WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d post processing

  1. Post processing of 3D models for 3D printing

    Pikovnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    According to the opinion of some experts the additive manufacturing or 3D printing will change manufacturing industry, because any individual could print their own model according to his or her wishes. In this graduation thesis some of the additive manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore in the production of house scale model in 1:100 is presented, starting from modeling to printing. Special attention is given to postprocessing of the building model elements us...

  2. PROPOSAL FOR AN UNIFORM DATA STANDARD FOR ICHNOLOGICAL 3D TRACKING AND POST-PROCESSING

    MARCO PETRUZZELLI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate fossil tracks have been studied through 3D modelling techniques during the last two decades to improve tracking procedures. Different laser scanners and software have been used during field investigation and this differentiation caused incompatibility between many analysis programs. Post processing procedures are not standardized among scientists and file precision give different results in additionally constrain comparison. The starting point to find a solution to the problem is to point out the main technologies used to collect data in the field. The resulting protocol does not oblige to uniform hardware but it does suggest combining different laser scanners with a minimum post processing to optimize the result. Important inkling would be to use 2D relief as a reference to organize 3D tracking procedures. Saving formats during post processing are improved by setting fixed landmarks integrated in the 3D model in a multitask file. The D.I.C.O.M. medical standard (*.cdm format and the 3D printing international standard (*.stl format when combined, may be a good solution for uniform the format. This approach might be the first step for the standardization of source and derived files and the creation of a worldwide 3D ichnological catalogue. This will allow creating a scientific improvement in terms of reproducibility and comparison of the experience. 

  3. Post-processing of 3D-printed parts using femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation

    Mingareev, Ilya; Gehlich, Nils; Bonhoff, Tobias; Meiners, Wilhelm; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Biermann, Tim; Richardson, Martin C.

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, is a near-net shape manufacturing approach, delivering part geometry that can be considerably affected by various process conditions, heat-induced distortions, solidified melt droplets, partially fused powders, and surface modifications induced by the manufacturing tool motion and processing strategy. High-repetition rate femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation was utilized to improve surface quality of metal parts manufactured by laser additive techniques. Different laser scanning approaches were utilized to increase the ablation efficiency and to reduce the surface roughness while preserving the initial part geometry. We studied post-processing of 3D-shaped parts made of Nickel- and Titanium-base alloys by utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as additive manufacturing techniques. Process parameters such as the pulse energy, the number of layers and their spatial separation were varied. Surface processing in several layers was necessary to remove the excessive material, such as individual powder particles, and to reduce the average surface roughness from asdeposited 22-45 μm to a few microns. Due to the ultrafast laser-processing regime and the small heat-affected zone induced in materials, this novel integrated manufacturing approach can be used to post-process parts made of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials, and to attain complex designed shapes with micrometer precision.

  4. Detectability of hepatic tumors during 3D post-processed ultrafast cone-beam computed tomography

    To evaluate hepatic tumor detection using ultrafast cone-beam computed tomography (UCBCT) cross-sectional and 3D post-processed image datasets.657 patients were examined using UCBCT during hepatic transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and data were collected retrospectively from January 2012 to September 2014. Tumor detectability, diagnostic ability, detection accuracy and sensitivity were examined for different hepatic tumors using UCBCT cross-sectional, perfusion blood volume (PBV) and UCBCT–MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) fused image datasets. Appropriate statistical tests were used to compare collected sample data.Fused image data showed the significantly higher (all P  <  0.05) diagnostic ability for hepatic tumors compared to UCBCT or PBV image data. The detectability of small hepatic tumors (<5 mm) was significantly reduced (all P  <  0.05) using UCBCT cross-sectional images compared to MRI or fused image data; however, PBV improved tumor detectability using a color display. Fused image data produced 100% tumor sensitivity due to the simultaneous availability of MRI and UCBCT information during tumor diagnosis.Fused image data produced excellent hepatic tumor sensitivity, detectability and diagnostic ability compared to other datasets assessed. Fused image data is extremely reliable and useful compared to UCBCT cross-sectional or PBV image datasets to depict hepatic tumors during TACE. Partial anatomical visualization on cross-sectional images was compensated by fused image data during tumor diagnosis. (paper)

  5. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a open-quotes true 3D screenclose quotes. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches

  6. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    Wong, S.T.C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a {open_quotes}true 3D screen{close_quotes}. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches.

  7. Validation of new 3D post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections of MR angiography acquisitions in the brain

    Bosmans, H.; Verbeeck, R.; Vandermeulen, D.; Suetens, P.; Wilms, G.; Maaly, M.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.L. [Louvain Univ. (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a new post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections (mip) of intracranial MR angiography acquisitions. The core of the post processing procedure is a new brain segmentation algorithm. Two seed areas, background and brain, are automatically detected. A 3D region grower then grows both regions towards each other and this preferentially towards white regions. In this way, the skin gets included into the final `background region` whereas cortical blood vessels and all brain tissues are included in the `brain region`. The latter region is then used for mip. The algorithm runs less than 30 minutes on a full dataset on a Unix workstation. Images from different acquisition strategies including multiple overlapping thin slab acquisition, magnetization transfer (MT) MRA, Gd-DTPA enhanced MRA, normal and high resolution acquisitions and acquisitions from mid field and high field systems were filtered. A series of contrast enhanced MRA acquisitions obtained with identical parameters was filtered to study the robustness of the filter parameters. In all cases, only a minimal manual interaction was necessary to segment the brain. The quality of the mip was significantly improved, especially in post Gd-DTPA acquisitions or using MT, due to the absence of high intensity signals of skin, sinuses and eyes that otherwise superimpose on the angiograms. It is concluded that the filter is a robust technique to improve the quality of MR angiograms.

  8. 3D printing: technology and processing

    Kurinov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research was to improve the process of 3D printing on the laboratory machine. In the study processes of designing, printing and post-print-ing treatment were improved. The study was commissioned by Mikko Ruotsalainen, head of the laboratory. The data was collected during the test work. All the basic information about 3D printing was taken from the Internet or library. As the results of the project higher model accuracy, solutions for post-printing treatment, printin...

  9. Advanced 3D mesh manipulation in stereolithographic files and post-print processing for the manufacturing of patient-specific vascular flow phantoms

    O'Hara, Ryan P.; Chand, Arpita; Vidiyala, Sowmya; Arechavala, Stacie M.; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2016-03-01

    Complex vascular anatomies can cause the failure of image-guided endovascular procedures. 3D printed patient-specific vascular phantoms provide clinicians and medical device companies the ability to preemptively plan surgical treatments, test the likelihood of device success, and determine potential operative setbacks. This research aims to present advanced mesh manipulation techniques of stereolithographic (STL) files segmented from medical imaging and post-print surface optimization to match physiological vascular flow resistance. For phantom design, we developed three mesh manipulation techniques. The first method allows outlet 3D mesh manipulations to merge superfluous vessels into a single junction, decreasing the number of flow outlets and making it feasible to include smaller vessels. Next we introduced Boolean operations to eliminate the need to manually merge mesh layers and eliminate errors of mesh self-intersections that previously occurred. Finally we optimize support addition to preserve the patient anatomical geometry. For post-print surface optimization, we investigated various solutions and methods to remove support material and smooth the inner vessel surface. Solutions of chloroform, alcohol and sodium hydroxide were used to process various phantoms and hydraulic resistance was measured and compared with values reported in literature. The newly mesh manipulation methods decrease the phantom design time by 30 - 80% and allow for rapid development of accurate vascular models. We have created 3D printed vascular models with vessel diameters less than 0.5 mm. The methods presented in this work could lead to shorter design time for patient specific phantoms and better physiological simulations.

  10. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  11. Visualization and 3D data processing in David's restoration

    Callieri, Marco; Cignoni, Paolo; GANOVELLI, FABIO; Impoco, Gaetano; Montani, Claudio; Pingi, Paolo; Ponchio, Federico; Scopigno, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The David restoration project (started in Florence in 2002) has given several guidelines to the definition and development of innovative solutions to process and visualize 3D data in the framework of Cultural Heritage (CH) applications. Our main goal has been to demonstrate the usefulness of digital 3D models and of visualization tools in the framework of a restoration project.

  12. 3D stacked chips from emerging processes to heterogeneous systems

    Fettweis, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This book explains for readers how 3D chip stacks promise to increase the level of on-chip integration, and to design new heterogeneous semiconductor devices that combine chips of different integration technologies (incl. sensors) in a single package of the smallest possible size.  The authors focus on heterogeneous 3D integration, addressing some of the most important challenges in this emerging technology, including contactless, optics-based, and carbon-nanotube-based 3D integration, as well as signal-integrity and thermal management issues in copper-based 3D integration. Coverage also includes the 3D heterogeneous integration of power sources, photonic devices, and non-volatile memories based on new materials systems.   •Provides single-source reference to the latest research in 3D optoelectronic integration: process, devices, and systems; •Explains the use of wireless 3D integration to improve 3D IC reliability and yield; •Describes techniques for monitoring and mitigating thermal behavior in 3D I...

  13. A 3-D SAR approach to IFSAR processing

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.; BICKEL,DOUGLAS L.

    2000-03-01

    Interferometric SAR (IFSAR) can be shown to be a special case of 3-D SAR image formation. In fact, traditional IFSAR processing results in the equivalent of merely a super-resolved, under-sampled, 3-D SAR image. However, when approached as a 3-D SAR problem, a number of IFSAR properties and anomalies are easily explained. For example, IFSAR decorrelation with height is merely ordinary migration in 3-D SAR. Consequently, treating IFSAR as a 3-D SAR problem allows insight and development of proper motion compensation techniques and image formation operations to facilitate optimal height estimation. Furthermore, multiple antenna phase centers and baselines are easily incorporated into this formulation, providing essentially a sparse array in the elevation dimension. This paper shows the Polar Format image formation algorithm extended to 3 dimensions, and then proceeds to apply it to the IFSAR collection geometry. This suggests a more optimal reordering of the traditional IFSAR processing steps.

  14. A 3D GIS for managing building rehabilitation process

    Ramos, Fabien; Siret, Daniel; Musy, Marjorie

    2004-01-01

    International audience Increase in energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of buildings can be achieved through improvements made in the existing stock of buildings. Therefore, one of the objectives for incentive policies should be to promote environmental issues each time a rehabilitation process is engaged. Specific tools have to be developed for that purpose. In this paper, we present a 3D Geographical Information System (3D GIS) designed to evaluate the environmenta...

  15. Knowledge Base Approach for 3D Objects Detection in Point Clouds Using 3D Processing and Specialists Knowledge

    Ben Hmida, Helmi; Cruz, Christophe; Boochs, Frank; Nicolle, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    International audience This paper presents a knowledge-based detection of objects approach using the OWL ontology language, the Semantic Web Rule Language, and 3D processing built-ins aiming at combining geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds and specialist's knowledge. Here, we share our experience regarding the creation of 3D semantic facility model out of unorganized 3D point clouds. Thus, a knowledge-based detection approach of objects using the OWL ontology language is presented. Thi...

  16. Imaging 3D strain field monitoring during hydraulic fracturing processes

    Chen, Rongzhang; Zaghloul, Mohamed A. S.; Yan, Aidong; Li, Shuo; Lu, Guanyi; Ames, Brandon C.; Zolfaghari, Navid; Bunger, Andrew P.; Li, Ming-Jun; Chen, Kevin P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed fiber optic sensing scheme to study 3D strain fields inside concrete cubes during hydraulic fracturing process. Optical fibers embedded in concrete were used to monitor 3D strain field build-up with external hydraulic pressures. High spatial resolution strain fields were interrogated by the in-fiber Rayleigh backscattering with 1-cm spatial resolution using optical frequency domain reflectometry. The fiber optics sensor scheme presented in this paper provides scientists and engineers a unique laboratory tool to understand the hydraulic fracturing processes in various rock formations and its impacts to environments.

  17. DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF AIRBORNE 3D IMAGE

    2001-01-01

    Airborne 3D image which integrates GPS,attitude measurement unit (AMU),sca nning laser rangefinder (SLR) and spectral scanner has been developed successful ly.The spectral scanner and SLR use the same optical system which ensures laser point to match pixel seamlessly.The distinctive advantage of 3D image is that it can produce geo_referenced images and DSM (digital surface models) images wi thout any ground control points (GCPs).It is no longer necessary to sur vey GCPs and with some softwares the data can be processed and produce digital s urface models (DSM) and geo_referenced images in quasi_real_time,therefore,the efficiency of 3 D image is 10~100 times higher than that of traditional approaches.The process ing procedure involves decomposing and checking the raw data,processing GPS dat a,calculating the positions of laser sample points,producing geo_referenced im age,producing DSM and mosaicing strips.  The principle of 3D image is first introduced in this paper,and then we focus on the fast processing technique and algorithm.The flight tests and processed r esults show that the processing technique is feasible and can meet the requireme nt of quasi_real_time applications.

  18. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk; Jessen, Jeppe Barsøe; Beck, Richard; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Gramkow, Claus; Neckelmann, Ole; Haustad, Jonas; Krüger, Norbert

    We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identificati...

  19. Characterizing Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D Printed Primitives

    Tyge, Emil; Pallisgaard, Jens J.; Lillethorup, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    The resolution and repeatability of 3D printing processes depends on a number of factors including the software, hardware, and material used. When printing parts with features that are near or below the nominal printing resolution, it is important to understand how the printer works. For example......, what is the smallest unit shape that can be produced? And what is the reproducibility of that process? This paper presents a method for automatically detecting and characterizing the height, width, and length of micro scale geometric primitives produced via a digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing...... to group into five different heights with fairly low variance of the best estimates of the heights. This reflects how the requested geometry is parsed and produced by the printer....

  20. 3D Multislice CT Angiography in Post-Aortic Stent Grafting: A Pictorial Essay

    Helical CT angiography has been widely used in both pre- and post-aortic stent grafting and it has been confirmed to be the preferred modality when compared to conventional angiography. The recent development of multislice CT (MSCT) has further enhanced the applications of CT angiography for aortic stent grafting. One of the advantages of MSCT angiography over conventional angiography is that the 3D reconstructions, based on the volumetric CT data, provide additional information during follow-up of aortic stent grafting. While endovascular repair has been increasingly used in clinical practice, the use of 3D MSCT imaging in endovascular repair continues to play an important role. In this pictorial essay, we aimed to discuss the diagnostic performance of 3D MSCT angiography in post aortic stent grafting, including the most commonly used surface shaded display, curvilinear reformation, the maximum intensity projection, volume rendering and virtual endoscopy. The advantages and disadvantages of each 3D reconstruction are also explored

  1. Vision based error detection for 3D printing processes

    Baumann Felix

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printers became more popular in the last decade, partly because of the expiration of key patents and the supply of affordable machines. The origin is located in rapid prototyping. With Additive Manufacturing (AM it is possible to create physical objects from 3D model data by layer wise addition of material. Besides professional use for prototyping and low volume manufacturing they are becoming widespread amongst end users starting with the so called Maker Movement. The most prevalent type of consumer grade 3D printers is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM, also Fused Filament Fabrication FFF. This work focuses on FDM machinery because of their widespread occurrence and large number of open problems like precision and failure. These 3D printers can fail to print objects at a statistical rate depending on the manufacturer and model of the printer. Failures can occur due to misalignment of the print-bed, the print-head, slippage of the motors, warping of the printed material, lack of adhesion or other reasons. The goal of this research is to provide an environment in which these failures can be detected automatically. Direct supervision is inhibited by the recommended placement of FDM printers in separate rooms away from the user due to ventilation issues. The inability to oversee the printing process leads to late or omitted detection of failures. Rejects effect material waste and wasted time thus lowering the utilization of printing resources. Our approach consists of a camera based error detection mechanism that provides a web based interface for remote supervision and early failure detection. Early failure detection can lead to reduced time spent on broken prints, less material wasted and in some cases salvaged objects.

  2. DMO processing on the Ketzin 3D seismic data

    Huang, Fei; Juhlin, Christopher; Ivandic, Monika; Zhang, Fengjiao

    2014-05-01

    The Dip-moveout (DMO) correction is a process which attempts to make the finite offset data closer to zero offset data after the normal-moveout (NMO) correction. The NMO correction is then dip independent and reflections with different dips will stack coherently. DMO plays a critical role in seismic processing by enhancing the final image quality of the seismic data. In this study, we apply 3D Squeezing DMO (Hale and Artley, 1993) to seismic data from the Ketzin pilot CO2 site after NMO to study the impact of DMO on time-lapse seismic imaging and to investigate if it enhances the CO2 seismic monitoring technique. This 3D DMO method is based on an integral approach and incorporates Hale and Artley's (1993) modifications for variable velocity with time. A constant velocity algorithm is used with a gamma correction function which depends on the velocity function. An anti-alias velocity of 3000 m/s is used for the DMO. After DMO the data are stacked and F-XY deconvolution is applied. Finally, 3D finite-difference migration using the final smoothed NMO velocities is performed for each data set. We then apply a time-lapse analysis to the 3D seismic data sets and compare the results with and without DMO processing. The most important aspect of the DMO processing is determining the velocity field for the NMO step. This is done by using the initial smoothed velocity field obtained from the conventional velocity analysis before DMO as a first estimate. The data are input into the DMO process and then inverse NMO is applied. These data are then subjected to a new velocity analysis and the velocity field is updated and used as input for the NMO process. A number of iterations are generally required until the velocity field does not need further updating. In this study velocities were picked at every 20th CDP in the inline and crossline directions. Compared to the velocity spectrum without DMO processing, the velocity trend is improved and the ambiguity in the velocity picks is

  3. Wafer level warpage characterization of 3D interconnect processing wafers

    Chang, Po-Yi; Ku, Yi-Sha

    2012-03-01

    We present a new metrology system based on a fringe reflection method for warpage characterizations during wafer thinning and temporary bonding processes. A set of periodic fringe patterns is projected onto the measuring wafer and the reflected fringe images are captured by a CCD camera. The fringe patterns are deformed due to the slope variation of the wafer surface. We demonstrate the use of phase-shit algorithms, the wafer surface slope variation and quantitative 3D surface profile even tiny dimples and dents on a wafer can be reconstructed. The experimental results show the warpages of the bonded wafer are below 20 μm after thinning down to the nominal thickness of 75 μm and 50 μm. The measurement precision is better than 2 um.

  4. Fundamental characterization of soft matter 3D printing processes

    Migler, Kalman; Seppala, Jonathan; Davis, Chelsea; Hillgartner, Kaitlyn

    In fused filament fabrication (FFF), a material extrusion 3D printing method, thermoplastic filament is extruded though a rastering nozzle on the previous layer. The resulting strength of the FFF produced part is limited by the strength of the weld between each layer. While numerous factors can affect the weld strength, the temperature of the extrudate and the previous layer dictate the amount of interdiffusion and thus the weld strength. Temperature measurements were performed using forward looking infrared imaging. Interdiffusion estimates were calculated from temperature profiles, normalized using horizontal shift factors from offline rheological measurements of the neat polymer. Weld strength was measured directly by Mode III Fracture using a simplified geometry limiting the measurement to a single weld. Since the processing conditions are known aprioi this approach provides the data needed to estimate the final build strength at time of design. The resulting agreement between interdiffusion estimates and weld strength for a range of printing conditions are discussed.

  5. 3D environments in the process of teaching and learning

    Bento, João José Fernandes; Gonçalves, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    O presente artigo discute a mediação das novas tecnologias, nomeadamente dos ambientes virtuais tridimensionais (3D), no desenvolvimento e exploração de conteúdos educativos. Nesse sentido foi desenvolvida uma aplicação tridimensional que permitiu fazer o estudo da amigabilidade, usabilidade, acessibilidade e funcionalidade deste ambiente 3D no contexto de um processo de ensino e aprendizagem. O processo iterativo e incremental de desenvolvimento do ambiente 3D e respectivos ob...

  6. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.

    Ning Dai

    Full Text Available Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.

  7. 3D-FE analysis of functionally graded structured dental posts.

    Abu Kasim, Noor H; Madfa, Ahmed A; Hamdi, Mohd; Rahbari, Ghahnavyeh R

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the biomechanical behaviour of functionally graded structured posts (FGSPs) and homogenous-type posts in simulated models of a maxillary central incisor. Two models of FGSPs consisting of a multilayer xTi-yHA composite design, where zirconia and alumina was added as the first layer for models A and B respectively were compared to homogenous zirconia post (model C) and a titanium post (model D). The amount of Ti and HA in the FGSP models was varied in gradations. 3D-FEA was performed on all models and stress distributions were investigated along the dental post. In addition, interface stresses between the posts and their surrounding structures were investigated under vertical, oblique, and horizontal loadings. Strain distribution along the post-dentine interface was also investigated. The results showed that FGSPs models, A and B demonstrated better stress distribution than models C and D, indicating that dental posts with multilayered structure dissipate localized and interfacial stress and strain more efficiently than homogenous-type posts. PMID:22123011

  8. 3D Flash LIDAR Real-Time Embedded Processing Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  9. 3D Flash LIDAR Real-Time Embedded Processing Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3D Flash LIDAR (3DFL) is ideal for determining real-time spacecraft trajectory, speed and orientation to the planet surface, as well as evaluating potential hazards...

  10. A monolithic 3D integrated nanomagnetic co-processing unit

    Becherer, M.; Breitkreutz-v. Gamm, S.; Eichwald, I.; Žiemys, G.; Kiermaier, J.; Csaba, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    As CMOS scaling becomes more and more challenging there is strong impetus for beyond CMOS device research to add new functionality to ICs. In this article, a promising technology with non-volatile ferromagnetic computing states - the so-called Perpendicular Nanomagnetic Logic (pNML) - is reviewed. After introducing the 2D planar implementation of NML with magnetization perpendicular to the surface, the path to monolithically 3D integrated systems is discussed. Instead of CMOS substitution, additional functionality is added by a co-processor architecture as a prospective back-end-of-line (BEOL) process, where the computing elements are clocked by a soft-magnetic on-chip inductor. The unconventional computation in the ferromagnetic domain can lead to highly dense computing structures without leakage currents, attojoule dissipation per bit operation and data-throughputs comparable to state-of-the-art high-performance CMOS CPUs. In appropriate applications and with specialized computing architectures they might even circumvent the bottleneck of time-consuming memory access, as computation is inherently performed with non-volatile computing states.

  11. Automation of 3D micro object handling process

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2007-01-01

    Most of the micro objects in industrial production are handled with manual labour or in semiautomatic stations. Manual labour usually makes handling and assembly operations highly flexible, but slow, relatively imprecise and expensive. Handling of 3D micro objects poses special challenges due to the small absolute scale. In this article, the results of the pick-and-place operations of three different 3D micro objects were investigated. This study shows that depending on the correct gripping t...

  12. Vision based error detection for 3D printing processes

    Baumann Felix; Roller Dieter

    2016-01-01

    3D printers became more popular in the last decade, partly because of the expiration of key patents and the supply of affordable machines. The origin is located in rapid prototyping. With Additive Manufacturing (AM) it is possible to create physical objects from 3D model data by layer wise addition of material. Besides professional use for prototyping and low volume manufacturing they are becoming widespread amongst end users starting with the so called Maker Movement. The most prevalent type...

  13. Fully 3D Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Double Post-Hole Convolute on PTS Facility

    Zhao, Hailong; Dong, Ye; Zhou, Haijing; Zou, Wenkang; Institute of Fluid Physics Collaboration; Institute of Applied Physics; Computational Mathematics Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    In order to get better understand of energy transforming and converging process during High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments, fully 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code NEPTUNE3D was used to provide numerical approach towards parameters which could hardly be acquired through diagnostics. Cubic region (34cm × 34cm × 18cm) including the double post-hole convolute (DPHC) on the primary test stand (PTS) facility was chosen to perform a series of fully 3D PIC simulations, calculating ability of codes were tested and preliminary simulation results about DPHC on PTS facility were discussed. Taking advantages of 3D simulation codes and large-scale parallel computation, massive data (~ 250GB) could be acquired in less than 5 hours and clear process of current transforming and electron emission in DPHC were demonstrated with the help of visualization tools. Cold-chamber tests were performed during which only cathode electron emission was considered without temperature rise or ion emission, current loss efficiency was estimated to be 0.46% ~ 0.48% by comparisons between output magnetic field profiles with or without electron emission. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205145, 11305015, 11475155).

  14. Numerical modeling of wave processes in 3D fractured media

    Golubev V.; Petrov I.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic response from the cluster of vertical oriented cracks is simulated using grid-characteristic method on parallelepiped structured meshes. Synthetic seismograms and wave fields are calculated. The structure of the response including dependency on type of saturator (gas, fluid) is analyzed. Numerical experiments showed the effect of high-frequency daisy-chain wave’s generation from 3D periodic structures.

  15. Automation of 3D micro object handling process

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2007-01-01

    Most of the micro objects in industrial production are handled with manual labour or in semiautomatic stations. Manual labour usually makes handling and assembly operations highly flexible, but slow, relatively imprecise and expensive. Handling of 3D micro objects poses special challenges due to ...

  16. 3D TCAD Simulation for Semiconductor Processes, Devices and Optoelectronics

    Li, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Technology computer-aided design, or TCAD, is critical to today’s semiconductor technology and anybody working in this industry needs to know something about TCAD.  This book is about how to use computer software to manufacture and test virtually semiconductor devices in 3D.  It brings to life the topic of semiconductor device physics, with a hands-on, tutorial approach that de-emphasizes abstract physics and equations and emphasizes real practice and extensive illustrations.  Coverage includes a comprehensive library of devices, representing the state of the art technology, such as SuperJunction LDMOS, GaN LED devices, etc. Provides a vivid, internal view of semiconductor devices, through 3D TCAD simulation; Includes comprehensive coverage of  TCAD simulations for both optic and electronic devices, from nano-scale to high-voltage high-power devices; Presents material in a hands-on, tutorial fashion so that industry practitioners will find maximum utility; Includes a comprehensive library of devices, re...

  17. Infrared imaging of the polymer 3D-printing process

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lindal, John M.; Post, Brian; Smith, Rachel J.; Love, Lonnie; Duty, Chad E.

    2014-05-01

    Both mid-wave and long-wave IR cameras are used to measure various temperature profiles in thermoplastic parts as they are printed. Two significantly different 3D-printers are used in this study. The first is a small scale commercially available Solidoodle 3 printer, which prints parts with layer thicknesses on the order of 125μm. The second printer used is a "Big Area Additive Manufacturing" (BAAM) 3D-printer developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The BAAM prints parts with a layer thicknesses of 4.06 mm. Of particular interest is the temperature of the previously deposited layer as the new hot layer is about to be extruded onto it. The two layers are expected have a stronger bond if the temperature of the substrate layer is above the glass transition temperature. This paper describes the measurement technique and results for a study of temperature decay and substrate layer temperature for ABS thermoplastic with and without the addition of chopped carbon fibers.

  18. 3D Vision on Mars: Stereo processing and visualizations for NASA and ESA rover missions

    Huber, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) vision processing is an essential component of planetary rover mission planning and scientific data analysis. Standard ground vision processing products are digital terrain maps, panoramas, and virtual views of the environment. Such processing is currently developed for the PanCam instrument of ESA's ExoMars Rover mission by the PanCam 3D Vision Team under JOANNEUM RESEARCH coordination. Camera calibration, quality estimation of the expected results and the interfaces to other mission elements such as operations planning, rover navigation system and global Mars mapping are a specific focus of the current work. The main goals of the 3D Vision team in this context are: instrument design support & calibration processing: Development of 3D vision functionality Visualization: development of a 3D visualization tool for scientific data analysis. 3D reconstructions from stereo image data during the mission Support for 3D scientific exploitation to characterize the overall landscape geomorphology, processes, and the nature of the geologic record using the reconstructed 3D models. The developed processing framework PRoViP establishes an extensible framework for 3D vision processing in planetary robotic missions. Examples of processing products and capabilities are: Digital Terrain Models, Ortho images, 3D meshes, occlusion, solar illumination-, slope-, roughness-, and hazard-maps. Another important processing capability is the fusion of rover and orbiter based images with the support of multiple missions and sensors (e.g. MSL Mastcam stereo processing). For 3D visualization a tool called PRo3D has been developed to analyze and directly interpret digital outcrop models. Stereo image products derived from Mars rover data can be rendered in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the generated 3D outcrop models. Interpretations can be digitized directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements of the outcrop and sedimentary features

  19. Development of the spent fuel disassembling process by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology

    For developing the spent fuel disassembling process, the 3D graphic simulation has been established by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology which is widely used in the industry. The spent fuel disassembling process consists of a downender, a rod extraction device, a rod cutting device, a pellet extracting device and a skeleton compaction device. In this study, the 3D graphical design model of these devices is implemented by conceptual design and established the virtual workcell within kinematics to motion of each device. By implementing this graphic simulation, all the unit process involved in the spent fuel disassembling processes are analyzed and optimized. The 3D graphical model and the 3D graphic simulation can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process

  20. Geometric Aspects in 3D Biomedical Image Processing

    Thévenaz, P; Unser, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present some issues that arise when a geometric transformation is performed on an image or a volume. In particular, we illustrate the well-known problems of blocking, blurring, aliasing and ringing. Although the solution to these problems is trivial in an analog (optical) image processing system, their solution in a discrete (numeric) context is much more difficult. The modern trend of biomedical image processing is to fight these artifacts by using more sophisticated models that emphasize...

  1. Rethinking Design Process: Using 3D Digital Models as an Interface in Collaborative Session

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital models. The collaborative session took place in a 3D AutoCAD class for a real world project. The 3D models served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…

  2. Parallel processing for efficient 3D slope stability modelling

    Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Metz, Markus; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    We test the performance of the GIS-based, three-dimensional slope stability model r.slope.stability. The model was developed as a C- and python-based raster module of the GRASS GIS software. It considers the three-dimensional geometry of the sliding surface, adopting a modification of the model proposed by Hovland (1977), and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers (2006). Given a terrain elevation map and a set of relevant thematic layers, the model evaluates the stability of slopes for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal or truncated in shape. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a value of the factor of safety, FS. For each pixel, the minimum value of FS and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information is used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable slopes in the study area. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy, an area known to be susceptible to landslides of different type and size. Availability of a comprehensive and detailed landslide inventory map allowed for a critical evaluation of the model results. The r.slope.stability code automatically splits the study area into a defined number of tiles, with proper overlap in order to provide the same statistical significance for the entire study area. The tiles are then processed in parallel by a given number of processors, exploiting a multi-purpose computing environment at CNR IRPI, Perugia. The map of the FS is obtained collecting the individual results, taking the minimum values on the overlapping cells. This procedure significantly reduces the processing time. We show how the gain in terms of processing time depends on the tile dimensions and on the number of cores.

  3. Fuzzy C-means Clustering for 3D Seismic Parameters Processing

    Fuqun Zhao; Liang Le

    2009-01-01

    3D seismic parameters can reflect the features of petroleum reservoir from different profiles. By analizing the3D seismic parameters, we can assess the parameters of the reservoir characterization, such as deposition,structure and growth history, fluid saturation and so on. The traditional clustering methods can’t capture thedegree of similarity between reservoir parameters very well, so we introduced in this paper the application offuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering for the processing of 3D seis...

  4. Understanding Immersivity: Image Generation and Transformation Processes in 3D Immersive Environments

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Dhond, Rupali P.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on three-dimensional (3D) visual-spatial processing has been conducted using traditional non-immersive 2D displays. Here we investigated how individuals generate and transform mental images within 3D immersive (3DI) virtual environments, in which the viewers perceive themselves as being surrounded by a 3D world. In Experiment 1, we compared participants’ performance on the Shepard and Metzler (1971) mental rotation (MR) task across the following three types of visual presentatio...

  5. Understanding immersivity: Image generation and transformation processes in 3D immersive environments

    Maria eKozhevnikov; Dhond, Rupali P.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on three-dimensional (3D) visual-spatial processing has been conducted using traditional non-immersive 2D displays. Here we investigated how individuals generate and transform mental images within 3D immersive virtual environments, in which the viewers perceive themselves as being surrounded by a 3D world. In Experiment 1, we compared participants’ performance on the Shepard & Metzler (1971) mental rotation task across the following three types of visual presentation enviro...

  6. Visualizing the process of interaction in a 3D environment

    Vaidya, Vivek; Suryanarayanan, Srikanth; Krishnan, Kajoli; Mullick, Rakesh

    2007-03-01

    As the imaging modalities used in medicine transition to increasingly three-dimensional data the question of how best to interact with and analyze this data becomes ever more pressing. Immersive virtual reality systems seem to hold promise in tackling this, but how individuals learn and interact in these environments is not fully understood. Here we will attempt to show some methods in which user interaction in a virtual reality environment can be visualized and how this can allow us to gain greater insight into the process of interaction/learning in these systems. Also explored is the possibility of using this method to improve understanding and management of ergonomic issues within an interface.

  7. A manufacturing process for an energy storage device using 3D printing

    Tanwilaisiri, A; Zhang, R.; Xu, Y; Harrison, D.; Fyson, J

    2016-01-01

    3D printing has been widely applied in the development of prototypes. The main advantage of this process is that the objects or products can be viewed in three dimensions on a computer display and a 3D sample can be created before committing to a large production run. There are various 3D printing technologies that are capable of manufacturing metal, ceramic, plastic substrate and paste objects. Recently several research groups have focused on the fabrication freedom of 3D printing for differ...

  8. Laser processes and analytics for high power 3D battery materials

    Pfleging, W.; Zheng, Y.; Mangang, M.; Bruns, M.; Smyrek, P.

    2016-03-01

    Laser processes for cutting, modification and structuring of energy storage materials such as electrodes, separator materials and current collectors have a great potential in order to minimize the fabrication costs and to increase the performance and operational lifetime of high power lithium-ion-batteries applicable for stand-alone electric energy storage devices and electric vehicles. Laser direct patterning of battery materials enable a rather new technical approach in order to adjust 3D surface architectures and porosity of composite electrode materials such as LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, Li(NiMnCo)O2, and Silicon. The architecture design, the increase of active surface area, and the porosity of electrodes or separator layers can be controlled by laser processes and it was shown that a huge impact on electrolyte wetting, lithium-ion diffusion kinetics, cell life-time and cycling stability can be achieved. In general, the ultrafast laser processing can be used for precise surface texturing of battery materials. Nevertheless, regarding cost-efficient production also nanosecond laser material processing can be successfully applied for selected types of energy storage materials. A new concept for an advanced battery manufacturing including laser materials processing is presented. For developing an optimized 3D architecture for high power composite thick film electrodes electrochemical analytics and post mortem analytics using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy were performed. Based on mapping of lithium in composite electrodes, an analytical approach for studying chemical degradation in structured and unstructured lithium-ion batteries will be presented.

  9. EXAMPLES OF 3D-TECHNOLOGIES IN FOUNDRY PROCESSES. DECREASE IN METAL CONSUMPTION IN CASTINGS

    V. S. Doroshenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the design of metal castings produced by use of 3D-technologies. Some new ways of 3D-processing of materials connected with additive processes are described, which represents the next step in environmental resource-saving production. Examples of patterns and casting of complex design with an optimal combination of materials, durability and attractive appearance are shown. Described 3D high-tech processes are expanding the existing range of metal products and the ways of its production.

  10. Multithreaded real-time 3D image processing software architecture and implementation

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Atanassov, Kalin; Aleksic, Milivoje; Goma, Sergio R.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, 3D displays and videos have generated a lot of interest in the consumer electronics industry. To make 3D capture and playback popular and practical, a user friendly playback interface is desirable. Towards this end, we built a real time software 3D video player. The 3D video player displays user captured 3D videos, provides for various 3D specific image processing functions and ensures a pleasant viewing experience. Moreover, the player enables user interactivity by providing digital zoom and pan functionalities. This real time 3D player was implemented on the GPU using CUDA and OpenGL. The player provides user interactive 3D video playback. Stereo images are first read by the player from a fast drive and rectified. Further processing of the images determines the optimal convergence point in the 3D scene to reduce eye strain. The rationale for this convergence point selection takes into account scene depth and display geometry. The first step in this processing chain is identifying keypoints by detecting vertical edges within the left image. Regions surrounding reliable keypoints are then located on the right image through the use of block matching. The difference in the positions between the corresponding regions in the left and right images are then used to calculate disparity. The extrema of the disparity histogram gives the scene disparity range. The left and right images are shifted based upon the calculated range, in order to place the desired region of the 3D scene at convergence. All the above computations are performed on one CPU thread which calls CUDA functions. Image upsampling and shifting is performed in response to user zoom and pan. The player also consists of a CPU display thread, which uses OpenGL rendering (quad buffers). This also gathers user input for digital zoom and pan and sends them to the processing thread.

  11. MeshLab: an open-source 3D mesh processing system

    Cignoni, Paolo; Corsini, Massimiliano; Ranzuglia, Guido

    2008-01-01

    MeshLab is a free and open-source general-purpose mesh processing system designed to assist in the management of not-so-small, unstructured 3D models that typically occur in the pipeline when processing 3D scanned data in the context of Cultural Heritage. MeshLab provides a set of tools for editing, cleaning, healing, inspecting, rendering and converting the resulting meshes

  12. 3D finite elements method (FEM) Analysis of basic process parameters in rotary piercing mill

    Z. Pater; J. Bartnicki; Kazanecki, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper 3D FEM analysis of process parameters and its infl uence in rotary piercing mill is presented. The FEM analyze of the rotary piercing process was made under the conditions of 3D state of strain with taking into consideration the thermal phenomena. The calculations were made with application of different rolls’ skew angles and different plug designs. In the result, progression of shapes, temperature and distributions of stress and strain were characterized. The numerical results ...

  13. Effect of 3-D viscoelastic structure on post-seismic relaxation from the 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake

    Pollitz, F.; Banerjee, P.; Grijalva, K.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake profoundly altered the state of stress in a large volume surrounding the ???1400 km long rupture. Induced mantle flow fields and coupled surface deformation are sensitive to the 3-D rheology structure. To predict the post-seismic motions from this earthquake, relaxation of a 3-D spherical viscoelastic earth model is simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The quasi-static deformation basis set and solution on the 3-D model is constructed using: a spherically stratified viscoelastic earth model with a linear stress-strain relation; an aspherical perturbation in viscoelastic structure; a 'static'mode basis set consisting of Earth's spheroidal and toroidal free oscillations; a "viscoelastic" mode basis set; and interaction kernels that describe the coupling among viscoelastic and static modes. Application to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake illustrates the profound modification of the post-seismic flow field at depth by a slab structure and similarly large effects on the near-field post-seismic deformation field at Earth's surface. Comparison with post-seismic GPS observations illustrates the extent to which viscoelastic relaxation contributes to the regional post-seismic deformation. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

  14. Pre-Peak and Post-Peak Rock Strain Characteristics During Uniaxial Compression by 3D Digital Image Correlation

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-07-01

    A non-contact optical method for strain measurement applying three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) in uniaxial compression is presented. A series of monotonic uniaxial compression tests under quasi-static loading conditions on Hawkesbury sandstone specimens were conducted. A prescribed constant lateral-strain rate to control the applied axial load in a closed-loop system allowed capturing the complete stress-strain behaviour of the rock, i.e. the pre-peak and post-peak stress-strain regimes. 3D DIC uses two digital cameras to acquire images of the undeformed and deformed shape of an object to perform image analysis and provides deformation and motion measurements. Observations showed that 3D DIC provides strains free from bedding error in contrast to strains from LVDT. Erroneous measurements due to the compliance of the compressive machine are also eliminated. Furthermore, by 3D DIC technique relatively large strains developed in the post-peak regime, in particular within localised zones, difficult to capture by bonded strain gauges, can be measured in a straight forward manner. Field of strains and eventual strain localisation in the rock surface were analysed by 3D DIC method, coupled with the respective stress levels in the rock. Field strain development in the rock samples, both in axial and shear strain domains suggested that strain localisation takes place progressively and develops at a lower rate in pre-peak regime. It is accelerated, otherwise, in post-peak regime associated with the increasing rate of strength degradation. The results show that a major failure plane, due to strain localisation, becomes noticeable only long after the peak stress took place. In addition, post-peak stress-strain behaviour was observed to be either in a form of localised strain in a shearing zone or inelastic unloading outside of the shearing zone.

  15. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  16. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  17. Analysis of scalability of high-performance 3D image processing platform for virtual colonoscopy

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli

    2014-03-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. For this purpose, we previously developed a software platform for high-performance 3D medical image processing, called HPC 3D-MIP platform, which employs increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems such as the multicore, cluster, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable high-performance computing, the platform employed size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D-MIP algorithms, supported task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing, and consisted of a layered parallel software libraries that allow image processing applications to share the common functionalities. We evaluated the performance of the HPC 3D-MIP platform by applying it to computationally intensive processes in virtual colonoscopy. Experimental results showed a 12-fold performance improvement on a workstation with 12-core CPUs over the original sequential implementation of the processes, indicating the efficiency of the platform. Analysis of performance scalability based on the Amdahl's law for symmetric multicore chips showed the potential of a high performance scalability of the HPC 3DMIP platform when a larger number of cores is available.

  18. Virtual 3D tumor marking-exact intraoperative coordinate mapping improve post-operative radiotherapy

    The quality of the interdisciplinary interface in oncological treatment between surgery, pathology and radiotherapy is mainly dependent on reliable anatomical three-dimensional (3D) allocation of specimen and their context sensitive interpretation which defines further treatment protocols. Computer-assisted preoperative planning (CAPP) allows for outlining macroscopical tumor size and margins. A new technique facilitates the 3D virtual marking and mapping of frozen sections and resection margins or important surgical intraoperative information. These data could be stored in DICOM format (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) in terms of augmented reality and transferred to communicate patient's specific tumor information (invasion to vessels and nerves, non-resectable tumor) to oncologists, radiotherapists and pathologists

  19. Pre- and post-irradiation performance of FBK 3D silicon pixel detectors for CMS

    Krzywda, A., E-mail: akrzywda@purdue.edu [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Alagoz, E.; Bubna, M. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Obertino, M. [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Solano, A. [Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Arndt, K. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Uplegger, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Betta, G.F. Dalla [TIFPA INFN and Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 9, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Centro per Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Ngadiuba, J. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Rivera, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Terzo, S. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bortoletto, D. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Prosser, A.; Adreson, J.; Kwan, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Osipenkov, I. [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Bolla, G. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    In preparation for the tenfold luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (the HL-LHC) around 2020, three-dimensional (3D) silicon pixel sensors are being developed as a radiation-hard candidate to replace the planar ones currently being used in the CMS pixel detector. This study examines an early batch of FBK sensors (named ATLAS08) of three 3D pixel geometries: 1E, 2E, and 4E, which respectively contain one, two, and four readout electrodes for each pixel, passing completely through the bulk. We present electrical characteristics and beam test performance results for each detector before and after irradiation. The maximum fluence applied is 3.5×10{sup 15} n {sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Virtual 3D tumor marking-exact intraoperative coordinate mapping improve post-operative radiotherapy

    Essig Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of the interdisciplinary interface in oncological treatment between surgery, pathology and radiotherapy is mainly dependent on reliable anatomical three-dimensional (3D allocation of specimen and their context sensitive interpretation which defines further treatment protocols. Computer-assisted preoperative planning (CAPP allows for outlining macroscopical tumor size and margins. A new technique facilitates the 3D virtual marking and mapping of frozen sections and resection margins or important surgical intraoperative information. These data could be stored in DICOM format (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine in terms of augmented reality and transferred to communicate patient's specific tumor information (invasion to vessels and nerves, non-resectable tumor to oncologists, radiotherapists and pathologists.

  1. MRI ANALYSIS OF 3D NORMAL AND POST-GLOSSECTOMY TONGUE MOTION IN SPEECH

    Xing, Fangxu; Murano, Emi Z.; Lee, Junghoon; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the internal muscular motion and deformation of the tongue during natural human speech is of high interest to head and neck surgeons and speech language pathologists. A pipeline for calculating 3D tongue motion from dynamic cine and tagged Magnetic Resonance (MR) images during speech has been developed. This paper presents the result of a complete analysis of eleven subjects’ (seven normal controls and four glossectomy patients) global tongue motion during speech obtained through MR...

  2. Thermal-Aware Post Layout Voltage-Island Generation for 3D ICs

    Ning Xu; Yu-Chun Ma; Jia Liu; Shou-Chun Tao

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the interconnect delay and improve the chip performance,three-dimensional (3D) chip emerged with the rapid increasing of chip integration and chip power density.Therefore,thermal issue is one of the critical challenges in 3D IC design due to the high power density.Multiple Supply Voltages (MSV) technique provides an efficient way to optimize power consumption which in turn may alleviate the hotspots.But the voltage assignment is limited not only by the performance constraints of the design,but also by the physical layout of circuit modules since the modules with the same voltage should be gathered to reduce the power-network routing resource.Especially in 3D designs,the optimization using MSV technique becomes even more complicated since the high temperature also influences the power consumption and delay on paths.In this paper,we address the voltage-island generation problem for MSV designs in 3D ICs based on a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model.First,we propose a general MILP formulation for voltage-island generation to optimize thermal distribution as well as power-network routing resources while maintaining the whole chip performance.With the thermal-power interdependency,an iterative optimization approach is proposed to obtain the convergence.Experimental results show that our thermal-aware voltage-island generation approach can reduce the maximal on-chip temperature by 23.64% with a reasonable runtime and save the power-network routing resources by 16.71%.

  3. 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a 3D Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 3D Lagrangian quasi static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The temperature and degree of cure profiles at the steady state are first calculated in the thermo-chemical analysis. In the...... mechanical analysis, the developments of the process induced stresses and distortions during the process are predicted using the already obtained temperature and degree of cure profiles together with the glass transition temperature. The predictions of the transverse transient stresses and distortions are...... found to be similar as compared to the available data in the literature. Using the proposed 3D mechanical analysis, different mechanical behaviour is obtained for the longitudinal stress development as distinct from the stress development in the transverse directions. Even though the matrix material is...

  4. Development of an indirect solid freeform fabrication process based on microstereolithography for 3D porous scaffolds

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2009-01-01

    Scaffold fabrication using solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technology is a hot topic in tissue engineering. Here, we present a new indirect SFF technology based on microstereolithography (MSTL), which has the highest resolution of all SFF methods, to construct a three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold by combining SFF with molding technology. To realize this indirect method, we investigated and modified a water-soluble photopolymer. We used MSTL technology to fabricate a high-resolution 3D porous mold composed of the modified polymer. The mold can be removed using an appropriate solvent. We tested two materials, polycaprolactone and calcium sulfate hemihydrate, using the molding process, and developed a lost-mold shape forming process by dissolving the mold. This procedure demonstrated that the proposed method can yield scaffold pore sizes as small as 60-70 µm. In addition, cytotoxicity test results indicated that the proposed process is feasible for producing 3D porous scaffolds.

  5. Development of an indirect solid freeform fabrication process based on microstereolithography for 3D porous scaffolds

    Scaffold fabrication using solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technology is a hot topic in tissue engineering. Here, we present a new indirect SFF technology based on microstereolithography (MSTL), which has the highest resolution of all SFF methods, to construct a three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold by combining SFF with molding technology. To realize this indirect method, we investigated and modified a water-soluble photopolymer. We used MSTL technology to fabricate a high-resolution 3D porous mold composed of the modified polymer. The mold can be removed using an appropriate solvent. We tested two materials, polycaprolactone and calcium sulfate hemihydrate, using the molding process, and developed a lost-mold shape forming process by dissolving the mold. This procedure demonstrated that the proposed method can yield scaffold pore sizes as small as 60–70 µm. In addition, cytotoxicity test results indicated that the proposed process is feasible for producing 3D porous scaffolds

  6. 3D finite elements method (FEM Analysis of basic process parameters in rotary piercing mill

    Z. Pater

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 3D FEM analysis of process parameters and its infl uence in rotary piercing mill is presented. The FEM analyze of the rotary piercing process was made under the conditions of 3D state of strain with taking into consideration the thermal phenomena. The calculations were made with application of different rolls’ skew angles and different plug designs. In the result, progression of shapes, temperature and distributions of stress and strain were characterized. The numerical results of calculations were compared with results of stand test with use of 100Cr6 steel. The comparisons of numerical and experimental tests confirm good agreement between obtained results.

  7. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process.

    Baronio, Gabriele; Harran, Sami; Signoroni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities. PMID:27594781

  8. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process

    Gabriele Baronio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

  9. Implementation of an efficient workflow process for gel dosimetry using 3D Slicer

    One challenge in gel dosimetry is the manipulation and analysis of complex data sets from different systems. In this paper, we describe a simple and fast gel dosimetry analysis tool for radiation therapy dose deliveries. Using the open source medical imaging software 3D Slicer, an extension was designed and implemented for the purpose of importing treatment planning system dose, CT imaging from simulation and at treatment, and optical CT gel dosimeter data. The extension also allows for calibration of gel dosimeter data, registration, and comparison of 3D dose distributions. The development of an open source gel dosimetry processing environment may help adoption of gels in the clinic

  10. Taking Advantage of Selective Change Driven Processing for 3D Scanning

    Fernando Pardo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the application of the principles of SCD (Selective Change Driven vision to 3D laser scanning. Two experimental sets have been implemented: one with a classical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor sensor, and the other one with a recently developed CMOS SCD sensor for comparative purposes, both using the technique known as Active Triangulation. An SCD sensor only delivers the pixels that have changed most, ordered by the magnitude of their change since their last readout. The 3D scanning method is based on the systematic search through the entire image to detect pixels that exceed a certain threshold, showing the SCD approach to be ideal for this application. Several experiments for both capturing strategies have been performed to try to find the limitations in high speed acquisition/processing. The classical approach is limited by the sequential array acquisition, as predicted by the Nyquist - Shannon sampling theorem, and this has been experimentally demonstrated in the case of a rotating helix. These limitations are overcome by the SCD 3D scanning prototype achieving a significantly higher performance. The aim of this article is to compare both capturing strategies in terms of performance in the time and frequency domains, so they share all the static characteristics including resolution, 3D scanning method, etc., thus yielding the same 3D reconstruction in static scenes.

  11. Experimental investigation of 3D scanheads for laser micro-processing

    Penchev, Pavel; Dimov, Stefan; Bhaduri, Debajyoti

    2016-07-01

    The broader use of laser micro-processing technology increases the demand for executing complex machining and joining operations on free-from (3D) workpieces. To satisfy these growing requirements it is necessary to utilise 3D scanheads that integrate beam deflectors (X and Y optical axes) and Z modules with high dynamics. The research presented in this communication proposes an experimental technique to quantify the dynamic capabilities of Z modules, also called Dynamic Focusing Modules (DFM), of such 3D scanheads that are essential for efficient, accurate and repeatable laser micro-processing of free form surfaces. The proposed experimental technique is validated on state-of-art laser micro-machining platform and the results show that the DFM dynamic capabilities are substantially inferior than those of X and Y beam deflectors, in particular the maximum speed of the Z module is less than 10% of the maximum speeds achievable with X and Y optical axes of the scanhead. Thus, the DFM dynamics deficiencies can become a major obstacle for the broader use of high frequency laser sources that necessitate high dynamics 3D scanheads for executing cost effectively free-form surface processing operations.

  12. Microelectromagnetic actuator based on a 3D printing process for fiber scanner application

    A novel electromagnetic-actuated fiber scanner has been proposed for ultra-thin scanning fiber endoscope application. A free-fixed optical fiber cantilever with a cylindrical magnet can be driven and vibrated by a tilted coil on a tube surface under electromagnetic force. The tiny coil with a large tilt angle as the actuator is fabricated by a new three-dimensional (3D) printing technology and handmade hybrid process. It is an efficient and low-cost method for fabricating tiny 3D tilted coils compared with the complicated micromachining process. A 2.0 mm outer diameter tilted coil has been successfully developed. The line pitch, tilt angle, resistance and turns of this fabricated coil are 75 µm, 60°, 20 Ω and 100 turns, respectively. The scanning motion of the assembled scanner utilizing the fabricated 3D coil, fiber and a small magnet has been measured by a high-speed camera. The scanner consists of a 9 mm-length optical fiber, a 2 mm outer diameter cylindrical magnet, a jig and a fabricated tilted coil.The displacement of the fiber tip in the scanner is observed and measured when the alternative current-driven voltage was applied to the tilted coil, and 126.8 µm maximum displacement has been obtained. The present fiber scanner with 3D tilted coil has promise for use as an important inspecting device for biomedical endoscope application. (paper)

  13. Numerical Simulation of Injection Molding Cooling Process Based on 3D Surface Model

    CUIShu-biao; ZHOUHua-min; LIDe-qun

    2004-01-01

    The design of the coohng system of injection molds directly affects both productivity and the quality of the final part. Using the cooling process CAE system to instruct the mold design, the efficiency and quality of design can be improved greatly. At the same time, it is helpful to confirm the cooling system structure and optimize the process conditions. In this paper, the 3D surface model of mold cavity is used to replace the middle-plane model in the simulation by Boundary Element Method, which break the bottleneck of the application of the injection molding simulation softwares base on the middle-plane model. With the improvements of this paper, a practical and commercial simulation software of injection molding cooling process named as HsCAE3D6.0 is developed.

  14. 3D Body Scanning Measurement System Associated with RF Imaging, Zero-padding and Parallel Processing

    Kim Hyung Tae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel signal processing method for high-speed 3D body measurements using millimeter waves with a general processing unit (GPU and zero-padding fast Fourier transform (ZPFFT. The proposed measurement system consists of a radio-frequency (RF antenna array for a penetrable measurement, a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC for significant data acquisition, and a general processing unit for fast signal processing. The RF waves of the transmitter and the receiver are converted to real and imaginary signals that are sampled by a high-speed ADC and synchronized with the kinematic positions of the scanner. Because the distance between the surface and the antenna is related to the peak frequency of the conjugate signals, a fast Fourier transform (FFT is applied to the signal processing after the sampling. The sampling time is finite owing to a short scanning time, and the physical resolution needs to be increased; further, zero-padding is applied to interpolate the spectra of the sampled signals to consider a 1/m floating point frequency. The GPU and parallel algorithm are applied to accelerate the speed of the ZPFFT because of the large number of additional mathematical operations of the ZPFFT. 3D body images are finally obtained by spectrograms that are the arrangement of the ZPFFT in a 3D space.

  15. 3D TEM reconstruction and segmentation process of laminar bio-nanocomposites

    Iturrondobeitia, M., E-mail: maider.iturrondobeitia@ehu.es; Okariz, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, R.; Jimbert, P.; Guraya, T.; Ibarretxe, J. [eMERG, University of the Basque Country, Rafael Moreno Pitxitxi street 2 and 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-03-30

    The microstructure of laminar bio-nanocomposites (Poly (lactic acid)(PLA)/clay) depends on the amount of clay platelet opening after integration with the polymer matrix and determines the final properties of the material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique is the only one that can provide a direct observation of the layer dispersion and the degree of exfoliation. However, the orientation of the clay platelets, which affects the final properties, is practically immeasurable from a single 2D TEM image. This issue can be overcome using transmission electron tomography (ET), a technique that allows the complete 3D characterization of the structure, including the measurement of the orientation of clay platelets, their morphology and their 3D distribution. ET involves a 3D reconstruction of the study volume and a subsequent segmentation of the study object. Currently, accurate segmentation is performed manually, which is inefficient and tedious. The aim of this work is to propose an objective/automated segmentation methodology process of a 3D TEM tomography reconstruction. In this method the segmentation threshold is optimized by minimizing the variation of the dimensions of the segmented objects and matching the segmented V{sub clay} (%) and the actual one. The method is first validated using a fictitious set of objects, and then applied on a nanocomposite.

  16. Flexible simulation framework to couple processes in complex 3D models for subsurface utilization assessment

    Kempka, Thomas; Nakaten, Benjamin; De Lucia, Marco; Nakaten, Natalie; Otto, Christopher; Pohl, Maik; Tillner, Elena; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Utilization of the geological subsurface for production and storage of hydrocarbons, chemical energy and heat as well as for waste disposal requires the quantification and mitigation of environmental impacts as well as the improvement of georesources utilization in terms of efficiency and sustainability. The development of tools for coupled process simulations is essential to tackle these challenges, since reliable assessments are only feasible by integrative numerical computations. Coupled processes at reservoir to regional scale determine the behaviour of reservoirs, faults and caprocks, generally demanding for complex 3D geological models to be considered besides available monitoring and experimenting data in coupled numerical simulations. We have been developing a flexible numerical simulation framework that provides efficient workflows for integrating the required data and software packages to carry out coupled process simulations considering, e.g., multiphase fluid flow, geomechanics, geochemistry and heat. Simulation results are stored in structured data formats to allow for an integrated 3D visualization and result interpretation as well as data archiving and its provision to collaborators. The main benefits in using the flexible simulation framework are the integration of data geological and grid data from any third party software package as well as data export to generic 3D visualization tools and archiving formats. The coupling of the required process simulators in time and space is feasible, while different spatial dimensions in the coupled simulations can be integrated, e.g., 0D batch with 3D dynamic simulations. User interaction is established via high-level programming languages, while computational efficiency is achieved by using low-level programming languages. We present three case studies on the assessment of geological subsurface utilization based on different process coupling approaches and numerical simulations.

  17. New solutions and applications of 3D computer tomography image processing

    Effenberger, Ira; Kroll, Julia; Verl, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    As nowadays the industry aims at fast and high quality product development and manufacturing processes a modern and efficient quality inspection is essential. Compared to conventional measurement technologies, industrial computer tomography (CT) is a non-destructive technology for 3D-image data acquisition which helps to overcome their disadvantages by offering the possibility to scan complex parts with all outer and inner geometric features. In this paper new and optimized methods for 3D image processing, including innovative ways of surface reconstruction and automatic geometric feature detection of complex components, are presented, especially our work of developing smart online data processing and data handling methods, with an integrated intelligent online mesh reduction. Hereby the processing of huge and high resolution data sets is guaranteed. Besides, new approaches for surface reconstruction and segmentation based on statistical methods are demonstrated. On the extracted 3D point cloud or surface triangulation automated and precise algorithms for geometric inspection are deployed. All algorithms are applied to different real data sets generated by computer tomography in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the new tools. Since CT is an emerging technology for non-destructive testing and inspection more and more industrial application fields will use and profit from this new technology.

  18. VLSI design of 3D display processing chip for binocular stereo displays

    Ge Chenyang; Zheng Nanning

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop the core chip supporting binocular stereo displays for head mounted display(HMD)and glasses-TV,a very large scale integrated(VLSI)design scheme is proposed by using a pipeline architecture for 3D display processing chip(HMD100).Some key techniques including stereo display processing and high precision video scaling based bicubic interpolation,and their hardware implementations which improve the image quality are presented.The proposed HMD100 chip is verified by the field-programmable gate array(FPGA).As one of innovative and high integration SoC chips,HMD100 is designed by a digital and analog mixed circuit.It can support binocular stereo display,has better scaling effect and integration.Hence it is applicable in virtual reality(VR),3D games and other microdisplay domains.

  19. Architectures and algorithms for all-optical 3D signal processing

    Giglmayr, Josef

    1999-07-01

    All-optical signal processing by >= 2D lightwave circuits (LCs) is (i) aimed to allow the (later) inclusion of the frequency domain and is (ii) subject to photonic integration and thus the architectural and algorithmic framework has to be prepared carefully. Much work has been done in >= 2D algebraic system theory/modern control theory which has been applied in the electronic field of signal and image processing. For the application to modeling, analysis and design of the proposed 3D lightwave circuits (LCs) some elements are needed to describe and evalute the system efficiency as the number of system states of 3D LCs increases dramatically with regard to the number of i/o. Several problems, arising throughput such an attempt, are made transparent and solutions are proposed.

  20. Processing of 3D Weather Radar Data with Application for Assimilation in the NWP Model

    Ośródka Katarzyna; Szturc Jan; Jakubiak Bogumił; Jurczyk Anna

    2014-01-01

    The paper is focused on the processing of 3D weather radar data to minimize the impact of a number of errors from different sources, both meteorological and non-meteorological. The data is also quantitatively characterized in terms of its quality. A set of dedicated algorithms based on analysis of the reflectivity field pattern is described. All the developed algorithms were tested on data from the Polish radar network POLRAD. Quality control plays a key role in avoiding the introduction of i...

  1. A Process for Topographically Selective Deposition on 3D Nanostructures by Ion Implantation.

    Kim, Woo-Hee; Minaye Hashemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Mackus, Adriaan J M; Singh, Joseph; Kim, Yeongin; Bobb-Semple, Dara; Fan, Yin; Kaufman-Osborn, Tobin; Godet, Ludovic; Bent, Stacey F

    2016-04-26

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) is attracting increasing interest because of its ability to enable both continued dimensional scaling and accurate pattern placement for next-generation nanoelectronics. Here we report a strategy for depositing material onto three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures with topographic selectivity using an ALD process with the aid of an ultrathin hydrophobic surface layer. Using ion implantation of fluorocarbons (CFx), a hydrophobic interfacial layer is formed, which in turn causes significant retardation of nucleation during ALD. We demonstrate the process for Pt ALD on both blanket and 2D patterned substrates. We extend the process to 3D structures, demonstrating that this method can achieve selective anisotropic deposition, selectively inhibiting Pt deposition on deactivated horizontal regions while ensuring that only vertical surfaces are decorated during ALD. The efficacy of the approach for metal oxide ALD also shows promise, though further optimization of the implantation conditions is required. The present work advances practical applications that require area-selective coating of surfaces in a variety of 3D nanostructures according to their topographical orientation. PMID:26950397

  2. Pre-Processing of Point-Data from Contact and Optical 3D Digitization Sensors

    Mirko Soković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary 3D digitization systems employed by reverse engineering (RE feature ever-growing scanning speeds with the ability to generate large quantity of points in a unit of time. Although advantageous for the quality and efficiency of RE modelling, the huge number of point datas can turn into a serious practical problem, later on, when the CAD model is generated. In addition, 3D digitization processes are very often plagued by measuring errors, which can be attributed to the very nature of measuring systems, various characteristics of the digitized objects and subjective errors by the operator, which also contribute to problems in the CAD model generation process. This paper presents an integral system for the pre-processing of point data, i.e., filtering, smoothing and reduction, based on a cross-sectional RE approach. In the course of the proposed system development, major emphasis was placed on the module for point data reduction, which was designed according to a novel approach with integrated deviation analysis and fuzzy logic reasoning. The developed system was verified through its application on three case studies, on point data from objects of versatile geometries obtained by contact and laser 3D digitization systems. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the system.

  3. 3D PLLA/ibuprofen composite scaffolds obtained by a supercritical fluids assisted process.

    Cardea, S; Baldino, L; Scognamiglio, M; Reverchon, E

    2014-04-01

    The emerging next generation of engineered tissues is based on the development of loaded scaffolds containing bioactive molecules in order to control the cellular function or to interact on the surrounding tissues. Indeed, implantation of engineered biomaterials might cause local inflammation because of the host's immune response; thereby, the use of anti-inflammatory agents, whether steroidal or nonsteroidal is required. One of the most important stages of tissue engineering is the design and the generation of a porous 3D structure, with high porosity, high interconnectivity and homogenous morphology. Various techniques have been reported in the literature for the fabrication of biodegradable scaffolds, but they suffer several limitations. In this study, for the first time, the possibility of generating 3D polymeric scaffolds loaded with an active compound by supercritical freeze extraction process is evaluated; this innovative process combines the advantages of the thermally induced phase separation process and of the supercritical carbon dioxide drying. Poly-L-lactid acid/ibuprofen composite scaffolds characterized by a 3D geometry, micrometric cellular structures and wrinkled pores walls have been obtained; moreover, homogeneous drug distribution and controlled release of the active principle have been assured. PMID:24366467

  4. 3D surface topography of cylinder liner forecasting during plateau honing process

    Areal surface topographies after plateau honing process were measured. A correlation analysis of surface texture parameters was then carried out. As the results, the following parameters describing plateau honed cylinder 3D surface topography were selected: amplitude Sq, Sz, spatial: Str, Std, hybrid SΔq as well as functional: Spq, Svq and Smq. 3D surface topographies were modeled. The modeled surface topographies were correctly matched to measured ones in 77% of all analyzed cases. The plateau honing experiment was then carried out using an orthogonal selective research plan. Two machining parameters were input variables: coarse honing pressure pv and plateau honing time t. Chosen cylinder liners texture parameters were output values. As the result of the experiment, regression equations connecting plateau honing process parameters pv and t with recommended 3D surface topography parameters were obtained. Finally, cylinder liner surface topographies were predicted for various values of machining parameters. Proper matching accuracy of modeled to measured textures was assured in 67% of analyzed cases.

  5. Tra strumenti classici e geodatabase 3D: il piano di ricostruzione post sisma 2009 del centro storico di Bugnara (AQ

    Romolo Continenza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ItIl contributo affronta le problematiche relative alla redazione del Piano di Ricostruzione di un centro storico minore dell’Abruzzo montano colpito dal sisma del 2009, illustrando una sperimentazione effettuata con l’uso dei GIS 3D finalizzati alla corretta lettura di alcuni fenomeni, all'interpretazione critica del tessuto urbano e della sua storia, alla prefigurazione di scenari urbani e dunque alla semplificazione del percorso di conoscenza e alla verifica del progetto di recupero urbano.EnThe contribution deals with the issue of reintegration of the Reconstruction Plan of a small center laying in the Abruzzo mountains hit by the 2009 earthquake. It explains an experiment carried out using 3D GIS procedures in order to give a proper interpretation of some phenomena, an in-deep study of the urban context and its history. It can lead also to the simulation of urban scenarios thus simplifying the knowledge process and urban redevelopment projects testing.

  6. Pre- and post-test analyses of a KKL turbine trip test at 109% power using RETRAN-3D

    As part of the PSI/HSK STARS project, pre-test calculations have been performed for a KKL turbine trip test at 109% power using the RETRAN-3D code. In this paper, we first present the results of these calculations, together with a description of the test and a comparison of the results with the measured plant data, and then discuss in more detail the differences between the pre-test results and the plant measurements, including the differences in the initial and boundary conditions, and how these differences influenced the calculated results. Finally, we comment on a series of post-test and sensitivity analyses, which were performed to resolve some of the discrepancies. The results of the pre-test (blind) calculations show good overall agreement with the experimental data, particularly for the maximum in the steam-line mass flow rate following the opening of the turbine bypass valves. This is of critical importance, since the steam-line flow has the least margin to the reactor scram limit. The agreement is especially good since the control rod banks used for the selected rod insertion were changed from those given in the test specification. Following a review of the comparison of the pre-test calculations with the measured data, several deficiencies in the RETRAN-3D model for KKL were identified and corrected as part of the post-test analysis. This allowed for both an improvement in the calculated results, and a deeper understanding of the behaviour of the turbine trip transient. (author)

  7. 3D FEM Simulation of Rolling Load Working on Piercer Plug in Mannesmann Piercing Process

    Yoshida, Motohisa

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents 3D FEM simulation of piercer plug in Mannesmann piercing process. Target is establishment of a virtual piercing experiment tool to assistant piercer plug development. FEM simulation analysis has been applied to Mannesmann piercing process previously. Aspect of those studies is how to simulate material flow in piercing process, especially focused on how to describe ductile fracture which is known as Mannesmann effect. Thus far, simulation of rolling tools has not been focused. Present piercer plugs, made of special alloys, are damaged severely and quickly in case of piercing higher Cr contented alloys in seamless steel tube production process. Therefore, development of FEM simulation on rolling tools has been demanded in production side. 3D FEM analysis of piercer plug is performed with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian—Eulerian) method by using ABAQUS/Explicit 6.9. Simulations are thermo-mechanical, elasto-plastic coupled, and dynamic calculation. Piercer plug and the billet are modeled by solid elements to analyze various factors on stress, strain and temperature. Ductile fracture is not considered in the simulations. Simulation results are correlated sufficiently to experimental results on damage of piercer plugs. Verifying absolute value of simulated factors is hard since there are few empirical methods to measure them. As a conclusion, studied simulations are sufficient as a virtual piercing experiment tool to develop higher performance piercer plugs.

  8. Using Gaussian Process Annealing Particle Filter for 3D Human Tracking

    Michael Rudzsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for human body parts tracking in 3D with prelearned motion models using multiple cameras. Gaussian process annealing particle filter is proposed for tracking in order to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to increase the tracker's stability and robustness. Comparing with a regular annealed particle filter-based tracker, we show that our algorithm can track better for low frame rate videos. We also show that our algorithm is capable of recovering after a temporal target loss.

  9. 3D Finite Element Analysis of Spider Non-isothermal Forging Process

    Niu, Ling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Kun Xia; Alexandrov, Igor V.; Hu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The differences of effective stress, effective strain, velocity field, and the load-time curves between the spider isothermal and non-isothermal forging processes are investigated by making full use of 3D FEA, and verified by the production experiment of spider forging. Effective stress is mainly concentrated on the pin, and becomes lower closer to the front of the pin. The maximum effective strain in the non-isothermal forging is lower than that in the isothermal. The great majority of strain in the non-isothermal forging process is 1.76, which is larger than the strain of 1.31 in the isothermal forging. The maximum load required in the isothermal forging is higher than that in the non-isothermal. The maximum experimental load and deformation temperature in the spider production are in good agreement with those in the non-isothermal FEA. The results indicate that the non-isothermal 3D FEA results can guide the design of the spider forging process.

  10. Machine design and processing considerations for the 3D plotting of thermoplastic scaffolds

    Ragaert, Kim; Cardon, Ludwig; Dekeyser, Arne [Department of Applied Engineering Sciences, Centre for Polymers and Materials Technology, University College Ghent, Voskenslaan 362, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Degrieck, Joris, E-mail: kim.ragaert@hogent.b [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Ghent University, St Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    3D plotting by micro-extrusion is a promising layer-wise fabrication method for the production of scaffolds in thermoplastic polymers. It is a solvent-free direct technique which permits extensive control over geometry and porosity. This paper highlights the complications that arise when using this technique for the processing of thermally sensitive polymers. It has been noted that the material is subject to extensive thermal load during processing, which may result in degradation by chain scission. This negatively affects scaffold (mechanical) properties as well as predictability and repeatability of the fabrication technique. A rationale is offered as to the main causes of this thermally induced degradation during processing and tentative ideas towards a solution are equally put forward.

  11. GPR data processing for 3D fracture mapping in a marble quarry (Thassos, Greece)

    Grandjean, G.; Gourry, J. C.

    1996-11-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been successfully applied to detect and map fractures in marble quarries. The aim was to distinguish quickly intact marketable marble areas from fractured ones in order to improve quarry management. The GPR profiling method was chosen because it is non destructive and quickly provides a detailed image of the subsurface. It was performed in domains corresponding to future working areas in real quarry-exploitation conditions. Field surveying and data processing were adapted to the local characteristics of the fractures: E-W orientation, sub-vertical dip, and karst features. After the GPR profiles had been processed, using methods adapted from seismics (amplitude compensation, filtering and Fourier migration), the interpreted fractures from a 12 × 24 × 15 m zone were incorporated into a 3D model. Due to the low electrical conductivity of the marble, GPR provides penetration depths of about 8 and 15 m, and resolutions of about 1 and 5 cm for frequencies of 900 and 300 MHz respectively. The detection power thus seems to be sufficient to recommend use of this method. As requested by the quarriers, the 3D representation can be used directly by themselves to locate high- or low-quality marble areas. Comparison between the observed surface fractures and the fractures detected using GPR showed reasonable correlation.

  12. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forging Process to Reproduce a 3D Aluminium Foam Complex Shape

    Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load

  13. Web-based interactive 2D/3D medical image processing and visualization software.

    Mahmoudi, Seyyed Ehsan; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Rahmani, Roohollah; Faghih-Roohi, Shahrooz; Taimouri, Vahid; Sabouri, Ahmad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2010-05-01

    There are many medical image processing software tools available for research and diagnosis purposes. However, most of these tools are available only as local applications. This limits the accessibility of the software to a specific machine, and thus the data and processing power of that application are not available to other workstations. Further, there are operating system and processing power limitations which prevent such applications from running on every type of workstation. By developing web-based tools, it is possible for users to access the medical image processing functionalities wherever the internet is available. In this paper, we introduce a pure web-based, interactive, extendable, 2D and 3D medical image processing and visualization application that requires no client installation. Our software uses a four-layered design consisting of an algorithm layer, web-user-interface layer, server communication layer, and wrapper layer. To compete with extendibility of the current local medical image processing software, each layer is highly independent of other layers. A wide range of medical image preprocessing, registration, and segmentation methods are implemented using open source libraries. Desktop-like user interaction is provided by using AJAX technology in the web-user-interface. For the visualization functionality of the software, the VRML standard is used to provide 3D features over the web. Integration of these technologies has allowed implementation of our purely web-based software with high functionality without requiring powerful computational resources in the client side. The user-interface is designed such that the users can select appropriate parameters for practical research and clinical studies. PMID:20022133

  14. Percolation properties of 3-D multiscale pore networks: how connectivity controls soil filtration processes

    E. M. A. Perrier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the connectivity of pore networks is a key issue not only for modelling fluid flow and solute transport in porous media but also for assessing the ability of soil ecosystems to filter bacteria, viruses and any type of living microorganisms as well inert particles which pose a contamination risk. Straining is the main mechanical component of filtration processes: it is due to size effects, when a given soil retains a conveyed entity larger than the pores through which it is attempting to pass. We postulate that the range of sizes of entities which can be trapped inside soils has to be associated with the large range of scales involved in natural soil structures and that information on the pore size distribution has to be complemented by information on a critical filtration size (CFS delimiting the transition between percolating and non percolating regimes in multiscale pore networks. We show that the mass fractal dimensions which are classically used in soil science to quantify scaling laws in observed pore size distributions can also be used to build 3-D multiscale models of pore networks exhibiting such a critical transition. We extend to the 3-D case a new theoretical approach recently developed to address the connectivity of 2-D fractal networks (Bird and Perrier, 2009. Theoretical arguments based on renormalisation functions provide insight into multi-scale connectivity and a first estimation of CFS. Numerical experiments on 3-D prefractal media confirm the qualitative theory. These results open the way towards a new methodology to estimate soil filtration efficiency from the construction of soil structural models to be calibrated on available multiscale data.

  15. Percolation properties of 3-D multiscale pore networks: how connectivity controls soil filtration processes

    E. M. A. Perrier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the connectivity of pore networks is a key issue not only for modelling fluid flow and solute transport in porous media but also for assessing the ability of soil ecosystems to filter bacteria, viruses and any type of living microorganisms as well inert particles which pose a contamination risk. Straining is the main mechanical component of filtration processes: it is due to size effects, when a given soil retains a conveyed entity larger than the pores through which it is attempting to pass. We postulate that the range of sizes of entities which can be trapped inside soils has to be associated with the large range of scales involved in natural soil structures and that information on the pore size distribution has to be complemented by information on a Critical Filtration Size (CFS delimiting the transition between percolating and non percolating regimes in multiscale pore networks. We show that the mass fractal dimensions which are classically used in soil science to quantify scaling laws in observed pore size distributions can also be used to build 3-D multiscale models of pore networks exhibiting such a critical transition. We extend to the 3-D case a new theoretical approach recently developed to address the connectivity of 2-D fractal networks (Bird and Perrier, 2009. Theoretical arguments based on renormalisation functions provide insight into multi-scale connectivity and a first estimation of CFS. Numerical experiments on 3-D prefractal media confirm the qualitative theory. These results open the way towards a new methodology to estimate soil filtration efficiency from the construction of soil structural models to be calibrated on available multiscale data.

  16. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  17. Processing 3D flash LADAR point-clouds in real-time for flight applications

    Craig, R.; Gravseth, I.; Earhart, R. P.; Bladt, J.; Barnhill, S.; Ruppert, L.; Centamore, C.

    2007-04-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. has demonstrated real-time processing of 3D imaging LADAR point-cloud data to produce the industry's first time-of-flight (TOF) 3D video capability. This capability is uniquely suited to the rigorous demands of space and airborne flight applications and holds great promise in the area of autonomous navigation. It will provide long-range, three dimensional video information to autonomous flight software or pilots for immediate use in rendezvous and docking, proximity operations, landing, surface vision systems, and automatic target recognition and tracking. This is enabled by our new generation of FPGA based "pixel-tube" processors, coprocessors and their associated algorithms which have led to a number of advancements in high-speed wavefront processing along with additional advances in dynamic camera control, and space laser designs based on Ball's CALIPSO LIDAR. This evolution in LADAR is made possible by moving the mechanical complexity required for a scanning system into the electronics, where production, integration, testing and life-cycle costs can be significantly reduced. This technique requires a state of the art TOF read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) attached to a sensor array to collect high resolution temporal data, which is then processed through FPGAs. The number of calculations required to process the data is greatly reduced thanks to the fact that all points are captured at the same time and thus correlated. This correlation allows extremely efficient FPGA processing. This capability has been demonstrated in prototype form at both Marshal Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center on targets that represent docking and landing scenarios. This report outlines many aspects of this work as well as aspects of our recent testing at Marshall's Flight Robotics Laboratory.

  18. Should Post-Processing Be Performed by the Radiologist?

    Mezrich, Reuben; Juluru, Krishna; Nagy, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Post-processing of volumetric data sets lands in a fuzzy boundary between the technologist and the radiologist. Is this the role of the technologist as part of image preparation? Or is it the beginning of the diagnostic process by the radiologist? Technology advances in real-time server side rendering platforms is challenging the traditional role of expensive dedicated advanced visualizations workstations with dedicated personnel. Will this also challenge the role of a dedicated 3D post-proce...

  19. Developing a 3D Game Design Authoring Package to Assist Students' Visualization Process in Design Thinking

    Kuo, Ming-Shiou; Chuang, Tsung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of 3D digital game design requires the development of students' meta-skills, from story creativity to 3D model construction, and even the visualization process in design thinking. The characteristics a good game designer should possess have been identified as including redesign things, creativity thinking and the ability to…

  20. a Semi-Automated Point Cloud Processing Methodology for 3d Cultural Heritage Documentation

    Kıvılcım, C. Ö.; Duran, Z.

    2016-06-01

    The preliminary phase in any architectural heritage project is to obtain metric measurements and documentation of the building and its individual elements. On the other hand, conventional measurement techniques require tremendous resources and lengthy project completion times for architectural surveys and 3D model production. Over the past two decades, the widespread use of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry have significantly altered the heritage documentation process. Furthermore, advances in these technologies have enabled robust data collection and reduced user workload for generating various levels of products, from single buildings to expansive cityscapes. More recently, the use of procedural modelling methods and BIM relevant applications for historic building documentation purposes has become an active area of research, however fully automated systems in cultural heritage documentation still remains open. In this paper, we present a semi-automated methodology, for 3D façade modelling of cultural heritage assets based on parametric and procedural modelling techniques and using airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data. We present the contribution of our methodology, which we implemented in an open source software environment using the example project of a 16th century early classical era Ottoman structure, Sinan the Architect's Şehzade Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

  1. Filters in 2D and 3D Cardiac SPECT Image Processing

    Maria Lyra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiac imaging is a noninvasive, sensitive method providing information on cardiac structure and physiology. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT evaluates myocardial perfusion, viability, and function and is widely used in clinical routine. The quality of the tomographic image is a key for accurate diagnosis. Image filtering, a mathematical processing, compensates for loss of detail in an image while reducing image noise, and it can improve the image resolution and limit the degradation of the image. SPECT images are then reconstructed, either by filter back projection (FBP analytical technique or iteratively, by algebraic methods. The aim of this study is to review filters in cardiac 2D, 3D, and 4D SPECT applications and how these affect the image quality mirroring the diagnostic accuracy of SPECT images. Several filters, including the Hanning, Butterworth, and Parzen filters, were evaluated in combination with the two reconstruction methods as well as with a specified MatLab program. Results showed that for both 3D and 4D cardiac SPECT the Butterworth filter, for different critical frequencies and orders, produced the best results. Between the two reconstruction methods, the iterative one might be more appropriate for cardiac SPECT, since it improves lesion detectability due to the significant improvement of image contrast.

  2. CMOS array of photodiodes with electronic processing for 3D optical reconstruction

    Hornero, Gemma; Montane, Enric; Chapinal, Genis; Moreno, Mauricio; Herms, Atila

    2001-04-01

    It is well known that laser time-of-flight (TOF) and optical triangulation are the most useful optical techniques for distance measurements. The first one is more suitable for large distances, since for short range of distances high modulation frequencies of laser diodes (©200-500MHz) are needed. For these ranges, optical triangulation is simpler, as it is only necessary to read the projection of the laser point over a linear optical sensor without any laser modulation. Laser triangulation is based on the rotation of the object. This motion shifts the projected point over the linear sensor, resulting on 3D information, by means of the whole readout of the linear sensor in each angle position. On the other hand, a hybrid method of triangulation and TOF can be implemented. In this case, a synchronized scanning of a laser beam over the object results in different arrival times of light to each pixel. The 3D information is carried by these delays. Only a single readout of the linear sensor is needed. In this work we present the design of two different linear arrays of photodiodes in CMOS technology, the first one based on the Optical triangulation measurement and the second one based in this hybrid method (TFO). In contrast to PSD (Position Sensitive Device) and CCDs, CMOS technology can include, on the same chip, photodiodes, control and processing electronics, that in the other cases should be implemented with external microcontrollers.

  3. A 3D surface seismic pilot study at Olkiluoto, Finland. Aquisition and processing report

    Posiva carries out R and D tasks related to spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. Works are currently performed in the Olkiluoto Island, in western Finland. Multidisciplinary engineering and geological investigations have been carried out since 1987. Site and rock characterization continued underground after 2004, in the ONKALO underground research facility. Posiva co-operated with Andra, France (Agence Nationale des Dechets Radioactifs) to purchase the design, acquisition and processing work needed to demonstrate the capability of 3D seismic techniques to image geological and structural features in crystalline rock. A 3D seismic pilot survey was carried out at the Olkiluoto site during seven days in June 2006. Data acquisition and processing were carried out as a Finnish-Swedish joint effort of Vibrometric and Uppsala University. The seismic survey covered 600 x 650 m area to the west of ONKALO underground premises. The single-template fixed array consisted of 270 active geophones on nine NW-SE lines. Geophone line interval was 60 m and station interval 24 m (30 channels on line). Sources (469 in total) were placed on seven NE-SW lines perpendicular to the receiver lines. The shot line interval was 100 m and the shot spacing 10 m (71 shots per line). The source was a time distributed Vibsist impact source (2000-2500 J/ impact), using a hydraulic rock breaker. The receivers (28 Hz geophones) were connected to a Sercel 408 UL seismograph. The coverage and signal quality were good. The array size was small compared to imaging depth, compared with conventional 3D works. The fold (CDP bin size 12 x 12 m) was highly variable (5->100), lower at the edges of area. Reflections are already seen in the processed receiver and shot gathers. The processing comprised time stacking (impact decoding), first arrival picking, resampling, refraction and residual static corrections, spectral equalisation, band-pass filtering, NMO and DMO, stacking. Static corrections, DMO and

  4. A 3D surface seismic pilot study at Olkiluoto, Finland. Aquisition and processing report

    Juhlin, C. (Uppsala University (SE)); Cosma, C. (Vibrometric Oy, Vantaa (FI))

    2007-08-15

    Posiva carries out R and D tasks related to spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. Works are currently performed in the Olkiluoto Island, in western Finland. Multidisciplinary engineering and geological investigations have been carried out since 1987. Site and rock characterization continued underground after 2004, in the ONKALO underground research facility. Posiva co-operated with Andra, France (Agence Nationale des Dechets Radioactifs) to purchase the design, acquisition and processing work needed to demonstrate the capability of 3D seismic techniques to image geological and structural features in crystalline rock. A 3D seismic pilot survey was carried out at the Olkiluoto site during seven days in June 2006. Data acquisition and processing were carried out as a Finnish-Swedish joint effort of Vibrometric and Uppsala University. The seismic survey covered 600 x 650 m area to the west of ONKALO underground premises. The single-template fixed array consisted of 270 active geophones on nine NW-SE lines. Geophone line interval was 60 m and station interval 24 m (30 channels on line). Sources (469 in total) were placed on seven NE-SW lines perpendicular to the receiver lines. The shot line interval was 100 m and the shot spacing 10 m (71 shots per line). The source was a time distributed Vibsist impact source (2000-2500 J/ impact), using a hydraulic rock breaker. The receivers (28 Hz geophones) were connected to a Sercel 408 UL seismograph. The coverage and signal quality were good. The array size was small compared to imaging depth, compared with conventional 3D works. The fold (CDP bin size 12 x 12 m) was highly variable (5->100), lower at the edges of area. Reflections are already seen in the processed receiver and shot gathers. The processing comprised time stacking (impact decoding), first arrival picking, resampling, refraction and residual static corrections, spectral equalisation, band-pass filtering, NMO and DMO, stacking. Static corrections, DMO and

  5. Measurement of normal size of styloid process with 3D reconstrction CT

    Seon, Young Seok; Lee, Kyoung Rok; Choi, Ji He; Kim, Sun Su; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byong Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    To measure the normal size of the styloid process using 3D (three-dimensional) reconstruction CT We retrospectively analyzed 3D reconstruction images obtained after coronal and axial CT scanning of the temporal bone or neck of 115 patients. The length and shape of both sides of the styloid process, the location of its tip, and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament were retrospectively analysed. The mean length of the styloid process was 26.6 ({+-}7.9)mm on the right side, and 26.4 ({+-}8.3)mm on the left, a statistically insignificant difference (p=0.694). Its mean length was 26.2 ({+-}8.5) mm in men and 26.7 ({+-}7.2) mm in women, a statically in significant difference (p=0.733). As for variation with age, mean length tended to increase until the third decade, but not beyond. Segmental type (104/230, 45.2%) and fragmental type (73/230, 31.7 %) were more commonly seen in shape of styloid process, and tapering tip of styloid process (156/230, 67.9%) is more commonly seen than clubbing tip of it (74/230, 32.1%). The process was angulated in six cases (2.6%); its tip was more frequently located between the internal and external carotid artery (211 cases, 91.7%) than more medially (19 cases, 8.3%). In the former location, the length of the process was 26.2({+-} 7.2) mm, and in the latter, 37.0 ({+-}6.0)mm. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.000). Calcification had occurred in 33 cases (14.3%). The length of a normal styloid process was 18-32 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between its two sides, or between the sexes. Length tended to increase until the third decade, but not beyond. Predominantly the tip was located between the internal and external carotid artery, though the process was longer when its tip was located medially.

  6. Measurement of normal size of styloid process with 3D reconstrction CT

    To measure the normal size of the styloid process using 3D (three-dimensional) reconstruction CT We retrospectively analyzed 3D reconstruction images obtained after coronal and axial CT scanning of the temporal bone or neck of 115 patients. The length and shape of both sides of the styloid process, the location of its tip, and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament were retrospectively analysed. The mean length of the styloid process was 26.6 (±7.9)mm on the right side, and 26.4 (±8.3)mm on the left, a statistically insignificant difference (p=0.694). Its mean length was 26.2 (±8.5) mm in men and 26.7 (±7.2) mm in women, a statically in significant difference (p=0.733). As for variation with age, mean length tended to increase until the third decade, but not beyond. Segmental type (104/230, 45.2%) and fragmental type (73/230, 31.7 %) were more commonly seen in shape of styloid process, and tapering tip of styloid process (156/230, 67.9%) is more commonly seen than clubbing tip of it (74/230, 32.1%). The process was angulated in six cases (2.6%); its tip was more frequently located between the internal and external carotid artery (211 cases, 91.7%) than more medially (19 cases, 8.3%). In the former location, the length of the process was 26.2(± 7.2) mm, and in the latter, 37.0 (±6.0)mm. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.000). Calcification had occurred in 33 cases (14.3%). The length of a normal styloid process was 18-32 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between its two sides, or between the sexes. Length tended to increase until the third decade, but not beyond. Predominantly the tip was located between the internal and external carotid artery, though the process was longer when its tip was located medially

  7. Simulation of bacteria transport processes in a river with Flow3D

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Bui, Minh Duc; Rutschmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water quality aspects are getting more and more important due to the European water Framework directive (WFD). One problem related to this topic is the inflow of untreated wastewater due to combined sewer overflows into a river. The wastewater mixture contains even bacteria like E. coli and Enterococci which are markers for water quality. In our work we investigated the transport of these bacteria in river Isar by using a large-scale flume in the outside area of our lab (Oskar von Miller Institute). Therefor we could collect basic data and knowledge about the processes which occur during bacteria sedimentation and remobilisation. In our flume we could use the real grain with the exact size distribution curve as in the river Isar which we want to simulate and we had the chance to nurture a biofilm which is realistic for the analysed situation. This biofilm plays an important role in the remobilisation processes, because the bacteria are hindered to be washed out back into the bulk phase as fast and in such an amount as this would happen without biofilm. The results of our experiments are now used for a module in the 3D software Flow3D to simulate the effects of a point source inlet of raw wastewater on the water quality. Therefor we have to implement the bacteria not as a problem of concentration with advection and diffusion but as single particles which can be inactivated during the process of settling and need to be hindered from remobilisation by the biofilm. This biofilm has special characteristic, it is slippery and has a special thickness which influences the chance of bacteria being removed. To achieve realistic results we have to include the biofilm with more than a probabilistic-tool to make sure that our module is transferable. The module should be as flexible as possible to be improved step by step with increasing quality of dataset.

  8. Processing of 3D Weather Radar Data with Application for Assimilation in the NWP Model

    Ośródka Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the processing of 3D weather radar data to minimize the impact of a number of errors from different sources, both meteorological and non-meteorological. The data is also quantitatively characterized in terms of its quality. A set of dedicated algorithms based on analysis of the reflectivity field pattern is described. All the developed algorithms were tested on data from the Polish radar network POLRAD. Quality control plays a key role in avoiding the introduction of incorrect information into applications using radar data. One of the quality control methods is radar data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models to estimate initial conditions of the atmosphere. The study shows an experiment with quality controlled radar data assimilation in the COAMPS model using the ensemble Kalman filter technique. The analysis proved the potential of radar data for such applications; however, further investigations will be indispensable.

  9. 3D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

    Levander, Alan Richard [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Earth Science Department; Zelt, Colin A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Earth Science Department

    2015-03-17

    The work plan for this project was to develop and apply advanced seismic reflection and wide-angle processing and inversion techniques to high resolution seismic data for the shallow subsurface to seismically characterize the shallow subsurface at hazardous waste sites as an aid to containment and cleanup activities. We proposed to continue work on seismic data that we had already acquired under a previous DoE grant, as well as to acquire additional new datasets for analysis. The project successfully developed and/or implemented the use of 3D reflection seismology algorithms, waveform tomography and finite-frequency tomography using compressional and shear waves for high resolution characterization of the shallow subsurface at two waste sites. These two sites have markedly different near-surface structures, groundwater flow patterns, and hazardous waste problems. This is documented in the list of refereed documents, conference proceedings, and Rice graduate theses, listed below.

  10. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy in Denmark: From 2D to 3D treatment planning guidelines of The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Berg, Martin; Nielsen, Hanne M.;

    2008-01-01

    , it was investigated whether it was possible to find a treatment technique alternative to the one recommended by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). A dosimetric comparison of a combined photon/electron 3-field technique (3F) and a partial wide tangent technique (PWT) was carried out on individual......This paper describes the procedure of changing from 2D to 3D treatment planning guidelines for post-mastectomy radiotherapy in Denmark. The aim of introducing 3D planning for post-mastectomy radiotherapy was to optimize the target coverage and minimize the dose to the normal tissues. Initially...... to 3F. It was concluded that PWT was an appropriate choice of technique for future radiation treatment of post-mastectomy patients. A working group was formed and guidelines for 3D planning were developed during a series of workshops where radiation oncologists and physicists from all radiotherapy...

  11. 3D-CT imaging processing for qualitative and quantitative analysis of maxillofacial cysts and tumors

    The objective of this study was to evaluate spiral-computed tomography (3D-CT) images of 20 patients presenting with cysts and tumors in the maxillofacial complex, in order to compare the surface and volume techniques of image rendering. The qualitative and quantitative appraisal indicated that the volume technique allowed a more precise and accurate observation than the surface method. On the average, the measurements obtained by means of the 3D volume-rendering technique were 6.28% higher than those obtained by means of the surface method. The sensitivity of the 3D surface technique was lower than that of the 3D volume technique for all conditions stipulated in the diagnosis and evaluation of lesions. We concluded that the 3D-CT volume rendering technique was more reproducible and sensitive than the 3D-CT surface method, in the diagnosis, treatment planning and evaluation of maxillofacial lesions, especially those with intra-osseous involvement. (author)

  12. Modeling and simulation of 3D thermal stresses of large-sized castings in solidification processes

    2004-01-01

    When heavy machines and large scaled receiver system of communication equipment are manufactured, it always needs to produce large- sized steel castings, aluminum castings and etc. Some defects of hot cracking by thermal stress often appear during solidification process as these castings are produced, which results in failure of castings.Therefore predicting the effects of technological parameters for production of castings on the thermal stress during solidification process becomes an important means. In this paper, the mathematical models have been established and numerical calculation of temperature fields by using finite difference method (FDM) and then thermal stress fields by using finite element method (FEM) during solidification process of castings have been carried out. The technological parameters of production have been optimized by the results of calculation and the defects of hot cracking have been eliminated. Modeling and simulation of 3D thermal stress during solidification processes of large-sized castings provided a scientific basis, which promoted further development of advanced manufacturing technique.

  13. Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction Using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D improves chest CT image quality and reduces radiation exposure.

    Tsuneo Yamashiro

    Full Text Available To assess the advantages of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D for image quality improvement and dose reduction for chest computed tomography (CT.Institutional Review Boards approved this study and informed consent was obtained. Eighty-eight subjects underwent chest CT at five institutions using identical scanners and protocols. During a single visit, each subject was scanned using different tube currents: 240, 120, and 60 mA. Scan data were converted to images using AIDR3D and a conventional reconstruction mode (without AIDR3D. Using a 5-point scale from 1 (non-diagnostic to 5 (excellent, three blinded observers independently evaluated image quality for three lung zones, four patterns of lung disease (nodule/mass, emphysema, bronchiolitis, and diffuse lung disease, and three mediastinal measurements (small structure visibility, streak artifacts, and shoulder artifacts. Differences in these scores were assessed by Scheffe's test.At each tube current, scans using AIDR3D had higher scores than those without AIDR3D, which were significant for lung zones (p<0.0001 and all mediastinal measurements (p<0.01. For lung diseases, significant improvements with AIDR3D were frequently observed at 120 and 60 mA. Scans with AIDR3D at 120 mA had significantly higher scores than those without AIDR3D at 240 mA for lung zones and mediastinal streak artifacts (p<0.0001, and slightly higher or equal scores for all other measurements. Scans with AIDR3D at 60 mA were also judged superior or equivalent to those without AIDR3D at 120 mA.For chest CT, AIDR3D provides better image quality and can reduce radiation exposure by 50%.

  14. 3D Simulation of the Entire Process of Earthquake Generation at Subduction-Zone Plate Boundaries

    Matsu'Ura, M.; Hashimoto, C.; Fukuyama, E.

    2003-12-01

    In general, the entire process of earthquake generation consists of tectonic loading due to relative plate motion, quasi-static rupture nucleation, dynamic rupture propagation and stop, and restoration of fault strength. This process can be completely described by a coupled nonlinear system, which consists of an elastic/viscoelastic slip-response function that relates fault slip to shear stress change and a fault constitutive law that prescribes change in shear strength with fault slip and contact time. The shear stress and the shear strength are related with each other through boundary conditions on the fault. The driving force of this system is observed relative plate motion. The system to describe the earthquake generation cycle is conceptually quite simple. The complexity in practical modelling mainly comes from complexity in structure of the real earth. As a product of Crustal Activity Modelling Program (CAMP), which is one of the three main programs composing the Solid Earth Simulator project (1998-2003) promoted by MEXT, we have completed a physics-based predictive simulation model for the entire process of earthquake generation cycles in and around Japan, where the four plates of Pacific, North American, Philippine Sea and Eurasian are interacting with each other in a very complicated way. The total simulation system consists of a crust-mantle structure model, a tectonic loading model and a dynamic rupture model. First, we constructed a realistic 3D standard model of plate interfaces in and around Japan by applying an inversion technique to ISC hypocenter distribution data, and computed viscoelastic slip-response functions for this structure model. Second, we introduced the slip- and time-dependent fault constitutive law with an inherent strength-restoration mechanism as a basic equation governing the entire process of earthquake generation. Third, combining all these elements, we developed a simulation model for quasi-static stress accumulation due to

  15. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah [Northwestern U. (main); Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermilab; Hoff, James R. [Fermilab; Mohseni, Hooman [Northwestern U. (main)

    2015-08-28

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  16. Robust processing of intracranial CT angiograms for 3D volume rendering

    The goal of this study was to develop a robust and simple technique for processing of cranial CT angiograms (CTA) in the clinical setting. The method described in this paper involves segmentation of the bone, then dilation of the skull by adding three or four layers of voxels. This dilated skull is subtracted from the vessels object on a voxel-by-voxel basis, allowing segmentation and subsequent display of the vessels only. For evaluation of the technique, three groups of operators processed one CTA, and the quality of the 3D views obtained and the times taken were compared. One group was given training by an expert and a ''recipe'' for guidance, the second was given only the ''recipe,'' and the third group consisted of expert operators. All operators were able to produce good or acceptable shaded-surface displays when compared with digital subtraction angiography, within 10 min for experienced users, an average of 17 min for trained operators and 26 min for those using only the recipe sheet. Using a simple scoring system for the appearance of feeding vessels and draining veins, no significant differences were found between the three levels of training and experience. This technique simplifies the processing of CTAs and is quick enough to make such examinations part of a routine clinical service. (orig.)

  17. Compressed sensing reconstruction for whole-heart imaging with 3D radial trajectories: a graphics processing unit implementation.

    Nam, Seunghoon; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Basha, Tamer; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J; Tarokh, Vahid; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    A disadvantage of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic acquisition in whole-heart coronary MRI is the prolonged data acquisition time. Isotropic 3D radial trajectories allow undersampling of k-space data in all three spatial dimensions, enabling accelerated acquisition of the volumetric data. Compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction can provide further acceleration in the acquisition by removing the incoherent artifacts due to undersampling and improving the image quality. However, the heavy computational overhead of the CS reconstruction has been a limiting factor for its application. In this article, a parallelized implementation of an iterative CS reconstruction method for 3D radial acquisitions using a commercial graphics processing unit is presented. The execution time of the graphics processing unit-implemented CS reconstruction was compared with that of the C++ implementation, and the efficacy of the undersampled 3D radial acquisition with CS reconstruction was investigated in both phantom and whole-heart coronary data sets. Subsequently, the efficacy of CS in suppressing streaking artifacts in 3D whole-heart coronary MRI with 3D radial imaging and its convergence properties were studied. The CS reconstruction provides improved image quality (in terms of vessel sharpness and suppression of noise-like artifacts) compared with the conventional 3D gridding algorithm, and the graphics processing unit implementation greatly reduces the execution time of CS reconstruction yielding 34-54 times speed-up compared with C++ implementation. PMID:22392604

  18. Increased signal intensity of the cochlea on pre- and post-contrast enhanced 3D-FLAIR in patients with vestibular schwannoma

    In the vestibular schwannoma patients, the pathophysiologic mechanism of inner ear involvement is still unclear. We investigated the status of the cochleae in patients with vestibular schwannoma by evaluating the signal intensity of cochlear fluid on pre- and post-contrast enhanced thin section three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR). Twenty-eight patients were retrospectively analyzed. Post-contrast images were obtained in 18 patients, and 20 patients had the records of their pure-tone audiometry. Regions of interest of both cochleae (C) and of the medulla oblongata (M) were determined on 3D-FLAIR images by referring to 3D heavily T2-weighted images on a workstation. The signal intensity ratio between C and M on the 3D-FLAIR images (CM ratio) was then evaluated. In addition, correlation between the CM ratio and the hearing level was also evaluated. The CM ratio of the affected side was significantly higher than that of the unaffected side (p < 0.001). In the affected side, post-contrast signal elevation was observed (p < 0.005). In 13 patients (26 cochleae) who underwent both gadolinium injection and the pure-tone audiometry, the post-contrast CM ratio correlated with hearing level (p < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that alteration of cochlear fluid composition and increased permeability of the blood-labyrinthine barrier exist in the affected side in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Furthermore, although weak, positive correlation between post-contrast cochlear signal intensity on 3D-FLAIR and hearing level warrants further study to clarify the relationship between 3D-FLAIR findings and prognosis of hearing preservation surgery. (orig.)

  19. Increased signal intensity of the cochlea on pre- and post-contrast enhanced 3D-FLAIR in patients with vestibular schwannoma

    Yamazaki, Masahiro; Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Nihashi, Takashi [Nagoya University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Medical Informatics, Nagakute (Japan); Nakashima, Tsutomu [Nagoya University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    In the vestibular schwannoma patients, the pathophysiologic mechanism of inner ear involvement is still unclear. We investigated the status of the cochleae in patients with vestibular schwannoma by evaluating the signal intensity of cochlear fluid on pre- and post-contrast enhanced thin section three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR). Twenty-eight patients were retrospectively analyzed. Post-contrast images were obtained in 18 patients, and 20 patients had the records of their pure-tone audiometry. Regions of interest of both cochleae (C) and of the medulla oblongata (M) were determined on 3D-FLAIR images by referring to 3D heavily T2-weighted images on a workstation. The signal intensity ratio between C and M on the 3D-FLAIR images (CM ratio) was then evaluated. In addition, correlation between the CM ratio and the hearing level was also evaluated. The CM ratio of the affected side was significantly higher than that of the unaffected side (p < 0.001). In the affected side, post-contrast signal elevation was observed (p < 0.005). In 13 patients (26 cochleae) who underwent both gadolinium injection and the pure-tone audiometry, the post-contrast CM ratio correlated with hearing level (p < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that alteration of cochlear fluid composition and increased permeability of the blood-labyrinthine barrier exist in the affected side in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Furthermore, although weak, positive correlation between post-contrast cochlear signal intensity on 3D-FLAIR and hearing level warrants further study to clarify the relationship between 3D-FLAIR findings and prognosis of hearing preservation surgery. (orig.)

  20. Improving low-dose cardiac CT images using 3D sparse representation based processing

    Shi, Luyao; Chen, Yang; Luo, Limin

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has been widely used in diagnoses of coronary artery diseases due to the continuously improving temporal and spatial resolution. When helical CT with a lower pitch scanning mode is used, the effective radiation dose can be significant when compared to other radiological exams. Many methods have been developed to reduce radiation dose in coronary CT exams including high pitch scans using dual source CT scanners and step-and-shot scanning mode for both single source and dual source CT scanners. Additionally, software methods have also been proposed to reduce noise in the reconstructed CT images and thus offering the opportunity to reduce radiation dose while maintaining the desired diagnostic performance of a certain imaging task. In this paper, we propose that low-dose scans should be considered in order to avoid the harm from accumulating unnecessary X-ray radiation. However, low dose CT (LDCT) images tend to be degraded by quantum noise and streak artifacts. Accordingly, in this paper, a 3D dictionary representation based image processing method is proposed to reduce CT image noise. Information on both spatial and temporal structure continuity is utilized in sparse representation to improve the performance of the image processing method. Clinical cases were used to validate the proposed method.

  1. Study of filled dolines by using 3D stereo image processing and electrical resistivity imaging

    Mateja Breg Valjavec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with doline degradation due to uncontrolled waste dumping in the past in the Logatec Polje in Slovenia. It introduces a concept for determining 3D geometric characteristics (shape, depth, radius, area, and volume of formerly concave landforms (i.e., recently filled dolines by using a combination of two methods: (1 photogrammetric stereo processing of archival aerial photographs and (2 electrical resistivity imaging (ERI. To represent, visualize, and study the characteristics of the former surface morphology (i.e., the dolines before they were filled, a digital terrain model (DTM for 1972 (DTM1972 was made using digital photogrammetry processing of five sequential archival aerial photographs (1972, © GURS. DTM1972 was visually and quantitatively compared with the DTM5 of the recent surface morfology (DTM5, © GURS, 2006 in order to define areas of manmade terrain differences. In general, a circular area with a higher terrain difference is an indicator of a filled doline. The calculated terrain differences also indicate the thickness of buried waste material. Three case-study dolines were selected for 3D geometric analysis and tested in the field using ERI. ERI was used to determine the genetic type of the original doline, to confirm that the buried material in the doline is actually waste, and to ascertain opportunities for further study of water pollution due to waste leakage. Based on a comparison among the ERI sections obtained using various electrode arrays, it was concluded that the basins are actually past concave landforms (i.e., dolines filled with mixed waste material having the lowest resistivity value (bellow 100 ohm-m, which differs measurably from the surrounding natural materials. The resistivity of hard stacked limestone is higher (above 1,000 ohm-m than resistivity of cracked carbonate rocks with cracks filled with loamy clay sediments while in loamy alluvial sediment resistivity falls below 150 ohm

  2. Hot deformation characterization of duplex low-density steel through 3D processing map development

    Mohamadizadeh, A. [The Complex Laboratory of Hot Deformation & Thermomechanical Processing of High Performance Engineering Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarei-Hanzaki, A., E-mail: zareih@ut.ac.ir [The Complex Laboratory of Hot Deformation & Thermomechanical Processing of High Performance Engineering Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abedi, H.R. [The Complex Laboratory of Hot Deformation & Thermomechanical Processing of High Performance Engineering Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehtonen, S. [Center for Advanced Steels Research, Materials Engineering Research Group, University of Oulu, Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, FI-90014 (Finland); SSAB Europe Oy, Rautaruukinite 155, FI-92101 Raahe (Finland); Porter, D. [Center for Advanced Steels Research, Materials Engineering Research Group, University of Oulu, Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, FI-90014 (Finland)

    2015-09-15

    The high temperature deformation behavior of duplex low-density Fe–18Mn–8Al–0.8C steel was investigated at temperatures in the range of 600–1000 °C. The primary constitutive analysis indicated that the Zener–Hollomon parameter, which represents the coupled effects of temperature and strain rate, significantly varies with the amount of deformation. Accordingly, the 3D processing maps were developed considering the effect of strain and were used to determine the safe and unsafe deformation conditions in association with the microstructural evolution. The deformation at efficiency domain I (900–1100 °C\\10{sup −} {sup 2}–10{sup −} {sup 3} s{sup −} {sup 1}) was found to be safe at different strains due to the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization in austenite. The safe efficiency domain II (700–900 °C\\1–10{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1}), which appeared at logarithmic strain of 0.4, was characterized by deformation induced ferrite formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microband formation and crack initiation at ferrite\\austenite interphases were the main causes of deformation instability at 600–800 °C\\10{sup −} {sup 2}–10{sup −} {sup 3} s{sup −} {sup 1}. The degree of instability was found to decrease by increasing the strain due to the uniformity of microbanded structure obtained at higher strains. The shear band formation at 900–1100 °C\\1–10{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1} was verified by electron backscattered diffraction. The local dynamic recrystallization of austenite and the deformation induced ferrite formation were observed within shear-banded regions as the results of flow localization. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The 3D processing map is developed for duplex low-density Fe–Mn–Al–C steel. • The efficiency domains shrink, expand or appear with increasing strain. • The occurrence of DRX and DIFF increases the power efficiency. • Crack initiation

  3. Solid works 3D

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  4. Modeling the Dynamic Damage Process of the SiC3d/Al Interpenetrating Phase Composites

    In the current study, a 3D mesoscopic structure FE-Model of interpenetrating SiC3d/Al composite is built based on the digital image-based modeling technique together with optimized methods of three-dimensional mesh generation. Subsequently, the finite element method is proposed to simulate the dynamic damage process of the interpenetrating phase composites SiC3d/Al under dynamic axial crushing. The cracking process in micro 3D space is clearly presented in the current study. It is shown that the cracks initialization and propagation mainly appear in the region of interface between ceramic and metallic phase. Moreover, the ceramic phase attributes to the model's damage predominantly. The method proposed in this paper would be of help in the microstructure design of Interpenetrating Phase Composites.

  5. 3D printed glass: surface finish and bulk properties as a function of the printing process

    Klein, Susanne; Avery, Michael P.; Richardson, Robert; Bartlett, Paul; Frei, Regina; Simske, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It is impossible to print glass directly from a melt, layer by layer. Glass is not only very sensitive to temperature gradients between different layers but also to the cooling process. To achieve a glass state the melt, has to be cooled rapidly to avoid crystallization of the material and then annealed to remove cooling induced stress. In 3D-printing of glass the objects are shaped at room temperature and then fired. The material properties of the final objects are crucially dependent on the frit size of the glass powder used during shaping, the chemical formula of the binder and the firing procedure. For frit sizes below 250 μm, we seem to find a constant volume of pores of less than 5%. Decreasing frit size leads to an increase in the number of pores which then leads to an increase of opacity. The two different binders, 2- hydroxyethyl cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, generate very different porosities. The porosity of samples with 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose is similar to frit-only samples, whereas carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt creates a glass foam. The surface finish is determined by the material the glass comes into contact with during firing.

  6. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  7. Simulation of abrasive flow machining process for 2D and 3D mixture models

    Dash, Rupalika; Maity, Kalipada

    2015-12-01

    Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a

  8. Improving organic tandem solar cells based on water-processed nanoparticles by quantitative 3D nanoimaging.

    Pedersen, E B L; Angmo, D; Dam, H F; Thydén, K T S; Andersen, T R; Skjønsfjell, E T B; Krebs, F C; Holler, M; Diaz, A; Guizar-Sicairos, M; Breiby, D W; Andreasen, J W

    2015-08-28

    Organic solar cells have great potential for upscaling due to roll-to-roll processing and a low energy payback time, making them an attractive sustainable energy source for the future. Active layers coated with water-dispersible Landfester particles enable greater control of the layer formation and easier access to the printing industry, which has reduced the use of organic solvents since the 1980s. Through ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT), we image quantitatively a roll-to-roll coated photovoltaic tandem stack consisting of one bulk heterojunction active layer and one Landfester particle active layer. We extract the layered morphology with structural and density information including the porosity present in the various layers and the silver electrode with high resolution in 3D. The Landfester particle layer is found to have an undesired morphology with negatively correlated top- and bottom interfaces, wide thickness distribution and only partial surface coverage causing electric short circuits through the layer. By top coating a polymer material onto the Landfester nanoparticles we eliminate the structural defects of the layer such as porosity and roughness, and achieve the increased performance larger than 1 V expected for a tandem cell. This study highlights that quantitative imaging of weakly scattering stacked layers of organic materials has become feasible by PXCT, and that this information cannot be obtained by other methods. In the present study, this technique specifically reveals the need to improve the coatability and layer formation of Landfester nanoparticles, thus allowing improved solar cells to be produced. PMID:26220159

  9. Synthesis and 3D printing of biodegradable polyurethane elastomer by a water-based process for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    Hung, Kun-Che; Tseng, Ching-Shiow; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable materials that can undergo degradation in vivo are commonly employed to manufacture tissue engineering scaffolds, by techniques including the customized 3D printing. Traditional 3D printing methods involve the use of heat, toxic organic solvents, or toxic photoinitiators for fabrication of synthetic scaffolds. So far, there is no investigation on water-based 3D printing for synthetic materials. In this study, the water dispersion of elastic and biodegradable polyurethane (PU) nanoparticles is synthesized, which is further employed to fabricate scaffolds by 3D printing using polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a viscosity enhancer. The surface morphology, degradation rate, and mechanical properties of the water-based 3D-printed PU scaffolds are evaluated and compared with those of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds made from the solution in organic solvent. These scaffolds are seeded with chondrocytes for evaluation of their potential as cartilage scaffolds. Chondrocytes in 3D-printed PU scaffolds have excellent seeding efficiency, proliferation, and matrix production. Since PU is a category of versatile materials, the aqueous 3D printing process developed in this study is a platform technology that can be used to fabricate devices for biomedical applications. PMID:24729580

  10. The Modelling Process of a Paper Folding Problem in GeoGebra 3D 1

    Muharrem Aktumen; Bekir Kursat Doruk; Tolga Kabaca

    2012-01-01

    In this research; a problem situation, which requires the ability of thinking in three dimensions, was developed by the researchers. As the purpose of this paper is producing a modeling task suggestion, the problem was visualized and analyzed in GeoGebra3D environment. Then visual solution was also been supported by algebraic approach. So, the capability of creating the relationship between geometric and algebraic representations in GeoGebra was also presented in 3D sense

  11. The Modelling Process of a Paper Folding Problem in GeoGebra 3D 1

    Muharrem Aktumen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research; a problem situation, which requires the ability of thinking in three dimensions, was developed by the researchers. As the purpose of this paper is producing a modeling task suggestion, the problem was visualized and analyzed in GeoGebra3D environment. Then visual solution was also been supported by algebraic approach. So, the capability of creating the relationship between geometric and algebraic representations in GeoGebra was also presented in 3D sense

  12. 3d Anisotropic Post Stack Imaging on an Offshore Africa Case Study Étude de la migration anisotrope en 3D des traces sismiques sur un champ pétrolier offshore d'Afrique

    Le Rousseau J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Seismic anisotropy may degrade the quality of seismic images and cause the mispositioning of events within them. Shales have often been observed to be significantly anisotropic, usually with approximately hexagonal symmetry (transverse isotropy with axis normal to the bedding plane. We investigate the effect of anisotropy on imaging a real data set from offshore Africa, where there are thick shale sequences. We perform, in parallel, isotropic and anisotropic velocity model building and 3D post-stack migration of the same stack volume. We observe that the anisotropic processing improves the focussing of dipping events and that the assumption of isotropy may cause lateral and vertical displacement of the reservoir boundaries, of around 100 and 200 meters respectively, relative to the positions obtained with the anisotropic processing. L'anisotropie sismique peut altérer la qualité des images sismiques et provoquer ainsi un mauvais positionnement. Les argiles se sont souvent révélées avoir des propriétés anisotropes, avec une symétrie presque hexagonale (isotropie transversale sur un axe normal par rapport au plan de stratification. Nous étudions ici l'effet de l'anisotropie sur la migration d'un ensemble de données réelles d'un gisement offshore africain possédant d'épaisses couches d'argile. Nous réalisons en parallèle la création des modèles de vitesse isotrope et anisotrope et la migration du même volume des données stacken utilisant les deux modèles. Nous observons que la méthode anisotrope améliore la mise au point en profondeur et que l'augmentation de l'isotropie peut provoquer un décalage latéral et vertical des limites du réservoir, respectivement de 100 et 200 mètres, par rapport aux positions obtenues avec la méthode anisotrope.

  13. 2D and 3D CMOS MAPS with high performance pixel-level signal processing

    Traversi, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.traversi@unibg.i [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy); Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy); Ratti, Lodovico [University of Pavia and INFN Pavia (Italy); Re, Valerio [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    Deep N-well (DNW) MAPS have been developed in the last few years with the aim of building monolithic sensors with similar functionalities as hybrid pixels systems. These devices have been fabricated in a planar (2D) 130 nm CMOS technology. The triple-well structure available in such an ultra-deep submicron technology is exploited by using the deep N-well as the charge-collecting electrode. This paper intends to discuss the design features and measurement results of the last prototype (Apsel5T chip) recently fabricated in a 2D 130 nm CMOS technology. Recent advances in microelectronics industry have made 3D integrated circuits an option for High Energy Physics experiments. A 3D version of the Apsel5T chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS, two-layer, vertically integrated technology. The main features of this new 3D monolithic detector are presented in this paper.

  14. Effects of Stereoscopic 3D Contents on the Process of Learning to Build a Handmade PC

    Tosh Yamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed Web3D contents that simulate the procedure for assembling a handmade PC. The original motivation for this project was to enable media-informatics students to deepen their understanding of PC hardware. However, it was found that due to their lack of perspective, conveying information that relates to such virtual manufacturing was quite difficult using conventional 2D displays. In this study, we optimized the graphical contents for a stereoscopic environment that would allow proper perspective to be realized. No significant differences were identified between stereoscopic 3D cases and 2D cases. This result is considered to be due to learner fatigue specific to stereoscopic 3D cases.

  15. CMOS MAPS in a Homogeneous 3D Process for Charged Particle Tracking

    Manazza, A; Manghisoni, M; Re, V; Traversi, G; Bettarini, S; Forti, F; Morsani, F; Rizzo, G; 10.1109/TNS.2014.2299341

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the characterization of deep n-well (DNW) CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) fabricated in a 130 nm homogeneous, vertically integrated technology. An evaluation of the 3D MAPS device performance, designed for application of the experiments at the future high luminosity colliders, is provided through the characterization of the prototypes, including tests with infrared (IR) laser, 55Fe and 90Sr sources. The radiation hardness study of the technology will also be presented together with its impact on 3D DNW MAPS performance.

  16. Free and Open-source Control Software for 3-D Motion and Processing

    Bas Wijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RepRap 3-D printers and their derivatives using conventional firmware are limited by: 1 requiring technical knowledge, 2 poor resilience with unreliable hardware, and 3 poor integration in complicated systems. In this paper, a new control system called Franklin, for CNC machines in general and 3-D printers specifically, is presented that enables web-based three dimensional control of additive, subtractive and analytical tools from any Internet connected device. Franklin can be set up and controlled entirely from a web interface; it uses a custom protocol which allows it to continue printing when the connection is temporarily lost, and allows communication with scripts.

  17. Making Things See 3D vision with Kinect, Processing, Arduino, and MakerBot

    Borenstein, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This detailed, hands-on guide provides the technical and conceptual information you need to build cool applications with Microsoft's Kinect, the amazing motion-sensing device that enables computers to see. Through half a dozen meaty projects, you'll learn how to create gestural interfaces for software, use motion capture for easy 3D character animation, 3D scanning for custom fabrication, and many other applications. Perfect for hobbyists, makers, artists, and gamers, Making Things See shows you how to build every project with inexpensive off-the-shelf components, including the open source P

  18. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations...

  19. Processing of MR Slices of Temporomandibular Disc for 3D Visualization

    Mikulka, J.; Gescheidtová, E.; Bartušek, Karel; Smékal, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2010), s. 204-206. ISSN 1931-7360 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/0389; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MR * Temporomandibular Disc * 3D Visualization Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  20. Research on 3D Micro-nano Processing Reported on Nature

    2007-01-01

    @@ The latest issue of Nature reported in its Research Highlights ( see " Lithography: Luminous Lizards", Nature, Vol. 451, p868, Feb. 21, 2008) that a group of researchers from the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) achieved the new progress in 3D microstructures of nanometer composites using the multiphoton nanoprocessing technology.

  1. Mechanical Modelling of Pultrusion Process: 2D and 3D Numerical Approaches

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko;

    2015-01-01

    mechanical analysis should be performed. In the present work, the two dimensional (2D) quasi-static plane strain mechanical model for the pultrusion of a thick square profile developed by the authors is further improved using generalized plane strain elements. In addition to that, a more advanced 3D thermo...

  2. 2D or 3D? New user interfaces for control rooms in process industries. A feasibility study; 2D eller 3D? Nya graenssnitt foer processindustrins kontrollrum

    Karlsson, MariAnne

    2008-01-15

    Three dimensional user interfaces and techniques for visualisation have been discussed as possible ways to improve the work situation for control room operators in process industries. The aims of the project, which is a pilot project, has been: (i) to compile existing knowledge on the pro's and con's of 2D versus 3D user interfaces in order to assess and conclude if, and how, 3-dimensional visualisations could be applied when designing new user interfaces for modern process control rooms and (ii) to investigate operators' attitudes towards and acceptance of 3-dimensional user interfaces for visualisation of information. The project has included the following activities: a literature review has been completed in order to collect information on different projects and tests in which 3-dimensional user interfaces have been evaluated for different tasks; an identification of feasible use cases has been made, partly on basis of a workshop in which participated researchers from the field and partly on basis of study visits to different process plants on the west coast of Sweden; an interview study has been carried with control room operators at four different power plants in order to find out the operators' assessments of and attitudes towards 3-dimensional information visualisation; and interviews with representatives of system developers have been completed in order to elicit information on ongoing development work and experiences of developing and implementing 3-dimensional user interfaces in control rooms. On basis of the literature review as well as the interview studies cannot be concluded that 3-dimensional user interfaces and 3-dimensional visualisation of information hold any general advantages compared to 2-dimensional solutions. Pro's and con's are, instead, highly contextual and dependant upon (i) the characteristics of user (in terms e.g. of computer skills); (ii) the (work) task; and (iii) the specific design of the user

  3. Laser scanner data processing and 3D modeling using a free and open source software

    Gabriele, Fatuzzo [Dept. of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Michele, Mangiameli, E-mail: amichele.mangiameli@dica.unict.it; Giuseppe, Mussumeci; Salvatore, Zito [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The laser scanning is a technology that allows in a short time to run the relief geometric objects with a high level of detail and completeness, based on the signal emitted by the laser and the corresponding return signal. When the incident laser radiation hits the object to detect, then the radiation is reflected. The purpose is to build a three-dimensional digital model that allows to reconstruct the reality of the object and to conduct studies regarding the design, restoration and/or conservation. When the laser scanner is equipped with a digital camera, the result of the measurement process is a set of points in XYZ coordinates showing a high density and accuracy with radiometric and RGB tones. In this case, the set of measured points is called “point cloud” and allows the reconstruction of the Digital Surface Model. Even the post-processing is usually performed by closed source software, which is characterized by Copyright restricting the free use, free and open source software can increase the performance by far. Indeed, this latter can be freely used providing the possibility to display and even custom the source code. The experience started at the Faculty of Engineering in Catania is aimed at finding a valuable free and open source tool, MeshLab (Italian Software for data processing), to be compared with a reference closed source software for data processing, i.e. RapidForm. In this work, we compare the results obtained with MeshLab and Rapidform through the planning of the survey and the acquisition of the point cloud of a morphologically complex statue.

  4. Laser scanner data processing and 3D modeling using a free and open source software

    The laser scanning is a technology that allows in a short time to run the relief geometric objects with a high level of detail and completeness, based on the signal emitted by the laser and the corresponding return signal. When the incident laser radiation hits the object to detect, then the radiation is reflected. The purpose is to build a three-dimensional digital model that allows to reconstruct the reality of the object and to conduct studies regarding the design, restoration and/or conservation. When the laser scanner is equipped with a digital camera, the result of the measurement process is a set of points in XYZ coordinates showing a high density and accuracy with radiometric and RGB tones. In this case, the set of measured points is called “point cloud” and allows the reconstruction of the Digital Surface Model. Even the post-processing is usually performed by closed source software, which is characterized by Copyright restricting the free use, free and open source software can increase the performance by far. Indeed, this latter can be freely used providing the possibility to display and even custom the source code. The experience started at the Faculty of Engineering in Catania is aimed at finding a valuable free and open source tool, MeshLab (Italian Software for data processing), to be compared with a reference closed source software for data processing, i.e. RapidForm. In this work, we compare the results obtained with MeshLab and Rapidform through the planning of the survey and the acquisition of the point cloud of a morphologically complex statue

  5. Refilling process in the plasmasphere: a 3-D statistical characterization based on Cluster density observations

    G. Lointier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission offers an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of the plasma population in a large part of the inner magnetosphere, explored near its orbit's perigee, over a complete solar cycle. The WHISPER sounder, on board each satellite of the mission, is particularly suitable to study the electron density in this region, between 0.2 and 80 cm−3. Compiling WHISPER observations during 1339 perigee passes distributed over more than three years of the Cluster mission, we present first results of a statistical analysis dedicated to the study of the electron density morphology and dynamics along and across magnetic field lines between L = 2 and L = 10. In this study, we examine a specific topic: the refilling of the plasmasphere and trough regions during extended periods of quiet magnetic conditions. To do so, we survey the evolution of the ap index during the days preceding each perigee crossing and sort out electron density profiles along the orbit according to three classes, namely after respectively less than 2 days, between 2 and 4 days, and more than 4 days of quiet magnetic conditions (ap ≤ 15 nT following an active episode (ap > 15 nT. This leads to three independent data subsets. Comparisons between density distributions in the 3-D plasmasphere and trough regions at the three stages of quiet magnetosphere provide novel views about the distribution of matter inside the inner magnetosphere during several days of low activity. Clear signatures of a refilling process inside an expended plasmasphere in formation are noted. A plasmapause-like boundary, at L ~ 6 for all MLT sectors, is formed after 3 to 4 days and expends somewhat further after that. In the outer part of the plasmasphere (L ~ 8, latitudinal profiles of median density values vary essentially according to the MLT sector considered rather than according to the refilling duration. The shape of these density profiles

  6. 3D FEA of cemented glass fiber and cast posts with various dental cements in a maxillary central incisor.

    Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Hamzi, Mohsen A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A; Al-Qudaimi, Nasr H; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two dental posts cemented with four different luting agents by examining their shear stress transfer through the FEM. Eight three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with glass fiber and Ni-Cr alloy cast dental posts. Each dental post was luted with zinc phosphate, Panavia resin, super bond C&B resin and glass ionomer materials. Finite element models were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was applied. The distribution of shear stress was investigated at posts and cement/dentine interfaces using ABAQUS/CAE software. The peak shear stress for glass fiber post models minimized approximately three to four times of those for Ni-Cr alloy cast post models. There was negligible difference in peak of shear stress when various cements were compared, irrespective of post materials. The shear stress had same trend for all cement materials. This study found that the glass fiber dental post reduced the shear stress concentration at interfacial of post and cement/dentine compared to Ni-Cr alloy cast dental post. PMID:26543733

  7. Design of 3D Video Front-end Processing and Display System Based on FPGA%FPGA 的3D 视频前端处理与显示系统设计

    赵德亮; 余建华; 张翼杨

    2014-01-01

    针对目前国内3D 电视芯片的缺少而导致3D 片源短缺,传统视频处理过程复杂,以及红蓝3D 视频观看时出现重影、亮度降低等问题,本文设计了一款基于 FPGA 的3D 视频前端处理与显示系统。以两路摄像头采集的信号作为输入源,采用 Altera 公司的 Cyclone IV 系列 FPGA 芯片为处理核心,实时地完成数据采集和图像处理,采用 LCOS 微显示器件作为显示单元,得到了效果逼真的3D 视频图像。%Aiming at the problems of 3D sources inadequate,conventional video processing complex,ghost and decrease in brightness that occurs when watching red and blue 3D video,which are caused by the 3D TV chip shortage,the paper designs a kind of 3D video front-end processing and display system based on FPGA.The signals collected by two cameras as the input source and Altera Cyclone IV series FPGA chip as the core processor,the design can realize real-time data acquisition and image processing.Because of adopting LCOS as the display unit,we can get the realistic 3D video image.

  8. Processing and characterization of 3D dense chitosan pieces, for orthopedic applications, by adding plasticizers

    Figueiredo, Lígia; Moura, Carla; Pinto, Luís F. V.; Ferreira, Frederico Castelo; Rodrigues, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, plasticizer agents were incorporated in a chitosan based formulation, as a strategy to improve the fragile structure of chitosan based-materials. Three different plasticizers: ethylene glycol, glycerol and sorbitol, were blended with chitosan to prepare 3D dense chitosan specimens. The properties of the obtained structures were assessed for mechanical, microstructural, physical and biocompatibility behavior. The results obtained revealed that from the different specimens prepare...

  9. Processing of MR Slices of Temporomandibular Disc for 3D Visualization

    Mikulka, J.; Gescheidtová, E.; Bartušek, Karel; Smékal, Z.

    Cambridge : The Electromagnetics Academy, 2010, s. 213-215. ISBN 978-1-934142-12-7. [PIERS 2010 Xi'an. Xi'an (CN), 22.03.2010-26.03.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/0389; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Temporomandibular Disc * 3D Visualization Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. A modeling language for 3D process plant layout representation, exchange and visualization

    Paviot, Thomas; Fortineau, Virginie; Lamouri, Samir; Louis-Sidney, Ludovic

    2012-01-01

    International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management (PLM12), IFIP WG5.1. In the nuclear industry, achieving Long Term Data Preservation is a requirement for nuclear power plants to be safely built, operated over five or six decades and retired. Among them, CAD data suffers from some strong dependencies on the software vendors and its data model thus leading to a possible weakness in the preservation workflow. This paper presents a modeling language, suitable for the 3D representation ...

  11. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience

    Ravinder eJerath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information is filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system.

  12. 3D FSPGR后处理图像3D MIP在双手、双腕多关节痛患者中的诊断价值%The diagnostic value of 3D MIP from 3D FSPGR post-procesing in patients with polyarthralgia of bilateral hands and wrists

    刘霞; 杜湘珂; 李绪斌

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨3D FSPGR后处理图像3D MIP对双手、双腕多关节疼痛患者的临床诊断价值.方法:对25例多关节痛患者行双手、双腕关节MRI扫描,MRI采用平扫冠状位T1WI、STIR、增强后3DFSPGR及3DFSTGR的横断位重建图像、3D MIP的重建图像,以增强3D FSPGR诊断的滑膜炎为参照标准,对比评价3D MIP诊断关节滑膜炎的敏感性和特异性.结果:3D MIP可同时显示多关节情况,图像直观;诊断关节滑膜炎的敏感性和特异性分别为91.07%、98.57%.结论:3DMIP对关节滑膜炎的诊断具有较高的特异性和敏感性,可全面、直观地显示关节整体情况,加速、便捷诊断流程,具有潜在的临床应用价值.

  13. Flank wear and I-kaz 3D correlation in ball end milling process of Inconel 718

    M.A.S.M. Tahir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tool wear may deteriorate the machine product quality due to high surface roughness, dimension exceeding tolerance and also to machine tool itself. Tool wear monitoring system is vital to be used in machining process to achieve high quality of the machined product and at the same time improve the productivity. Nowadays, many monitoring system developed using various sensor and statistical technique to analyze the signals being used. In this paper, I-kaz 3D method is used to analyze cutting force signal in milling process of Inconel 718 for monitoring the status of tool wear in milling process. The results from analyzing cutting force show that I-kaz 3D coefficient has a correlation with cutting tool condition. Tool wear will generate high value of I-kaz 3D coefficient than the sharp cutting tool. Furthermore, the three dimension graphical representation of I-kaz 3D for all cutting condition shown that the degree of scattering data increases with tool wear progression.

  14. Improving organic tandem solar cells based on water-processed nanoparticles by quantitative 3D nanoimaging

    Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind; Angmo, Dechan; Dam, Henrik Friis;

    2015-01-01

    particle active layer. We extract the layered morphology with structural and density information including the porosity present in the various layers and the silver electrode with high resolution in 3D. The Landfester particle layer is found to have an undesired morphology with negatively correlated top...... easier access to the printing industry, which has reduced the use of organic solvents since the 1980s. Through ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT), we image quantitatively a roll-to-roll coated photovoltaic tandem stack consisting of one bulk heterojunction active layer and one Landfester...

  15. 3D FEA of cemented glass fiber and cast posts with various dental cements in a maxillary central incisor

    Ahmed A. Madfa; Al-Hamzi, Mohsen A.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.; Al-Qudaimi, Nasr H.; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two dental posts cemented with four different luting agents by examining their shear stress transfer through the FEM. Eight three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with glass fiber and Ni–Cr alloy cast dental posts. Each dental post was luted with zinc phosphate, Panavia resin, super bond C&B resin and glass ionomer materials. Finite element models were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was...

  16. Development of the flow behavior model for 3D scaffold fabrication in the polymer deposition process by a heating method

    Kim, Jong Young; Park, Jung Kyu; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Kwon, Tai Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2009-10-01

    The flow behavior model for 3D scaffold fabrication in the polymer deposition process by the heating method was developed for enhanced efficiency of the deposition process. The analysis of the polymer flow property is very important in the fabrication process of precise micro-structures such as scaffolds. In this study, a deposition model considering fluid mechanics and heat transfer phenomena was built up and introduced for the estimation of the fluid behavior of molten polymer. The effectiveness of the simulation model was verified through comparison with the experimental result in the case of PCL biomaterial. In addition, the effects of various parameters, such as pressure, temperature and nozzle size, were predicted through simulation before experimental approaches. Through the fabrication of 3D scaffold, it is concluded that this model is useful in predicting the flow behavior characteristics in the micro-structure fabrication process, which is based on the heating method.

  17. The valuable use of Microsoft Kinect™ sensor 3D kinematic in the rehabilitation process in basketball

    Braidot, Ariel; Favaretto, Guillermo; Frisoli, Melisa; Gemignani, Diego; Gumpel, Gustavo; Massuh, Roberto; Rayan, Josefina; Turin, Matías

    2016-04-01

    Subjects who practice sports either as professionals or amateurs, have a high incidence of knee injuries. There are a few publications that show studies from a kinematic point of view of lateral-structure-knee injuries, including meniscal (meniscal tears or chondral injury), without anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The use of standard motion capture systems for measuring outdoors sport is hard to implement due to many operative reasons. Recently released, the Microsoft Kinect™ is a sensor that was developed to track movements for gaming purposes and has seen an increased use in clinical applications. The fact that this device is a simple and portable tool allows the acquisition of data of sport common movements in the field. The development and testing of a set of protocols for 3D kinematic measurement using the Microsoft Kinect™ system is presented in this paper. The 3D kinematic evaluation algorithms were developed from information available and with the use of Microsoft’s Software Development Kit 1.8 (SDK). Along with this, an algorithm for calculating the lower limb joints angles was implemented. Thirty healthy adult volunteers were measured, using five different recording protocols for sport characteristic gestures which involve high knee injury risk in athletes.

  18. The application of 3D image processing to studies of the musculoskeletal system

    Hirsch, Bruce Elliot; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Siegler, Sorin; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2009-10-01

    Three dimensional renditions of anatomical structures are commonly used to improve visualization, surgical planning, and patient education. However, such 3D images also contain information which is not readily apparent, and which can be mined to elucidate, for example, such parameters as joint kinematics, spacial relationships, and distortions of those relationships with movement. Here we describe two series of experiments which demonstrate the functional application of 3D imaging. The first concerns the joints of the ankle complex, where the usual description of motions in the talocrural joint is shown to be incomplete, and where the roles of the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments are clarified in ankle sprains. Also, the biomechanical effects of two common surgical procedures for repairing torn ligaments were examined. The second series of experiments explores changes in the anatomical relationships between nerve elements and the cervical vertebrae with changes in neck position. They provide preliminary evidence that morphological differences may exist between asymptomatic subjects and patients with radiculopathy in certain positions, even when conventional imaging shows no difference.

  19. Collision Avoidance with Potential Fields Based on Parallel Processing of 3D-Point Cloud Data on the GPU

    Kaldestad, Knut B.; Haddadin, Sami; Belder, Rico; Hovland, Geir; Anisi, David A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental study on real-time collision avoidance with potential fields that are based on 3D point cloud data and processed on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The virtual forces from the potential fields serve two purposes. First, they are used for changing the reference trajectory. Second they are projected to and applied on torque control level for generating according nullspace behavior together with a Cartesian impedance main control ...

  20. 3D active edge silicon sensors: Device processing, yield and QA for the ATLAS-IBL production

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micromachining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, were successfully manufactured in facilities in Europe and USA. In 2011 the technology underwent a qualification process to establish its maturity for a medium scale production for the construction of a pixel layer for vertex detection, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) at the CERN-LHC ATLAS experiment. The IBL collaboration, following that recommendation from the review panel, decided to complete the production of planar and 3D sensors and endorsed the proposal to build enough modules for a mixed IBL sensor scenario where 25% of 3D modules populate the forward and backward part of each stave. The production of planar sensors will also allow coverage of 100% of the IBL, in case that option was required. This paper will describe the processing strategy which allowed successful 3D sensor production, some of the Quality Assurance (QA) tests performed during the pre-production phase and the production yield to date.

  1. A web-based collaborative framework for facilitating decision making on a 3D design developing process

    Purevdorj Nyamsuren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased competitive challenges are forcing companies to find better ways to bring their applications to market faster. Distributed development environments can help companies improve their time-to-market by enabling parallel activities. Although, such environments still have their limitations in real-time communication and real-time collaboration during the product development process. This paper describes a web-based collaborative framework which has been developed to support the decision making on a 3D design developing process. The paper describes 3D design file for the discussion that contains all relevant annotations on its surface and their visualization on the user interface for design changing. The framework includes a native CAD data converting module, 3D data based real-time communication module, revision control module for 3D data and some sub-modules such as data storage and data management. We also discuss some raised issues in the project and the steps underway to address them.

  2. 3D active edge silicon sensors: Device processing, yield and QA for the ATLAS-IBL production

    Da Vià, Cinzia; Boscardil, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, GianFranco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Giacomini, Gabriele; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher; Kok, Angela; La Rosa, Alessandro; Micelli, Andrea; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pohl, David-Leon; Povoli, Marco; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola; Watts, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micromachining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, were successfully manufactured in facilities in Europe and USA. In 2011 the technology underwent a qualification process to establish its maturity for a medium scale production for the construction of a pixel layer for vertex detection, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) at the CERN-LHC ATLAS experiment. The IBL collaboration, following that recommendation from the review panel, decided to complete the production of planar and 3D sensors and endorsed the proposal to build enough modules for a mixed IBL sensor scenario where 25% of 3D modules populate the forward and backward part of each stave. The production of planar sensors will also allow coverage of 100% of the IBL, in case that option was required. This paper will describe the processing strategy which allowed successful 3D sensor production, some of the Quality Assurance (QA) tests performed during the pre-production phase and the production yield to date.

  3. Subglacial Landforms and Processes: new Information From 3D Seismic Technology

    Andreassen, K.

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic interpretation and imaging techniques provide a unique means of investigating submarine geomorphic features produced by former ice sheets. An extensive two-dimensional (2D) and 3D seismic data base is here used to image the imprints left behind by glaciers that flowed out a major cross-shelf trough (Bjornoyrenna) of the north-Norwegian continental shelf during repeated glacial episodes. Mega-scale glacial lineations characterize the seafloor geomorphology of Bjornoyrenna and smaller, contributing cross-shelf troughs, where they are inferred to represent flow-lines of former ice streams that where active during the most recent (Weichselian) glacial period. Similar features are commonly observed on buried horizons. Large- scale seafloor imprints from an early readvance after the last glacial maximum are especially well preserved. Streamlined landforms and associated lobe-shaped ridges indicate that this major cross-shelf trough hosted six separate ice stream lobes that diverged fan-like at their margins, but were not all active simultaneously. A 300 km wide grounding-zone wedge results from high sediment flux within sub-ice stream deformable beds. A 2 to 3 km thick Pleistocene record is preserved at the mouth of Bjornoyrenna, in the Bjornoya Trough Mouth Fan. The preservation of up to several hundred meters of glacigenic sediments between the buried, glacially eroded surfaces, provides here the opportunity to study the internal structure of till units. 3D seismic attribute maps reveal that megablocks and rafts commonly occur within the till units. The sediments blocks are often aligned in chains that may be up to 2 km wide and over 50 km long. The largest individual megablocks have an areal extent of over 2 km2. The sediment chains are interpreted to have been eroded, transported and deposited by grounded ice, most probably fast-flowing ice streams. This is based on the relationship between the sediment chains and the horizons revealing

  4. Shape 4.0: 3D Shape Modeling and Processing Using Semantics.

    Spagnuolo, Michela

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, sensor, communication, and computing technologies have advanced rapidly, producing dramatic changes in our daily lives and in a variety of application domains. Emerging technologies are leading us to a gradual, but inescapable integration of our material and digital realities and the advent of cyber-physical worlds. Although attaining visual realism is within the grasp of current 3D modeling approaches, it is less clear whether current modeling techniques will accommodate the needs of human communication and of the applications that we can already envisage in those futuristic worlds. Inspired by the evolution trends of the Web, this article describes the evolution of shape modeling from the Shape 1.0 geometry-only, mesh-based stage to the forthcoming semantics-driven Shape 4.0 era. PMID:26780764

  5. Estimation of single cell volume from 3D confocal images using automatic data processing

    Chorvatova, A.; Cagalinec, M.; Mateasik, A.; Chorvat, D., Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Cardiac cells are highly structured with a non-uniform morphology. Although precise estimation of their volume is essential for correct evaluation of hypertrophic changes of the heart, simple and unified techniques that allow determination of the single cardiomyocyte volume with sufficient precision are still limited. Here, we describe a novel approach to assess the cell volume from confocal microscopy 3D images of living cardiac myocytes. We propose a fast procedure based on segementation using active deformable contours. This technique is independent on laser gain and/or pinhole settings and it is also applicable on images of cells stained with low fluorescence markers. Presented approach is a promising new tool to investigate changes in the cell volume during normal, as well as pathological growth, as we demonstrate in the case of cell enlargement during hypertension in rats.

  6. Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Williams, Robert J; Lawrence, Jon S; Ireland, Michael J; Withford, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The first demonstration of narrowband spectral filtering of multimode light on a 3D integrated photonic chip using photonic lanterns and waveguide Bragg gratings is reported. The photonic lanterns with multi-notch waveguide Bragg gratings were fabricated using the femtosecond direct-write technique in boro-aluminosilicate glass (Corning, Eagle 2000). Transmission dips of up to 5 dB were measured in both photonic lanterns and reference single-mode waveguides with 10.4-mm-long gratings. The result demonstrates efficient and symmetrical performance of each of the gratings in the photonic lantern. Such devices will be beneficial to space-division multiplexed communication systems as well as for units for astronomical instrumentation for suppression of the atmospheric telluric emission from OH lines.

  7. SIMULATION PROCESS OF REMOVING NON-METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN ALUMINUM ALLOYS USING THE PROGRAM FLOW-3D

    N. V. Sletova; I. N. Volnov; S. P. Zadrutsky; V. A. Chaikin

    2015-01-01

    The perspective materials for making fining preparations for the silumins are the calcium and strontium carbonates from the environmental safety point of view are shown. Principle possibility of using dispersed carbonates in the fining mixtures is confirmed by late inoculation process research using simulation FLOW-3D.The high efficiency of the fining mixture with the inoculants effect is confirmed by the industrial tests

  8. SIMULATION PROCESS OF REMOVING NON-METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN ALUMINUM ALLOYS USING THE PROGRAM FLOW-3D

    N. V. Sletova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The perspective materials for making fining preparations for the silumins are the calcium and strontium carbonates from the environmental safety point of view are shown. Principle possibility of using dispersed carbonates in the fining mixtures is confirmed by late inoculation process research using simulation FLOW-3D.The high efficiency of the fining mixture with the inoculants effect is confirmed by the industrial tests

  9. Ultrastructural analysis of glycogen in hippocampal astrocytic processes using 3D virtual reality

    Corrado Calì; Anna Kreshuk; Madhusudhanan Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen is a major energy store in astrocytes that provides energy support and signals for plasticity to neurons under the form of lactate. While the biochemistry of glycogen is well known, the spatial distribution of glycogen granules within astrocytes remains largely unknown. Recent studies show that glycogen-derived lactate is necessary for synaptic plasticity and memory formation in the hippocampus, but the predominant subcellular target, pre- and post-synaptic profiles, of lactate remai...

  10. Processing of MRI images weighted in TOF for blood vessels analysis: 3-D reconstruction

    Hernandez D, J.; Cordova F, T. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque No. 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cruz A, I., E-mail: hernandezdj.gto@gmail.com [CONACYT, Centro de Investigacion en Matematicas, A. C., Jalisco s/n, Col. Valenciana, 36000 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a novel presents an approach based on differences of intensities for the identification of vascular structures in medical images from MRI studies of type time of flight method (TOF). The plating method hypothesis gave high intensities belonging to the vascular system image type TOF can be segmented by thresholding of the histogram. The enhanced vascular structures is performed using the filter Vesselness, upon completion of a decision based on fuzzy thresholding minimizes error in the selection of vascular structures. It will give a brief introduction to the vascular system problems and how the images have helped diagnosis, is summarized the physical history of the different imaging modalities and the evolution of digital images with computers. Segmentation and 3-D reconstruction became image type time of flight; these images are typically used in medical diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. The proposed method has less error in segmentation and reconstruction of volumes related to the vascular system, clear images and less noise compared with edge detection methods. (Author)

  11. 3D Markov Process for Traffic Flow Prediction in Real-Time.

    Ko, Eunjeong; Ahn, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the correct estimation of traffic flow has begun to be considered an essential component in intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, a new statistical method to predict traffic flows using time series analyses and geometric correlations is proposed. The novelty of the proposed method is two-fold: (1) a 3D heat map is designed to describe the traffic conditions between roads, which can effectively represent the correlations between spatially- and temporally-adjacent traffic states; and (2) the relationship between the adjacent roads on the spatiotemporal domain is represented by cliques in MRF and the clique parameters are obtained by example-based learning. In order to assess the validity of the proposed method, it is tested using data from expressway traffic that are provided by the Korean Expressway Corporation, and the performance of the proposed method is compared with existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can predict traffic conditions with an accuracy of 85%, and this accuracy can be improved further. PMID:26821025

  12. 3D Markov Process for Traffic Flow Prediction in Real-Time

    Eunjeong Ko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the correct estimation of traffic flow has begun to be considered an essential component in intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, a new statistical method to predict traffic flows using time series analyses and geometric correlations is proposed. The novelty of the proposed method is two-fold: (1 a 3D heat map is designed to describe the traffic conditions between roads, which can effectively represent the correlations between spatially- and temporally-adjacent traffic states; and (2 the relationship between the adjacent roads on the spatiotemporal domain is represented by cliques in MRF and the clique parameters are obtained by example-based learning. In order to assess the validity of the proposed method, it is tested using data from expressway traffic that are provided by the Korean Expressway Corporation, and the performance of the proposed method is compared with existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can predict traffic conditions with an accuracy of 85%, and this accuracy can be improved further.

  13. Processing of MRI images weighted in TOF for blood vessels analysis: 3-D reconstruction

    This paper presents a novel presents an approach based on differences of intensities for the identification of vascular structures in medical images from MRI studies of type time of flight method (TOF). The plating method hypothesis gave high intensities belonging to the vascular system image type TOF can be segmented by thresholding of the histogram. The enhanced vascular structures is performed using the filter Vesselness, upon completion of a decision based on fuzzy thresholding minimizes error in the selection of vascular structures. It will give a brief introduction to the vascular system problems and how the images have helped diagnosis, is summarized the physical history of the different imaging modalities and the evolution of digital images with computers. Segmentation and 3-D reconstruction became image type time of flight; these images are typically used in medical diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. The proposed method has less error in segmentation and reconstruction of volumes related to the vascular system, clear images and less noise compared with edge detection methods. (Author)

  14. Simulation of the enhancement factor from an individual 3D hemisphere-on-post field emitter by using finite elements method.

    Roveri, D S; Sant'Anna, G M; Bertan, H H; Mologni, J F; Alves, M A R; Braga, E S

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D computational framework for evaluating electrostatic properties of a single field emitter characterized by the hemisphere-on-post geometry. Numerical simulations employed the finite elements method by using Ansys-Maxwell software. Extensive parametric simulations were focused on the threshold distance from which the emitter field enhancement factor (γ) becomes independent from the anode-substrate gap (G). This investigation allowed demonstrating that the ratio between G and the emitter height (h) is a reliable reference for a broad range of emitter dimensions; furthermore, results permitted establishing G/h ≥ 2.2 as the threshold condition for setting the anode without affecting γ. PMID:26555324

  15. A study on the influence of process parameters on the Mechanical Properties of 3D printed ABS composite

    Jaya Christiyan, K. G.; Chandrasekhar, U.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2016-02-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have been emerged as a fabrication method to obtain engineering components within a short span of time. Desktop 3D printing, also referred as additive layer manufacturing technology is one of the powerful method of rapid prototyping (RP) technique that fabricates three dimensional engineering components. In this method, 3D digital CAD data is converted directly to a product. In the present investigation, ABS + hydrous magnesium silicate composite was considered as the starting material. Mechanical properties of ABS + hydrous magnesium silicate composite material were evaluated. ASTM D638 and ASTM D760 standards were followed for carrying out tensile and flexural tests, respectively. Samples with different layer thickness and printing speed were prepared. Based on the experimental results, it is suggested that low printing speed, and low layer thickness has resulted maximum tensile and flexural strength, as compared to all the other process parameters samples.

  16. Reconstruction for Time-Domain In Vivo EPR 3D Multigradient Oximetric Imaging—A Parallel Processing Perspective

    Christopher D. Dharmaraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23×23×23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet. The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time.

  17. Reconstruction for time-domain in vivo EPR 3D multigradient oximetric imaging--a parallel processing perspective.

    Dharmaraj, Christopher D; Thadikonda, Kishan; Fletcher, Anthony R; Doan, Phuc N; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Matsumoto, Shingo; Johnson, Calvin A; Cook, John A; Mitchell, James B; Subramanian, Sankaran; Krishna, Murali C

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23 x 23 x 23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet). The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time. PMID:19672315

  18. USING 3-D MODELING TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY FOR REMOVING PLUTONIUM PROCESSING EQUIMENT FROM GLOVEBOXES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHANG PLANT

    CROW SH; KYLE RN; MINETTE MJ

    2008-07-15

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years, these gloveboxes and attendant processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked with cleaning out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to make the process of cleaning out the radioactive gloveboxes more efficient. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work-planning process by giving workers a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which in turn is used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products also enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. Further, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological material early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers.

  19. USING 3-D MODELING TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY FOR REMOVING PLUTONIUM PROCESSING EQUIMENT FROM GLOVEBOXES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years, these gloveboxes and attendant processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked with cleaning out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to make the process of cleaning out the radioactive gloveboxes more efficient. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work-planning process by giving workers a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which in turn is used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products also enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. Further, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological material early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers

  20. Accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system in the process of making ceramic inlays

    Trifković Branka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the results of many years of Cerec® 3D CAD/CAM system technological development is implementation of one intraoral and two extraoral optical scanning methods which, depending on the current indications, are applied in making fixed restorations. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of precision of optical scanning methods by the use of the Cerec®3D CAD/CAM system in the process of making ceramic inlays. Methods. The study was conducted in three experimental groups of inlays prepared using the procedure of three methods of scanning Cerec ®3D system. Ceramic inlays made by conventional methodology were the control group. The accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system computer aided designcomputer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM was indirectly examined by measuring a marginal gap size between inlays and demarcation preparation by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. The results of the study showed a difference in the accuracy of the existing methods of scanning dental CAD/CAM systems. The highest level of accuracy was achieved by the extraoral optical superficial scanning technique. The value of marginal gap size inlays made with the technique of extraoral optical superficial scanning was 32.97 ± 13.17 μ. Techniques of intraoral optical superficial and extraoral point laser scanning showed a lower level of accuracy (40.29 ± 21.46 μ for inlays of intraoral optical superficial scanning and 99.67 ± 37.25 μ for inlays of extraoral point laser scanning. Conclusion. Optical scanning methods in dental CAM/CAM technologies are precise methods of digitizing the spatial models; application of extraoral optical scanning methods provides the hightest precision.

  1. From 3D view to 3D print

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  2. Improving Efficiency with 3-D Imaging: Technology Essential in Removing Plutonium Processing Equipment from Plutonium Finishing Plant Gloveboxes

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at Hanford, Washington began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in remote production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years these gloveboxes and processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked to clean out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to improve the efficiency of cleaning out radioactive gloveboxes at the plant. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work planning process by providing workers with a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which is then used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. In addition, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological materials early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers

  3. Image Post-Processing in Dental Practice

    Gormez, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Hasan Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    Image post-processing of dental digital radiographs, a function which used commonly in dental practice is presented in this article. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years and its use by dental practitioners is steadily increasing. Digital acquisition of radiographs enables computer-based image post-processing to enhance image quality and increase the accuracy of interpretation. Image post-processing applications can easily be practiced in dental office by ...

  4. A Comparative Analysis of 2D and 3D Tasks for Virtual Reality Therapies Based on Robotic-Assisted Neurorehabilitation for Post-stroke Patients.

    Lledó, Luis D; Díez, Jorge A; Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J; Sabater-Navarro, José M; García-Aracil, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length, or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding the success rates

  5. MRO DKF Post-Processing Tool

    Ayap, Shanti; Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2008-01-01

    This software tool saves time and reduces risk by automating two labor-intensive and error-prone post-processing steps required for every DKF [DSN (Deep Space Network) Keyword File] that MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) produces, and is being extended to post-process the corresponding TSOE (Text Sequence Of Events) as well. The need for this post-processing step stems from limitations in the seq-gen modeling resulting in incorrect DKF generation that is then cleaned up in post-processing.

  6. Induced tauopathy in a novel 3D-culture model mediates neurodegenerative processes: a real-time study on biochips.

    Diana Seidel

    Full Text Available Tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease represent one of the major health problems of aging population worldwide. Therefore, a better understanding of tau-dependent pathologies and consequently, tau-related intervention strategies is highly demanded. In recent years, several tau-focused therapies have been proposed with the aim to stop disease progression. However, to develop efficient active pharmaceutical ingredients for the broad treatment of Alzheimer's disease patients, further improvements are necessary for understanding the detailed neurodegenerative processes as well as the mechanism and side effects of potential active pharmaceutical ingredients (API in the neuronal system. In this context, there is a lack of suitable complex in vitro cell culture models recapitulating major aspects of taupathological degenerative processes in sufficient time and reproducible manner.Herewith, we describe a novel 3D SH-SY5Y cell-based, tauopathy model that shows advanced characteristics of matured neurons in comparison to monolayer cultures without the need of artificial differentiation promoting agents. Moreover, the recombinant expression of a novel highly pathologic fourfold mutated human tau variant lead to a fast and emphasized degeneration of neuritic processes. The neurodegenerative effects could be analyzed in real time and with high sensitivity using our unique microcavity array-based impedance spectroscopy measurement system. We were able to quantify a time- and concentration-dependent relative impedance decrease when Alzheimer's disease-like tau pathology was induced in the neuronal 3D cell culture model. In combination with the collected optical information, the degenerative processes within each 3D-culture could be monitored and analyzed. More strikingly, tau-specific regenerative effects caused by tau-focused active pharmaceutical ingredients could be quantitatively monitored by impedance spectroscopy.Bringing together our novel complex 3

  7. Post-irradiation plastic deformation in bcc Fe grains investigated by means of 3D dislocation dynamics simulations

    Gururaj, K.; Robertson, C.; Fivel, M.

    2015-04-01

    Post-irradiation tensile straining is investigated by means of three-dimensional dislocation dynamics simulations adapted to body centred cubic Fe. Namely, 1 μm Fe grains are strained at various temperatures in the 100-300 K range, in absence and in presence of radiation-induced defect dispersions. The defect-induced hardening is consistent with the disperse barrier effect up to 5 ×1021m-3 loops and is weakly dependent on the straining temperature. The dislocation-loops interaction rate augments with the accumulated plastic strain, loop density and strength; while it is mainly independent of the number of active slip systems and thermally activated screw dislocation mobility. An additional, radiation-induced hardening mechanism known as dislocation "decoration" is also implemented and tested for comparison. Those results show that the plastic flow localisation transition depends on the total yield point rise rather than on the lone, dispersed loop density. The simulation results are then rationalized through an original micro-mechanical model relating the grain-scale stress-strain behaviour to dislocation sub-structure formation and spreading. That model combines strain dependent and strain independent hardening mechanisms, which both contribute to the associated stress-strain response and plastic flow spreading.

  8. Effect of braiding process on the damage tolerance of 3-D braided graphite/epoxy composites

    El-Shiekh, Aly; Li, Wei; Hammad, Mohamed

    1989-01-01

    One of the key advantages of three-dimensional braided composite materials is their high impact damage tolerance comparing with laminated composites, due to their fully integrated fibrous substrates. In this paper, the effect of different processing methods on the impact damage tolerance of braided graphite/epoxy composite is experimentally assessed. The test specimens are prepared using both of the two existing three-dimensional braiding techniques (the 4-step and the 2-step processes). After the specimens are impacted under controlled impact energy, the damage introduced is studied. Then a compression test is conducted to evaluate the compression strength of the specimens after impact.

  9. A 3-D Interpretation of Changes Induced by the Creation of Instructional Materials: The Development Process.

    Silver, Paula F.

    The central thesis of the paper is that there are beneficial outcomes derived from engagement in the process of creating instructional materials, quite apart from the benefits to those who use the materials later. Of the three stages in materials production--design, development, and dissemination--this paper highlights the development stage by…

  10. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts.

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  11. 3D micro-CT analysis of void formations and push-out bonding strength of resin cements used for fiber post cementation

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the void parameters within the resin cements used for fiber post cementation by micro-CT (µCT) and regional push-out bonding strength. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-one, single and round shaped roots were enlarged with a low-speed drill following by endodontic treatment. The roots were divided into three groups (n=7) and fiber posts were cemented with Maxcem Elite, Multilink N and Superbond C&B resin cements. Specimens were scanned using µCT scanner at resolution of 13.7 µm. The number, area, and volume of voids between dentin and post were evaluated. A method of analysis based on the post segmentation was used, and coronal, middle and apical thirds considered separately. After the µCT analysis, roots were embedded in epoxy resin and sectioned into 2 mm thick slices (63 sections in total). Push-out testing was performed with universal testing device at 0.5 mm/min cross-head speed. Data were analyzed with Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests (α=.05). RESULTS Overall, significant differences between the resin cements and the post level were observed in the void number, area, and volume (P.05). CONCLUSION µCT proved to be a powerful non-destructive 3D analysis tool for visualizing the void parameters. Multilink N had the lowest void parameters. When efficiency of all cements was evaluated, direct relationship between the post region and push-out bonding strength was not observed. PMID:27141253

  12. Dose prediction and process optimization in a gamma sterilization facility using 3-D Monte Carlo code

    A model of a gamma sterilizer was built using the ITS/ACCEPT Monte Carlo code and verified through dosimetry. Individual dosimetry measurements in homogeneous material were pooled to represent larger bodies that could be simulated in a reasonable time. With the assumptions and simplifications described, dose predictions were within 2-5% of dosimetry. The model was used to simulate product movement through the sterilizer and to predict information useful for process optimization and facility design

  13. Multiscale simulation of mixing processes using 3D-parallel, fluid-structure interaction techniques

    Valette, Rudy; Vergnes, Bruno; Coupez, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    International audience This work focuses on the development of a general finite element code, called Ximex®, devoted to the three-dimensional direct simulation of mixing processes of complex fluids. The code is based on a simplified fictitious domain method coupled with a "level-set" approach to represent the rigid moving boundaries, such as screws and rotors, as well as free surfaces. These techniques, combined with the use of parallel computing, allow computing the time-dependent flow of...

  14. ERROR PROCESSING METHOD OF CYCLOIDAL GEAR MEASUREMENT USING 3D COORDINATES MEASURING MACHINE

    1998-01-01

    An error processing method is presented based on optimization theory and microcomputer technique which can be successfully used in the cycloidal gear measurement on three dimensional coordinates measuring machine (CMM). In the procedure, the minimum quadratic sum of the normal deviation is used as the object function and the equidistant curve is dealed with instead of the teeth profile. CMM is a high accurate measuring machine which can provide a way to evaluate the accuracy of the cycloidal gear completely.

  15. Patterning process exploration of metal 1 layer in 7nm node with 3D patterning flow simulations

    Gao, Weimin; Ciofi, Ivan; Saad, Yves; Matagne, Philippe; Bachmann, Michael; Oulmane, Mohamed; Gillijns, Werner; Lucas, Kevin; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Schmoeller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    In 7mn node (N7), the logic design requires the critical poly pitch (CPP) of 42-45nm and metal 1 (M1) pitch of 28- 32nm. Such high pattern density pushes the 193 immersion lithography solution toward its limit and also brings extremely complex patterning scenarios. The N7 M1 layer may require a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) with triple litho-etch (LE3) block process. Therefore, the whole patterning process flow requires multiple exposure+etch+deposition processes and each step introduces a particular impact on the pattern profiles and the topography. In this study, we have successfully integrated a simulation tool that enables emulation of the whole patterning flow with realistic process-dependent 3D profile and topology. We use this tool to study the patterning process variations of N7 M1 layer including the overlay control, the critical dimension uniformity (CDU) budget and the lithographic process window (PW). The resulting 3D pattern structure can be used to optimize the process flow, verify design rules, extract parasitics, and most importantly, simulate the electric field and identify hot spots for dielectric reliability. As an example application, we will report extractions of maximum electric field at M1 tipto- tip which is one of the most critical patterning locations and we will demonstrate the potential of this approach for investigating the impact of process variations on dielectric reliability. We will also present simulations of an alternative M1 patterning flow, with a single exposure block using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) and analyze its advantages compared to the LE3 block approach.

  16. High-temperature compatible 3D-integration processes for a vacuum-sealed CNT-based NEMS

    Gueye, R.; Lee, S. W.; Akiyama, T.; Briand, D.; Roman, C.; Hierold, C.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2013-03-01

    A System-in-Package (SiP) concept for the 3D-integration of a Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) resonator with its CMOS driving electronics is presented. The key element of this advanced SiP is the monolithic 3D-integration of the MEMS with the CMOS electronics using Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) on an SOI wafer. This SiP includes: A glass cap vacuum-sealed to the main wafer using an eutectic bonding process: a low leak rate of 2.7 10-9 mbar•l/s was obtained; Platinum-TSVs, compatible with the SWCNT growth and release process; The TSVs were developed in a "via first" process and characterized at high-temperature — up to 850 °C. An ohmic contact between the Pt-metallization and the SOI silicon device layer was obtained; The driving CMOS electronic device is assembled to the MEMS using an Au stud bump technology. Keywords: System-in-Package (SiP), vacuum packaging, eutectic bonding, "via-first" TSVs, high-temperature platinum interconnects, ohmic contacts, Au-stud bumps assembly, CMOS electronics.

  17. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1997-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  18. 3D numerical modeling of coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment with malice

    Triwong Peeteenut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multi-method Malice package for three dimension coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment by an algorithm weakly coupled with the Migen package integral method defining the electromagnetic model and the Flux-Expert package finite element method defining the thermal model. The integral method is well suited to inductive systems undergoing sinusoidal excitation at midrange or high frequency. The unknowns of both models are current density, scalar potential and temperature. Joule power in the electromagnetic model is generated by Eddy currents. It becomes the heat source in the thermal model.

  19. 3D polylactide-based scaffolds for studying human hepatocarcinoma processes in vitro

    Roberto Scaffaro, Giada Lo Re, Salvatrice Rigogliuso and Giulio Ghersi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the combination of leaching techniques and melt blending of polymers and particles for the preparation of highly interconnected three-dimensional polymeric porous scaffolds for in vitro studies of human hepatocarcinoma processes. More specifically, sodium chloride and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG were used as water-soluble porogens to form porous and solvent-free poly(L,D-lactide (PLA-based scaffolds. Several characterization techniques, including porosimetry, image analysis and thermogravimetry, were combined to improve the reliability of measurements and mapping of the size, distribution and microarchitecture of pores. We also investigated the effect of processing, in PLA-based blends, on the simultaneous bulk/surface modifications and pore architectures in the scaffolds, and assessed the effects on human hepatocarcinoma viability and cell adhesion. The influence of PEG molecular weight on the scaffold morphology and cell viability and adhesion were also investigated. Morphological studies indicated that it was possible to obtain scaffolds with well-interconnected pores of assorted sizes. The analysis confirmed that SK-Hep1 cells adhered well to the polymeric support and emitted surface protrusions necessary to grow and differentiate three-dimensional systems. PEGs with higher molecular weight showed the best results in terms of cell adhesion and viability.

  20. An automated data processing method dedicated to 3D ultrasonic non destructive testing of composite pieces

    State-of the art Non Destructive Testing using ultrasound is based on evaluation of C-scan images, which is done mainly visually. The development of the new Sampling Phased Array technique SPA by IZFP Fraunhofer provides a fast three-dimensional reconstruction of inner object structures. This new inspection technique is to be complemented with fully or semi-automated evaluation of ultrasonic data, providing maximum support to the operator. We present in this contribution a processing method for SPA ultrasonic data, where the main focus of this paper will be on speckle noise reduction. The evaluation method is applied on carbon fibre composite where it demonstrates robust and successful performance in recognition of defects.

  1. High resolution processing of 3D seismic data for thin coal seam in Guqiao coal mine

    Li, Qiaoling; Peng, Suping; Zou, Guangui

    2015-04-01

    Accurate identification of small faults for coal seams is very important for coal-field exploration, which can greatly improve mining efficiency and safety. However, coal seams in China are mostly thin layers, ranging from 2-5 m. Moreover, the shallow coal seam with strong reflection forms a shield underneath thin coal seam which is only about 40 m deeper. This causes great difficulty in seismic processing and interpretation. The primary concern is to obtain high-resolution seismic image of underneath thin coal seam for mining safety. In this paper, field data is carefully analyzed and fit-for-purpose solutions are adopted in order to improve the quality of reprocessed data and resolution of target coal seam. Identification of small faults has been enhanced significantly.

  2. Laser processing system for stitching structured patterns on large 3D parts

    Cano Zuriguel, Rafael; Saludes Rodil, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The paper addresses the development of laser based equipment to structure large surfaces (1×1×0.5m - 3×3×1.5ft) that are shaped in three dimensions. A mechanic-optical system to process curved surfaces with an acceptance angle of up to 267° is presented. The challenge is to control the combined motion of the beam delivery system with respect to distortion of the motifs and positioning tolerances. The project starting Technology Readiness Level (TRL) was 5. Currently the project is under development and at the end of September 2015 the project will reach TRL 7 after industrial-like environment testing. The proposed system will enable manufacturers to offer individualized marking for large products.

  3. Importance of 3D Processes Near the Ocean's Surface for Material Transport

    Ozgokmen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    There are a number of practical problems that demand an accurate knowledge of ocean currents near the surface of the ocean. It is known that oceanic coherent features transport heat and carry out vertical exchange of biogeochemical tracers. Ocean currents can affect biological primary production, air-sea gas exchanges and global tracer budgets. Ocean currents are also important for the dispersion of substances that pose a danger to society, economy and human health. Examples of such events include algal blooms, the Fukushima nuclear plant incident in the Pacific Ocean in 2011, and repeated large oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico, namely the IXTOC in 1978 and the Deepwater Horizon event in 2010. Such incidents demand accurate answers to questions such as ``where will the pollutant go?", ``how fast will it get there?" and ``how much pollutant will arrive there?", and in some instances ``where did the pollutant come from?". The answers to these questions are critical to the allocation of limited response resources, and in determining the overall impact of the events. We will summarize the efforts by the Consortium for Advanced Research on Transport of Hydrocarbon in the Environment (CARTHE). One of the primary objectives of CARTHE is to improve predictive modeling capability for flows near the air-sea interface. In particular, two large experiments, Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD) and Surf-zone and Coastal Oil Pathways Experiment (SCOPE), coordinated with real-time modeling were instructive on processes influencing near-surface material transport. Findings on submesoscale flows as well as model deficiencies to capture processes relevant to transport will be discussed. Insight into future modeling and observational plans will be provided.

  4. 3D FE Analysis of Thermal Behavior of Billet in Rod and Wire Hot Continuous Rolling Process

    YUAN Si-yu; ZHANG Li-wen; LIAO Shu-lun; QI Min; ZHEN Yu; GUO Shu-qi

    2007-01-01

    An FE model was developed to study thermal behavior during the rod and wire hot continuous rolling process. The FE code MSC.Marc was used in the simulation using implicit static arithmetic. The whole rolling process of 30 passes was separated and simulated with several continuous 3D elastic-plastic FE models. A rigid pushing body and a data transfer technique were introduced into this model. The on-line experiments were conducted on 304 stainless steel and GCr15 steel hot continuous rolling process to prove the results of simulation by implicit static FEM. The results show that the temperature results of finite element simulations are in good agreement with experiments, which indicate that the FE model developed in this study is effective and efficient.

  5. Mechanical and physical simulation of complex 3-D bulk forming processes with Forge3

    To-day there is a growing need to predict numerically not only the mechanical parameters, but also the final microstructure of the work-piece. On the other hand, the use of simulation codes to analyze complex laboratory experiments can be viewed as a powerful way to improve the analysis of physical data. We outline basic methods for developing a finite element model of unsteady metal forming processes. At first the thermal and mechanical equations are recalled with several integral formulations. The most important issues are discussed, including time integration, evolving contact with rigid or deformable tools, meshing, remeshing, and parallel computing. Physical coupling is presented with the two possible approaches: introduction of internal parameters describing the evolution of microstructure and coupling with constitutive equations; multi-scale computation illustrated by the texture prediction. Finally it is shown that the inverse approach can be successfully applied to improve parameters identification from data acquisition of laboratory tests, or possibly from industrial experiments. This methodology can be utilized for: constitutive modeling, friction behavior, or even for internal parameters laws describing physical evolution. (author)

  6. 3D Simulation of Neutral Gas Dynamics for PVD DC-MSIP and HPPMS Processes

    Bobzin, Kirsten; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Bagcivan, Nazlim; Brugnara, Ricardo Henrique; Schäfer, Marcel; Trieschmann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetron sputtering processes used for physical vapor deposition often require gas pressures well below 1 Pa. Under these conditions the gas flow in the reactor is usually determined by a Knudsen number of about one, i.e. a transition regime between the hydrodynamic and the rarefied gas regime. In the first, the gas flow is well described by the Navier-Stokes equations, while in the second a kinetic approach via the Boltzmann equation is necessary. In this paper the neutral and reactive gas flow of argon and molecular nitrogen gas inside an industrial scale plasma reactor is simulated using a fluid model, as well as a fully kinetic model. The results are compared and it is found that the gas flow appears to be significantly different, although the neutral particles exhibit a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in energy space for both approaches. It is shown that the results are in qualitative agreement and the main expected characteristics of the gas flow are covered by both models. However, only the kinetic mod...

  7. Process of 3D wireless decentralized sensor deployment using parsing crossover scheme

    Albert H.R. Ko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN usually consists of numerous wireless devices deployed in a region of interest, each able to collect and process environmental information and communicate with neighboring devices. It can thus be regarded as a Multi-Agent System for territorial security, where individual agents cooperate with each other to avoid duplication of effort and to exploit other agent’s capacities. The problem of sensor deployment becomes non-trivial when we consider environmental factors, such as terrain elevations. Due to the fact that all sensors are homogeneous, the chromosomes that encode sensor positions are actually interchangeable, and conventional crossover schemes such as uniform crossover would cause some redundancy as well as over-concentration in certain specific geographical area. We propose a Parsing Crossover Scheme that intends to reduce redundancy and ease geographical concentration pattern in an effort to facilitate the search. The proposed parsing crossover method demonstrates better performances than those of uniform crossover under different terrain irregularities.

  8. Simulating long term nitrate-N contamination processes in the Woodville Karst Plain using CFPv2 with UMT3D

    Xu, Zexuan; Hu, Bill X.; Davis, Hal; Cao, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    A research version of CFP (Conduit Flow Process) code, CFPv2, is applied with UMT3D to simulate long term (1966-2018) nitrate-N contamination transport processes in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), northern Florida, where karst conduit networks are well developed. Groundwater flow in the WKP limestone porous matrix is simulated using Darcy's law, and non-laminar flow within conduits is described by Darcy-Weisbach equation. Nitrate-N conduit transport and advective exchanges of groundwater and nitrate-N between conduits and limestone matrix are calculated by CFPv2 and UMT3D, instead of MODFLOW and MT3DMS since Reynolds numbers for flows in conduits are over the criteria of laminar flow. The developed numerical model is calibrated by field observations and then applied to simulate nitrate-N transport in the WKP. The numerical simulations verify the theories that two sprayfields near the City of Tallahassee and septic tanks in the rural area are major nitrate-N point sources within the WKP. High nitrate-N concentrations occur near Lost Creek Sink, and conduits of Wakulla Spring and Spring Creek Springs where aquifer discharge groundwater. Conduit networks control nitrate-N transport and regional contaminant distributions in the WKP, as nitrate-N is transported through conduits rapidly and spread over large areas.

  9. 3D Digital Modelling

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  10. 3D processing on 6 in. high resistive SOI wafers: Fabrication of edgeless strip and pixel detectors

    An insight is given into the state-of-the-art 3D processing on 6 in. (150 mm) high resistivity silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. The edgeless detector design offers some attractive properties for high-energy physics experiments and medical imaging studies, such as seamless tileability of the detectors with an inactive region width of about 10 μm. These detectors can be made very thin and the active edge avoids inhomogeneous electric fields and surface leakage currents. The paper summarizes the fabrication of edgeless detectors and the issues faced in the 3D processing on 6 in. SOI wafers. The fabrication process employed highly doped polysilicon filling in order to implement the active edges of the detector. Several planarization and ICP-etching steps were required. The layout had microstrip detectors with a pitch of 50 μm and sizes of 5x5 cm2 and 1x1 cm2, and Medipix2 compatible 1.4x1.4 cm2 pixel detectors. Also several test structures were fabricated. Electrical characterization of a 150-μm-thick edgeless diode showed low leakage currents, below 1 nA/cm2 at full depletion. The single-strip measurements showed leakage currents of about 10 pA/cm, regardless of the detector size. Low breakdown voltage of about 20 V was observed for several detectors. This might be caused by cracking of the detector edges following self-dicing. A simplified process flow for the fabrication of edgeless detectors is presented. The process is straightforward and fast because it excludes multiple ion coupled plasma (ICP)-etching steps, slow and wafer-damaging polysilicon filling and planarization steps. First images of the prototype are presented.

  11. 3D Geospatial Models for Visualization and Analysis of Groundwater Contamination at a Nuclear Materials Processing Facility

    Stirewalt, G. L.; Shepherd, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of hydrostratigraphy and uranium and nitrate contamination in groundwater at a former nuclear materials processing facility in Oklahoma were undertaken employing 3-dimensional (3D) geospatial modeling software. Models constructed played an important role in the regulatory decision process of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because they enabled visualization of temporal variations in contaminant concentrations and plume geometry. Three aquifer systems occur at the site, comprised of water-bearing fractured shales separated by indurated sandstone aquitards. The uppermost terrace groundwater system (TGWS) aquifer is composed of terrace and alluvial deposits and a basal shale. The shallow groundwater system (SGWS) aquifer is made up of three shale units and two sandstones. It is separated from the overlying TGWS and underlying deep groundwater system (DGWS) aquifer by sandstone aquitards. Spills of nitric acid solutions containing uranium and radioactive decay products around the main processing building (MPB), leakage from storage ponds west of the MPB, and leaching of radioactive materials from discarded equipment and waste containers contaminated both the TGWS and SGWS aquifers during facility operation between 1970 and 1993. Constructing 3D geospatial property models for analysis of groundwater contamination at the site involved use of EarthVision (EV), a 3D geospatial modeling software developed by Dynamic Graphics, Inc. of Alameda, CA. A viable 3D geohydrologic framework model was initially constructed so property data could be spatially located relative to subsurface geohydrologic units. The framework model contained three hydrostratigraphic zones equivalent to the TGWS, SGWS, and DGWS aquifers in which groundwater samples were collected, separated by two sandstone aquitards. Groundwater data collected in the three aquifer systems since 1991 indicated high concentrations of uranium (>10,000 micrograms/liter) and nitrate (> 500 milligrams

  12. Fabrication of solution processed 3D nanostructured CuInGaS2 thin film solar cells

    In this study we demonstrate the fabrication of CuInGaS2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells with a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure based on indium tin oxide (ITO) nanorod films and precursor solutions (Cu, In and Ga nitrates in alcohol). To obtain solution processed 3D nanostructured CIGS thin film solar cells, two different precursor solutions were applied to complete gap filling in ITO nanorods and achieve the desirable absorber film thickness. Specifically, a coating of precursor solution without polymer binder material was first applied to fill the gap between ITO nanorods followed by deposition of the second precursor solution in the presence of a binder to generate an absorber film thickness of ∼1.3 μm. A solar cell device with a (Al, Ni)/AZO/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/ITO nanorod/glass structure was constructed using the CIGS film, and the highest power conversion efficiency was measured to be ∼6.3% at standard irradiation conditions, which was 22.5% higher than the planar type of CIGS solar cell on ITO substrate fabricated using the same precursor solutions. (paper)

  13. Online process monitoring at quasi-simultaneous laser transmission welding using a 3D-scanner with integrated pyrometer

    Schmailzl, A.; Steger, S.; Dostalek, M.; Hierl, S.

    2016-03-01

    Quasi-simultaneous laser transmission welding is a well-known joining technique for thermoplastics and mainly used in the automotive as well as in the medical industry. For process control usually the so called set-path monitoring is used, where the weld is specified as "good" if the irradiation time is inside a defined confidence interval. However, the detection of small-sized gaps or thermal damaged zones is not possible with this technique. The analyzation of the weld seam temperature during welding offers the possibility to overcome this problem. In this approach a 3D-scanner is used instead of a scanner with flat-field optic. By using a pyrometer in combination with a 3D-scanner no color-corrected optic is needed in order to provide that laser- and detection-spot are concentric. Experimental studies on polyethylene T-joints have shown that the quality of the signal is adequate, despite the use of an optical setup with a long working distance and a small optical aperture. The effects on temperature are studied for defects like a gap in the joining zone. Therefore a notch was milled into the absorbent polymer. In case of producing housings for electronic parts the effect of an electrical wire between the joining partners is also investigated. Both defects can be identified by a local temperature deviation even at a feed rate of four meters per second. Furthermore a strategy for signal-processing is demonstrated. By this, remaining defects can be identified. Consequently an online detection of local defects is possible, which makes a dynamic process control feasible.

  14. Probing primordial non-Gaussianity: The 3D Bispectrum of Ly-alpha forest and the redshifted 21-cm signal from the post reionization epoch

    Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha

    2012-01-01

    We explore possibility of using the three dimensional bispectra of the Ly-alpha forest and the redshifted 21-cm signal from the post-reionization epoch to constrain primordial non-Gaussianity. Both these fields map out the large scale distribution of neutral hydrogen and maybe treated as tracers of the underlying dark matter field. We first present the general formalism for the auto and cross bispectrum of two arbitrary three dimensional biased tracers and then apply it to the specific case. We have modeled the 3D Ly-alpha transmitted flux field as a continuous tracer sampled along 1D skewers which corresponds to quasars sight lines. For the post reionization 21-cm signal we have used a linear bias model. We use a Fisher matrix analysis to present the first prediction for bounds on f_NL and the other bias parameters using the three dimensional 21-cm bispectrum and other cross bispectra. The bounds on f_NL depend on the survey volume, and the various observational noises. We have considered a BOSS like Ly-alph...

  15. Development of a novel pixel-level signal processing chain for fast readout 3D integrated CMOS pixel sensors

    In order to resolve the inherent readout speed limitation of traditional 2D CMOS pixel sensors, operated in rolling shutter readout, a parallel readout architecture has been developed by taking advantage of 3D integration technologies. Since the rows of the pixel array are zero-suppressed simultaneously instead of sequentially, a frame readout time of a few microseconds is expected for coping with high hit rates foreseen in future collider experiments. In order to demonstrate the pixel readout functionality of such a pixel sensor, a 2D proof-of-concept chip including a novel pixel-level signal processing chain was designed and fabricated in a 0.13μm CMOS technology. The functionalities of this chip have been verified through experimental characterization

  16. Morphological image processing operators. Reduction of partial volume effects to improve 3D visualization based on CT data

    Aim: The quality of segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction of anatomical structures in tomographic slices is often impaired by disturbances due to partial volume effects (PVE). The potential for artefact reduction by use of the morphological image processing operators (MO) erosion and dilation is investigated. Results: For all patients under review, the artefacts caused by PVE were significantly reduced by erosion (lung: Mean SBRpre=1.67, SBRpost=4.83; brain: SBRpre=1.06, SBRpost=1.29) even with only a small number of iterations. Region dilation was applied to integrate further structures (e.g. at tumor borders) into a configurable neighbourhood for segmentation and quantitative analysis. Conclusions: The MO represent an efficient approach for the reduction of PVE artefacts in 3D-CT reconstructions and allow optimised visualization of individual objects. (orig./AJ)

  17. Development of a novel pixel-level signal processing chain for fast readout 3D integrated CMOS pixel sensors

    Fu, Y.; Torheim, O.; Hu-Guo, C. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Degerli, Y. [CEA Saclay, IRFU/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Hu, Y., E-mail: yann.hu@iphc.cnrs.fr [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2013-03-11

    In order to resolve the inherent readout speed limitation of traditional 2D CMOS pixel sensors, operated in rolling shutter readout, a parallel readout architecture has been developed by taking advantage of 3D integration technologies. Since the rows of the pixel array are zero-suppressed simultaneously instead of sequentially, a frame readout time of a few microseconds is expected for coping with high hit rates foreseen in future collider experiments. In order to demonstrate the pixel readout functionality of such a pixel sensor, a 2D proof-of-concept chip including a novel pixel-level signal processing chain was designed and fabricated in a 0.13μm CMOS technology. The functionalities of this chip have been verified through experimental characterization.

  18. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    Raguvarun, K., E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Rajagopal, Prabhu, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in [Centre for NDE, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamilnadu (India); Palanisamy, Suresh [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 Australia and Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic [University of Wollongong, Faculty of Engineering, New South Wales 2522, Australia and Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  19. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength

  20. 3D-CFD-simulation of melting processes in a high-speed-extruder with solid-melt-separation

    Karrenberg, G.; Wortberg, J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the development of the so called High-Speed-S-Truder. The alternative extrusion concept uses a special plastification sleeve with hundreds of bores surrounding the screw to separate the emerging melt from solid material in the screw channel. To analyze and improve the complex fluid flow in this process CFD-simulations are used. However, the ability of simulating the flow as well as the plastification process is yet not given in any CFD-software. Thus an approach for 3D-CFDsimulations of melting polymeric materials in extrusion processes has been developed. A new material model enables to differ between solid phase and fluid phase in dependence of temperature in just one set of property descriptions. Hence it becomes possible to simulate melting in a single fluid domain without presupposing any melting mechanism. Therefore the model is universally applicable and can be used for the simulation of ordinary extrusion processes under high speed conditions as well as for the investigation and improvement of the melting mechanism in the High-Speed-S-Truder.

  1. Post-processing speech recordings during MRI

    Kuortti, Juha; Malinen, Jarmo; Ojalammi, Antti

    2015-01-01

    We discuss post-processing of speech that has been recorded during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the vocal tract. Such speech recordings are contaminated by high levels of acoustic noise from the MRI scanner. Also, the frequency response of the sound signal path is not flat as a result of severe restrictions on recording instrumentation due to MRI technology. The post-processing algorithm for noise reduction is based on adaptive spectral filtering. The speech material consists of sample...

  2. Post-trial anatomical frame alignment procedure for comparison of 3D joint angle measurement from magnetic/inertial measurement units and camera-based systems

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units (MIMUs) have been widely used as an alternative to traditional camera-based motion capture systems for 3D joint kinematics measurement. Since these sensors do not directly measure position, a pre-trial anatomical calibration, either with the assistance of a special protocol/apparatus or with another motion capture system is required to establish the transformation matrices between the local sensor frame and the anatomical frame (AF) of each body segment on which the sensors are attached. Because the axes of AFs are often used as the rotational axes in the joint angle calculation, any difference in the AF determination will cause discrepancies in the calculated joint angles. Therefore, a direct comparison of joint angles between MIMU systems and camera-based systems is less meaningful because the calculated joint angles contain a systemic error due to the differences in the AF determination. To solve this problem a new post-trial AF alignment procedure is proposed. By correcting the AF misalignments, the joint angle differences caused by the difference in AF determination are eliminated and the remaining discrepancies are mainly from the measurement accuracy of the systems themselves. Lower limb joint angles from 30 walking trials were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed AF alignment procedure. This technique could serve as a new means for calibrating magnetic/inertial sensor-based motion capture systems and correcting for AF misalignment in scenarios where joint angles are compared directly. (paper)

  3. Mapping Faults from 3-D Tomographic Velocity Model using Image Processing / Computer Vision Algorithms: Application to Northern Cascadia

    Ramachandran, K.

    2011-12-01

    Three dimensional velocity models constructed through seismic tomography are seldom digitally processed further for imaging structural features. A study conducted to evaluate the potential for imaging subsurface discontinuities in horizontal and vertical direction from three dimensional velocity models using image processing/computer vision techniques has provided significant results. Three-dimensional velocity models constructed through tomographic inversion of active source and/or earthquake traveltime data are generally built from an initial 1-D velocity model that varies only with depth. Regularized tomographic inversion algorithms impose constraints on the roughness of the model that help to stabilize the inversion process. Final velocity models obtained from regularized tomographic inversions have smooth three-dimensional structures that are required by the data. Final velocity models are usually analyzed and interpreted either as a perturbation velocity model or as an absolute velocity model. Compared to perturbation velocity model, absolute velocity model has an advantage of providing constraints on lithology. Both velocity models lack the ability to provide sharp constraints on subsurface faults. However, results from the analysis of the 3-D velocity model from northern Cascadia using Roberts, Prewitt, Sobel, and Canny operators show that subsurface faults that are not clearly interpretable from velocity model plots can be identified through this approach. This analysis resulted in inferring the locations of Tacoma Fault, Seattle Fault, Southern Whidbey Island Fault, and Darrington Devils Mountain fault much clearly. The Coast Range Boundary Fault, previously hypothesized on the basis of sedimentological and tectonic observations is inferred clearly from processed images. Many of the fault locations so imaged correlate with earthquake hypocenters indicating their seismogenic nature.

  4. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-I: 3D thermo-chemical process simulation

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri;

    2015-01-01

    novel three dimensional thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process is presented. A simulation is performed for the pultrusion of a NACA0018 blade profile having a curved geometry, as a part of the DeepWind project. The finite element/nodal control volume (FE/NCV) technique is used. First......, a pultrusion simulation of a Ushaped composite profile is performed to validate the model and it is found that the obtained cure degree profiles match with those given in the literature. Subsequently, the pultrusion process simulation of the NACA0018 profile is performed. The evolutions of the...... temperature and cure degree distributions are predicted inside the heating die and in the post-die region where convective cooling prevails. The effects of varying process conditions on the part quality are investigated for two different heater configurations and with three different pulling speeds. Larger...

  5. Combined global 2D-local 3D modeling of the industrial Czochralski silicon crystal growth process

    Jung, T.; Seebeck, J.; Friedrich, J.

    2013-04-01

    A global, axisymmetric thermal model of a Czochralski furnace is coupled to an external, local, 3D, time-dependent flow model of the melt via the inclusion of turbulent heat fluxes, extracted from the 3D melt model, into the 2D furnace model. Boundary conditions of the 3D model are updated using results from the 2D model. In the 3D model the boundary layers are resolved by aggressive mesh refinement towards the walls, and the Large Eddy Simulation approach is used to model the turbulent flow in the melt volume on a relatively coarse mesh to minimize calculation times. It is shown that by using this approach it is possible to reproduce fairly good results from Direct Numerical Simulations obtained on much finer meshes, as well as experimental results for interface shape and oxygen concentration in the case of growth of silicon crystals with 210 mm diameter for photovoltaics by the Czochralski method.

  6. 3D thermal and hydrodynamic modelling of the elaboration of glass in a process of cold crucible direct induction and with stirring techniques

    The aim of this work is to implement a numerical modelling of the thermal hydrodynamical and electromagnetic phenomena in the glass bath in order to support the dimensioning of the cold crucible direct induction vitrification process. Two configurations equipped with a mechanical stirrer are presented: a pseudo-3D (EREBUS pilot, cold crucible of internal diameter: 500 mm) and a 3D case (PEV pilot, nuclearized cold crucible configuration). (O.M.)

  7. Multigrid mapping and box relaxation for simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers

    Liu, C.; Liu, Z. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A new multilevel technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation for the whole process of flow transition in 3-D flat plate boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition on a relatively coarse grid with low CPU cost. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time-marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all employed for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to catch the large eddies and represent main roles of small eddies to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The computation also reproduced the K-type and C-type transition observed by laboratory experiments. The CPU cost for a typical case is around 2-9 CRAY-YMP hours.

  8. Improvement of 3D Scanner

    2003-01-01

    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  9. Scale dependent parameterization of soil hydraulic conductivity in 3D simulation of hydrological processes in a forested headwater catchment

    Fang, Zhufeng; Bogena, Heye; Kollet, Stefan; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-05-01

    In distributed hydrological modelling one often faces the problem that input data need to be aggregated to match the model resolution. However, aggregated data may be too coarse for the parametrization of the processes represented. This dilemma can be circumvented by the adjustment of certain model parameters. For instance, the reduction of local hydraulic gradients due to spatial aggregation can be partially compensated by increasing soil hydraulic conductivity. In this study, we employed the information entropy concept for the scale dependent parameterization of soil hydraulic conductivity. The loss of information content of terrain curvature as consequence of spatial aggregation was used to determine an amplification factor for soil hydraulic conductivity to compensate the resulting retardation of water flow. To test the usefulness of this approach, continuous 3D hydrological simulations were conducted with different spatial resolutions in the highly instrumented Wüstebach catchment, Germany. Our results indicated that the introduction of an amplification factor can effectively improve model performances both in terms of soil moisture and runoff simulation. However, comparing simulated soil moisture pattern with observation indicated that uniform application of an amplification factor can lead to local overcorrection of soil hydraulic conductivity. This problem could be circumvented by applying the amplification factor only to model grid cells that suffer from high information loss. To this end, we tested two schemes to define appropriate location-specific correction factors. Both schemes led to improved model performance both in terms of soil water content and runoff simulation. Thus, we anticipate that our proposed scaling approach is useful for the application of next-generation hyper-resolution global land surface models.

  10. Nitrogen oxidative activation in the radiolysis process of dioxide hydrocarbon composition, oxygen-nitrogen over 3-D transition metals

    Full text: The radiochemical process of nitrogen fixation in carbon dioxide, oxygen-nitrogen composition in 3-d metal (iron, nickel) was studied. Bifunctional character of surface's role in the generation of radiolysis products was postulated: a) Chemisorption's of molecular ions (N2+, CO2+, O2+ ) on the surface of metal and their dissociative neutralization. b) Coordination of nitrogen and carbon oxide being generated in nitrosyl and carbonyl-nitrosyl complex of iron and nickel. Total yield of the products is over the rang 6,4†7,5, to explain radiolysis' what contribution of only neutral products is impossible. Evidently in the generation of final products, defined contribution brings in molecular ions N2+ (N+) and CO2+ . Interaction character of these ions with nickel proposes the formation of the relation between unpaired electrons N2+ and CO2+ with unfilled d-sub level of this metals with the nickel nitride generation [Ni-N=N+] and binding energy in ion diazotate decreases to twice. The yield of nitrogen dioxide on radiolysis of the air gave GNO2 =0,8±0,2 molecule/100eV which is proper to the date in the literature. Kinetic curve appears rapidly in the saturation. Air radiolysis over iron gave the following results: GNO2 = 2,75 ± 0,25, GN2O= 9,0 ± 1,0 molecule/100eV. Thus total yield of radiolysis products is Σ G = 10,5 ± 12,0 molecule/100eV

  11. Nitrogen oxidative activation in the radiolysis process of dioxide hydrocarbon composition, oxygen-nitrogen over 3-d transition metals

    The radiochemical process of nitrogen fixation in carbon dioxide, oxygen-nitrogen composition in 3-d metal (iron, nickel) was studied. Bifunctional character of surface's role in the generation of radiolysis products was postulated: a) Chemisorption's of molecular ions (N2+, CO2+, O2+ ) on the surface of metal and their dissociative neutralization. b) Coordination of nitrogen and carbon oxide being generated in nitrosyl and carbonyl-nitrosyl complex of iron and nickel. Total yield of the products is over the rang 6,4†7,5, to explain radiolysis' what contribution of only neutral products is impossible. Evidently in the generation of final products, defined contribution brings in molecular ions N2+ (N+) and CO2+ . Interaction character of these ions with nickel proposes the formation of the relation between unpaired electrons N2+ and CO2+ with unfilled d-sub level of this metals with the nickel nitride generation [Ni-N=N+] and binding energy in ion diazotate decreases to twice. The yield of nitrogen dioxide on radiolysis of the air gave GNO2 =0,8±0,2 molecule/100eV which is proper to the date in the literature. Kinetic curve appears rapidly in the saturation. Air radiolysis over iron gave the following results: GNO2 = 2,75 ± 0,25, GN2O= 9,0 ± 1,0 molecule/100eV. Thus total yield of radiolysis products is Σ G = 10,5 ± 12,0 molecule/100eV. (author)

  12. Nanostructured p-type CZTS thin films prepared by a facile solution process for 3D p-n junction solar cells.

    Park, Si-Nae; Sung, Shi-Joon; Sim, Jun-Hyoung; Yang, Kee-Jeong; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Kim, JunHo; Kim, Gee Yeong; Jo, William; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2015-07-01

    Nanoporous p-type semiconductor thin films prepared by a simple solution-based process with appropriate thermal treatment and three-dimensional (3D) p-n junction solar cells fabricated by depositing n-type semiconductor layers onto the nanoporous p-type thin films show considerable photovoltaic performance compared with conventional thin film p-n junction solar cells. Spin-coated p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared using metal chlorides and thiourea show unique nanoporous thin film morphology, which is composed of a cluster of CZTS nanograins of 50-500 nm, and the obvious 3D p-n junction structure is fabricated by the deposition of n-type CdS on the nanoporous CZTS thin films by chemical bath deposition. The photovoltaic properties of 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells are predominantly affected by the scale of CZTS nanograins, which is easily controlled by the sulfurization temperature of CZTS precursor films. The scale of CZTS nanograins determines the minority carrier transportation within the 3D p-n junction between CZTS and CdS, which are closely related with the photocurrent of series resistance of 3D p-n junction solar cells. 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells with nanograins below 100 nm show power conversion efficiency of 5.02%, which is comparable with conventional CZTS thin film solar cells. PMID:26061271

  13. 3D video

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  14. 3D Animation Essentials

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  15. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    Jason S Naftulin

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT collect three-dimensional data (3D that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM images to stereolithography (STL files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min. Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  16. Post-processing of association rules.

    Baesens, Bart; Viaene, Stijn; Vanthienen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we situate and motivate the need for a post-processing phase to the association rule mining algorithm when plugged into the knowledge discovery in databases process. Major research effort has already been devoted to optimising the initially proposed mining algorithms. When it comes to effectively extrapolating the most interesting knowledge nuggets from the standard output of these algorithms, one is faced with an extreme challenge, since it is not uncommon to be confronted wit...

  17. 3D imaging of aortic aneurysma using spiral CT

    The use of 3D reconstructions (3D display technique and maximum intensity projection) in spiral CT for diagnostic evaluation of aortic aneurysma is explained. The data available showing 12 aneurysma of the abdominal and thoracic aorta (10 cases of aneurysma verum, 2 cases of aneurysma dissecans) were selected for verification of the value of 3D images in comparison to transversal displays of the CT. The 3D reconstructions of the spiral CT, other than the projection angiography, give insight into the vessel from various points of view. Such information is helpful for quickly gathering a picture of the volume and contours of a pathological process in the vessel. 3D post-processing of data is advisable if the comparison of tomograms and projection images produces findings of nuclear definition which need clarification prior to surgery. (orig.)

  18. Dual-beam focused ion beam/electron microscopy processing and metrology of redeposition during ion-surface 3D interactions, from micromachining to self-organized picostructures.

    Moberlychan, Warren J

    2009-06-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) tools have become a mainstay for processing and metrology of small structures. In order to expand the understanding of an ion impinging a surface (Sigmund sputtering theory) to our processing of small structures, the significance of 3D boundary conditions must be realized. We consider ion erosion for patterning/lithography, and optimize yields using the angle of incidence and chemical enhancement, but we find that the critical 3D parameters are aspect ratio and redeposition. We consider focused ion beam sputtering for micromachining small holes through membranes, but we find that the critical 3D considerations are implantation and redeposition. We consider ion beam self-assembly of nanostructures, but we find that control of the redeposition by ion and/or electron beams enables the growth of nanostructures and picostructures. PMID:21715751

  19. Dual-beam focused ion beam/electron microscopy processing and metrology of redeposition during ion-surface 3D interactions, from micromachining to self-organized picostructures

    MoberlyChan, Warren J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, CMELS, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-06-03

    Focused ion beam (FIB) tools have become a mainstay for processing and metrology of small structures. In order to expand the understanding of an ion impinging a surface (Sigmund sputtering theory) to our processing of small structures, the significance of 3D boundary conditions must be realized. We consider ion erosion for patterning/lithography, and optimize yields using the angle of incidence and chemical enhancement, but we find that the critical 3D parameters are aspect ratio and redeposition. We consider focused ion beam sputtering for micromachining small holes through membranes, but we find that the critical 3D considerations are implantation and redeposition. We consider ion beam self-assembly of nanostructures, but we find that control of the redeposition by ion and/or electron beams enables the growth of nanostructures and picostructures.

  20. Process development for the manufacturing of flat knitted innovative 3D spacer fabrics for high performance composite applications

    Abounaim, Md.

    2011-01-01

    Innovative 3D spacer fabrics made from individual planes and connecting layers present great potential as complexly shaped textile preforms in lightweight composite applications. As one of the most flexible textile manufacturing methods, flat knitting enables the production of intricately shaped textile structures. The major advantages coupled with flat knitting techniques include the ability to produce multi-layer reinforcements, a diminishing waste, reducing production time and near-net sha...

  1. A framework for the acquisition, processing, transmission, and interactive display of high quality 3D models on the Web

    Lensch, H.; Kautz, J.; Gösele, M.; Seidel, H.

    2001-01-01

    Digital documents often require highly detailed representations of real world objects. This is especially true for advanced e-commerce applications and other multimedia data bases like online encyclopaedias or virtual museums. Their further success will strongly depend on advances in the field of high quality object representation, distribution and rendering. This tutorial highlights some recent results on the acquisition and interactive display of high quality 3D models and shows how these r...

  2. 3D bioprinting of skin: a state-of-the-art review on modelling, materials, and processes.

    Vijayavenkataraman, S; Lu, W F; Fuh, J Y H

    2016-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body, having a complex multi-layered structure and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments, and internal organs. It serves as the first line of defence to any external stimuli, hence it is the most vulnerable to injury and warrants the need for rapid and reliable regeneration methods. Tissue engineered skin substitutes help overcome the limitations of traditional skin treatment methods, in terms of technology, time, and cost. While there is commendable progress in the treating of superficial wounds and injuries with skin substitutes, treatment of full-thickness injuries, especially with third or fourth degree burns, still looks murkier. Engineering multi-layer skin architecture, conforming to the native skin structure is a tougher goal to achieve with the current tissue engineering methods, if not impossible, restoring all the functions of the native skin. The testing of drugs and cosmetics is another area, where engineered skins are very much needed, with bans being imposed on product testing on animals. Given this greater need, 3D bioprinting is a promising technology that can achieve rapid and reliable production of biomimetic cellular skin substitutes, satisfying both clinical and industrial needs. This paper reviews all aspects related to the 3D bioprinting of skin, right from imaging the injury site, 3D model creation, biomaterials that are used and their suitability, types of cells and their functions, actual bioprinting technologies, along with the challenges and future prospects. PMID:27606434

  3. Loudspeaker Equalization with Post-Processing

    Wee Ser; Peng Wang; Ming Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Loudspeaker equalization is an essential technique in audio system design. A well-known equalization scheme is based on the deconvolution of the desired equalized response with the measured impulse response of the loudspeaker. In this paper, a post-processing scheme is combined with the deconvolution-based algorithm to provide a better equalization effect. Computer simulation results are given to demonstrate the significant improvement that can be achieved using this method.

  4. Intelligent post processing of seismic events

    F. Ringdal

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Intelligent Monitoring Systern (IMS currently provides for joint processing of data from six arrays located in Northern and Central Europe. From experience with analyst review of events automatically defined by the IMS, we bave realized that the quality of the automatic event locations can be significantly improved if the event intervals are reprocessed with signal processing pararneters tuned to phases from events in the given region. The tuned processing parameters are obtained from off line analysis of events located in the region of interest. The primary goal of such intelligent post processing is to provide event definitions of a quality that minimizes the need for subsequent manual analysis. The first step in this post processing is to subdivide the arca to be monitored in order to identify sites of interest. Clearly, calibration will be the easiest and potential savings in manpower are the largest for areas of high, recurring seismicity. We bave identified 8 mining sites in Fennoscandia/NW Russia and noted that 65.6% of the events of ML > 2.0 in this region can be associated with one of these sites. This result is based on 1 year and a half of data. The second step is to refine the phase arrival and azimuth estimates using frequency filters and processing parameters that are tuned to the initial event location provided by the IMS. In this study, we have analyzed a set of 52 mining explosions from the Khibiny Massif mining area in the Kola peninsula of Russia. Very accurate locations of these events bave been provided by the seismologists from the Kola Regional Seismology Centre. Using an autoregressive likelihood technique we have been able to estimate onset times to an accuracy (standard deviation of about 0.05 s for P phases and 0.15 0.20 s for S phases. Using fixed frequency bands, azimuth can be estimated to an accuracy (one standard deviation of 0.9 degrees for the ARCESS array and 3 4 degrees for the small array recently

  5. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  6. 3D modelling of non-linear visco-elasto-plastic crustal and lithospheric processes using LaMEM

    Popov, Anton; Kaus, Boris

    2016-04-01

    LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model) is a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical numerical code to simulate crustal and lithospheric deformation. The code is based on a staggered finite difference (FDSTAG) discretization in space, which is a stable and very efficient technique to solve the (nearly) incompressible Stokes equations that does not suffer from spurious pressure modes or artificial compressibility (a typical feature of low-order finite element techniques). Higher order finite element methods are more accurate than FDSTAG methods under idealized test cases where the jump in viscosity is exactly aligned with the boundaries of the elements. Yet, geodynamically more realistic cases involve evolving subduction zones, nonlinear rheologies or localized plastic shear bands. In these cases, the viscosity pattern evolves spontaneously during a simulation or even during nonlinear iterations, and the advantages of higher order methods disappear and they all converge with approximately first order accuracy, similar to that of FDSTAG [1]. Yet, since FDSTAG methods have considerably less degrees of freedom than quadratic finite element methods, they require about an order of magnitude less memory for the same number of nodes in 3D which also implies that every matrix-vector multiplication is significantly faster. LaMEM is build on top of the PETSc library and uses the particle-in-cell technique to track material properties, history variables which makes it straightforward to incorporate effects like phase changes or chemistry. An internal free surface is present, together with (simple) erosion and sedimentation processes, and a number of methods are available to import complex geometries into the code (e.g, http://geomio.bitbucket.org). Customized Galerkin coupled geometric multigrid preconditioners are implemented which resulted in a good parallel scalability of the code (we have tested LaMEM on 458'752 cores [2]). Yet, the drawback of using FDSTAG

  7. 3D Seismic Reflection Imaging of Crustal Formation Processes on the East Pacific Rise, 9°57-42'N

    Purdy, G. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Carbotte, S. M.; Canales, J. P.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Carton, H.; Newman, K. R.; Marjanovic, M.; Xu, M.; Aghaei, O.; Stowe, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    Between June 29th and August 19th 2008 the research vessel Marcus G Langseth carried out its first multi- streamer 3D seismic reflection imaging cruise, MGL08-12, by conducting a program research on the East Pacific Rise centered around 9°50'N. The primary goals were to create an accurate 3D seismic reflection image of the magmatic-hydrothermal system at this Integrated Study Site of the Ridge2000 program by imaging the structure of the axial magma chamber (AMC) lid and oceanic crust at a resolution, accuracy, and scale comparable to seafloor observations. The vessel acquired data with four, 6-kilometer solid streamers each comprising 468 active channels deployed with a total separation of 450 meters. Four gun strings with total volume of 3300 cubic inches in two groups fired alternately provide the source for a shot spacing of 37.5 meters. This configuration yields eight CMP lines for each of the sail lines that were spaced 300 m apart, and a static bin size of 6.25 m × 37.5 m in the along-track and across-track directions, respectively, providing a nominal fold of 40. The cruise accomplished the acquisition of ~3,782 km of sail line data. There are 111 across axis lines that required 10 repeated lines and 14 infills. Average feathering during the cruise was 0° ± 5° (one standard deviation), with maximum values of up to 11°. This means that 18% of the total cross axis acquisition was needed for reshoots and infilling. A 25% multiplier on planned lines for a 3D grid is probably a useful figure to use in cruise planning and is fairly standard in the seismic industry. Data quality meets or exceeds industry standards. 3D coverage was achieved in two areas. The larger comprises a set of 93 equally spaced lines forming the 3D grid between 9°57'N and 9°42'N. This grid is made up of lines from all of racetracks #1 and #2 and the northern lines of racetrack#3 and covers two principal hydrothermal vent areas in a continuous fashion. The second 3D area is comprised

  8. Nanostructured p-type CZTS thin films prepared by a facile solution process for 3D p-n junction solar cells

    Park, Si-Nae; Sung, Shi-Joon; Sim, Jun-Hyoung; Yang, Kee-Jeong; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Kim, Junho; Kim, Gee Yeong; Jo, William; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2015-06-01

    Nanoporous p-type semiconductor thin films prepared by a simple solution-based process with appropriate thermal treatment and three-dimensional (3D) p-n junction solar cells fabricated by depositing n-type semiconductor layers onto the nanoporous p-type thin films show considerable photovoltaic performance compared with conventional thin film p-n junction solar cells. Spin-coated p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared using metal chlorides and thiourea show unique nanoporous thin film morphology, which is composed of a cluster of CZTS nanograins of 50-500 nm, and the obvious 3D p-n junction structure is fabricated by the deposition of n-type CdS on the nanoporous CZTS thin films by chemical bath deposition. The photovoltaic properties of 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells are predominantly affected by the scale of CZTS nanograins, which is easily controlled by the sulfurization temperature of CZTS precursor films. The scale of CZTS nanograins determines the minority carrier transportation within the 3D p-n junction between CZTS and CdS, which are closely related with the photocurrent of series resistance of 3D p-n junction solar cells. 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells with nanograins below 100 nm show power conversion efficiency of 5.02%, which is comparable with conventional CZTS thin film solar cells.Nanoporous p-type semiconductor thin films prepared by a simple solution-based process with appropriate thermal treatment and three-dimensional (3D) p-n junction solar cells fabricated by depositing n-type semiconductor layers onto the nanoporous p-type thin films show considerable photovoltaic performance compared with conventional thin film p-n junction solar cells. Spin-coated p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared using metal chlorides and thiourea show unique nanoporous thin film morphology, which is composed of a cluster of CZTS nanograins of 50-500 nm, and the obvious 3D p-n junction structure is fabricated by the deposition of n-type CdS on the

  9. 5-axis 3D Printer

    Grutle, Øyvind Kallevik

    2015-01-01

    3D printers have in recent years become extremely popular. Even though 3D printing technology have existed since the late 1980's, it is now considered one of the most significant technological breakthroughs of the twenty-first century. Several different 3D printing processes have been invented during the years. But it is the fused deposition modeling (FDM) which was one of the first invented that is considered the most popular today. Even though the FDM process is the most popular, it still s...

  10. Handbook of 3D integration

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo