WorldWideScience
1

Dynamic reconstruction and rendering of 3D tomosynthesis images  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic Reconstruction and Rendering (DRR) is a fast and flexible tomosynthesis image reconstruction and display implementation. By leveraging the computational efficiency gains afforded by off-the-shelf GPU hardware, tomosynthesis reconstruction can be performed on demand at real-time, user-interactive frame rates. Dynamic multiplanar reconstructions allow the user to adjust reconstruction and display parameters interactively, including axial sampling, slice location, plane tilt, magnification, and filter selection. Reconstruction on-demand allows tomosynthesis images to be viewed as true three-dimensional data rather than just a stack of two-dimensional images. The speed and dynamic rendering capabilities of DRR can improve diagnostic accuracy and lead to more efficient clinical workflows.

Kuo, Johnny; Ringer, Peter A.; Fallows, Steven G.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Ng, Susan

2011-03-01

2

Parallelizable 3D statistical reconstruction for C-arm tomosynthesis system  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical diagnosis and security detection tasks increasingly require 3D information which is difficult or impossible to obtain from 2D (two dimensional) radiographs. As a 3D (three dimensional) radiographic and non-destructive imaging technique, digital tomosynthesis is especially fit for cases where 3D information is required while a complete projection data is not available. Nowadays, FBP (filtered back projection) is extensively used in industry for its fast speed and simplicity. However, it is hard to deal with situations where only a limited number of projections from constrained directions are available, or the SNR (signal to noises ratio) of the projections is low. In order to deal with noise and take into account a priori information of the object, a statistical image reconstruction method is described based on the acquisition model of X-ray projections. We formulate a ML (maximum likelihood) function for this model and develop an ordered-subsets iterative algorithm to estimate the unknown attenuation of the object. Simulations show that satisfied results can be obtained after 1 to 2 iterations, and after that there is no significant improvement of the image quality. An adaptive wiener filter is also applied to the reconstructed image to remove its noise. Some approximations to speed up the reconstruction computation are also considered. Applying this method to computer generated projections of a revised Shepp phantom and true projections from diagnostic radiographs of a patient"s hand and mammography images yields reconstructions with impressive quality. Parallel programming is also implemented and tested. The quality of the reconstructed object is conserved, while the computation time is considerably reduced by almost the number of threads used.

Wang, Beilei; Barner, Kenneth; Lee, Denny

2005-04-01

3

Compressed-sensing (CS)-based digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) reconstruction for low-dose, accurate 3D breast X-ray imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

In practical applications of three-dimensional (3D) tomographic techniques, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), computed tomography (CT), etc., there are often challenges for accurate image reconstruction from incomplete data. In DBT, in particular, the limited-angle and few-view projection data are theoretically insufficient for exact reconstruction; thus, the use of common filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithms leads to severe image artifacts, such as the loss of the average image value and edge sharpening. One possible approach to alleviate these artifacts may employ iterative statistical methods because they potentially yield reconstructed images that are in better accordance with the measured projection data. In this work, as another promising approach, we investigated potential applications to low-dose, accurate DBT imaging with a state-of-the-art reconstruction scheme based on compressed-sensing (CS) theory. We implemented an efficient CS-based DBT algorithm and performed systematic simulation works to investigate the imaging characteristics. We successfully obtained DBT images of substantially very high accuracy by using the algorithm and expect it to be applicable to developing the next-generation 3D breast X-ray imaging system.

Park, Yeonok; Cho, Hyosung; Je, Uikyu; Hong, Daeki; Lee, Minsik; Park, Chulkyu; Cho, Heemoon; Choi, Sungil; Koo, Yangseo

2014-08-01

4

Inter-plane artifact suppression in tomosynthesis using 3D CT image data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its superb lateral resolution, flat-panel-detector (FPD based tomosynthesis suffers from low contrast and inter-plane artifacts caused by incomplete cancellation of the projection components stemming from outside the focal plane. The incomplete cancellation of the projection components, mostly due to the limited scan angle in the conventional tomosynthesis scan geometry, often makes the image contrast too low to differentiate the malignant tissues from the background tissues with confidence. Methods In this paper, we propose a new method to suppress the inter-plane artifacts in FPD-based tomosynthesis. If 3D whole volume CT images are available before the tomosynthesis scan, the CT image data can be incorporated into the tomosynthesis image reconstruction to suppress the inter-plane artifacts, hence, improving the image contrast. In the proposed technique, the projection components stemming from outside the region-of-interest (ROI are subtracted from the measured tomosynthesis projection data to suppress the inter-plane artifacts. The projection components stemming from outside the ROI are calculated from the 3D whole volume CT images which usually have lower lateral resolution than the tomosynthesis images. The tomosynthesis images are reconstructed from the subtracted projection data which account for the x-ray attenuation through the ROI. After verifying the proposed method by simulation, we have performed both CT scan and tomosynthesis scan on a phantom and a sacrificed rat using a FPD-based micro-CT. Results We have measured contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR from the tomosynthesis images which is an indicator of the residual inter-plane artifacts on the focal-plane image. In both cases of the simulation and experimental imaging studies of the contrast evaluating phantom, CNRs have been significantly improved by the proposed method. In the rat imaging also, we have observed better visual contrast from the tomosynthesis images reconstructed by the proposed method. Conclusions The proposed tomosynthesis technique can improve image contrast with aids of 3D whole volume CT images. Even though local tomosynthesis needs extra 3D CT scanning, it may find clinical applications in special situations in which extra 3D CT scan is already available or allowed.

Kim Jae G

2011-12-01

5

The simulation of 3D microcalcification clusters in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D models of microcalcification clusters and describes the validation of their realistic appearance when simulated into 2D digital mammograms and into breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: A micro-CT unit was used to scan 23 breast biopsy specimens of microcalcification clusters with malignant and benign characteristics and their 3D reconstructed datasets were segmented to obtain 3D models of microcalcification clusters. These models were then adjusted for the x-ray spectrum used and for the system resolution and simulated into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. Six radiologists were asked to distinguish between 40 real and 40 simulated clusters of microcalcifications in two separate studies on 2D mammography and tomosynthesis datasets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to test the ability of each observer to distinguish between simulated and real microcalcification clusters. The kappa statistic was applied to assess how often the individual simulated and real microcalcification clusters had received similar scores (''agreement'') on their realistic appearance in both modalities. This analysis was performed for all readers and for the real and the simulated group of microcalcification clusters separately. ''Poor'' agreement would reflect radiologists' confusion between simulated and real clusters, i.e., lesions not systematically evaluated in both modalities as either simulated or real, and would therefore be interpreted as a success of the present models. Results: The area under the ROC curve, averaged over the observers, was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [0.44, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.46 (95% confidence interval [0.29, 0.64]) for the tomosynthesis study, indicating no statistically significant difference between real and simulated lesions (p > 0.05). Agreement between allocated lesion scores for 2D mammography and those for the tomosynthesis series was poor. Conclusions: The realistic appearance of the 3D models of microcalcification clusters, whether malignant or benign clusters, was confirmed for 2D digital mammography images and the breast tomosynthesis datasets; this database of clusters is suitable for use in future observer performance studies related to the detectability of microcalcification clusters. Such studies include comparing 2D digital mammography to breast tomosynthesis and comparing different reconstruction algorithms.

Shaheen, Eman; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Zanca, Federica; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marshall, Nicholas; Jacobs, Jurgen; Young, Kenneth C.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

2011-12-15

6

The simulation of 3D microcalcification clusters in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D models of microcalcification clusters and describes the validation of their realistic appearance when simulated into 2D digital mammograms and into breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: A micro-CT unit was used to scan 23 breast biopsy specimens of microcalcification clusters with malignant and benign characteristics and their 3D reconstructed datasets were segmented to obtain 3D models of microcalcification clusters. These models were then adjusted for the x-ray spectrum used and for the system resolution and simulated into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. Six radiologists were asked to distinguish between 40 real and 40 simulated clusters of microcalcifications in two separate studies on 2D mammography and tomosynthesis datasets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to test the ability of each observer to distinguish between simulated and real microcalcification clusters. The kappa statistic was applied to assess how often the individual simulated and real microcalcification clusters had received similar scores (''agreement'') on their realistic appearance in both modalities. This analysis was performed for all readers and for the real and the simulated group of microcalcification clusters separately. ''Poor'' agreement would reflect radiologi''Poor'' agreement would reflect radiologists' confusion between simulated and real clusters, i.e., lesions not systematically evaluated in both modalities as either simulated or real, and would therefore be interpreted as a success of the present models. Results: The area under the ROC curve, averaged over the observers, was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [0.44, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.46 (95% confidence interval [0.29, 0.64]) for the tomosynthesis study, indicating no statistically significant difference between real and simulated lesions (p > 0.05). Agreement between allocated lesion scores for 2D mammography and those for the tomosynthesis series was poor. Conclusions: The realistic appearance of the 3D models of microcalcification clusters, whether malignant or benign clusters, was confirmed for 2D digital mammography images and the breast tomosynthesis datasets; this database of clusters is suitable for use in future observer performance studies related to the detectability of microcalcification clusters. Such studies include comparing 2D digital mammography to breast tomosynthesis and comparing different reconstruction algorithms.

7

Application of boundary detection information in breast tomosynthesis reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital tomosynthesis mammography (DTM) is one of the most promising techniques that can potentially improve early detection of breast cancers. DTM can provide three-dimensional (3D) structural information by reconstructing the whole imaged volume from a sequence of projection-view (PV) mammograms that are acquired at a small number of projection angles over a limited angular range. Our previous study showed that simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) can produce satisfactory tomosynthesized image quality compared to maximum likelihood-type algorithms. To improve the efficiency of DTM reconstruction and address the problem of boundary artifacts, we have developed methods to incorporate both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D breast boundary information within the SART reconstruction algorithm in this study. A second generation GE prototype tomosynthesis mammography system with a stationary digital detector was used for PV image acquisition from 21 angles in 3 deg. increments over a ±30 deg. angular range. The 2D breast boundary curves on all PV images were obtained by automated segmentation and were used to restrict the SART reconstruction to be performed only within the breast volume. The computation time of SART reconstruction was reduced by 76.3% and 69.9% for cranio-caudal and mediolateral oblique views, respectively, for the chosen example. In addition, a 3D conical trimming method was developed in which the 2D breast boundary curves from all PVs were breast boundary curves from all PVs were back projected to generate the 3D breast surface. This 3D surface was then used to eliminate the multiple breast shadows outside the breast volume due to reconstruction by setting these voxels to a constant background value. Our study demonstrates that, by using the 2D and 3D breast boundary information, all breast boundary and most detector boundary artifacts can be effectively removed on all tomosynthesized slices

8

Breast tomosynthesis reconstruction with a multi-beam x-ray source  

Science.gov (United States)

As a new three-dimensional breast imaging technique, breast tomosynthesis allows the reconstruction of an arbitrary set of planes in the breast from a limited-angle series of x-ray projection images. The breast tomosynthesis technique has been demonstrated as promising to improve early breast cancer detection. This paper represents a preliminary phantom study and computer simulation results of different breast tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms with a novel carbon nanotube based multi-beam x-ray source. Five representative tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms, including back projection (BP), filtered back projection (FBP), matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS), maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) were investigated. Tomosynthesis projection images of a phantom were acquired with the stationary multi-beam x-ray tomosynthesis system. Reconstruction results from different algorithms were studied. A computer simulation study was further done to investigate the sharpness of reconstructed in-plane structures and to see how effective each algorithm is at removing out-of-plane blur with parallel-imaging geometries. Datasets with 9 and 25 projection images of a defined 3D spherical object were simulated with a total view angle of 50 degrees. Results showed that the multi-beam x-ray system is capable to generate 3D tomosynthesis images with faster speed compared with current commercial prototype systems. With simulated parallel-imaging geometry, MITS and FBP showed edge enhancement in-plane performance. BP, FBP and MLEM performed better at out-of-plane structure removal with larger number of projection images.

Chen, Ying; Zhou, Weihua; Yang, Guang; Qian, Xin; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

2009-02-01

9

Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes.Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., “pitches”) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system.Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest detectable frequency on pitch followed the same trend as the analytical model. It was demonstrated that super-resolution is not achievable if the pitch of the object approaches 90°, corresponding to the case in which the test frequency is perpendicular to the breast support. Only low frequency objects are detectable at pitches close to 90°.Conclusions: This work provides a platform for investigating super-resolution in oblique reconstructions for tomosynthesis. In breast imaging, this study should have applications in visualizing microcalcifications and other subtle signs of cancer.

Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States)

2013-11-15

10

Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes.Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., “pitches”) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system.Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest detectable frequency on pitch followed the same trend as the analytical model. It was demonstrated that super-resolution is not achievable if the pitch of the object approaches 90°, corresponding to the case in which the test frequency is perpendicular to the breast support. Only low frequency objects are detectable at pitches close to 90°.Conclusions: This work provides a platform for investigating super-resolution in oblique reconstructions for tomosynthesis. In breast imaging, this study should have applications in visualizing microcalcifications and other subtle signs of cancer

11

Segmentation of adipose and glandular tissue for breast tomosynthesis imaging using a 3D hidden-Markov model trained on breast MRIs  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast tomosynthesis involves a restricted number of images acquired in an arc in conventional mammography projection geometry. Despite its angular undersampling, tomosynthesis projections are reconstructed into a volume at a dose comparable to mammography. Tomosynthesis thus provides depth information, which is especially beneficial to patients with dense breasts. Because the device can be based on an existing FFDM unit, tomosynthesis may be used to accurately assess breast tissue composition, which would greatly benefit high-risk patients with less access to costly imaging modalities such as MRI. This study plans to extract quantitative 3D breast tissue density information using a fully automatic probabilistic model trained on segmented MRIs. The MRI ground truth was obtained for 293 breasts by iterative threshold-based fatty / glandular tissue segmentation. After training a 3D hidden Markov model (HMM) on 10 MR volumes, our model was validated by segmenting 214 of the 293 breasts. After the tomosynthesis value optimization, the same trained HMM was tested to segment breast tomosynthesis volumes of subjects whose MRIs were used for validation. Initial training / testing of the HMM on MRIs matched density to thresholding within 5% for 70/214 breasts and 10% for 127/214 breasts. HMM segmentation was qualitatively superior at the cranial/caudal end slices in MRIs and quantitatively superior for most tested tomosynthesis volumes. Its robustness and ease of modification give the HMM great promise and potential for expansion in this multi-modality study.

Shafer, Christina M.; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Lo, Joseph Y.

2011-03-01

12

3D task-based performance assessment metrics for optimization of performance and dose in breast tomosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate a method for empirically evaluating 3D imaging task performance of breast tomosynthesis imaging systems. A simulation and experimental approach was used to develop a robust method for performance assessment. To identify a method for experimentally assessing the 3D modulation transfer function (MTF), a breast tomosysnthesis system was first simulated using cascaded system analysis to model the signal and noise characteristics of the projections. A range of spheres with varying contrast and size were reconstructed using filtered back projection from which the 3D MTF was evaluated. Results revealed that smaller spheres result in lower artifacts in the measured MTF, where a sphere of 0.5 mm was found ideal for experimental purposes. A clinical tomosynthesis unit was used as a platform for quantifying the effect of acquisition and processing parameters (e.g., angular extent and sampling, dose, and voxel size) on breast imaging performance. The 3D noise-power spectrum (NPS) was measured using a uniform phantom and 3D MTF was measured using 0.5 mm ruby spheres. These metrics were combined with a mathematical description of imaging task to generate a figure of merit called the detectability index for system evaluation and optimization. Clinically relevant imaging tasks were considered, such as the detection and localization of a spherical mass. The detectability index was found to provide a useful metric that accounts for the complex 3D imaging characteristics of breast tomosynthesis. Results highlighted the dependence of optimal technique on the imaging task. They further provided initial validation of an empirically assessed figure of merit for clinical performance assessment and optimization of breast tomosynthesis systems.

Richard, S.; Samei, E.

2011-03-01

13

Digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction with an adaptive voxel grid  

Science.gov (United States)

In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume datasets are typically reconstructed with an anisotropic voxel size, where the in-plane voxel size usually reflects the detector pixel size (e.g., 0.1 mm), and the slice separation is generally between 0.5-1.0 mm. Increasing the tomographic angle is expected to give better 3D image quality; however, the slice spacing in the reconstruction should be reduced, otherwise one may risk losing fine-scale image detail (e.g., small microcalcifications). An alternative strategy consists of reconstructing on an adaptive voxel grid, where the voxel height at each location is adapted based on the backprojected data at this location, with the goal to improve image quality for microcalcifications. In this paper we present an approach for generating such an adaptive voxel grid. This approach is based on an initial reconstruction step that is performed at a finer slice-spacing combined with a selection of an "optimal" height for each voxel. This initial step is followed by a (potentially iterative) reconstruction acting now on the adaptive grid only.

Claus, Bernhard; Chan, Heang-Ping

2014-03-01

14

Breast tomosynthesis. 3-D mammography reaches the U.S. market.  

Science.gov (United States)

After many years of anticipation, FDA has approved a device for breast tomosynthesis applications: The Hologic Selenia Dimensions 3-D. But despite the advantages of the technology, certain issues--such as increased radiation dose, higher costs, and lack of insurance reimbursement--may impede widespread clinical adoption. We take a look at breast tomosynthesis and give our view on its clinical outlook. PMID:23444531

2011-08-01

15

Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes.

Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

2013-01-01

16

Interventional digital tomosynthesis from a standard fluoroscopy system using 2D-3D registration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interventional fluoroscopy provides guidance in a variety of minimally invasive procedures. However, three-dimensional (3D) clinically relevant information is projected onto a two-dimensional (2D) image which can make image interpretation difficult. Moreover, vasculature visualisation requires the use of iodinated contrast media which is nephrotoxic and is the primary cause of renal complications. In this article, we demonstrate how digital tomosynthesis slices can be produced on standard fluoroscopy equipment by registering the preoperative CT volume and the intraoperative fluoroscopy images using 2D-3D image registration. The proposed method automatically reconstructs patient-anatomy-specific slices and removes clutter resulting from bony anatomy. Such slices could provide additional intraoperative information which cannot be provided by the preoperative CT volume alone, such as the deformed aorta position offering improved guidance precision. Image acquisition would fit with interventional clinical work-flow and would not require a high X-ray dose. Experiments are carried out using one phantom and four clinical datasets. Phantom results showed a 3351% contrast-to-noise improvement compared to standard fluoroscopy. Patient results showed our method enabled visualization of clinically relevant features: outline of the aorta, the aortic bifurcation and some aortic calcifications. PMID:25461333

Alhrishy, Mazen; Varnavas, Andreas; Carrell, Tom; King, Andrew; Penney, Graeme

2014-10-16

17

A comparison of reconstruction algorithms for breast tomosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three algorithms for breast tomosynthesis reconstruction were compared in this paper, including (1) a back-projection (BP) algorithm (equivalent to the shift-and-add algorithm), (2) a Feldkamp filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm, and (3) an iterative Maximum Likelihood (ML) algorithm. Our breast tomosynthesis system acquires 11 low-dose projections over a 50 deg. angular range using an a-Si (CsI:Tl) flat-panel detector. The detector was stationary during the acquisition. Quality metrics such as signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) and artifact spread function (ASF) were used for quantitative evaluation of tomosynthesis reconstructions. The results of the quantitative evaluation were in good agreement with the results of the qualitative assessment. In patient imaging, the superimposed breast tissues observed in two-dimensional (2D) mammograms were separated in tomosynthesis reconstructions by all three algorithms. It was shown in both phantom imaging and patient imaging that the BP algorithm provided the best SDNR for low-contrast masses but the conspicuity of the feature details was limited by interplane artifacts; the FBP algorithm provided the highest edge sharpness for microcalcifications but the quality of masses was poor; the information of both the masses and the microcalcifications were well restored with balanced quality by the ML algorithm, superior to the results from the other two algorithms

18

Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

Martin Paul Evison

2000-06-01

19

A novel approach to digital breast tomosynthesis for simultaneous acquisition of 2D and 3D images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The complexity of anatomical structure within the breast represents the ultimate limit to signal detection on a mammogram. To increase lesion conspicuity Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) has been recently proposed and several manufacturers are currently performing clinical trials. In this study we investigate the potential of DBT with variable dose distribution by using a phantom in which details of interest are within a heterogeneous background. To compare the performance of a commercial digital mammography unit and a DBT prototype, 2D and 3D images of the breast phantom were obtained at similar dose levels. As expected, DBT showed superior performance over digital mammography. Although certain details of interest are not detectable with digital mammography, DBT can reveal their signal by reducing the complexity of tissue structures. Additionally, the potential of the central projection in variable dose DBT is similar to the standard projection obtained with digital mammography. Finally, the uniform and variable dose approaches provided almost identical reconstructed slices. This preliminary investigation demonstrates that breast tomosynthesis acquired with variable dose distribution exhibits inherent 3D reconstruction advantages for structure noise removal and provides a 2D projection with a physical image quality close to that of standard mammography. (orig.)

Vecchio, Sara [University of Bologna, Department of Physics, Bologna (Italy); Albanese, Achille; Vignoli, Paolo [Internazionale Medico Scientifica S.r.l., Pontecchio Marconi, BO (Italy); Taibi, Angelo [University of Ferrara, Department of Physics, Ferrara (Italy)

2011-06-15

20

Comparison of reconstruction algorithms for digital breast tomosynthesis  

CERN Document Server

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging modality for breast imaging. A typical tomosynthesis image is reconstructed from projection data acquired at a limited number of views over a limited angular range. In general, the quantitative accuracy of the image can be significantly compromised by severe artifacts and non-isotropic resolution resulting from the incomplete data. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that DBT may yield useful information for detection/classification tasks and thus is considered a promising breast imaging modality currently undergoing pre-clinical evaluation trials. The purpose of this work is to conduct a preliminary, but systematic, investigation and evaluation of the properties of reconstruction algorithms that have been proposed for DBT. We use a breast phantom designed for DBT evaluation to generate analytic projection data for a typical DBT configuration, which is currently undergoing pre-clinical evaluation. The reconstruction algorithms under comparison include (i) f...

Reiser, I; Nishikawa, R M; Sidky, E Y; Pan, X

2009-01-01

21

A task-based comparison of two reconstruction algorithms for digital breast tomosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) generates 3-D reconstructions of the breast by taking X-Ray projections at various angles around the breast. DBT improves cancer detection as it minimizes tissue overlap that is present in traditional 2-D mammography. In this work, two methods of reconstruction, filtered backprojection (FBP) and the Newton-Raphson iterative reconstruction were used to create 3-D reconstructions from phantom images acquired on a breast tomosynthesis system. The task based image analysis method was used to compare the performance of each reconstruction technique. The task simulated a 10mm lesion within the breast containing iodine concentrations between 0.0mg/ml and 8.6mg/ml. The TTF was calculated using the reconstruction of an edge phantom, and the NPS was measured with a structured breast phantom (CIRS 020) over different exposure levels. The detectability index d' was calculated to assess image quality of the reconstructed phantom images. Image quality was assessed for both conventional, single energy and dual energy subtracted reconstructions. Dose allocation between the high and low energy scans was also examined. Over the full range of dose allocations, the iterative reconstruction yielded a higher detectability index than the FBP for single energy reconstructions. For dual energy subtraction, detectability index was maximized when most of the dose was allocated to the high energy image. With that dose allocation, the performance trend for reconstruction algorithms reversed; FBP performed better than the corresponding iterative reconstruction. However, FBP performance varied very erratically with changing dose allocation. Therefore, iterative reconstruction is preferred for both imaging modalities despite underperforming dual energy FBP, as it provides stable results.

Mahadevan, Ravi; Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Lin, Yuan; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y.

2014-03-01

22

Numerical Methods for Coupled Reconstruction and Registration in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis  

CERN Document Server

Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) provides an insight into the fine details of normal fibroglandular tissues and abnormal lesions by reconstructing a pseudo-3D image of the breast. In this respect, DBT overcomes a major limitation of conventional X-ray mammography by reducing the confounding effects caused by the superposition of breast tissue. In a breast cancer screening or diagnostic context, a radiologist is interested in detecting change, which might be indicative of malignant disease. To help automate this task image registration is required to establish spatial correspondence between time points. Typically, images, such as MRI or CT, are first reconstructed and then registered. This approach can be effective if reconstructing using a complete set of data. However, for ill-posed, limited-angle problems such as DBT, estimating the deformation is complicated by the significant artefacts associated with the reconstruction, leading to severe inaccuracies in the registration. This paper presents a mathemati...

Yang, Guang; Hawkes, David J; Arridge, Simon R

2013-01-01

23

Convergence of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most iterative image reconstruction algorithms are based on some form of optimization, such as minimization of a data-fidelity term plus an image regularizing penalty term. While achieving the solution of these optimization problems may not directly be clinically relevant, accurate optimization solutions can aid in iterative image reconstruction algorithm design. This issue is particularly acute for iterative image reconstruction in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT), where the corresponding data model IS particularly poorly conditioned. The impact of this poor conditioning is that iterative algorithms applied to this system can be slow to converge. Recent developments in first-order algorithms are now beginning to allow for accurate solutions to optimization problems of interest to tomographic imaging in general. In particular, we investigate an algorithm developed by Chambolle and Pock (2011 J. Math. Imag. Vol. 40, pgs 120-145) and apply it to iterative image reconstruction in DBT.

Sidky, Emil; JØrgensen, Jakob Heide

2012-01-01

24

The development of a pseudo-3D imaging system (tomosynthesis) for security screening of passenger baggage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a study investigating the potential of tomosynthesis as a post check-in baggage scanning system. A laboratory system has been constructed consisting of a moveable source and detector, arranged around a mini 90o bend conveyor system, from which multiple projection images can be collected. Simulation code has been developed to allow the optimum source and detector positions to be determined. Reconstruction methods are being developed to modify the Shift-And-Add (SAA) algorithm to accommodate the non-typical imaging geometry.

25

Automatic Reconstruction of Textured 3D Models  

OpenAIRE

The digital recreation of environments is an increasingly important task and there are many application areas where 3D models are required. This thesis addresses the problem of automatic 3D reconstruction and we present a system for unsupervised reconstruction of textured 3D models in the context of modeling indoor environments. The contributions are solutions to all aspects of the modeling process and an integrated system for the automatic creation of large-scale 3D models.

Pitzer, Benjamin

2012-01-01

26

Volume reconstruction from sparse 3D ultrasonography  

OpenAIRE

3D freehand ultrasound has extensive application for organ volume measurement and has been shown to have better reproducibility than estimates of volume made from 2D measurement followed by interpolation to 3D. One key advantage of free-hand ultrasound is that of image compounding, but this advantage is lost in many automated reconstruction systems. A novel method is presented for the automated segmentation and surface reconstruction of organs from sparse 3D ultrasound data. Preliminary resul...

Gooding, Mj; Kennedy, S.; Noble, Ja

2003-01-01

27

Temporally Coherent Segmentation of 3D Reconstructions  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we address the problem of segmenting consistently an evolving 3D scene reconstructed individually at different time-frames. The spatial reconstruction of 3D objects from multiple views has been studied extensively in the recent past. Various approaches exist to capture the performance of real actors into voxel-based or mesh-based representations. However, without any knowledge about the nature of the scene being observed, such reconstructions suffer from artifacts such as holes...

Varanasi, Kiran; Boyer, Edmond

2010-01-01

28

Multi-beam x-ray source breast tomosynthesis reconstruction with different algorithms  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital breast tomosynthesis is a new technique to improve the early detection of breast cancer by providing threedimensional reconstruction volume of the object with limited-angle projection images. This paper investigated the image reconstruction with a standard biopsy training breast phantom using a novel multi-beam X-ray sources breast tomosynthesis system. Carbon nanotube technology based X-ray tubes were lined up along a parallel-imaging geometry to decrease the motion blur. Five representative reconstruction algorithms, including back projection (BP), filtered back projection (FBP), matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS), maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART), were investigated to evaluate the image reconstruction of the tomosynthesis system. Reconstructed images of the masses and micro-calcification clusters embedded in the phantom were studied. The evaluated multi-beam X-ray breast tomosynthesis system is able to generate three-dimensional information of the breast phantom with clearly-identified regions of the masses and calcifications. Future study will be done soon to further improve the imaging parameters' measurement and reconstruction.

Zhou, Weihua; Qian, Xin; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Chen, Ying

2010-04-01

29

3D Graphics Reconstruction, Compression and Animation  

OpenAIRE

This work covers entire pipeline of a 3D immersive system, comprising acquistion and reconstruction of 3D objects, transforming the 3D objects into popular 3D format, compression of data with MPEG-4 compliant encoders and acquisition of animation motion data. For the acquisition part we created 3D human face object with the help of depth-field camera, in particular we used Microsoft Kinect. We process the raw data given by Kinect and transform it into a mesh, and texture it with photometric d...

Ahmad, Akhlaque

2014-01-01

30

3D Reconstruction of NMR Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

Pavol Spanik

2007-01-01

31

Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

1999-10-12

32

Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

33

3D surface reconstruction from range slices  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction from range slices obtained from range-gated laser imaging system is of significance. 3D surfaces reconstructed based on existing binarization method or centroid method are rough or discontinuous in some circumstances. In this paper we address these problems and develop a 3D surface reconstruction algorithm based on the idea that combining the centroid method with weighted linear interpolation and mean filter. The algorithm consists of three steps. In the first step, interesting regions are extracted from each range slice based on mean filter, and then are merged to derive a single range image. In the second step, the derived range image is denoised and smoothed based on adaptive histogram method, weighted linear interpolation and mean filter method respectively. Finally, nonzero valued pixels in the after processed range image are converted to point cloud according to the range-gated imaging parameters, and then 3D surface meshes are established from the point cloud based on the topological relationship between adjacent pixels in the range image. Experiment is conducted on range slices generated from range-gated laser imaging simulation platform, and the registration result of the reconstructed surface of our method with the original surface of the object shows that the proposed method can reconstruct object surface accurately, so it can be used for the designing of reconstruction and displaying of range-gated laser imaging system, and also can be used for 3D object recognition.

Wang, Mingming; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Ying-ming

2014-11-01

34

Reconstruction d'ensembles compacts 3D  

OpenAIRE

Reconstruire un modèle à partir d'échantillons est un problème central se posant en médecine numérique, en ingénierie inverse, en sciences naturelles, etc. Ces applications ont motivé une recherche substantielle pour la reconstruction de surfaces, la question de la reconstruction de modèles plus généraux n'ayant pas été examinée. Ce travail présente an algorithme visant à changer le paradigme de reconstruction en 3D comme suit. Premièrement, l'algorithme reconstruit des forme...

Cazals, Frederic; Cohen-steiner, David

2009-01-01

35

Image artifacts in digital breast tomosynthesis: Investigation of the effects of system geometry and reconstruction parameters using a linear system approach  

OpenAIRE

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional (3D) x-ray imaging modality that reconstructs image slices parallel to the detector plane. Image acquisition is performed using a limited angular range (less than 50 degrees) and a limited number of projection views (less than 50 views). Due to incomplete data sampling, image artifacts are unavoidable in DBT. In this preliminary study, the image artifacts in DBT were investigated systematically using a linear system approximation. A ca...

Hu, Yue-houng; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Wei

2008-01-01

36

Facial surface reconstruction in 3D format  

OpenAIRE

This article presents a method of improving the quality of a reconstructed 3D surface of a face or its parts using the inverse distance method (IDM). The proposed method eliminates undesired holes in the range image, which appear due to significant omissions of measurements from the face scanner. Application of the method allows to build a 3D surface with the desired resolution, without solving the problem of triangulation therefore reducing the computational cost. The results of the experime...

Nadezhda Shchegoleva

2012-01-01

37

3D reconstruction approach in neurovision system  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a new 3D reconstruction approach for 3D object recognition in neuro-vision system is presented. First, a phase based stereo matching using Hopfield neural network approach is presented. The stereo matching problems are treated in frequency domain by using local phase, instead of matching feature or texture of images, the stereo matching process is performed by using local phases of left image and right image in stereo image pair. By using the windowed Fourier transform, the windowed Fourier phases can be calculated. Through the variable window Gabor filter, the local phases of image can also be obtained. The Hopfield neural network is adopted to implement the stereo matching process. A suitable architecture of neural network is established, so that the computation can be implemented efficiently in parallel. A suitable matching function is created by using the local phase property. The energy function for neural network is constructed with satisfying some necessary constraints. The stereo matching process then is carried to find the minimum energy corresponding to the solution of the problem. Second, a 3D object reconstruction neural network is constructed by using BP neural network. So the 3D configuration and shape can be reconstructed by this neural network. With multiple neural networks the 3D Reconstruction processes can be performed in parallel. The examples for both synthetic and real images are shown in the experiment, and good results are obtained.

Xiong, Yingen; Hu, Haifeng

2000-10-01

38

Facial surface reconstruction in 3D format  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents a method of improving the quality of a reconstructed 3D surface of a face or its parts using the inverse distance method (IDM. The proposed method eliminates undesired holes in the range image, which appear due to significant omissions of measurements from the face scanner. Application of the method allows to build a 3D surface with the desired resolution, without solving the problem of triangulation therefore reducing the computational cost. The results of the experiments show the efficiency and the quality of the reconstructions obtained using the proposed algorithm.

Nadezhda Shchegoleva

2012-12-01

39

Model-based 3D SAR reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Three dimensional scene reconstruction with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is desirable for target recognition and improved scene interpretability. The vertical aperture, which is critical to reconstruct 3D SAR scenes, is almost always sparsely sampled due to practical limitations, which creates an underdetermined problem. This papers explores 3D scene reconstruction using a convex model-based approach. The approach developed is demonstrated on 3D scenes, but can be extended to SAR reconstruction of sparsely sampled signals in the spatial and, or, frequency domains. The model-based approach enables knowledge-aided image formation (KAIF) by incorporating spatial, aspect, and sparsity magnitude terms into the image reconstruction. The incorporation of these terms, which are based on prior scene knowledge, will demonstrate improved results compared to traditional image formation algorithms. The SAR image formation problem is formulated as a second order cone program (SOCP) and the results are demonstrated on 3D scenes using simulated data and data from the GOTCHA data collect.1 The model-based results are contrasted against traditional backprojected images.

Knight, Chad; Gunther, Jake; Moon, Todd

2014-06-01

40

Neural Network Based 3D Surface Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel neural-network-based adaptive hybrid-reflectance three-dimensional (3-D surface reconstruction model. The neural network combines the diffuse and specular components into a hybrid model. The proposed model considers the characteristics of each point and the variant albedo to prevent the reconstructed surface from being distorted. The neural network inputs are the pixel values of the two-dimensional images to be reconstructed. The normal vectors of the surface can then be obtained from the output of the neural network after supervised learning, where the illuminant direction does not have to be known in advance. Finally, the obtained normal vectors can be applied to integration method when reconstructing 3-D objects. Facial images were used for training in the proposed approach

Vincy Joseph

2009-11-01

41

Prostate implant reconstruction from C-arm images with motion-compensated tomosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Accurate localization of prostate implants from several C-arm images is necessary for ultrasound-fluoroscopy fusion and intraoperative dosimetry. The authors propose a computational motion compensation method for tomosynthesis-based reconstruction that enables 3D localization of prostate implants from C-arm images despite C-arm oscillation and sagging. Methods: Five C-arm images are captured by rotating the C-arm around its primary axis, while measuring its rotation angle using a protractor or the C-arm joint encoder. The C-arm images are processed to obtain binary seed-only images from which a volume of interest is reconstructed. The motion compensation algorithm, iteratively, compensates for 2D translational motion of the C-arm by maximizing the number of voxels that project on a seed projection in all of the images. This obviates the need for C-arm full pose tracking traditionally implemented using radio-opaque fiducials or external trackers. The proposed reconstruction method is tested in simulations, in a phantom study and on ten patient data sets. Results: In a phantom implanted with 136 dummy seeds, the seed detection rate was 100% with a localization error of 0.86 ± 0.44 mm (Mean ± STD) compared to CT. For patient data sets, a detection rate of 99.5% was achieved in approximately 1 min per patient. The reconstruction results for patient data sets were compared against an available matching-based reconstruction method and showed relative localization method and showed relative localization difference of 0.5 ± 0.4 mm. Conclusions: The motion compensation method can successfully compensate for large C-arm motion without using radio-opaque fiducial or external trackers. Considering the efficacy of the algorithm, its successful reconstruction rate and low computational burden, the algorithm is feasible for clinical use.

42

Digital tomosynthesis mammography: comparison of mass classification using 3D slices and 2D projection views  

Science.gov (United States)

We are developing computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) methods for classification of masses on digital breast tomosynthesis mammograms (DBTs). A DBT data set containing 107 masses (56 malignant and 51 benign) collected at the Massachusetts General Hospital was used. The DBTs were obtained with a GE prototype system which acquired 11 projection views (PVs) over a 50-degree arc. We reconstructed the DBTs at 1-mm slice interval using a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique. The regions of interest (ROIs) containing the masses in the DBT volume and the corresponding ROIs on the PVs were identified. The mass on each slice or each PV was segmented by an active contour model. Spiculation measures, texture features, and morphological features were extracted from the segmented mass. Four feature spaces were formed: (1) features from the central DBT slice, (2) average features from 5 DBT slices centered at the central slice, (3) features from the central PV, and (4) average features from all 11 PVs. In each feature space, a linear discriminant analysis classifier with stepwise feature selection was trained and tested using a two loop leave-one-case-out procedure. The test Az of 0.91+/-0.03 from the 5-DBT-slice feature space was significantly (p=0.003) higher than that of 0.84+/-0.04 from the 1-DBT-slice feature space. The test Az of 0.83+/-0.04 from the 11-PV feature space was not significantly different (p=0.18) from that of 0.79+/-0.04 from the 1-PV feature space. The classification accuracy in the 5-DBT-slice feature space was significantly better (p=0.006) than that in the 11-PV feature space. The results demonstrate that the features of breast lesions extracted from the DBT slices may provide higher classification accuracy than those from the PV images.

Chan, Heang-Ping; Wu, Yi-Ta; Sahiner, Berkman; Zhang, Yiheng; Wei, Jun; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Helvie, Mark A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Way, Ted

2008-03-01

43

The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may have provided the enhanced ocean heat transport necessary to move warm surface water to the Arctic. New deep ocean temperature data also suggests greater warmth and further southward penetration of paleo NADW.

Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

2010-01-01

44

Multichannel algorithm for fast 3D reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some recent medical imaging applications such as functional imaging (PET and SPECT) or interventional imaging (CT fluoroscopy) involve increasing amounts of data. In order to reduce the image reconstruction time, we develop a new fast 3D reconstruction algorithm based on a divide and conquer approach. The proposed multichannel algorithm performs an indirect frequential subband decomposition of the image f to be reconstructed (f=?fj) through the filtering of the projections Rf. The subband images fj are reconstructed on a downsampled grid without information suppression. In order to reduce the computation time, we do not backproject the null filtered projections and we downsample the number of projections according to the Shannon conditions associated with the subband image. Our algorithm is based on filtering and backprojection operators. Using the same algorithms for these basic operators, our approach is three and a half times faster than a classical FBP algorithm for a 2D image 512x512 and six times faster for a 3D image 32x512x512. (author)

45

Effects of scatter radiation on reconstructed images in digital breast tomosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the effects of scatter radiation on the reconstructed images in digital breast tomosynthesis. Projection images of a 6 cm anthropomorphic breast phantom were acquired using a Hologic prototype digital breast tomosynthesis system. Scatter intensities in projection images were sampled with a beam stop method. The scatter intensity at any pixel was obtained by two dimensional fitting. Primary-only projection images were generated by subtracting the scatter contributions from the original projection images. The 3-dimensional breast was reconstructed first based on original projection images which contained the contributions from both primary rays and scattered radiation using three different reconstruction algorithms. The same breast volume was reconstructed again using the same algorithms but based on primaryonly projection images. The image artifacts, pixel value difference to noise ratio (PDNR), and detected image features in these two sets of reconstructed slices were compared to evaluate the effects of scatter radiation. It was found that the scatter radiation caused inaccurate reconstruction of the x-ray attenuation property of the tissue. X-ray attenuation coefficients could be significantly underestimated in the region where scatter intensity is high. This phenomenon is similar to the cupping artifacts found in computed tomography. The scatter correction is important if accurate x-ray attenuation of the tissues is needed. No significant improvement in terms of numbers of detected image features was observed after scatter correction. More sophisticated phantom dedicated to digital breast tomosynthesis may be needed for further evaluation.

Liu, Bob; Li, Xinhua

2009-02-01

46

Imaging CDMAM phantom with tomosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the use of the mammography contrast detail phantom (CDMAM) with tomosynthesis to evaluate the performance of our system as well as to explore the application of CDMAM in 3D breast imaging. The system was Hologic's 1st generation tomosynthesis machine. CDMAM phantom plus PMMA slabs were imaged at 3 cm, 5 cm, 7 cm, and 9 cm PMMA-equivalent thickness with 11 projections per scan and the scan angle selected from 0, 15 and 28 degrees. CDMAM images were reconstructed using the back projection method, and were scored with the CDCOM automatic analysis program. The threshold thickness of each disk size was obtained with psychometric curve fitting. We first studied errors and variability associated with the results when different numbers of images were used in contrast detail analysis, then studied factors that affected CDMAM results in tomosynthesis, including the x-ray dose, the scan angle, the in-plane reconstruction pixel size, the slice-to-slice step size, the location of the CDMAM inside the PMMA slabs, and the scatter effect. This paper will present results of CDMAM performance of our tomosynthesis system, as well as their dependence on the various factors, and the comparison with 2D mammography. Additionally we will discuss the novel processing and analysis methods developed during this study, and make proposals to modify the CDMAM phantom and the CDCOM analysis program to optimize the method for 3D tomosynthesis.

Ren, Baorui; Smith, Andy; Ruth, Chris; Jing, Zhenxue

2008-03-01

47

Full-field breast tomosynthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast tomosynthesis is a 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging technology that involves acquiring images of a stationary compressed breast at multiple angles during a short scan. The individual images are then reconstructed into a series of thin high-resolution slices that displayed individually or in a dynamic ciné mode. Tomosynthesis can reduce or eliminate the tissue overlap effect. While holding the breast stationary, images are acquired at a nsumber of different x-ray source angles. Objects at different heights in the breast project differently for each angle. The final step in the tomosynthesis procedure is reconstructing the data to generate images that enhance objects from a given height by appropriate shifting of the projections relative to one another. There are 3 specific areas in tomosynthesis system requirements that warrant a closer review: detector efficiency and dose, field of view, and equipment geometry. The breast is compressed in a standard way. While holding the breast stationary, the x-ray tube is rotated over a limited angular range. A series of low dose exposures are made every few degrees, creating a series of digital images. Typically, the tuben is rotated about +/-15 degrees, and 11 exposures are made every 3 degrees during a total scan of a few seconds. The individual images are projections through the breast at different angles and these arewhat are reconstructed into slices. There are 2 basic tomosynthesis system designs that diiffer in the motion of the detector during acquisition. One method moves the detector in concert with the x-ray tube so as to maintain the shadow of the breast on the detector. An altemate method is to keep the detector stationary relative to the breast platform. The tomosynthesis reconstruction process consists of computing high-resolution images whose planes are parallel to the breast support plates. Typically, these images are reconstructed with slice separation of 1 mm; thus, a 5 cm compressed breast tomosynthesis study will have 50 reconstructed slices. The reconstructed tomosynthesis slices can be displayed similarly to computed tomography (CT) reconstructed slices. Tomosynthesis could resolve many of the tissue overlap reading problems that are a major source of the need for recalls and additional imaging in 2-D mammography exams. PMID:16294583

Smith, Andrew

2005-01-01

48

3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields

49

3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.

Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

2005-02-17

50

Enhanced imaging of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis through improved image-reconstruction algorithms  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: We develop a practical, iterative algorithm for image-reconstruction in under-sampled tomographic systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). METHOD: The algorithm controls image regularity by minimizing the image total $p$-variation (TpV), a function that reduces to the total variation when $p=1.0$ or the image roughness when $p=2.0$. Constraints on the image, such as image positivity and estimated projection-data tolerance, are enforced by projection...

Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.

2009-01-01

51

Three-dimensional digital tomosynthesis iterative reconstruction, artifact reduction and alternative acquisition geometry  

CERN Document Server

Yulia Levakhina gives an introduction to the major challenges of image reconstruction in Digital Tomosynthesis (DT), particularly to the connection of the reconstruction problem with the incompleteness of the DT dataset. The author discusses the factors which cause the formation of limited angle artifacts and proposes how to account for them in order to improve image quality and axial resolution of modern DT. The addressed methods include a weighted non-linear back projection scheme for algebraic reconstruction and?novel dual-axis acquisition geometry. All discussed algorithms and methods are supplemented by detailed illustrations, hints for practical implementation, pseudo-code, simulation results and real patient case examples.

Levakhina, Yulia

2014-01-01

52

Pre-computed backprojection based penalized-likelihood (PPL) reconstruction with an edge-preserved regularizer for stationary Digital Breast Tomosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Stationary Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (sDBT) is a carbon nanotube based breast imaging device with fast data acquisition and decent projection resolution to provide three dimensional (3-D) volume information. To- mosynthesis 3-D image reconstruction is faced with the challenges of the cone beam geometry and the incomplete and nonsymmetric sampling due to the sparse views and limited view angle. Among all available reconstruction methods, statistical iterative method exhibits particular promising since it relies on an accurate physical and statistical model with prior knowledge. In this paper, we present the application of an edge-preserved regularizer to our previously proposed precomputed backprojection based penalized-likelihood (PPL) reconstruction. By using the edge-preserved regularizer, our experiments show that through tuning several parameters, resolution can be retained while noise is reduced significantly. Compared to other conventional noise reduction techniques in image reconstruction, less resolution is lost in order to gain certain noise reduction, which may benefit the research of low dose tomosynthesis.

Xu, Shiyu; Inscoe, Christy R.; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Chen, Ying

2014-03-01

53

MMSE Reconstruction for 3D Freehand Ultrasound Imaging  

OpenAIRE

The reconstruction of 3D ultrasound (US) images from mechanically registered, but otherwise irregularly positioned, B-scan slices is of great interest in image guided therapy procedures. Conventional 3D ultrasound algorithms have low computational complexity, but the reconstructed volume suffers from severe speckle contamination. Furthermore, the current method cannot reconstruct uniform high-resolution data from several low-re...

Yibin Zheng; Wei Huang

2008-01-01

54

Implementing an iterative reconstruction algorithm for digital breast tomosynthesis on graphics processing hardware  

Science.gov (United States)

The Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) algorithm has been shown to produce the highest quality Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) images. MLEM, however, is computationally intensive. Single-processor image reconstruction times for each breast were on the order of several hours. In order for DBT to be clinically useful, faster reconstruction times using cost-effective software/hardware solutions are needed. We have implemented the MLEM reconstruction algorithm for use with DBT on a graphics processing unit (GPU). Compared to a single optimized 2.8GHz Pentium system this enabled a 113-fold speedup in processing time, while maintaining high image quality. Subsequently, we added various additional processing steps to the reconstruction algorithm in order to improve image quality and diagnostic properties. Since the performance of commercial GPUs increases rapidly, with little change in cost, the increased sophistication in processing does not entail an increase in system cost. The use of GPUs for reconstruction represents a technical breakthrough in the cost-effective application of MLEM to Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.

Goddard, Iain; Wu, Tao; Thieret, Scott; Berman, Ari; Bartsch, Hauke

2006-03-01

55

Weighted simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique for tomosynthesis imaging of objects with high-attenuation features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This paper introduces a nonlinear weighting scheme into the backprojection operation within the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). It is designed for tomosynthesis imaging of objects with high-attenuation features in order to reduce limited angle artifacts. Methods: The algorithm estimates which projections potentially produce artifacts in a voxel. The contribution of those projections into the updating term is reduced. In order to identify those projections automatically, a four-dimensional backprojected space representation is used. Weighting coefficients are calculated based on a dissimilarity measure, evaluated in this space. For each combination of an angular view direction and a voxel position an individual weighting coefficient for the updating term is calculated. Results: The feasibility of the proposed approach is shown based on reconstructions of the following real three-dimensional tomosynthesis datasets: a mammography quality phantom, an apple with metal needles, a dried finger bone in water, and a human hand. Datasets have been acquired with a Siemens Mammomat Inspiration tomosynthesis device and reconstructed using SART with and without suggested weighting. Out-of-focus artifacts are described using line profiles and measured using standard deviation (STD) in the plane and below the plane which contains artifact-causing features. Artifacts distribution in axial direction is measured using an artifact spread function (ASF). Tusing an artifact spread function (ASF). The volumes reconstructed with the weighting scheme demonstrate the reduction of out-of-focus artifacts, lower STD (meaning reduction of artifacts), and narrower ASF compared to nonweighted SART reconstruction. It is achieved successfully for different kinds of structures: point-like structures such as phantom features, long structures such as metal needles, and fine structures such as trabecular bone structures. Conclusions: Results indicate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to reduce typical tomosynthesis artifacts produced by high-attenuation features. The proposed algorithm assigns weighting coefficients automatically and no segmentation or tissue-classification steps are required. The algorithm can be included into various iterative reconstruction algorithms with an additive updating strategy. It can also be extended to computed tomography case with the complete set of angular data.

56

Clinical implementation of a digital tomosynthesis-based seed reconstruction algorithm for intraoperative postimplant dose evaluation in low dose rate prostate brachytherapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The low dose rate brachytherapy procedure would benefit from an intraoperative postimplant dosimetry verification technique to identify possible suboptimal dose coverage and suggest a potential reimplantation. The main objective of this project is to develop an efficient, operator-free, intraoperative seed detection technique using the imaging modalities available in a low dose rate brachytherapy treatment room. Methods: This intraoperative detection allows a complete dosimetry calculation that can be performed right after an I-125 prostate seed implantation, while the patient is still under anesthesia. To accomplish this, a digital tomosynthesis-based algorithm was developed. This automatic filtered reconstruction of the 3D volume requires seven projections acquired over a total angle of 60 deg. with an isocentric imaging system. Results: A phantom study was performed to validate the technique that was used in a retrospective clinical study involving 23 patients. In the patient study, the automatic tomosynthesis-based reconstruction yielded seed detection rates of 96.7% and 2.6% false positives. The seed localization error obtained with a phantom study is 0.4{+-}0.4 mm. The average time needed for reconstruction is below 1 min. The reconstruction algorithm also provides the seed orientation with an uncertainty of 10 deg. {+-}8 deg. The seed detection algorithm presented here is reliable and was efficiently used in the clinic. Conclusions: When combined with an appropriate coregistration technique to identify the organs in the seed coordinate system, this algorithm will offer new possibilities for a next generation of clinical brachytherapy systems.

Brunet-Benkhoucha, Malik; Verhaegen, Frank; Lassalle, Stephanie; Beliveau-Nadeau, Dominic; Reniers, Brigitte; Donath, David; Taussky, Daniel; Carrier, Jean-Francois [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW Research Institute, University Medical Centre Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW Research Institute, University Medical Centre Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada) and CRCHUM, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada)

2009-11-15

57

Characterization of a constrained paired-view technique in iterative reconstruction for breast tomosynthesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The order in which the projection views are employed in the reconstruction of tomosynthesis by iterative algorithms, such as simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique and maximum likelihood, has a strong effect on the rate of convergence, accuracy, and the edge-blurring artifacts in the reconstructed image. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize and evaluate the effects of ordering schemes on image quality for breast tomosynthesis reconstruction and to explore a new constrained paired-view technique that could provide reduction of reconstruction artifacts. In this work, the authors compared several different ordering schemes and characterized the image quality and the formation of out-of-plane artifacts. Furthermore, a new normalization method is presented. It produces more accurate reconstructions with reduced artifacts comparing to the standard method of sequential ordering.Methods: In addition to visual assessment of image quality, several indices such as the signal-difference-to-noise ratio, the artifact-spread function, and the lesion detectability (d{sup ?}) were computed to quantitatively evaluate the effect of ordering scheme. The sets of breast tomosynthesis projection images were simulated for reconstruction; one set had uniform background (white noise only) and the other two contained both anatomic background and quantum noise. Clinical breast images were also studied for comparison.Results: The authors have quantified the image quality in reconstructed slices for a range of tumor sizes. The authors’ proposed method provides better performance for all of the metrics tested (contrast, d{sup ?}, and the level of artifacts) both for the uniform phantom case and in the presence of anatomical structure.Conclusions: The paired projection normalization provides better performance in the image quality of the reconstructed slices, and results in a lower level of artifacts in the Z direction. This implies that even a relatively simple method like the “side-to-side” sequence, which pairs two symmetrical projections with equal angular distance from the central projection, would achieve better reconstructed image quality than the conventional “step-by-step” method, which uses sequential projections one after another.

Wu, Gang; Yaffe, Martin J. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Sunnybrook Research Institute, S-657, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 Canada (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, S-657, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

2013-10-15

58

Assessing the Value of 3D Reconstruction in Building Construction  

CERN Document Server

3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is an emerging field in image processing and computer vision that aims to create 3D visualizations/ models of objects/ scenes from image sets. However, its commercial applications and benefits are yet to be fully explored. In this paper, we describe ongoing work towards assessing the value of 3D reconstruction in the building construction domain. We present preliminary results from a user study, where our objective is to understand the use of visual information in building construction in order to determine problems with the use of visual information and identify potential benefits and scenarios for the use of 3D reconstruction.

Murthy, Uma; Dib, Hazar; Garg, Chirag

2012-01-01

59

Three-dimensional image reconstruction by digital tomo-synthesis using inverse filtering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional X-ray tomosynthesis with film can provide a sagittal slice image with a single scan. This technique has the advantage of enabling reconstruction of a sagittal slice which is difficult to obtain from the X-ray CT system. However, only an image on the focal plane is obtained by a single scan. Furthermore, the image is degraded by superimpositions of the structures outside of the focal plane. A new three-dimensional image reconstruction method is proposed. This method utilizes a three-dimensional convolution process with an inverse filter function which is derived analytically by the point spread function of the projection and backprojection geometry. A digital tomosynthesis system has also been constructed for the purpose of evaluating the proposed method. This system was used in phantom experiments and clinical evaluations, and it was confirmed that the proposed method was able to reconstruct a better three-dimensional image with less artifacts from outside of the focused slice. PMID:18218419

Matsuo, H; Iwata, A; Horiba, I; Suzumura, N

1993-01-01

60

MMSE Reconstruction for 3D Freehand Ultrasound Imaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reconstruction of 3D ultrasound (US images from mechanically registered, but otherwise irregularly positioned, B-scan slices is of great interest in image guided therapy procedures. Conventional 3D ultrasound algorithms have low computational complexity, but the reconstructed volume suffers from severe speckle contamination. Furthermore, the current method cannot reconstruct uniform high-resolution data from several low-resolution B-scans. In this paper, the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE method is applied to 3D ultrasound reconstruction. Data redundancies due to overlapping samples as well as correlation of the target and speckle are naturally accounted for in the MMSE reconstruction algorithm. Thus, the reconstruction process unifies the interpolation and spatial compounding. Simulation results for synthetic US images are presented to demonstrate the excellent reconstruction.

Yibin Zheng

2008-03-01

61

Technological evaluation in 3-D reconstruction from CT data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several methods to display 3-D reconstruction from CT data. Recently a new computer soft ware of the 3-D surface raconstruction has been under the clinical trial in our department. 3-D suface raconstruction is now believed to be the best method for 3-D observation on among the CT reconstruction methods and is somewhat different in date collecting factors from those with other methods previously introduced. Because many CT slice are necessary for better 3-D images, it is important to utilize low mAs to reduce the radiation exposure to the patient. We found that if the object has high contrast against the adjacent materials, the contrast resolution is less affected by reduction of radiation exposure. The 3-D reconstruction images are also found to be affected by review parameters including high resolution mode and convolution filters. (author)

62

Distributed 3-D iterative reconstruction for quantitative SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe a distributed three dimensional (3-D) iterative reconstruction library for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This library includes 3-D projector-backprojector pairs (PBPs) and distributed 3-D iterative reconstruction algorithms. The 3-D PBPs accurately and efficiently model various combinations of the image degrading factors including attenuation, detector response and scatter response. These PBPs were validated by comparing projection data computed using the projectors with that from direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The distributed 3-D iterative algorithms spread the projection-backprojection operations for all the projection angles over a heterogeneous network of single or multi-processor computers to reduce the reconstruction time. Based on a master/slave paradigm, these distributed algorithms provide dynamic load balancing and fault tolerance. The distributed algorithms were verified by comparing images reconstructed using both the distributed and non-distributed algorithms. Computation times for distributed 3-D reconstructions running on up to 4 identical processors were reduced by a factor approximately 80--90% times the number of the processors participating, compared to those for non-distributed 3-D reconstructions running on a single processor. When combined with faster affordable computers, this library provides an efficient means for implementing accurate reconstruction and compensation methods to imprstruction and compensation methods to improve quality and quantitative accuracy in SPECT images

63

Fully Automatic 3D Reconstruction of Histological Images  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we propose a computational framework for 3D volume reconstruction from 2D histological slices using registration algorithms in feature space. To improve the quality of reconstructed 3D volume, first, intensity variations in images are corrected by an intensity standardization process which maps image intensity scale to a standard scale where similar intensities correspond to similar tissues. Second, a subvolume approach is proposed for 3D reconstruction by dividing standardized slices into groups. Third, in order to improve the quality of the reconstruction process, an automatic best reference slice selection algorithm is developed based on an iterative assessment of image entropy and mean square error of the registration process. Finally, we demonstrate that the choice of the reference slice has a significant impact on registration quality and subsequent 3D reconstruction.

Bagci, Ulas

2009-01-01

64

3D reconstruction for diverging X-ray beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to promote 3D display techniques it is necessary to accelerate 3D acquisition devices. One solution is to use a 2D X-ray detector. In that case the acquisition procedure can be depicted by the divergent beam transform. For a circular trajectory near of the object, the slice by slice reconstruction is no more accurate. It is necessary to use a 3D reconstruction algorithm. This paper develops an original method based on an approximated evaluation of the 3D Radon Transform and on use of its inversion formula

65

Digital tomosynthesis of hands using simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with distance driven projector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Digital tomosynthesis (DT) is an X-ray tomographic technique for producing a three-dimensional stack of crosssectional images, based on a limited number of low-dose two-dimensional projections, acquired over a limited angular range. Currently, DT has mainly been investigated for the breast and chest imaging. Another application of DT may be an orthopaedic imaging of hands. A three-dimensional reconstruction with a high in-plane resolution, a low dose and potentially low costs make DT attractive for hand imaging comparing with the planar radiography or computed tomography. However, it should be noted that an accurate image reconstruction in DT is a challenging task due to the high degree of data incompleteness. Images are affected by the residual blur of structures that are located above and below the plane of interest. A human hand consists of 27 bones and therefore the artifact problem becomes even more acute in this case, since the magnitude of artifacts is related not only to the chosen reconstruction type but also to the size and contrast of the artifact-generating object. The study presented in the current work has been performed to show a capability of Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART) for hand visualization in tomosynthesis. A distance-driven type for the projector and backprojector operator has been used to make the calculation fast and accurate. Studies have been carried out on a phantom with an uniform background and millimeter-sized balls, a dried finger bone and an in toto hand phantom. A Siemens Mammomat Inspiration device has been used to acquire the projection data. Experimental results show that SART is able to reduce out-of-plane artifacts caused by bone tissue. It provides reconstruction with acceptable quality in only one iteration with the recovered visibility of the obscured trabecular structures as well as the joint spaces and the margins. (orig.)

Levakhina, Y.M. [Luebeck Univ. (Germany). Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences; Luebeck Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering; Duschka, R.L.; Barkhausen, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Buzug, T.M. [Luebeck Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering

2011-07-01

66

ECG gated tomographic reconstruction for 3-D rotational coronary angiography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is proposed for 3-D reconstruction of coronary from a limited number of projections in rotational angiography. A Bayesian maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation is applied with a Poisson distributed projection to reconstruct the 3D coronary tree at a given instant of the cardiac cycle. Several regularizers are investigated L0-norm, L1 and L2 -norm in order to take into account the sparsity of the data. Evaluations are reported on simulated data obtained from a 3D dynamic sequence acquired on a 64-slice GE LightSpeed CT scan. A performance study is conducted to evaluate the quality of the reconstruction of the structures. PMID:21096844

Hu, Yining; Xie, Lizhe; Nunes, Jean Claude; Bellanger, Jean Jacques; Bedossa, Marc; Toumoulin, Christine

2010-01-01

67

Evaluation of digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms using synchrotron radiation in standard geometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In this article, the image quality of reconstructed volumes by four algorithms for digital tomosynthesis, applied in the case of breast, is investigated using synchrotron radiation. Methods: An angular data set of 21 images of a complex phantom with heterogeneous tissue-mimicking background was obtained using the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Trieste, Italy. The irradiated part was reconstructed using the multiple projection algorithm (MPA) and the filtered backprojection with ramp followed by hamming windows (FBR-RH) and filtered backprojection with ramp (FBP-R). Additionally, an algorithm for reducing the noise in reconstructed planes based on noise mask subtraction from the planes of the originally reconstructed volume using MPA (MPA-NM) has been further developed. The reconstruction techniques were evaluated in terms of calculations and comparison of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and artifact spread function. Results: It was found that the MPA-NM resulted in higher CNR, comparable with the CNR of FBP-RH for high contrast details. Low contrast objects are well visualized and characterized by high CNR using the simple MPA and the MPA-NM. In addition, the image quality of the reconstructed features in terms of CNR and visual appearance as a function of the initial number of projection images and the reconstruction arc was carried out. Slices reconstructed with more input projection images result in less reconstruction artifactses result in less reconstruction artifacts and higher detail CNR, while those reconstructed from projection images acquired in reduced angular range causes pronounced streak artifacts. Conclusions: Of the reconstruction algorithms implemented, the MPA-NM and MPA are a good choice for detecting low contrast objects, while the FBP-RH, FBP-R, and MPA-NM provide high CNR and well outlined edges in case of microcalcifications.

68

The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction  

OpenAIRE

The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additio...

Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A. M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D. K.

2010-01-01

69

Background Modeling Method Based on 3D Shape Reconstruction Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, we present a novel dynamic background modeling method based on reconstructed 3D shapes, which can solve background modeling problems of multi-camera in real-time. While 3D shape reconstruction is a popular technology widely used for detecting, tracking or identifying various objects, little effort has been made in applying this useful method to background subtraction. In this work we propose an approach to using 3D shape reconstruction technology to develop a novel decision making mechanism for background image updating. This 3D shape reconstruction based background subtraction method is adaptive to changes in illumination, capable of handling sudden illumination changes as well as complex dynamic scenes efficiently.

Xue Yuan

2013-04-01

70

Generic Imaging Models: Calibration and 3D Reconstruction Algorithms  

OpenAIRE

Generic Imaging Models: Calibration and 3D Reconstruction algorithms. Vision applications have been using cameras which are beyond pinhole: stereo, fisheye cameras, catadioptric systems, multi-camera setups etc. These novel cameras have interesting properties, especially a large field of view. Camera calibration and 3D reconstruction algorithms are fundamental blocks for computer vision. Models and algorithms for these two problems are usually parametric, camera dependent and seldom capable o...

Ramalingam, Srikumar

2006-01-01

71

3D Freehand Ultrasound Reconstruction based on Probe Trajectory  

OpenAIRE

3D freehand ultrasound imaging is a very attractive technique in medical examinations and intra-operative stage for its cost and field of view capacities. This technique produces a set of non parallel B-scans which are irregularly distributed in the space. Reconstruction amounts to computing a regular lattice volume and is needed to apply conventional computer vision algorithms like registration. In this paper, a new 3D reconstruction method is presented, taking explicitly into account the pr...

Coupe?, Pierrick; Hellier, Pierre; Azzabou, Noura; Barillot, Christian

2005-01-01

72

Relative 3D Reconstruction Using Multiple Uncalibrated Images  

OpenAIRE

In this article we show how relative 3D reconstruction from point correspondences of multiple uncalibrated images can be achieved through reference points. The original contributions with respect to related works in the field are mainly a direct global method for relative 3D reconstruction and a geometric method to select a correct set of reference points among all im age points. Experimental results from both simulated and real image sequences are presented, and robustness of the method and ...

Mohr, Roger; Quan, Long; Veillon, Franc?oise; Boufama, Boubakeur

1995-01-01

73

3D scene reconstruction from multi-aperture images  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of virtual reality, there is a growing demand for 3D modeling of real scenes. This paper proposes a novel 3D scene reconstruction framework based on multi-aperture images. Our framework consists of four parts. Firstly, images with different apertures are captured via programmable aperture. Secondly, we use SIFT method for feature point matching. Then we exploit binocular stereo vision to calculate camera parameters and 3D positions of matching points, forming a sparse 3D scene model. Finally, we apply patch-based multi-view stereo to obtain a dense 3D scene model. Experimental results show that our method is practical and effective to reconstruct dense 3D scene.

Mao, Miao; Qin, Kaihuai

2014-04-01

74

A comparative study of limited-angle cone-beam reconstruction methods for breast tomosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital tomosynthesis mammography (DTM) is a promising new modality for breast cancer detection. In DTM, projection-view images are acquired at a limited number of angles over a limited angular range and the imaged volume is reconstructed from the two-dimensional projections, thus providing three-dimensional structural information of the breast tissue. In this work, we investigated three representative reconstruction methods for this limited-angle cone-beam tomographic problem, including the backprojection (BP) method, the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) and the maximum likelihood method with the convex algorithm (ML-convex). The SART and ML-convex methods were both initialized with BP results to achieve efficient reconstruction. A second generation GE prototype tomosynthesis mammography system with a stationary digital detector was used for image acquisition. Projection-view images were acquired from 21 angles in 3 deg. increments over a ±30 deg. angular range. We used an American College of Radiology phantom and designed three additional phantoms to evaluate the image quality and reconstruction artifacts. In addition to visual comparison of the reconstructed images of different phantom sets, we employed the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), a line profile of features, an artifact spread function (ASF), a relative noise power spectrum (NPS), and a line object spread function (LOSF) to quantitatively evaluate the reconstruction results. It was foute the reconstruction results. It was found that for the phantoms with homogeneous background, the BP method resulted in less noisy tomosynthesized images and higher CNR values for masses than the SART and ML-convex methods. However, the two iterative methods provided greater contrast enhancement for both masses and calcification, sharper LOSF, and reduced interplane blurring and artifacts with better ASF behaviors for masses. For a contrast-detail phantom with heterogeneous tissue-mimicking background, the BP method had strong blurring artifacts along the x-ray source motion direction that obscured the contrast-detail objects, while the other two methods can remove the superimposed breast structures and significantly improve object conspicuity. With a properly selected relaxation parameter, the SART method with one iteration can provide tomosynthesized images comparable to those obtained from the ML-convex method with seven iterations, when BP results were used as initialization for both methods

75

ECG gated tomographic reconstruction for 3-D rotational coronary angiography  

OpenAIRE

A method is proposed for 3-D reconstruction of coronary from a limited number of projections in rotational angiography. A Bayesian maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation is applied with a Poisson distributed projection to reconstruct the 3D coronary tree at a given instant of the cardiac cycle. Several regularizers are investigated L0-norm, L1 and L2 -norm in order to take into account the sparsity of the data. Evaluations are reported on simulated data obtained from a 3D dynamic sequence acqu...

Hu, Yining; Xie, Lizhe; Nunes, Jean Claude; Bellanger, Jean Jacques; Bedossa, Marc; Toumoulin, Christine

2010-01-01

76

An analytical statistical approach to the 3D reconstruction problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presented here approach is concerned with the reconstruction problem for 3D spiral X-ray tomography. The reconstruction problem is formulated taking into considerations the statistical properties of signals obtained in X-ray CT. Additinally, image processing performed in our approach is involved in analytical methodology. This conception significantly improves quality of the obtained after reconstruction images and decreases the complexity of the reconstruction problem in comparison with other approaches. Computer simulations proved that schematically described here reconstruction algorithm outperforms conventional analytical methods in obtained image quality. (orig.)

77

NeuralNetwork Based 3D Surface Reconstruction  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes a novel neural-network-based adaptive hybrid-reflectance three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction model. The neural network combines the diffuse and specular components into a hybrid model. The proposed model considers the characteristics of each point and the variant albedo to prevent the reconstructed surface from being distorted. The neural network inputs are the pixel values of the two-dimensional images to be reconstructed. The normal vectors o...

Joseph, Vincy; Bhatia, Shalini

2009-01-01

78

Neuro3D: an interactive 3D reconstruction system of serial sections using automatic registration  

Science.gov (United States)

3D detailed visualization of neurons represents a source of valuable information when trying to understand integrative phenomena at cellular and circuital levels. We describe here a low cost 3D reconstruction system developed by an interdisciplinary team of engineers and neurobiologists. The system allows 3D reconstruction of ultra thin sections observed through a transmission electron microscope. We have developed and tested a completely automatic registration method which combines local histogram equalization with correlation in multi-resolution. This method gives good experimental results in real images. It is not time consuming and it does not need dedicated hardware. The different parts of the system are briefly described: image acquisition, non-uniform illumination compensation, manual segmentation, automatic registration, 3D visualization and graphic user interface. Preliminary experimental results are also included here.

Randall, Gregory; Fernandez, Alicia; Trujillo-Cenoz, Omar; Apelbaum, Gustavo; Bertalmio, Marcelo; Vazquez Rueda, Luis A.; Malmierca, Francisco; Morelli, Pablo

1998-06-01

79

Analysis of lung nodule detectability and anatomical clutter in tomosynthesis imaging of the chest  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomosynthesis is an imaging technique that has gained renewed interest with recent advancements of flat-panel digital detectors. Because of the wide range of potential applications, a systematic analysis of 3D tomosynthesis imaging systems would contribute to the understanding and development. This paper extends a systematic evaluation of thoracic tomosynthetic imaging performance as a function of imaging parameters, such as the number of projections, tomosynthesis orbital extent, and reconstruction filters. We evaluate lung nodule detectability and anatomical clutter as a function of tomosynthesis orbital extent using anthropomorphic phantoms and a table-top acquisition system. Tomosynthesis coronal slices were reconstructed using the FDK algorithm for cone-beam geometry from 91 projections uniformly distributed over acquisition orbital extents (?) ranging from 10° to 180°. Visual comparisons of different tomosynthesis reconstructions of a lung nodule show the progressive decrease of anatomical clutter as ? increases. Additionally, three quantitative figures of merit were computed and compared: signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), anatomical clutter power spectrum (PS), and theoretical detectability index (DI). Lung nodule SDNR increases as ? increases from 0° to 120°. Anatomical clutter PS shows that the clutter magnitude and correlation decrease as ? increases, increasing detectability. Similarly, 2D and 3D DI increase as ? increases in the anatomical dominated exposure ranges. On the other hand, 2D slice DI is lower than the 3D DI for larger ? (e.g. 120°), because of the information loss in the depth direction for 2D slices. In other words, inspecting 3D is better for larger acquisition orbital extents, because the extra information acquired at larger angles cannot be fully recovered from 2D tomosynthesis reconstruction slices. In summary, detectability in tomosynthesis reconstructions for thoracic imaging increases as fixed dose is distributed over a larger acquisition orbital extent (up to 120°).

Yoon, Sungwon; Gang, Jianan G.; Tward, Daniel J.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Fahrig, Rebecca

2009-02-01

80

New 3D reconstruction approach for 3D object recognition in intelligent assembly system  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a new 3D reconstruction approach for 3D object recognition in neuro-vision system is presented. First, a phase based stereo matching using Hopfield neural network approach is presented. The stereo matching problems are treated in frequency domain by using local phase. Instead of matching feature or texture of images, the stereo matching process is performed by using local phases of left image and right image in stereo image pair. By using the windowed Fourier transform, the windowed Fourier phases can be calculated. Through the variable window Gabor filter, the local phases of image can also be obtained. The Hopfield neural network is adopted to implement the stereo matching process. A suitable architecture of neural network is established, so that the computation can be implemented efficiently in parallel. A suitable matching function is created by using the local phase property. The energy function for neural network is constructed with satisfying some necessary constraints. The stereo matching process then is carried to find the minimum energy corresponding to the solution of the problem. Second, a 3D object reconstruction neural network is constructed by using BP neural network. So the 3D configuration and shape can be reconstructed by this neural network. With multiple neural networks the 3D reconstruction processes can be performed in parallel. The examples for both synthetic and real images are shown in the experiment, and good results are obtained.

Xiong, Yingen; Zhang, Guangzhao

1998-03-01

81

New 3D reconstruction approach for 3D object recognition in neuro-vision system  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a new 3D reconstruction approach for 3D object recognition in neuro-vision system is presented. First, a phase based stereo matching using Hopfield neural network approach is presented, the stereo matching problems are treated in frequency domain by using local phase. Instead of matching feature or texture of images, the stereo matching process is performed by using local phases of left image and right image in stereo image pair. The Hopfield neural network is adopted to implement the stereo matching process. A suitable architecture of neural network is established, so that the computation can be implemented efficiently in parallel. A suitable matching function is created by using the local phase property. The energy function for neural network is constructed with satisfying some necessary constraints. The stereo matching process them is carried to find the minimum energy corresponding to the solution of the problem. Second, a 3D object reconstruction neural networks is constructed by using BP neural network. So the 3D configuration and shape can be reconstructed by this neural network. With multiple neural networks the 3D reconstruction processes can be performed in parallel. The examples for both synthetic and real images are shown in the experiment, and good results are obtained.

Xiong, Yingen; Zhang, Guangzhao; Wu, Paul S. Y.

1998-04-01

82

A Comparison of Reconstruction Algorithms Regarding Exposure Dose Reductions during Digital Breast Tomosynthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compared reconstruction algorithms [filtered back projection (FBP and simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT] with respect to radiation doses and image quality and suggested the possibility of decreasing the exposure dose in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT. These two existing algorithms were implemented using a DBT system and experimentally evaluated using contrast-detail (CD phantom measurements, such as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, root mean square error (RMSE, intensity profile, and artifact spread function (ASF, and the results obtained with FBP and SIRT were compared. The potential dose reduction, contrast improvement, quantum noise reduction, and artifact reduction in DBT were evaluated using different exposures and the two reconstruction techniques. The effectiveness of each technique for enhancing the visibility of a CD phantom was quantified with respect to CNR and RMSE, and artifact reduction was quantified with respect to the intensity profile and ASF. SIRT produced reconstructed images with CNR values indicative of high-contrast detection. Image error was smaller in the in-focus plane SIRT images, and artifacts were decreased in these images according to the determined intensity profiles and ASF. These results suggest that when using SIRT, the exposure dose could possibly be decreased to half.

Tsutomu Gomi

2014-06-01

83

Evaluation and optimization of the maximum-likelihood approach for image reconstruction in digital breast tomosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) suffers from incomplete data and poor quantum statistics limited by the total dose absorbed in the breast. Hence, statistical reconstruction assuming the photon statistics to follow a Poisson distribution may have some advantages. This study investigates state-of-art iterative maximum likelihood (ML) statistical reconstruction algorithms for DBT and compares the results with simple backprojection (BP), filtered backprojection (FBP), and iFBP (FBP with filter derived from iterative reconstruction). The gradient-ascent and convex optimization variants of the transmission ML algorithm are evaluated with phantom and clinical data. Convergence speed is very similar for both iterative statistical algorithms and after approximately 5 iterations all significant details are well displayed, although we notice increasing noise. We found empirically that a relaxation factor between 0.25 and 0.5 provides the optimal trade-off between noise and contrast. The ML-convex algorithm gives smoother results than the ML-gradient algorithm. The low-contrast CNR of the ML algorithms is between CNR for simple backprojection (highest) and FBP (lowest). Spatial resolution of iterative statistical and iFBP algorithms is similar to that of FBP but the quantitative density representation better resembles conventional mammograms. The iFBP algorithm provides the benefits of statistical iterative reconstruction techniques and requires much shorter computation time.

Jerebko, Anna K.; Mertelmeier, Thomas

2010-04-01

84

Clinical implementation of a digital tomosynthesis-based seed reconstruction algorithm for intraoperative postimplant dose evaluation in low dose rate prostate brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The low dose rate brachytherapy procedure would benefit from an intraoperative postimplant dosimetry verification technique to identify possible suboptimal dose coverage and suggest a potential reimplantation. The main objective of this project is to develop an efficient, operator-free, intraoperative seed detection technique using the imaging modalities available in a low dose rate brachytherapy treatment room. Methods: This intraoperative detection allows a complete dosimetry calculation that can be performed right after an I-125 prostate seed implantation, while the patient is still under anesthesia. To accomplish this, a digital tomosynthesis-based algorithm was developed. This automatic filtered reconstruction of the 3D volume requires seven projections acquired over a total angle of 60 deg. with an isocentric imaging system. Results: A phantom study was performed to validate the technique that was used in a retrospective clinical study involving 23 patients. In the patient study, the automatic tomosynthesis-based reconstruction yielded seed detection rates of 96.7% and 2.6% false positives. The seed localization error obtained with a phantom study is 0.4±0.4 mm. The average time needed for reconstruction is below 1 min. The reconstruction algorithm also provides the seed orientation with an uncertainty of 10 deg. ±8 deg. The seed detection algorithm presented here is reliable and was efficiently used in the clinic. Conclusions: When combined with an aic. Conclusions: When combined with an appropriate coregistration technique to identify the organs in the seed coordinate system, this algorithm will offer new possibilities for a next generation of clinical brachytherapy systems.

85

Implementation and evaluation of an expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm for gamma emission breast tomosynthesis  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: We are developing a dual modality tomosynthesis breast scanner in which x-ray transmission tomosynthesis and gamma emission tomosynthesis are performed sequentially with the breast in a common configuration. In both modalities projection data are obtained over an angular range of less than 180° from one side of the mildly compressed breast resulting in incomplete and asymmetrical sampling. The objective of this work is to implement and evaluate a maximum likelihood expectation maxim...

Gong, Zongyi; Klanian, Kelly; Patel, Tushita; Sullivan, Olivia; Williams, Mark B.

2012-01-01

86

Numerical reconstruction of digital holograms for conventional 3D display  

OpenAIRE

True hologram video displays are currently under development, but are not yet available. Because of this restriction, conventional 3D displays can be used with digital holographic data. However when using conventional 3D displays, holographic data has to be processed correctly to meet the requirements of the display. A unique property of digital holograms, namely that a single hologram encodes multiple perspectives, can be used to achieve this goal. Reconstructions from digital holograms at d...

Pitka?aho, Tomi; Naughton, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

87

Resolving Ambiguities in Monocular 3D Reconstruction of Deformable Surfaces  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis, we focus on the problem of recovering 3D shapes of deformable surfaces from a single camera. This problem is known to be ill-posed as for a given 2D input image there exist many 3D shapes that give visually identical projections. We present three methods which make headway towards resolving these ambiguities. We believe that our work represents a significant step towards making surface reconstruction methods of practical use. First, we...

Varol, Aydin

2012-01-01

88

3D Reconstruction For The Detection Of Cranial Anomalies  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing interest in the use of three-dimensional (3D) cranial reconstruction from CT scans for surgical planning. A low-cost imaging system has been developed, which provides pseudo-3D images which may be manipulated to reveal the craniofacial skeleton as a whole or any particular component region. The contrast between congenital (hydrocephalic), normocephalic and acquired (carcinoma of the maxillary sinus) anomalous cranial forms demonstrates the potential of this system.

Kettner, B.; Shalev, S.; Lavelle, C.

1986-01-01

89

Enhanced imaging of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis through improved image-reconstruction algorithms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The authors develop a practical, iterative algorithm for image-reconstruction in undersampled tomographic systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Methods: The algorithm controls image regularity by minimizing the image total p variation (TpV), a function that reduces to the total variation when p=1.0 or the image roughness when p=2.0. Constraints on the image, such as image positivity and estimated projection-data tolerance, are enforced by projection onto convex sets. The fact that the tomographic system is undersampled translates to the mathematical property that many widely varied resultant volumes may correspond to a given data tolerance. Thus the application of image regularity serves two purposes: (1) Reduction in the number of resultant volumes out of those allowed by fixing the data tolerance, finding the minimum image TpV for fixed data tolerance, and (2) traditional regularization, sacrificing data fidelity for higher image regularity. The present algorithm allows for this dual role of image regularity in undersampled tomography. Results: The proposed image-reconstruction algorithm is applied to three clinical DBT data sets. The DBT cases include one with microcalcifications and two with masses. Conclusions: Results indicate that there may be a substantial advantage in using the present image-reconstruction algorithm for microcalcification imaging.

90

Three-dimensional linear system analysis for breast tomosynthesis  

OpenAIRE

The optimization of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) geometry and reconstruction is crucial for the clinical translation of this exciting new imaging technique. In the present work, the authors developed a three-dimensional (3D) cascaded linear system model for DBT to investigate the effects of detector performance, imaging geometry, and image reconstruction algorithm on the reconstructed image quality. The characteristics of a prototype DBT system equipped with an amorphous selenium flat-p...

Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Wei

2008-01-01

91

Image artifacts in digital breast tomosynthesis: Investigation of the effects of system geometry and reconstruction parameters using a linear system approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional (3D) x-ray imaging modality that reconstructs image slices parallel to the detector plane. Image acquisition is performed using a limited angular range (less than 50 degrees) and a limited number of projection views (less than 50 views). Due to incomplete data sampling, image artifacts are unavoidable in DBT. In this preliminary study, the image artifacts in DBT were investigated systematically using a linear system approximation. A cascaded linear system model of DBT was developed to calculate the 3D presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) with different image acquisition geometries and reconstruction filters using a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. A thin, slanted tungsten (W) wire was used to measure the presampling MTF of the DBT system in the cross-sectional plane defined by the thickness (z-) and tube travel (x-) directions. The measurement was in excellent agreement with the calculation using the model. A small steel bead was used to calculate the artifact spread function (ASF) of the DBT system. The ASF was correlated with the convolution of the two-dimensional (2D) point spread function (PSF) of the system and the object function of the bead. The results showed that the cascaded linear system model can be used to predict the magnitude of image artifacts of small, high-contrast objects with different image acquisition geometry and reconstruction filters.ilters.

92

Image artifacts in digital breast tomosynthesis: investigation of the effects of system geometry and reconstruction parameters using a linear system approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional (3D) x-ray imaging modality that reconstructs image slices parallel to the detector plane. Image acquisition is performed using a limited angular range (less than 50 degrees) and a limited number of projection views (less than 50 views). Due to incomplete data sampling, image artifacts are unavoidable in DBT. In this preliminary study, the image artifacts in DBT were investigated systematically using a linear system approximation. A cascaded linear system model of DBT was developed to calculate the 3D presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) with different image acquisition geometries and reconstruction filters using a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. A thin, slanted tungsten (W) wire was used to measure the presampling MTF of the DBT system in the cross-sectional plane defined by the thickness (z-) and tube travel (x-) directions. The measurement was in excellent agreement with the calculation using the model. A small steel bead was used to calculate the artifact spread function (ASF) of the DBT system. The ASF was correlated with the convolution of the two-dimensional (2D) point spread function (PSF) of the system and the object function of the bead. The results showed that the cascaded linear system model can be used to predict the magnitude of image artifacts of small, high-contrast objects with different image acquisition geometry and reconstruction filters. PMID:19175083

Hu, Yue-Houng; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Wei

2008-12-01

93

Using simulated annealing for 3D reconstruction of orthopedic fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from two orthogonal images has been realized, and a Monte Carlo program MCNP4B has been applied to simulate the x-ray images. These two approaches can be applied to reconstruction of orthopedic fractures, using computed radiography images. The purpose of this paper is to utilize the information from pairs of orthogonal images at different stages of healing to generate a 3D reconstruction of the callus which builds up during the treatment, thus facilitating understanding and enabling assessment of the process of fracture healing. The reconstruction from Monte Carlo simulated images and x-ray images shows that this approach may be feasible in clinical practice

94

3D surface reconstruction multi-scale hierarchical approaches  

CERN Document Server

3D Surface Reconstruction: Multi-Scale Hierarchical Approaches presents methods to model 3D objects in an incremental way so as to capture more finer details at each step. The configuration of the model parameters, the rationale and solutions are described and discussed in detail so the reader has a strong understanding of the methodology. Modeling starts from data captured by 3D digitizers and makes the process even more clear and engaging. Innovative approaches, based on two popular machine learning paradigms, namely Radial Basis Functions and the Support Vector Machines, are also introduced

Bellocchio, Francesco; Ferrari, Stefano; Piuri, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

95

Filtering of measurement noise with the 3D reconstruction algorithm  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two different antenna models are set up in GRASP and CHAMP, and noise is added to the radiated field. The noisy field is then given as input to the 3D reconstruction of DIATOOL and the SWE coefficients and the far-field radiated by the reconstructed currents are compared with the noise-free results coming from GRASP and CHAMP. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey

2014-01-01

96

Computerized 3-D reconstruction of two "double teeth"  

OpenAIRE

"Double teeth" is a root malformation in the dentition and the purpose of this study was to reconstruct three-dimensionally the external and internal morphology of two "double teeth". The first set of "double teeth" was formed by the conjunction of a mandibular molar and a premolar, and the second by a conjunction of a maxillary molar and a supernumerary tooth. The process of 3-D reconstruction included serial cross-sectioning, photographs of the sections, digitization of the photographs, ext...

Lyroudia, K.; Mikrogeorgis, G.; Nikopoulos, N.; Samakovitis, G.; Molyvdas, I.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

97

Digital breast tomosynthesis geometry calibration  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D x-ray technique for imaging the breast. The x-ray tube, mounted on a gantry, moves in an arc over a limited angular range around the breast while 7-15 images are acquired over a period of a few seconds. A reconstruction algorithm is used to create a 3D volume dataset from the projection images. This procedure reduces the effects of tissue superposition, often responsible for degrading the quality of projection mammograms. This may help improve sensitivity of cancer detection, while reducing the number of false positive results. For DBT, images are acquired at a set of gantry rotation angles. The image reconstruction process requires several geometrical factors associated with image acquisition to be known accurately, however, vibration, encoder inaccuracy, the effects of gravity on the gantry arm and manufacturing tolerances can produce deviations from the desired acquisition geometry. Unlike cone-beam CT, in which a complete dataset is acquired (500+ projections over 180°), tomosynthesis reconstruction is challenging in that the angular range is narrow (typically from 20°-45°) and there are fewer projection images (~7-15). With such a limited dataset, reconstruction is very sensitive to geometric alignment. Uncertainties in factors such as detector tilt, gantry angle, focal spot location, source-detector distance and source-pivot distance can produce several artifacts in the reconstructed volume. To accurately and efficiently calculate the location and angles of orientation of critical components of the system in DBT geometry, a suitable phantom is required. We have designed a calibration phantom for tomosynthesis and developed software for accurate measurement of the geometric parameters of a DBT system. These have been tested both by simulation and experiment. We will present estimates of the precision available with this technique for a prototype DBT system.

Wang, Xinying; Mainprize, James G.; Kempston, Michael P.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Yaffe, Martin J.

2007-03-01

98

3D volumetric analysis for planning breast reconstructive surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast reconstruction plays an integral role in the holistic management of breast cancer, with assessment of breast volume, shape, and projection vital in planning breast reconstruction surgery. Current practice includes two-dimensional (2D) photography and visual estimation in selecting ideal volume and shape of breast implants or soft-tissue flaps. Other objective quantitative means of calculating breast volume have been reported, such as direct anthropomorphic measurements or three-dimensional (3D) photography, but none have proven reliably accurate. We describe a novel approach to volumetric analysis of the breast, through the creation of a haptic, tactile model, or 3D print of scan data. This approach comprises use of a single computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan for volumetric analysis, which we use to compare to simpler estimation techniques, create software-generated 3D reconstructions, calculate, and visualize volume differences, and produce biomodels of the breasts using a 3D printer for tactile appreciation of volume differential. Using the technique described, parenchymal volume was assessed and calculated using CT data. A case report was utilized in a pictorial account of the technique, in which a volume difference of 116 cm(3) was calculated, aiding reconstructive planning. Preoperative planning, including volumetric analysis can be used as a tool to aid esthetic outcomes and attempt to reduce operative times in post-mastectomy breast reconstruction surgery. The combination of accurate volume calculations and the production of 3D-printed haptic models for tactile feedback and operative guidance are evolving techniques in volumetric analysis and preoperative planning in breast reconstruction. PMID:24939062

Chae, Michael P; Hunter-Smith, David J; Spychal, Robert T; Rozen, Warren Matthew

2014-07-01

99

A comparison of reconstruction algorithms for C-arm mammography tomosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital tomosynthesis is an imaging technique to produce a tomographic image from a series of angular digital images in a manner similar to conventional focal plane tomography. Unlike film focal plane tomography, the acquisition of the data in a C-arm geometry causes the image receptor to be positioned at various angles to the reconstruction tomogram. The digital nature of the data allows for input images to be combined into the desired plane with the flexibility of generating tomograms of many separate planes from a single set of input data. Angular datasets were obtained of a low contrast detectability (LCD) phantom and cadaver breast utilizing a Lorad stereotactic biopsy unit with a coupled source and digital detector in a C-arm configuration. Datasets of 9 and 41 low-dose projections were collected over a 30 deg. angular range. Tomographic images were reconstructed using a Backprojection (BP) algorithm, an Iterative Subtraction (IS) algorithm that allows the partial subtraction of out-of-focus planes, and an Algebraic Reconstruction (AR) algorithm. These were compared with single view digital radiographs. The methods' effectiveness at enhancing visibility of an obscured LCD phantom was quantified in terms of the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), and Signal to Background Ratio (SBR), all normalized to the metric value for the single projection image. The methods' effectiveness at removing ghosting artifacts in a cadaver breast was quantified in terms of the Artifact Spras quantified in terms of the Artifact Spread Function (ASF). The technology proved effective at partially removing out of focus structures and enhancing SNR and SBR. The normalized SNR was highest at 4.85 for the obscured LCD phantom, using nine projections and IS algorithm. The normalized SBR was highest at 23.2 for the obscured LCD phantom, using 41 projections and an AR algorithm. The highest normalized metric values occurred with the obscured phantom. This supports the assertion that the greatest value of tomosynthesis is in imaging fibroglandular breasts. The ASF performance was best with the AR technique and nine projections

100

Digital tomosynthesis: technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital breast tomosynthesis is an extension of digital mammography that produces quasi three-dimensional reconstructed images from a set of low-dose x-ray projections acquired over a limited angular range. The quality of the reconstructed image and the dose to the breast are dependent on the angular range and number of projections, the dose used per projection, and detector resolution and noise characteristics. This article discusses various aspects of tomosynthesis optimization. PMID:24792651

Yaffe, Martin J; Mainprize, James G

2014-05-01

101

3D video sequence reconstruction algorithms implemented on a DSP  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel approach for 3D image and video reconstruction is proposed and implemented. This is based on the wavelet atomic functions (WAF) that have demonstrated better approximation properties in different processing problems in comparison with classical wavelets. Disparity maps using WAF are formed, and then they are employed in order to present 3D visualization using color anaglyphs. Additionally, the compression via Pth law is performed to improve the disparity map quality. Other approaches such as optical flow and stereo matching algorithm are also implemented as the comparative approaches. Numerous simulation results have justified the efficiency of the novel framework. The implementation of the proposed algorithm on the Texas Instruments DSP TMS320DM642 permits to demonstrate possible real time processing mode during 3D video reconstruction for images and video sequences.

Ponomaryov, V. I.; Ramos-Diaz, E.

2011-03-01

102

Statistical iterative reconstruction using fast optimization transfer algorithm with successively increasing factor in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Statistical iterative reconstruction exhibits particularly promising since it provides the flexibility of accurate physical noise modeling and geometric system description in transmission tomography system. However, to solve the objective function is computationally intensive compared to analytical reconstruction methods due to multiple iterations needed for convergence and each iteration involving forward/back-projections by using a complex geometric system model. Optimization transfer (OT) is a general algorithm converting a high dimensional optimization to a parallel 1-D update. OT-based algorithm provides a monotonic convergence and a parallel computing framework but slower convergence rate especially around the global optimal. Based on an indirect estimation on the spectrum of the OT convergence rate matrix, we proposed a successively increasing factor- scaled optimization transfer (OT) algorithm to seek an optimal step size for a faster rate. Compared to a representative OT based method such as separable parabolic surrogate with pre-computed curvature (PC-SPS), our algorithm provides comparable image quality (IQ) with fewer iterations. Each iteration retains a similar computational cost to PC-SPS. The initial experiment with a simulated Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) system shows that a total 40% computing time is saved by the proposed algorithm. In general, the successively increasing factor-scaled OT exhibits a tremendous potential to be a iterative method with a parallel computation, a monotonic and global convergence with fast rate.

Xu, Shiyu; Zhang, Zhenxi; Chen, Ying

2014-03-01

103

Toward a dose reduction strategy using model-based reconstruction with limited-angle tomosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) is an emerging technique for several imaging modalities and appli- cations including medical CT, security CT, PET, and microscopy. Its success derives from an ability to preserve image resolution and perceived diagnostic quality under impressively reduced signal level. MBIR typically uses a cost optimization framework that models system geometry, photon statistics, and prior knowledge of the recon- structed volume. The challenge of tomosynthetic geometries is that the inverse problem becomes more ill-posed due to the limited angles, meaning the volumetric image solution is not uniquely determined by the incom- pletely sampled projection data. Furthermore, low signal level conditions introduce additional challenges due to noise. A fundamental strength of MBIR for limited-views and limited-angle is that it provides a framework for constraining the solution consistent with prior knowledge of expected image characteristics. In this study, we analyze through simulation the capability of MBIR with respect to prior modeling components for limited-views, limited-angle digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) under low dose conditions. A comparison to ground truth phantoms shows that MBIR with regularization achieves a higher level of fidelity and lower level of blurring and streaking artifacts compared to other state of the art iterative reconstructions, especially for high contrast objects. The benefit of contrast preservation along with less artifacts may lead to detectability improvement of microcalcification for more accurate cancer diagnosis.

Haneda, Eri; Tkaczyk, J. E.; Palma, Giovanni; Iordache, R?zvan; Zelakiewicz, Scott; Muller, Serge; De Man, Bruno

2014-03-01

104

Image reconstruction for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) by using projection-angle-dependent filter functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is considered in clinics as a standard three-dimensional imaging modality, allowing the earlier detection of cancer. It typically acquires only 10-30 projections over a limited angle range of 15-60° with a stationary detector and typically uses a computationally-efficient filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm for image reconstruction. However, a common FBP algorithm yields poor image quality resulting from the loss of average image value and the presence of severe image artifacts due to the elimination of the dc component of the image by the ramp filter and to the incomplete data, respectively. As an alternative, iterative reconstruction methods are often used in DBT to overcome these difficulties, even though they are still computationally expensive. In this study, as a compromise, we considered a projection-angle-dependent filtering method in which one-dimensional geometry-adapted filter kernels are computed with the aid of a conjugate-gradient method and are incorporated into the standard FBP framework. We implemented the proposed algorithm and performed systematic simulation works to investigate the imaging characteristics. Our results indicate that the proposed method is superior to a conventional FBP method for DBT imaging and has a comparable computational cost, while preserving good image homogeneity and edge sharpening with no serious image artifacts.

Park, Yeonok; Park, Chulkyu; Cho, Hyosung; Je, Uikyu; Hong, Daeki; Lee, Minsik; Cho, Heemoon; Choi, Sungil; Koo, Yangseo

2014-09-01

105

QUANTITATIVE 3D RECONSTRUCTIONS AS IDENTIFICATION TOOL IN HEART DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method for displaying quantitative information in 3D reconstructions of the embryonic heart was developed to investigate spatial distributions of cell division and cell density. The method utilizes serial sections to extract morphological as well as quantitative data. The morphological data are used to reconstruct the embryonic heart and the quantitative data are classified and superimposed on the resulting reconstruction. The bias, which would result from size differences between cell populations, was investigated. If present, it would influence the absolute number of particles (nuclei per volume, although the classification applied on the reconstruction displaying the mitotic fraction remains unchanged. Although the reconstruction displaying the local densities is influenced by the bias, less than 2.5% of the regions is misclassified.

Alexandre T Soufan

2011-05-01

106

Holography of 3D surface reconstructed CT images.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiplex hologram (cylindrical holographic stereogram) was successfully made from three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction CT images of a child with plagiocephaly. This method appears to be suitable as one of the projectional aids of 3D surface reconstruction CT images that are proving useful in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The principle of the method is described. Also discussed is the possibility of developing a computer-aided hologram synthesizing system that could be used for images obtained with U-arm X-ray equipment (by either cinefilm, or videotape, or digital subtraction angiography) or by CT as well as MR. For practical use, it is necessary for the hologram to be synthesized in a short time. One of the key problems in developing such a machine is the need for an incoherent-to-coherent image converter. PMID:3335666

Fujioka, M; Ohyama, N; Honda, T; Tsujiuchi, J; Suzuki, M; Hashimoto, S; Ikeda, S

1988-01-01

107

Improvement of geometrical measurements from 3D-SEM reconstructions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The quantification of 3D geometry at the nanometric scale is a major metrological challenge. In this work geometrical measurements on cylindrical items obtained with a 3D-SEM were investigated. Two items were measured: a wire gauge having a 0.25 mm nominal diameter and a hypodermic needle having an external diameter of 0.26mm. A series of measurements were performed to determine the accuracy of 3D reconstructions obtained using stereo-photogrammetry methods, finding a procedure to determine the optimum number of rotations of the object for an acceptable measuring uncertainty. It was determined that the diameter estimation performed using the 3D-SEM leads to an overestimation of approx. 7% compared to the reference values obtained using a 1-D length measuring machine. Standard deviation of SEM measurements performed on the wire gauge is approx. 1.5 times lower than the one performed on the hypodermic needle.

Carli, Lorenzo Technical University of Denmark,

2009-01-01

108

3-D Equilibrium Reconstruction in the HSX Stellarator  

Science.gov (United States)

Axisymmetric toroidal devices reconstruct the MHD equilibrium properties from measured pressure, magnetic field components, external field coil currents, and other diagnostics, by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation. For modern toroidal systems including advanced stellarators and tokamaks with asymmetric fields, such as those that arise from finite toroidal ripple or ferromagnetic blanket materials, a 3-D equilibrium reconstruction is required to account for non-axisymmetric effects and accurately determine the plasma profiles. The 3-D equilibrium reconstruction of plasma current and pressure profiles in the quasi-helically symmetric stellarator HSX is presented. The equilibrium currents in the HSX stellarator are measured with a set of magnetic diagnostics, which includes Rogowski coils, diamagnetic loops, two poloidal `belts' that are separated by 1/3 of a field period, and internal coils. Each belt consists of 16 3-axis magnetic pick-up coils to measure the local magnetic field, and 15 internal coils measure the poloidal field. V3FIT [1], a 3-D equilibrium reconstruction code, is used to reconstruct the pressure and current profile from the measured fields and fluxes. Reconstructions based on the external diagnostics confirm that the Pfirsch-Schl"uter current is helical due to the lack of toroidal curvature in HSX. The reconstruction of the pressure profile and stored energy based on the internal poloidal array agrees well with that measured by Thomson scattering and the flux loop. Later in time, the measurements are dominated by the bootstrap current which rises on a timescale comparable to the length of the discharge. The reconstruction of the current profile is consistent with the neoclassical bootstrap current when the effects of momentum conservation between plasma species [2] and the 3-D inductive response of the plasma column [3] are considered. The magnitude of the Pfirsch-Schl"uter and bootstrap currents are reduced by the high effective transform (˜3), which is characteristic of quasi-helically symmetric systems. The level of uncertainty in the reconstructed pressure and current profiles is largest near the core of the plasma. [4pt] [1] J.D. Hanson, et al, Nucl. Fusion 49 (2009) 075031. [0pt] [2] D.A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, (2005) 056114. [0pt] [3] P.I Strand and W.A. Houlberg, Phys. Plasmas 8 (2001) 2782.

Schmitt, J. C.

2011-11-01

109

Twenty-fold acceleration of 3D projection reconstruction MPI.  

Science.gov (United States)

We experimentally demonstrate a 20-fold improvement in acquisition time in projection reconstruction (PR) magnetic particle imaging (MPI) relative to the state-of-the-art PR MPI imaging results. We achieve this acceleration in our imaging system by introducing an additional Helmholtz electromagnet pair, which creates a slow shift (focus) field. Because of magnetostimulation limits in humans, we show that scan time with three-dimensional (3D) PR MPI is theoretically within the same order of magnitude as 3D MPI with a field free point; however, PR MPI has an order of magnitude signal-to-noise ratio gain. PMID:23940058

Konkle, Justin J; Goodwill, Patrick W; Saritas, Emine Ulku; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Kuan; Conolly, Steven M

2013-12-01

110

Enhanced imaging of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis through improved image-reconstruction algorithms  

CERN Document Server

PURPOSE: We develop a practical, iterative algorithm for image-reconstruction in under-sampled tomographic systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). METHOD: The algorithm controls image regularity by minimizing the image total $p$-variation (TpV), a function that reduces to the total variation when $p=1.0$ or the image roughness when $p=2.0$. Constraints on the image, such as image positivity and estimated projection-data tolerance, are enforced by projection onto convex sets (POCS). The fact that the tomographic system is under-sampled translates to the mathematical property that many widely varied resultant volumes may correspond to a given data tolerance. Thus the application of image regularity serves two purposes: (1) reduction of the number of resultant volumes out of those allowed by fixing the data tolerance, finding the minimum image TpV for fixed data tolerance, and (2) traditional regularization, sacrificing data fidelity for higher image regularity. The present algorithm allows for this...

Sidky, Emil Y; Reiser, Ingrid S; Nishikawa, Robert M; Moore, Richard H; Kopans, Daniel B

2009-01-01

111

3D reconstruction methods of coronal structures by radio observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to carry out the three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of structures in the solar corona would represent a major advance in the study of the physical properties in active regions and in flares. Methods which allow a geometric reconstruction of quasistationary coronal structures (for example active region loops) or dynamic structures (for example flaring loops) are described: stereoscopy of multi-day imaging observations by the VLA (Very Large Array); tomography of optically thin emission (in radio or soft x-rays); multifrequency band imaging by the VLA; and tracing of magnetic field lines by propagating electron beams.

Aschwanden, Markus J.; Bastian, T. S.; White, Stephen M.

1992-01-01

112

X-ray digital intra-oral tomosynthesis for quasi-three-dimensional imaging: system, reconstruction algorithm, and experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

At present, there are mainly three x-ray imaging modalities for dental clinical diagnosis: radiography, panorama and computed tomography (CT). We develop a new x-ray digital intra-oral tomosynthesis (IDT) system for quasi-three-dimensional dental imaging which can be seen as an intermediate modality between traditional radiography and CT. In addition to normal x-ray tube and digital sensor used in intra-oral radiography, IDT has a specially designed mechanical device to complete the tomosynthesis data acquisition. During the scanning, the measurement geometry is such that the sensor is stationary inside the patient's mouth and the x-ray tube moves along an arc trajectory with respect to the intra-oral sensor. Therefore, the projection geometry can be obtained without any other reference objects, which makes it be easily accepted in clinical applications. We also present a compressed sensing-based iterative reconstruction algorithm for this kind of intra-oral tomosynthesis. Finally, simulation and experiment were both carried out to evaluate this intra-oral imaging modality and algorithm. The results show that IDT has its potentiality to become a new tool for dental clinical diagnosis.

Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ziran; Wu, Dufan

2013-01-01

113

High resolution 3-D reconstructions of rocks and composites; Reconstructions 3D haute resolution de roches et de composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten {mu}m resolution 3-D representations of different media, were obtained with a laboratory computer micro-tomograph developed from an electron microprobe column. From the original electron microprobe, only minor modifications have been required, indeed several of the utilities of the microprobe have been used to ensure high resolution radiography (2 {mu}m). The impact of the electron beam focused onto a thin film is used to form a 'point' X-ray source and the radiographic image of the sample is acquired on a CCD camera. A specimen rotation mechanism allows multiple radiograph acquisition and reconstruction of the X-ray attenuation 3-D cartography. Since X-ray attenuation is directly related to density and atomic number, the micro-scanner provides 3-D cartographs of the different phases present in the sample. System performances have been evaluated on various samples, mainly rocks and composites. Comparison with scanning electron micrographs was used when possible to validate the reconstructions. Results are mostly qualitative but already show the potential of the technique in describing 3-D connectivity and topology of pore networks or 3-D orientation of fibres in composites. (authors)

Rosenberg, E.; Lynch, J.; Gueroult, P.; Bisiaux, M.; Ferreira De Paiva, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1999-07-01

114

Reconstruction of 3D scenes from sequences of images  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) scenes is an active research topic in the field of computer vision and 3D display. It's a challenge to model 3D objects rapidly and effectively. A 3D model can be extracted from multiple images. The system only requires a sequence of images taken with cameras without knowing the parameters of camera, which provide flexibility to a high degree. We focus on quickly merging point cloud of the object from depth map sequences. The whole system combines algorithms of different areas in computer vision, such as camera calibration, stereo correspondence, point cloud splicing and surface reconstruction. The procedure of 3D reconstruction is decomposed into a number of successive steps. Firstly, image sequences are received by the camera freely moving around the object. Secondly, the scene depth is obtained by a non-local stereo matching algorithm. The pairwise is realized with the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. An initial matching is then made for the first two images of the sequence. For the subsequent image that is processed with previous image, the point of interest corresponding to ones in previous images are refined or corrected. The vertical parallax between the images is eliminated. The next step is to calibrate camera, and intrinsic parameters and external parameters of the camera are calculated. Therefore, The relative position and orientation of camera are gotten. A sequence of depth maps are acquired by using a non-local cost aggregation method for stereo matching. Then point cloud sequence is achieved by the scene depths, which consists of point cloud model using the external parameters of camera and the point cloud sequence. The point cloud model is then approximated by a triangular wire-frame mesh to reduce geometric complexity and to tailor the model to the requirements of computer graphics visualization systems. Finally, the texture is mapped onto the wire-frame model, which can also be used for 3D display. According to the experimental results, we can reconstruct a 3D point cloud model more quickly and efficiently than other methods.

Niu, Bei; Sang, Xinzhu; Chen, Duo; Cai, Yuanfa

2013-08-01

115

Reconstruction 3D de primitives géometriques par vision active  

OpenAIRE

Ce rapport présente une méthode générale de reconstruction 3D des primitives géometriques paramètrables par vision dynamique. Cette méthode est basée sur un concept fondamental : le torseur d'interaction associé aux primitives de l'environnement, qui caractérise entièrement les interactions entre mouvements de la caméra et la primitive considérée. Cette méthode est appliquée aux primitives les plus représentatives : point, droite, cercle, sphère et cylindre. Nous faisons ens...

Boukir, Samia; Chaumette, Franc?ois

1992-01-01

116

Automatic Reconstruction of Personalized Avatars from 3D Face Scans  

OpenAIRE

Abstract We present a simple algorithm for computing a high quality personalized avatar from a single color image and the corresponding depth map which have been captured by Microsoft's Kinect sensor. Due to the low market price of our hardware setup, 3D face scanning becomes feasible for home use. The proposed algorithm combines the advantages of robust non-rigid registration and fitting of a morphable face model. We obtain a high quality reconstruction of the facial geometry and ...

Zollhoefer, Michael; Martinek, Michael; Greiner, Guenther; Stamminger, Marc; Suessmuth, Jochen

2011-01-01

117

Twenty-fold acceleration of 3D projection reconstruction MPI  

OpenAIRE

We experimentally demonstrate a 20-fold improvement in acquisition time in projection reconstruction (PR) magnetic particle imaging (MPI) relative to the state-of-the-art PR MPI imaging results. We achieve this acceleration in our imaging system by introducing an additional Helmholtz electromagnet pair, which creates a slow shift (focus) field. Because of magnetostimulation limits in humans, we show that scan time with three-dimensional (3D) PR MPI is theoretically within the same order of ma...

Konkle, Justin J.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Saritas, Emine Ulku; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Kuan; Conolly, Steven M.

2013-01-01

118

Detection of microcalcifications in breast tomosynthesis reconstructed with multiscale bilateral filtering regularization  

Science.gov (United States)

We are developing a CAD system to assist radiologists in detecting microcalcification clusters (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using as input to the CAD system an enhanced DBT volume that was reconstructed with the iterative simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) regularized by a new multiscale bilateral filtering (MBiF) method. The MBiF method utilizes the multiscale structures of the breast to selectively enhance MCs and preserve mass spiculations while smoothing noise in the DBT images. The CAD system first extracted the enhancement-modulated calcification response (EMCR) in the DBT volume. Detection of the seed points for MCs and individual calcifications were guided by the EMCR. MC candidates were formed by dynamic clustering. FPs were further reduced by analysis of the feature characteristics of the MCs. With IRB approval, two-view DBT of 91 subjects with biopsy-proven MCs were collected. Seventy-eight views from 39 subjects with MCs were used for training and the remaining 52 cases were used for independent testing. For view-based detection, a sensitivity of 85% was achieved at 3.23 FPs/volume. For case-based detection, the same sensitivity was obtained at 1.63 FPs/volume. The results indicate that the new MBiF method is useful in improving the detection accuracy of clustered microcalcifications. An effective CAD system for microcalcification detection in DBT has the potential to eliminate the need for additional mammograms, thereby reducing patient dose and reading time.

Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiyski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun; Sahiner, Berkman; Helvie, Mark

2013-03-01

119

3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images : Master Thesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this project has been to implement a software system, that is able to create a 3-D reconstruction from two or more 2-D photographic images made from different positions. The height is determined from the disparity difference of the images. The general purpose of the system is mapping of planetary surfaces, but other purposes is considered as well. The system performance is measured with respect to the precision and the time consumption.The reconstruction process is divided into four major areas: Acquisition, calibration, matching/reconstruction and presentation. Each of these areas are treated individually. A detailed treatment of various lens distortions is required, in order to correct for these problems. This subject is included in the acquisition part. In the calibration part, the perspective distortion is removed from the images. Most attention has been paid to the matching problem, where various methods have been tested in order to optimize the performance. The match results are used in the reconstruction part to establish a 3-D digital representation and finally, different presentation forms are discussed.

Denver, Troelz

1999-01-01

120

Fast implementations of reconstruction-based scatter compensation in fully 3D SPECT image reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate scatter compensation in SPECT can be performed by modelling the scatter response function during the reconstruction process. This method is called reconstruction-based scatter compensation (RBSC). It has been shown that RBSC has a number of advantages over other methods of compensating for scatter, but using RBSC for fully 3D compensation has resulted in prohibitively long reconstruction times. In this work we propose two new methods that can be used in conjunction with existing methods to achieve marked reductions in RBSC reconstruction times. The first method, coarse-grid scatter modelling, significantly accelerates the scatter model by exploiting the fact that scatter is dominated by low-frequency information. The second method, intermittent RBSC, further accelerates the reconstruction process by limiting the number of iterations during which scatter is modelled. The fast implementations were evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulated experiment of the 3D MCAT phantom with 99mTc tracer, and also using experimentally acquired data with 201Tl tracer. Results indicated that these fast methods can reconstruct, with fully 3D compensation, images very similar to those obtained using standard RBSC methods, and in reconstruction times that are an order of magnitude shorter. Using these methods, fully 3D iterative reconstruction with RBSC can be performed well within the realm of clinically realistic times (under 10 minutes for 64x64x24 image recs (under 10 minutes for 64x64x24 image reconstruction). (author)

121

A 3-D industrial CT reconstruction algorithm to directly reconstruct the characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In traditional 3-D CT reconstruction methods, for the projection procedure is low-pass smoothing, the high-frequency characters are difficult to obtain after the projection data are reconstructed. In addition the design and implementation of three-dimensional filter are relatively harder. A new 3D industrial CT reconstruction algorithm to directly reconstruct the characteristics is put forth. Based on the FDK method and the trait of RADON transform, the feasibility of the novel algorithm is theoretically deduced. Combined with the wavelet, it is deduced to extract the characteristics using the 2-D wavelet transform and to directly reconstruct the characteristics in 3-D CT. The experiments show that the algorithm can preferably stand out the useful information, is of engineering practicability and the design of the filter is relatively simpler.

Zhao Yingliang, E-mail: zhaoyl18@163.co [National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Tai Yuan 030051 (China); Wang Liming; Han Yan [National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Tai Yuan 030051 (China)

2011-01-21

122

A 3-D industrial CT reconstruction algorithm to directly reconstruct the characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In traditional 3-D CT reconstruction methods, for the projection procedure is low-pass smoothing, the high-frequency characters are difficult to obtain after the projection data are reconstructed. In addition the design and implementation of three-dimensional filter are relatively harder. A new 3D industrial CT reconstruction algorithm to directly reconstruct the characteristics is put forth. Based on the FDK method and the trait of RADON transform, the feasibility of the novel algorithm is theoretically deduced. Combined with the wavelet, it is deduced to extract the characteristics using the 2-D wavelet transform and to directly reconstruct the characteristics in 3-D CT. The experiments show that the algorithm can preferably stand out the useful information, is of engineering practicability and the design of the filter is relatively simpler.

123

A new algorithm for 3D reconstruction from support functions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce a new algorithm for reconstructing an unknown shape from a finite number of noisy measurements of its support function. The algorithm, based on a least squares procedure, is very easy to program in standard software such as Matlab and allows, for the first time, good 3D reconstructions to be performed on an ordinary PC. Under mild conditions, theory guarantees that outputs of the algorithm will converge to the input shape as the number of measurements increases. Reconstructions may be obtained without any pre- or post-processing steps and with no restriction on the sets of measurement directions except their number, a limitation dictated only by computing time. In addition we offer a linear program version of the new algorithm that is much faster and better, or at least comparable, in performance at low levels of noise and reasonably small numbers of measurements. Another modification of the algorithm, suitable for use in a ``focus of attention'' scheme, is also described.

Gardner, Richard; Kiderlen, Markus

2009-01-01

124

Dose fractionation theorem in 3-D reconstruction (tomography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is commonly assumed that the large number of projections for single-axis tomography precludes its application to most beam-labile specimens. However, Hegerl and Hoppe have pointed out that the total dose required to achieve statistical significance for each voxel of a computed 3-D reconstruction is the same as that required to obtain a single 2-D image of that isolated voxel, at the same level of statistical significance. Thus a statistically significant 3-D image can be computed from statistically insignificant projections, as along as the total dosage that is distributed among these projections is high enough that it would have resulted in a statistically significant projection, if applied to only one image. We have tested this critical theorem by simulating the tomographic reconstruction of a realistic 3-D model created from an electron micrograph. The simulations verify the basic conclusions of high absorption, signal-dependent noise, varying specimen contrast and missing angular range. Furthermore, the simulations demonstrate that individual projections in the series of fractionated-dose images can be aligned by cross-correlation because they contain significant information derived from the summation of features from different depths in the structure. This latter information is generally not useful for structural interpretation prior to 3-D reconstruction, owing to the complexity of most specimens investigated by single-axis tomography. These results, in combination with dose estimates for imaging single voxels and measurements of radiation damage in the electron microscope, demonstrate that it is feasible to use single-axis tomography with soft X-ray microscopy of frozen-hydrated specimens.

Glaeser, R.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-02-01

125

Reconstruction of hidden 3D shapes using diffuse reflections  

CERN Document Server

We analyze multi-bounce propagation of light in an unknown hidden volume and demonstrate that the reflected light contains sufficient information to recover the 3D structure of the hidden scene. We formulate the forward and inverse theory of secondary and tertiary scattering reflection using ideas from energy front propagation and tomography. We show that using careful choice of approximations, such as Fresnel approximation, greatly simplifies this problem and the inversion can be achieved via a backpropagation process. We provide a theoretical analysis of the invertibility, uniqueness and choices of space-time-angle dimensions using synthetic examples. We show that a 2D streak camera can be used to discover and reconstruct hidden geometry. Using a 1D high speed time of flight camera, we show that our method can be used recover 3D shapes of objects "around the corner".

Gupta, Otkrist; Willwacher, Thomas; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Raskar, Ramesh

2012-01-01

126

3D reconstruction of high-resolution STED microscope images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tackling biological problems often involves the imaging and localization of cellular structures on the nanometer scale. Although optical super-resolution below 100 nm can be readily attained with stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoswitching microscopy methods, attaining an axial resolution lenses in a 4Pi configuration or exceptionally bright photochromic fluorophores. Here, we describe a simple technical solution for 3D nanoscopy of fixed samples: biological specimens are fluorescently labeled, embedded in a polymer resin, cut into thin sections, and then imaged via STED microscopy with nanoscale resolution. This approach allows a 3D image reconstruction with a resolution <80 nm in all directions using available state-of-the art STED microscopes. PMID:18512740

Punge, Annedore; Rizzoli, Silvio O; Jahn, Reinhard; Wildanger, Jan Dominik; Meyer, Lars; Schönle, Andreas; Kastrup, Lars; Hell, Stefan W

2008-09-01

127

Selective-diffusion regularization for enhancement of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to improve mass detection. Detection of microcalcifications is more challenging because of the large breast volume to be searched for subtle signals. The simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) was found to provide good image quality for DBT, but the image noise is amplified with an increasing number of iterations. In this study, the authors developed a selective-diffusion (SD) method for noise regularization with SART to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of microcalcifications in the DBT slices for human or machine detection. Methods: The SD method regularizes SART reconstruction during updating with each projection view. Potential microcalcifications are differentiated from the noisy background by estimating the local gradient information. Different degrees of regularization are applied to the signal or noise classes, such that the microcalcifications will be enhanced while the noise is suppressed. The new SD method was compared to several current methods, including the quadratic Laplacian (QL) method, the total variation (TV) method, and the nonconvex total p-variation (TpV) method for noise regularization with SART. A GE GEN2 prototype DBT system with a stationary digital detector was used for the acquisition of DBT scans at 21 angles in 3 deg. increments over a ±30 deg. range. The reconstruction image quality without regularization and that with the different regularization methodswith the different regularization methods were compared using the DBT scans of an American College of Radiology phantom and a human subject. The CNR and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the line profiles of microcalcifications within the in-focus DBT slices were used as image quality measures. Results: For the comparison of large microcalcifications in the DBT data of the subject, the SD method resulted in comparable CNR to the nonconvex TpV method. Both of them performed better than the other two methods. For subtle microcalcifications, the SD method was superior to other methods in terms of CNR. In both the subject and phantom DBT data, for large microcalcifications, the FWHM of the SD method was comparable to that without regularization, which was wider than that of the TV type methods. For subtle microcalcifications, the SD method had comparable FWHM values to the TV type methods. All three regularization methods were superior to the QL method in terms of FWHM. Conclusions: The SART regularized by the selective-diffusion method enhanced the CNR and preserved the sharpness of microcalcifications. In comparison with three existing regularization methods, the selective-diffusion regularization was superior to the other methods for subtle microcalcifications.

128

3D Reconstruction in Spiral Multislice CT Scans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction & Background: The rapid development of spiral (helical computed tomography (CT has resulted in exciting new applications for CT. One of these applications, three-dimensional (3D CT with volume ren-dering, is now a major area of clinical and academic interest. One of the greatest advantages of spiral CT with 3D volume rendering is that it provides all the necessary information in a single radiologic study (and there-fore at the lowest possible price in cases that previously required two or more studies. Three-dimensional vol-ume rendering generates clinically accurate and immediately available images from the full CT data set with-out extensive editing. It allows the radiologist and clinician to address specific questions concerning patient care by interactively exploring different aspects of the data set. Three-dimensional images integrate a series of axial CT sections into a form that is often easier to interpret than the sections themselves and can be made to appear similar to other more familiar images such as catheter angiograms. The data are organized into a 3D matrix of volume elements (voxels. The screen of the computer monitor is a 2D-surface composed of discrete picture elements (pixels. Presenting what is stored in memory (ie, floating within the monitor on a 2D-screen is a challenge, but it is the very problem that 3D reconstruc-tion software has creatively solved. Voxel selection is usually accomplished by projecting lines (rays through the data set that correspond to the pixel matrix of the desired 2D image. Differences in the images produced with various 3D rendering techniques are the result of variations in how voxels are selected and weighted. In this article, I compare 3D volume rendering of spiral CT data with other rendering techniques (shaded surface display, maximum intensity projection and present a brief history of 3D volume rendering and discuss the im-plementation of this promising technology in terms of strategies for volume data management, selection of rendering parameters, and features of data display. In addition, I present recent research on the accuracy of the technique in specific medical applications and discuss a number of current clinical applications of 3D volume rendering of spiral CT data.

M. Ghafouri

2005-08-01

129

GLIMPSE: Accurate 3D weak lensing reconstructions using sparsity  

CERN Document Server

We present GLIMPSE - Gravitational Lensing Inversion and MaPping with Sparse Estimators - a new algorithm to generate density reconstructions in three dimensions from photometric weak lensing measurements. This is an extension of earlier work in one dimension aimed at applying compressive sensing theory to the inversion of gravitational lensing measurements to recover 3D density maps. Using the assumption that the density can be represented sparsely in our chosen basis - 2D transverse wavelets and 1D line of sight dirac functions - we show that clusters of galaxies can be identified and accurately localised and characterised using this method. Throughout, we use simulated data consistent with the quality currently attainable in large surveys. We present a thorough statistical analysis of the errors and biases in both the redshifts of detected structures and their amplitudes. The GLIMPSE method is able to produce reconstructions at significantly higher resolution than the input data; in this paper we show reco...

Leonard, Adrienne; Starck, Jean-Luc

2013-01-01

130

3D x-ray reconstruction using lightfield imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing Computed Tomography (CT) systems require full 360° rotation projections. Using the principles of lightfield imaging, only 4 projections under ideal conditions can be sufficient when the object is illuminated with multiple-point Xray sources. The concept was presented in a previous work with synthetically sampled data from a synthetic phantom. Application to real data requires precise calibration of the physical set up. This current work presents the calibration procedures along with experimental findings for the reconstruction of a physical 3D phantom consisting of simple geometric shapes. The crucial part of this process is to determine the effective distances of the X-ray paths, which are not possible or very difficult by direct measurements. Instead, they are calculated by tracking the positions of fiducial markers under prescribed source and object movements. Iterative algorithms are used for the reconstruction. Customized backprojection is used to ensure better initial guess for the iterative algorithms to start with.

Saha, Sajib; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew; Pickering, Mark R.

2014-09-01

131

Characterization of masses in digital breast tomosynthesis: Comparison of machine learning in projection views and reconstructed slices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), quasi-three-dimensional (3D) structural information is reconstructed from a small number of 2D projection view (PV) mammograms acquired over a limited angular range. The authors developed preliminary computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) methods for classification of malignant and benign masses and compared the effectiveness of analyzing lesion characteristics in the reconstructed DBT slices and in the PVs. Methods: A data set of MLO view DBT of 99 patients containing 107 masses (56 malignant and 51 benign) was collected at the Massachusetts General Hospital with IRB approval. The DBTs were obtained with a GE prototype system which acquired 11 PVs over a 50 deg. arc. The authors reconstructed the DBTs at 1 mm slice interval using a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique. The region of interest (ROI) containing the mass was marked by a radiologist in the DBT volume and the corresponding ROIs on the PVs were derived based on the imaging geometry. The subsequent processes were fully automated. For classification of masses using the DBT-slice approach, the mass on each slice was segmented by an active contour model initialized with adaptive k-means clustering. A spiculation likelihood map was generated by analysis of the gradient directions around the mass margin and spiculation features were extracted from the map. The rubber band straightening transform (RBST) was applied to a band of pixels around the segmented mass boundary. The RBST image was enhanced by Sobel filtering in the horizontal and vertical directions, from which run-length statistics texture features were extracted. Morphological features including those from the normalized radial length were designed to describe the mass shape. A feature space composed of the spiculation features, texture features, and morphological features extracted from the central slice alone and seven feature spaces obtained by averaging the corresponding features from three to 19 slices centered at the central slice were compared. For classification of masses using the PV approach, a feature extraction process similar to that described above for the DBT approach was performed on the ROIs from the individual PVs. Six feature spaces obtained from the central PV alone and by averaging the corresponding features from three to 11 PVs were formed. In each feature space for either the DBT-slice or the PV approach, a linear discriminant analysis classifier with stepwise feature selection was trained and tested using a two-loop leave-one-case-out resampling procedure. Simplex optimization was used to guide feature selection automatically within the training set in each leave-one-case-out cycle. The performance of the classifiers was evaluated by the area (A{sub z}) under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: The test A{sub z} values from the DBT-slice approach ranged from 0.87{+-}0.03 to 0.93{+-}0.02, while those from the PV approach ranged from 0.78{+-}0.04 to 0.84{+-}0.04. The highest test A{sub z} of 0.93{+-}0.02 from the nine-DBT-slice feature space was significantly (p=0.006) better than the highest test A{sub z} of 0.84{+-}0.04 from the nine-PV feature space. Conclusion: The features of breast lesions extracted from the DBT slices consistently provided higher classification accuracy than those extracted from the PV images.

Chan, Heang-Ping; Wu Yita; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A.; Zhang Yiheng; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Way, Ted [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2010-07-15

132

Digital 3D facial reconstruction of George Washington  

Science.gov (United States)

PRISM is a focal point of interdisciplinary research in geometric modeling, computer graphics and visualization at Arizona State University. Many projects in the last ten years have involved laser scanning, geometric modeling and feature extraction from such data as archaeological vessels, bones, human faces, etc. This paper gives a brief overview of a recently completed project on the 3D reconstruction of George Washington (GW). The project brought together forensic anthropologists, digital artists and computer scientists in the 3D digital reconstruction of GW at 57, 45 and 19 including detailed heads and bodies. Although many other scanning projects such as the Michelangelo project have successfully captured fine details via laser scanning, our project took it a step further, i.e. to predict what that individual (in the sculpture) might have looked like both in later and earlier years, specifically the process to account for reverse aging. Our base data was GWs face mask at Morgan Library and Hudons bust of GW at Mount Vernon, both done when GW was 53. Additionally, we scanned the statue at the Capitol in Richmond, VA; various dentures, and other items. Other measurements came from clothing and even portraits of GW. The digital GWs were then milled in high density foam for a studio to complete the work. These will be unveiled at the opening of the new education center at Mt Vernon in fall 2006.

Razdan, Anshuman; Schwartz, Jeff; Tocheri, Mathew; Hansford, Dianne

2006-02-01

133

3D Reconstruction of Irregular Buildings and Buddha Statues  

Science.gov (United States)

Three-dimensional laser scanning could acquire object's surface data quickly and accurately. However, the post-processing of point cloud is not perfect and could be improved. Based on the study of 3D laser scanning technology, this paper describes the details of solutions to modelling irregular ancient buildings and Buddha statues in Jinshan Temple, which aiming at data acquisition, modelling and texture mapping, etc. In order to modelling irregular ancient buildings effectively, the structure of each building is extracted manually by point cloud and the textures are mapped by the software of 3ds Max. The methods clearly combine 3D laser scanning technology with traditional modelling methods, and greatly improves the efficiency and accuracy of the ancient buildings restored. On the other hand, the main idea of modelling statues is regarded as modelling objects in reverse engineering. The digital model of statues obtained is not just vivid, but also accurate in the field of surveying and mapping. On this basis, a 3D scene of Jinshan Temple is reconstructed, which proves the validity of the solutions.

Zhang, K.; Li, M.-j.

2014-04-01

134

3-D Reconstruction of Medical Image Using Wavelet Transform and Snake Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an important step in 3-D reconstruction, and 3-D reconstruction from medical images is an important application of computer graphics and biomedicine image processing. An improved image segmentation method which is suitable for 3-D reconstruction is presented in this paper. A 3-D reconstruction algorithm is used to reconstruct the 3-D model from medical images. Rough edge is obtained by multi-scale wavelet transform at first. With the rough edge, improved gradient vector flow snake model is used and the object contour in the image is found. In the experiments, we reconstruct 3-D models of kidney, liver and brain putamen. The performances of the experiments indicate that the new algorithm can produce accurate 3-D reconstruction.

Jinyong Cheng

2009-12-01

135

Reconstructing 3D radioactive distribution from 2D gamma camera images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the development of the nuclear industry, the monitoring and measuring of nuclear facilities and radioactive sources are widely needed. An approach to reconstruct radioactive 3D distribution from 2D ? camera images was proposed. The whole process was divided into two parts: restore ? images to perfect pinhole condition and then using restored image to reconstruct 3D distribution, or namely, image restoration and image reconstruction. According to reconstruction results on simulated and experimental images, proposed radioactive 3D distribution reconstruction scheme worked well. It is possible to acquire accurate radioactive 3D position and intensity distribution based on a few ? camera images using statistical reconstruction method. (author)

136

Reconstructing 3D radioactive distribution from 2D gamma camera images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the development of the nuclear industry, the monitoring and measuring of nuclear facilities and radioactive sources are widely needed. An approach to reconstruct radioactive 3D distribution from 2D ? camera images was proposed. The whole process was divided into two parts: restore ? images to perfect pinhole condition and then using restored image to reconstruct 3D distribution, or namely, image restoration and image reconstruction. According to reconstruction results on simulated and experimental images, proposed radioactive 3D distribution reconstruction scheme worked well. It is possible to acquire accurate radioactive 3D position and intensity distribution based on a few ? camera images using statistical reconstruction method. (author)

Xiaojun, Dang, E-mail: dangxj@gmail.com [China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

2013-07-01

137

GLIMPSE: accurate 3D weak lensing reconstructions using sparsity  

Science.gov (United States)

We present GLIMPSE - Gravitational Lensing Inversion and MaPping with Sparse Estimators - a new algorithm to generate density reconstructions in three dimensions from photometric weak lensing measurements. This is an extension of earlier work in one dimension aimed at applying compressive sensing theory to the inversion of gravitational lensing measurements to recover 3D density maps. Using the assumption that the density can be represented sparsely in our chosen basis - 2D transverse wavelets and 1D line-of-sight Dirac functions - we show that clusters of galaxies can be identified and accurately localized and characterized using this method. Throughout, we use simulated data consistent with the quality currently attainable in large surveys. We present a thorough statistical analysis of the errors and biases in both the redshifts of detected structures and their amplitudes. The GLIMPSE method is able to produce reconstructions at significantly higher resolution than the input data; in this paper, we show reconstructions with 6 times finer redshift resolution than the shear data. Considering cluster simulations with 0.05 ? zcl ? 0.75 and 3 × 1013 ? Mvir ? 1015 h-1 M?, we show that the redshift extent of detected peaks is typically 1-2 pixel, or ?z ? 0.07, and that we are able to recover an unbiased estimator of the redshift of a detected cluster by considering many realizations of the noise. We also recover an accurate estimator of the mass, which is largely unbiased when the redshift is known and whose bias is constrained to ?5 per cent in the majority of our simulations when the estimated redshift is taken to be the true redshift. This shows a substantial improvement over earlier 3D inversion methods, which showed redshift smearing with a typical standard deviation of ? ˜ 0.2-0.3, a significant damping of the amplitude of the peaks detected, and a bias in the detected redshift.

Leonard, Adrienne; Lanusse, François; Starck, Jean-Luc

2014-05-01

138

The interactive presentation of 3D information obtained from reconstructed datasets and 3D placement of single histological sections with the 3D portable document format  

OpenAIRE

Interpretation of the results of anatomical and embryological studies relies heavily on proper visualization of complex morphogenetic processes and patterns of gene expression in a three-dimensional (3D) context. However, reconstruction of complete 3D datasets is time consuming and often researchers study only a few sections. To help in understanding the resulting 2D data we developed a program (TRACTS) that places such arbitrary histological sections into a high-resolution 3D model of the de...

Boer, Bouke A.; Soufan, Alexandre T.; Hagoort, Jaco; Mohun, Timothy J.; Den Hoff, Maurice J. B.; Hasman, Arie; Voorbraak, Frans P. J. M.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Ruijter, Jan M.

2011-01-01

139

3D Lunar Terrain Reconstruction from Apollo Images  

Science.gov (United States)

Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models is becoming increasingly important as NASA plans manned missions to return to the Moon in the next decade. This paper describes a 3D surface reconstruction system called the Ames Stereo Pipeline that is designed to produce such models automatically by processing orbital stereo imagery. We discuss two important core aspects of this system: (1) refinement of satellite station positions and pose estimates through least squares bundle adjustment; and (2) a stochastic plane fitting algorithm that generalizes the Lucas-Kanade method for optimal matching between stereo pair images.. These techniques allow us to automatically produce seamless, highly accurate digital elevation models from multiple stereo image pairs while significantly reducing the influence of image noise. Our technique is demonstrated on a set of 71 high resolution scanned images from the Apollo 15 mission

Broxton, Michael J.; Nefian, Ara V.; Moratto, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Lundy, Michael; Segal, Alkeksandr V.

2009-01-01

140

Rapid reconstruction of 3D structure of fibrous media  

CERN Document Server

Characterization of transport properties of porous media is increasingly relying on computational methods that require reconstruction of the media structure. We present a simple method of constructing the 3D surface of fibrous porous media - the gas diffusion layer (GDL) used as the porous electrode in PEM fuel cells. The method is based on extending the depth-of-field on the whole attainable thickness of the GDL. A series of images of the GDL sample is recorded by the sequential movement of the sample with respect to the microscope focus. Different layers of the surface of the sample appear in focus in the different images in the series. The indexed series of the in-focus portions of the sample surface is combined into one sharp 2D image and interpolated into the 3D surface representing the surface of an original GDL sample. The method uses a conventional upright stage microscope that is operated manually, the inexpensive Helicon Focus software, and the open source MeshLab software. The accuracy of the recon...

Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Djilali, Ned

2009-01-01

141

Signal-known exactly detection performance in tomosynthesis: does volume visualization help human observers?  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomosynthesis produces three-dimensional images of an object, with non-isotropic resolution. Tomosynthesis images are typically read by human observers in a stack viewing mode, displaying planes through the tomosynthesis volume. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether human performance in a signal-known exactly (SKE) detection task improves when the entire tomosynthesis volume is available to the observer, compared to displaying a single plane through the signal center. The goal of this study was to improve understanding of human performance in order to aid development of observer models for tomosynthesis. Human performance was measured using sequential 2-alternative forced choice experiments. In each trial, the observer was first asked to select the signal-present ROI based on a single 2D tomosynthesis plane. Then, scrolling was enabled and the observer was able to select the signal-present ROI, based on knowledge of the entire volume. The number of correct decisions for 2D and 3D viewing was recorded, and the number of trials was recorded for which a score increase or decrease occured between 2D and 3D readings. Test images consisted of tomosynthesis reconstructions of simulated breast tissue, where breast tissue was modeled as binarized power-law noise. Tomosynthesis reconstructions of designer nodules of r = 250?m, r = 1mm, r = 4mm were added to the structured backgrounds. For each signal size, observers scored 256 trials with signal amplitude set so that the proportion of correct answers in the single slice was 90%. For two observers, a slight increase in performance was found when adjacent tomosynthesis slices were displayed, for the two larger signals. Statistical significance could not be established. The number of decision changes was analyzed for each observer. For these two observers, the number of decision changes that led to a score increase or decrease were outside the 95% confidence interval of the decision change being random, indicating that for these two observers, displaying the tomosynthesis stack did boost performance. For the other two observers, decision changes that increased or decreased the score were within the 95% confidence interval of guessing, indicating that the decision changes were due to a satisfaction of search effect. However the results also indicate that the performance increase is small and the majority of information appears to be contained in the tomosynthesis slice that corresponds to the center of the lesions.

Reiser, I.; Nishikawa, R. M.

2012-02-01

142

Sensing of complex buildings and reconstruction into photo-realistic 3D models  

OpenAIRE

The 3D reconstruction of indoor and outdoor environments has received an interest only recently, as companies began to recognize that using reconstructed models is a way to generate revenue through location-based services and advertisements. A great amount of research has been done in the field of 3D reconstruction, and one of the latest and most promising applications is Kinect Fusion, which was developed by Microsoft Research. Its strong points are the real-time intuitive 3D reconstructio...

Heredia Soriano, Fj

2012-01-01

143

Reconstruction, Processing and Display of 3D-Images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last few years a number of methods have been developed which can produce true 3D images, volumes of density values. We review two of these techniques (confocal microscopy and X-ray tomography) which were used in the reconstruction of some of our images. The other images came from transmission electron microscopes, gammacameras and magnetic resonance scanners. A new algorithm is suggested which uses projection onto convex sets to improve the depth resolution in the microscopy case. Since we use a TV-monitor as display device we have to project 3D volumes to 2D images. We use the following type of projections: reprojections, range images, colorcoded depth and shaded surface displays. Shaded surface displays use the surface gradient to compute the gray value in the projection. We describe how this gradient can be computed from the range image and from the original density volume. Normally we compute a whole series of projections where the volume is rotated some degrees between two projections. In a separate display session we can display these images in stereo and motion. We describe how noise reduction filters, gray value transformations, geometric manipulations, gradient filters, texture filters and binary techniques can be used to remove uninteresting points from the volume. Finally, a filter design strategy is developed which is based on the optimal basis function approach by Hummel. We show that for a large class of patterns, in images of arbitrary dimensionsatterns, in images of arbitrary dimensions, the optimal basis functions are rotation-invariant operators as introduced by Danielsson in the 2D case. We also describe how the orientation of a pattern can be computed from its feature vector. (With 107 refs.) (author)

144

3D reconstruction method based on time-division multiplexing using multiple depth cameras  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a 3D reconstruction method using multiple depth cameras. Since the depth camera acquires the depth information from a single viewpoint, it's inadequate for 3D reconstruction. In order to solve this problem, we used multiple depth cameras. For 3D scene reconstruction, the depth information is acquired from different viewpoints with multiple depth cameras. However, when using multiple depth cameras, it's difficult to acquire accurate depth information because of interference among depth cameras. To solve this problem, in this research, we propose Time-division multiplexing method. The depth information was acquired from different cameras sequentially. After acquiring the depth images, we extracted features using Fast Point Feature Histogram (FPFH) descriptor. Then, we performed 3D registration with Sample Consensus Initial Alignment (SAC-IA). We reconstructed 3D human bodies with our system and measured body sizes for evaluating the accuracy of 3D reconstruction.

Kang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Kwang-Hoon

2014-06-01

145

Tomo3D 2.0 - Exploitation of Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX) for 3D reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomo3D is a program for fast tomographic reconstruction on multicore computers. Its high speed stems from code optimization, vectorization with Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE), multithreading and optimization of disk access. Recently, Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX) have been introduced in the x86 processor architecture. Compared to SSE, AVX double the number of simultaneous operations, thus pointing to a potential twofold gain in speed. However, in practice, achieving this potential is extremely difficult. Here, we provide a technical description and an assessment of the optimizations included in Tomo3D to take advantage of AVX instructions. Tomo3D 2.0 allows huge reconstructions to be calculated in standard computers in a matter of minutes. Thus, it will be a valuable tool for electron tomography studies with increasing resolution needs. PMID:25528570

Agulleiro, Jose-Ignacio; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus

2015-02-01

146

Surface Reconstruction from Sparse and Arbitrarily Oriented Contours in Freehand 3D Ultrasound  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 3D reconstruction for freehand 3D ultrasound is a challenging issue because the recorded B-scans are not only sparse, but also non-parallel (actually they may arbitrarily orient in 3D space and may intersect each other. Conventional volume reconstruction methods can’t reconstruct sparse data efficiently while not introducing geometrical artifacts and conventional surface reconstruction methods can’t reconstruct surfaces from contours that are arbitrarily oriented in 3D space. We developed a new surface reconstruction method for freehand 3D ultrasound based on variational implicit function which is presented by Greg Turk for shape transformation. In the new method, we first constructed on- and off-surface constraints from the segmented contours of all recorded B-scans and then used a variational interpolation technique to get a single implicit function in 3D. Finally, the implicit function was evaluated to extract the zero-valued surface as final reconstruction result. Two experiments was conducted to assess our variational surface reconstruction method and the experiment results have shown that the new method is capable of reconstructing surface smoothly from sparse contours which can be arbitrarily oriented in 3D space.

Shuangcheng Deng

147

Surface Reconstruction from Sparse & Arbitrarily Oriented Contours in Freehand 3D Ultrasound  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 3D reconstruction for freehand 3D ultrasound is a challenging issue because the recorded B-scans are not only sparse, but also non-parallel (actually they may arbitrarily oriented in 3D space and may intersect each other. Conventional volume reconstruction methods can’t reconstruct sparse data efficiently while not introducing geometrical artifacts, and conventional surface reconstruction methods can’t reconstruct surfaces from contours that are arbitrarily oriented in 3D space. We developed a new surface reconstruction method for freehand 3D ultrasound based on variational implicit function which is presented by Greg Turk for shape transformation. In the new method, we first constructed on- & off-surface constraints from the segmented contours of all recorded B-scans, then used a variational interpolation technique to get a single implicit function in 3D. Finally, the implicit function was evaluated to extract the zero-valued surface as final reconstruction result. Two experiment was conducted to assess our variational surface reconstruction method, and the experiment results have shown that the new method is capable of reconstructing surface smoothly from sparse contours which can be arbitrarily oriented in 3D space.

Shuangcheng Deng

2013-05-01

148

Investigation on reconstruction methods applied to 3D terahertz computed tomography.  

Science.gov (United States)

3D terahertz computed tomography has been performed using a monochromatic millimeter wave imaging system coupled with an infrared temperature sensor. Three different reconstruction methods (standard back-projection algorithm and two iterative analysis) have been compared in order to reconstruct large size 3D objects. The quality (intensity, contrast and geometric preservation) of reconstructed cross-sectional images has been discussed together with the optimization of the number of projections. Final demonstration to real-life 3D objects has been processed to illustrate the potential of the reconstruction methods for applied terahertz tomography. PMID:21445145

Recur, B; Younus, A; Salort, S; Mounaix, P; Chassagne, B; Desbarats, P; Caumes, J-P; Abraham, E

2011-03-14

149

Surface Reconstruction by Integrating 3D and 2D data of Multiple Views  

OpenAIRE

Surface representation is needed for almost all modeling and visualization applications, but unfortunately, 3D data from a passive vision system are often insufficient for a traditional surface reconstruction technique that is designed for densely scanned 3D point data. In this paper, we develop a new method for surface reconstruction by combining both 3D data and 2D image informations. The silhouette information extracted from 2D images can also be integrated as an option if it is available....

Lhuillier, Maxime; Quan, Long

2003-01-01

150

Fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction in SPECT: proof of concept and is it worthwhile?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with parallel hole collimation, image reconstruction is usually performed as a set of 2D analytical or iterative reconstructions. This approach ignores the 3D nature of scatter and detector response function that affect the detected signal. To deal with the 3D nature of the image formation process, iterative reconstruction can be used by considering a 3D projector modeling the 3D spread of photons. This has already been studied using approximate analytical models for the 3D projector. In this paper, we investigate the value of using accurate Monte Carlo simulations to determine the 3D projector including all physical effects affecting the imaging process (attenuation, scatter, camera point spread function) used in a fully 3D Monte Carlo (F3DMC) reconstruction approach. Given the 3D projector, the reconstruction problem is solved using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm. To validate the concept, 2 small datasets were simulated and 4 reconstruction strategies were compared: filtered backprojection, MLEM without attenuation correction, MLEM including all corrections with approximate analytical models (MLEMC) and F3DMC. Results suggest that F3DMC multiplies imaging sensitivity by about 10{sup 3}, increases signal-to-noise ratio by 25 to 70% compared to MLEMC and improves spatial resolution. The practical feasibility of the approach on real data sets is discussed. Index Terms - Image reconstruction, Monte Carlo simulations, SPECT. (authors)

Buvat, Irene [U494 INSERM, CHU Pitie-Salpetriere, 91 Boulevard de l' Hopital, 75634 Paris (France); Lazaro, Delphine; Breton, Vincent [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite de Clermont-Ferrand, 24 Avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere (France)

2003-07-01

151

Fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction in SPECT: proof of concept and is it worthwhile?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with parallel hole collimation, image reconstruction is usually performed as a set of 2D analytical or iterative reconstructions. This approach ignores the 3D nature of scatter and detector response function that affect the detected signal. To deal with the 3D nature of the image formation process, iterative reconstruction can be used by considering a 3D projector modeling the 3D spread of photons. This has already been studied using approximate analytical models for the 3D projector. In this paper, we investigate the value of using accurate Monte Carlo simulations to determine the 3D projector including all physical effects affecting the imaging process (attenuation, scatter, camera point spread function) used in a fully 3D Monte Carlo (F3DMC) reconstruction approach. Given the 3D projector, the reconstruction problem is solved using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm. To validate the concept, 2 small datasets were simulated and 4 reconstruction strategies were compared: filtered backprojection, MLEM without attenuation correction, MLEM including all corrections with approximate analytical models (MLEMC) and F3DMC. Results suggest that F3DMC multiplies imaging sensitivity by about 103, increases signal-to-noise ratio by 25 to 70% compared to MLEMC and improves spatial resolution. The practical feasibility of the approach on real data sets is discussed. Index Terms - Image ra sets is discussed. Index Terms - Image reconstruction, Monte Carlo simulations, SPECT. (authors)

152

Investigation on reconstruction methods applied to 3D terahertz computed tomography  

OpenAIRE

3D terahertz computed tomography has been performed using a monochromatic millimeter wave imaging system coupled with an infrared temperature sensor. Three different reconstruction methods (standard back-projection algorithm and two iterative analysis) have been compared in order to reconstruct large size 3D objects. The quality (intensity, contrast and geometric preservation) of reconstructed cross-sectional images has been discussed together with the optimization of the number of projection...

Recur, Benoi?t; Younus, A.; Salort, S.; Mounaix, Patrick; Chassagne, B.; Desbarats, P.; Caumes, J. -p; Abraham, Emmanuel

2011-01-01

153

Quantifying Uncertainties for Prostate Image-Guided Radiotherapy: A 3D Organ Reconstruction and Registration Method  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to present a method for volumetric reconstruction, registration and margin assignation applicable to both conventional CT scans and on board CT imaging. This method does not depend on the shape of the organs, the bony anatomy or the use of markers, and we apply it to prostate and bladder. 3D reconstructions are performed by means of spline surfaces and the 3D reconstructed surfaces are registered to a planning surface, using a multidimensional alignmen...

Gual Arnau, Ximo; Maso?, Rube?n; Lliso, Franc?oise; Lo?pez Tarjuelo, Juan

2009-01-01

154

Regularization approach for tomosynthesis X-ray inspection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray inspection is intended to be used as an escalation technique for inspection of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) in aerospace applications, especially in case of unclear indications from ultrasonic or other NDT modalities. Due to their large dimensions, most aerospace components cannot be scanned by conventional computed tomography. In such cases, X-ray Laminography may be applied, allowing a pseudo 3D slice-by-slice reconstruction of the sample with Tomosynthesis. However, due to the limited angle acquisition geometry, reconstruction artifacts arise, especially at surfaces parallel to the imaging plane. To regularize the Tomosynthesis approach, we propose an additional prescan of the object to detect outer sample surfaces. We recommend the use of contrasted markers which are temporarily attached to the sample surfaces. The depth position of the markers is then derived from that prescan. As long as the sample surface remains simple, few markers are required to fit the respective object surfaces. The knowledge about this surface may then be used to regularize the final Tomosynthesis reconstruction, performed with markerless projections. Eventually, it can also serve as prior information for an ART reconstruction or to register a CAD model of the sample. The presented work is carried out within the European FP7 project QUICOM. We demonstrate the proposed approach within a simulation study applying an acquisition geometry suited for CFRP part inspection. A practical verification of the approach is planned later in the project

155

3D Reconstruction and Visualization of Volume Data in Electrical Capacitance Tomography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT is a non-invasive imaging technique that aims at visualization the permittivity distribution of dielectric materials based on the measured capacitances. In this paper, the 3D finite element models of a direct 3D ECT sensor with or without dielectric spheres inside the sensor are set up by using finite element modeling. The sensitivity analysis of the sensor is carried out by means of electric field intensity. A Landweber iteration method with non-zero threshold is presented to reconstruct 3D permittivity distributions directly. 3D visualization of the reconstructed result (volume data is achieved by iso-surface. 3D images reconstructed and error analysis show that the Landweber iteration method with non-zero threshold has much better reconstruction performance compared with the classic Landweber iteration method.

Hua Yan

2013-10-01

156

Permeability prediction from thin sections: 3D reconstruction and Lattice-Boltzmann flow simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results and methodology for predicting permeability from thin sections. The method consists of two key components-reconstruction of 3D porous media from 2D thin sections, and 3D flow simulation using the Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) technique. We construct 3D porous media using sequential indicator simulation (SIS), a geostatistical method, with conditional data and input statistical parameters from thin sections. Permeability is then estimated through flow simulation on the reconstructed porous media. The LB flow simulation successfully handles very complex reconstructed 3D pore geometries. Computed permeabilities from seven thin section samples show good agreement with laboratory measurements over a wide range of permeability. We compare our method to one that uses only thin sections without 3D reconstruction. The comparison shows that our method gives better prediction of permeability, and is less sensitive to statistical errors from discrepancy between thin sections and core samples.

Keehm, Youngseuk; Mukerji, Tapan; Nur, Amos

2004-02-01

157

Fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction in SPECT: a feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with parallel hole collimation, image reconstruction is usually performed as a set of bidimensional (2D) analytical or iterative reconstructions. This approach ignores the tridimensional (3D) nature of scatter and detector response function that affects the detected signal. To deal with the 3D nature of the image formation process, iterative reconstruction can be used by considering a 3D projector modelling the 3D spread of photons. In this paper, we investigate the value of using accurate Monte Carlo simulations to determine the 3D projector used in a fully 3D Monte Carlo (F3DMC) reconstruction approach. Given the 3D projector modelling all physical effects affecting the imaging process, the reconstruction problem is solved using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm. To validate the concept, three data sets were simulated and F3DMC was compared with two other 3D reconstruction strategies using analytical corrections for attenuation, scatter and camera point spread function. Results suggest that F3DMC improves spatial resolution, relative and absolute quantitation and signal-to-noise ratio. The practical feasibility of the approach on real data sets is discussed.

Lazaro, D [UMR 678 INSERM, UPMR, CHU Pitie-Salpetriere, 91 Boulevard de l' Hopital, 75634 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bitar, Z El [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 Avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex 1 (France); Breton, V [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 Avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex 1 (France); Hill, D [ISIMA/LIMOS UMR 6158, Computer Science and Modelling Laboratory, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 Avenue des Landais, BP 10125, 63173 Aubiere Cedex (France); Buvat, I [UMR 678 INSERM, UPMR, CHU Pitie-Salpetriere, 91 Boulevard de l' Hopital, 75634 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

2005-08-21

158

Fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction in SPECT: a feasibility study  

Science.gov (United States)

In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with parallel hole collimation, image reconstruction is usually performed as a set of bidimensional (2D) analytical or iterative reconstructions. This approach ignores the tridimensional (3D) nature of scatter and detector response function that affects the detected signal. To deal with the 3D nature of the image formation process, iterative reconstruction can be used by considering a 3D projector modelling the 3D spread of photons. In this paper, we investigate the value of using accurate Monte Carlo simulations to determine the 3D projector used in a fully 3D Monte Carlo (F3DMC) reconstruction approach. Given the 3D projector modelling all physical effects affecting the imaging process, the reconstruction problem is solved using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm. To validate the concept, three data sets were simulated and F3DMC was compared with two other 3D reconstruction strategies using analytical corrections for attenuation, scatter and camera point spread function. Results suggest that F3DMC improves spatial resolution, relative and absolute quantitation and signal-to-noise ratio. The practical feasibility of the approach on real data sets is discussed.

Lazaro, D.; El Bitar, Z.; Breton, V.; Hill, D.; Buvat, I.

2005-08-01

159

A methodology for testing for statistically significant differences between fully 3D PET reconstruction algorithms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a practical methodology for evaluating 3D PET reconstruction methods. It includes generation of random samples from a statistically described ensemble of 3D images resembling those to which PET would be applied in a medical situation, generation of corresponding projection data with noise and detector point spread function simulating those of a 3D PET scanner, assignment of figures of merit appropriate for the intended medical applications, optimization of the reconstruction algorithms on a training set of data, and statistical testing of the validity of hypotheses that say that two reconstruction algorithms perform equally well (from the point of view of a particular figure of merit) as compared to the alternative hypotheses that say that one of the algorithms outperforms the other. Although the methodology was developed with the 3D PET in mind, it can be used, with minor changes, for other 3D data collection methods, such as fully 3D CT or SPECT. (Author)

160

3-D Reconstruction From 2-D Radiographic Images and Its Application to Clinical Veterinary Medicine  

Science.gov (United States)

3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.

Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi

161

3D Reconstruction of the Operating Field for Image Overlay in 3D-Endoscopic Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Building a 3D model of the operating field is the first stage to access the registration of pre-operative surface models in per-operative context. We propose a method to learn the 3D model of the organs observed by a stereoscopic endoscope. This method is general and requires no a priori knowledge of the position of the instruments, whether robotized or manually-controlled, present in the field of view. The result of the learning process allows the removal of the instruments from the surgeon'...

Mourgues, Fabien; Devernay, Fre?de?ric; Coste-manie?re, E?ve

2001-01-01

162

Enhanced imaging colonoscopy facilitates dense motion-based 3D reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a novel approach for estimating a dense 3D model of neoplasia in colonoscopy using enhanced imaging endoscopy modalities. Estimating a dense 3D model of neoplasia is important to make 3D measurements and to classify the superficial lesions in standard frameworks such as the Paris classification. However, it is challenging to obtain decent dense 3D models using computer vision techniques such as Structure-from-Motion due to the lack of texture in conventional (white light) colonoscopy. Therefore, we propose to use enhanced imaging endoscopy modalities such as Narrow Band Imaging and chromoendoscopy to facilitate the 3D reconstruction process. Thanks to the use of these enhanced endoscopy techniques, visualization is improved, resulting in more reliable feature tracks and 3D reconstruction results. We first build a sparse 3D model of neoplasia using Structure-from-Motion from enhanced endoscopy imagery. Then, the sparse reconstruction is densified using a Multi-View Stereo approach, and finally the dense 3D point cloud is transformed into a mesh by means of Poisson surface reconstruction. The obtained dense 3D models facilitate classification of neoplasia in the Paris classification, in which the 3D size and the shape of the neoplasia play a major role in the diagnosis. PMID:24111442

Alcantarilla, Pablo F; Bartoli, Adrien; Chadebecq, Francois; Tilmant, Christophe; Lepilliez, Vincent

2013-01-01

163

Reconstruction of the 3D representative volume element from the generalized two-point correlation function  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the first application of three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation microstructure reconstruction implemented for a representative volume element (RVE) to facilitate the microstructure engineering of materials. This has been accomplished by developing a new methodology for reconstructing 3D microstructure using experimental two-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction data. The proposed methodology is based on the analytical representation of the generalized form of the two-point correlation function—the distance-disorientation function (DDF). Microstructure reconstruction is accomplished by extending the simulated annealing techniques to perform three term reconstruction with a minimization of the DDF. The new 3D microstructure reconstruction algorithm is employed to determine the 3D RVE containing all of the relevant microstructure information for accurately computing the mechanical response of solids, especially when local microstructural variations influence the global response of the material as in the case of fracture initiation.

Staraselski, Y.; Brahme, A.; Mishra, R. K.; Inal, K.

2015-01-01

164

Geometric Abstraction from Noisy Image-Based 3D Reconstructions  

OpenAIRE

Creating geometric abstracted models from image-based scene reconstructions is difficult due to noise and irregularities in the reconstructed model. In this paper, we present a geometric modeling method for noisy reconstructions dominated by planar horizontal and orthogonal vertical structures. We partition the scene into horizontal slices and create an inside/outside labeling represented by a floor plan for each slice by solving an energy minimization problem. Consecutively...

Holzmann, Thomas; Hoppe, Christof; Kluckner, Stefan; Bischof, Horst

2014-01-01

165

3D Reconstruction in Spiral Multislice CT Scans  

OpenAIRE

Introduction & Background: The rapid development of spiral (helical) computed tomography (CT) has resulted in exciting new applications for CT. One of these applications, three-dimensional (3D) CT with volume ren-dering, is now a major area of clinical and academic interest. One of the greatest advantages of spiral CT with 3D volume rendering is that it provides all the necessary information in a single radiologic study (and there-fore at the lowest possible price) in cases that previousl...

Ghafouri, M.

2005-01-01

166

Photon-counting passive 3D image sensing for reconstruction and recognition of partially occluded objects.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we discuss the reconstruction and the recognition of partially occluded objects using photon counting integral imaging (II). Irradiance scenes are numerically reconstructed for the reference target in three-dimensional (3D) space. Photon counting scenes are estimated for unknown input objects using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of Poisson parameter. We propose nonlinear matched filtering in 3D space to recognize partially occluded targets. The recognition performance is substantially improved from the nonlinear matched filtering of elemental images without 3D reconstruction. The discrimination capability is analyzed in terms of Fisher ratio (FR) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. PMID:19550906

Yeom, Seokwon; Javidi, Bahram; Lee, Chae-Wook; Watson, Edward

2007-11-26

167

Uncalibrated 1D Projective Camera and 3D Affine Reconstruction of Lines  

OpenAIRE

We describe a linear algorithm to recover 3D affine shape/motion from line correspondences over three views with uncalibrated affine cameras. The key idea is the introduction of a one-dimensional projective camera. This converts the 3D affine reconstruction of "lines" into 2D projective reconstruction of "points". Using the full tensorial representation of three uncalibrated 1D views, we prove that the 3D affine reconstruction of lines from minimal data is unique up to a re-ordering of the vi...

Quan, Long

1997-01-01

168

APPROXIMATION OF SURFACES IN QUANTITATIVE 3-D RECONSTRUCTIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

In serial section reconstructions a series of planar profiles are taken representing curves on the surface of the structure to be reconstructed. or a number of quantitative serial section methods, approximation of a surface is done by the formation of tiles between points of adja...

169

The clinical application of 3D CT reconstruction technique in bone tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of 3D CT reconstruction technique in bone tumor. Methods: In total 20 cases with bone tumor were scanned in 2-3 mm collimation and at pitch of 1 using Toshiba Xpress/SX CT scanner. After the scan was completed, 3D reconstruction including SSD and MPR was performed at Sun Sparc station 20 workstation with software Toshiba Xtension 2.01. Results: Quality 3D images were obtained in all 20 cases. The stereoscopy of the tumor and surrounding anatomical structure was well demonstrated in 3D images. Conclusion: Besides axial images, the 3D CT reconstruction including SSD and MPR provides extra information, and helps the qualitative diagnosis of bone tumor. (authors)

170

RECONSTRUCCIÓN DE OBJETO 3D A PARTIR DE IMÁGENES CALIBRADAS 3D OBJECT RECONSTRUCTION WITH CALIBRATED IMAGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de reconstrucción de objeto 3D, a partir de una colección de vistas. El sistema se compone de dos módulos principales. El primero realiza el procesamiento de imagen, cuyo objetivo es determinar el mapa de profundidad en un par de vistas, donde cada par de vistas sucesivas sigue una secuencia de fases: detección de puntos de interés, correspondencia de puntos y reconstrucción de puntos; en el proceso de reconstrucción se determinan los parámetros que describen el movimiento (matriz de rotación R y el vector de traslación T entre las dos vistas. Esta secuencia de pasos se repite para todos los pares de vista sucesivas del conjunto. El segundo módulo tiene como objetivo crear el modelo 3D del objeto, para lo cual debe determinar el mapa total de todos los puntos 3D generados; en cada iteración del módulo anterior, una vez obtenido el mapa de profundidad total, genera la malla 3D, aplicando el método de triangulación de Delaunay [28]. Los resultados obtenidos del proceso de reconstrucción son modelados en un ambiente virtual VRML para obtener una visualización más realista del objeto.The system is composed of two main modules. The first one, carries out the image prosecution, whose objective is to determine the depth map of a pair of views where each pair of successive views continues a sequence of phases: interest points detection, points correspondence and points reconstruction; in the reconstruction process, is determined the parameters that describe the movement (rotation matrix R and the translation vector T between the two views. This an sequence of steps is repeated for all the peers of successive views of the set. The second module has as objective to create the 3D model of the object, for it should determine the total map of all the 3D points generated, by each iteration of the previous module, once obtained the map of total depth generates the 3D netting, applying the triangulation method of Delaunay [28]. The results obtained of the reconstruction process are shaped in a VRML virtual environment, to obtain a viewing more realist of the object.

Natividad Grandón-Pastén

2007-08-01

171

Reconstructing Plant Architecture from 3D Laser scanner data  

OpenAIRE

Automatic acquisition of plant phenotypes constitutes a major bottleneck in the construction of quantitative models of plant development. This issue needs to be addressed to build accurate models of plant, useful for instance in agronomic and forestry applications. In this work, we present a method for reconstructing plant architecture from laser scanner data. A dedicated evaluation procedure based on a detailed comparison between expert and automatic reconstruction was developed to quantify ...

Preuksakarn, Chakkrit; Boudon, Fre?de?ric; Ferraro, Pascal; Durand, Jean-baptiste; Nikinmaa, Ekko; Godin, Christophe

2010-01-01

172

Multi-view 3D circular target reconstruction with uncertainty analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents an algorithm for reconstruction of 3D circle from its apparition in n images. It supposes that camera poses are known up to an uncertainty. They will be considered as observations and will be refined during the reconstruction process. First, circle apparitions will be estimated in every individual image from a set of 2D points using a constrained optimization. Uncertainty of 2D points are propagated in 2D ellipse estimation and leads to covariance matrix of ellipse parameters. In 3D reconstruction process ellipse and camera pose parameters are considered as observations with known covariances. A minimal parametrization of 3D circle enables to model the projection of circle in image without any constraint. The reconstruction is performed by minimizing the length of observation residuals vector in a non linear Gauss-Helmert model. The output consists in parameters of the corresponding circle in 3D and their covariances. The results are presented on simulated data.

Soheilian, B.; Brédif, M.

2014-08-01

173

A storage method of 3D CT image reconstruction system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to realize the miniaturization of three-dimensional cone-beam CT image reconstruction system to small-scale, A three-dimensional image reconstruction system based on FPGA is established. The memory bandwidth requirement of the FDK reconstruction algorithms and the data throughput of the storage system which is composed of SDRAM, SRAM and the internal RAM resource of FPGA is introduced. First, based on filtering algorithms and back projection algorithms the memory bandwidth requirement of a three-dimensional cone-beam CT image reconstruction system is studied. Then, a data access scheme is presented, which uses a SDRAM chip as its main storage a SRAM chip as its external cache and the SRAM resources of FPGA as its internal cache.Then, the process of the implementation and the testing methods of the storage scheme is introduced. Finally, data access capacity of the three-dimensional image reconstruction system was tested. Experimental results indicate that: the storage system can achieve a sequential access data rate of 151.9MB/s and a random access data rate of 100MB/s. It can satisfy the memory bandwidth requirement of a small-scale three-dimensional image reconstruction system. (authors)

174

High-resolution reconstruction for 3D SPECT  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we have developed a new method for SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) image reconstruction, which has shown the potential to provide higher resolution results than any other conventional methods using the same projection data. Unlike the conventional FBP- (filtered backprojection) and EM- (expectation maximization) type algorithms, we utilize as much system response information as we can during the reconstruction process. This information can be pre-measured during the calibration process and stored in the computer. By selecting different sampling schemes for the point response measurement, different system kernel matrices are obtained. Reconstruction utilizing these kernels generates a set of reconstructed images of the same source. Based on these reconstructed images and their corresponding sampling schemes, we are able to achieve a high resolution final image that best represents the object. Because a uniform attenuation, resolution variation and some other effects are included during the formation of the system kernel matrices, the reconstruction from the acquired projection data also compensates for all these effects correctly.

Li, Tianfang; Wen, Junhai; Lu, Hongbing; Li, Xiang; Liang, Zhengrong

2003-05-01

175

Feasibility and value of fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accuracy of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) images is degraded by physical effects, namely photon attenuation, Compton scatter and spatially varying collimator response. The 3D nature of these effects is usually neglected by the methods used to correct for these effects. To deal with the 3D nature of the problem, a 3D projector modeling the spread of photons in 3D can be used in iterative tomographic reconstruction. The 3D projector can be estimated analytically with some approximations, or using precise Monte Carlo simulations. This latter approach has not been applied to fully 3D reconstruction yet due to impractical storage and computation time. The goal of this paper was to determine the gain to be expected from fully 3D Monte Carlo (F3DMC) modeling of the projector in iterative reconstruction, compared to conventional 2D and 3D reconstruction methods. As a proof-of-concept, two small datasets were considered. The projections of the two phantoms were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation code GATE, as well as the corresponding projector, by taking into account all physical effects (attenuation, scatter, camera point spread function) affecting the imaging process. F3DMC was implemented by using this 3D projector in a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative reconstruction. To assess the value of F3DMC, data were reconstructed using 4 methods: filtered backprojection (FBP), MLEM without attenuation correction (MLEM), MLEM with attenuation correction, Jaszczak scatter correction and 3D correction for depth-dependent spatial resolution using an analytical model (MLEMC) and F3DMC. Our results suggest that F3DMC improves mainly imaging sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR): sensitivity is multiplied by about 10{sup 3} and SNR is increased by 20 to 70% compared to MLEMC. Computation of a more robust projector and application of the method on more realistic datasets are currently under investigation. (authors)

Lazaro, Delphine; Breton, Vincent [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite de Clermont-Ferrand, 24 Avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere (France); Buvat, Irene [U494 INSERM, CHU Pitie-Salpetriere, 91 Boulevard de l' Hopital, 75634 Paris (France)

2003-07-01

176

3D Reconstruction of Locust Based on Improved Chan-vese Model for Biological Education  

OpenAIRE

The 3D reconstruction of infected locust is very important for the biological popular science education. Especially, the vector contour extraction of infected locust slice image is the key step in aspects of illuminating the interactive process between the locust organ and bio-pesticide. Some classic segmentation algorithms aren’t suitable for the locust image with complex topology and minimal gray scale difference which will make the 3D reconstruction incomplete, inaccurate and non-vectori...

Qin Ma; Dehai Zhu; Shuli Mei

2013-01-01

177

Renal Tumor Cryoablation Planning. The Efficiency of Simulation on Reconstructed 3D CT Scan  

OpenAIRE

Introduction & Objective: Nephron-sparing surgical techniques risks are related to tumor relationships with adjacent anatomic structures. Complexity of the renal anatomy drives the interest to develop tools for 3D reconstruction and surgery simulation. The aim of the article was to assess the simulation on reconstructed 3D CT scan used for planning the cryoablation. Material & Method: A prospective randomized study was performed between Jan. 2007 and July 2009 on 27 patients who underwent ret...

Lucan, Ciprian Valerian

2010-01-01

178

Estimation of solar prominence magnetic fields based on the reconstructed 3D trajectories of prominence knots  

OpenAIRE

We present an estimation of the lower limits of local magnetic fields in quiescent, activated, and active (surges) promineces, based on reconstructed 3-dimensional (3D) trajectories of individual prominence knots. The 3D trajectories, velocities, tangential and centripetal accelerations of the knots were reconstructed using observational data collected with a single ground-based telescope equipped with a Multi-channel Subtractive Double Pass imaging spectrograph. Lower limit...

Zapio?r, Maciej; Rudawy, Pawe?

2012-01-01

179

Interactive image-based 3D reconstruction techniques for application scenarios at different scales  

OpenAIRE

The image-based 3D reconstruction of real-world objects or scenes has attracted considerable attention in recent years, and several approaches capable of generating high quality results have been proposed. However, since most of these systems aim at being fully automatic without the ability to take user input into account, the key problem of existing image-based 3D reconstruction approaches is the insufficient handling of errors and failure cases. As a consequence, in practice even low error ...

Habbecke, Martin

2012-01-01

180

GPU-Based 3D Cone-Beam CT Image Reconstruction for Large Data Volume  

OpenAIRE

Currently, 3D cone-beam CT image reconstruction speed is still a severe limitation for clinical application. The computational power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) has been harnessed to provide impressive acceleration of 3D volume image reconstruction. For extra large data volume exceeding the physical graphic memory of GPU, a straightforward compromise is to divide data volume into blocks. Different from the conventional Octree partition method, a new partition scheme is proposed...

Xing Zhao; Jing-jing Hu; Peng Zhang

2009-01-01

181

3D Fractal reconstruction of terrain profile data based on digital elevation model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) often makes it difficult for terrain reconstruction and data storage due to the failure in acquisition of details with higher resolution. If original terrain of DEM can be simulated, resulting in geographical details can be represented precisely while reducing the data size, then an effective reconstruction scheme is essential. This paper adopts two sets of real-world 3D terrain profile data to proceed data reducing, i.e. data sampling randomly, then reconstruct them through 3D fractal reconstruction. Meanwhile, the quantitative and qualitative difference generated from different reduction rates were evaluated statistically. The research results show that, if 3D fractal interpolation method is applied to DEM reconstruction, the higher reduction rate can be obtained for DEM of larger data size with respect to that of smaller data size under the assumption that the entire terrain structure is still maintained.

182

Fully 3D Monte Carlo image reconstruction in SPECT using functional regions  

CERN Document Server

Image reconstruction in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is affected by physical effects such as photon attenuation, Compton scatter and detector response. These effects can be compensated for by modeling the corresponding spread of photons in 3D within the system matrix used for tomographic reconstruction. The fully 3D Monte Carlo (F3DMC) reconstruction technique consists in calculating this system matrix using Monte Carlo simulations. The inverse problem of tomographic reconstruction is then solved using conventional iterative algorithms such as maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM). Although F3DMC has already shown promising results, its use is currently limited by two major issues: huge size of the fully 3D system matrix and long computation time required for calculating a robust and accurate system matrix. To address these two issues, we propose to calculate the F3DMC system matrix using a spatial sampling matching the functional regions to be reconstructed. In this approac...

Bitar, Z E; Coello, C; Breton, V; Hill, D; Buvat, I

2006-01-01

183

Reconstructing 3D building models from laser scanning to calculate the heat demand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the project is to determine the heat demand of settlement areas using geospatial data, especially airborne laser scanning data. With airborne laser scanning it possible to record detailed 3D data for great areas. With this 3D data it is possible to reconstruct 3D building models. The geometry then can be used to derive information for the calculation of the heat demand

Neidhart, Hauke; Sester, Monika

2008-09-15

184

3D Tomographic Image Reconstruction using CUDA C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the study and implementation of a software for three dimensional reconstruction of images obtained with a tomographic system using the capabilities of Graphic Processing Units(GPU). The reconstruction by filtered back-projection method was developed using the CUDA C, for maximum utilization of the processing capabilities of GPUs to solve computational problems with large computational cost and highly parallelizable. It was discussed the potential of GPUs and shown its advantages to solving this kind of problems. The results in terms of runtime will be compared with non-parallelized implementations and must show a great reduction of processing time. (Author)

185

Analytic 3D image reconstruction using all detected events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the results of testing a previously presented algorithm for three-dimensional image reconstruction that uses all gamma-ray coincidence events detected by a PET volume-imaging scanner. By using two iterations of an analytic filter-backprojection method, the algorithm is not constrained by the requirement of a spatially invariant detector point spread function, which limits normal analytic techniques. Removing this constraint allows the incorporation of all detected events, regardless of orientation, which improves the statistical quality of the final reconstructed image

186

Monocular 3D Reconstruction of Locally Textured Surfaces  

OpenAIRE

Most recent approaches to monocular non-rigid 3D shape recovery rely on exploiting point correspondences and work best when the whole surface is well-textured. The alternative is to rely either on contours or shading information, which has only been demonstrated in very restrictive settings. Here, we propose a novel approach to monocular deformable shape recovery that can operate under complex lighting and handle partially textured surfaces, whether develo...

Varol, Aydin; Shaji, Appu; Salzmann, Mathieu; Fua, Pascal

2010-01-01

187

Ultra-fast digital tomosynthesis reconstruction using general-purpose GPU programming for image-guided radiation therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an ultra-fast reconstruction technique for digital tomosynthesis (DTS) imaging based on the algorithm proposed by Feldkamp, Davis, and Kress (FDK) using standard general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) programming interface. To this end, the FDK-based DTS algorithm was programmed "in-house" with C language with utilization of 1) GPU and 2) central processing unit (CPU) cards. The GPU card consisted of 480 processing cores (2 x 240 dual chip) with 1,242 MHz processing clock speed and 1,792 MB memory space. In terms of CPU hardware, we used 2.68 GHz clock speed, 12.0 GB DDR3 RAM, on a 64-bit OS. The performance of proposed algorithm was tested on twenty-five patient cases (5 lung, 5 liver, 10 prostate, and 5 head-and-neck) scanned either with a full-fan or half-fan mode on our cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. For the full-fan scans, the projections from 157.5°-202.5° (45°-scan) were used to reconstruct coronal DTS slices, whereas for the half-fan scans, the projections from both 157.5°-202.5° and 337.5°-22.5° (2 x 45°-scan) were used to reconstruct larger FOV coronal DTS slices. For this study, we chose 45°-scan angle that contained ~80 projections for the full-fan and ~160 projections with 2 x 45°-scan angle for the half-fan mode, each with 1024 x 768 pixels with 32-bit precision. Absolute pixel value differences, profiles, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculations were performed to compare and evaluate the images reconstructed using GPU- and CPU-based implementations. The time dependence on the reconstruction volume was also tested with (512 x 512) x 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 slices. In the end, the GPU-based implementation achieved, at most, 1.3 and 2.5 seconds to complete full reconstruction of 512 x 512 x 256 volume, for the full-fan and half-fan modes, respectively. In turn, this meant that our implementation can process > 13 projections-per-second (pps) and > 18 pps for the full-fan and half-fan modes, respectively. Since commercial CBCT system nominally acquires 11 pps (with 1 gantry-revolution-per-minute), our GPU-based implementation is sufficient to handle the incoming projections data as they are acquired and reconstruct the entire volume immediately after completing the scan. In addition, on increasing the number of slices (hence volume) to be reconstructed from 16 to 256, only minimal increases in reconstruction time were observed for the GPU-based implementation where from 0.73 to 1.27 seconds and 1.42 to 2.47 seconds increase were observed for the full-fan and half-fan modes, respectively. This resulted in speed improvement of up to 87 times compared with the CPU-based implementation (for 256 slices case), with visually identical images and small pixel-value discrepancies (< 6.3%), and CNR differences (< 2.3%). With this achievement, we have shown that time allocation for DTS image reconstruction is virtually eliminated and that clinical implementation of this approach has become quite appealing. In addition, with the speed achievement, further image processing and real-time applications that was prohibited prior due to time restrictions can now be tempered with. PMID:21728386

Park, Justin C; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Cho, Min Kook; Kim, Ho Kyung; Liu, Zhaowei; Jiang, Steve B; Song, Bongyong; Song, William Y

2011-08-01

188

3D image reconstruction of fiber systems using electron tomography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past several years, electron microscopists and materials researchers have shown increased interest in electron tomography (reconstruction of three-dimensional information from a tilt series of bright field images obtained in a transmission electron microscope (TEM)). In this research, electron tomography has been used to reconstruct a three-dimensional image for fiber structures from secondary electron images in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The implementation of this technique is used to examine the structure of fiber system before and after deformation. A test sample of steel wool was tilted around a single axis from -10° to 60° by one-degree steps with images taken at every degree; three-dimensional images were reconstructed for the specimen of fine steel fibers. This method is capable of reconstructing the three-dimensional morphology of this type of lineal structure, and to obtain features such as tortuosity, contact points, and linear density that are of importance in defining the mechanical properties of these materials. PMID:25464156

Fakron, Osama M; Field, David P

2015-02-01

189

Precipitate shape fitting and reconstruction by means of 3D Zernike functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3D Zernike functions are defined and used for the reconstruction of precipitate shapes. These functions are orthogonal over the unit ball and allow for an arbitrary shape, scaled to fit inside an embedding sphere, to be decomposed into 3D harmonics. Explicit expressions are given for the general Zernike moments, correcting typographical errors in the literature. Explicit expressions of the Zernike moments for the ellipsoid and the cube are given. The 3D Zernike functions and moments are applied to the reconstruction of ?' precipitate shapes in two Ni-based superalloys, one with nearly cuboidal precipitate shapes, and one with more complex dendritic shapes

190

Data acquisition electronics and reconstruction software for real time 3D track reconstruction within the MIMAC project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Directional detection of non-baryonic Dark Matter requires 3D reconstruction of low energy nuclear recoils tracks. A gaseous micro-TPC matrix, filled with either 3He, CF4 or C4H10 has been developed within the MIMAC project. A dedicated acquisition electronics and a real time track reconstruction software have been developed to monitor a 512 channel prototype. This auto-triggered electronic uses embedded processing to reduce the data transfer to its useful part only, i.e. decoded coordinates of hit tracks and corresponding energy measurements. An acquisition software with on-line monitoring and 3D track reconstruction is also presented.

191

Optical 3D Surface Reconstruction by a Multi-Period Phase Shift Method  

OpenAIRE

One problem of classical phase shifting for optical 3D surface reconstruction is the occurrence of ambiguities due to the use of fringe projection. We generally derive a number-theoretical approach to calculate absolute phase measurements which can be used as a base for a reliable surface reconstruction...

Erik Lilienblum; Bernd Michaelis

2007-01-01

192

Neural Network Based Reconstruction of a 3D Object from a 2D Wireframe  

CERN Document Server

We propose a new approach for constructing a 3D representation from a 2D wireframe drawing. A drawing is simply a parallel projection of a 3D object onto a 2D surface; humans are able to recreate mental 3D models from 2D representations very easily, yet the process is very difficult to emulate computationally. We hypothesize that our ability to perform this construction relies on the angles in the 2D scene, among other geometric properties. Being able to reproduce this reconstruction process automatically would allow for efficient and robust 3D sketch interfaces. Our research focuses on the relationship between 2D geometry observable in the sketch and 3D geometry derived from a potential 3D construction. We present a fully automated system that constructs 3D representations from 2D wireframes using a neural network in conjunction with a genetic search algorithm.

Johnson, Kyle; Lipson, Hod

2010-01-01

193

Optic flow aided navigation and 3D scene reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

An important enabler for low cost airborne systems is the ability to exploit low cost inertial instruments. An Inertial Navigation System (INS) can provide a navigation solution, when GPS is denied, by integrating measurements from inertial sensors. However, the gyrometer and accelerometer biases of low cost inertial sensors cause compound errors in the integrated navigation solution. This paper describes experiments to establish whether (and to what extent) the navigation solution can be aided by fusing measurements from an on-board video camera with measurements from the inertial sensors. The primary aim of the work was to establish whether optic flow aided navigation is beneficial even when the 3D structure within the observed scene is unknown. A further aim was to investigate whether an INS can help to infer 3D scene content from video. Experiments with both real and synthetic data have been conducted. Real data was collected using an AR Parrot quadrotor. Empirical results illustrate that optic flow provides a useful aid to navigation even when the 3D structure of the observed scene is not known. With optic flow aiding of the INS, the computed trajectory is consistent with the true camera motion, whereas the unaided INS yields a rapidly increasing position error (the data represents ~40 seconds, after which the unaided INS is ~50 metres in error and has passed through the ground). The results of the Monte Carlo simulation concur with the empirical result. Position errors, which grow as a quadratic function of time when unaided, are substantially checked by the availability of optic flow measurements.

Rollason, Malcolm

2013-10-01

194

Experimental research on 3D reconstruction through range gated laser imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

A range gated laser imaging system has been designed and developed for high precision three-dimensional imaging. The system uses a Nd:YAG electro-optical Q-switched 532nm laser as transmitter, a double microchannel plate as gated sensor, and all the components are controlled by a trigger control unit with accuracy of subnanosecond. An experimental scheme is also designed to achieve high precision imaging; a sequence of 2D "slice" images are acquired in the experiment, and these images provide the basic data for 3D reconstruction. Basing on the centroid algorithm, we have developed the 3D reconstruction algorithm, and use it to reconstruct a 3D image of target from the experimental data. We compare the 3D image with the system performance model, and the results are corresponding.

Li, Sining; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Dayong; Li, Chao; Tu, Zhipeng

2014-09-01

195

Assessing 3D tunnel position in ACL reconstruction using a novel single image 3D-2D registration  

Science.gov (United States)

The routinely used procedure for evaluating tunnel positions following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions based on standard X-ray images is known to pose difficulties in terms of obtaining accurate measures, especially in providing three-dimensional tunnel positions. This is largely due to the variability in individual knee joint pose relative to X-ray plates. Accurate results were reported using postoperative CT. However, its extensive usage in clinical routine is hampered by its major requirement of having CT scans of individual patients, which is not available for most ACL reconstructions. These difficulties are addressed through the proposed method, which aligns a knee model to X-ray images using our novel single-image 3D-2D registration method and then estimates the 3D tunnel position. In the proposed method, the alignment is achieved by using a novel contour-based 3D-2D registration method wherein image contours are treated as a set of oriented points. However, instead of using some form of orientation weighting function and multiplying it with a distance function, we formulate the 3D-2D registration as a probability density estimation using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher-Gaussian (vMFG) distributions and solve it through an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Compared with the ground-truth established from postoperative CT, our registration method in an experiment using a plastic phantom showed accurate results with errors of (-0.43°+/-1.19°, 0.45°+/-2.17°, 0.23°+/-1.05°) and (0.03+/-0.55, -0.03+/-0.54, -2.73+/-1.64) mm. As for the entry point of the ACL tunnel, one of the key measurements, it was obtained with high accuracy of 0.53+/-0.30 mm distance errors.

Kang, X.; Yau, W. P.; Otake, Y.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.; Taylor, R. H.

2012-02-01

196

A distributed evolutionary approach for fast 3-D stereo reconstruction  

OpenAIRE

This article describes the fly algorithm an evolutionary approach aimed at fast three-dimensional scene reconstruction from stereo images. We describe the main component of the algorithm and present an experimental analysis of its results on benchmark data, showing that a good results can be obtained at very low computational cost. We hope through this work motivate the use of such algorithms in computer vision problem.

Boumaza, Amine

2008-01-01

197

Stereoscopic reconstruction of 3D PIV data in T-junction with circular profile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper experimental study of flow in T-junction using 3D PIV method is presented. Motion of seeding particles was recorded by a pair of suitably located cameras in precisely defined cross sections of the junction. Based on this information, three-dimensional model of flow in different sections of junction was reconstructed. The reconstruction results from the projection matrixes of each camera, which are obtained from positions of objects in the scene and their projection positions in the image plane. Standard 3D PIV reconstruction was rejected, because of optical distortion in T-Junction.

Jašíková D.

2013-04-01

198

Stereoscopic reconstruction of 3D PIV data in T-junction with circular profile  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper experimental study of flow in T-junction using 3D PIV method is presented. Motion of seeding particles was recorded by a pair of suitably located cameras in precisely defined cross sections of the junction. Based on this information, three-dimensional model of flow in different sections of junction was reconstructed. The reconstruction results from the projection matrixes of each camera, which are obtained from positions of objects in the scene and their projection positions in the image plane. Standard 3D PIV reconstruction was rejected, because of optical distortion in T-Junction.

Kotek, M.; Pavlík, D.; Kopecký, V.; Jašíková, D.

2013-04-01

199

Fully 3D PET image reconstruction with a 4D sinogram blurring kernel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurately modeling PET system response is essential for high-resolution image reconstruction. Traditionally, sinogram blurring effects are modeled as a 2D blur in each sinogram plane. Such 2D blurring kernel is insufficient for fully 3D PET data, which has four dimensions. In this paper, we implement a fully 3D PET image reconstruction using a 4D sinogram blurring kernel estimated from point source scans and perform phantom experiments to evaluate the improvements in image quality over methods with existing 2D blurring kernels. The results show that the proposed reconstruction method can achieve better spatial resolution and contrast recovery than existing methods. (orig.)

Tohme, Michel S.; Qi, Jinyi [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Zhou, Jian

2011-07-01

200

Fully 3D PET image reconstruction with a 4D sinogram blurring kernel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurately modeling PET system response is essential for high-resolution image reconstruction. Traditionally, sinogram blurring effects are modeled as a 2D blur in each sinogram plane. Such 2D blurring kernel is insufficient for fully 3D PET data, which has four dimensions. In this paper, we implement a fully 3D PET image reconstruction using a 4D sinogram blurring kernel estimated from point source scans and perform phantom experiments to evaluate the improvements in image quality over methods with existing 2D blurring kernels. The results show that the proposed reconstruction method can achieve better spatial resolution and contrast recovery than existing methods. (orig.)

201

Design and performance of the prototype full field breast tomosynthesis system with selenium based flat panel detector  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a breast tomosynthesis system utilizing a selenium-based direct conversion flat panel detector. This prototype system is a modification of Selenia, Hologic"s full field digital mammography system, using an add-on breast holding device to allow 3D tomosynthetic imaging. During a tomosynthesis scan, the breast is held stationary while the x-ray source and detector mounted on a c-arm rotate continuously around the breast over an angular range up to 30 degrees. The x-ray tube is pulsed to acquire 11 projections at desired c-arm angles. Images are reconstructed in planes parallel to the breastplate using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Processing time is typically 1 minute for a 50 mm thick breast at 0.1 mm in-plane pixel size, 1 mm slice-to-slice separation. Clinical studies are in progress. Performance evaluations were carried out at the system and the subsystem levels including spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, spectra optimization, imaging technique, and phantom and patient studies. Experimental results show that we have successfully built a tomosynthesis system with images showing less structure noise and revealing 3D information compared with the conventional mammogram. We introduce, for the first time, the definition of "Depth of Field" for tomosynthesis based on a spatial resolution study. This parameter is used together with Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) to evaluate 3D resolution of a tomosynthesis system as a function of system design, imaging technique, and reconstruction algorithm. Findings from the on-going clinical studies will help the design of the next generation tomosynthesis system offering improved performance.

Ren, Baorui; Ruth, Chris; Stein, Jay; Smith, Andrew; Shaw, Ian; Jing, Zhenxue

2005-04-01

202

Autonomous Planetary 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A common task for many deep space missions is autonomous generation of 3-D representations of planetary surfaces onboard unmanned spacecrafts. The basic problem for this class of missions is, that the closed loop time is far too long. The closed loop time is defined as the time from when a human operator detects an interesting object or feature on a, say, asteroid, to a command is issued to aim a science instrument at the feature. This delay may be in the range of hours for all except the objects closest to the Earth. Because the transit time of a typical interesting feature is in the range of seconds to a few minutes, the closed loop time effectively precludes active human control.The only way to circumvent this problem is to build an artificial feature extractor operating autonomously onboard the spacecraft.Different artificial feature extractors are presented and their efficiency is discussed.Based on such features, 3-D representations may be compiled from two or more 2-D satellite images. The main purposes of such a mapping system are extraction of landing sites, objects of scientific interest and general planetary surveying. All data processing is performed autonomously onboard in order to reduce data transfer to ground station and to eliminate the closed loop time delay.

Denver, Troelz

1999-01-01

203

Accelerated 3D-OSEM image reconstruction using a Beowulf PC cluster for pinhole SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conventional pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a single circular orbit has limitations associated with non-uniform spatial resolution or axial blurring. Recently, we demonstrated that three-dimensional (3D) images with uniform spatial resolution and no blurring can be obtained by complete data acquired using two-circular orbit, combined with the 3D ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction method. However, a long computation time is required to obtain the reconstruction image, because of the fact that 3D-OSEM is an iterative method and two-orbit acquisition doubles the size of the projection data. To reduce the long reconstruction time, we parallelized the two-orbit pinhole 3D-OSEM reconstruction process by using a Beowulf personal computer (PC) cluster. The Beowulf PC cluster consists of seven PCs connected to Gbit Ethernet switches. Message passing interface protocol was utilized for parallelizing the reconstruction process. The projection data in a subset are distributed to each PC. The partial image forward-and back-projected in each PC is transferred to all PCs. The current image estimate on each PC is updated after summing the partial images. The performance of parallelization on the PC cluster was evaluated using two independent projection data sets acquired by a pinhole SPECT system with two different circular orbits. Parallelization using the PC cluster improved the reconstruction time with increasing numbe reconstruction time with increasing number of PCs. The reconstruction time of 54 min by the single PC was decreased to 10 min when six or seven PCs were used. The speed-up factor was 5.4. The reconstruction image by the PC cluster was virtually identical with that by the single PC. Parallelization of 3D-OSEM reconstruction for pinhole SPECT using the PC cluster can significantly reduce the computation time, whereas its implementation is simple and inexpensive. (author)

204

Real-Time GPU-Based 3D Ultrasound Reconstruction and Visualization  

OpenAIRE

Ultrasound scanning is frequently used in medical practice because it is a non-invasive, safe and low-cost solution (vs. CT or MR). However, conventional ultrasound probes only provide 2D scans. 3D ultrasound reconstruction builds 2D scans into 3D volumes of the patient's internals. Since these volumes can be used for acquiring out-of-angle views, 3D rendering of the anatomy, and for image guided surgery, they are rapidly expanding the possible uses of ultrasound. However, the 3D reconstructi...

Ludvigsen, Holger

2010-01-01

205

3D Image Reconstruction for Implosion Pellet in ICF Experiment Based on Iterative Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The projection images of implosion-pellet captured by framing cameras or pinhole cameras are two-dimensional in the inertia confinement fusion experiments. Since the two-dimensional images are lack of the depth information, therefore they are hardly used to diagnose the compression symmetry of the implosion-pellet, the 3D image of the implosion-pellet reconstructed from their two-dimensional projection images can overcome these problems. As the iterative algorithms can reconstruct the original 3D image from just a few projections with good noise suppression, three iterative algorithms which are commonly applied in CT image reconstruction filed are utilized to the reconstruct 3D image of implosion-pellet. The numerical simulations show that the algebraic reconstruction technique algorithm performs best under the condition that the projection images are ‘incomplete’ and noise free or with not so heavy noise. When there are heavy noise in the projection images the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique surpasses the other algorithms, which is proved to be more competent for the 3D image reconstruction of implosion-pellet in inertia confinement fusion experiment.

Xishun Liu

2013-01-01

206

Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in multiscale bilateral filtering regularized reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis volume  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume enhanced with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization. Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, two-view DBT of 154 breasts, of which 116 had biopsy-proven microcalcification (MC) clusters and 38 were free of MCs, was imaged with a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system. The DBT volumes were reconstructed with MSBF-regularized simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) that was designed to enhance MCs and reduce background noise while preserving the quality of other tissue structures. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of MCs was further improved with enhancement-modulated calcification response (EMCR) preprocessing, which combined multiscale Hessian response to enhance MCs by shape and bandpass filtering to remove the low-frequency structured background. MC candidates were then located in the EMCR volume using iterative thresholding and segmented by adaptive region growing. Two sets of potential MC objects, cluster centroid objects and MC seed objects, were generated and the CNR of each object was calculated. The number of candidates in each set was controlled based on the breast volume. Dynamic clustering around the centroid objects grouped the MC candidates to form clusters. Adaptive criteria were designed to reduce false positive (FP) clusters based on the size, CNR values and the number of MCs in the cluster, cluster shape, and cluster based maximum intensity projection. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and jackknife alternative FROC (JAFROC) analyses were used to assess the performance and compare with that of a previous study. Results: Unpaired two-tailedt-test showed a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in the ratio of CNRs for MCs with and without MSBF regularization compared to similar ratios for FPs. For view-based detection, a sensitivity of 85% was achieved at an FP rate of 2.16 per DBT volume. For case-based detection, a sensitivity of 85% was achieved at an FP rate of 0.85 per DBT volume. JAFROC analysis showed a significant improvement in the performance of the current CADe system compared to that of our previous system (p = 0.003). Conclusions: MBSF regularized SART reconstruction enhances MCs. The enhancement in the signals, in combination with properly designed adaptive threshold criteria, effective MC feature analysis, and false positive reduction techniques, leads to a significant improvement in the detection of clustered MCs in DBT

207

Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in multiscale bilateral filtering regularized reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis volume  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume enhanced with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization. Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, two-view DBT of 154 breasts, of which 116 had biopsy-proven microcalcification (MC) clusters and 38 were free of MCs, was imaged with a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system. The DBT volumes were reconstructed with MSBF-regularized simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) that was designed to enhance MCs and reduce background noise while preserving the quality of other tissue structures. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of MCs was further improved with enhancement-modulated calcification response (EMCR) preprocessing, which combined multiscale Hessian response to enhance MCs by shape and bandpass filtering to remove the low-frequency structured background. MC candidates were then located in the EMCR volume using iterative thresholding and segmented by adaptive region growing. Two sets of potential MC objects, cluster centroid objects and MC seed objects, were generated and the CNR of each object was calculated. The number of candidates in each set was controlled based on the breast volume. Dynamic clustering around the centroid objects grouped the MC candidates to form clusters. Adaptive criteria were designed to reduce false positive (FP) clusters based on the size, CNR values and the number of MCs in the cluster, cluster shape, and cluster based maximum intensity projection. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and jackknife alternative FROC (JAFROC) analyses were used to assess the performance and compare with that of a previous study. Results: Unpaired two-tailedt-test showed a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in the ratio of CNRs for MCs with and without MSBF regularization compared to similar ratios for FPs. For view-based detection, a sensitivity of 85% was achieved at an FP rate of 2.16 per DBT volume. For case-based detection, a sensitivity of 85% was achieved at an FP rate of 0.85 per DBT volume. JAFROC analysis showed a significant improvement in the performance of the current CADe system compared to that of our previous system (p = 0.003). Conclusions: MBSF regularized SART reconstruction enhances MCs. The enhancement in the signals, in combination with properly designed adaptive threshold criteria, effective MC feature analysis, and false positive reduction techniques, leads to a significant improvement in the detection of clustered MCs in DBT.

Samala, Ravi K., E-mail: rsamala@umich.edu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842 (United States); Sahiner, Berkman [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Maryland 20993 (United States)

2014-02-15

208

Neurofunctional systems. 3D reconstructions with correlated neuroimaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book introduces, for the first time, computer-generated images of the neurofunctional systems of the human brain. These images are more accurate than drawings. The main views presented are of the medial lemniscus system, auditory system, visual system, basal ganglia, corticospinal system, and the limbic system. The arteries and sulci of the cerebral hemispheres are also illustrated by computer. These images provide a three-dimensional orientation of the intracranial space and help, for example, to assess vascular functional disturbance of the brain. Clinicians will find these images valuable for the spatial interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) images since many neurofunctional systems cannot be visualized as isolated structures in neuroimaging. Computer-assisted surface reconstructions of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries serve as a basis for constructing these computer-generated images. The surface reconstructions are anatomically realistic having been created from brain sections with minimal deformations. The method of computer graphics, known as ray tracing, produces digital images form these reconstructions. The computer-generated methods are explained. The computer-generated images are accompanied by illustrations and texts on neuroanatomy and clinical practice. The neurofunctional systems of the human brain are also shown in sections so that the reader can mentally reconstruct the neurofunctional systems, thus facilitating the transformation of information into textbooks and atlantes of MR and CT imaging. The aim of this book is acquaint the reader with the three-dimensional aspects of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries of the human brain using methods of computer graphics. Computer scientists and those interested in this technique are provided with basic neuroanatomic and neurofunctional information. Physicians will have a clearer understanding of the limitations and possibilities of computer graphics in the field of medicine. The three-dimensional aspects of these neurofunctional systems should serve as a tool for clinicians and will appeal to neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, nuclear physicians, neurophysiologists, traumatologists and oncologists. Physicians and students with an interest in neurobiology will also find this an instructive and practical handbook. (orig.)

Kretschmann, H.J.; Fiekert, W.; Gerke, M.; Vogt, H.; Weirich, D.; Wesemann, M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. Neuroanatomie; Weinrich, W. [Staedtisches Krankenhaus Nordstadt, Hannover (Germany). Abt. fuer Neurologie

1998-12-31

209

Neurofunctional systems. 3D reconstructions with correlated neuroimaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book introduces, for the first time, computer-generated images of the neurofunctional systems of the human brain. These images are more accurate than drawings. The main views presented are of the medial lemniscus system, auditory system, visual system, basal ganglia, corticospinal system, and the limbic system. The arteries and sulci of the cerebral hemispheres are also illustrated by computer. These images provide a three-dimensional orientation of the intracranial space and help, for example, to assess vascular functional disturbance of the brain. Clinicians will find these images valuable for the spatial interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) images since many neurofunctional systems cannot be visualized as isolated structures in neuroimaging. Computer-assisted surface reconstructions of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries serve as a basis for constructing these computer-generated images. The surface reconstructions are anatomically realistic having been created from brain sections with minimal deformations. The method of computer graphics, known as ray tracing, produces digital images form these reconstructions. The computer-generated methods are explained. The computer-generated images are accompanied by illustrations and texts on neuroanatomy and clinical practice. The neurofunctional systems of the human brain are also shown in sections so that the reader can mentally reections so that the reader can mentally reconstruct the neurofunctional systems, thus facilitating the transformation of information into textbooks and atlantes of MR and CT imaging. The aim of this book is acquaint the reader with the three-dimensional aspects of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries of the human brain using methods of computer graphics. Computer scientists and those interested in this technique are provided with basic neuroanatomic and neurofunctional information. Physicians will have a clearer understanding of the limitations and possibilities of computer graphics in the field of medicine. The three-dimensional aspects of these neurofunctional systems should serve as a tool for clinicians and will appeal to neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, nuclear physicians, neurophysiologists, traumatologists and oncologists. Physicians and students with an interest in neurobiology will also find this an instructive and practical handbook. (orig.)

210

3D waveguides reconstruction with SDO/HMI magnetograms  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a new method for obtain 3D height-spatial structure of magnetic tubes over sunspot atmosphere. The method based on dynamics of extrapolated magnetic surfaces (SDO/HMI magnetograms) and PWF technique. We calculate the 3D position of magnetic channels for active region NOAA 11131 on December 08, 2010 event. These structures can be interpreted as waveguides (magnetic bundles) that channel upward propagating slow MHD waves, responsible for 3-min oscillation. The footpoints of tubes anchored at under-photosphere level. Location of bundles individual for each sunspot. The bundles shows a cone-like structure with symmetrical base at the bottom (photosphere) and ring-like shape at upper level (transition region). Depend from bundles location inside umbra we can see different lines inclination: in center mainly there are open lines; near the umbra border there are mix of open and close lines with different inclination. Magnetic lines inclination are increasing to umbra/penumbra border. The shape of narrowband 3-min oscillation sources at photosphere level has a symmetrical circular structure and fill whole umbra up to its borders. At chromosphere and transition region helical twist of propagating 3-min wave fronts with their scattering on the umbra-penumbra boundary is observed. The wave sources is localized in the center of the sunspot umbra as a pulsating bright areas of small angular size. At the coronal level there are both expending symmetrical fronts and elongated structures located in the penumbra area coinciding with footpoints of magnetic field tubes with individual frequency behavior. To explain obtained results we can suggest about dependence between waves visibility and existing two effects: the cut-off frequency and direction magnetic lines in LOS to observer. We can conclude that observed quasi-helicity connected with interaction of magnetic bundles with different spatial localization, magnetic lines inclination and cut-off frequency effect.

Sych, Robert; Wang, Rui

211

Validation of 3D surface reconstruction of vertebrae and spinal column using 3D ultrasound data - A pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of spine associated with vertebra rotation. The Cobb angle and axial vertebral rotation are important parameters to assess the severity of scoliosis. However, the vertebral rotation is seldom measured from radiographs due to time consuming. Different techniques have been developed to extract 3D spinal information. Among many techniques, ultrasound imaging is a promising method. This pilot study reported an image processing method to reconstruct the posterior surface of vertebrae from 3D ultrasound data. Three cadaver vertebrae, a Sawbones spine phantom, and a spine from a child with AIS were used to validate the development. The in-vitro result showed the surface of the reconstructed image was visually similar to the original objects. The dimension measurement error was 0.99. The results also showed a high accuracy in vertebral rotation with errors of 0.8 ± 0.3°, 2.8 ± 0.3° and 3.6 ± 0.5° for the rotation values of 0°, 15° and 30°, respectively. Meanwhile, the difference in the Cobb angle between the phantom and the image was 4° and the vertebral rotation at the apex was 2°. The Cobb angle measured from the in-vivo ultrasound image was 4° different from the radiograph. PMID:25550193

Nguyen, Duc V; Vo, Quang N; Le, Lawrence H; Lou, Edmond H M

2015-02-01

212

3D reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine using differential volume rendering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3D reconstruction from ordinary X-ray equipment which is not CT or MRI is required in clinical veterinary medicine. Authors have already proposed a 3D reconstruction technique from X-ray photograph to present bone structure. Although the reconstruction is useful for veterinary medicine, the technique has two problems. One is about exposure of X-ray and the other is about data acquisition process. An x-ray equipment which is not special one but can solve the problems is X-ray fluoroscopy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for 3D-reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine. Fluoroscopy is usually used to observe a movement of organ or to identify a position of organ for surgery by weak X-ray intensity. Since fluoroscopy can output a observed result as movie, the previous two problems which are caused by use of X-ray photograph can be solved. However, a new problem arises due to weak X-ray intensity. Although fluoroscopy can present information of not only bone structure but soft tissues, the contrast is very low and it is very difficult to recognize some soft tissues. It is very useful to be able to observe not only bone structure but soft tissues clearly by ordinary X-ray equipment in the field of clinical veterinary medicine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method to determine opacity in volume rendering process. The opacity is determined according to 3D differential coefficient of 3D reconstruction. This differeficient of 3D reconstruction. This differential volume rendering can present a 3D structure image of multiple organs volumetrically and clearly for clinical veterinary medicine. This paper shows results of simulation and experimental investigation of small dog and evaluation by veterinarians. (author)

213

Comparison of 3D-OP-OSEM and 3D-FBP reconstruction algorithms for High-Resolution Research Tomograph studies: effects of randoms estimation methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) is a dedicated human brain positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Recently, a 3D filtered backprojection (3D-FBP) reconstruction method has been implemented to reduce bias in short duration frames, currently observed in 3D ordinary Poisson OSEM (3D-OP-OSEM) reconstructions. Further improvements might be expected using a new method of variance reduction on randoms (VRR) based on coincidence histograms instead of using the delayed window technique (DW) to estimate randoms. The goal of this study was to evaluate VRR in combination with 3D-OP-OSEM and 3D-FBP reconstruction techniques. To this end, several phantom studies and a human brain study were performed. For most phantom studies, 3D-OP-OSEM showed higher accuracy of observed activity concentrations with VRR than with DW. However, both positive and negative deviations in reconstructed activity concentrations and large biases of grey to white matter contrast ratio (up to 88%) were still observed as a function of scan statistics. Moreover 3D-OP-OSEM+VRR also showed bias up to 64% in clinical data, i.e. in some pharmacokinetic parameters as compared with those obtained with 3D-FBP+VRR. In the case of 3D-FBP, VRR showed similar results as DW for both phantom and clinical data, except that VRR showed a better standard deviation of 6-10%. Therefore, VRR should be used to correct for randoms in HRRT PET studies.

Velden, Floris H P van; Kloet, Reina W; Berckel, Bart N M van; Wolfensberger, Saskia P A; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, VU University Medical Centre, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: f.vvelden@vumc.nl

2008-06-21

214

Comparison of 3D-OP-OSEM and 3D-FBP reconstruction algorithms for High-Resolution Research Tomograph studies: effects of randoms estimation methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) is a dedicated human brain positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Recently, a 3D filtered backprojection (3D-FBP) reconstruction method has been implemented to reduce bias in short duration frames, currently observed in 3D ordinary Poisson OSEM (3D-OP-OSEM) reconstructions. Further improvements might be expected using a new method of variance reduction on randoms (VRR) based on coincidence histograms instead of using the delayed window technique (DW) to estimate randoms. The goal of this study was to evaluate VRR in combination with 3D-OP-OSEM and 3D-FBP reconstruction techniques. To this end, several phantom studies and a human brain study were performed. For most phantom studies, 3D-OP-OSEM showed higher accuracy of observed activity concentrations with VRR than with DW. However, both positive and negative deviations in reconstructed activity concentrations and large biases of grey to white matter contrast ratio (up to 88%) were still observed as a function of scan statistics. Moreover 3D-OP-OSEM+VRR also showed bias up to 64% in clinical data, i.e. in some pharmacokinetic parameters as compared with those obtained with 3D-FBP+VRR. In the case of 3D-FBP, VRR showed similar results as DW for both phantom and clinical data, except that VRR showed a better standard deviation of 6-10%. Therefore, VRR should be used to correct for randoms in HRRT PET studies

215

A Panoramic 3D Reconstruction System Based on the Projection of Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the implementation of a 3D reconstruction system capable of reconstructing a 360-degree scene with a single acquisition using a projection of patterns. The system is formed by two modules: the first module is a CCD camera with a parabolic mirror that allows the acquisition of catadioptric images. The second module consists of a light projector and a parabolic mirror that is used to generate the pattern projections over the object that will be reconstructed. The projection system has a 360-degree field of view and both modules were calibrated to obtain the extrinsic parameters. To validate the functionality of the system, we performed 3D reconstructions of three objects, and show the reconstruction error analysis.

Diana-Margarita Co?rdova-Esparza

2014-04-01

216

Automated Reconstruction Algorithm for Identification of 3D Architectures of Cribriform Ductal Carcinoma In Situ  

Science.gov (United States)

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a pre-invasive carcinoma of the breast that exhibits several distinct morphologies but the link between morphology and patient outcome is not clear. We hypothesize that different mechanisms of growth may still result in similar 2D morphologies, which may look different in 3D. To elucidate the connection between growth and 3D morphology, we reconstruct the 3D architecture of cribriform DCIS from resected patient material. We produce a fully automated algorithm that aligns, segments, and reconstructs 3D architectures from microscopy images of 2D serial sections from human specimens. The alignment algorithm is based on normalized cross correlation, the segmentation algorithm uses histogram equilization, Otsu's thresholding, and morphology techniques to segment the duct and cribra. The reconstruction method combines these images in 3D. We show that two distinct 3D architectures are indeed found in samples whose 2D histological sections are similarly identified as cribriform DCIS. These differences in architecture support the hypothesis that luminal spaces may form due to different mechanisms, either isolated cell death or merging fronds, leading to the different architectures. We find that out of 15 samples, 6 were found to have ‘bubble-like’ cribra, 6 were found to have ‘tube-like’ criba and 3 were ‘unknown.’ We propose that the 3D architectures found, ‘bubbles’ and ‘tubes’, account for some of the heterogeneity of the disease and may be prognostic indicators of different patient outcomes. PMID:22970156

Norton, Kerri-Ann; Namazi, Sameera; Barnard, Nicola; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Bhanot, Gyan; Ganesan, Shridar; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Ogawa, Koichi; Shinbrot, Troy

2012-01-01

217

Electrical Impedance Tomography: 3D Reconstructions using Scattering Transforms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In three dimensions the Calderon problem was addressed and solved in theory in the 1980s. The main ingredients in the solution of the problem are complex geometrical optics solutions to the conductivity equation and a (non-physical) scattering transform. The resulting reconstruction algorithm is in principle direct and addresses the full non-linear problem immediately. In this paper a new simplication of the algorithm is suggested. The method is based on solving a boundary integral equation for the complex geometrical optics solutions, and the method is implemented numerically using a Nystrom method. Convergence estimates are obtained using hyperinterpolation operators. We compare the method numerically to two other approximations by evaluation on two numerical examples. In addition a moment method for the numerical solution of the forward problem is given.

Delbary, Fabrice; Hansen, Per Christian

2012-01-01

218

3D geometric reconstruction of thoracic aortic aneurysms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA is a pathology that involves an expansion of the aortic diameter in the thoracic aorta, leading to risk of rupture. Recent studies have suggested that internal wall stress, which is affected by TAA geometry and the presence or absence of thrombus, is a more reliable predictor of rupture than the maximum diameter, the current clinical criterion. Accurate reconstruction of TAA geometry is a crucial step in patient-specific stress calculations. Methods In this work, a novel methodology was developed, which combines data from several sets of magnetic resonance (MR images with different levels of detail and different resolutions. Two sets of images were employed to create the final model, which has the highest level of detail for each component of the aneurysm (lumen, thrombus, and wall. A reference model was built by using a single set of images for comparison. This approach was applied to two patient-specific TAAs in the descending thoracic aorta. Results The results of finite element simulations showed differences in stress pattern between the coarse and fine models: higher stress values were found with the coarse model and the differences in predicted maximum wall stress were 30% for patient A and 11% for patient B. Conclusion This paper presents a new approach to the reconstruction of an aneurysm model based on the use of several sets of MR images. This enables more accurate representation of not only the lumen but also the wall surface of a TAA taking account of intraluminal thrombus.

Mohiaddin Raad H

2006-11-01

219

Optimization of PET image quality by means of 3D data acquisition and iterative image reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiments were performed at the latest-generation whole-body PET system ECAT EXACT HR+. For 2D data acquisition, a collimator of thin tungsten septa was positioned in the field-of-view. Prior to image reconstruction, the measured 3D data were sorted into 2D sinograms by using the Fourier rebinning (FORE) algorithm developed by M. Defrise. The standard filtered backprojection (FBP) method and an optimized ML/EM algorithm with overrelaxation for accelerated convergence were employed for image reconstruction. The spatial resolution of both methods as well as the convergence and noise properties of the ML/EM algorithm were studied in phantom measurements. Furthermore, patient data were acquired in the 2D mode as well as in the 3D mode and reconstructed with both techniques. At the same spatial resolution, the ML/EM-reconstructed images showed fewer and less prominent artefacts than the FBP-reconstructed images. The resulting improved detail conspicuously was achieved for the data acquired in the 2D mode as well as in the 3D mode. The best image quality was obtained by iterative 2D reconstruction of 3D data sets which were previously rebinned into 2D sinograms with help of the FORE algorithm. The phantom measurements revealed that 50 iteration steps with the otpimized ML/EM algorithm were sufficient to keep the relative quantitation error below 5%. (orig./MG)

220

A multiscale/multiframe approach to 3D PET data reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multiscale/multiframe 3D reconstruction scheme for Positron Emission Tomography is presented. Usually the dimensions of the reconstructed volume or the projection space binning do not change during the image reconstruction process. In this paper we introduce the concept of time frame to the multiscale reconstruction proposed by Raheja et al. This approach can be used for the generation of images reconstructed in near real time using a suitable scale, taking full advantage of list mode reconstruction techniques. When compared with the Maximum Likelihood - Expectation Maximization algorithm (single scale ML-EM), the Multiscale/Multiframe proposed in this work improves the convergence speed in particular in cold regions, as well as performing a fast reconstruction. The generation of different image sequences at different spatial scales and times may be useful to optimize the acquisition clinical protocols on the fly. (orig.)

221

Fast 3D iterative image reconstruction for SPECT with rotating slat collimators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an alternative to the use of traditional parallel hole collimators, SPECT imaging can be performed using rotating slat collimators. While maintaining the spatial resolution, a gain in image quality could be expected from the higher photon collection efficiency of this type of collimator. However, the use of iterative methods to do fully three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is computationally much more expensive and furthermore involves slow convergence compared to a classical SPECT reconstruction. It has been proposed to do 3D reconstruction by splitting the system matrix into two separate matrices, forcing the reconstruction to first estimate the sinograms from the rotating slat SPECT data before estimating the image. While alleviating the computational load by one order of magnitude, this split matrix approach would result in fast computation of the projections in an iterative algorithm, but does not solve the problem of slow convergence. There is thus a need for an algorithm which speeds up convergence while maintaining image quality for rotating slat collimated SPECT cameras. Therefore, we developed a reconstruction algorithm based on the split matrix approach which allows both a fast calculation of the forward and backward projection and a fast convergence. In this work, an algorithm of the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) type, obtained from a split system matrix MLEM reconstruction, is proposed as a reconstruction method for rotating slat a reconstruction method for rotating slat collimated SPECT data. Here, we compare this new algorithm to the conventional split system matrix MLEM method and to a gold standard fully 3D MLEM reconstruction algorithm on the basis of computational load, convergence and contrast-to-noise. Furthermore, ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) implementations of these three algorithms are compared. Calculation of computational load and convergence for the different algorithms shows a speedup for the new method of 38 and 426 compared to the split matrix MLEM approach and the fully 3D MLEM respectively and a speedup of 16 and 21 compared to the split matrix OSEM and the fully 3D OSEM respectively. A contrast-to-noise study based on simulated data shows that our new approach has comparable accuracy as the fully 3D reconstruction method. The algorithm developed in this study allows iterative image reconstruction of rotating slat collimated SPECT data with equal image quality in a comparable amount of computation time as a classical SPECT reconstruction.

222

Enhancing tissue structures with iterative image reconstruction for digital breast tomosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

We design an iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithm for enhancing tissue structure contrast. The algorithm takes advantage of a data fidelity term, which compares the derivative of the DBT projections with the derivative of the estimated projections. This derivative data fidelity is sensitive to the edges of tissue structure projections, and as a consequence minimizing the corresponding the data-error term brings out structure information in the reconstructed volumes. The method has the practical advantages that few iterations are required and that direct region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction is possible with the proposed derivative data fidelity term. Both of these advantages reduce the computational burden of the IIR algorithm and potentially make it feasible for clinical application. The algorithm is demonstrated on clinical DBT data.

Sidky, Emil Y.; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Pan, Xiaochuan

2014-03-01

223

Full-color image reconstruction by holography for 3D x-ray CT  

Science.gov (United States)

The X-ray 3D CT data were detected by the CdTe semiconductor special detector which can obtain the energy information of X-ray photon, and it is developed by our laboratory. In order to display this complete 3D information with internal data of objects, the multi-color holographic reconstruction system was composed, and the reconstruction of X-ray 3D CT data were examined in this paper. In this system, the electro-holography and the computer generated holography was employed to display holographic images. In this case, we used the liquid crystal display panel as the spatial light modulator for displaying a hologram, and we developed the simulator to calculate a hologram of an X-ray 3D CT input data. Finally, it could represent effectively with three primary colors, and understand easier the internal structure of objects.

Koike, Akifumi; Morii, Hisashi; Yomori, Mitsuhiro; Neo, Yoichiro; Aoki, Toru; Mimura, Hidenori

2008-05-01

224

Morphological evolution of a 3D CME cloud reconstructed from three viewpoints  

CERN Document Server

The propagation properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are crucial to predict its geomagnetic effect. A newly developed three dimensional (3D) mask fitting reconstruction method using coronagraph images from three viewpoints has been described and applied to the CME ejected on August 7, 2010. The CME's 3D localisation, real shape and morphological evolution are presented. Due to its interaction with the ambient solar wind, the morphology of this CME changed significantly in the early phase of evolution. Two hours after its initiation, it was expanding almost self-similarly. CME's 3D localisation is quite helpful to link remote sensing observations to in situ measurements. The investigated CME was propagating to Venus with its flank just touching STEREO B. Its corresponding ICME in the interplanetary space shows a possible signature of a magnetic cloud with a preceding shock in VEX observations, while from STEREO B only a shock is observed. We have calculated three principle axes for the reconstructed 3D ...

Feng, L; Wei, Y; Gan, W Q; Zhang, T L; Wang, M Y

2012-01-01

225

Comparisons of CME morphological characteristics derived from five 3D reconstruction methods  

CERN Document Server

We compare different methods to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) CME morphology. The explored methods include geometric localisation, mask fitting, forward modeling, polarisation ratio and local correlation tracking plus triangulation. The five methods are applied to the same CME event, which occurred on August 7 2010. Their corresponding results are presented and compared, especially in their propagation direction and spatial extent in 3D. We find that mask fitting and geometric localisation method produce consistent results. Reconstructions including three-view observations are more precise than reconstructions done with only two views. Compared to the forward modeling method, in which a-priori shape of the CME geometry is assumed, mask fitting has more flexibility. Polarisation ratio method makes use of the Thomson scattering geometry. We find spatially the 3D CME derived from mask fitting lies mostly in the overlap region obtained with the polarisation method from COR2 A and B. In addition, mask fit...

Feng, Li; Marilena, Mierla

2012-01-01

226

3D noise power spectrum applied on clinical MDCT scanners: effects of reconstruction algorithms and reconstruction filters  

Science.gov (United States)

The noise power spectrum (NPS) is the reference metric for understanding the noise content in computed tomography (CT) images. To evaluate the noise properties of clinical multidetector (MDCT) scanners, local 2D and 3D NPSs were computed for different acquisition reconstruction parameters. A 64- and a 128-MDCT scanners were employed. Measurements were performed on a water phantom in axial and helical acquisition modes. CT dose index was identical for both installations. Influence of parameters such as the pitch, the reconstruction filter (soft, standard and bone) and the reconstruction algorithm (filtered-back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)) were investigated. Images were also reconstructed in the coronal plane using a reformat process. Then 2D and 3D NPS methods were computed. In axial acquisition mode, the 2D axial NPS showed an important magnitude variation as a function of the z-direction when measured at the phantom center. In helical mode, a directional dependency with lobular shape was observed while the magnitude of the NPS was kept constant. Important effects of the reconstruction filter, pitch and reconstruction algorithm were observed on 3D NPS results for both MDCTs. With ASIR, a reduction of the NPS magnitude and a shift of the NPS peak to the low frequency range were visible. 2D coronal NPS obtained from the reformat images was impacted by the interpolation when compared to 2D coronal NPS obtained from 3D measurements. The noise properties of volume measured in last generation MDCTs was studied using local 3D NPS metric. However, impact of the non-stationarity noise effect may need further investigations.

Miéville, Frédéric A.; Bolard, Gregory; Benkreira, Mohamed; Ayestaran, Paul; Gudinchet, François; Bochud, François; Verdun, Francis R.

2011-03-01

227

Full 3-D cluster-based iterative image reconstruction tool for a small animal PET camera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iterative reconstruction methods are commonly used to obtain images with high resolution and good signal-to-noise ratio in nuclear imaging. The aim of this work was to develop a scalable, fast, cluster based, fully 3-D iterative image reconstruction package for our small animal PET camera, the miniPET. The reconstruction package is developed to determine the 3-D radioactivity distribution from list mode type of data sets and it can also simulate noise-free projections of digital phantoms. We separated the system matrix generation and the fully 3-D iterative reconstruction process. As the detector geometry is fixed for a given camera, the system matrix describing this geometry is calculated only once and used for every image reconstruction, making the process much faster. The Poisson and the random noise sensitivity of the ML-EM iterative algorithm were studied for our small animal PET system with the help of the simulation and reconstruction tool. The reconstruction tool has also been tested with data collected by the miniPET from a line and a cylinder shaped phantom and also a rat

228

GPU-Based 3D Cone-Beam CT Image Reconstruction for Large Data Volume  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, 3D cone-beam CT image reconstruction speed is still a severe limitation for clinical application. The computational power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs has been harnessed to provide impressive acceleration of 3D volume image reconstruction. For extra large data volume exceeding the physical graphic memory of GPU, a straightforward compromise is to divide data volume into blocks. Different from the conventional Octree partition method, a new partition scheme is proposed in this paper. This method divides both projection data and reconstructed image volume into subsets according to geometric symmetries in circular cone-beam projection layout, and a fast reconstruction for large data volume can be implemented by packing the subsets of projection data into the RGBA channels of GPU, performing the reconstruction chunk by chunk and combining the individual results in the end. The method is evaluated by reconstructing 3D images from computer-simulation data and real micro-CT data. Our results indicate that the GPU implementation can maintain original precision and speed up the reconstruction process by 110–120 times for circular cone-beam scan, as compared to traditional CPU implementation.

Xing Zhao

2009-01-01

229

3D Reconstruction and Digital Visualization of the South of the Royal Palace in Great Preslav  

OpenAIRE

The report presents the film 10th century. The South of the Royal Palace in Great Preslav. It consists of two parts – 10th century. The Royal Palace in Great Prelsav. The Square with the Pinnacle and The Ruler’s Lodgings. 3D and virtual reconstructions of an architectural ensemble – part of the Preslav Royal Court unearthed during archaeological researches are used in the film. 3D documentaries have already gained popularity around the world and are well received by both ...

Boneva, Tsvetanka; Yorgova, Severina

2013-01-01

230

Reconstructed 3D models of digestive organs of developing Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae  

OpenAIRE

Six 3D models of the digestive system during ontogeny were reconstructed from histological sections of Atlantic cod larvae. The 3D models clearly visualize the following features: folding of the gut rotation; subdivision of digestive tract into foregut, midgut, and hindgut by sphincters; development of stomach and pyloric caeca from 39 dph; location of entrances of bile and pancreatic ducts in the medial plane of the anterior midgut; ontogeny of pancreas from a compact organ to an elongated a...

Kamisaka, Yuko; Rønnestad, Ivar

2010-01-01

231

3D video-based reconstruction for realtime and markerless motion capture  

OpenAIRE

We aim at automatically capturing 3D motion of persons without markers. To make it flexible, and to consider interactive applications, we address real-time solution, without specialized instrumentation. Real-time body estimation and shape analyze lead to home motion capture application. We begin by addressing the problem of 3D real-time reconstruction of moving objects from multiple views. Existing approaches often involve complex computation methods, making them incompatible with real-time c...

Michoud, Brice

2009-01-01

232

Combining extraction and 3D reconstruction of vessel center lines in biplane subtraction angiography  

Science.gov (United States)

Segmentation and 3D reconstruction of vessel center lines from subtraction angiography is difficult because of noise, an uneven distribution of the contrast agent, and bone structures concealing the vessels. In biplane images, some ambiguities in segmentation in one of the images can be resolved using image information from the other image. Images are first processed separately. A-priori vessel probabilities are computed using the grey value in the image. Gradients and second derivatives are computed using gaussian derivatives. Subsequently, 3D reconstruction is carried out in a line-by-line fashion between user-specified base lines on both images. The user is asked to point out corresponding vessel cross-sections on the frontal and lateral image. 3D locations are computed. Between adjacent 3D locations, intermediate 3D locations are estimated iteratively using location, curvature and size of the previously computed 3D vessel cross-section. The estimates are optimized evaluating local attributes in the two projection images, such as the grey level, the gradient and the closeness to the initial estimate. WE applied the method for the reconstruction of artificial and real structures. The artificial object consisted of metal wires with sizes ranging between 1 and 5 mm. Various parts of the structure were extracted and reconstructed successfully. Reconstructing center lines from real images was more difficult because of the image degrading influences. Structures with a size of about 1 mm were extracted and reconstructed successfully even though they were barely visible. The amount of user interaction depended on the visibility of the structures in the two images.

Toennies, Klaus D.; Remonda, Luca; Koster, David

1998-06-01

233

3D Reconstruction of a Rotating Erupting Prominence  

Science.gov (United States)

A bright prominence associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen erupting from the Sun on 9 April 2008. This prominence was tracked by both the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUVI and COR1 telescopes, and was seen to rotate about the line of sight a it erupted; therefore, the event has been nicknamed the "Cartwheel CME." The threads of the prominence in the core of the CME quite clearly indicate the structure of a weakly to moderately twisted flux rope throughout the field of view, up to heliocentric heights of 4 solar radii. Although the STEREO separation was 48 deg, it was possible to match some sharp features in the later part of the eruption as seen in the 304 A line in EUVI and in the H-alpha-sensitive bandpass of COR I by both STEREO Ahead and Behind. These features could then be traced out in three-dimensional space, and reprojected into a view in which the eruption is directed toward the observer. The reconstructed view shows that the alignment of the prominence to the vertical axis rotates as it rises up to a leading-edge height of approximately equal to 2.5 solar radii, and then remains approximately constant. The alignment at 2.5 solar radii differs by about 115 deg from the original filament orientation inferred from H-alpha and EUV data, and the height profile of the rotation, obtained here for the first time, shows that two thirds of the total rotation are reached within approximately equal to 0.5 solar radii above the photosphere. These features are well reproduced by numerical simulations of an unstable moderately twisted flux rope embedded in external flux with a relatively strong shear field component.

Thompson, W. T.; Kliem, B.; Toeroek, T.

2011-01-01

234

Fast 3D iterative image reconstruction for SPECT with rotating slat collimators  

Science.gov (United States)

As an alternative to the use of traditional parallel hole collimators, SPECT imaging can be performed using rotating slat collimators. While maintaining the spatial resolution, a gain in image quality could be expected from the higher photon collection efficiency of this type of collimator. However, the use of iterative methods to do fully three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is computationally much more expensive and furthermore involves slow convergence compared to a classical SPECT reconstruction. It has been proposed to do 3D reconstruction by splitting the system matrix into two separate matrices, forcing the reconstruction to first estimate the sinograms from the rotating slat SPECT data before estimating the image. While alleviating the computational load by one order of magnitude, this split matrix approach would result in fast computation of the projections in an iterative algorithm, but does not solve the problem of slow convergence. There is thus a need for an algorithm which speeds up convergence while maintaining image quality for rotating slat collimated SPECT cameras. Therefore, we developed a reconstruction algorithm based on the split matrix approach which allows both a fast calculation of the forward and backward projection and a fast convergence. In this work, an algorithm of the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) type, obtained from a split system matrix MLEM reconstruction, is proposed as a reconstruction method for rotating slat collimated SPECT data. Here, we compare this new algorithm to the conventional split system matrix MLEM method and to a gold standard fully 3D MLEM reconstruction algorithm on the basis of computational load, convergence and contrast-to-noise. Furthermore, ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) implementations of these three algorithms are compared. Calculation of computational load and convergence for the different algorithms shows a speedup for the new method of 38 and 426 compared to the split matrix MLEM approach and the fully 3D MLEM respectively and a speedup of 16 and 21 compared to the split matrix OSEM and the fully 3D OSEM respectively. A contrast-to-noise study based on simulated data shows that our new approach has comparable accuracy as the fully 3D reconstruction method. The algorithm developed in this study allows iterative image reconstruction of rotating slat collimated SPECT data with equal image quality in a comparable amount of computation time as a classical SPECT reconstruction.

Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Staelens, Steven; DeBeenhouwer, Jan; Lemahieu, Ignace

2009-02-01

235

Fast 3D iterative image reconstruction for SPECT with rotating slat collimators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As an alternative to the use of traditional parallel hole collimators, SPECT imaging can be performed using rotating slat collimators. While maintaining the spatial resolution, a gain in image quality could be expected from the higher photon collection efficiency of this type of collimator. However, the use of iterative methods to do fully three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is computationally much more expensive and furthermore involves slow convergence compared to a classical SPECT reconstruction. It has been proposed to do 3D reconstruction by splitting the system matrix into two separate matrices, forcing the reconstruction to first estimate the sinograms from the rotating slat SPECT data before estimating the image. While alleviating the computational load by one order of magnitude, this split matrix approach would result in fast computation of the projections in an iterative algorithm, but does not solve the problem of slow convergence. There is thus a need for an algorithm which speeds up convergence while maintaining image quality for rotating slat collimated SPECT cameras. Therefore, we developed a reconstruction algorithm based on the split matrix approach which allows both a fast calculation of the forward and backward projection and a fast convergence. In this work, an algorithm of the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) type, obtained from a split system matrix MLEM reconstruction, is proposed as a reconstruction method for rotating slat collimated SPECT data. Here, we compare this new algorithm to the conventional split system matrix MLEM method and to a gold standard fully 3D MLEM reconstruction algorithm on the basis of computational load, convergence and contrast-to-noise. Furthermore, ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) implementations of these three algorithms are compared. Calculation of computational load and convergence for the different algorithms shows a speedup for the new method of 38 and 426 compared to the split matrix MLEM approach and the fully 3D MLEM respectively and a speedup of 16 and 21 compared to the split matrix OSEM and the fully 3D OSEM respectively. A contrast-to-noise study based on simulated data shows that our new approach has comparable accuracy as the fully 3D reconstruction method. The algorithm developed in this study allows iterative image reconstruction of rotating slat collimated SPECT data with equal image quality in a comparable amount of computation time as a classical SPECT reconstruction.

Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Staelens, Steven; De Beenhouwer, Jan; Lemahieu, Ignace [ELIS Department, MEDISIP, Ghent University, IBBT, IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Roel.VanHolen@UGent.be

2009-02-07

236

A parallel implementation of 3-d CT image reconstruction on a hypercube multiprocessor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the authors describe how image reconstruction in computerized tomography (CT) can be parallelized on a message-passing multiprocessor. In particular, the results obtained from parallel implementation of 3-D CT image reconstruction for parallel beam geometries on the Intel hypercube, iPSC/2, are presented. A two stage pipelining approach is employed for filtering (convolution) and backprojection. The conventional sequential convolution algorithm is modified such that the symmetry of the filter kernel is fully utilized for parallelization. In the backprojection stage, the 3-D incremental algorithm, the authors' recently developed backprojection scheme which is shown to be faster than conventional algorithm, is parallelized

237

3-D reconstruction of a dynamic environment with a fully calibrated background for traffic scenes  

OpenAIRE

Vision-based traffic surveillance systems are more and more employed for traffic moni-toring, collection of statistical data and traffic control. We present an extension of such a sys-tem that additionally uses the captured image content for 3D scene modeling and reconstruc-tion. A basic goal of surveillance systems is to get a good coverage of the observed area with as few cameras as possible to keep the costs low. Therefore the 3D reconstruction has to be done from only a few original views...

Mu?ller, K.; Smolic, A.; Dro?se, M.; Voigt, P.; Wiegand, T.

2005-01-01

238

3-D reconstruction of coastal bathymetry from AIRSAR/POLSAR data  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces a new method for reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) coastal bathymetry changes from Airborne AIRSAR/POLSAR synthetic aperture data. The new method is based on integration between fuzzy B-spline and Volterra algorithm. Volterra algorithm is used to simulate the ocean surface current from AIRSAR/POLSAR data. Then, the ocean surface current information used as input for continuity equation to estimate the water depths from AIRSAR/POLSAR data. This study shows that 3D ocean bathymetry can be reconstructed from AIRSAR/POLSAR data with root mean square error of ±0.03 m.

Marghany, Maged; Hashim, Mazlan; Cracknell, Arthur P.

2009-02-01

239

Evaluating the sensitivity of the optimization of acquisition geometry to the choice of reconstruction algorithm in digital breast tomosynthesis through a simulation study  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the limited number of views and limited angular span in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), the acquisition geometry design is an important factor that affects the image quality. Therefore, intensive studies have been conducted regarding the optimization of the acquisition geometry. However, different reconstruction algorithms were used in most of the reported studies. Because each type of reconstruction algorithm can provide images with its own image resolution, noise properties and artifact appearance, it is unclear whether the optimal geometries concluded for the DBT system in one study can be generalized to the DBT systems with a reconstruction algorithm different to the one applied in that study. Hence, we investigated the effect of the reconstruction algorithm on the optimization of acquisition geometry parameters through carefully designed simulation studies. Our results show that using various reconstruction algorithms, including the filtered back-projection, the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique, the maximum-likelihood method and the total-variation regularized least-square method, gave similar performance trends for the acquisition parameters for detecting lesions. The consistency of system ranking indicates that the choice of the reconstruction algorithm may not be critical for DBT system geometry optimization.

Zeng, Rongping; Park, Subok; Bakic, Predrag; Myers, Kyle J.

2015-02-01

240

Evaluating the sensitivity of the optimization of acquisition geometry to the choice of reconstruction algorithm in digital breast tomosynthesis through a simulation study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the limited number of views and limited angular span in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), the acquisition geometry design is an important factor that affects the image quality. Therefore, intensive studies have been conducted regarding the optimization of the acquisition geometry. However, different reconstruction algorithms were used in most of the reported studies. Because each type of reconstruction algorithm can provide images with its own image resolution, noise properties and artifact appearance, it is unclear whether the optimal geometries concluded for the DBT system in one study can be generalized to the DBT systems with a reconstruction algorithm different to the one applied in that study. Hence, we investigated the effect of the reconstruction algorithm on the optimization of acquisition geometry parameters through carefully designed simulation studies. Our results show that using various reconstruction algorithms, including the filtered back-projection, the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique, the maximum-likelihood method and the total-variation regularized least-square method, gave similar performance trends for the acquisition parameters for detecting lesions. The consistency of system ranking indicates that the choice of the reconstruction algorithm may not be critical for DBT system geometry optimization. PMID:25591807

Zeng, Rongping; Park, Subok; Bakic, Predrag; Myers, Kyle J

2015-02-01

241

Clinical application of 3D reconstruction of tracheobronchial tree with electron beam CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the clinical promise of CT 3D reconstruction of tracheobronchial tree (TBT) by analyzing 73 cases retrospectively. Methods: All the 73 cases were collected from October 1997 to February 2000, who were scanned by EBCT with 130 kV and 630 mA. The scanning method was continuous volume scan, the slice thickness were 3 mm or 1.5 mm. All cross-sectional images were transmitted to the INSIGHT workstation and reconstructed with SSD (shaded surface display), and the threshold setting were -500 to -300 HU. Results: 3D reconstruction of TBT with EBCT could reveal the abnormal changes of TBT by many kinds of diseases including central cancer, inflammation, bronchiectasis, saber-sheath trachea, trachea cancer, congenital disorders, post-surgical changes of lung cancer, and stenoses by adjacent benign or malignant diseases. It could be used to locate the stenoses and measure stenotic extent. Of the 35 central cancer cases with 3D reconstruction, 6 cases were pestle obstructed, 15 cases cone obstructed, 5 cases interrupted irregularly, 8 cases with eccentric stenoses, and 1 case with right stem destroyed and right upper lobe bronchus obstructed. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction of TBT has characteristic sign in the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of central airway's benign or malignant stenoses, and it is of instructional value in clinical use

242

Grammar-based Automatic 3D Model Reconstruction from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data  

Science.gov (United States)

The automatic reconstruction of 3D buildings has been an important research topic during the last years. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to automatically reconstruct the 3D building models from segmented data based on pre-defined formal grammar and rules. Such segmented data can be extracted e.g. from terrestrial or mobile laser scanning devices. Two steps are considered in detail. The first step is to transform the segmented data into 3D shapes, for instance using the DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) format which is a CAD data file format used for data interchange between AutoCAD and other program. Second, we develop a formal grammar to describe the building model structure and integrate the pre-defined grammars into the reconstruction process. Depending on the different segmented data, the selected grammar and rules are applied to drive the reconstruction process in an automatic manner. Compared with other existing approaches, our proposed method allows the model reconstruction directly from 3D shapes and takes the whole building into account.

Yu, Q.; Helmholz, P.; Belton, D.; West, G.

2014-04-01

243

Research of Texture Extraction and Mapping based on 3D Building Reconstruction  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes texture extraction and mapping methods from image of 3D building, 3D building in image can be reconstructed based on plane, through the correct input image?We propose a new method to eliminate distorted Distortion, in order to correct the texture image and estimate textures color by compensating for light color. This method avoids the middle of the process of 3D measurement. We proposed a texture mapping strategy based surface particle, a better solution to the shooting-re...

Chen Xiaogang; Zhou Zhuoyun

2012-01-01

244

3D reconstruction of patient-specific femurs using Coherent Point Drift  

OpenAIRE

This paper dealt with the problem that the overlapping digital radiographs couldn`t reflect the 3D space information of the patient-specific femur in the orthopaedic surgery diagnosis. A 2D-3D non-rigid registration method based on Coherent Point Drift was proposed to realize the 3D reconstruction of the patient-specific femur before the surgery, which used biplanar digital radiographs of the patient-specific femur and the CT volume data of a generic femur. With the advantages of low cost,...

Shaobin Sun; Zhiyong Chi; Jinwei Sun; Bin Zhang

2013-01-01

245

3D reconstruction of patient-specific femurs using Coherent Point Drift  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper dealt with the problem that the overlapping digital radiographs couldn`t reflect the 3D space information of the patient-specific femur in the orthopaedic surgery diagnosis. A 2D-3D non-rigid registration method based on Coherent Point Drift was proposed to realize the 3D reconstruction of the patient-specific femur before the surgery, which used biplanar digital radiographs of the patient-specific femur and the CT volume data of a generic femur. With the advantages of low cost, fast imaging speed and little radiation to the patients and doctors, this method provided more effective 3D imaging information for the femur diagnosis and preoperative plans. The registration experiments showed that the proposed method recovered the 3D model and the pose of the patient-specific femur effectively with a fast, accurate and robust registration result, which had satisfied the needs of clinical application.

Shaobin Sun

2013-02-01

246

Fully 3D Monte Carlo image reconstruction in SPECT using functional regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography is affected by physical effects such as photon attenuation, Compton scatter and detector response. These effects can be compensated for by modeling the corresponding spread of photons in 3D within the system matrix used for tomographic reconstruction. The fully 3D Monte Carlo (F3DMC) reconstruction technique consists in calculating this system matrix using Monte Carlo simulations. The inverse problem of tomographic reconstruction is then solved using conventional iterative algorithms such as maximum likelihood expectation maximization. Although F3DMC has already shown promising results, its use is currently limited by two major issues: huge size of the fully 3D system matrix and long computation time required for calculating a robust and accurate system matrix. To address these two issues, we propose to calculate the F3DMC system matrix using a spatial sampling matching the functional regions to be reconstructed. In this approach, different regions of interest can be reconstructed with different spatial sampling. For instance, a single value is reconstructed for a functional region assumed to contain uniform activity. To assess the value of this approach, Monte Carlo simulations have been performed using GATE. Results suggest that F3DMC reconstruction using functional regions improves quantitative accuracy compared to the F3DMC reconstruction method proposed so far. In addition, it considerably reduces far. In addition, it considerably reduces disk space requirement and duration of the simulations needed to estimate the system matrix. The concept of functional regions might therefore make F3DMC reconstruction practically feasible

247

Robust 3D Reconstruction and Identification of Dendritic Spines from Optical Microscopy Imaging  

OpenAIRE

In neuro-biology, the 3D reconstruction of neurons followed by the identification of dendritic spines is essential for studying neuronal morphology, function and biophysical properties. Most existing methods suffer from problems of low reliability, poor accuracy and require much user interaction. In this paper, we present a method to reconstruct dendrites using a surface representation of the neuron. The skeleton of the dendrite is extracted by a procedure based on the medial geodesic functio...

Janoos, Firdaus; Mosaliganti, Kishore; Xu, Xiaoyin; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Wong, Stephen T. C.

2009-01-01

248

3D Image Reconstruction for Implosion Pellet in ICF Experiment Based on Iterative Algorithms  

OpenAIRE

The projection images of implosion-pellet captured by framing cameras or pinhole cameras are two-dimensional in the inertia confinement fusion experiments. Since the two-dimensional images are lack of the depth information, therefore they are hardly used to diagnose the compression symmetry of the implosion-pellet, the 3D image of the implosion-pellet reconstructed from their two-dimensional projection images can overcome these problems. As the iterative algorithms can reconstruct the o...

Xishun Liu; Songhua He; Shaorong Chen; Jianping Xia; Hanzhong Guo

2013-01-01

249

3D reconstruction and analysis of the fragmented grains in a composite material  

OpenAIRE

X-ray microtomography from solid propellant allows studying the microstructure of fragmented grains in damaged samples. A new reconstruction algorithm of fragmented grains for 3D images is introduced. Based on a watershed transform of a morphological closing of the input image, the algorithm can be used  with different sets of markers. Two of them are compared. After the grain reconstruction, a multiscale segmentation  algorithm is used to extract each fragment of the damaged grains. T...

Luc Gillibert; Dominique Jeulin

2013-01-01

250

List-mode MLEM Image Reconstruction from 3D ML Position Estimates  

OpenAIRE

Current thick detectors used in medical imaging allow recording many attributes, such as the 3D location of interaction within the scintillation crystal and the amount of energy deposited. An efficient way of dealing with these data is by storing them in list-mode (LM). To reconstruct the data, maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) is efficiently applied to the list-mode data, resulting in the list-mode maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (LMMLEM) reconstruction algorithm.

Caucci, Luca; Hunter, William C. J.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Barrett, Harrison H.

2010-01-01

251

3D Reconstruction from X-ray Fluoroscopy for Clinical Veterinary Medicine using Differential Volume Rendering  

Science.gov (United States)

3D reconstruction from ordinary X-ray equipment which is not CT or MRI is required in clinical veterinary medicine. Authors have already proposed a 3D reconstruction technique from X-ray photograph to present bone structure. Although the reconstruction is useful for veterinary medicine, the thechnique has two problems. One is about exposure of X-ray and the other is about data acquisition process. An x-ray equipment which is not special one but can solve the problems is X-ray fluoroscopy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for 3D-reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine. Fluoroscopy is usually used to observe a movement of organ or to identify a position of organ for surgery by weak X-ray intensity. Since fluoroscopy can output a observed result as movie, the previous two problems which are caused by use of X-ray photograph can be solved. However, a new problem arises due to weak X-ray intensity. Although fluoroscopy can present information of not only bone structure but soft tissues, the contrast is very low and it is very difficult to recognize some soft tissues. It is very useful to be able to observe not only bone structure but soft tissues clearly by ordinary X-ray equipment in the field of clinical veterinary medicine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method to determine opacity in volume rendering process. The opacity is determined according to 3D differential coefficient of 3D reconstruction. This differential volume rendering can present a 3D structure image of multiple organs volumetrically and clearly for clinical veterinary medicine. This paper shows results of simulation and experimental investigation of small dog and evaluation by veterinarians.

Khongsomboon, Khamphong; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Shozo

252

Accident or homicide--virtual crime scene reconstruction using 3D methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis and reconstruction of forensically relevant events, such as traffic accidents, criminal assaults and homicides are based on external and internal morphological findings of the injured or deceased person. For this approach high-tech methods are gaining increasing importance in forensic investigations. The non-contact optical 3D digitising system GOM ATOS is applied as a suitable tool for whole body surface and wound documentation and analysis in order to identify injury-causing instruments and to reconstruct the course of event. In addition to the surface documentation, cross-sectional imaging methods deliver medical internal findings of the body. These 3D data are fused into a whole body model of the deceased. Additional to the findings of the bodies, the injury inflicting instruments and incident scene is documented in 3D. The 3D data of the incident scene, generated by 3D laser scanning and photogrammetry, is also included into the reconstruction. Two cases illustrate the methods. In the fist case a man was shot in his bedroom and the main question was, if the offender shot the man intentionally or accidentally, as he declared. In the second case a woman was hit by a car, driving backwards into a garage. It was unclear if the driver drove backwards once or twice, which would indicate that he willingly injured and killed the woman. With this work, we demonstrate how 3D documentation, data merging and animation enable to answer reconstructive questions regarding the dynamic development of patterned injuries, and how this leads to a real data based reconstruction of the course of event. PMID:22727689

Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Räss, Beat; Jackowski, Christian; Thali, Michael J

2013-02-10

253

Error Evaluation in a Stereovision-Based 3D Reconstruction System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work presented in this paper deals with the performance analysis of the whole 3D reconstruction process of imaged objects, specifically of the set of geometric primitives describing their outline and extracted from a pair of images knowing their associated camera models. The proposed analysis focuses on error estimation for the edge detection process, the starting step for the whole reconstruction procedure. The fitting parameters describing the geometric features composing the workpiece to be evaluated are used as quality measures to determine error bounds and finally to estimate the edge detection errors. These error estimates are then propagated up to the final 3D reconstruction step. The suggested error analysis procedure for stereovision-based reconstruction tasks further allows evaluating the quality of the 3D reconstruction. The resulting final error estimates enable lastly to state if the reconstruction results fulfill a priori defined criteria, for example, fulfill dimensional constraints including tolerance information, for vision-based quality control applications for example.

Kohler Sophie

2010-01-01

254

High speed stereoscopic shadowgraph imaging and its digital 3D reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A stereoscopic shadowgraph system has been developed based on the conventional z-type schlieren configuration. The test volume is set at the intersection of two inclined converging beams formed by two pairs of parabolic mirrors. Two synchronized high speed cameras are applied to record the shadowgraph image pairs simultaneously. A precisely etched metal mesh plate is used to calibrate the stereoscopic shadowgraph system. By combining the calibration parameters and coordinates of the matching points in stereo images, the depth information and the 3D view of the shadowgraph images are obtained. A crystal block with internal 3D images created by laser etching is used as a model for static object reconstruction and validation. The 3D coordinates obtained by the digital 3D reconstruction are in good agreement with the real dimensions. The developed stereoscopic technique is then applied to investigate the bursting dynamics of a bubble. The time resolved bubble-bursting process has been reconstructed successfully. The quantitative velocity measurement reveals that the bubble collapses at a constant velocity of around 7 m s?1, which corresponds to a high Weber number. As a result, finger-like structures are observable around the rim of the collapsing bubble. The stereoscopic shadowgraph technique has been shown to be effective for 3D visualization and quantitative measurement

255

Encryption and volumetric 3D object reconstruction using multispectral computational integral imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new method for three-dimensional (3D) scene acquisition via reconstruction with multispectral information and its Fourier-based encryption using computational integral imaging, by which the field of view, resolution, and information security are increased, respectively. The color imaging sensors covered with a Bayer color filter array captures elemental images (EI) at different spectral bands (400 and 700 nm intervals in the visible spectrum). Subsequently, double random phase encryption (DRPE) in the Fourier domain is employed on Bayer formatted EI to encrypt the captured 3D scene. Proper 3D object reconstruction only can be achieved by applying inverse decryption and a geometric ray backpropagation algorithm on the encrypted EI. Further, the high-resolution multispectral 3D scene can be visualized by using various adaptive interpolation algorithms. To objectively evaluate our proposed method, we carried out computational experiments for 3D object sensing, reconstruction, and digital simulations for DRPE. Experiment results validate the feasibility and robustness of our proposed approach, even under severe degradation. PMID:25322135

Muniraj, Inbarasan; Kim, Byoungho; Lee, Byung-Guen

2014-09-20

256

3D Reconstruction of Cultural Values at the Regional History Museum-Veliko Tarnovo  

OpenAIRE

The project paper presents the work done by the Regional History Museum – Veliko Tarnovo (RHM) on 3D reconstruction of cultural values and objects from the Veliko Tarnovo region – the St Peter and St Paul church in Veliko Tarnovo, the chorus of the metropolitan Nativity church in Arbanassi and the St. Dimitar church in Arbanassi.

Sabev, Plamen

2012-01-01

257

A Novel Image Compression Algorithm for High Resolution 3D Reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This research presents a novel algorithm to compress high-resolution images for accurate structured light 3D reconstruction. Structured light images contain a pattern of light and shadows projected on the surface of the object, which are captured by the sensor at very high resolutions. Our algorithm is concerned with compressing such images to a high degree with minimum loss without adversely affecting 3D reconstruction. The Compression Algorithm starts with a single level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for decomposing an image into four sub-bands. The sub-band LL is transformed by DCT yielding a DC-matrix and an AC-matrix. The Minimize-Matrix-Size Algorithm is used to compress the AC-matrix while a DWT is applied again to the DC-matrix resulting in LL2, HL2, LH2 and HH2 sub-bands. The LL2 sub-band is transformed by DCT, while the Minimize-Matrix-Size Algorithm is applied to the other sub-bands. The proposed algorithm has been tested with images of different sizes within a 3D reconstruction scenario. The algorithm is demonstrated to be more effective than JPEG2000 and JPEG concerning higher compression rates with equivalent perceived quality and the ability to more accurately reconstruct the 3D models.

Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.

2014-06-01

258

List-mode MLEM Image Reconstruction from 3D ML Position Estimates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current thick detectors used in medical imaging allow recording many attributes, such as the 3D location of interaction within the scintillation crystal and the amount of energy deposited. An efficient way of dealing with these data is by storing them in list-mode (LM). To reconstruct the data, maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) is efficiently applied to the list-mode data, resulting in the list-mode maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (LMMLEM) reconstruction algorithm.In this work, we consider a PET system consisting of two thick detectors facing each other. PMT outputs are collected for each coincidence event and are used to perform 3D maximum-likelihood (ML) position estimation of location of interaction. The mathematical properties of the ML estimation allow accurate modeling of the detector blur and provide a theoretical framework for the subsequent estimation step, namely the LMMLEM reconstruction. Indeed, a rigorous statistical model for the detector output can be obtained from calibration data and used in the calculation of the conditional probability density functions for the interaction location estimates.Our implementation of the 3D ML position estimation takes advantage of graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware and permits accurate real-time estimates of position of interaction. The LMMLEM algorithm is then applied to the list of position estimates, and the 3D radiotracer distribution is reconstructed on a voxel grid. PMID:21841906

Caucci, Luca; Hunter, William C J; Furenlid, Lars R; Barrett, Harrison H

2010-10-01

259

Some Methods of Applied Numerical Analysis to 3d Facial Reconstruction Software  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the collective work performed by medical doctors from the University Of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara and engineers from the Politechnical Institute Timisoara in the effort to create the first Romanian 3d reconstruction software based on CT or MRI scans and to test the created software in clinical practice.

Ro?u, ?erban; Iane?, Emilia; Ro?u, Doina

2010-09-01

260

3D tomographic reconstruction from 2D data using spherical harmonics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tomographic reconstruction of a 3D object in terms of spherical harmonics from a smaller number of 2D data sets is shown to be possible in cases of objects of high symmetry and/or low shape anisotropy. A test case using an object of cubic symmetry shows that the reconstruction can work well in such high symmetry cases when only two or three data directions are available. Numerical tests suggest that reconstructions are best done from data taken in low symmetry directions

261

3D reconstruction techniques made easy: know-how and pictures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three-dimensional reconstructions represent a visual-based tool for illustrating the basis of three-dimensional post-processing such as interpolation, ray-casting, segmentation, percentage classification, gradient calculation, shading and illumination. The knowledge of the optimal scanning and reconstruction parameters facilitates the use of three-dimensional reconstruction techniques in clinical practise. The aim of this article is to explain the principles of multidimensional image processing in a pictorial way and the advantages and limitations of the different possibilities of 3D visualisation. (orig.)

Luccichenti, Giacomo; Sabatini, Umberto [IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Cademartiri, Filippo; Krestin, Gabriel P. [University of Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pezzella, Francesca Romana [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Neurological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Runza, Giuseppe; Midiri, Massimo [University of Palermo, Department of Radiology, Palermo (Italy); Belgrano, Manuel [University of Trieste, Deparment of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Bastianello, Stefano [University of Pavia, Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurology, IRCCS Fondazione C. Mondino, Pavia (Italy)

2005-10-01

262

Weighted backprojection approach to cone beam 3D projection reconstruction for truncated spherical detection geometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new analytical three-dimensional cone beam reconstruction algorithm is presented for truncated spherical detection geometry. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is the formation of spatially invariant 3D blurred back-projected volumetric image by the use of the weighted backprojection of cone beam projection data and subsequent 3D filtering using an acceptance angle dependent ? filter. The backprojection weighting function is calculated on the basis of each given geometrical condition, i.e., detection geometry or degree of truncation, position of cone beam apex, and backprojection point. The proposed algorithm is derived analytically and is computationally efficient. Performance of the algorithm is evaluated by the reconstruction of 3D volumetric images using simulated data from arbitrarily truncated spherical detector geometries

263

Non-periodic 3-D motion estimation and reconstruction of coronary stents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

C-arm CT enables 3-D imaging at high spatial resolution. Image quality would be sufficient for coronary artery stents at rest. However, spatial resolution is severely degraded by cardiac motion which needs to be considered in the reconstruction step. Existing approaches are based on detecting markers in the projection images. Based on the exact marker locations in all images, motion estimation and compensation is performed in the 2-D projection image domain and thus no 3-D motion information of the stent is available. In this paper a novel method for computing the non-periodic location of the stent markers in 3-D is proposed. The motion estimation step comprises marker detection in 2-D, computation of periodic 3-D motion and computation of non-periodic 3-D motion. For motion compensation the 3- D marker positions are used to compute an affine motion model as input for a motion compensated FDK reconstruction algorithm. First clinical results suggest a high image quality and the possibility to compute physiological parameters e.g. velocity curves. (orig.)

264

Evaluation of a 3D point cloud tetrahedral tomographic reconstruction method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tomographic reconstruction on an irregular grid may be superior to reconstruction on a regular grid. This is achieved through an appropriate choice of the image space model, the selection of an optimal set of points and the use of any available prior information during the reconstruction process. Accordingly, a number of reconstruction-related parameters must be optimized for best performance. In this work, a 3D point cloud tetrahedral mesh reconstruction method is evaluated for quantitative tasks. A linear image model is employed to obtain the reconstruction system matrix and five point generation strategies are studied. The evaluation is performed using the recovery coefficient, as well as voxel- and template-based estimates of bias and variance measures, computed over specific regions in the reconstructed image. A similar analysis is performed for regular grid reconstructions that use voxel basis functions. The maximum likelihood expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm is used. For the tetrahedral reconstructions, of the five point generation methods that are evaluated, three use image priors. For evaluation purposes, an object consisting of overlapping spheres with varying activity is simulated. The exact parallel projection data of this object are obtained analytically using a parallel projector, and multiple Poisson noise realizations of these exact data are generated and reconstructed using the different point generation strategies. The unconstrained generation strategies. The unconstrained nature of point placement in some of the irregular mesh-based reconstruction strategies has superior activity recovery for small, low-contrast image regions. The results show that, with an appropriately generated set of mesh points, the irregular grid reconstruction methods can out-perform reconstructions on a regular grid for mathematical phantoms, in terms of the performance measures evaluated.

265

A practical approach to test the scope of FIB-SEM 3D reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

State-of-the-art focused ion beam (FIB) instruments have an ion column for sample modification and an electron column for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 3D reconstruction of a sample volume can be achieved by serial sectioning using the FIB in combination with high-resolution SEM imaging of each cross-section. Usually, the resolution in the direction in which the sections are milled (z-direction) is much lower than in the plane of the cross-section (xy-direction) itself. Increased sampling in the z-direction can only be achieved by decreasing the distance between single sections. For a constant volume this is equivalent to increasing the number of sections, i.e. time and effort. To perform efficient 3D reconstructions the effect of the reduced sampling in the z-direction to the overall accuracy of the 3D reconstruction has to be known. We tested this approach with FIB conical test structures that were slice-and-view processed and subsequently reconstructed. Using a reference data set with a slice thickness (z-resolution) of 22 nm, data with z-resolutions ranging from 44 nm to 440 nm were created and reconstructed with commercial software. The calculated volumes for the simulated z-resolutions and their deviations from the reference volume are shown. Deviations of up to 35% occur and reach about 10% once the z-resolution was one fifth of the upper diameter of the conical structures.

266

Mutual information as a measure of reconstruction quality in 3D dynamic lung EIT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on a pilot study with healthy subjects who had an MR scan in addition to EIT data acquired with the Manchester fEITER system. The MR images are used to inform the external shape of a 3D EIT reconstruction model of the thorax, and small changes in the boundary that occur during respiration are addressed by incorporating the sensitivity with respect to boundary shape into a robust reconstruction algorithm. A quantitative comparison of the image quality for different EIT reconstructions is achieved through calculation of their mutual information with a segmented MR image. A shape corrected reconstruction algorithm reduces boundary artefacts relative to a standard reconstruction, and has a greater mutual information of approximately 4% with the segmented MR image.

267

Modifications in SIFT-based 3D reconstruction from image sequence  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we aim to reconstruct 3D points of the scene from related images. Scale Invariant Feature Transform( SIFT) as a feature extraction and matching algorithm has been proposed and improved for years and has been widely used in image alignment and stitching, image recognition and 3D reconstruction. Because of the robustness and reliability of the SIFT's feature extracting and matching algorithm, we use it to find correspondences between images. Hence, we describe a SIFT-based method to reconstruct 3D sparse points from ordered images. In the process of matching, we make a modification in the process of finding the correct correspondences, and obtain a satisfying matching result. By rejecting the "questioned" points before initial matching could make the final matching more reliable. Given SIFT's attribute of being invariant to the image scale, rotation, and variable changes in environment, we propose a way to delete the multiple reconstructed points occurred in sequential reconstruction procedure, which improves the accuracy of the reconstruction. By removing the duplicated points, we avoid the possible collapsed situation caused by the inexactly initialization or the error accumulation. The limitation of some cases that all reprojected points are visible at all times also does not exist in our situation. "The small precision" could make a big change when the number of images increases. The paper shows the contrast between the modified algorithm and not. Moreover, we present an approach to evaluate the reconstruction by comparing the reconstructed angle and length ratio with actual value by using a calibration target in the scene. The proposed evaluation method is easy to be carried out and with a great applicable value. Even without the Internet image datasets, we could evaluate our own results. In this paper, the whole algorithm has been tested on several image sequences both on the internet and in our shots.

Wei, Zhenzhong; Ding, Boshen; Wang, Wei

2014-11-01

268

Grating-based phase contrast tomosynthesis imaging: Proof-of-concept experimental studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: This paper concerns the feasibility of x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) tomosynthesis imaging using a grating-based DPC benchtop experimental system, which is equipped with a commercial digital flat-panel detector and a medical-grade rotating-anode x-ray tube. An extensive system characterization was performed to quantify its imaging performance. Methods: The major components of the benchtop system include a diagnostic x-ray tube with a 1.0 mm nominal focal spot size, a flat-panel detector with 96 ?m pixel pitch, a sample stage that rotates within a limited angular span of ±30°, and a Talbot-Lau interferometer with three x-ray gratings. A total of 21 projection views acquired with 3° increments were used to reconstruct three sets of tomosynthetic image volumes, including the conventional absorption contrast tomosynthesis image volume (AC-tomo) reconstructed using the filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm with the ramp kernel, the phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (PC-tomo) reconstructed using FBP with a Hilbert kernel, and the differential phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (DPC-tomo) reconstructed using the shift-and-add algorithm. Three inhouse physical phantoms containing tissue-surrogate materials were used to characterize the signal linearity, the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the three-dimensional noise power spectrum (3D NPS), and the through-plane artifact spread function (ASF). Results: While DPC-tomo highlights edges and interfaces in the image object, PC-tomo removes the differential nature of the DPC projection data and its pixel values are linearly related to the decrement of the real part of the x-ray refractive index. The SDNR values of polyoxymethylene in water and polystyrene in oil are 1.5 and 1.0, respectively, in AC-tomo, and the values were improved to 3.0 and 2.0, respectively, in PC-tomo. PC-tomo and AC-tomo demonstrate equivalent ASF, but their noise characteristics quantified by the 3D NPS were found to be different due to the difference in the tomosynthesis image reconstruction algorithms. Conclusions: It is feasible to simultaneously generate x-ray differential phase contrast, phase contrast, and absorption contrast tomosynthesis images using a grating-based data acquisition setup. The method shows promise in improving the visibility of several low-density materials and therefore merits further investigation.

Li, Ke; Ge, Yongshuai; Garrett, John; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

2014-01-15

269

Grating-based phase contrast tomosynthesis imaging: Proof-of-concept experimental studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This paper concerns the feasibility of x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) tomosynthesis imaging using a grating-based DPC benchtop experimental system, which is equipped with a commercial digital flat-panel detector and a medical-grade rotating-anode x-ray tube. An extensive system characterization was performed to quantify its imaging performance. Methods: The major components of the benchtop system include a diagnostic x-ray tube with a 1.0 mm nominal focal spot size, a flat-panel detector with 96 ?m pixel pitch, a sample stage that rotates within a limited angular span of ±30°, and a Talbot-Lau interferometer with three x-ray gratings. A total of 21 projection views acquired with 3° increments were used to reconstruct three sets of tomosynthetic image volumes, including the conventional absorption contrast tomosynthesis image volume (AC-tomo) reconstructed using the filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm with the ramp kernel, the phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (PC-tomo) reconstructed using FBP with a Hilbert kernel, and the differential phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (DPC-tomo) reconstructed using the shift-and-add algorithm. Three inhouse physical phantoms containing tissue-surrogate materials were used to characterize the signal linearity, the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the three-dimensional noise power spectrum (3D NPS), and the through-plane artifact spread function (ASF). Results: While DPC-tomo highlights edges and interfaces in the image object, PC-tomo removes the differential nature of the DPC projection data and its pixel values are linearly related to the decrement of the real part of the x-ray refractive index. The SDNR values of polyoxymethylene in water and polystyrene in oil are 1.5 and 1.0, respectively, in AC-tomo, and the values were improved to 3.0 and 2.0, respectively, in PC-tomo. PC-tomo and AC-tomo demonstrate equivalent ASF, but their noise characteristics quantified by the 3D NPS were found to be different due to the difference in the tomosynthesis image reconstruction algorithms. Conclusions: It is feasible to simultaneously generate x-ray differential phase contrast, phase contrast, and absorption contrast tomosynthesis images using a grating-based data acquisition setup. The method shows promise in improving the visibility of several low-density materials and therefore merits further investigation

270

Ab initio high-resolution single-particle 3D reconstructions: the symmetry adapted functions way.  

Science.gov (United States)

A protocol to attain high-resolution single-particle reconstructions is presented. The protocol is the concatenation of two procedures: one to obtain an ab initio low-resolution reconstruction, the other to determine a fixed point of the consecutive applications of fast projection matching and 3D reconstruction. It is a reciprocal space formulation where the Fourier coefficients of the 3D scattering density are expressed in terms of symmetry adapted functions and the 2D particle images are represented by their Fourier-Bessel transforms. The new protocol shows advantages in terms of speed and accuracy when compared to other methods currently in use. We illustrate its performance as applied to high-resolution cryo-electron micrographs of rotavirus. PMID:20599509

Estrozi, Leandro F; Navaza, Jorge

2010-12-01

271

3D High Resolution l1-SPIRiT Reconstruction on Gadgetron based Cloud : no. 1882  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Applying non-linear reconstruction to high resolution 3D MRI is challenging because of the lengthy computing time needed for those iterative algorithms. To achieve practical processing duration to enable clinical usage of non-linear reconstruction, we have extended previously published Gadgetron framework to support distributed computing in a cloud environment. This extension is named GT-Plus. A cloud version of 3D l1-SPIRiT was implemented on the GT-Plus framework. We demonstrate that a 3mins reconstruction could be achieved for 1mm3 isotropic resolution neuro scans with significantly improved image quality using two dimensional acceleration factors of R=3×2 and 3×3

Xue, Hui; Kelmann, Peter

272

Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell and its state. Chromosome analysis is significant in the detection of deceases and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The algorithm incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

Babu, S; Liao, P; Shin, M C; Tsap, L V

2004-04-28

273

External force back-projective composition and globally deformable optimization for 3-D coronary artery reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical value of the 3D reconstruction of a coronary artery is important for the diagnosis and intervention of cardiovascular diseases. This work proposes a method based on a deformable model for reconstructing coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images acquired from different angles. First, an external force back-projective composition model is developed to determine the external force, for which the force distributions in different views are back-projected to the 3D space and composited in the same coordinate system based on the perspective projection principle of x-ray imaging. The elasticity and bending forces are composited as an internal force to maintain the smoothness of the deformable curve. Second, the deformable curve evolves rapidly toward the true vascular centerlines in 3D space and angiographic images under the combination of internal and external forces. Third, densely matched correspondence among vessel centerlines is constructed using a curve alignment method. The bundle adjustment method is then utilized for the global optimization of the projection parameters and the 3D structures. The proposed method is validated on phantom data and routine angiographic images with consideration for space and re-projection image errors. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for the reconstruction of coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images. The proposed method can achieve a mean space error of 0.564 mm and a mean re-projection error of 0.349 mm. PMID:24503518

Yang, Jian; Cong, Weijian; Chen, Yang; Fan, Jingfan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

2014-02-21

274

Uncertainty assessment of imaging techniques for the 3D reconstruction of stent geometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a quantitative assessment of uncertainty for the 3D reconstruction of stents. This study investigates a CP stent (Numed, USA) used in congenital heart disease applications with a focus on the variance in measurements of stent geometry. The stent was mounted on a model of patient implantation site geometry, reconstructed from magnetic resonance images, and imaged using micro-computed tomography (CT), conventional CT, biplane fluoroscopy and optical stereo-photogrammetry. Image data were post-processed to retrieve the 3D stent geometry. Stent strut length, separation angle and cell asymmetry were derived and repeatability was assessed for each technique along with variation in relation to ?CT data, assumed to represent the gold standard. The results demonstrate the performance of biplanar reconstruction methods is comparable with volumetric CT scans in evaluating 3D stent geometry. Uncertainty on the evaluation of strut length, separation angle and cell asymmetry using biplanar fluoroscopy is of the order ±0.2mm, 3° and 0.03, respectively. These results support the use of biplanar fluoroscopy for in vivo measurement of 3D stent geometry and provide quantitative assessment of uncertainty in the measurement of geometric parameters. PMID:24894028

Cosentino, Daria; Zwierzak, Iwona; Schievano, Silvia; Díaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa; Fenner, John W; Narracott, Andrew J

2014-08-01

275

Multi-view 3D scene reconstruction using ant colony optimization techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a new method performing high-quality 3D object reconstruction of complex shapes derived from multiple, calibrated photographs of the same scene. The novelty of this research is found in two basic elements, namely: (i) a novel voxel dissimilarity measure, which accommodates the elimination of the lighting variations of the models and (ii) the use of an ant colony approach for further refinement of the final 3D models. The proposed reconstruction procedure employs a volumetric method based on a novel projection test for the production of a visual hull. While the presented algorithm shares certain aspects with the space carving algorithm, it is, nevertheless, first enhanced with the lightness compensating image comparison method, and then refined using ant colony optimization. The algorithm is fast, computationally simple and results in accurate representations of the input scenes. In addition, compared to previous publications, the particular nature of the proposed algorithm allows accurate 3D volumetric measurements under demanding lighting environmental conditions, due to the fact that it can cope with uneven light scenes, resulting from the characteristics of the voxel dissimilarity measure applied. Besides, the intelligent behavior of the ant colony framework provides the opportunity to formulate the process as a combinatorial optimization problem, which can then be solved by means of a colony of cooperating artificial ants, resulting in very promising results. The method is validated with several real datasets, along with qualitative comparisons with other state-of-the-art 3D reconstruction techniques, following the Middlebury benchmark. (paper)

276

Assessment of multi-directional MTF for breast tomosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed to assess the multi-directional modulation transfer function (MTF) of breast tomosynthesis imaging systems using a sphere phantom. The method was initially developed based on a simulation dataset. Projections were simulated for a uniform voxelized breast phantom with sphere inserts using a fluence modeled from a 28 kVp beam incident upon an indirect flat-panel detector. Based on cascaded systems modeling, characteristic noise and blurring were added to each projection. The projections were reconstructed using a standard filtered backprojection technique, producing a 3D volume with an isotropic voxel size of 200 µm. ROIs that completely encompassed single spheres were extracted and conical regions were prescribed along the three major axes extending from the centroids. Pixels within the cones were used to form edge spread functions (ESFs), from which the directional MTFs were calculated. Binning size and conical range were adjusted to maximize the accuracy and to minimize the noise of the MTF. A method was further devised to remove out-of-plane artifacts from the ESF in the x-y plane. Finally, the method was applied to experimentally assess the directional MTF of a prototype tomosynthesis system. Comparisons of the sphere-based MTF along the different axes and the theoretical MTF yielded good agreement. A 30° angular cone and a 20 µm sampling were found to provide an ideal trade-off between the noise and accuracy of the measurement. The removal of artifacts in ESF yielded ‘modified’ MTFs that enabled a resolution-only characterization of the in-slice resolution of tomosynthesis. Drop-off frequencies in the x- and y-directional MTFs were 1.6 cycles mm-1 and 1.5 cycles mm-1, respectively. The presented method of separating the effective resolution and artifacts from the measured ESF was found experimentally implementable and is expected to facilitate the interpretation of MTF measurements in tomosynthesis.

Samei, E.; Murphy, S.; Richard, S.

2013-03-01

277

Assessment of multi-directional MTF for breast tomosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method was developed to assess the multi-directional modulation transfer function (MTF) of breast tomosynthesis imaging systems using a sphere phantom. The method was initially developed based on a simulation dataset. Projections were simulated for a uniform voxelized breast phantom with sphere inserts using a fluence modeled from a 28 kVp beam incident upon an indirect flat-panel detector. Based on cascaded systems modeling, characteristic noise and blurring were added to each projection. The projections were reconstructed using a standard filtered backprojection technique, producing a 3D volume with an isotropic voxel size of 200 µm. ROIs that completely encompassed single spheres were extracted and conical regions were prescribed along the three major axes extending from the centroids. Pixels within the cones were used to form edge spread functions (ESFs), from which the directional MTFs were calculated. Binning size and conical range were adjusted to maximize the accuracy and to minimize the noise of the MTF. A method was further devised to remove out-of-plane artifacts from the ESF in the x–y plane. Finally, the method was applied to experimentally assess the directional MTF of a prototype tomosynthesis system. Comparisons of the sphere-based MTF along the different axes and the theoretical MTF yielded good agreement. A 30° angular cone and a 20 µm sampling were found to provide an ideal trade-off between the noise and accuracy of the measurement. The remoaccuracy of the measurement. The removal of artifacts in ESF yielded ‘modified’ MTFs that enabled a resolution-only characterization of the in-slice resolution of tomosynthesis. Drop-off frequencies in the x- and y-directional MTFs were 1.6 cycles mm?1 and 1.5 cycles mm?1, respectively. The presented method of separating the effective resolution and artifacts from the measured ESF was found experimentally implementable and is expected to facilitate the interpretation of MTF measurements in tomosynthesis. (paper)

278

Applicability of 3D-CT facial reconstruction for forensic individual identification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is used in several clinical dentistry applications even by axial slices and two and three-dimensional reconstructed images (2D-CT and 3D-CT. The purpose of the current study is to assess the precision of linear measurements made in 3D-CT using craniometric patterns for individual identification in Forensic Dentistry. Five cadaver heads were submitted to a spiral computed tomography using axial slices, and 3D-CT reconstructions were obtained by volume rendering technique with computer graphics tools. Ten (10 craniometric measurements were determined in 3D-CT images by two examiners independently, twice each, and the standard error of intra- and inter-examiner measurements was assessed. The results demonstrated a low standard error of those measurements, from 0.85% to 3.09%. In conclusion, the linear measurements obtained in osseous and soft tissue structures were considered to be precise in 3D-CT with high imaging quality and resolution.

Rocha Sara dos Santos

2003-01-01

279

3D Reconstruction of Static Human Body with a Digital Camera  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays the interest in 3D reconstruction and modeling of real humans is one of the most challenging problems and a topic of great interest. The human models are used for movies, video games or ergonomics applications and they are usually created with 3D scanner devices. In this paper a new method to reconstruct the shape of a static human is presented. Our approach is based on photogrammetric techniques and uses a sequence of images acquired around a standing person with a digital still video camera or with a camcorder. First the images are calibrated and orientated using a bundle adjustment. After the establishment of a stable adjusted image block, an image matching process is performed between consecutive triplets of images. Finally the 3D coordinates of the matched points are computed with a mean accuracy of ca 2 mm by forward ray intersection. The obtained point cloud can then be triangulated to generate a surface model of the body or a virtual human model can be fitted to the recovered 3D data. Results of the 3D human point cloud with pixel color information are presented.

Remondino, Fabio

2003-01-01

280

Recursive 3D-reconstruction of structured scenes using a moving camera - application to robotics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis is devoted to the perception of a structured environment, and proposes a new method which allows a 3D-reconstruction of an interesting part of the world using a mobile camera. Our work is divided into three essential parts dedicated to 2D-information aspect, 3D-information aspect, and a validation of the method. In the first part, we present a method which produces a topologic and geometric image representation based on 'segment' and 'junction' features. Then, a 2D-matching method based on a hypothesis prediction and verification algorithm is proposed to match features issued from two successive images. The second part deals with 3D-reconstruction using a triangulation technique, and discuses our new method introducing an 'Estimation-Construction-Fusion' process. This ensures a complete and accurate 3D-representation, and a permanent position estimation of the camera with respect to the model. The merging process allows refinement of the 3D-representation using a powerful tool: a Kalman Filter. In the last part, experimental results issued from simulated and real data images are reported to show the efficiency of the method. (author)

281

Reconstruction of 3-D cloud geometry using a scanning cloud radar  

Science.gov (United States)

Clouds are one of the main reasons of uncertainties in the forecasts of weather and climate. In part, this is due to limitations of remote sensing of cloud microphysics. Present approaches often use passive spectral measurements for the remote sensing of cloud microphysical parameters. Large uncertainties are introduced by three dimensional (3-D) radiative transfer effects and cloud inhomogeneities. Such effects are largely caused by unknown orientation of cloud sides or by shadowed areas on the cloud. Passive ground based remote sensing of cloud properties at high spatial resolution could be improved crucially with this kind of additional knowledge of cloud geometry. To this end, a method for the accurate reconstruction of 3-D cloud geometry from cloud radar measurements is developed in this work. Using a radar simulator and simulated passive measurements of static LES model clouds, the effects of different radar scan resolutions and varying interpolation methods are evaluated. In reality a trade-off between scan resolution and scan duration has to be found as clouds are changing quickly. A reasonable choice is a scan resolution of 1 to 2°. The most suitable interpolation procedure identified is the barycentric interpolation method. The 3-D reconstruction method is demonstrated using radar scans of convective cloud cases with the Munich miraMACS, a 35 GHz scanning cloud radar. As a successful proof of concept, camera imagery collected at the radar location is reproduced for the observed cloud cases via 3-D volume reconstruction and 3-D radiative transfer simulation. Data sets provided by the presented reconstruction method will aid passive spectral ground-based measurements of cloud sides to retrieve microphysical parameters.

Ewald, F.; Winkler, C.; Zinner, T.

2014-11-01

282

Reconstruction of 3-D cloud geometry using a scanning cloud radar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clouds are one of the main reasons of uncertainties in the forecasts of weather and climate. In part, this is due to limitations of remote sensing of cloud microphysics. Present approaches often use passive spectral measurements for the remote sensing of cloud microphysical parameters. Large uncertainties are introduced by three dimensional (3-D radiative transfer effects and cloud inhomogeneities. Such effects are largely caused by unknown orientation of cloud sides or by shadowed areas on the cloud. Passive ground based remote sensing of cloud properties at high spatial resolution could be improved crucially with this kind of additional knowledge of cloud geometry. To this end, a method for the accurate reconstruction of 3-D cloud geometry from cloud radar measurements is developed in this work. Using a radar simulator and simulated passive measurements of static LES model clouds, the effects of different radar scan resolutions and varying interpolation methods are evaluated. In reality a trade-off between scan resolution and scan duration has to be found as clouds are changing quickly. A reasonable choice is a scan resolution of 1 to 2°. The most suitable interpolation procedure identified is the barycentric interpolation method. The 3-D reconstruction method is demonstrated using radar scans of convective cloud cases with the Munich miraMACS, a 35 GHz scanning cloud radar. As a successful proof of concept, camera imagery collected at the radar location is reproduced for the observed cloud cases via 3-D volume reconstruction and 3-D radiative transfer simulation. Data sets provided by the presented reconstruction method will aid passive spectral ground-based measurements of cloud sides to retrieve microphysical parameters.

F. Ewald

2014-11-01

283

Minimizing camera-eye optical aberrations during the 3D reconstruction of retinal structures  

Science.gov (United States)

3D reconstruction of blood vessels is a powerful visualization tool for physicians, since it allows them to refer to qualitative representation of their subject of study. In this paper we propose a 3D reconstruction method of retinal vessels from fundus images. The reconstruction method propose herein uses images of the same retinal structure in epipolar geometry. Images are preprocessed by RISA system for segmenting blood vessels and obtaining feature points for correspondences. The correspondence points process is solved using correlation. The LMedS analysis and Graph Transformation Matching algorithm are used for outliers suppression. Camera projection matrices are computed with the normalized eight point algorithm. Finally, we retrieve 3D position of the retinal tree points by linear triangulation. In order to increase the power of visualization, 3D tree skeletons are represented by surfaces via generalized cylinders whose radius correspond to morphological measurements obtained by RISA. In this paper the complete calibration process including the fundus camera and the optical properties of the eye, the so called camera-eye system is proposed. On one hand, the internal parameters of the fundus camera are obtained by classical algorithms using a reference pattern. On the other hand, we minimize the undesirable efects of the aberrations induced by the eyeball optical system assuming that contact enlarging lens corrects astigmatism, spherical and coma aberrations are reduced changing the aperture size and eye refractive errors are suppressed adjusting camera focus during image acquisition. Evaluation of two self-calibration proposals and results of 3D blood vessel surface reconstruction are presented.

Aldana-Iuit, Javier; Martinez-Perez, M. Elena; Espinosa-Romero, Arturo; Diaz-Uribe, Rufino

2010-05-01

284

Use of 3D MR reconstructions in the evaluation of glenoid bone loss: a clinical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the ability of 3D MR shoulder reconstructions to accurately quantify glenoid bone loss in the clinical setting using findings at the time of arthroscopy as the gold standard. Retrospective review of patients with MR shoulder studies that included 3D MR reconstructions (3D MR) produced using an axial Dixon 3D-T1W-FLASH sequence at our institution was conducted with the following inclusion criteria: history of anterior shoulder dislocation, arthroscopy (OR) performed within 6 months of the MRI, and an estimate of glenoid bone loss made in the OR using the bare-spot method. Two musculoskeletal radiologists produced estimates of bone loss along the glenoid width, measured in mm and %, on 3D MR using the best-fit circle method, which were then compared to the OR measurements. There were a total of 15 patients (13 men, two women; mean age, 28, range, 19-51 years). There was no significant difference, on average, between the MRI (mean 3.4 mm/12.6 %; range, 0-30 %) and OR (mean, 12.7 %; range, 0-30 %) measurements of glenoid bone loss (p = 0.767). A 95 % confidence interval for the mean absolute error extended from 0.45-2.21 %, implying that, when averaged over all patients, the true mean absolute error of the MRI measurements relative to the OR measurements is expected to be less than 2.21 %. Inter-reader agreement between the two readers had an IC of 0.92 and CC of 0.90 in terms of percentage of bone loss. 3D MR reconstructions of the shoulder can be used to accurately measure glenoid bone loss. (orig.)

285

Compton scatter and randoms corrections for origin ensembles 3D PET reconstructions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work we develop a novel approach to correction for scatter and randoms in reconstruction of data acquired by 3D positron emission tomography (PET) applicable to tomographic reconstruction done by the origin ensemble (OE) approach. The statistical image reconstruction using OE is based on calculation of expectations of the numbers of emitted events per voxel based on complete-data space. Since the OE estimation is fundamentally different than regular statistical estimators such those based on the maximum likelihoods, the standard methods of implementation of scatter and randoms corrections cannot be used. Based on prompts, scatter, and random rates, each detected event is graded in terms of a probability of being a true event. These grades are utilized by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm used in OE approach for calculation of the expectation over the complete-data space of the number of emitted events per voxel (OE estimator). We show that the results obtained with the OE are almost identical to results obtained by the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm for reconstruction for experimental phantom data acquired using Siemens Biograph mCT 3D PET/CT scanner. The developed correction removes artifacts due to scatter and randoms in investigated 3D PET datasets. (orig.)

286

3D dose reconstruction for clinical evaluation of IMRT pretreatment verification with an EPID  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: Pretreatment verification with an electronic portal imaging device is an important part of our patient-specific quality assurance program for advanced treatment techniques. Up to now, this verification has been performed for over 400 IMRT patient plans. For every treatment field, a 2D portal dose image (PDI) is measured and compared with a predicted PDI. Often it is not straightforward to interpret dose deviations found in these 2D comparisons in terms of clinical implications for the patient. Therefore, a method to derive the 3D patient dose based on the measured PDIs was implemented. Methods and materials: For reconstruction of the 3D patient dose, the actual fluences delivered by the accelerator are derived from measured portal dose images using an iterative method. The derived fluence map for each beam direction is then used as input for the treatment planning system to generate an adapted 3D patient dose distribution. The accuracy of this method was assessed by measurements in a water phantom. Clinical evaluation of the 3D dose reconstruction was performed for 17 IMRT patients with different tumor sites. Dose differences with respect to the original treatment plan were evaluated in individual CT slices using dose difference maps and a 3D ? analysis and by comparing dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Results: The measurements indicated that the accuracy of the 3D dose reconstruction was within 2%/2 mm. For the patients observed dose differenceFor the patients observed dose differences with respect to the original plan were generally within 2%, except at the field edges and in the sharp dose gradients around the planning target volume (PTV). Gamma analysis showed that the dose differences were within 2%/2 mm for more than 95% of the points in all cases. Differences in DVH parameters for the PTV and organs at risk were also within 2% in nearly all cases. Conclusion: A method to derive actual delivered fluence maps from measured PDIs and to use them to reconstruct the 3D patient dose was implemented. The reconstruction eases the estimation of the clinical relevance of observed dose differences in the pretreatment measurements

287

3D reconstruction of hollow parts analyzing images acquired by a fiberscope  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified fiberscope used to reconstruct difficult-to-reach inner structures is presented. By substituting the fiberscope’s original illumination system, we can project a profile-revealing light line inside the object of study. The light line is obtained using a sandwiched power light-emitting diode (LED) attached to an extension arm on the tip of the fiberscope. Profile images from the interior of the object are then captured by a camera attached to the fiberscope’s eyepiece. Using a series of those images at different positions, the system is capable of generating a 3D reconstruction of the object with submillimeter accuracy. Also proposed is the use of a combination of known filters to remove the honeycomb structures produced by the fiberscope and the use of ring gages to obtain the extrinsic parameters of the camera attached to the fiberscope and the metrological traceability of the system. Several standard ring diameter measurements were compared against their certified values to improve the accuracy of the system. To exemplify an application, a 3D reconstruction of the interior of a refrigerator duct was conducted. This reconstruction includes accuracy assessment by comparing the measurements of the system to a coordinate measuring machine. The system, as described, is capable of 3D reconstruction of the interior of objects with uniform and non-uniform profiles from 10 to 60 mm in transversal dimensions and a depth of 1000 mm if the material of the walls of the object is translucent and allows the detection of the power LED light from the exterior through the wall. If this is not possible, we propose the use of a magnetic scale which reduces the working depth to 170 mm. The assessed accuracy is around ±0.15 mm in 2D cross-section reconstructions and ±1.3 mm in 1D position using a magnetic scale, and ±0.5 mm using a CCD camera.

Icasio-Hernández, Octavio; Gonzalez-Barbosa, José-Joel; Hurtado-Ramos, Juan B.; Viliesid-Alonso, Miguel

2014-07-01

288

CAVAREV-an open platform for evaluating 3D and 4D cardiac vasculature reconstruction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 3D reconstruction of cardiac vasculature, e.g. the coronary arteries, using C-arm CT (rotational angiography) is an active and challenging field of research. There are numerous publications on different reconstruction techniques. However, there is still a lack of comparability of achieved results for several reasons: foremost, datasets used in publications are not open to public and thus experiments are not reproducible by other researchers. Further, the results highly depend on the vasculature motion, i.e. cardiac and breathing motion patterns which are also not comparable across publications. We aim to close this gap by providing an open platform, called Cavarev (CArdiac VAsculature Reconstruction EValuation). It features two simulated dynamic projection datasets based on the 4D XCAT phantom with contrasted coronary arteries which was derived from patient data. In the first dataset, the vasculature undergoes a continuous periodic motion. The second dataset contains aperiodic heart motion by including additional breathing motion. The geometry calibration and acquisition protocol were obtained from a real-world C-arm system. For qualitative evaluation of the reconstruction results, the correlation of the morphology is used. Two segmentation-based quality measures are introduced which allow us to assess the 3D and 4D reconstruction quality. They are based on the spatial overlap of the vasculature reconstruction with the ground truth. The measures enable a comprehensive analysis and comparison of reconstruction results independent from the utilized reconstruction algorithm. An online platform (www.cavarev.com) is provided where the datasets can be downloaded, researchers can manage and publish algorithm results and download a reference C++ and Matlab implementation.

Rohkohl, Christopher; Hornegger, Joachim [Pattern Recognition Lab, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Lauritsch, Guenter [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Keil, Andreas, E-mail: christopher.rohkohl@informatik.uni-erlangen.d, E-mail: guenter.lauritsch@siemens.co, E-mail: andreas.keil@cs.tum.ed, E-mail: joachim.hornegger@informatik.uni-erlangen.d [Computer Aided Medical Procedures and Augmented Reality, TU Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-05-21

289

3D Reconstruction of Neurons from Confocal Image Stacks and Visualization of Computational Modeling Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we perform precise geometrical 3D reconstructions of high complex neuronal architectures. First, confocal microscopy was used to scan neurons with submicron resolution. Second, we extracted the center-lines and diameters of the neuron by means of our reconstruction method, and third we used these metric data to generate compartment models that were transported into the proprietary format of modeling software such as NEURON or GENESIS. Fourth, routines were developed in the scripting language of the respective modeling program to perform computational modeling, and finally we transferred the modeling results to the visualization program AMIRA (Indeed Visual Concepts GmbH).

Schönknecht, Susanne; Duch, Carsten; Obermayer, Klaus; Sibila, Michael

290

Reconstruction of 3D Radar Targets from Profile Functions in Arbitrary Directions with Level-set  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The profile function of an object is defined as its transverse cross-sectional area versus distance along the observing direction and it is used by the ramp response technique to identify radar targets. Existing reconstruction algorithms have good performance with profile functions from 3 mutually orthogonal directions, while they give distorted results otherwise. To solve this inverse problem, we use the level set method, which iteratively deforms the shape of the target under a velocity field. An appropriate velocity is used and satisfactory reconstructed 3D images are presented for arbitrary directions

291

Application of 3D Photo-reconstruction techniques in Geomorphology: Examples through different landforms and scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments made in tri-dimensional photo-reconstruction techniques (3D-PR), such as the use of Structure from Motion (SfM) and MultiView Stereo (MVS) techniques together, have allowed obtaining high resolution 3D point clouds. In order to achieve final point clouds with these techniques, only oblique images from consumer un-calibrated and non-metric cameras are needed. Here, these techniques are used in order to measure, monitor and quantify geomorphological features and processes. Three different applications through a range of scales and landforms are presented here. Firstly, five small gully headcuts located in a small catchment in SW Spain were monitored with the aim of estimating headcut retreat rates. During this field work, 3D models obtained by means of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) were captured and used as benchmarks to analyze 3D-PR method accuracy. Results of this analysis showed centimeter-level accuracies with average distances between the 3D-PR model and the TLS model ranging from 0.009 to 0.025 m. Estimated soil loss ranged from -0.246 m3 to 0.114 m3 for a wet period (289 mm) of 54 days in 2013. Secondly, a calanchi type badland in Sicily (Italy) was photo-reconstructed and the quality of the 3D-PR model was analyzed using a Digital Elevation Model produced by classic digital photogrammetry with photos captured by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). In this case, sub-meter calculated accuracies (0.30) showed that it is possible to describe badland morphology using 3D-PR models but it is not feasible to use these models to quantify annual rates of soil erosion in badlands (10 mm eroded per year). Finally, a high-resolution model of the Veleta rock glacier (in SE Spain) was elaborated with 3D-PR techniques and compared with a 3D model obtained by means of a TLS. Results indicated that 3D-PR method can be applied to the micro-scale study of glacier morphologies and processes with average distances to the TLS point cloud of 0.21 m.

Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Susanne, Schnabel; Conoscenti, Christian; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie A.; Ferro, Vito; di Stefano, Constanza; Juan de Sanjosé, José; Berenguer-Sempere, Fernando; de Matías, Javier

2014-05-01

292

Scapular fracture complicating suprascapular neuropathy: the role of computed tomography with 3D reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 43-year-old man who sustained a head injury with left frontal hematoma after being hit by a falling steel plate. He had persistent left shoulder pain but plain film could not clearly demonstrate the suspected scapular fracture, which was finally confirmed by 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructed computed tomography (CT). With the presence of fractures at the base of the coracoid process and the neck of the glenoid process of the scapula, suspected suprascapular neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Despite atrophied muscle bulk of the supraspinatus, the patient showed good functional results after nonsurgical treatment. We suggest the use of CT with 3D reconstruction in patients with persistent shoulder pain, marked weakness and suspected scapular fracture not clearly demonstrated on plain film for better evaluation of the extent and complication of the fracture. PMID:19541572

Chan, Chi-Min; Chung, Chin-Teng; Lan, Howard Haw-Chung

2009-06-01

293

3D RECONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE FRAGMENTED GRAINS IN A COMPOSITE MATERIAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available X-ray microtomography from solid propellant allows studying the microstructure of fragmented grains in damaged samples. A new reconstruction algorithm of fragmented grains for 3D images is introduced. Based on a watershed transform of a morphological closing of the input image, the algorithm can be used  with different sets of markers. Two of them are compared. After the grain reconstruction, a multiscale segmentation  algorithm is used to extract each fragment of the damaged grains. This allows an original quantitative study of the  fragmentation of each grain in 3D. Experimental results on X-ray microtomographic images of a solid propellant fragmented under compression are presented and validated.

Luc Gillibert

2013-06-01

294

Reconstruction of 3D solid objects from 2D orthographic views  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to design an automatic system for transform 2D orthographic views to 3D solid objects. The input drawing contains geometric information of lines and circles. The reconstructed objects may be boxes, cylinders and their composites. This system used AutoCAD as a drawing tool. An input 2D orthographic view was created by using this package drawing editor. By using data interchange file (DXF) capabilities the application programs can access AutoCAD database. The script facility was used to execute the set of drawing commands which will create a continuous running display for output. The system was implemented in 7 steps. First, the 2D drawing was created and saved in ASCII code. Then DXF file was created and extracted into drawing commands. The transitional sweep operation was used to reconstruct subparts. The relationships between subparts are utilized to compose the final part. Finally the 3D solid object was displayed.

Hosomura, Tsukasa

1995-09-01

295

Renal Tumor Cryoablation Planning. The Efficiency of Simulation on Reconstructed 3D CT Scan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nephron-sparing surgical techniques risks are related to tumor relationships with adjacent anatomic structures. Complexity of the renal anatomy drives the interest to develop tools for 3D reconstruction and surgery simulation. The aim of the article was to assess the simulation on reconstructed 3D CT scan used for planning the cryoablation. Material & Method: A prospective randomized study was performed between Jan. 2007 and July 2009 on 27 patients who underwent retroperitoneoscopic T1a renal tumors cryoablation (RC. All patients were assessed preoperatively by CT scan, also used for 3D volume rendering. In the Gr.A, the patients underwent surgery planning by simulation on 3D CT scan. In the Gr.B., patients underwent standard RC. The two groups were compared in terms of surgical time, bleeding, postoperative drainage, analgesics requirement, hospital stay, time to socio-professional reintegration. Results: Fourteen patients underwent preoperative cryoablation planning (Gr.A and 13 patients underwent standard CR (Gr.B. All parameters analyzed were shorter in the Gr.A. On multivariate logistic regression, only shortens of the surgical time (138.79±5.51 min. in Gr.A. vs. 140.92±5.54 min in Gr.B. and bleeding (164.29±60.22 mL in Gr.A. vs. 215.38±100.80 mL in Gr.B. achieved statistical significance (p<0.05. The number of cryoneedles assessed by simulation had a 92.52% accuracy when compared with those effectively used. Conclusions: Simulation of the cryoablation using reconstructed 3D CT scan improves the surgical results. The application used for simulation was able to accurately assess the number of cryoneedles required for tumor ablation, their direction and approach.

Ciprian Valerian LUCAN

2010-12-01

296

Improved Distance Weighted GPU-based 3D Ultrasound Reconstruction Methods  

OpenAIRE

Ultrasound is a flexible medical imaging modality with many uses, one ofthem being intra-operative imaging for use in navigation. In order to obtainthe highest possible spatial resolution and avoiding big, clunky 3D ultra-sound probes, reconstruction of many 2D ultrasound images obtained by aconventional 2D ultrasound probe with a tracking system attached has beenemployed.Earlier work in this field has yielded fast Graphical Processing Unit(GPU)-based implementations of voxel-based reconstruc...

Oygard, Tord

2014-01-01

297

Automatic 3D facial model and texture reconstruction from range scans  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a fully automatic approach to fitting a generic facial model to detailed range scans of human faces to reconstruct 3D facial models and textures with no manual intervention (such as specifying landmarks). A Scaling Iterative Closest Points (SICP) algorithm is introduced to compute the optimal rigid registrations between the generic model and the range scans with different sizes. And then a new template-fitting method, formulated in an optmization framework of minimizing th...

Xiang, G.; Ju, X.; Holt, P.

2010-01-01

298

Modèles de formation d'image génériques : calibrage et algorithmes de reconstruction 3D  

OpenAIRE

Des applications en vision artificielle exploitent des caméras très variées : fish-eye, systèmes catadioptriques et multi-caméras, etc. Ces caméras ont des caractéristiques intéressantes, dont surtout un champ de vue étendu. Le calibrage et la reconstruction 3D sont deux problèmes fondamentaux en vision artificielle. Les modèles et algorithmes pour ces problèmes sont habituellement de nature paramétrique, s'appliquent à un seul type de caméra et sont rarement capables de gérer...

Ramalingam, Srikumar

2006-01-01

299

3D Reconstruction Using Interval Methods on The Kinect Device Coupled With an IMU  

OpenAIRE

The principle behind VSLAM applications like 3D object reconstruction or indoor mapping is to estimate the spatial transformation between two large clouds of points, which represent two poses of the same scene. They can further be processed to obtain detailed surfaces. Since its introduction in 1992, the standard algorithm for finding the alignment between two point clouds is ICP (Iterative Closest Point) and its variants, combined with RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus). This paper presents a ...

Bethencourt, Aymeric; Jaulin, Luc

2012-01-01

300

3D Reconstruction Using Interval Methods on The Kinect Device Coupled With an IMU  

OpenAIRE

The principle behind VSLAM applications like 3D object reconstruction or indoor mapping is to estimate the spatial transformation between two large clouds of points, which represent two poses of the same scene. They can further be processed to obtain detailed surfaces. Since its introduction in 1992, the standard algorithm for finding the alignment between two point clouds is ICP (Iterative Closest Point) and its variants, combined with RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus). This paper presents a ...

Aymeric Bethencourt; Luc Jaulin

2013-01-01

301

Acoustic shadows detection, application to accurate reconstruction of 3D intraoperative ultrasound  

OpenAIRE

Acoustic shadows appear in ultrasound images as regions of low signal intensity after boundaries with very high acoustic impedance differences. Acoustic shadows can be viewed as informative features to detect lesions or calcifications, or can be considered as damageable artifacts for image processing tasks such as segmentation, registration or 3D reconstruction. In both cases, the detection of these acoustic shadows is useful. This paper proposes a new geometrical method to detect these shado...

Hellier, Pierre; Coupe?, Pierrick; Meyer, Pierre; Morandi, Xavier; Collins, D. Louis

2008-01-01

302

CUDA based Level Set Method for 3D Reconstruction of Fishes from Large Acoustic Data  

OpenAIRE

Acoustic images present views of underwater dynamics, even in high depths. With multi-beam echo sounders (SONARs), it is possible to capture series of 2D high resolution acoustic images. 3D reconstruction of the water column and subsequent estimation of fish abundance and fish species identification is highly desirable for planning sustainable fisheries. Main hurdles in analysing acoustic images are the presence of speckle noise and the vast amount of acoustic data. This paper presents a leve...

Sharma, Ojaswa; Anton, Franc?ois

2009-01-01

303

Optimal calibration marker mesh for 2D X-ray sensors in 3D reconstruction.  

OpenAIRE

Image intensifiers suffer from distortions due to magnetic fields. In order to use this X-ray projections images for computer-assisted medical interventions, image intensifiers need to be calibrated. Opaque markers are often used for the correction of the image distortion and the estimation of the acquisition geometry parameters. Information under the markers is then lost. In this work, we consider the calibration of image intensifiers in the framework of 3D reconstruction from several 2D X-r...

Desbat, Laurent; Mennessier, Catherine; Champleboux, Guillaume

2002-01-01

304

3D reconstruction from a monocular vision system for unmanned ground vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present a 3D reconstruction technique designed to support an autonomously navigated unmanned system. The algorithm and methods presented focus on the 3D reconstruction of a scene, with color and distance information, using only a single moving camera. In this way, the system may provide positional self-awareness for navigation within a known, GPS-denied area. It can also be used to construct a new model of unknown areas. Existing 3D reconstruction methods for GPS-denied areas often rely on expensive inertial measurement units to establish camera location and orientation. The algorithm proposed---after the preprocessing tasks of stabilization and video enhancement---performs Speeded-Up Robust Feature extraction, in which we locate unique stable points within every frame. Additional features are extracted using an optical flow method, with the resultant points fused and pruned based on several quality metrics. Each unique point is then tracked through the video sequence and assigned a disparity value used to compute the depth for each feature within the scene. The algorithm also assigns each feature point a horizontal and vertical coordinate using the camera's field of views specifications. From this, a resultant point cloud consists of thousands of feature points plotted from a particular camera position and direction, generated from pairs of sequential frames. The proposed method can use the yaw, pitch and roll information calculated from visual cues within the image data to accurately compute location and orientation. This positioning information enables the reconstruction of a robust 3D model particularly suitable for autonomous navigation and mapping tasks.

Tompkins, R. Cortland; Diskin, Yakov; Youssef, Menatoallah M.; Asari, Vijayan K.

2011-11-01

305

Three dimensional CT reconstruction: a comparison between 2D, 3D CT and original anatomical structures  

OpenAIRE

Conventional two dimensional computed tomography has provided significant advancement in clinical diagnosis with information on cross-sectional anatomy of various parts of the body. However, three dimensional representations are not directly available. This is now made possible by recent development of CAD software and CT equipments and technique such as multiplanar reformation capable of providing 3D reconstruction using 2D CT data. This article evaluates the accuracy of measurements and dim...

Markose, Eldho; Vikraman, B.; Veerabahu, M.

2009-01-01

306

Navigated Ultrasound Imaging : 3D Reconstruction of Artery Geometry and Flow  

OpenAIRE

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries and causes the arteries to harden and narrow. The diagnosis of atherosclerosis and quantification of the extent of atherosclerosis nowadays depend on conventional two-dimensional (2D) images of the arteries while the plaque progression is in three-dimensions. The main objectives of this thesis are to develop an application software that can realize three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of geometry and blood flow of ar...

Karabiyik, Yu?cel

2013-01-01

307

3D catheter reconstruction using non-rigid structure-from-motion and robotics modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical guidance during minimally invasive intervention could be greatly enhanced if the 3D location and orientation of instruments, especially catheters, is available. In this paper, we present a new method for the 3D reconstruction of deforming curvilinear objects such as catheters, using the framework of Non-Rigid Structurefrom- Motion (NRSfM). We combine NRSfM with a kinematics model from the field of Robotics, which provides a low-dimensional parametrization of the object deformation. This is used in the context of an X-ray imaging system where multiple views are acquired with a small view separation. We show that using such a kinematics model, a non-linear optimization scheme succeeds in retrieving the deformable 3D pose from the 2D projections. Experiments on synthetic and real X-ray data show promising results of the proposed method as compared to state-of-the-art NRSfM.

Papalazarou, Chrysi; Rongen, Peter M. J.; de With, Peter H. N.

2012-02-01

308

Research of Texture Extraction and Mapping based on 3D Building Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes texture extraction and mapping methods from image of 3D building, 3D building in image can be reconstructed based on plane, through the correct input image?We propose a new method to eliminate distorted Distortion, in order to correct the texture image and estimate textures color by compensating for light color. This method avoids the middle of the process of 3D measurement. We proposed a texture mapping strategy based surface particle, a better solution to the shooting-related problems such as uneven lighting, high light and block light. We proved that the method can get enough quality through experiments, while the intensity of the image with different methods shows the efficiency correction.

Chen Xiaogang

2012-09-01

309

[The development of a system for 3D reconstruction from DICOM data and collaborative visualization].  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex surgeries often need multi-disciplinary surgeons to work collaboratively and set synthesized operation plans. Aided by collaboration enabled three dimensional visualization software over network, operation plans can be made more intuitively and accurately. Because different disciplinary surgeons often work at different locations, a distributed collaboration virtue environment over network should be provided. By our knowledge, such a system does not exist yet. Toward this, we implement a platform upon Client/Server architecture over network. The 3D model is reconstructed from CT image data of DICOM format and the resulting mesh is then simplified, using the Visualization Toolkit (VTK). The simplified polygon mesh data is further seamlessly integrated into our 3D graphics system developed with the HOOPS/3DAF for displaying, where the model is converted to the lossless compression stream file format-HSF, which is suited for network transmission. Using this format, a collaboration enabled interactive visualization system is implemented upon Client/Server architecture, developed with HOOPS/NET toolkit. The reconstructed 3D model is clear, and the interactive collaboration with 3D visualization is fairly real-time. We then implemented a platform for developing collaborative surgery simulation software, into which the surgery operation simulation and prosthesis design function can be easily added. PMID:18027716

Liu, Siyan; Liao, Wenhe; Yu, Qing; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Zhang, Xiang

2007-10-01

310

Sensor Fusion of Cameras and a Laser for City-Scale 3D Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a sensor fusion system of cameras and a 2D laser sensorfor large-scale 3D reconstruction. The proposed system is designed to capture data on afast-moving ground vehicle. The system consists of six cameras and one 2D laser sensor,and they are synchronized by a hardware trigger. Reconstruction of 3D structures is doneby estimating frame-by-frame motion and accumulating vertical laser scans, as in previousworks. However, our approach does not assume near 2D motion, but estimates free motion(including absolute scale in 3D space using both laser data and image features. In orderto avoid the degeneration associated with typical three-point algorithms, we present a newalgorithm that selects 3D points from two frames captured by multiple cameras. The problemof error accumulation is solved by loop closing, not by GPS. The experimental resultsshow that the estimated path is successfully overlaid on the satellite images, such that thereconstruction result is very accurate.

Yunsu Bok

2014-11-01

311

Spiny versus stubby: 3D reconstruction of human myenteric (type I) neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have compared the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of stubby and spiny neurons derived from the human small intestine. After immunohistochemical triple staining for leu-enkephalin (ENK), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neurofilament (NF), neurons were selected and scanned based on their immunoreactivity, whether ENK (stubby) or VIP (spiny). For the 3D reconstruction, we focused on confocal data pre-processing with intensity drop correction, non-blind deconvolution, an additional compression procedure in z-direction, and optimizing segmentation reliability. 3D Slicer software enabled a semi-automated segmentation based on an objective threshold (interrater and intrarater reliability, both 0.99). We found that most dendrites of stubby neurons emerged only from the somal circumference, whereas in spiny neurons, they also emerged from the luminal somal surface. In most neurons, the nucleus was positioned abluminally in its soma. The volumes of spiny neurons were significantly larger than those of stubby neurons (total mean of stubbies 806 +/- 128 mum(3), of spinies 2,316 +/- 545 mum(3)), and spiny neurons had more dendrites (26.3 vs. 11.3). The ratios of somal versus dendritic volumes were 1:1.2 in spiny and 1:0.3 in stubby neurons. In conclusion, 3D reconstruction revealed new differences between stubby and spiny neurons and allowed estimations of volumetric data of these neuron populations. PMID:18807064

Lindig, Tobias M; Kumar, Vinod; Kikinis, Ron; Pieper, Steve; Schrödl, Falk; Neuhuber, Winfried L; Brehmer, Axel

2009-01-01

312

A Complete System for 3D Reconstruction of Roots for Phenotypic Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we present a complete system for 3D reconstruction of roots grown in a transparent gel medium or washed and suspended in water. The system is capable of being fully automated as it is self calibrating. The system starts with detection of root tips in root images from an image sequence generated by a turntable motion. Root tips are detected using the statistics of Zernike moments on image patches centred on high curvature points on root boundary and Bayes classification rule. The detected root tips are tracked in the image sequence using a multi-target tracking algorithm. Conics are fitted to the root tip trajectories using a novel ellipse fitting algorithm which weighs the data points by its eccentricity. The conics projected from the circular trajectory have a complex conjugate intersection which are image of the circular points. Circular points constraint the image of the absolute conics which are directly related to the internal parameters of the camera. The pose of the camera is computed from the image of the rotation axis and the horizon. The silhouettes of the roots and camera parameters are used to reconstruction the 3D voxel model of the roots. We show the results of real 3D reconstruction of roots which are detailed and realistic for phenotypic analysis. PMID:25381112

Kumar, Pankaj; Cai, Jinhai; Miklavcic, Stanley J

2015-01-01

313

Applicator reconstruction in MRI 3D image-based dose planning of brachytherapy for cervical cancer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To elaborate a method for applicator reconstruction for MRI-based brachytherapy for cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Custom-made plastic catheters with a copper sulphate solution were made for insertion in the source channels of MR-CT compatible applicators: plastic and titanium tandem ring applicators, and titanium needles. The applicators were CT and MR scanned in a phantom for accurate 3D assessment of applicator visibility and geometry. A reconstruction method was developed and evaluated in 19 patient MR examinations with ring applicator (plastic: 14, titanium: 5). MR applicator reconstruction uncertainties related to inter-observer variation were evaluated. RESULTS: The catheters were visible in the plastic applicator on T1-weighted images in phantom and in 14/14 clinical applications. On T2-weighted images, the catheters appeared weaker but still visible in phantom and in 13/14 MR clinical applications. In the titanium applicator, the catheters could not be separated from the artifacts from the applicator itself. However, these artifacts could be used to localize both titanium ring applicator (5/5 clinical applications) and needles (6/6 clinical applications). Standard deviations of inter-observer differences were below 2mm in all directions. CONCLUSION: 3D applicator reconstruction based on MR imaging could be performed for plastic and titanium applicators. Plastic applicators proved well to be suited for MRI-based reconstruction. For improved practicability of titanium applicator reconstruction, development of MR applicator markers is essential. Reconstruction of titanium applicator and needles at 1.5T MR requires geometric evaluations in phantoms before using the applicator in patients.

Haack, SØren; Nielsen, SØren Kynde

2009-01-01

314

Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a Circular X-ray tube: Its image reconstruction based on total-variation minimization and the image characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we introduce an effective imaging system for digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a circular X-ray tube, the so-called circular-DTS (CDTS) system, and its image reconstruction algorithm based on the total-variation (TV) minimization method for low-dose, high-accuracy X-ray imaging. Here, the X-ray tube is equipped with a series of cathodes distributed around a rotating anode, and the detector remains stationary throughout the image acquisition. We considered a TV-based reconstruction algorithm that exploited the sparsity of the image with substantially high image accuracy. We implemented the algorithm for the CDTS geometry and successfully reconstructed images of high accuracy. The image characteristics were investigated quantitatively by using some figures of merit, including the universal-quality index (UQI) and the depth resolution. For selected tomographic angles of 20, 40, and 60°, the corresponding UQI values in the tomographic view were estimated to be about 0.94, 0.97, and 0.98, and the depth resolutions were about 4.6, 3.1, and 1.2 voxels in full width at half maximum (FWHM), respectively. We expect the proposed method to be applicable to developing a next-generation dental or breast X-ray imaging system.

Park, Y. O.; Hong, D. K.; Cho, H. S.; Je, U. K.; Oh, J. E.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, W. S.; Cho, H. M.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S.

2013-09-01

315

3D nanostructure reconstruction based on the SEM imaging principle, and applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses a novel 3D reconstruction method for nanostructures based on the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging principle. In this method, the shape from shading (SFS) technique is employed, to analyze the gray-scale information of a single top-view SEM image which contains all the visible surface information, and finally to reconstruct the 3D surface morphology. It offers not only unobstructed observation from various angles but also the exact physical dimensions of nanostructures. A convenient and commercially available tool (NanoViewer) is developed based on this method for nanostructure analysis and characterization of properties. The reconstruction result coincides well with the SEM nanostructure image and is verified in different ways. With the extracted structure information, subsequent research of the nanostructure can be carried out, such as roughness analysis, optimizing properties by structure improvement and performance simulation with a reconstruction model. Efficient, practical and non-destructive, the method will become a powerful tool for nanostructure surface observation and characterization.

Zhu, Fu-Yun; Wang, Qi-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Xia

2014-05-01

316

3-D reconstruction of a human fetus with combined holoprosencephaly and cyclopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine a human fetus with combined holoprosencephaly and cyclopia by means of histology and 3-D reconstruction to determine the internal structure and extent of the malformation. Methods The head from a human fetus at 20 weeks gestation and a diagnosis of holoprosencephaly and cyclopia was investigated histologically and three-dimensionally reconstructed with CAD techniques. The cranial bones, blood vessels, nerves, eye and brain anlagen were reconstructed. Results The 3-D reconstruction revealed both severe malformation and absence of the facial midline bones above the maxilla, and a malformation of the maxilla and sphenoid bone. The mandible, posterior cranial bones, cranial nerves and blood vessels were normal. A synophthalmic eye with two lenses was found. The prosencephalon was a single small protrusion above the diencephalon. No nasal cavity was present. Above the single eye a proboscis was found. Conclusion The absence of the facial midline bones above the maxilla and the presence of a proboscis as a nose-like structure above the cyclopic eye both mean that there was a developmental defect in the fronto-nasal facial process of this fetus.

Meiselbach Veronika

2009-06-01

317

Segmentation, Reconstruction, and Analysis of Blood Thrombus Formation in 3D 2-Photon Microscopy Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We study the problem of segmenting, reconstructing, and analyzing the structure growth of thrombi (clots in blood vessels in vivo based on 2-photon microscopic image data. First, we develop an algorithm for segmenting clots in 3D microscopic images based on density-based clustering and methods for dealing with imaging artifacts. Next, we apply the union-of-balls (or alpha-shape algorithm to reconstruct the boundary of clots in 3D. Finally, we perform experimental studies and analysis on the reconstructed clots and obtain quantitative data of thrombus growth and structures. We conduct experiments on laser-induced injuries in vessels of two types of mice (the wild type and the type with low levels of coagulation factor VII and analyze and compare the developing clot structures based on their reconstructed clots from image data. The results we obtain are of biomedical significance. Our quantitative analysis of the clot composition leads to better understanding of the thrombus development, and is valuable to the modeling and verification of computational simulation of thrombogenesis.

Xu Zhiliang

2010-01-01

318

Reconstruction of 3D structure using stochastic methods: morphology and transport properties  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the main factors defining numerous flow phenomena in rocks, soils and other porous media, including fluid and solute movements, is pore structure, e.g., pore sizes and their connectivity. Numerous numerical methods were developed to quantify single and multi-phase flow in such media on microscale. Among most popular ones are: 1) a wide range of finite difference/element/volume solutions of Navier-Stokes equations and its simplifications; 2) lattice-Boltzmann method; 3) pore-network models, among others. Each method has some advantages and shortcomings, so that different research teams usually utilize more than one, depending on the study case. Recent progress in 3D imaging of internal structure, e.g., X-ray tomography, FIB-SEM and confocal microscopy, made it possible to obtain digitized input pore parameters for such models, however, a trade-off between resolution and sample size is usually unavoidable. There are situations then only standard two-dimensional information of porous structure is known due to tomography high cost or resolution limitations. However, physical modeling on microscale requires 3D information. There are three main approaches to reconstruct (using 2D cut(s) or some other limited information/properties) porous media: 1) statistical methods (correlation functions and simulated annealing, multi-point statistics, entropy methods), 2) sequential methods (sphere or other granular packs) and 3) morphological methods. Stochastic reconstructions using correlation functions possess some important advantage - they provide a statistical description of the structure, which is known to have relationships with all physical properties. In addition, this method is more flexible for other applications to characterize porous media. Taking different 3D scans of natural and artificial porous materials (sandstones, soils, shales, ceramics) we choose some 2D cut/s as sources of input correlation functions. Based on different types of correlation functions we reconstruct 3D images using. The quality of reconstructions (we compare directly original and resulting 3D images) are assessed by pore-scale simulations of flow, cluster analysis and local porosity theory analysis. We also show how these reconstructions can be utilized for upscaling and multi-scale imaging of materials with wide range of pore sizes.

Karsanina, Marina; Gerke, Kirill; ?apek, Pavel; Vasilyev, Roman; Korost, Dmitry; Skvortsova, Elena

2013-04-01

319

3D Coronal Density Reconstruction and Retrieving the Magnetic Field Structure during Solar Minimum  

CERN Document Server

Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal phenomena at all scales. We employed STEREO/COR1 data obtained during a deep minimum of solar activity in February 2008 (Carrington rotation CR 2066) to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) coronal electron density in the range of heights from 1.5 to 4 Rsun using a tomography method. With this, we qualitatively deduced structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in the 195 A band obtained by tomography for the same CR. A global 3D MHD model of the solar corona was used to relate the reconstructed 3D density and emissivity to open/closed magnetic field structures. We show that the density maximum locations can serve as an indicator of current sheet position, while the locations of the density gradient maximum can be a reliable indicator of coronal hole boundaries. We find that the magnetic field configuration du...

Kramar, M; Miki?, Z; Davila, J

2014-01-01

320

Reconstruction of 3D Human Facial Images Using Partial Differential Equations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the challenging problems in geometric modeling and computer graphics is the construction of realistic human facial geometry. Such geometry are essential for a wide range of applications, such as 3D face recognition, virtual reality applications, facial expression simulation and computer based plastic surgery application. This paper addresses a method for the construction of 3D geometry of human faces based on the use of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations (PDE. Here the geometry corresponding to a human face is treated as a set of surface patches, whereby each surface patch is represented using four boundary curves in the 3-space that formulate the appropriate boundary conditions for the chosen PDE. These boundary curves are extracted automatically using 3D data of human faces obtained using a 3D scanner. The solution of the PDE generates a continuous single surface patch describing the geometry of the original scanned data. In this study, through a number of experimental verifications we have shown the efficiency of the PDE based method for 3D facial surface reconstruction using scan data. In addition to this, we also show that our approach provides an efficient way of facial representation using a small set of parameters that could be utilized for efficient facial data storage and verification purposes.

Eyad Elyan

2007-10-01

321

Application of 3D photo-reconstruction in soil erosion studies  

Science.gov (United States)

3D photo-reconstruction (3D-PR) has been applied successfully to obtain elevation models using uncalibrated and nonmetric cameras for a range of geoscience applications (e.g. James and Robson, 2012), including gully erosion assessment (Castillo et al., 2012). However, its application in soil erosion studies is currently at the outset. The aim of this work is to compare 3D-PR with conventional techniques that have been employed traditionally for different purposes in soil erosion studies. In this preliminary work, we tested three applications that involve volume calculations: estimation of soil bulk density (BD), quantification of soil erosion at road banks (RB) and sedimentation rates behind check dams (CD). For each analysis, a PR field survey was carried out simultaneously with a conventional method (volume of water was used for BD, and total station surveys for RB and CD). For the 3D-PR technique, the accuracy as a function of the number of pictures taken was evaluated. In this study we explore the difference in the volume estimates between 3D-PR and conventional techniques as well as the time requirements for each method in order to compare their performance and optimal field of application.

Castillo, Carlos; James, Michael; Pérez, Rafael; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

2014-05-01

322

Test of 3D CT reconstructions by EM + TV algorithm from undersampled data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging for diagnosis and therapy. However, CT imaging is connected with ionization radiation exposure of patients. Therefore, the dose reduction is an essential issue in CT. In 2011, the Expectation Maximization and Total Variation Based Model for CT Reconstruction (EM+TV) was proposed. This method can reconstruct a better image using less CT projections in comparison with the usual filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Thus, it could significantly reduce the overall dose of radiation in CT. This work reports the results of an independent numerical simulation for cone beam CT geometry with alternative virtual phantoms. As in the original report, the 3D CT images of 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 virtual phantoms were reconstructed. It was not possible to implement phantoms with lager dimensions because of the slowness of code execution even by the CORE i7 CPU.

Evseev, Ivan; Ahmann, Francielle; Silva, Hamilton P. da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana - UTFPR/FB, 85601-970, Caixa Postal 135, Francisco Beltrao - PR (Brazil); Schelin, Hugo R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana-UTFPR/FB,85601-970,Caixa Postal 135,Francisco Beltrao-PR (Brazil) and Faculdades Pequeno Principe-FPP, Av. Iguacu, 333, Rebou (Brazil); Yevseyeva, Olga [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC/ARA, 88900-000, Rua Pedro Joao Pereira, 150, Ararangua - SC (Brazil); Klock, Margio C. L. [Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR Litoral, 80230-901, Rua Jaguaraiva 512, Caioba, Matinhos - PR (Brazil)

2013-05-06

323

Optical 3D Surface Reconstruction by a Multi-Period Phase Shift Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One problem of classical phase shifting for optical 3D surface reconstruction is the occurrence of ambiguities due to the use of fringe projection. We generally derive a number-theoretical approach to calculate absolute phase measurements which can be used as a base for a reliable surface reconstruction without any ambiguity. The essence of our method is the application of pattern sequences with different periods whereby we homogeneously use all pictures which were taken for the measurement. This leads to a higher average accuracy in the surface reconstruction. Furthermore we propose a technique to avoid typical calculation errors that are produced in classical phase shifting caused by discontinuities, occlusions and reflections on the surface.

Erik Lilienblum

2007-04-01

324

Contour-based models for 3D binary reconstruction in X-ray tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the reconstruction of a 3D compact homogeneous object lying inside a homogeneous background for computer aided design (CAD) or nondestructive testing (NDT) applications. Such a binary scene describes either a solid object or an homogeneous material in which a fault is sought. The goal in both cases is to reconstruct the shape of the scene from sparse radiographic data. This problem is under-determined and one needs to use all prior information about the scene to find a satisfactory solution. A natural approach is to model the exterior contour of the fault by a deformable geometric template, which we reconstruct directly from the radiographic data. In this communication, we give a synthetic view of these contour-based methods and compare their relative performances and limitations to recover complex faults

325

Test of 3D CT reconstructions by EM + TV algorithm from undersampled data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging for diagnosis and therapy. However, CT imaging is connected with ionization radiation exposure of patients. Therefore, the dose reduction is an essential issue in CT. In 2011, the Expectation Maximization and Total Variation Based Model for CT Reconstruction (EM+TV) was proposed. This method can reconstruct a better image using less CT projections in comparison with the usual filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Thus, it could significantly reduce the overall dose of radiation in CT. This work reports the results of an independent numerical simulation for cone beam CT geometry with alternative virtual phantoms. As in the original report, the 3D CT images of 128×128×128 virtual phantoms were reconstructed. It was not possible to implement phantoms with lager dimensions because of the slowness of code execution even by the CORE i7 CPU.

326

Accurate 3D reconstruction by a new PDS-OSEM algorithm for HRRT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

State-of-the-art high resolution research tomography (HRRT) provides high resolution PET images with full 3D human brain scanning. But, a short time frame in dynamic study causes many problems related to the low counts in the acquired data. The PDS-OSEM algorithm was proposed to reconstruct the HRRT image with a high signal-to-noise ratio that provides accurate information for dynamic data. The new algorithm was evaluated by simulated image, empirical phantoms, and real human brain data. Meanwhile, the time activity curve was adopted to validate a reconstructed performance of dynamic data between PDS-OSEM and OP-OSEM algorithms. According to simulated and empirical studies, the PDS-OSEM algorithm reconstructs images with higher quality, higher accuracy, less noise, and less average sum of square error than those of OP-OSEM. The presented algorithm is useful to provide quality images under the condition of low count rates in dynamic studies with a short scan time. - Highlights: • The PDS-OSEM reconstructs PET images with iteratively compensating random and scatter corrections from prompt sinogram. • The PDS-OSEM can reconstruct PET images with low count data and data contaminations. • The PDS-OSEM provides less noise and higher quality of reconstructed images than those of OP-OSEM algorithm in statistical sense

327

Direct fourier methods in 3D-reconstruction from cone-beam data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of 3D-reconstruction is encountered in both medical and industrial applications of X-ray tomography. A method able to utilize a complete set of projections complying with Tuys condition was proposed by Grangeat. His method is mathematically exact and consists of two distinct phases. In phase 1 cone-beam projection data are used to produce the derivative of the radon transform. In phase 2, after interpolation, the radon transform data are used to reconstruct the three-dimensional object function. To a large extent our method is an extension of the Grangeat method. Our aim is to reduce the computational complexity, i.e. to produce a faster method. The most taxing procedure during phase 1 is computation of line-integrals in the detector plane. By applying the direct Fourier method in reverse for this computation, we reduce the complexity of phase 1 from O(N4) to O(N3logN). Phase 2 can be performed either as a straight 3D-reconstruction or as a sequence of two 2D-reconstructions in vertical and horizontal planes, respectively. Direct Fourier methods can be applied for the 2D- and for the 3D-reconstruction, which reduces the complexity of phase 2 from O(N4) to O(N3logN) as well. In both cases, linogram techniques are applied. For 3D-reconstruction the inversion formula contains the second derivative filter instead of the well-known ramp-filter employed in the 2D-case. The derivative filter is more well-behaved than the 2D ramp-filter. This implies that less zeropadding is necessary which brings about a further reduction of the computational efforts. The method has been verified by experiments on simulated data. The image quality is satisfactory and independent of cone-beam angles. For a 5123 volume we estimate that our method is ten times faster than Grangeats method

328

3D reconstruction of internal structure of animal body using near-infrared light  

Science.gov (United States)

To realize three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging of the internal structure of animal body, we have developed a new technique to reconstruct CT images from two-dimensional (2D) transillumination images. In transillumination imaging, the image is blurred due to the strong scattering in the tissue. We had developed a scattering suppression technique using the point spread function (PSF) for a fluorescent light source in the body. In this study, we have newly proposed a technique to apply this PSF for a light source to the image of unknown light-absorbing structure. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was examined in the experiments with a model phantom and a mouse. In the phantom experiment, the absorbers were placed in the tissue-equivalent medium to simulate the light-absorbing organs in mouse body. Near-infrared light was illuminated from one side of the phantom and the image was recorded with CMOS camera from another side. Using the proposed techniques, the scattering effect was efficiently suppressed and the absorbing structure can be visualized in the 2D transillumination image. Using the 2D images obtained in many different orientations, we could reconstruct the 3D image. In the mouse experiment, an anesthetized mouse was held in an acrylic cylindrical holder. We can visualize the internal organs such as kidneys through mouse's abdomen using the proposed technique. The 3D image of the kidneys and a part of the liver were reconstructed. Through these experimental studies, the feasibility of practical 3D imaging of the internal light-absorbing structure of a small animal was verified.

Tran, Trung Nghia; Yamamoto, Kohei; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

2014-03-01

329

Ion track reconstruction in 3D using alumina-based fluorescent nuclear track detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3: C, Mg single crystal combined with confocal microscopy provide 3D information on ion tracks with a resolution only limited by light diffraction. FNTDs are also ideal substrates to be coated with cells to engineer cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors (Cell-Fit-HD). This radiobiological tool enables a novel platform linking cell responses to physical dose deposition on a sub-cellular level in proton and heavy ion therapies. To achieve spatial correlation between single ion hits in the cell coating and its biological response the ion traversals have to be reconstructed in 3D using the depth information gained by the FNTD read-out. FNTDs were coated with a confluent human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cell layer. Carbon ion irradiation of the hybrid detector was performed perpendicular and angular to the detector surface. In situ imaging of the fluorescently labeled cell layer and the FNTD was performed in a sequential read-out. Making use of the trajectory information provided by the FNTD the accuracy of 3D track reconstruction of single particles traversing the hybrid detector was studied. The accuracy is strongly influenced by the irradiation angle and therefore by complexity of the FNTD signal. Perpendicular irradiation results in highest accuracy with error of smaller than 0.10°. The ability of FNTD technology to provide accurate 3D ion track reconstruction makes it a powerful tool for radiobiological investigations in clinical ion beams, either being used as a substrate to be coated with living tissue or being implanted in vivo.

Niklas, M.; Bartz, J. A.; Akselrod, M. S.; Abollahi, A.; Jäkel, O.; Greilich, S.

2013-09-01

330

A computer simulation platform for the optimization of a breast tomosynthesis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In breast tomosynthesis there is a compromise between resolution, noise, and acquisition speed for a given glandular dose. The purpose of the present work is to develop a simulation platform to investigate the potential imaging performance for the many possible tomosynthesis system configurations. The simulation platform was used to investigate the dependence of image blur and signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) for several different tomosynthesis acquisition configurations. Simulated projections of a slanted thin tungsten wire placed in different object planes were modified according to the detector's modulation transfer function (MTF), with or without pixel binning. In addition, the focal spot blur (FSB), which depends on the location of the wire, the system geometry, the source-detector movement speed, and the exposure time, was also incorporated into the projections. Both expectation maximization (EM) and filtered back projection (FBP) based algorithms were used for 3D image reconstruction. The in-plane MTF was calculated from the reconstructed image of the wire. To evaluate the noise performance, simulated noiseless projections of calcification and tumor in uniform breast tissue were modified with the noise power spectrum (NPS) calculated from a cascaded linear system model for the detector for a given x-ray dose. The SDNR of the reconstructed images was calculated with different tomosynthesis configurations, e.g., pixel binning, view number, and angular rangxel binning, view number, and angular range. Our results showed that for a source-to-imager distance (SID) of 66 cm, pixel binning (2x2) caused more degradation to the in-plane MTF than the blur caused by the moving focal spot and reconstruction. The in-depth resolution can be improved by increasing the angular range

331

3D MRI findings of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at follow-up  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the postoperative 3D MRI appearances and their evolvement patterns of ACL grafts and bone tunnels at follow-up. Methods: There were 2,6 double bundles ACL reconstructions and 16 single bundle ACL reconstructions, and a total of 56 follow-up 3D MR Imaging. MR images were reconstructed with MPR technique to evaluate grafts, bone tunnels, fixers and associated complications. Proportions of grafts with hypointensity or hyperintensity and occurrence rates of marrow edema around bone tunnels were calculated respectively among groups of different periods after operation. Results: There were 2, 4 grafts of hypointensity and 32 grafts of hyperintensity. Grafts of 2 cases were suspended with cross pins within femoral tunnels, graft of 1 case was suspended with an endobutton within the femoral tunnel, and grafts of other sites were fixed with interference screws. In the three periods as 3 months, 6 to 9 months and over 12 months after cruciate ligament reconstruction, proportions of hypointensive grafts were 20/25, 0/14 and 4/10 respectively, while proportions of hyperintensive grafts were 5/25, 14/14 and 6/10 respectively, occurrence proportions of marrow edema around bone tunnels were 54/54, 10/32 and 4/26 respectively. There was 1 tear graft, 4 tibial tunnels placed anteriorly with ACL graft impingement on the intercondylar roof, 3 femoral tunnels placed anteriorly, and 2 bone tunnels with mismatching interference screws. Conclusion: 3D MRI can accurately demonstrate the state of ACL grafts, bone tunnels, fixers and associated complications. Intensity of grafts presented a rise and reduce pattern after operation. (authors)

332

3D reconstruction of microvascular flow phantoms with hybrid imaging modalities  

Science.gov (United States)

Microvascular flow phantoms were built to aid the development of a hemodynamic simulation model for treating hepatocelluar carcinoma. The goal is to predict the blood flow routing for embolotherapy planning. Embolization is to deliver agents (e.g. microspheres) to the vicinity of the tumor to obstruct blood supply and nutrients to the tumor, targeting into 30 - 40 ?m arterioles. Due to the size of the catheter, it has to release microspheres at an upper stream location, which may not localize the blocking effect. Accurate anatomical descriptions of microvasculature will help to conduct a reliable simulation and prepare a successful embolization strategy. Modern imaging devices can generate 3D reconstructions with ease. However, with a fixed detector size, larger field of view yields lower resolution. Clinical CT images can't be used to measure micro vessel dimensions, while micro-CT requires more acquisitions to reconstruct larger vessels. A multi-tiered, montage 3D reconstruction method with hybrid-modality imagery is devised to minimize the reconstruction effort. Regular CT is used for larger vessels and micro-CT is used for micro vessels. The montage approach aims to stitch up images with different resolutions and orientations. A resolution-adaptable 3D image registration is developed to assemble the images. We have created vessel phantoms that consist of several tiers of bifurcating polymer tubes in reducing diameters, down to 25 ?m. No previous work of physical flow phantom has ventured into this small scale. Overlapping phantom images acquired from clinical CT and micro-CT are used to verify the image registration fidelity.

Lin, Jingying; Hsiung, Kevin; Ritenour, Russell; Golzarian, Jafar

2011-03-01

333

Implementation and evaluation of a 3D one-step late reconstruction algorithm for 3D positron emission tomography brain studies using median root prior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fully three-dimensional (3D) one-step late (OSL), maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction algorithm based on the median root prior (MRP) was implemented and evaluated for the reconstruction of 3D positron emission tomography (PET) studies. The algorithm uses the ordered subsets (OS) scheme for convergence acceleration and data update during iterations. The algorithm was implemented using the software package developed within the EU project PARAPET (www.brunel.ac.uk/ masrppet). The MRP algorithm was evaluated using experimental phantom and real 3D PET brain studies. Various experimental set-ups in terms of activity distribution and counting statistics were considered. The performance of the algorithm was assessed by calculating figures of merit such as: contrast, coefficient of variation, activity ratio between two regions and full width at half of maximum for resolution measurements. The performance of MRP was compared with that of 3D ordered subsets-expectation maximisation (OSEM) and 3D re-projection (3DRP) algorithms. In all the experimental situations considered, MRP showed: (1) convergence to a stable solution, (2) effectiveness in noise reduction, particularly for low statistics data, (3) good preservation of spatial details. Compared with the OSEM and 3DRP algorithms, MRP provides comparable or better results depending on the parameters used for the reconstruction of the images. (orig.)

334

Implementation of a fully 3D system model for brain SPECT with fan- beam-collimator OSEM reconstruction with 3D total variation regularization  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve tomographically reconstructed image quality, we have implemented a fully 3D reconstruction, using an ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm for fan-beam collimator (FBC) SPECT, along with a volumetric system model-fan-volume system model (FVSM), a modified attenuation compensation, a 3D depth- and angle-dependent resolution and sensitivity correction, and a 3D total variation (TV) regularization. SPECT data were acquired in a 128x64 matrix, in 120 views with a circular orbit. The numerical Zubal brain phantom was used to simulate a FBC HMPAO Tc-99m brain SPECT scan, and a low noise and scatter-free projection dataset was obtained using the SimSET Monte Carlo package. A SPECT scan for a mini-Defrise phantom and brain HMPAO SPECT scans for five patients were acquired with a triple-head gamma camera (Triad 88) equipped with a low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) FBC. The reconstructed images, obtained using clinical filtered back projection (FBP), OSEM with a line-length system model (LLSM) and 3D TV regularization, and OSEM with FVSM and 3D TV regularization were quantitatively studied. Overall improvement in the image quality has been observed, including better axial and transaxial resolution, better integral uniformity, higher contrast-to-noise ration between the gray matter and the white matter, and better accuracy and lower bias in OSEM-FVSM, compared with OSEM-LLSM and clinical FBP.

Ye, Hongwei; Krol, Andrzej; Lipson, Edward D.; Lu, Yao; Xu, Yuesheng; Lee, Wei; Feiglin, David H.

2007-03-01

335

a Line-Based 3d Roof Model Reconstruction Algorithm: Tin-Merging and Reshaping (tmr)  

Science.gov (United States)

Three-dimensional building model is one of the major components of a cyber-city and is vital for the realization of 3D GIS applications. In the last decade, the airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is widely used for 3D building model reconstruction and object extraction. Instead, based on 3D roof structural lines, this paper presents a novel algorithm for automatic roof models reconstruction. A line-based roof model reconstruction algorithm, called TIN-Merging and Reshaping (TMR), is proposed. The roof structural line, such as edges, eaves and ridges, can be measured manually from aerial stereo-pair, derived by feature line matching or inferred from ALS data. The originality of the TMR algorithm for 3D roof modelling is to perform geometric analysis and topology reconstruction among those unstructured lines and then reshapes the roof-type using elevation information from the 3D structural lines. For topology reconstruction, a line constrained Delaunay Triangulation algorithm is adopted where the input structural lines act as constraint and their vertex act as input points. Thus, the constructed TINs will not across the structural lines. Later at the stage of Merging, the shared edge between two TINs will be check if the original structural line exists. If not, those two TINs will be merged into a polygon. Iterative checking and merging of any two neighboured TINs/Polygons will result in roof polygons on the horizontal plane. Finally, at the Reshaping stage any two structural lines with fixed height will be used to adjust a planar function for the whole roof polygon. In case ALS data exist, the Reshaping stage can be simplified by adjusting the point cloud within the roof polygon. The proposed scheme reduces the complexity of 3D roof modelling and makes the modelling process easier. Five test datasets provided by ISPRS WG III/4 located at downtown Toronto, Canada and Vaihingen, Germany are used for experiment. The test sites cover high rise buildings and residential area with diverse roof type. For performance evaluation, the adopted roof structural lines are manually measured from the provided stereo-pair. Experimental results indicate a nearly 100% success rate for topology reconstruction was achieved provided that the 3D structural lines can be enclosed as polygons. On the other hand, the success rate at the Reshaping stage is dependent on the complexity of the rooftop structure. Thus, a visual inspection and semi-automatic adjustment of roof-type is suggested and implemented to complete the roof modelling. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is robust and reliable with a high degree of completeness, correctness, and quality, even when a group of connected buildings with multiple layers and mixed roof types is processed.

Rau, J.-Y.

2012-07-01

336

Improvement image in tomosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the X-ray digital tomosynthesis (DT) reconstruction processing method for metal artifact reduction and the application of wavelet denoising to selectively remove quantum noise and suggest the possibility of image quality improvement using a novel application for chest. In orthopedic DT imaging, we developed artifact reduction methods based on a modified Shepp and Logan reconstruction filter kernel realized by taking into account additional weighing by direct current (DC) components in frequency domain space. Processing leads to an increase in the ratio of low-frequency components in an image. The effectiveness of the method in enhancing the visibility of a prosthetic case was quantified in terms of removal of ghosting artifacts. In chest DT imaging, the technique was implemented on a DT system and experimentally evaluated through chest phantom measurements, spatial resolution and compared with an existing post-reconstruction wavelet denoise algorithm by Badea et al. Our wavelet technique with balance sparsity-norm contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) effectively decreased quantum noise in the reconstructed images with and improvement when applied to pre-reconstruction image for post-reconstruction. The results of our technique showed that although modulation transfer function (MTF) did not vary (preserving spatial resolution), the existing wavelet denoise algorithm caused MTF deterioration. (author)

337

A parallel algorithm for 3D particle tracking and Lagrangian trajectory reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particle-tracking methods are widely used in fluid mechanics and multi-target tracking research because of their unique ability to reconstruct long trajectories with high spatial and temporal resolution. Researchers have recently demonstrated 3D tracking of several objects in real time, but as the number of objects is increased, real-time tracking becomes impossible due to data transfer and processing bottlenecks. This problem may be solved by using parallel processing. In this paper, a parallel-processing framework has been developed based on frame decomposition and is programmed using the asynchronous object-oriented Charm++ paradigm. This framework can be a key step in achieving a scalable Lagrangian measurement system for particle-tracking velocimetry and may lead to real-time measurement capabilities. The parallel tracking algorithm was evaluated with three data sets including the particle image velocimetry standard 3D images data set #352, a uniform data set for optimal parallel performance and a computational-fluid-dynamics-generated non-uniform data set to test trajectory reconstruction accuracy, consistency with the sequential version and scalability to more than 500 processors. The algorithm showed strong scaling up to 512 processors and no inherent limits of scalability were seen. Ultimately, up to a 200-fold speedup is observed compared to the serial algorithm when 256 processors were used. The parallel algorithm is adaptable and could be easily modified to use any sequential tracking algorithm, which inputs frames of 3D particle location data and outputs particle trajectories

338

Reconstruction of 3D tree stem models from low-cost terrestrial laser scanner data  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of increasingly advanced airborne sensing systems, there is a growing need to support sensor system design, modeling, and product-algorithm development with explicit 3D structural ground truth commensurate to the scale of acquisition. Terrestrial laser scanning is one such technique which could provide this structural information. Commercial instrumentation to suit this purpose has existed for some time now, but cost can be a prohibitive barrier for some applications. As such we recently developed a unique laser scanning system from readily-available components, supporting low cost, highly portable, and rapid measurement of below-canopy 3D forest structure. Tools were developed to automatically reconstruct tree stem models as an initial step towards virtual forest scene generation. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential of this hardware/algorithm suite to reconstruct 3D stem information for a single scan of a New England hardwood forest site. Detailed tree stem structure (e.g., taper, sweep, and lean) is recovered for trees of varying diameter, species, and range from the sensor. Absolute stem diameter retrieval accuracy is 12.5%, with a 4.5% overestimation bias likely due to the LiDAR beam divergence.

Kelbe, Dave; Romanczyk, Paul; van Aardt, Jan; Cawse-Nicholson, Kerry

2013-05-01

339

Maxillary sinus 3D segmentation and reconstruction from cone beam CT data sets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Segmentation of the maxillary sinuses for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, visualization and volumetry is sought using an automated algorithm applied to cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) data sets. Materials and methods: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data sets of three subjects aged 9, 17, and 27 were used in 3D segmentation and reconstruction. The maxillary sinuses were obtained by propagation from one start point in the right sinus and one start point in the left sinus to the whole regions of both sinuses. The procedure was based on voxel intensity distributions and common anatomic structures, specifically each middle meatus of the nasal cavity. A program was written in C++ and VTK languages to demonstrate the surface topological shapes of the maxillary sinuses. Results: The developed segmentation algorithm separated maxillary sinuses successfully permitting accurate comparisons. It was robust and efficient. 3D morphological features of the maxillary sinuses were observed from three human subjects. Conclusions: Automated segmentation of maxillary sinuses from CBCT data sets is feasible using the proposed method. This tool might be useful for visualization, pathological diagnosis, and treatment planning of maxillary sinus disorders. (orig.)

Shi, Hongjian [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Computer Vision and Image Processing Lab.; Scarfe, W.C.; Farman, A.G. [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Div. of Radiology and Imaging Science

2006-08-15

340

Web-based intermediate view reconstruction for multiview stereoscopic 3D display  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, web-based intermediate view reconstruction for multiview stereoscopic 3D display system is proposed by using stereo cameras and disparity maps, Intel Xeon server computer system and Microsoft's DirectShow programming library and its performance is analyzed in terms of image-grabbing frame rate and number of views. In the proposed system, stereo images are initially captured by using stereo digital cameras and then, these are processed in the Intel Xeon server computer system. And then, the captured two-view image data is compressed by extraction of disparity data between them and transmitted to another client system through the information network, in which the received stereo data is displayed on the 16-view stereoscopic 3D display system by using intermediate view reconstruction. The program for controlling the overall system is developed based on the Microsoft DirectShow SDK. From some experimental results, it is found that the proposed system can display 16-view 3D images with a gray of 8bits and a frame rate of 15fps in real-time.

Kim, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Won-Kyung; Ko, Jung-Hwan; Bae, Kyung-hoon; Kim, Eun-Soo

2005-08-01

341

Reconstructing 3-D skin surface motion for the DIET breast cancer screening system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital image-based elasto-tomography (DIET) is a prototype system for breast cancer screening. A breast is imaged while being vibrated, and the observed surface motion is used to infer the internal stiffness of the breast, hence identifying tumors. This paper describes a computer vision system for accurately measuring 3-D surface motion. A model-based segmentation is used to identify the profile of the breast in each image, and the 3-D surface is reconstructed by fitting a model to the profiles. The surface motion is measured using a modern optical flow implementation customized to the application, then trajectories of points on the 3-D surface are given by fusing the optical flow with the reconstructed surfaces. On data from human trials, the system is shown to exceed the performance of an earlier marker-based system at tracking skin surface motion. We demonstrate that the system can detect a 10 mm tumor in a silicone phantom breast. PMID:24770915

Botterill, Tom; Lotz, Thomas; Kashif, Amer; Chase, J Geoffrey

2014-05-01

342

A parallel algorithm for 3D particle tracking and Lagrangian trajectory reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Particle-tracking methods are widely used in fluid mechanics and multi-target tracking research because of their unique ability to reconstruct long trajectories with high spatial and temporal resolution. Researchers have recently demonstrated 3D tracking of several objects in real time, but as the number of objects is increased, real-time tracking becomes impossible due to data transfer and processing bottlenecks. This problem may be solved by using parallel processing. In this paper, a parallel-processing framework has been developed based on frame decomposition and is programmed using the asynchronous object-oriented Charm++ paradigm. This framework can be a key step in achieving a scalable Lagrangian measurement system for particle-tracking velocimetry and may lead to real-time measurement capabilities. The parallel tracking algorithm was evaluated with three data sets including the particle image velocimetry standard 3D images data set #352, a uniform data set for optimal parallel performance and a computational-fluid-dynamics-generated non-uniform data set to test trajectory reconstruction accuracy, consistency with the sequential version and scalability to more than 500 processors. The algorithm showed strong scaling up to 512 processors and no inherent limits of scalability were seen. Ultimately, up to a 200-fold speedup is observed compared to the serial algorithm when 256 processors were used. The parallel algorithm is adaptable and could be easily modified to use any sequential tracking algorithm, which inputs frames of 3D particle location data and outputs particle trajectories.

Barker, Douglas; Lifflander, Jonathan; Arya, Anshu; Zhang, Yuanhui

2012-02-01

343

ROC analysis for assessment of lesion detection performance in 3D PET: Influence of reconstruction algorithms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image quality in positron emission tomography (PET) can be assessed with physical parameters, as spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, or using psychophysical approaches, which include the observer performance and the considered task (ROC analysis). For PET in oncology, such a task is the detection of hot lesions. The aim of the present study was to assess the lesion detection performance due to adequate modeling of the scanner and the measurement process in the image reconstruction process. We compared the standard OSEM software of the manufacturer with a sophisticated fully 3D iterative reconstruction technique (USC MAP). A rectangular phantom with 6 oblique line sources in a homogeneous background (2.6 kBq/ml 18F) was imaged dynamically with an ECAT EXACT HR+ scanner in 3D mode. Reconstructed activity contrasts varied between 15 and 0, as the line sources were filled with 11C (3.2 MBq/ml). Measured attenuation and standard randoms, dead time, and scatter corrections of the manufacturer were employed. For the ROC analysis, a software tool presented a cut-out of the phantom (15x15 pixels) to two observers. These cut-outs were rated (5 classes) and the area Az under the ROC curve was determined as a measure of detection performance. The improvement for Az with USC MAP compared to the OSEM reconstructions ranged between 0.02 and 0.23 for signal-to-noise ratios of the background between 2.8 and 3.1 and lesion contrast d between 2.8 and 3.1 and lesion contrast between 2.1 and 4.2. This study demonstrates that adequate modeling of the measurement process in the reconstruction algorithm improves the detection of small hot lesions markedly

344

In-process 3D geometry reconstruction of objects produced by direct light projection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Additive manufacturing allows close-to unrestrained geometrical freedom in part design. The ability to manufacture geometries of such complexity is however limited by the difficulty of verifying the tolerances of these parts. Tolerances of features that are inaccessible with traditional measuring equipment such as coordinate measuring machines cannot be verified easily. This problem is addressed by developing an in-line reverse engineering and 3D reconstruction method that allows a true-to-scale reconstruction of a part being additively manufactured. In earlier works (Pedersen et al. 2010; Hansen et al. 2011), this method has shown its potential with 3D printing (3DP) and selective laser sintering additive manufacturing processes, where it is possible to directly capture the geometrical features of each individual layer during a build job using a digital camera. When considering the process of direct light projection (DLP), the possibility of directly capturing the geometrical features of the object during abuild job is limited by the specific machine design and the fact that photoactivated monomers often do not change optical characteristics in the polymerization process. Therefore, a variant of the previously tested and verified method has been implemented on DLP machine, where instead of capturing the geometrical features of the produced objects during the build job directly, these features are captured indirectly by capturing the reflection of the projected light projected during the build job. Test series were made, and a reconstruction of two octave spheres were produced and compared with the input CAD file and scans of the produced objects. The comparison showed a good correlation between the reconstructions and the scans considering the resolution of the images used for the reconstruction, and it was thereby concluded that the method has a promising potential as a verification method for DLP machines.

Andersen, Ulrik VØlcker; Pedersen, David Bue

2013-01-01

345

Volumetric reconstruction of the 3D boundary of stream tubes with general topology using tracer particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general method is proposed to reconstruct the volumetric interface between two fluid flows using tracer particles and 3D particle tracking techniques. The method relies on the fact that a homogeneous dispersion of tracer particles introduced in a stream tube remains confined in that tube so that the cloud of particles can be used to reconstruct the boundary of the flow covered by the stream tube. Thus it becomes possible to quantitatively determine the interface between laminar and turbulent flow regions in boundary or shear layers as well as the interface between two mixing fluids. Tracer particles, as opposed to dye tracers, have negligible diffusion and their position in the measurement volume can be precisely localized by means of 3D particle tracking methods. On the other hand, they provide a discrete representation of a continuous volume and the reconstruction of the interface cannot be implemented in a straight forward fashion. In this work, the problem of interface reconstruction, from a randomly scattered particle cloud, is addressed and two different reconstruction algorithms are proposed: one based on numeric diffusion and one based on Delaunay triangulation. The two methods are qualified and compared by means of numerical simulations using the Monte Carlo method. The simulations are used to estimate the accuracy of the method and to provide guidelines for the choice of parameter settings. Finally, results on the interface between two mixing fluids in a microfluidic mixer are shown. A resolution of 2.5 µm in the optical-axis direction, with a maximum estimated error of 5.5 µm in the three directions, was obtained

346

Object-shape recognition and 3D reconstruction from tactile sensor images.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a novel approach of edged and edgeless object-shape recognition and 3D reconstruction from gradient-based analysis of tactile images. We recognize an object's shape by visualizing a surface topology in our mind while grasping the object in our palm and also taking help from our past experience of exploring similar kind of objects. The proposed hybrid recognition strategy works in similar way in two stages. In the first stage, conventional object-shape recognition using linear support vector machine classifier is performed where regional descriptors features have been extracted from the tactile image. A 3D shape reconstruction is also performed depending upon the edged or edgeless objects classified from the tactile images. In the second stage, the hybrid recognition scheme utilizes the feature set comprising both the previously obtained regional descriptors features and some gradient-related information from the reconstructed object-shape image for the final recognition in corresponding four classes of objects viz. planar, one-edged object, two-edged object and cylindrical objects. The hybrid strategy achieves 97.62 % classification accuracy, while the conventional recognition scheme reaches only to 92.60 %. Moreover, the proposed algorithm has been proved to be less noise prone and more statistically robust. PMID:24469960

Khasnobish, Anwesha; Singh, Garima; Jati, Arindam; Konar, Amit; Tibarewala, D N

2014-04-01

347

3D Reconstruction of Coronal Loops by the Principal Component Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowing the three dimensional structure of plasma filaments in the uppermost part of the solar atmosphere, known as coronal loops, and especially their length, is an important parameter in the wave-based diagnostics of this part of the Sun. The combination of observations of the Sun from different points of observations in space, thanks to the most recent missions, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO and the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO, allows us to infer information about the geometrical shape of coronal loops in 3D space. Here, we propose a new method to reconstruct the loop shape starting from stereoscopically determined 3D points, which sample the loop length, by principal component analysis. This method is shown to retrieve in an easy way the main parameters that define the loop, e.g., the minor and major axes, the loop plane, the azimuthal and inclination angles, for the special case of a coplanar loop.

Erwin Verwichte

2013-10-01

348

Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

349

The spatial accuracy of cellular dose estimates obtained from 3D reconstructed serial tissue autoradiographs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to better predict and understand the effects of radiopharmaceuticals used for therapy, it is necessary to determine more accurately the radiation absorbed dose to cells in tissue. Using thin-section autoradiography, the spatial distribution of sources relative to the cells can be obtained from a single section with micrometre resolution. By collecting and analysing serial sections, the 3D microscopic distribution of radionuclide relative to the cellular histology, and therefore the dose rate distribution, can be established. In this paper, a method of 3D reconstruction of serial sections is proposed, and measurements are reported of (i) the accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative autoradiography and (ii) the spatial precision with which tissue features from one section can be related to adjacent sections. (Author)

350

3D reconstruction of digitized histological sections for vasculature quantification in the mouse hind limb  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast to imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and micro computed tomography, digital histology reveals multiple stained tissue features at high resolution (0.25?m/pixel). However, the two-dimensional (2D) nature of histology challenges three-dimensional (3D) quantification and visualization of the different tissue components, cellular structures, and subcellular elements. This limitation is particularly relevant to the vasculature, which has a complex and variable structure within tissues. The objective of this study was to perform a fully automated 3D reconstruction of histology tissue in the mouse hind limb preserving the accurate systemic orientation of the tissues, stained with hematoxylin and immunostained for smooth muscle ? actin. We performed a 3D reconstruction using pairwise rigid registrations of 5?m thick, paraffin-embedded serial sections, digitized at 0.25?m/pixel. Each registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm on blood vessel landmarks. Landmarks were vessel centroids, determined according to a signed distance map of each pixel to a decision boundary in hue-saturation-value color space; this decision boundary was determined based on manual annotation of a separate training set. Cell nuclei were then automatically extracted and corresponded to refine the vessel landmark registration. Homologous nucleus landmark pairs appearing on not more than two adjacent slides were chosen to avoid registrations which force curved or non-sectionorthogonal structures to be straight and section-orthogonal. The median accumulated target registration errors ± interquartile ranges for the vessel landmark registration, and the nucleus landmark refinement were 43.4+/-42.8?m and 2.9+/-1.7?m, respectively (prigid reconstruction of mouse hind limb histology imaging is feasible based on extracted vasculature and nuclei.

Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Gibson, Eli; Ward, Aaron D.

2014-03-01

351

Robust affine-invariant feature points matching for 3D surface reconstruction of complex landslide scenes  

Science.gov (United States)

Multi-view stereo surface reconstruction from dense terrestrial photographs is being increasingly applied for geoscience applications such as quantitative geomorphology, and a number of different software solution and processing streamlines have been suggested. For image matching, camera self-calibration and bundle block adjustment, most approaches make use of scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) to identify homologous points in multiple images. SIFT-like point matching is robust to apparent translation, rotation, and scaling of objects in multiple viewing geometries but the number of correctly identified matching points typically declines drastically with increasing angles between the viewpoints. For the application of multi-view stereo of complex landslide scenes, the viewing geometry is often constrained by the local topography and barriers such as rocks and vegetation occluding the target. Under such conditions it is not uncommon to encounter view angle differences of > 30% that hinder the image matching and eventually prohibit the joint estimation of the camera parameters from all views. Recently an affine invariant extension of the SIFT detector (ASIFT) has been demonstrated to provide more robust matches when large view-angle differences become an issue. In this study the ASIFT detector was adopted to detect homologous points in terrestrial photographs preceding 3D reconstruction of different parts (main scarp, toe) of the Super-Sauze landslide (Southern French Alps). 3D surface models for different time periods and different parts of the landslide were derived using the multi-view stereo framework implemented in MicMac (©IGN). The obtained 3D models were compared with reconstructions using the traditional SIFT detectors as well as alternative structure-from-motion implementations. An estimate of the absolute accuracy of the photogrammetric models was obtained through co-registration and comparison with high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR scans.

Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Allemand, Pascal; Skupinski, Grzegorz; Deseilligny, Marc-Pierrot

2013-04-01

352

Feasibility and value of fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction in single-photon emission computed tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography images is degraded by physical effects, namely photon attenuation, Compton scatter and spatially varying collimator response. The 3D nature of these effects is usually neglected by the methods used to correct for these effects. To deal with the 3D nature of the problem, a 3D projector modeling the spread of photons in 3D can be used in iterative tomographic reconstruction. The 3D projector can be estimated analytically with some approximations, or using precise Monte Carlo simulations. This latter approach has not been applied to fully 3D reconstruction yet due to impractical storage and computation time. The goal of this paper was to determine the gain to be expected from fully 3D Monte Carlo (F3DMC) modeling of the projector in iterative reconstruction, compared to conventional 2D and 3D reconstruction methods. As a proof-of-concept, two small datasets were considered. The projections of the two phantoms were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation code GATE, as well as the corresponding projector, by taking into account all physical effects (attenuation, scatter, camera point spread function) affecting the imaging process. F3DMC was implemented by using this 3D projector in a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative reconstruction. To assess the value of F3DMC, data were reconstructed using four methods: filtered backprojection, MLEM without attenuation correction (MLEM), MLEM with attenuation correction, Jaszczak scatter correction and 3D correction for depth-dependent spatial resolution using an analytical model (MLEMC) and F3DMC. Our results suggest that F3DMC improves mainly imaging sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR): sensitivity is multiplied by about 10 3 and SNR is increased by 20-70% compared to MLEMC. Computation of a more robust projector and application of the method on more realistic datasets are currently under investigation.

Lazaro, Delphine; Breton, Vincent; Buvat, Irène

2004-07-01

353

Feasibility and value of fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction in single-photon emission computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accuracy of Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography images is degraded by physical effects, namely photon attenuation, Compton scatter and spatially varying collimator response. The 3D nature of these effects is usually neglected by the methods used to correct for these effects. To deal with the 3D nature of the problem, a 3D projector modeling the spread of photons in 3D can be used in iterative tomographic reconstruction. The 3D projector can be estimated analytically with some approximations, or using precise Monte Carlo simulations. This latter approach has not been applied to fully 3D reconstruction yet due to impractical storage and computation time. The goal of this paper was to determine the gain to be expected from fully 3D Monte Carlo (F3DMC) modeling of the projector in iterative reconstruction, compared to conventional 2D and 3D reconstruction methods. As a proof-of-concept, two small datasets were considered. The projections of the two phantoms were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation code GATE, as well as the corresponding projector, by taking into account all physical effects (attenuation, scatter, camera point spread function) affecting the imaging process. F3DMC was implemented by using this 3D projector in a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative reconstruction. To assess the value of F3DMC, data were reconstructed using four methods: filtered backprojection, MLEM without attenuation correction (MLEM), MLEM with attenuation correction, Jaszczak scatter correction and 3D correction for depth-dependent spatial resolution using an analytical model (MLEMC) and F3DMC. Our results suggest that F3DMC improves mainly imaging sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR): sensitivity is multiplied by about 10{sup 3} and SNR is increased by 20-70% compared to MLEMC. Computation of a more robust projector and application of the method on more realistic datasets are currently under investigation.

Lazaro, Delphine; Breton, Vincent; Buvat, Irene

2004-07-11

354

Feasibility and value of fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction in single-photon emission computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accuracy of Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography images is degraded by physical effects, namely photon attenuation, Compton scatter and spatially varying collimator response. The 3D nature of these effects is usually neglected by the methods used to correct for these effects. To deal with the 3D nature of the problem, a 3D projector modeling the spread of photons in 3D can be used in iterative tomographic reconstruction. The 3D projector can be estimated analytically with some approximations, or using precise Monte Carlo simulations. This latter approach has not been applied to fully 3D reconstruction yet due to impractical storage and computation time. The goal of this paper was to determine the gain to be expected from fully 3D Monte Carlo (F3DMC) modeling of the projector in iterative reconstruction, compared to conventional 2D and 3D reconstruction methods. As a proof-of-concept, two small datasets were considered. The projections of the two phantoms were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation code GATE, as well as the corresponding projector, by taking into account all physical effects (attenuation, scatter, camera point spread function) affecting the imaging process. F3DMC was implemented by using this 3D projector in a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative reconstruction. To assess the value of F3DMC, data were reconstructed using four methods: filtered backprojection, MLEM without attenuation correction (MLEM), MLEM with atttenuation correction (MLEM), MLEM with attenuation correction, Jaszczak scatter correction and 3D correction for depth-dependent spatial resolution using an analytical model (MLEMC) and F3DMC. Our results suggest that F3DMC improves mainly imaging sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR): sensitivity is multiplied by about 103 and SNR is increased by 20-70% compared to MLEMC. Computation of a more robust projector and application of the method on more realistic datasets are currently under investigation

355

Implementation of the Hough Transform for 3D Track Reconstruction in Drift Chambers  

OpenAIRE

The paper is devoted to the method for 3D reconstruction of the straight tracks in the tracking system consisting of the drift-chamber stereo layers. The method is based on the Hough-transform approach - the discrete case of more general Radon transform - and takes into account both coordinates of the hit wires and drift distances not only for the measurements in one projection, but also in the rotated stereo layers. The proposed method allows one to resolve the right-left...

Belkov, Ar

2002-01-01

356

Implementation of the Hough Transform for 3D Track Reconstruction in Drift Chambers  

CERN Document Server

The paper is devoted to the method for 3D reconstruction of the straight tracks in the tracking system consisting of the drift-chamber stereo layers. The method is based on the Hough-transform approach - the discrete case of more general Radon transform - and takes into account both coordinates of the hit wires and drift distances not only for the measurements in one projection, but also in the rotated stereo layers. The proposed method allows one to resolve the right-left ambiguity and provides the accordance between vertical and horizontal projections of the track.

Belkov, A A

2002-01-01

357

Molecular-Frame 3D Photoelectron Momentum Distributions by Tomographic Reconstruction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Naphthalene molecules are fixed in space by a laser field and rotated, in 2° steps, over 180°. For each orientation, they are ionized by an intense, circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulse, and the 2D projection of the photoelectron momentum distribution is recorded. The molecular-frame 3D momentum distribution is obtained by tomographic reconstruction from all 90 projections. It reveals an anisotropic electron distribution, angularly shifted in the polarization plane, that is not accessible by the 2D momentum images. Our theoretical analysis shows that the magnitude of the angular shift is very sensitive to the exact form of the laser-modified molecular potential.

Maurer, Jochen; Dimitrovski, Darko

2012-01-01

358

Cryptotomography: reconstructing 3D Fourier intensities from randomly oriented single-shot diffraction patterns  

CERN Document Server

We reconstructed the 3D Fourier intensity distribution of mono-disperse prolate nano-particles using single-shot 2D coherent diffraction patterns collected at DESY's FLASH facility when a bright, coherent, ultrafast X-ray pulse intercepted individual particles of random, unmeasured orientations. This first experimental demonstration of cryptotomography extended the Expansion-Maximization-Compression (EMC) framework to accommodate unmeasured fluctuations in photon fluence and loss of data due to saturation or background scatter. This work is an important step towards realizing single-shot diffraction imaging of single biomolecules.

Loh, N D; Elser, V; Barty, A; Boutet, S; Bajt, S; Hajdu, J; Ekeberg, T; Maia, F R N C; Schulz, J; Seibert, M M; Iwan, B; Timneanu, N; Marchesini, S; Schlichting, I; Shoeman, R L; Lomb, L; Frank, M; Liang, M; Chapman, H N

2010-01-01

359

3D CAD model reconstruction of a human femur from MRI images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical practice and life sciences take full advantage of progress in engineering disciplines, in particular the computer assisted placement technique in hip surgery. This paper describes the three dimensional model reconstruction of human femur from MRI images. The developed program enables to obtain digital shape of 3D femur recognized by all CAD software and allows an accurate placement of the femoral component. This technic provides precise measurement of implant alignment during hip resurfacing or total hip arthroplasty, thereby reducing the risk of component mal-positioning and femoral neck notching.

Benaissa EL FAHIME

2013-05-01

360

Simulation and reconstruction of photon patterns in the PANDA 3D Disc DIRC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PANDA Disc DIRC is a novel type of Cherenkov detector, being developed to improve the charged particle identification of the upcoming PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility. The detector has to cover the endcap region of the target spectrometer, resulting in a geometry that by now has never been applied to a DIRC detector. Additional complications are implied by tight space constraints at the foreseen position, interaction rates of 20 MHz up to 50 MHz and the experiments trigger-less readout scheme. To cope with the lack of experience, the development of detector concepts is driven by the development of computer simulations and dedicated reconstruction methods. The performance analysis of a preceding detector concept, presented at the DIRC workshop in 2009, showed several weaknesses which have been eliminated by revising the detector design. This publication summarizes the current status of the software, the reconstruction method and resulting detector performance of the improved design: the PANDA 3D Disc DIRC.

361

Reconstruction of 3D refractive index profiles of PM PANDA optical fiber using digital holographic method  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the refractive indices distributions on the two birefringent axes of polarization maintaining (PM) PANDA type optical fiber are reconstructed. The local refraction of the incident rays crossing the PM optical fiber is considered. Off-axis digital holographic interferometric phase shifting arrangement is employed in this investigation. The recorded mutual phase shifted holograms, starts with 0° with steps of ?/4, are combined and numerically reconstructed in the image plane to obtain the optical interference phase map. Consequently, the optical phase differences due to the PM optical fiber are extracted after unwrapping and background subtraction of the enhanced optical interference phase map. The birefringence and the beat length in the two directions, fast and slow axes of PM optical fiber, of polarizations in the core region are calculated. This holographic technique and the advanced analysis of the phase shifting permit the calculation of the 3D refractive index distributions for PM PANDA optical fiber.

Wahba, H. H.

2014-10-01

362

Improved 3D reconstruction in smart-room environments using ToF imaging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the use of Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras in smart-rooms and how this leads to improved results in segmenting the people in the room from the background and consequently better 3D reconstruction of foreground objects. A calibrated rig consisting of one Swissranger SR3100 Time-of-Flight range camera and a high resolution standard CCD camera is set in a smart-room containing five other standard cameras. A probabilistic background model is used to segment each view and a shape from silhouette volume is reconstructed. It is shown that the presence of the range camera gives ways of eliminating regional artifacts and therefore creating a more robust input for higher level applications such as people tracking or human motion analysis.

Guðmundsson, Sigurjón Árni; Pardas, Montse

2010-01-01

363

Detector modeling techniques for pre-clinical 3D PET reconstruction on the GPU  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents methods to the efficient handling of gamma interaction within the detector crystal matrix in ML-EM-based 3D reconstruction algorithms for positron emission tomography (PET). Geometric calculations as well as the approximation of inter-crystal scattering are executed on the GPU. The main characteristics of the scattering effect are captured by factorized models incorporating both on-the-fly simulation and the use of pre-computed data. The discussed methods involve the modification of the detector radius in the geometric model; applying 4D shifting of the LORs regarding the precalculated crystal-transport probability distributions; replacing the simulated detector response function by an approximated one; or full Monte Carlo simulation of the detector. Results of these different approaches are reported using phantom simulations as well as reconstructing real measurements performed on the NanoPET trademark /CT small animal PET scanner. (orig.)

Magdics, M.; Toth, B.; Szecsi, L. [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Dept. of Control Engineering and Information Technology; Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncotherapy] [and others

2011-07-01

364

Detector modeling techniques for pre-clinical 3D PET reconstruction on the GPU  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents methods to the efficient handling of gamma interaction within the detector crystal matrix in ML-EM-based 3D reconstruction algorithms for positron emission tomography (PET). Geometric calculations as well as the approximation of inter-crystal scattering are executed on the GPU. The main characteristics of the scattering effect are captured by factorized models incorporating both on-the-fly simulation and the use of pre-computed data. The discussed methods involve the modification of the detector radius in the geometric model; applying 4D shifting of the LORs regarding the precalculated crystal-transport probability distributions; replacing the simulated detector response function by an approximated one; or full Monte Carlo simulation of the detector. Results of these different approaches are reported using phantom simulations as well as reconstructing real measurements performed on the NanoPET trademark /CT small animal PET scanner. (orig.)

365

Digital breast tomosynthesis. Technical principles, current clinical relevance and future perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years digital full field mammography has increasingly replaced conventional film mammography. High quality imaging is guaranteed by high quantum efficiency and very good contrast resolution with optimized dosing even for women with dense glandular tissue. However, digital mammography remains a projection procedure by which overlapping tissue limits the detectability of subtle alterations. Tomosynthesis is a procedure developed from digital mammography for slice examination of breasts which eliminates the effects of overlapping tissue and allows 3D imaging of breasts. A curved movement of the X-ray tube during scanning allows the acquisition of many 2D images from different angles. Subseqently, reconstruction algorithms employing a shift and add method improve the recognition of details at a defined level and at the same time eliminate smear artefacts due to overlapping structures. The total dose corresponds to that of conventional mammography imaging. The technical procedure, including the number of levels, suitable anodes/filter combinations, angle regions of images and selection of reconstruction algorithms, is presently undergoing optimization. Previous studies on the clinical value of tomosynthesis have examined screening parameters, such as recall rate and detection rate as well as information on tumor extent for histologically proven breast tumors. More advanced techniques, such as contrast medium-enhanced tomosynthesis, are presently under developmentsynthesis, are presently under development and dual-energy imaging is of particular importance. (orig.)

366

GPS tomography: validation of reconstructed 3-D humidity fields with radiosonde profiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water vapor plays an important role in meteorological applications; GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ therefore developed a tomographic system to derive 3-D distributions of the tropospheric water vapor above Germany using GPS data from about 300 ground stations. Input data for the tomographic reconstructions are generated by the Earth Parameter and Orbit determination System (EPOS software of the GFZ, which provides zenith total delay (ZTD, integrated water vapor (IWV and slant total delay (STD data operationally with a temporal resolution of 2.5 min (STD and 15 min (ZTD, IWV. The water vapor distribution in the atmosphere is derived by tomographic reconstruction techniques. The quality of the solution is dependent on many factors such as the spatial coverage of the atmosphere with slant paths, the spatial distribution of their intersections and the accuracy of the input observations. Independent observations are required to validate the tomographic reconstructions and to get precise information on the accuracy of the derived 3-D water vapor fields. To determine the quality of the GPS tomography, more than 8000 vertical water vapor profiles at 13 German radiosonde stations were used for the comparison. The radiosondes were launched twice a day (at 00:00 UTC and 12:00 UTC in 2007. In this paper, parameters of the entire profiles such as the wet refractivity, and the zenith wet delay have been compared. Before the validation the temporal and spatial distribution of the slant paths, serving as a basis for tomographic reconstruction, as well as their angular distribution were studied. The mean wet refractivity differences between tomography and radiosonde data for all points vary from ?1.3 to 0.3, and the root mean square is within the range of 6.5–9. About 32% of 6803 profiles match well, 23% match badly and 45% are difficult to classify as they match only in parts.

M. Shangguan

2013-09-01

367

GPS tomography. Validation of reconstructed 3-D humidity fields with radiosonde profiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water vapor plays an important role in meteorological applications; GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) therefore developed a tomographic system to derive 3-D distributions of the tropospheric water vapor above Germany using GPS data from about 300 ground stations. Input data for the tomographic reconstructions are generated by the Earth Parameter and Orbit determination System (EPOS) software of the GFZ, which provides zenith total delay (ZTD), integrated water vapor (IWV) and slant total delay (STD) data operationally with a temporal resolution of 2.5 min (STD) and 15 min (ZTD, IWV). The water vapor distribution in the atmosphere is derived by tomographic reconstruction techniques. The quality of the solution is dependent on many factors such as the spatial coverage of the atmosphere with slant paths, the spatial distribution of their intersections and the accuracy of the input observations. Independent observations are required to validate the tomographic reconstructions and to get precise information on the accuracy of the derived 3-D water vapor fields. To determine the quality of the GPS tomography, more than 8000 vertical water vapor profiles at 13 German radiosonde stations were used for the comparison. The radiosondes were launched twice a day (at 00:00 UTC and 12:00 UTC) in 2007. In this paper, parameters of the entire profiles such as the wet refractivity, and the zenith wet delay have been compared. Before the validation the temporal and spatial distribution of the slant paths, serving as a basis for tomographic reconstruction, as well as their angular distribution were studied. The mean wet refractivity differences between tomography and radiosonde data for all points vary from -1.3 to 0.3, and the root mean square is within the range of 6.5-9. About 32% of 6803 profiles match well, 23% match badly and 45% are difficult to classify as they match only in parts.

Shangguan, M.; Bender, M.; Ramatschi, M.; Dick, G.; Wickert, J. [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany); Raabe, A. [Leipzig Institute for Meteorology (LIM), Leipzig (Germany); Galas, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. for Geodesy and Geoinformation Sciences

2013-11-01

368

A method for 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries using biplane angiography and intravascular ultrasound images.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to describe a new method for the three-dimensional reconstruction of coronary arteries and its quantitative validation. Our approach is based on the fusion of the data provided by intravascular ultrasound images (IVUS) and biplane angiographies. A specific segmentation algorithm is used for the detection of the regions of interest in intravascular ultrasound images. A new methodology is also introduced for the accurate extraction of the catheter path. In detail, a cubic B-spline is used for approximating the catheter path in each biplane projection. Each B-spline curve is swept along the normal direction of its X-ray angiographic plane forming a surface. The intersection of the two surfaces is a 3D curve, which represents the reconstructed path. The detected regions of interest in the IVUS images are placed perpendicularly onto the path and their relative axial twist is computed using the sequential triangulation algorithm. Then, an efficient algorithm is applied to estimate the absolute orientation of the first IVUS frame. In order to obtain 3D visualization the commercial package Geomagic Studio 4.0 is used. The performance of the proposed method is assessed using a validation methodology which addresses the separate validation of each step followed for obtaining the coronary reconstruction. The performance of the segmentation algorithm was examined in 80 IVUS images. The reliability of the path extraction method was studied in vitro using a metal wire model and in vivo in a dataset of 11 patients. The performance of the sequential triangulation algorithm was tested in two gutter models and in the coronary arteries (marked with metal clips) of six cadaveric sheep hearts. Finally, the accuracy in the estimation of the first IVUS frame absolute orientation was examined in the same set of cadaveric sheep hearts. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed reconstruction method is reliable and capable of depicting the morphology of coronary arteries. PMID:16278063

Bourantas, Christos V; Kourtis, Iraklis C; Plissiti, Marina E; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Katsouras, Christos S; Papafaklis, Michail I; Michalis, Lampros K

2005-12-01

369

3D Monte Carlo Reconstruction and Characterization of LiCoO2 Cathode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reconstruction and characterization of the porous composite electrode via experimental and numerical approaches are the basis and prerequisite of pore-scale modeling. The Monte Carlo approach was employed to reconstruct the LiCoO2 cathode of a Li-ion battery. The reconstructed electrode resolves sub-micrometer microstructure, thus evidently distinguishing the three individual phases: LiCoO2 as active material, pores (electrolyte, and additives. An extensive characterization was subsequently performed to calculate some important structural parameters and transport properties, including the geometrical connectivity and the specific surface area, etc. Particularly, a self-developed D3Q15 LB (Lattice Boltzmann model was used to calculate the effective thermal (or electric conductivity and the effective species diffusivity in electrolyte (or solid phase, and the tortuosity of an individual phase. The reconstructed 3D microstructure is consistent with the real cathode microstructure concerning several important statistical features including porosity, volume fraction of each phase, and two-point correlation functions etc. LB model predictions indicate that the effective transport coefficients are closely related to the micro-morphology in electrodes.

WU Wei, JIANG Fang-Ming, CHEN Zhi, WANG Ying, ZHAO Feng-Gang, ZENG Yu-Qun

2013-11-01

370

Enhanced 3D PET OSEM reconstruction using inter-update Metz filtering.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an enhancement of the OSEM (ordered set expectation maximization) algorithm for 3D PET reconstruction, which we call the inter-update Metz filtered OSEM (IMF-OSEM). The IMF-OSEM algorithm incorporates filtering action into the image updating process in order to improve the quality of the reconstruction. With this technique, the multiplicative correction image--ordinarily used to update image estimates in plain OSEM--is applied to a Metz-filtered version of the image estimate at certain intervals. In addition, we present a software implementation that employs several high-speed features to accelerate reconstruction. These features include, firstly, forward and back projection functions which make full use of symmetry as well as a fast incremental computation technique. Secondly, the software has the capability of running in parallel mode on several processors. The parallelization approach employed yields a significant speed-up, which is nearly independent of the amount of data. Together, these features lead to reasonable reconstruction times even when using large image arrays and non-axially compressed projection data. The performance of IMF-OSEM was tested on phantom data acquired on the GE Advance scanner. Our results demonstrate that an appropriate choice of Metz filter parameters can improve the contrast-noise balance of certain regions of interest relative to both plain and post-filtered OSEM, and to the GE commercial reprojection algorithm software. PMID:10958204

Jacobson, M; Levkovitz, R; Ben-Tal, A; Thielemans, K; Spinks, T; Belluzzo, D; Pagani, E; Bettinardi, V; Gilardi, M C; Zverovich, A; Mitra, G

2000-08-01

371

Enhanced 3D PET OSEM reconstruction using inter-update Metz filtering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an enhancement of the OSEM (ordered set expectation maximization) algorithm for 3D PET reconstruction, which we call the inter-update Metz filtered OSEM (IMF-OSEM). The IMF-OSEM algorithm incorporates filtering action into the image updating process in order to improve the quality of the reconstruction. With this technique, the multiplicative correction image - ordinarily used to update image estimates in plain OSEM - is applied to a Metz-filtered version of the image estimate at certain intervals. In addition, we present a software implementation that employs several high-speed features to accelerate reconstruction. These features include, firstly, forward and back projection functions which make full use of symmetry as well as a fast incremental computation technique. Secondly, the software has the capability of running in parallel mode on several processors. The parallelization approach employed yields a significant speed-up, which is nearly independent of the amount of data. Together, these features lead to reasonable reconstruction times even when using large image arrays and non-axially compressed projection data. The performance of IMF-OSEM was tested on phantom data acquired on the GE Advance scanner. Our results demonstrate that an appropriate choice of Metz filter parameters can improve the contrast-noise balance of certain regions of interest relative to both plain and post-filtered OSEM, and to the GE commercial reprojection algorithm software. (author)

Jacobson, M.; Levkovitz, R.; Ben-Tal, A. [MINERVA Optimization Center, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Thielemans, K.; Spinks, T. [MRC CU, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Belluzzo, D.; Pagani, E.; Bettinardi, V.; Gilardi, M.C. [HSR, Milan (Italy); Zverovich, A.; Mitra, G. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

2000-08-01

372

Enhanced 3D PET OSEM reconstruction using inter-update Metz filtering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an enhancement of the OSEM (ordered set expectation maximization) algorithm for 3D PET reconstruction, which we call the inter-update Metz filtered OSEM (IMF-OSEM). The IMF-OSEM algorithm incorporates filtering action into the image updating process in order to improve the quality of the reconstruction. With this technique, the multiplicative correction image - ordinarily used to update image estimates in plain OSEM - is applied to a Metz-filtered version of the image estimate at certain intervals. In addition, we present a software implementation that employs several high-speed features to accelerate reconstruction. These features include, firstly, forward and back projection functions which make full use of symmetry as well as a fast incremental computation technique. Secondly, the software has the capability of running in parallel mode on several processors. The parallelization approach employed yields a significant speed-up, which is nearly independent of the amount of data. Together, these features lead to reasonable reconstruction times even when using large image arrays and non-axially compressed projection data. The performance of IMF-OSEM was tested on phantom data acquired on the GE Advance scanner. Our results demonstrate that an appropriate choice of Metz filter parameters can improve the contrast-noise balance of certain regions of interest relative to both plain and post-filtered OSEM, and to the GE commercial reprojection algorithm software. mmercial reprojection algorithm software. (author)

373

Reconstructing 2-D/3-D Building Shapes from Spaceborne Tomographic Synthetic Aperture Radar Data  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present an approach that allows automatic (parametric) reconstruction of building shapes in 2-D/3-D using TomoSAR point clouds. These point clouds are generated by processing radar image stacks via advanced interferometric technique, called SAR tomography. The proposed approach reconstructs the building outline by exploiting both the available roof and façade information. Roof points are extracted out by employing a surface normals based region growing procedure via selected seed points while the extraction of façade points is based on thresholding the point scatterer density SD estimated by robust M-estimator. Spatial clustering is then applied to the extracted roof points in a way such that each roof cluster represents an individual building. Extracted façade points are reconstructed and afterwards incorporated to the segmented roof cluster to reconstruct the complete building shape. Initial building footprints are derived by employing alpha shapes method that are later regularized. Finally, rectilinear constraints are added to yield better geometrically looking building shapes. The proposed approach is illustrated and validated by examples using TomoSAR point clouds generated from a stack of TerraSAR-X high-resolution spotlight images from ascending orbit only covering two different test areas with one containing relatively smaller buildings in densely populated regions and the other containing moderate sized buildings in the city of Las Vegas.

Shahzad, M.; Zhu, X. X.

2014-08-01

374

Towards the reconstruction of 3D orientation information from direction-sensitive X-ray projections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For medical in vivo applications the resolution of a computed tomography (CT) scan is limited by the acceptable patient received dose. Thus it does not allow to image microstructures in the body. Novel X-ray contrast mechanisms provide two additional signal channels, phase contrast and dark-field contrast. In this study we report on our progress to use the dark-field signal to gain micro-structural information by reconstructing a tensor field describing the local sample scattering power. For that purpose we developed an experimental setup composed of an X-ray tube, a Talbot Lau interferometer, an Euler cradle to orient the sample and a detector. This setup allows a direct measurement of the sample scattering strength in all directions. The reconstruction of several test samples is done using filtered back-projection or the algebraic reconstruction technique. The definition of the physical model behind the reconstructed quantity is obtained from a second ansatz by using 3D density map (micro-CT) data as an input to a computer simulation of the whole setup. We consider this project important for diagnostic improvements in the case of bone pathologies. (orig.)

Malecki, Andreas; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Potdevin, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Franz [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Physics (E17); Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering (IMETUM); Lasser, Tobias [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures and Augmented Reality (CAMP)

2011-07-01

375

Image reconstruction for 3D light microscopy with a regularized linear method incorporating a smoothness prior  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown that the linear least-squares (LLS) estimate of the intensities of a 3-D object obtained from a set of optical sections is unstable due to the inversion of small and zero-valued eigenvalues of the point-spread function (PSF) operator. The LLS solution was regularized by constraining it to lie in a subspace spanned by the eigenvectors corresponding to a selected number of the largest eigenvalues. In this paper we extend the regularized LLS solution to a maximum a posteriori (MAP) solution induced by a prior formed from a 'Good's like' smoothness penalty. This approach also yields a regularized linear estimator which reduces noise as well as edge artifacts in the reconstruction. The advantage of the linear MAP (LMAP) estimate over the current regularized LLS (RLLS) is its ability to regularize the inverse problem by smoothly penalizing components in the image associated with small eigenvalues. Computer simulations were performed using a theoretical PSF and a simple phantom to compare the two regularization techniques. It is shown that the reconstructions using the smoothness prior, give superior variance and bias results compared to the RLLS reconstructions. Encouraging reconstructions obtained with the LMAP method from real microscopical images of a 10 micrometers fluorescent bead, and a four-cell Volvox embryo are shown.