

    The standard modality for breast cancer detection is X-ray imaging. Diagnosis is performed after the triple assessment of X-ray mammography assisted by ultrasonog- raphy and biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sometimes used in specific problem solving such as contradictory results are obtained from X-ray and ultrasound images. X-ray mammography is capable of producing 2D projection images with a high spatial resolution. However, X-ray mammography besides possessing ionizing hazards, ...

  17. Validity Study of Vertebral Rotation Measurement Using 3-D Ultrasound in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Wang, Qian; Li, Meng; Lou, Edmond H M; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Cheng, Jack C Y; Wong, Man-Sang

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity of 3-D ultrasound measurements on the vertebral rotation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) under clinical settings. Thirty curves (mean Cobb angle: 21.7° ± 15.9°) from 16 patients with AIS were recruited. 3-D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at the supine position. Each of the two raters measured the apical vertebral rotation using the center of laminae (COL) method in the 3-D ultrasound images and the Aaro-Dahlborn method in the magnetic resonance images. The intra- and inter-reliability of the COL method was demonstrated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) (both [2, K] >0.9, p correlation was found (r > 0.9, p < 0.05). These results validated the proposed 3-D ultrasound method in the measurements of vertebral rotation in the patients with AIS. PMID:27083978

  18. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Peter Izak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  19. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the abdomen ... limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  1. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  2. 3D Simulation of Ultrasound in the Ultra-Distal Human Radius

    Kaufman, Jonathan J.; Luo, Gangming; Siffert, Robert S.

    The overall objective of this research is to develop an ultrasonic method for non-invasive assessment of the ultradistal radius (UDR). The specific objective of this study was to examine the propagation of ultrasound through the UDR and determine the relationships between bone mass and ultrasound, as well as the ability of ultrasound to discriminate between fracture and non-fracture cases. High-resolution peripheral-QCT (HR-pQCT) images were obtained from a set of 110 subjects that were part of a larger study on osteoporosis. Twenty-three of the subjects had experienced a UDR fracture within the past 2 years; the other 87 subjects served as controls. Each 3D image was used to simulate ultrasound measurements that would result from propagation through the UDR, from its anterior to its posterior surfaces. The simulation was carried out using Wave3000 (CyberLogic, Inc., New York, USA), which solves the full 3D viscoelastic wave equation using a finite difference time domain method. Bone mineral density associated with each radius was computed for each subject, and an ultrasound parameter known as net time delay (NTD) was evaluated. NTD has been shown to be highly correlated with total bone mass in both in vitro and clinical studies. Significant correlations were found between NTD and total bone mass (R2 = 0.91, p < 0.001). The data also showed a statistically significant difference in the NTD for the fracture and non-fracture cases (i.e., a decrease in mean NTD of 14% (P < 0.001), with a t-test statistic of 3.8). The study shows that ultrasound is correlated with bone mass at the UDR, as well as with fracture incidence. Therefore ultrasound may prove useful as a simple and convenient method for non-invasive assessment of osteoporosis and fracture risk. Work is ongoing to compare the simulated ultrasound data with clinical ultrasound measurements made on the same individuals.

  3. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  4. Software for 3D diagnostic image reconstruction and analysis

    Recent advances in computer technologies have opened new frontiers in medical diagnostics. Interesting possibilities are the use of three-dimensional (3D) imaging and the combination of images from different modalities. Software prepared in our laboratories devoted to 3D image reconstruction and analysis from computed tomography and ultrasonography is presented. In developing our software it was assumed that it should be applicable in standard medical practice, i.e. it should work effectively with a PC. An additional feature is the possibility of combining 3D images from different modalities. The reconstruction and data processing can be conducted using a standard PC, so low investment costs result in the introduction of advanced and useful diagnostic possibilities. The program was tested on a PC using DICOM data from computed tomography and TIFF files obtained from a 3D ultrasound system. The results of the anthropomorphic phantom and patient data were taken into consideration. A new approach was used to achieve spatial correlation of two independently obtained 3D images. The method relies on the use of four pairs of markers within the regions under consideration. The user selects the markers manually and the computer calculates the transformations necessary for coupling the images. The main software feature is the possibility of 3D image reconstruction from a series of two-dimensional (2D) images. The reconstructed 3D image can be: (1) viewed with the most popular methods of 3D image viewing, (2) filtered and processed to improve image quality, (3) analyzed quantitatively (geometrical measurements), and (4) coupled with another, independently acquired 3D image. The reconstructed and processed 3D image can be stored at every stage of image processing. The overall software performance was good considering the relatively low costs of the hardware used and the huge data sets processed. The program can be freely used and tested (source code and program available at

  5. Hybrid segmentation framework for 3D medical image analysis

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    Medical image segmentation is the process that defines the region of interest in the image volume. Classical segmentation methods such as region-based methods and boundary-based methods cannot make full use of the information provided by the image. In this paper we proposed a general hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation purposes. In our approach we combine the Gibbs Prior model, and the deformable model. First, Gibbs Prior models are applied onto each slice in a 3D medical image volume and the segmentation results are combined to a 3D binary masks of the object. Then we create a deformable mesh based on this 3D binary mask. The deformable model will be lead to the edge features in the volume with the help of image derived external forces. The deformable model segmentation result can be used to update the parameters for Gibbs Prior models. These methods will then work recursively to reach a global segmentation solution. The hybrid segmentation framework has been applied to images with the objective of lung, heart, colon, jaw, tumor, and brain. The experimental data includes MRI (T1, T2, PD), CT, X-ray, Ultra-Sound images. High quality results are achieved with relatively efficient time cost. We also did validation work using expert manual segmentation as the ground truth. The result shows that the hybrid segmentation may have further clinical use.

  6. Multi-resolution Gabor wavelet feature extraction for needle detection in 3D ultrasound

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; Mihajlovic, Nenad; de With, Peter H. N.; Huang, Jinfeng; Ng, Gary C.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound imaging is employed for needle guidance in various minimally invasive procedures such as biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia and brachytherapy. Unfortunately, a needle guidance using 2D ultrasound is very challenging, due to a poor needle visibility and a limited field of view. Nowadays, 3D ultrasound systems are available and more widely used. Consequently, with an appropriate 3D image-based needle detection technique, needle guidance and interventions may significantly be improved and simplified. In this paper, we present a multi-resolution Gabor transformation for an automated and reliable extraction of the needle-like structures in a 3D ultrasound volume. We study and identify the best combination of the Gabor wavelet frequencies. High precision in detecting the needle voxels leads to a robust and accurate localization of the needle for the intervention support. Evaluation in several ex-vivo cases shows that the multi-resolution analysis significantly improves the precision of the needle voxel detection from 0.23 to 0.32 at a high recall rate of 0.75 (gain 40%), where a better robustness and confidence were confirmed in the practical experiments.

  7. Three-dimensional(3D) Pelvic Floor Ultrasound:Transversal Imaging of Nulliparous Vagina at Different Level%未产妇阴道不同水平横断面的三维盆底超声观察

    李勤; 胡兵; 应涛

    2009-01-01

    Objective To search for an effective imaging method for the morphological observation of female pelvic support by studying 3D ultrasound image features of nulliparous vagina and perivaginal structures at different level.Methods Fifty nulliparas were examined by 3D pelvic floor ultrasonography.The appearance of vagina and perivaginal structures was observed from vaginal vault to orifice in transversal 3D reconstruction image of pelvic floor.Results Three-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound showed cross-sectional imaging of the whole vagina clearly.The vaginal transversal morphologies were different at different level.It was lip-like in proximal vagina,butterfly-like in middle vagina and crescent-like in distal vagina.The perivaginal structures at different level were different.Perineal body was at distal vagina level,urethrovaginal septum,rectovaginal septum and paravaginal support at middle vagina level,perivaginal connective tissue at proximal vagina level.All were uniform,dense and complete.Conclusions The 3D pelvic floor ultrasound images of vagina and perivaginal structures at different level are distinct,which is valuable for the study of 3D ultrasound in female pelvic support and pelvic floor dysfunction.%目的 探讨未产妇不同水平阴道横断面及周围结构的三维盆底超声表现,为女性盆底支持结构的形态学观察提供有效的影像学方法 .方法 对50例无生育史年轻女性进行三维盆底超声检查,获得盆底横断面声像图,连续观察宫颈外口至阴道外口间阴道横断面及周围结构的声像图表现.结果 三维盆底超声清晰显示阴道全程的横断面声像图.不同水平的阴道横断面形态不同:近段阴道呈"唇形",中段阴道呈"蝶形",远段阴道呈"月牙形".不同水平的阴道周围结构不同:远段阴道水平可见会阴体,中段阴道水平可见尿道阴道隔、直肠阴道隔及阴道旁支持结构,近段阴道水平可见阴道周围结缔组织,阴道周围

  8. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  9. Volume-Rendering-Based Interactive 3D Measurement for Quantitative Analysis of 3D Medical Images

    Yakang Dai; Jian Zheng; Yuetao Yang; Duojie Kuai; Xiaodong Yang

    2013-01-01

    3D medical images are widely used to assist diagnosis and surgical planning in clinical applications, where quantitative measurement of interesting objects in the image is of great importance. Volume rendering is widely used for qualitative visualization of 3D medical images. In this paper, we introduce a volume-rendering-based interactive 3D measurement framework for quantitative analysis of 3D medical images. In the framework, 3D widgets and volume clipping are integrated with volume render...

  10. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  11. A 3D ultrasound study of sinus tract formation in hidradenitis suppurativa

    Wortsman, Ximena; Jemec, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    characterization of the morphological changes in hidradenitis, which include the variable degrees of involvement of the hair follicles and the appearance of fluid collections and sinus tracts. Knowledge of this anatomical information may allow the identification of lesions that can benefit from medical or surgical......Imaging of hidradenitis suppurativa allows the study of both the lesion morphology and evolution. Hidradenitis lesions of different stages were studied using 3D ultrasound in a cross sectional pilot study. A total of 25 HS patients (18 female/ 7 male, aged 18-46 year-old) and 10 healthy controls (5...... female/5 male, aged 21-49 year-old) were studied. All patients were referred by dermatologists. All examinations were performed on the right axilla and compared with both controls and the skin outside the lesional areas. 3D ultrasound images demonstrated enlargement of the deepest portion of the hair...

  12. 3D camera tracking from disparity images

    Kim, Kiyoung; Woo, Woontack

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust camera tracking method that uses disparity images computed from known parameters of 3D camera and multiple epipolar constraints. We assume that baselines between lenses in 3D camera and intrinsic parameters are known. The proposed method reduces camera motion uncertainty encountered during camera tracking. Specifically, we first obtain corresponding feature points between initial lenses using normalized correlation method. In conjunction with matching features, we get disparity images. When the camera moves, the corresponding feature points, obtained from each lens of 3D camera, are robustly tracked via Kanade-Lukas-Tomasi (KLT) tracking algorithm. Secondly, relative pose parameters of each lens are calculated via Essential matrices. Essential matrices are computed from Fundamental matrix calculated using normalized 8-point algorithm with RANSAC scheme. Then, we determine scale factor of translation matrix by d-motion. This is required because the camera motion obtained from Essential matrix is up to scale. Finally, we optimize camera motion using multiple epipolar constraints between lenses and d-motion constraints computed from disparity images. The proposed method can be widely adopted in Augmented Reality (AR) applications, 3D reconstruction using 3D camera, and fine surveillance systems which not only need depth information, but also camera motion parameters in real-time.

  13. Heat Equation to 3D Image Segmentation

    Nikolay Sirakov

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach, capable of 3D image segmentation and objects' surface reconstruction. The main advantages of the method are: large capture range; quick segmentation of a 3D scene/image to regions; multiple 3D objects reconstruction. The method uses centripetal force and penalty function to segment the entire 3D scene/image to regions containing a single 3D object. Each region is inscribed in a convex, smooth closed surface, which defines a centripetal force. Then the surface is evolved by the geometric heat differential equation toward the force's direction. The penalty function is defined to stop evolvement of those surface patches, whose normal vectors encountered object's surface. On the base of the theoretical model Forward Difference Algorithm was developed and coded by Mathematica. Stability convergence condition, truncation error and calculation complexity of the algorithm are determined. The obtained results, advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed at the end of this paper.

  14. 3D Reconstruction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Mikulka, J.; Bartušek, Karel

    Cambridge : The Electromagnetics Academy, 2010, s. 1043-1046. ISBN 978-1-934142-14-1. [PIERS 2010 Cambridge. Cambridge (US), 05.07.2010-08.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/0314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : 3D reconstruction * magnetic resonance imaging Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  15. Feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging

    Voormolen, M.M.; Bouakaz, A.; Krenning, B.J.; Lancée, C.; Cate, ten F.; Jong, de N.

    2004-01-01

    Improved endocardial border delineation with the application of contrast agents should allow for less complex and faster tracing algorithms for left ventricular volume analysis. We developed a fast rotating phased array transducer for 3D imaging of the heart with harmonic capabilities making it suit

  16. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-03-03

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  17. 基于后端扫描的三维超声成像系统%A 3D-Ultrasound Imaging System Based on Back-end Scanning Mode

    齐建; 陈益民; 丁明跃; 尉迟明

    2012-01-01

    A new scanning mode is proposed that the front-end of the probe is fixed, while the back-end makes fan-shaped, scanning movement. The new scanning mode avoided ribs drawbacks successfully, based on the new scanning mode a 3D-Ultrasound Images System is accomplished to acquire 2D data of fetusfetus fetusfetus phantom and livers and kidneys, to demonstrates the effectiveness of the new scanning mode.%提出了一种将探头前端固定,后端以恒定速度进行扇形扫描的扫描方式,可有效避免肋骨的遮挡.基于此扫描模式,搭建了一套三维超声成像系统,采集了胎儿体模和人体肝肾脏二维数据,证明了该扫描模式的有效性.

  18. 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project has been to implement a software system, that is able to create a 3-D reconstruction from two or more 2-D photographic images made from different positions. The height is determined from the disparity difference of the images. The general purpose of the system is mapping of......, where various methods have been tested in order to optimize the performance. The match results are used in the reconstruction part to establish a 3-D digital representation and finally, different presentation forms are discussed....... treated individually. A detailed treatment of various lens distortions is required, in order to correct for these problems. This subject is included in the acquisition part. In the calibration part, the perspective distortion is removed from the images. Most attention has been paid to the matching problem...

  19. Backhoe 3D "gold standard" image

    Gorham, LeRoy; Naidu, Kiranmai D.; Majumder, Uttam; Minardi, Michael A.

    2005-05-01

    ViSUAl-D (VIsual Sar Using ALl Dimensions), a 2004 DARPA/IXO seedling effort, is developing a capability for reliable high confidence ID from standoff ranges. Recent conflicts have demonstrated that the warfighter would greatly benefit from the ability to ID targets beyond visual and electro-optical ranges[1]. Forming optical-quality SAR images while exploiting full polarization, wide angles, and large bandwidth would be key evidence such a capability is achievable. Using data generated by the Xpatch EM scattering code, ViSUAl-D investigates all degrees of freedom available to the radar designer, including 6 GHz bandwidth, full polarization and angle sampling over 2π steradians (upper hemisphere), in order to produce a "literal" image or representation of the target. This effort includes the generation of a "Gold Standard" image that can be produced at X-band utilizing all available target data. This "Gold Standard" image of the backhoe will serve as a test bed for future more relevant military targets and their image development. The seedling team produced a public release data which was released at the 2004 SPIE conference, as well as a 3D "Gold Standard" backhoe image using a 3D image formation algorithm. This paper describes the full backhoe data set, the image formation algorithm, the visualization process and the resulting image.

  20. Ultrasound Imaging. Chapter 13

    In the conventional method of ultrasonography, images are acquired in reflection, or pulse echo, mode. An array of small piezoelectric elements transmits a focused pulse along a specified line of sight known as a scan line. Echoes returning from the tissue are received by the same array, focused via the delay-and-sum beam forming process reviewed in Section 13.2, and demodulated to obtain the magnitude, or envelope, of the echo signal. The scanner measures the arrival time of the echoes relative to the time the pulse was transmitted and maps the arrival time to the distance from the array, using an assumed speed of sound. The earliest ultrasound systems would display the result of a single pulse acquisition in 1-D A-mode (amplitude mode) format by plotting echo magnitude as a function of distance. A 2-D or 3-D B-mode (brightness mode) image is acquired by performing a large number of pulse echo acquisitions, incrementally increasing the scan line direction between each pulse echo operation, to sweep out a 2-D or 3-D field of view (FOV). The term B-mode imaging reflects the fact that the echo magnitude from each point in the FOV is mapped to the grey level, or brightness, of the corresponding pixel in the image

  1. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  2. 3D IMAGING USING COHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION

    Peter Cloetens

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional imaging is becoming a standard tool for medical, scientific and industrial applications. The use of modem synchrotron radiation sources for monochromatic beam micro-tomography provides several new features. Along with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and improved spatial resolution, these include the possibility of quantitative measurements, the easy incorporation of special sample environment devices for in-situ experiments, and a simple implementation of phase imaging. These 3D approaches overcome some of the limitations of 2D measurements. They require new tools for image analysis.

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... again. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  4. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system

    Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Biopsy of the prostate using ultrasound guidance is the clinical gold standard for diagnosis of prostate adenocarinoma. However, because early stage tumors are rarely visible under US, the procedure carries high false-negative rates and often patients require multiple biopsies before cancer is detected. To improve cancer detection, it is imperative that throughout the biopsy procedure, physicians know where they are within the prostate and where they have sampled during prior biopsies. The current biopsy procedure is limited to using only 2D ultrasound images to find and record target biopsy core sample sites. This information leaves ambiguity as the physician tries to interpret the 2D information and apply it to their 3D workspace. We have developed a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system that provides 3D intra-biopsy information to physicians for needle guidance and biopsy location recording. The system is designed to conform to the workflow of the current prostate biopsy procedure, making it easier for clinical integration. In this paper, we describe the system design and validate its accuracy by performing an in vitro biopsy procedure on US/CT multi-modal patient-specific prostate phantoms. A clinical sextant biopsy was performed by a urologist on the phantoms and the 3D models of the prostates were generated with volume errors less than 4% and mean boundary errors of less than 1 mm. Using the 3D biopsy system, needles were guided to within 1.36 +/- 0.83 mm of 3D targets and the position of the biopsy sites were accurately localized to 1.06 +/- 0.89 mm for the two prostates.

  5. Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging

    Olafsson, Ragnar; Witte, Russell S.; Huang, Sheng-Wen; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Surgery to correct severe heart arrhythmias usually requires detailed maps of the cardiac activation wave prior to ablation. The pinpoint electrical mapping procedure is laborious and limited by its spatial resolution (5–10 mm). We propose ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), a direct 3-D imaging technique that potentially facilitates existing mapping procedures with superior spatial resolution. The technique is based on a pressure-induced change in resistivity known as the acou...

  6. 3D Model Assisted Image Segmentation

    Jayawardena, Srimal; Hutter, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The problem of segmenting a given image into coherent regions is important in Computer Vision and many industrial applications require segmenting a known object into its components. Examples include identifying individual parts of a component for process control work in a manufacturing plant and identifying parts of a car from a photo for automatic damage detection. Unfortunately most of an object's parts of interest in such applications share the same pixel characteristics, having similar colour and texture. This makes segmenting the object into its components a non-trivial task for conventional image segmentation algorithms. In this paper, we propose a "Model Assisted Segmentation" method to tackle this problem. A 3D model of the object is registered over the given image by optimising a novel gradient based loss function. This registration obtains the full 3D pose from an image of the object. The image can have an arbitrary view of the object and is not limited to a particular set of views. The segmentation...

  7. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    Ying, Michael [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: ormying@polyu.edu.hk; Sin Manhong [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Shuk-fan [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-11-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = {pi}/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects.

  8. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = π/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects

  9. Low-Power Receive-Electronics for a Miniature 3D Ultrasound Probe

    Yu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the design of a front-end application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), which will be put into the tip of a miniature ultrasound probe for 3D Trans-Esophageal Echocardiography (TEE). To enable 3D TEE, a matrix piezoelectric ultrasound transducer with more than 2000 elements w

  10. Towards real-time 3D ultrasound planning and personalized 3D printing for breast HDR brachytherapy treatment

    Two different end-to-end procedures were tested for real-time planning in breast HDR brachytherapy treatment. Both methods are using a 3D ultrasound (3DUS) system and a freehand catheter optimization algorithm. They were found fast and efficient. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept approach for personalized real-time guidance and planning to breast HDR brachytherapy treatments

  11. Medical ultrasound imaging

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to current medical ultrasound imaging systems. The basics of anatomic and blood flow imaging are described. The properties of medical ultrasound and its focusing are described, and the various methods for two- and three-dimensional imaging of the human anatomy are...... shown. Both systems using linear and non-linear propagation of ultrasound are described. The blood velocity can also be non-invasively visualized using ultrasound and the basic signal processing for doing this is introduced. Examples for spectral velocity estimation, color flow maging and the new vector...

  12. 3-D SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using 3-D target grids

    Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (3-D) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. 3-D SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of 3-D target grids aimed at the formation of 3-D SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The 3-D target grids capture the 3-D spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of 3-D SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.

  13. Comparison of 3D Synthetic Aperture Imaging and Explososcan using Phantom Measurements

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Férin, Guillaume; Dufait, Rémi;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, initial 3D ultrasound measurements from a 1024 channel system are presented. Measurements of 3D Synthetic aperture imaging (SAI) and Explososcan are presented and compared. Explososcan is the ’gold standard’ for real-time 3D medical ultrasound imaging. SAI is compared to Explososcan...... by using tissue and wire phantom measurements. The measurements are carried out using a 1024 element 2D transducer and the 1024 channel experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS. To make a fair comparison, the two imaging techniques use the same number of active channels, the same number of emissions per...... frame, and they emit the same amount of energy per frame. The measurements were performed with parameters similar to standard cardiac imaging, with 256 emissions to image a volume spanning 90×90 and 150mm in depth. This results in a frame rate of 20 Hz. The number of active channels is set to 316 from...

  14. 3D Buildings Extraction from Aerial Images

    Melnikova, O.; Prandi, F.

    2011-09-01

    This paper introduces a semi-automatic method for buildings extraction through multiple-view aerial image analysis. The advantage of the used semi-automatic approach is that it allows processing of each building individually finding the parameters of buildings features extraction more precisely for each area. On the early stage the presented technique uses an extraction of line segments that is done only inside of areas specified manually. The rooftop hypothesis is used further to determine a subset of quadrangles, which could form building roofs from a set of extracted lines and corners obtained on the previous stage. After collecting of all potential roof shapes in all images overlaps, the epipolar geometry is applied to find matching between images. This allows to make an accurate selection of building roofs removing false-positive ones and to identify their global 3D coordinates given camera internal parameters and coordinates. The last step of the image matching is based on geometrical constraints in contrast to traditional correlation. The correlation is applied only in some highly restricted areas in order to find coordinates more precisely, in such a way significantly reducing processing time of the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a set of Milan's aerial images and shows highly accurate results.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  16. Prenatal 3D Ultrasound Diagnostics in Cleidocranial Dysplasia

    Hermann, NV; Hove, HD; Jørgensen, C;

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old Caucasian woman with cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) and a known family history of CCD was referred for an ultrasound examination in the first trimester of her second pregnancy. Molecular genetic analysis of the RUNX2 gene was non-informative. A routine 2D ultrasound examination carried...

  17. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... between the transducer and the skin that can block the sound waves from passing into your body. ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  19. Photogrammetric 3D reconstruction using mobile imaging

    Fritsch, Dieter; Syll, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    In our paper we demonstrate the development of an Android Application (AndroidSfM) for photogrammetric 3D reconstruction that works on smartphones and tablets likewise. The photos are taken with mobile devices, and can thereafter directly be calibrated using standard calibration algorithms of photogrammetry and computer vision, on that device. Due to still limited computing resources on mobile devices, a client-server handshake using Dropbox transfers the photos to the sever to run AndroidSfM for the pose estimation of all photos by Structure-from-Motion and, thereafter, uses the oriented bunch of photos for dense point cloud estimation by dense image matching algorithms. The result is transferred back to the mobile device for visualization and ad-hoc on-screen measurements.

  20. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.;

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...

  1. Needle Detection Based on Phase Grouping in 3D Transrectal Ultrasound Images%基于相位编组的三维直肠超声导引图像中针检测算法研究

    邱武; 尉迟明; 张旭明; 赵四英; 丁明跃

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle detection method, which is used to localize and track the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. First, all voxels are grouped into different line support regions (LSR) based on the outer product of adjacent voxels' gradient vectors. The needle axis is extracted by least square fitting in LSR. The needle endpoint is localized by finding an intensity drop along the needle axis. Evaluation results in synthetic da ta, tissue-mimicking agar, chicken breast phantoms and 3D TRUS patient images obtained during the prostate cryotherapy show that the proposed methods is with a relatively higher robustness and accuracy.The result of the in-vivo test also shows that our method outperformed several alternative methods in needle endpoint localization accuracy and TP rate. It is concluded that the proposed method is suitable for 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy.%本文针对三维直肠超声导引前列腺介入式治疗中,针状手术器械定位难的问题,提出了一种三维超声图像中基于三维相位编组的针检测算法.该算法首先将体素按照梯度相位角进行分组,在得到的分组中用最小二乘拟合方法进行针状物体轴线提取,然后利用轴线体素的灰度统计特性进行端点定位.提出的方法在三维模拟数据、Agar 和鸡肉假体数据,以及三维直肠超声导引前列腺冷冻治疗中采集的病人数据进行试验,获得了较高的定位精度以及鲁棒性.与其他方法比较,发现本文提出的方法从定位精度以及分割鲁棒性方面,体现了其优越性.试验结果证明本文方法可以适用于临床应用.

  2. Virtual ultrasound sources in high-resolution ultrasound imaging

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    beamforming procedure for 3D ultrasound imaging. The position of the virtual source, and the created waveform are investigated with simulation, and with pulse-echo measurements. There is good agreement between the estimated wavefront and the theoretically tted one. Several examples of the use of virtual...

  3. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  4. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke;

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring a...... SA imaging. Due to the complete data set, it is possible to have both dynamic transmit and receive focusing to improve contrast and resolution. It is also possible to improve penetration depth by employing codes during ultrasound transmission. Data sets for vector flow imaging can be acquired using...... short imaging sequences, whereby both the correct velocity magnitude and angle can be estimated. A number of examples of both phantom and in-vivo SA images will be presented measured by the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS to demonstrate the many benefits of SA imaging....

  5. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  6. Robust Adaptive Segmentation of 3D Medical Images with Level Sets

    Baillard, Caroline; Barillot, Christian; Bouthemy, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the use of the Level Set formalism to segment anatomical structures in 3D medical images (ultrasound or magnetic resonance images). A closed 3D surface propagates towards the desired boundaries through the iterative evolution of a 4D implicit function. The major contribution of this work is the design of a robust evolution model based on adaptive parameters depending on the data. First the step size and the external propagation force factor, both usually predeterm...

  7. 3D ultrasound-CT registration of the liver using combined landmark-intensity information

    An important issue in computer-assisted surgery of the liver is a fast and reliable transfer of preoperative resection plans to the intraoperative situation. One problem is to match the planning data, derived from preoperative CT or MR images, with 3D ultrasound images of the liver, acquired during surgery. As the liver deforms significantly in the intraoperative situation non-rigid registration is necessary. This is a particularly challenging task because pre- and intraoperative image data stem from different modalities and ultrasound images are generally very noisy. One way to overcome these problems is to incorporate prior knowledge into the registration process. We propose a method of combining anatomical landmark information with a fast non-parametric intensity registration approach. Mathematically, this leads to a constrained optimization problem. As distance measure we use the normalized gradient field which allows for multimodal image registration. A qualitative and quantitative validation on clinical liver data sets of three different patients has been performed. We used the distance of dense corresponding points on vessel center lines for quantitative validation. The combined landmark and intensity approach improves the mean and percentage of point distances above 3 mm compared to rigid and thin-plate spline registration based only on landmarks. The proposed algorithm offers the possibility to incorporate additional a priori knowledge - in terms of few landmarks - provided by a human expert into a non-rigid registration process. (orig.)

  8. Can 3D ultrasound identify trochlea dysplasia in newborns? Evaluation and applicability of a technique

    Highlights: • We evaluated a possible screening method for trochlea dysplasia. • 3D ultrasound was used to perform the measurements on standardized axial planes. • The evaluation of the technique showed comparable results to other studies. • This technique may be used as a screening technique as it is quick and easy to perform. - Abstract: Femoro-patellar dysplasia is considered as a significant risk factor of patellar instability. Different studies suggest that the shape of the trochlea is already developed in early childhood. Therefore early identification of a dysplastic configuration might be relevant information for the treating physician. An easy applicable routine screening of the trochlea is yet not available. The purpose of this study was to establish and evaluate a screening method for femoro-patellar dysplasia using 3D ultrasound. From 2012 to 2013 we prospectively imaged 160 consecutive femoro-patellar joints in 80 newborns from the 36th to 61st gestational week that underwent a routine hip sonography (Graf). All ultrasounds were performed by a pediatric radiologist with only minimal additional time to the routine hip ultrasound. In 30° flexion of the knee, axial, coronal, and sagittal reformats were used to standardize a reconstructed axial plane through the femoral condyle and the mid-patella. The sulcus angle, the lateral-to-medial facet ratio of the trochlea and the shape of the patella (Wiberg Classification) were evaluated. In all examinations reconstruction of the standardized axial plane was achieved, the mean trochlea angle was 149.1° (SD 4.9°), the lateral-to-medial facet ratio of the trochlea ratio was 1.3 (SD 0.22), and a Wiberg type I patella was found in 95% of the newborn. No statistical difference was detected between boys and girls. Using standardized reconstructions of the axial plane allows measurements to be made with lower operator dependency and higher accuracy in a short time. Therefore 3D ultrasound is an easy

  9. Can 3D ultrasound identify trochlea dysplasia in newborns? Evaluation and applicability of a technique

    Kohlhof, Hendrik, E-mail: Hendrik.Kohlhof@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Clinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Heidt, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.heidt@kispi.uzh.ch [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 74, 8032 Switzerland (Switzerland); Bähler, Alexandrine, E-mail: Alexandrine.baehler@insel.ch [Department of Pediatric Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Berne, Freiburgstrasse 18, 3010 Berne (Switzerland); Kohl, Sandro, E-mail: sandro.kohl@insel.ch [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University Hospital Berne, Freiburgstrasse 18, 3010 Berne (Switzerland); Gravius, Sascha, E-mail: sascha.gravius@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Clinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Friedrich, Max J., E-mail: Max.Friedrich@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Clinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Ziebarth, Kai, E-mail: kai.ziebarth@insel.ch [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University Hospital Berne, Freiburgstrasse 18, 3010 Berne (Switzerland); Stranzinger, Enno, E-mail: Enno.Stranzinger@insel.ch [Department of Pediatric Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Berne, Freiburgstrasse 18, 3010 Berne (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We evaluated a possible screening method for trochlea dysplasia. • 3D ultrasound was used to perform the measurements on standardized axial planes. • The evaluation of the technique showed comparable results to other studies. • This technique may be used as a screening technique as it is quick and easy to perform. - Abstract: Femoro-patellar dysplasia is considered as a significant risk factor of patellar instability. Different studies suggest that the shape of the trochlea is already developed in early childhood. Therefore early identification of a dysplastic configuration might be relevant information for the treating physician. An easy applicable routine screening of the trochlea is yet not available. The purpose of this study was to establish and evaluate a screening method for femoro-patellar dysplasia using 3D ultrasound. From 2012 to 2013 we prospectively imaged 160 consecutive femoro-patellar joints in 80 newborns from the 36th to 61st gestational week that underwent a routine hip sonography (Graf). All ultrasounds were performed by a pediatric radiologist with only minimal additional time to the routine hip ultrasound. In 30° flexion of the knee, axial, coronal, and sagittal reformats were used to standardize a reconstructed axial plane through the femoral condyle and the mid-patella. The sulcus angle, the lateral-to-medial facet ratio of the trochlea and the shape of the patella (Wiberg Classification) were evaluated. In all examinations reconstruction of the standardized axial plane was achieved, the mean trochlea angle was 149.1° (SD 4.9°), the lateral-to-medial facet ratio of the trochlea ratio was 1.3 (SD 0.22), and a Wiberg type I patella was found in 95% of the newborn. No statistical difference was detected between boys and girls. Using standardized reconstructions of the axial plane allows measurements to be made with lower operator dependency and higher accuracy in a short time. Therefore 3D ultrasound is an easy

  10. Ultrasound 3D positioning system for surgical instruments

    Tatar, F.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents various aspects regarding the development of an ultrasound sensor systems for use in laparoscopic intervention. The accuracy achieved after using compensation technique for air flow disturbances or temperature variations remains in a convenient range of 200µm. Considering this

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... deeper into the body. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see the outer surface ... children or adults). For visualizing internal structure of bones or certain joints, other imaging modalities such as ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... biopsies , in which needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. It can ...

  14. Perception of detail in 3D images

    Heyndrickx, I.; Kaptein, R.

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads t

  15. Ultrasound 3D positioning system for surgical instruments

    Tatar, F.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents various aspects regarding the development of an ultrasound sensor systems for use in laparoscopic intervention. The accuracy achieved after using compensation technique for air flow disturbances or temperature variations remains in a convenient range of 200µm. Considering this high accuracy, the flexibility and the ergonomics achieved for this system, the final device may be adapted very easily and used also in other microsurgery applications.

  16. CISUS: an integrated 3D ultrasound system for IGT using a modular tracking API

    Boctor, Emad M.; Viswanathan, Anand; Pieper, Steve; Choti, Michael A.; Taylor, Russell H.; Kikinis, Ron; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2004-05-01

    Ultrasound has become popular in clinical/surgical applications, both as the primary image guidance modality and also in conjunction with other modalities like CT or MRI. Three dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) systems have also demonstrated usefulness in image-guided therapy (IGT). At the same time, however, current lack of open-source and open-architecture multi-modal medical visualization systems prevents 3DUS from fulfilling its potential. Several stand-alone 3DUS systems, like Stradx or In-Vivo exist today. Although these systems have been found to be useful in real clinical setting, it is difficult to augment their functionality and integrate them in versatile IGT systems. To address these limitations, a robotic/freehand 3DUS open environment (CISUS) is being integrated into the 3D Slicer, an open-source research tool developed for medical image analysis and surgical planning. In addition, the system capitalizes on generic application programming interfaces (APIs) for tracking devices and robotic control. The resulting platform-independent open-source system may serve as a valuable tool to the image guided surgery community. Other researchers could straightforwardly integrate the generic CISUS system along with other functionalities (i.e. dual view visualization, registration, real-time tracking, segmentation, etc) to rapidly create their medical/surgical applications. Our current driving clinical application is robotically assisted and freehand 3DUS-guided liver ablation, which is fully being integrated under the CISUS-3D Slicer. Initial functionality and pre-clinical feasibility are demonstrated on phantom and ex-vivo animal models.

  17. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    Hornblower, V. D. M.; Yu, E.; Fenster, A.; Battista, J. J.; Malthaner, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo.

  18. 3D Image Synthesis for B—Reps Objects

    黄正东; 彭群生; 等

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for generating 3D images of B-reps objects with trimmed surface boundaries.The 3D image is a discrete voxel-map representation within a Cubic Frame Buffer (CFB).The definition of 3D images for curve,surface and solid object are introduced which imply the connectivity and fidelity requirements.Adaptive Forward Differencing matrix (AFD-matrix) for 1D-3D manifolds in 3D space is developed.By setting rules to update the AFD-matrix,the forward difference direction and stepwise can be adjusted.Finally,an efficient algorithm is presented based on the AFD-matrix concept for converting the object in 3D space to 3D image in 3D discrete space.

  19. Automated 3D ultrasound elastography of the breast: a phantom validation study

    Hendriks, Gijs A. G. M.; Holländer, Branislav; Menssen, Jan; Milkowski, Andy; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.; de Korte, Chris L.

    2016-04-01

    In breast cancer screening, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) was introduced as an alternative for mammography since the latter technique is less suitable for women with dense breasts. Although clinical studies show promising results, clinicians report two disadvantages: long acquisition times (>90 s) introducing breathing artefacts, and high recall rates due to detection of many small lesions of uncertain malignant potential. Technical improvements for faster image acquisition and better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions are thus required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if 3D ultrasound elastography using plane-wave imaging is feasible. Strain images of a breast elastography phantom were acquired by an ABVS-mimicking device that allowed axial and elevational movement of the attached transducer. Pre- and post-deformation volumes were acquired with different constant speeds (between 1.25 and 40.0 mm s-1) and by three protocols: Go-Go (pre- and post-volumes with identical start and end positions), Go-Return (similar to Go-Go with opposite scanning directions) and Control (pre- and post-volumes acquired per position, this protocol can be seen as reference). Afterwards, 2D and 3D cross-correlation and strain algorithms were applied to the acquired volumes and the results were compared. The Go-Go protocol was shown to be superior with better strain image quality (CNRe and SNRe) than Go-Return and to be similar as Control. This can be attributed to applying opposite mechanical forces to the phantom during the Go-Return protocol, leading to out-of-plane motion. This motion was partly compensated by using 3D cross-correlation. However, the quality was still inferior to Go-Go. Since these results were obtained in a phantom study with controlled deformations, the effect of possible uncontrolled in vivo tissue motion artefacts has to be addressed in future studies. In conclusion, it seems feasible to implement 3D ultrasound

  20. The effect of object speed and direction on the performance of 3D speckle tracking using a 3D swept-volume ultrasound probe.

    Harris, EJ; Miller, NR; Bamber, JC; Symonds-Tayler, JR; Evans, PM

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue tracking using 3D ultrasound is of interest for monitoring organ motion during therapy. Previously we demonstrated feature tracking of respiration-induced liver motion in vivo using a 3D swept-volume ultrasound probe. The aim of this study was to investigate how object speed affects the accuracy of tracking ultrasonic speckle in the absence of any structural information, which mimics the situation in homogenous tissue for motion in the azimuthal and elevatio...

  1. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  2. 3D temperature field reconstruction using ultrasound sensing system

    Liu, Yuqian; Ma, Tong; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    3D temperature field reconstruction is of practical interest to the power, transportation and aviation industries and it also opens up opportunities for real time control or optimization of high temperature fluid or combustion process. In our paper, a new distributed optical fiber sensing system consisting of a series of elements will be used to generate and receive acoustic signals. This system is the first active temperature field sensing system that features the advantages of the optical fiber sensors (distributed sensing capability) and the acoustic sensors (non-contact measurement). Signals along multiple paths will be measured simultaneously enabled by a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. Then a proposed Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (GRBF)-based approach can approximate the temperature field as a finite summation of space-dependent basis functions and time-dependent coefficients. The travel time of the acoustic signals depends on the temperature of the media. On this basis, the Gaussian functions are integrated along a number of paths which are determined by the number and distribution of sensors. The inversion problem to estimate the unknown parameters of the Gaussian functions can be solved with the measured times-of-flight (ToF) of acoustic waves and the length of propagation paths using the recursive least square method (RLS). The simulation results show an approximation error less than 2% in 2D and 5% in 3D respectively. It demonstrates the availability and efficiency of our proposed 3D temperature field reconstruction mechanism.

  3. High definition ultrasound imaging for battlefield medical applications

    Kwok, K.S.; Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Krumm, J.C.; Dickey, F.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rogers, B; Walsh, N. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-06-23

    A team has developed an improved resolution ultrasound system for low cost diagnostics. This paper describes the development of an ultrasound based imaging system capable of generating 3D images showing surface and subsurface tissue and bone structures. We include results of a comparative study between images obtained from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound. We found that the quality of ultrasound images compares favorably with those from CT. Volumetric and surface data extracted from these images were within 7% of the range between ultrasound and CT scans. We also include images of porcine abdominal scans from two different sets of animal trials.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also ...

  5. Automatic 2D-to-3D image conversion using 3D examples from the internet

    Konrad, J.; Brown, G.; Wang, M.; Ishwar, P.; Wu, C.; Mukherjee, D.

    2012-03-01

    The availability of 3D hardware has so far outpaced the production of 3D content. Although to date many methods have been proposed to convert 2D images to 3D stereopairs, the most successful ones involve human operators and, therefore, are time-consuming and costly, while the fully-automatic ones have not yet achieved the same level of quality. This subpar performance is due to the fact that automatic methods usually rely on assumptions about the captured 3D scene that are often violated in practice. In this paper, we explore a radically different approach inspired by our work on saliency detection in images. Instead of relying on a deterministic scene model for the input 2D image, we propose to "learn" the model from a large dictionary of stereopairs, such as YouTube 3D. Our new approach is built upon a key observation and an assumption. The key observation is that among millions of stereopairs available on-line, there likely exist many stereopairs whose 3D content matches that of the 2D input (query). We assume that two stereopairs whose left images are photometrically similar are likely to have similar disparity fields. Our approach first finds a number of on-line stereopairs whose left image is a close photometric match to the 2D query and then extracts depth information from these stereopairs. Since disparities for the selected stereopairs differ due to differences in underlying image content, level of noise, distortions, etc., we combine them by using the median. We apply the resulting median disparity field to the 2D query to obtain the corresponding right image, while handling occlusions and newly-exposed areas in the usual way. We have applied our method in two scenarios. First, we used YouTube 3D videos in search of the most similar frames. Then, we repeated the experiments on a small, but carefully-selected, dictionary of stereopairs closely matching the query. This, to a degree, emulates the results one would expect from the use of an extremely large 3D

  6. A 3D Freehand Ultrasound System for Multi-view Reconstructions from Sparse 2D Scanning Planes

    Agurto Carla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant limitation of existing 3D ultrasound systems comes from the fact that the majority of them work with fixed acquisition geometries. As a result, the users have very limited control over the geometry of the 2D scanning planes. Methods We present a low-cost and flexible ultrasound imaging system that integrates several image processing components to allow for 3D reconstructions from limited numbers of 2D image planes and multiple acoustic views. Our approach is based on a 3D freehand ultrasound system that allows users to control the 2D acquisition imaging using conventional 2D probes. For reliable performance, we develop new methods for image segmentation and robust multi-view registration. We first present a new hybrid geometric level-set approach that provides reliable segmentation performance with relatively simple initializations and minimum edge leakage. Optimization of the segmentation model parameters and its effect on performance is carefully discussed. Second, using the segmented images, a new coarse to fine automatic multi-view registration method is introduced. The approach uses a 3D Hotelling transform to initialize an optimization search. Then, the fine scale feature-based registration is performed using a robust, non-linear least squares algorithm. The robustness of the multi-view registration system allows for accurate 3D reconstructions from sparse 2D image planes. Results Volume measurements from multi-view 3D reconstructions are found to be consistently and significantly more accurate than measurements from single view reconstructions. The volume error of multi-view reconstruction is measured to be less than 5% of the true volume. We show that volume reconstruction accuracy is a function of the total number of 2D image planes and the number of views for calibrated phantom. In clinical in-vivo cardiac experiments, we show that volume estimates of the left ventricle from multi-view reconstructions

  7. Consequences of Intermodality Registration Errors for Intramodality 3D Ultrasound IGRT.

    van der Meer, Skadi; Seravalli, Enrica; Fontanarosa, Davide; Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther J; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Intramodality ultrasound image-guided radiotherapy systems compare daily ultrasound to reference ultrasound images. Nevertheless, because the actual treatment planning is based on a reference computed tomography image, and not on a reference ultrasound image, their accuracy depends partially on the correct intermodality registration of the reference ultrasound and computed tomography images for treatment planning. The error propagation in daily patient positioning due to potential registration errors at the planning stage was assessed in this work. Five different scenarios were simulated involving shifts or rotations of ultrasound or computed tomography images. The consequences of several workflow procedures were tested with a phantom setup. As long as the reference ultrasound and computed tomography images are made to match, the patient will be in the correct treatment position. In an example with a phantom measurement, the accuracy of the performed manual fusion was found to be ≤2 mm. In clinical practice, manual registration of patient images is expected to be more difficult. Uncorrected mismatches will lead to a systematically incorrect final patient position because there will be no indication that there was a misregistration between the computed tomography and reference ultrasound images. In the treatment room, the fusion with the computed tomography image will not be visible and based on the ultrasound images the patient position seems correct. PMID:26048909

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for ...

  9. Deconvolution of ultrasound images

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1992-01-01

    Based on physical models, it is indicated that the received pressure field in ultrasound B-mode images can be described by a convolution between a tissue reflection signal and the emitted pressure field. This result is used in a description of current image formation and in formulating a new...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... is commonly called an “echocardiogram” or “echo” for short. Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician to ... not an ideal imaging technique for air-filled bowel or organs obscured by the bowel. In most ...

  11. Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering

    Slapa Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR, applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata v. 8.2. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors of thyroid cancers identified by 3D ultrasound include: (a ill-defined borders of the nodule on MPR presentation, (b a lobulated shape of the nodule in the c-plane and (c a density of central vessels in the nodule within the minimal or maximal ranges. Combination of features provided sensitivity 100% and specificity 60-69% for thyroid cancer. Calcification/microcalcification-like echogenic foci on 3D ultrasound proved not to be a risk factor of thyroid cancer. Storage of the 3D data of the whole nodules enabled subsequent evaluation of new parameters and with new rendering algorithms. Conclusions Our results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. 3D ultrasound stores volumes comprising the whole lesion or organ. Future detailed evaluations of the data are possible, looking for features that were not fully appreciated at the time of collection or applying new algorithms for volume rendering in order to gain important information. Three-dimensional ultrasound data could be included in thyroid cancer databases. Further multicenter large scale studies are warranted.

  12. A 3D image analysis tool for SPECT imaging

    Kontos, Despina; Wang, Qiang; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Maurer, Alan H.; Knight, Linda C.; Kantor, Steve; Fisher, Robert S.; Simonian, Hrair P.; Parkman, Henry P.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed semi-automated and fully-automated tools for the analysis of 3D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The focus is on the efficient boundary delineation of complex 3D structures that enables accurate measurement of their structural and physiologic properties. We employ intensity based thresholding algorithms for interactive and semi-automated analysis. We also explore fuzzy-connectedness concepts for fully automating the segmentation process. We apply the proposed tools to SPECT image data capturing variation of gastric accommodation and emptying. These image analysis tools were developed within the framework of a noninvasive scintigraphic test to measure simultaneously both gastric emptying and gastric volume after ingestion of a solid or a liquid meal. The clinical focus of the particular analysis was to probe associations between gastric accommodation/emptying and functional dyspepsia. Employing the proposed tools, we outline effectively the complex three dimensional gastric boundaries shown in the 3D SPECT images. We also perform accurate volume calculations in order to quantitatively assess the gastric mass variation. This analysis was performed both with the semi-automated and fully-automated tools. The results were validated against manual segmentation performed by a human expert. We believe that the development of an automated segmentation tool for SPECT imaging of the gastric volume variability will allow for other new applications of SPECT imaging where there is a need to evaluate complex organ function or tumor masses.

  13. A compact mechatronic system for 3D ultrasound guided prostate interventions

    Purpose: Ultrasound imaging has improved the treatment of prostate cancer by producing increasingly higher quality images and influencing sophisticated targeting procedures for the insertion of radioactive seeds during brachytherapy. However, it is critical that the needles be placed accurately within the prostate to deliver the therapy to the planned location and avoid complications of damaging surrounding tissues. Methods: The authors have developed a compact mechatronic system, as well as an effective method for guiding and controlling the insertion of transperineal needles into the prostate. This system has been designed to allow guidance of a needle obliquely in 3D space into the prostate, thereby reducing pubic arch interference. The choice of needle trajectory and location in the prostate can be adjusted manually or with computer control. Results: To validate the system, a series of experiments were performed on phantoms. The 3D scan of the string phantom produced minimal geometric error, which was less than 0.4 mm. Needle guidance accuracy tests in agar prostate phantoms showed that the mean error of bead placement was less then 1.6 mm along parallel needle paths that were within 1.2 mm of the intended target and 1 deg. from the preplanned trajectory. At oblique angles of up to 15 deg. relative to the probe axis, beads were placed to within 3.0 mm along a trajectory that were within 2.0 mm of the target with an angular error less than 2 deg. Conclusions: By combining 3D TRUS imaging system to a needle tracking linkage, this system should improve the physician's ability to target and accurately guide a needle to selected targets without the need for the computer to directly manipulate and insert the needle. This would be beneficial as the physician has complete control of the system and can safely maneuver the needle guide around obstacles such as previously placed needles.

  14. Light field display and 3D image reconstruction

    Iwane, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Light field optics and its applications become rather popular in these days. With light field optics or light field thesis, real 3D space can be described in 2D plane as 4D data, which we call as light field data. This process can be divided in two procedures. First, real3D scene is optically reduced with imaging lens. Second, this optically reduced 3D image is encoded into light field data. In later procedure we can say that 3D information is encoded onto a plane as 2D data by lens array plate. This transformation is reversible and acquired light field data can be decoded again into 3D image with the arrayed lens plate. "Refocusing" (focusing image on your favorite point after taking a picture), light-field camera's most popular function, is some kind of sectioning process from encoded 3D data (light field data) to 2D image. In this paper at first I show our actual light field camera and our 3D display using acquired and computer-simulated light field data, on which real 3D image is reconstructed. In second I explain our data processing method whose arithmetic operation is performed not in Fourier domain but in real domain. Then our 3D display system is characterized by a few features; reconstructed image is of finer resolutions than density of arrayed lenses and it is not necessary to adjust lens array plate to flat display on which light field data is displayed.

  15. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dagel, Amber Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kast, Brian A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Collin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  16. Recursive Ultrasound Imaging

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new imaging method, applicable for both 2D and 3D imaging. It is based on Synthetic Transmit Aperture Focusing, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created after every pulse emission. The elements from a linear transducer array emit pulses one after another. The sa...

  17. Fully Automatic 3D Reconstruction of Histological Images

    Bagci, Ulas; Bai, Li

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a computational framework for 3D volume reconstruction from 2D histological slices using registration algorithms in feature space. To improve the quality of reconstructed 3D volume, first, intensity variations in images are corrected by an intensity standardization process which maps image intensity scale to a standard scale where similar intensities correspond to similar tissues. Second, a subvolume approach is proposed for 3D reconstruction by dividing standardized...

  18. Computer-aided detection of cancer in automated 3-D breast ultrasound.

    Tan, Tao; Platel, Bram; Mus, Roel; Tabar, László; Mann, Ritse M; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-09-01

    Automated 3-D breast ultrasound (ABUS) has gained a lot of interest and may become widely used in screening of dense breasts, where sensitivity of mammography is poor. However, reading ABUS images is time consuming, and subtle abnormalities may be missed. Therefore, we are developing a computer aided detection (CAD) system to help reduce reading time and prevent errors. In the multi-stage system we propose, segmentations of the breast, the nipple and the chestwall are performed, providing landmarks for the detection algorithm. Subsequently, voxel features characterizing coronal spiculation patterns, blobness, contrast, and depth are extracted. Using an ensemble of neural-network classifiers, a likelihood map indicating potential abnormality is computed. Local maxima in the likelihood map are determined and form a set of candidates in each image. These candidates are further processed in a second detection stage, which includes region segmentation, feature extraction and a final classification. On region level, classification experiments were performed using different classifiers including an ensemble of neural networks, a support vector machine, a k-nearest neighbors, a linear discriminant, and a gentle boost classifier. Performance was determined using a dataset of 238 patients with 348 images (views), including 169 malignant and 154 benign lesions. Using free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis, the system obtains a view-based sensitivity of 64% at 1 false positives per image using an ensemble of neural-network classifiers. PMID:23693128

  19. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  20. Recursive ultrasound imaging

    2000-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for recursive ultrasound imaging is presented. The method uses a Synthetic Transmit Aperture, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created at every pulse emission. In receive, parallel beam forming is implemented. The beam formed RF data is added to the previously...

  1. 2D and 3D endoanal and translabial ultrasound measurement variation in normal postpartum measurements of the anal sphincter complex

    MERIWETHER, Kate V.; HALL, Rebecca J.; LEEMAN, Lawrence M.; MIGLIACCIO, Laura; QUALLS, Clifford; ROGERS, Rebecca G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women may experience anal sphincter anatomy changes after vaginal or Cesarean delivery. Therefore, accurate and acceptable imaging options to evaluate the anal sphincter complex (ASC) are needed. ASC measurements may differ between translabial (TL-US) and endoanal ultrasound (EA-US) imaging and between 2D and 3D ultrasound. The objective of this analysis was to describe measurement variation between these modalities. Methods Primiparous women underwent 2D and 3D TL-US imaging of the ASC six months after a vaginal birth (VB) or Cesarean delivery (CD). A subset of women also underwent EA-US measurements. Measurements included the internal anal sphincter (IAS) thickness at proximal, mid, and distal levels and the external anal sphincter (EAS) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 o’clock positions as well as bilateral thickness of the pubovisceralis muscle (PVM). Results 433 women presented for US: 423 had TL-US and 64 had both TL-US and EA-US of the ASC. All IAS measurements were significantly thicker on TL-US than EA-US (all p0.20). On both TL-US and EA-US, there were multiple sites where significant asymmetry existed in left versus right measurements. Conclusion The ultrasound modality used to image the ASC introduces small but significant changes in measurements, and the direction of the bias depends on the muscle and location being imaged. PMID:25344221

  2. Utilizing 3-D and 4-D ultrasound systems to improve radiation treatment of cervix and prostate cancer patients

    Baker, Mariwan

    megavoltage (MV) image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) methods are developed. However, these ionization systems provide poor visualization of soft tissue, and therefore the bone matching is frequently applied as a daily tumor alignment method in cervical radiotherapy. In this project, the Clarity 3D ultrasound...... conventional probe (C-probe) has limitations, while applying transabdominal US (TAUS) scan, when it came to capturing the entire uterus owing to the difficulty in probe handling. Contrarily, the novel autoscan-probe (A-probe) was shown to be capable of capturing the entire uterus in almost all of the scans...... images, which has limitations in addressing real-time prostate motion, and includes inter-observer variations while matching image to image. In this project, the recently developed transperineal ultrasound 4D autoscan probe is used to investigate the real-time prostate monitoring. The purpose of this...

  3. 3D Interpolation Method for CT Images of the Lung

    Noriaki Asada

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D image can be reconstructed from numerous CT images of the lung. The procedure reconstructs a solid from multiple cross section images, which are collected during pulsation of the heart. Thus the motion of the heart is a special factor that must be taken into consideration during reconstruction. The lung exhibits a repeating transformation synchronized to the beating of the heart as an elastic body. There are discontinuities among neighboring CT images due to the beating of the heart, if no special techniques are used in taking CT images. The 3-D heart image is reconstructed from numerous CT images in which both the heart and the lung are taken. Although the outline shape of the reconstructed 3-D heart is quite unnatural, the envelope of the 3-D unnatural heart is fit to the shape of the standard heart. The envelopes of the lung in the CT images are calculated after the section images of the best fitting standard heart are located at the same positions of the CT images. Thus the CT images are geometrically transformed to the optimal CT images fitting best to the standard heart. Since correct transformation of images is required, an Area oriented interpolation method proposed by us is used for interpolation of transformed images. An attempt to reconstruct a 3-D lung image by a series of such operations without discontinuity is shown. Additionally, the same geometrical transformation method to the original projection images is proposed as a more advanced method.

  4. Imaging By Ultrasound

    Kidney, Maria R.

    1986-01-01

    Imaging by ultrasound has dramatically changed the investigation and management of many clinical problems. It is useful in many different parts of the body. In this brief discussion, the following topics are considered: hepatic lesions, bleeding in early pregnancy, gynecological pathology (adnexal lesions), aortic aneurysms, thyroid nodules and scrotal masses. The usefulness of duplex carotid sonography, which combines ultrasonic imaging and Doppler studies, is also discussed. Other topics (g...

  5. Highway 3D model from image and lidar data

    Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan

    2014-05-01

    We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.

  6. Diffractive optical element for creating visual 3D images.

    Goncharsky, Alexander; Goncharsky, Anton; Durlevich, Svyatoslav

    2016-05-01

    A method is proposed to compute and synthesize the microrelief of a diffractive optical element to produce a new visual security feature - the vertical 3D/3D switch effect. The security feature consists in the alternation of two 3D color images when the diffractive element is tilted up/down. Optical security elements that produce the new security feature are synthesized using electron-beam technology. Sample optical security elements are manufactured that produce 3D to 3D visual switch effect when illuminated by white light. Photos and video records of the vertical 3D/3D switch effect of real optical elements are presented. The optical elements developed can be replicated using standard equipment employed for manufacturing security holograms. The new optical security feature is easy to control visually, safely protected against counterfeit, and designed to protect banknotes, documents, ID cards, etc. PMID:27137530

  7. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  8. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  9. 3D-LSI technology for image sensor

    Recently, the development of three-dimensional large-scale integration (3D-LSI) technologies has accelerated and has advanced from the research level or the limited production level to the investigation level, which might lead to mass production. By separating 3D-LSI technology into elementary technologies such as (1) through silicon via (TSV) formation, (2) bump formation, (3) wafer thinning, (4) chip/wafer alignment, and (5) chip/wafer stacking and reconstructing the entire process and structure, many methods to realize 3D-LSI devices can be developed. However, by considering a specific application, the supply chain of base wafers, and the purpose of 3D integration, a few suitable combinations can be identified. In this paper, we focus on the application of 3D-LSI technologies to image sensors. We describe the process and structure of the chip size package (CSP), developed on the basis of current and advanced 3D-LSI technologies, to be used in CMOS image sensors. Using the current LSI technologies, CSPs for 1.3 M, 2 M, and 5 M pixel CMOS image sensors were successfully fabricated without any performance degradation. 3D-LSI devices can be potentially employed in high-performance focal-plane-array image sensors. We propose a high-speed image sensor with an optical fill factor of 100% to be developed using next-generation 3D-LSI technology and fabricated using micro(μ)-bumps and micro(μ)-TSVs.

  10. 3D Reconstruction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Mikulka, J.; Bartušek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 7 (2010), s. 617-620. ISSN 1931-7360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/0314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : reconstruction methods * magnetic resonance imaging Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. 3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance

    Dibildox, Gerardo, E-mail: g.dibildox@erasmusmc.nl; Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van [Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul [Pie Medical Imaging, 6227 AJ Maastricht (Netherlands); Schultz, Carl [Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro [Quantitative Imaging Group, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands and Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.

  12. Acoustic 3D imaging of dental structures

    Lewis, D.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hume, W.R. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Douglass, G.D. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Our goals for the first year of this three dimensional electodynamic imaging project was to determine how to combine flexible, individual addressable; preprocessing of array source signals; spectral extrapolation or received signals; acoustic tomography codes; and acoustic propagation modeling code. We investigated flexible, individually addressable acoustic array material to find the best match in power, sensitivity and cost and settled on PVDF sheet arrays and 3-1 composite material.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart ... Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview ...

  14. Reconstruction of High Resolution 3D Objects from Incomplete Images and 3D Information

    Alexander Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To this day, digital object reconstruction is a quite complex area that requires many techniques and novel approaches, in which high-resolution 3D objects present one of the biggest challenges. There are mainly two different methods that can be used to reconstruct high resolution objects and images: passive methods and active methods. This methods depend on the type of information available as input for modeling 3D objects. The passive methods use information contained in the images and the active methods make use of controlled light sources, such as lasers. The reconstruction of 3D objects is quite complex and there is no unique solution- The use of specific methodologies for the reconstruction of certain objects it’s also very common, such as human faces, molecular structures, etc. This paper proposes a novel hybrid methodology, composed by 10 phases that combine active and passive methods, using images and a laser in order to supplement the missing information and obtain better results in the 3D object reconstruction. Finally, the proposed methodology proved its efficiency in two complex topological complex objects.

  15. A 3D Model Reconstruction Method Using Slice Images

    LI Hong-an; KANG Bao-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at achieving the high accuracy 3D model from slice images, a new model reconstruction method using slice im-ages is proposed. Wanting to extract the outermost contours from slice images, the method of the improved GVF-Snake model with optimized force field and ray method is employed. And then, the 3D model is reconstructed by contour connection using the im-proved shortest diagonal method and judgment function of contour fracture. The results show that the accuracy of reconstruction 3D model is improved.

  16. 3D Motion Parameters Determination Based on Binocular Sequence Images

    2006-01-01

    Exactly capturing three dimensional (3D) motion information of an object is an essential and important task in computer vision, and is also one of the most difficult problems. In this paper, a binocular vision system and a method for determining 3D motion parameters of an object from binocular sequence images are introduced. The main steps include camera calibration, the matching of motion and stereo images, 3D feature point correspondences and resolving the motion parameters. Finally, the experimental results of acquiring the motion parameters of the objects with uniform velocity and acceleration in the straight line based on the real binocular sequence images by the mentioned method are presented.

  17. Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development.

    Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Percival, Christopher J; Green, Rebecca; Young, Nathan M; Mio, Washington; Marcucio, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown how volumetric imaging and morphometrics can add significantly to our understanding of morphogenesis, the developmental basis for variation, and the etiology of structural birth defects. On the other hand, the complex questions and diverse imaging data in developmental biology present morphometrics with more complex challenges than applications in virtually any other field. Meeting these challenges is necessary in order to understand the mechanistic basis for variation in complex morphologies. This chapter reviews the methods and theory that enable the application of modern landmark-based morphometrics to developmental biology and craniofacial development, in particular. We discuss the theoretical foundations of morphometrics as applied to development and review the basic approaches to the quantification of morphology. Focusing on geometric morphometrics, we discuss the principal statistical methods for quantifying and comparing morphological variation and covariation structure within and among groups. Finally, we discuss the future directions for morphometrics in developmental biology that will be required for approaches that enable quantitative integration across the genotype-phenotype map. PMID:26589938

  18. BM3D Frames and Variational Image Deblurring

    Danielyan, Aram; Egiazarian, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A family of the Block Matching 3-D (BM3D) algorithms for various imaging problems has been recently proposed within the framework of nonlocal patch-wise image modeling [1], [2]. In this paper we construct analysis and synthesis frames, formalizing the BM3D image modeling and use these frames to develop novel iterative deblurring algorithms. We consider two different formulations of the deblurring problem: one given by minimization of the single objective function and another based on the Nash equilibrium balance of two objective functions. The latter results in an algorithm where the denoising and deblurring operations are decoupled. The convergence of the developed algorithms is proved. Simulation experiments show that the decoupled algorithm derived from the Nash equilibrium formulation demonstrates the best numerical and visual results and shows superiority with respect to the state of the art in the field, confirming a valuable potential of BM3D-frames as an advanced image modeling tool.

  19. The effect of object speed and direction on the performance of 3D speckle tracking using a 3D swept-volume ultrasound probe

    Three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue tracking using 3D ultrasound is of interest for monitoring organ motion during therapy. Previously we demonstrated feature tracking of respiration-induced liver motion in vivo using a 3D swept-volume ultrasound probe. The aim of this study was to investigate how object speed affects the accuracy of tracking ultrasonic speckle in the absence of any structural information, which mimics the situation in homogenous tissue for motion in the azimuthal and elevational directions. For object motion prograde and retrograde to the sweep direction of the transducer, the spatial sampling frequency increases or decreases with object speed, respectively. We examined the effect object motion direction of the transducer on tracking accuracy. We imaged a homogenous ultrasound speckle phantom whilst moving the probe with linear motion at a speed of 0–35 mm s−1. Tracking accuracy and precision were investigated as a function of speed, depth and direction of motion for fixed displacements of 2 and 4 mm. For the azimuthal direction, accuracy was better than 0.1 and 0.15 mm for displacements of 2 and 4 mm, respectively. For a 2 mm displacement in the elevational direction, accuracy was better than 0.5 mm for most speeds. For 4 mm elevational displacement with retrograde motion, accuracy and precision reduced with speed and tracking failure was observed at speeds of greater than 14 mm s−1. Tracking failure was attributed to speckle de-correlation as a result of decreasing spatial sampling frequency with increasing speed of retrograde motion. For prograde motion, tracking failure was not observed. For inter-volume displacements greater than 2 mm, only prograde motion should be tracked which will decrease temporal resolution by a factor of 2. Tracking errors of the order of 0.5 mm for prograde motion in the elevational direction indicates that using the swept probe technology speckle tracking accuracy is currently too poor to track homogenous tissue

  20. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  1. 3D imaging of aortic aneurysma using spiral CT

    The use of 3D reconstructions (3D display technique and maximum intensity projection) in spiral CT for diagnostic evaluation of aortic aneurysma is explained. The data available showing 12 aneurysma of the abdominal and thoracic aorta (10 cases of aneurysma verum, 2 cases of aneurysma dissecans) were selected for verification of the value of 3D images in comparison to transversal displays of the CT. The 3D reconstructions of the spiral CT, other than the projection angiography, give insight into the vessel from various points of view. Such information is helpful for quickly gathering a picture of the volume and contours of a pathological process in the vessel. 3D post-processing of data is advisable if the comparison of tomograms and projection images produces findings of nuclear definition which need clarification prior to surgery. (orig.)

  2. 3D Image Modelling and Specific Treatments in Orthodontics Domain

    Dionysis Goularas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a 3D specific dental plaster treatment system for orthodontics. From computer tomography scanner images, we propose first a 3D image modelling and reconstruction method of the Mandible and Maxillary based on an adaptive triangulation allowing management of contours meant for the complex topologies. Secondly, we present two specific treatment methods directly achieved on obtained 3D model allowing the automatic correction for the setting in occlusion of the Mandible and the Maxillary, and the teeth segmentation allowing more specific dental examinations. Finally, these specific treatments are presented via a client/server application with the aim of allowing a telediagnosis and treatment.

  3. Optical 3D watermark based digital image watermarking for telemedicine

    Li, Xiao Wei; Kim, Seok Tae

    2013-12-01

    Region of interest (ROI) of a medical image is an area including important diagnostic information and must be stored without any distortion. This algorithm for application of watermarking technique for non-ROI of the medical image preserving ROI. The paper presents a 3D watermark based medical image watermarking scheme. In this paper, a 3D watermark object is first decomposed into 2D elemental image array (EIA) by a lenslet array, and then the 2D elemental image array data is embedded into the host image. The watermark extraction process is an inverse process of embedding. The extracted EIA through the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique, the 3D watermark can be reconstructed. Because the EIA is composed of a number of elemental images possesses their own perspectives of a 3D watermark object. Even though the embedded watermark data badly damaged, the 3D virtual watermark can be successfully reconstructed. Furthermore, using CAT with various rule number parameters, it is possible to get many channels for embedding. So our method can recover the weak point having only one transform plane in traditional watermarking methods. The effectiveness of the proposed watermarking scheme is demonstrated with the aid of experimental results.

  4. Fully Automatic 3D Reconstruction of Histological Images

    Bagci, Ulas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a computational framework for 3D volume reconstruction from 2D histological slices using registration algorithms in feature space. To improve the quality of reconstructed 3D volume, first, intensity variations in images are corrected by an intensity standardization process which maps image intensity scale to a standard scale where similar intensities correspond to similar tissues. Second, a subvolume approach is proposed for 3D reconstruction by dividing standardized slices into groups. Third, in order to improve the quality of the reconstruction process, an automatic best reference slice selection algorithm is developed based on an iterative assessment of image entropy and mean square error of the registration process. Finally, we demonstrate that the choice of the reference slice has a significant impact on registration quality and subsequent 3D reconstruction.

  5. Recovering 3D human pose from monocular images

    Agarwal, Ankur; Triggs, Bill

    2006-01-01

    We describe a learning-based method for recovering 3D human body pose from single images and monocular image sequences. Our approach requires neither an explicit body model nor prior labeling of body parts in the image. Instead, it recovers pose by direct nonlinear regression against shape descriptor vectors extracted automatically from image silhouettes. For robustness against local silhouette segmentation errors, silhouette shape is encoded by histogram-of-shape-contexts descriptors. We eva...

  6. Novel 3D ultrasound image-based biomarkers based on a feature selection from a 2D standardized vessel wall thickness map: a tool for sensitive assessment of therapies for carotid atherosclerosis

    With the advent of new therapies and management strategies for carotid atherosclerosis, there is a parallel need for measurement tools or biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of these new strategies. 3D ultrasound has been shown to provide reproducible measurements of plaque area/volume and vessel wall volume. However, since carotid atherosclerosis is a focal disease that predominantly occurs at bifurcations, biomarkers based on local plaque change may be more sensitive than global volumetric measurements in demonstrating efficacy of new therapies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop a biomarker that is based on the local distribution of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness change (VWT-Change) that has occurred during the course of a clinical study. To allow comparison between different treatment groups, the VWT-Change distribution of each subject must first be mapped to a standardized domain. In this study, we developed a technique to map the 3D VWT-Change distribution to a 2D standardized template. We then applied a feature selection technique to identify regions on the 2D standardized map on which subjects in different treatment groups exhibit greater difference in VWT-Change. The proposed algorithm was applied to analyse the VWT-Change of 20 subjects in a placebo-controlled study of the effect of atorvastatin (Lipitor). The average VWT-Change for each subject was computed (i) over all points in the 2D map and (ii) over feature points only. For the average computed over all points, 97 subjects per group would be required to detect an effect size of 25% that of atorvastatin in a six-month study. The sample size is reduced to 25 subjects if the average were computed over feature points only. The introduction of this sensitive quantification technique for carotid atherosclerosis progression/regression would allow many proof-of-principle studies to be performed before a more costly and longer study involving a larger population is held to confirm the treatment

  7. Novel 3D ultrasound image-based biomarkers based on a feature selection from a 2D standardized vessel wall thickness map: a tool for sensitive assessment of therapies for carotid atherosclerosis

    Chiu, Bernard; Li, Bing; Chow, Tommy W. S.

    2013-09-01

    With the advent of new therapies and management strategies for carotid atherosclerosis, there is a parallel need for measurement tools or biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of these new strategies. 3D ultrasound has been shown to provide reproducible measurements of plaque area/volume and vessel wall volume. However, since carotid atherosclerosis is a focal disease that predominantly occurs at bifurcations, biomarkers based on local plaque change may be more sensitive than global volumetric measurements in demonstrating efficacy of new therapies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop a biomarker that is based on the local distribution of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness change (VWT-Change) that has occurred during the course of a clinical study. To allow comparison between different treatment groups, the VWT-Change distribution of each subject must first be mapped to a standardized domain. In this study, we developed a technique to map the 3D VWT-Change distribution to a 2D standardized template. We then applied a feature selection technique to identify regions on the 2D standardized map on which subjects in different treatment groups exhibit greater difference in VWT-Change. The proposed algorithm was applied to analyse the VWT-Change of 20 subjects in a placebo-controlled study of the effect of atorvastatin (Lipitor). The average VWT-Change for each subject was computed (i) over all points in the 2D map and (ii) over feature points only. For the average computed over all points, 97 subjects per group would be required to detect an effect size of 25% that of atorvastatin in a six-month study. The sample size is reduced to 25 subjects if the average were computed over feature points only. The introduction of this sensitive quantification technique for carotid atherosclerosis progression/regression would allow many proof-of-principle studies to be performed before a more costly and longer study involving a larger population is held to confirm the treatment

  8. 3D Medical Image Segmentation Based on Rough Set Theory

    CHEN Shi-hao; TIAN Yun; WANG Yi; HAO Chong-yang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method which uses multiple types of expert knowledge together in 3D medical image segmentation based on rough set theory. The focus of this paper is how to approximate a ROI (region of interest) when there are multiple types of expert knowledge. Based on rough set theory, the image can be split into three regions:positive regions; negative regions; boundary regions. With multiple knowledge we refine ROI as an intersection of all of the expected shapes with single knowledge. At last we show the results of implementing a rough 3D image segmentation and visualization system.

  9. 3D Image Display Courses for Information Media Students.

    Yanaka, Kazuhisa; Yamanouchi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional displays are used extensively in movies and games. These displays are also essential in mixed reality, where virtual and real spaces overlap. Therefore, engineers and creators should be trained to master 3D display technologies. For this reason, the Department of Information Media at the Kanagawa Institute of Technology has launched two 3D image display courses specifically designed for students who aim to become information media engineers and creators. PMID:26960028

  10. A near field 3D radar imaging technique

    Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents an algorithm which recovers a 3D reflectivity image of a target from near-field scattering measurements. Spherical wave nearfield illumination is used, in order to avoid a costly compact range installation to produce a plane wave illumination. The system is described and some simulated 3D reconstructions are included. The paper also presents a first experimental validation of this technique. Peer Reviewed

  11. Ultrasound image guidance of cardiac interventions

    Peters, Terry M.; Pace, Danielle F.; Lang, Pencilla; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Linte, Cristian A.

    2011-03-01

    Surgical procedures often have the unfortunate side-effect of causing the patient significant trauma while accessing the target site. Indeed, in some cases the trauma inflicted on the patient during access to the target greatly exceeds that caused by performing the therapy. Heart disease has traditionally been treated surgically using open chest techniques with the patient being placed "on pump" - i.e. their circulation being maintained by a cardio-pulmonary bypass or "heart-lung" machine. Recently, techniques have been developed for performing minimally invasive interventions on the heart, obviating the formerly invasive procedures. These new approaches rely on pre-operative images, combined with real-time images acquired during the procedure. Our approach is to register intra-operative images to the patient, and use a navigation system that combines intra-operative ultrasound with virtual models of instrumentation that has been introduced into the chamber through the heart wall. This paper illustrates the problems associated with traditional ultrasound guidance, and reviews the state of the art in real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound technology. In addition, it discusses the implementation of an image-guided intervention platform that integrates real-time ultrasound with a virtual reality environment, bringing together the pre-operative anatomy derived from MRI or CT, representations of tracked instrumentation inside the heart chamber, and the intra-operatively acquired ultrasound images.

  12. Despeckling of Medical Ultrasound Images

    Michailovich, Oleg V.; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Speckle noise is an inherent property of medical ultrasound imaging, and it generally tends to reduce the image resolution and contrast, thereby reducing the diagnostic value of this imaging modality. As a result, speckle noise reduction is an important prerequisite, whenever ultrasound imaging is used for tissue characterization. Among the many methods that have been proposed to perform this task, there exists a class of approaches that use a multiplicative model of speckled image formation ...

  13. DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF AIRBORNE 3D IMAGE

    2001-01-01

    Airborne 3D image which integrates GPS,attitude measurement unit (AMU),sca nning laser rangefinder (SLR) and spectral scanner has been developed successful ly.The spectral scanner and SLR use the same optical system which ensures laser point to match pixel seamlessly.The distinctive advantage of 3D image is that it can produce geo_referenced images and DSM (digital surface models) images wi thout any ground control points (GCPs).It is no longer necessary to sur vey GCPs and with some softwares the data can be processed and produce digital s urface models (DSM) and geo_referenced images in quasi_real_time,therefore,the efficiency of 3 D image is 10~100 times higher than that of traditional approaches.The process ing procedure involves decomposing and checking the raw data,processing GPS dat a,calculating the positions of laser sample points,producing geo_referenced im age,producing DSM and mosaicing strips.  The principle of 3D image is first introduced in this paper,and then we focus on the fast processing technique and algorithm.The flight tests and processed r esults show that the processing technique is feasible and can meet the requireme nt of quasi_real_time applications.

  14. Accuracy assessment of high frequency 3D ultrasound for digital impression-taking of prepared teeth

    Heger, Stefan; Vollborn, Thorsten; Tinschert, Joachim; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Silicone based impression-taking of prepared teeth followed by plaster casting is well-established but potentially less reliable, error-prone and inefficient, particularly in combination with emerging techniques like computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental prosthesis. Intra-oral optical scanners for digital impression-taking have been introduced but until now some drawbacks still exist. Because optical waves can hardly penetrate liquids or soft-tissues, sub-gingival preparations still need to be uncovered invasively prior to scanning. High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based micro-scanning has been recently investigated as an alternative to optical intra-oral scanning. Ultrasound is less sensitive against oral fluids and in principal able to penetrate gingiva without invasively exposing of sub-gingival preparations. Nevertheless, spatial resolution as well as digitization accuracy of an ultrasound based micro-scanning system remains a critical parameter because the ultrasound wavelength in water-like media such as gingiva is typically smaller than that of optical waves. In this contribution, the in-vitro accuracy of ultrasound based micro-scanning for tooth geometry reconstruction is being investigated and compared to its extra-oral optical counterpart. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the system, 2nd harmonic frequencies from a mechanically driven focused single element transducer were separated and corresponding 3D surface models were calculated for both fundamentals and 2nd harmonics. Measurements on phantoms, model teeth and human teeth were carried out for evaluation of spatial resolution and surface detection accuracy. Comparison of optical and ultrasound digital impression taking indicate that, in terms of accuracy, ultrasound based tooth digitization can be an alternative for optical impression-taking.

  15. 3D Tongue Motion from Tagged and Cine MR Images

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Murano, Emi Z.; Lee, Junghoon; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the deformation of the tongue during human speech is important for head and neck surgeons and speech and language scientists. Tagged magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to image 2D motion, and data from multiple image planes can be combined via post-processing to yield estimates of 3D motion. However, lacking boundary information, this approach su ers from inaccurate estimates near the tongue surface. This paper describes a method that combines two sources of information...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... between the transducer and the skin that can block the sound waves from passing into your body. ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  17. AUTOMATIC 3D MAPPING USING MULTIPLE UNCALIBRATED CLOSE RANGE IMAGES

    M. Rafiei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic three-dimensions modeling of the real world is an important research topic in the geomatics and computer vision fields for many years. By development of commercial digital cameras and modern image processing techniques, close range photogrammetry is vastly utilized in many fields such as structure measurements, topographic surveying, architectural and archeological surveying, etc. A non-contact photogrammetry provides methods to determine 3D locations of objects from two-dimensional (2D images. Problem of estimating the locations of 3D points from multiple images, often involves simultaneously estimating both 3D geometry (structure and camera pose (motion, it is commonly known as structure from motion (SfM. In this research a step by step approach to generate the 3D point cloud of a scene is considered. After taking images with a camera, we should detect corresponding points in each two views. Here an efficient SIFT method is used for image matching for large baselines. After that, we must retrieve the camera motion and 3D position of the matched feature points up to a projective transformation (projective reconstruction. Lacking additional information on the camera or the scene makes the parallel lines to be unparalleled. The results of SfM computation are much more useful if a metric reconstruction is obtained. Therefor multiple views Euclidean reconstruction applied and discussed. To refine and achieve the precise 3D points we use more general and useful approach, namely bundle adjustment. At the end two real cases have been considered to reconstruct (an excavation and a tower.

  18. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    precision micro-sewing machines, splice neural connections with laser welds, micro-bore through constricted vessels, and computer combine ultrasound, microradiography, and 3-D mini-borescopes to quickly assess and trace vascular problems in situ. The spatial relationships between organs, robotic arms, and end-effector diagnostic, manipulative, and surgical instruments would be constantly monitored by the robot 'brain' using inputs from its multiple 3-D quantitative 'eyes' remote sensing, as well as by contact and proximity force measuring devices. Methods to create accurate and quantitative 3-D topograms at continuous video data rates are described.

  19. Mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound for pre-operative assessment and guiding percutaneous treatment of focal liver tumors

    Sadeghi Neshat, Hamid; Bax, Jeffery; Barker, Kevin; Gardi, Lori; Chedalavada, Jason; Kakani, Nirmal; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Image-guided percutaneous ablation is the standard treatment for focal liver tumors deemed inoperable and is commonly used to maintain eligibility for patients on transplant waitlists. Radiofrequency (RFA), microwave (MWA) and cryoablation technologies are all delivered via one or a number of needle-shaped probes inserted directly into the tumor. Planning is mostly based on contrast CT/MRI. While intra-procedural CT is commonly used to confirm the intended probe placement, 2D ultrasound (US) remains the main, and in some centers the only imaging modality used for needle guidance. Corresponding intraoperative 2D US with planning and other intra-procedural imaging modalities is essential for accurate needle placement. However, identification of matching features of interest among these images is often challenging given the limited field-of-view (FOV) and low quality of 2D US images. We have developed a passive tracking arm with a motorized scan-head and software tools to improve guiding capabilities of conventional US by large FOV 3D US scans that provides more anatomical landmarks that can facilitate registration of US with both planning and intra-procedural images. The tracker arm is used to scan the whole liver with a high geometrical accuracy that facilitates multi-modality landmark based image registration. Software tools are provided to assist with the segmentation of the ablation probes and tumors, find the 2D view that best shows the probe(s) from a 3D US image, and to identify the corresponding image from planning CT scans. In this paper, evaluation results from laboratory testing and a phase 1 clinical trial for planning and guiding RFA and MWA procedures using the developed system will be presented. Early clinical results show a comparable performance to intra-procedural CT that suggests 3D US as a cost-effective alternative with no side-effects in centers where CT is not available.

  20. Benchmarking of state-of-the-art needle detection algorithms in 3D ultrasound data volumes

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; de With, Peter H. N.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.; Mihajlovic, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle interventions are widely practiced in medical diagnostics and therapy, i.e. for biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia or for brachytherapy. Needle guidance using 2D ultrasound can be very challenging due to the poor needle visibility and the limited field of view. Since 3D ultrasound transducers are becoming more widely used, needle guidance can be improved and simplified with appropriate computer-aided analyses. In this paper, we compare two state-of-the-art 3D needle detection techniques: a technique based on line filtering from literature and a system employing Gabor transformation. Both algorithms utilize supervised classification to pre-select candidate needle voxels in the volume and then fit a model of the needle on the selected voxels. The major differences between the two approaches are in extracting the feature vectors for classification and selecting the criterion for fitting. We evaluate the performance of the two techniques using manually-annotated ground truth in several ex-vivo situations of different complexities, containing three different needle types with various insertion angles. This extensive evaluation provides better understanding on the limitations and advantages of each technique under different acquisition conditions, which is leading to the development of improved techniques for more reliable and accurate localization. Benchmarking results that the Gabor features are better capable of distinguishing the needle voxels in all datasets. Moreover, it is shown that the complete processing chain of the Gabor-based method outperforms the line filtering in accuracy and stability of the detection results.

  1. 3D Power Doppler ultrasound and computerised placental assessment in normal pregnancy

    Background: In recent years there have been significant developments in the use of 3D Power Doppler (3DPD) imaging and quantitative 3DPD histogram analysis to estimate both placental volume and intra-placental vasculature. This study aims to determine if placental volume, vascularisation and blood flow are correlated with gestational age in normal pregnancy. It also examines whether or not a new software method for analysis of percentage calcification (the ‘placentometer’) correlates well with gestation. Material and method: This was a prospective cohort study of 250 women with normal pregnancies (12 + 6 to 39 + 5 weeks gestation). 3DPD ultrasound was used to evaluate placental volume, vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-flow index (VFI). Placental volume (calculated at 35–40 weeks gestation), was correlated with birth weight. Following each scan the percentage of calcification was also calculated using the placentometer. Results: Placental volume correlated significantly with gestational age: 66.676 + 0.623 × GA (P < 0.001). No significant change with gestation was noted in VI, FI and VFI (VI: P = 0.199, FI: P = 0.299, VFI: P = 0.557). Software analysis of the percentage of calcification, demonstrated the expected increase in calcification as gestation increased: −4.605 + 0.032 × GA (P < 0.001). From 35 to 40 weeks gestation volume was related to birth weight (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This study shows that in normal low-risk pregnancy placental volume increases with gestational age, whereas vascularisation and blood flow are independent of gestation. Placental volume in late pregnancy is related to birth weight. Software analysis of the percentage of calcification demonstrates an increase with advancing gestation

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, and vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles ... procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... General Ultrasound Videos related to General Ultrasound About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the ... following illness. Ultrasound is used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    ... The ultrasound gel does not stain or discolor clothing. In some ultrasound studies, the transducer is attached to a probe and inserted into a natural opening in the body. These exams include: Transesophageal ...

  7. 3D interfractional patient position verification using 2D-3D registration of orthogonal images

    Reproducible positioning of the patient during fractionated external beam radiation therapy is imperative to ensure that the delivered dose distribution matches the planned one. In this paper, we expand on a 2D-3D image registration method to verify a patient's setup in three dimensions (rotations and translations) using orthogonal portal images and megavoltage digitally reconstructed radiographs (MDRRs) derived from CT data. The accuracy of 2D-3D registration was improved by employing additional image preprocessing steps and a parabolic fit to interpolate the parameter space of the cost function utilized for registration. Using a humanoid phantom, precision for registration of three-dimensional translations was found to be better than 0.5 mm (1 s.d.) for any axis when no rotations were present. Three-dimensional rotations about any axis were registered with a precision of better than 0.2 deg. (1 s.d.) when no translations were present. Combined rotations and translations of up to 4 deg. and 15 mm were registered with 0.4 deg. and 0.7 mm accuracy for each axis. The influence of setup translations on registration of rotations and vice versa was also investigated and mostly agrees with a simple geometric model. Additionally, the dependence of registration accuracy on three cost functions, angular spacing between MDRRs, pixel size, and field-of-view, was examined. Best results were achieved by mutual information using 0.5 deg. angular spacing and a 10x10 cm2 field-of-view with 140x140 pixels. Approximating patient motion as rigid transformation, the registration method is applied to two treatment plans and the patients' setup errors are determined. Their magnitude was found to be ≤6.1 mm and ≤2.7 deg. for any axis in all of the six fractions measured for each treatment plan

  8. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks

  9. DICOM for quantitative imaging research in 3D Slicer

    Fedorov, Andrey; Kikinis, Ron

    2014-01-01

    These are the slides presented by Andrey Fedorov at the 3D Slicer workshop and meeting of the Quantitative Image Informatics for Cancer Research (QIICR) project that took place November 18-19, 2014, at the University of Iowa.

  10. Practical pseudo-3D registration for large tomographic images

    Liu, Xuan; Laperre, Kjell; Sasov, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Image registration is a powerful tool in various tomographic applications. Our main focus is on microCT applications in which samples/animals can be scanned multiple times under different conditions or at different time points. For this purpose, a registration tool capable of handling fairly large volumes has been developed, using a novel pseudo-3D method to achieve fast and interactive registration with simultaneous 3D visualization. To reduce computation complexity in 3D registration, we decompose it into several 2D registrations, which are applied to the orthogonal views (transaxial, sagittal and coronal) sequentially and iteratively. After registration in each view, the next view is retrieved with the new transformation matrix for registration. This reduces the computation complexity significantly. For rigid transform, we only need to search for 3 parameters (2 shifts, 1 rotation) in each of the 3 orthogonal views instead of 6 (3 shifts, 3 rotations) for full 3D volume. In addition, the amount of voxels involved is also significantly reduced. For the proposed pseudo-3D method, image-based registration is employed, with Sum of Square Difference (SSD) as the similarity measure. The searching engine is Powell's conjugate direction method. In this paper, only rigid transform is used. However, it can be extended to affine transform by adding scaling and possibly shearing to the transform model. We have noticed that more information can be used in the 2D registration if Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP) or Parallel Projections (PP) is used instead of the orthogonal views. Also, other similarity measures, such as covariance or mutual information, can be easily incorporated. The initial evaluation on microCT data shows very promising results. Two application examples are shown: dental samples before and after treatment and structural changes in materials before and after compression. Evaluation on registration accuracy between pseudo-3D method and true 3D method has

  11. 3D wavefront image formation for NIITEK GPR

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Ton, Tuan; Howard, Pete

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining (HD) Research and Development Program focuses on developing, testing, demonstrating, and validating new technology for immediate use in humanitarian demining operations around the globe. Beginning in the late 1990's, the U.S. Army Countermine Division funded the development of the NIITEK ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detection of anti-tank (AT) landmines. This work is concerned with signal processing algorithms to suppress sources of artifacts in the NIITEK GPR, and formation of three-dimensional (3D) imagery from the resultant data. We first show that the NIITEK GPR data correspond to a 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) database. An adaptive filtering method is utilized to suppress ground return and self-induced resonance (SIR) signals that are generated by the interaction of the radar-carrying platform and the transmitted radar signal. We examine signal processing methods to improve the fidelity of imagery for this 3D SAR system using pre-processing methods that suppress Doppler aliasing as well as other side lobe leakage artifacts that are introduced by the radar radiation pattern. The algorithm, known as digital spotlighting, imposes a filtering scheme on the azimuth-compressed SAR data, and manipulates the resultant spectral data to achieve a higher PRF to suppress the Doppler aliasing. We also present the 3D version of the Fourier-based wavefront reconstruction, a computationally-efficient and approximation-free SAR imaging method, for image formation with the NIITEK 3D SAR database.

  12. Extracting 3D Layout From a Single Image Using Global Image Structures

    Z. Lou; T. Gevers; N. Hu

    2015-01-01

    Extracting the pixel-level 3D layout from a single image is important for different applications, such as object localization, image, and video categorization. Traditionally, the 3D layout is derived by solving a pixel-level classification problem. However, the image-level 3D structure can be very b

  13. Holoscopic 3D image depth estimation and segmentation techniques

    Alazawi, Eman

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Today’s 3D imaging techniques offer significant benefits over conventional 2D imaging techniques. The presence of natural depth information in the scene affords the observer an overall improved sense of reality and naturalness. A variety of systems attempting to reach this goal have been designed by many independent research groups, such as stereoscopic and auto-stereoscopic systems....

  14. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  15. Projective 3D-reconstruction of Uncalibrated Endoscopic Images

    P. Faltin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common medical diagnostic method for urinary bladder cancer is cystoscopy. This inspection of the bladder is performed by a rigid endoscope, which is usually guided close to the bladder wall. This causes a very limited field of view; difficulty of navigation is aggravated by the usage of angled endoscopes. These factors cause difficulties in orientation and visual control. To overcome this problem, the paper presents a method for extracting 3D information from uncalibrated endoscopic image sequences and for reconstructing the scene content. The method uses the SURF-algorithm to extract features from the images and relates the images by advanced matching. To stabilize the matching, the epipolar geometry is extracted for each image pair using a modified RANSAC-algorithm. Afterwards these matched point pairs are used to generate point triplets over three images and to describe the trifocal geometry. The 3D scene points are determined by applying triangulation to the matched image points. Thus, these points are used to generate a projective 3D reconstruction of the scene, and provide the first step for further metric reconstructions.

  16. Development of 3D ultrasound needle guidance for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of gynaecological cancers

    Rodgers, J.; Tessier, D.; D'Souza, D.; Leung, E.; Hajdok, G.; Fenster, A.

    2016-04-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy is often included in standard-of-care for gynaecological cancers. Needles are currently inserted through a perineal template without any standard real-time imaging modality to assist needle guidance, causing physicians to rely on pre-operative imaging, clinical examination, and experience. While two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) is sometimes used for real-time guidance, visualization of needle placement and depth is difficult and subject to variability and inaccuracy in 2D images. The close proximity to critical organs, in particular the rectum and bladder, can lead to serious complications. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) transrectal US system and are investigating its use for intra-operative visualization of needle positions used in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy. As a proof-of-concept, four patients were imaged with post-insertion 3D US and x-ray CT. Using software developed in our laboratory, manual rigid registration of the two modalities was performed based on the perineal template's vaginal cylinder. The needle tip and a second point along the needle path were identified for each needle visible in US. The difference between modalities in the needle trajectory and needle tip position was calculated for each identified needle. For the 60 needles placed, the mean trajectory difference was 3.23 +/- 1.65° across the 53 visible needle paths and the mean difference in needle tip position was 3.89 +/- 1.92 mm across the 48 visible needles tips. Based on the preliminary results, 3D transrectal US shows potential for the development of a 3D US-based needle guidance system for interstitial gynaecological brachytherapy.

  17. 1024 pixels single photon imaging array for 3D ranging

    Bellisai, S.; Guerrieri, F.; Tisa, S.; Zappa, F.; Tosi, A.; Giudice, A.

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensions (3D) acquisition systems are driving applications in many research field. Nowadays 3D acquiring systems are used in a lot of applications, such as cinema industry or in automotive (for active security systems). Depending on the application, systems present different features, for example color sensitivity, bi-dimensional image resolution, distance measurement accuracy and acquisition frame rate. The system we developed acquires 3D movie using indirect Time of Flight (iTOF), starting from phase delay measurement of a sinusoidally modulated light. The system acquires live movie with a frame rate up to 50frame/s in a range distance between 10 cm up to 7.5 m.

  18. 3D Medical Image Interpolation Based on Parametric Cubic Convolution

    2007-01-01

    In the process of display, manipulation and analysis of biomedical image data, they usually need to be converted to data of isotropic discretization through the process of interpolation, while the cubic convolution interpolation is widely used due to its good tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy. In this paper, we present a whole concept for the 3D medical image interpolation based on cubic convolution, and the six methods, with the different sharp control parameter, which are formulated in details. Furthermore, we also give an objective comparison for these methods using data sets with the different slice spacing. Each slice in these data sets is estimated by each interpolation method and compared with the original slice using three measures: mean-squared difference, number of sites of disagreement, and largest difference. According to the experimental results, we present a recommendation for 3D medical images under the different situations in the end.

  19. Helical CT scanner - 3D imaging and CT fluoroscopy

    It has been over twenty years since the introduction of X-ray CT. In recent years, the topic of helical scanning has dominated the area of technical development. With helical scanning now being used routinely, the traditional concept of the X-ray CT as a device for obtaining axial images of the body in slices has given way to that of one for obtaining images in volumes. For instance, the ability of helical scanning to acquire sequential images in the direction of the body axis makes it ideal for creating three dimensional (3-D) images, and has in fact led to the use of 3-D images in clinical practice. In addition, with helical scanning, imaging of organs such as the liver or lung can be performed in several tens of seconds, as opposed to a few minutes that it used to take. This has resulted not only in reduced time for the patient to spend under constraint for imaging but also to changes in diagnostic methods. The question, 'Would it be possible to perform reconstruction while scanning and to see resulting images in real time ?' is another issue which has been taken up, and it has been answered by CT Fluoroscopy. It makes it possible to see CT images in real time during sequential scanning, and from this development, applications such as CT-guided biopsy and CT-navigated surgery has been investigated and have been realized. Other possibilities to create a whole new series of diagnostic methods and results. (author)

  20. 3D acoustic imaging applied to the Baikal neutrino telescope

    Kebkal, K.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Blumenstrasse 49, 10243 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kebkal@evologics.de; Bannasch, R.; Kebkal, O.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Blumenstrasse 49, 10243 Berlin (Germany); Panfilov, A.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Wischnewski, R. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15735 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-04-11

    A hydro-acoustic imaging system was tested in a pilot study on distant localization of elements of the Baikal underwater neutrino telescope. For this innovative approach, based on broad band acoustic echo signals and strictly avoiding any active acoustic elements on the telescope, the imaging system was temporarily installed just below the ice surface, while the telescope stayed in its standard position at 1100 m depth. The system comprised an antenna with four acoustic projectors positioned at the corners of a 50 m square; acoustic pulses were 'linear sweep-spread signals'-multiple-modulated wide-band signals (10{yields}22 kHz) of 51.2 s duration. Three large objects (two string buoys and the central electronics module) were localized by the 3D acoustic imaging, with an accuracy of {approx}0.2 m (along the beam) and {approx}1.0 m (transverse). We discuss signal forms and parameters necessary for improved 3D acoustic imaging of the telescope, and suggest a layout of a possible stationary bottom based 3D imaging setup. The presented technique may be of interest for neutrino telescopes of km{sup 3}-scale and beyond, as a flexible temporary or as a stationary tool to localize basic telescope elements, while these are completely passive.

  1. 3D acoustic imaging applied to the Baikal neutrino telescope

    A hydro-acoustic imaging system was tested in a pilot study on distant localization of elements of the Baikal underwater neutrino telescope. For this innovative approach, based on broad band acoustic echo signals and strictly avoiding any active acoustic elements on the telescope, the imaging system was temporarily installed just below the ice surface, while the telescope stayed in its standard position at 1100 m depth. The system comprised an antenna with four acoustic projectors positioned at the corners of a 50 m square; acoustic pulses were 'linear sweep-spread signals'-multiple-modulated wide-band signals (10→22 kHz) of 51.2 s duration. Three large objects (two string buoys and the central electronics module) were localized by the 3D acoustic imaging, with an accuracy of ∼0.2 m (along the beam) and ∼1.0 m (transverse). We discuss signal forms and parameters necessary for improved 3D acoustic imaging of the telescope, and suggest a layout of a possible stationary bottom based 3D imaging setup. The presented technique may be of interest for neutrino telescopes of km3-scale and beyond, as a flexible temporary or as a stationary tool to localize basic telescope elements, while these are completely passive.

  2. Ultrasound Imaging and its modeling

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    Modern medical ultrasound scanners are used for imaging nearly all soft tissue structures in the body. The anatomy can be studied from gray-scale B-mode images, where the reflectivity and scattering strength of the tissues are displayed. The imaging is performed in real time with 20 to 100 images...

  3. Large distance 3D imaging of hidden objects

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon Akram, Avihai; Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Levanon, Assaf

    2014-06-01

    Imaging systems in millimeter waves are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is low compared to that of infrared and optical rays. The lack of an inexpensive room temperature detector makes it difficult to give a suitable real time implement for the above applications. A 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA of plasma based detectors) using heterodyne detection. The intensity at each pixel in the GDD FPA yields the usual 2D image. The value of the I-F frequency yields the range information at each pixel. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of inexpensive detectors. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  4. 3D Image Reconstruction from Compton camera data

    Kuchment, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address analytically and numerically the inversion of the integral transform (\\emph{cone} or \\emph{Compton} transform) that maps a function on $\\mathbb{R}^3$ to its integrals over conical surfaces. It arises in a variety of imaging techniques, e.g. in astronomy, optical imaging, and homeland security imaging, especially when the so called Compton cameras are involved. Several inversion formulas are developed and implemented numerically in $3D$ (the much simpler $2D$ case was considered in a previous publication).

  5. Ultrasound focusing images in superlattices

    Narita, Michiko; Tanaka, Yukihiro; Tamura, Shin-ichiro

    2002-03-01

    We study theoretically ultrasound focusing in periodic multilayered structures, or superlattices, by solving the wave equation with the Green function method and calculating the transmitted ultrasound amplitude images of both the longitudinal and transverse modes. The constituent layers assumed are elastically isotropic but the periodically stacked structure is anisotropic. Thus anisotropy of ultrasound propagation is predicted even at low frequencies and it is enhanced significantly at higher frequencies due to the zone-folding effect of acoustic dispersion relations. An additional effect studied is the interference of ultrasound (known as the internal diffraction), which can be recognized when the propagation distance is comparable to the ultrasound wavelength. Numerical examples are developed for millimetre-scale Al/polymer multilayers used recently for imaging experiment with surface acoustic waves.

  6. 3D CT Imaging Method for Measuring Temporal Bone Aeration

    Objective: 3D volume reconstruction of CT images can be used to measure temporal bene aeration. This study evaluates the technique with respect to reproducibility and acquisition parameters. Material and methods: Helical CT images acquired from patients with radiographically normal temporal bones using standard clinical protocols were retrospectively analyzed. 3D image reconstruction was performed to measure the volume of air within the temporal bone. The appropriate threshold values for air were determined from reconstruction of a phantom with a known air volume imaged using the same clinical protocols. The appropriate air threshold values were applied to the clinical material. Results: Air volume was measured according to an acquisition algorithm. The average volume in the temporal bone CT group was 5.56 ml, compared to 5.19 ml in the head CT group (p = 0.59). The correlation coefficient between examiners was > 0.92. There was a wide range of aeration volumes among individual ears (0.76-18.84 ml); however, paired temporal bones differed by an average of just 1.11 ml. Conclusions: The method of volume measurement from 3D reconstruction reported here is widely available, easy to perform and produces consistent results among examiners. Application of the technique to archival CT data is possible using corrections for air segmentation thresholds according to acquisition parameters

  7. Combining different modalities for 3D imaging of biological objects

    A resolution enhanced NaI(Tl)-scintillator micro-SPECT device using pinhole collimator geometry has been built and tested with small animals. This device was constructed based on a depth-of-interaction measurement using a thick scintillator crystal and a position sensitive PMT to measure depth-dependent scintillator light profiles. Such a measurement eliminates the parallax error that degrades the high spatial resolution required for small animal imaging. This novel technique for 3D gamma-ray detection was incorporated into the micro-SPECT device and tested with a 57Co source and 98mTc-MDP injected in mice body. To further enhance the investigating power of the tomographic imaging different imaging modalities can be combined. In particular, as proposed and shown, the optical imaging permits a 3D reconstruction of the animal's skin surface thus improving visualization and making possible depth-dependent corrections, necessary for bioluminescence 3D reconstruction in biological objects. This structural information can provide even more detail if the x-ray tomography is used as presented in the paper

  8. Combining Different Modalities for 3D Imaging of Biological Objects

    Tsyganov, E; Kulkarni, P; Mason, R; Parkey, R; Seliuonine, S; Shay, J; Soesbe, T; Zhezher, V; Zinchenko, A I

    2005-01-01

    A resolution enhanced NaI(Tl)-scintillator micro-SPECT device using pinhole collimator geometry has been built and tested with small animals. This device was constructed based on a depth-of-interaction measurement using a thick scintillator crystal and a position sensitive PMT to measure depth-dependent scintillator light profiles. Such a measurement eliminates the parallax error that degrades the high spatial resolution required for small animal imaging. This novel technique for 3D gamma-ray detection was incorporated into the micro-SPECT device and tested with a $^{57}$Co source and $^{98m}$Tc-MDP injected in mice body. To further enhance the investigating power of the tomographic imaging different imaging modalities can be combined. In particular, as proposed and shown in this paper, the optical imaging permits a 3D reconstruction of the animal's skin surface thus improving visualization and making possible depth-dependent corrections, necessary for bioluminescence 3D reconstruction in biological objects. ...

  9. Usefulness of US-CT 3D dual imaging for the planning and monitoring of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment using HIFU

    Purpose: We evaluated the safety and usefulness of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) assisted by ultrasound-computed tomography three-dimensional (US-CT 3D) dual imaging for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: HIFU ablation was performed in 13 patients with small HCC (≤3 lesions, ≤3 cm in diameter). The HIFU system (Chongqing Haifu Tech) was used under ultrasound guidance. By transferring the sagittal or axial plane of the 3D US and the CT volume data into the ZioM900, multiplanar reconstruction images were displayed in a manner resembling conventional monitor US to assist the HIFU treatment. Results: Overall, 69% (9/13) of the patients in whom good visualization using B-mode sonography could not be obtained because of the influence of multi-reflections, rib shadows, and unclear tumor margins were successfully treated under the guidance of US-CT 3D dual imaging. In 5 of the 13 patients, multi-reflections were responsible for the poor visualization. In 2 cases, the tumor was poorly visualized because of a rib shadow. In one case, the margin of the tumor was too unclear to be detected using ultrasography. The 3D US images obtained as part of the US-CT 3D dual imaging had a high resolution and were useful for examining the area of HCC invasion and for determining the extent of the ablation area. The CT images, which are not influenced by bone shadows or multi-reflections, were useful for detecting the tumors and for visualizing the presence of the intestines in the sonication zone. HIFU treatments were successfully performed in all the patients with the assistance of US-CT 3D dual imaging. Conclusion: US-CT 3D dual imaging is useful for HIFU treatment for HCC, compensating for the occasionally poor visualization provided by US monitor.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the ... the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas ...