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Sample records for 3d nonlinear optical

  1. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    Weijie Nie; Yuechen Jia; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Feng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 ×...

  2. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  3. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription.

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions. PMID:26924255

  4. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    Li Yong; Wang Xuben; Li Zhirong; Li Qiong; Li Zhengwen

    2009-01-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  5. Nonlinear optics

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  6. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  7. Visualization of 3D optical lattices

    Lee, Hoseong; Clemens, James

    2016-05-01

    We describe the visualization of 3D optical lattices based on Sisyphus cooling implemented with open source software. We plot the adiabatic light shift potentials found by diagonalizing the effective Hamiltonian for the light shift operator. Our program incorporates a variety of atomic ground state configurations with total angular momentum ranging from j = 1 / 2 to j = 4 and a variety of laser beam configurations including the two-beam lin ⊥ lin configuration, the four-beam umbrella configuration, and four beams propagating in two orthogonal planes. In addition to visualizing the lattice the program also evaluates lattice parameters such as the oscillation frequency for atoms trapped deep in the wells. The program is intended to help guide experimental implementations of optical lattices.

  8. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  9. Nonlinear Vibrations of 3D Laminated Composite Beams

    Stoykov, S; Margenov, S.

    2014-01-01

    A model for 3D laminated composite beams, that is, beams that can vibrate in space and experience longitudinal and torsional deformations, is derived. The model is based on Timoshenko’s theory for bending and assumes that, under torsion, the cross section rotates as a rigid body but can deform longitudinally due to warping. The warping function, which is essential for correct torsional deformations, is computed preliminarily by the finite element method. Geometrical nonlinearity is taken into...

  10. Diffractive optical element for creating visual 3D images.

    Goncharsky, Alexander; Goncharsky, Anton; Durlevich, Svyatoslav

    2016-05-01

    A method is proposed to compute and synthesize the microrelief of a diffractive optical element to produce a new visual security feature - the vertical 3D/3D switch effect. The security feature consists in the alternation of two 3D color images when the diffractive element is tilted up/down. Optical security elements that produce the new security feature are synthesized using electron-beam technology. Sample optical security elements are manufactured that produce 3D to 3D visual switch effect when illuminated by white light. Photos and video records of the vertical 3D/3D switch effect of real optical elements are presented. The optical elements developed can be replicated using standard equipment employed for manufacturing security holograms. The new optical security feature is easy to control visually, safely protected against counterfeit, and designed to protect banknotes, documents, ID cards, etc. PMID:27137530

  11. The 3D solitons and vortices in 3D discrete monatomic lattices with cubic and quartic nonlinearity

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang

    2006-01-01

    By virtue of the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach, we have discussed the nonlinear vibration equation of a 3D discrete monatomic lattice with its nearest-neighbours interaction. The 3D simple cubic lattices have the same localized modes as a ID discrete monatomic chain with cubic and quartic nonlinearity. The nonlinear vibration in the 3D simple cubic lattice has 3D distorted solitons and 3D envelop solitons in the direction of kx = ky = kz = k and k =±π/6a0 in the Brillouin zone, as well as has 3D vortices in the direction of kx = ky = kz = k and k =±π/a0 in the Brillouin zone.

  12. Optical 3-D-measurement techniques : a survey

    Tiziani, Hans J.

    1989-01-01

    Close range photogrammetry will be more frequently applied in industry for 3-D-sensing when real time processing can be applied. Computer vision, machine vision, robot vision are in fact synonymous with real time photogrammetry. This overview paper concentrates on optical methods for 3-D-measurements. Incoherent and coherent methods for 3-D-sensing will be presented. Particular emphasis is put on high precision 3-D-measurements. Some of the work of our laboratory will be reported.

  13. Advances in nonlinear optics

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  14. Manufacturing: 3D printed micro-optics

    Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-08-01

    Uncompromised performance of micro-optical compound lenses has been achieved by high-fidelity shape definition during two-photon absorption microfabrication. The lenses have been made directly onto image sensors and even onto the tip of an optic fibre.

  15. Utilization of multiple frequencies in 3D nonlinear microwave imaging

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The use of multiple frequencies in a nonlinear microwave algorithm is considered. Using multiple frequencies allows for obtaining the improved resolution available at the higher frequencies while retaining the regularizing effects of the lower frequencies. However, a number of different challenge...... at lower frequencies are used as starting guesses for reconstructions at higher frequencies. The performance is illustrated using simulated 2-D data and data obtained with the 3-D DTU microwave imaging system....... arise when using data from multiple frequencies for imaging of biological targets. In this paper, the performance of a multi-frequency algorithm, in which measurement data from several different frequencies are used at once, is compared with a stepped-frequency algorithm, in which images reconstructed...

  16. Optical experiments on 3D photonic crystals

    Koenderink, F.; Vos, W.

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystals are optical materials that have an intricate structure with length scales of the order of the wavelength of light. The flow of photons is controlled in a manner analogous to how electrons propagate through semiconductor crystals, i.e., by Bragg diffraction and the formation of band

  17. Nonlinear Vibrations of 3D Laminated Composite Beams

    S. Stoykov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for 3D laminated composite beams, that is, beams that can vibrate in space and experience longitudinal and torsional deformations, is derived. The model is based on Timoshenko’s theory for bending and assumes that, under torsion, the cross section rotates as a rigid body but can deform longitudinally due to warping. The warping function, which is essential for correct torsional deformations, is computed preliminarily by the finite element method. Geometrical nonlinearity is taken into account by considering Green’s strain tensor. The equation of motion is derived by the principle of virtual work and discretized by the p-version finite element method. The laminates are assumed to be of orthotropic materials. The influence of the angle of orientation of the laminates on the natural frequencies and on the nonlinear modes of vibration is presented. It is shown that, due to asymmetric laminates, there exist bending-longitudinal and bending-torsional coupling in linear analysis. Dynamic responses in time domain are presented and couplings between transverse displacements and torsion are investigated.

  18. Three-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography (3D OCT) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Applied Science Innovations, Inc. proposes a new tool of 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) for cellular level imaging at video frame rates and dramatically...

  19. Three-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography (3D OCT) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Applied Science Innovations, Inc. proposes to develop a new tool of 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) for cellular level imaging at video frame rates and...

  20. Optical characterization and measurements of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Salmimaa, Marja; Järvenpää, Toni

    2008-04-01

    3D or autostereoscopic display technologies offer attractive solutions for enriching the multimedia experience. However, both characterization and comparison of 3D displays have been challenging when the definitions for the consistent measurement methods have been lacking and displays with similar specifications may appear quite different. Earlier we have investigated how the optical properties of autostereoscopic (3D) displays can be objectively measured and what are the main characteristics defining the perceived image quality. In this paper the discussion is extended to cover the viewing freedom (VF) and the definition for the optimum viewing distance (OVD) is elaborated. VF is the volume inside which the eyes have to be to see an acceptable 3D image. Characteristics limiting the VF space are proposed to be 3D crosstalk, luminance difference and color difference. Since the 3D crosstalk can be presumed to be dominating the quality of the end user experience and in our approach is forming the basis for the calculations of the other optical parameters, the reliability of the 3D crosstalk measurements is investigated. Furthermore the effect on the derived VF definition is evaluated. We have performed comparison 3D crosstalk measurements with different measurement device apertures and the effect of different measurement geometry on the results on actual 3D displays is reported.

  1. Parallel Processor for 3D Recovery from Optical Flow

    Jose Hugo Barron-Zambrano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D recovery from motion has received a major effort in computer vision systems in the recent years. The main problem lies in the number of operations and memory accesses to be performed by the majority of the existing techniques when translated to hardware or software implementations. This paper proposes a parallel processor for 3D recovery from optical flow. Its main feature is the maximum reuse of data and the low number of clock cycles to calculate the optical flow, along with the precision with which 3D recovery is achieved. The results of the proposed architecture as well as those from processor synthesis are presented.

  2. A 3D Optical Metamaterial Made by Self-Assembly

    Vignolini, Silvia

    2011-10-24

    Optical metamaterials have unusual optical characteristics that arise from their periodic nanostructure. Their manufacture requires the assembly of 3D architectures with structure control on the 10-nm length scale. Such a 3D optical metamaterial, based on the replication of a self-assembled block copolymer into gold, is demonstrated. The resulting gold replica has a feature size that is two orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength of visible light. Its optical signature reveals an archetypal Pendry wire metamaterial with linear and circular dichroism. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Flexydos3D: A new deformable anthropomorphic 3D dosimeter readout with optical CT scanning

    A new deformable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based dosimeter is proposed that can be cast in an anthropomorphic shape and that can be used for 3D radiation dosimetry of deformable targets. The new material has additional favorable characteristics as it is tissue equivalent for high-energy photons, easy to make and is non-toxic. In combination with dual wavelength optical scanning, it is a powerful dosimeter for dose verification of image gated or organ tracked radiotherapy with moving and deforming targets

  4. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  5. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States); Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution.

  6. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution

  7. 3D optical manipulation of a single electron spin

    Geiselmann, Michael; Renger, Jan; Say, Jana M; Brown, Louise J; de Abajo, F Javier García; Koppens, Frank; Quidant, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are promising elemental blocks for quantum optics [1, 2], spin-based quantum information processing [3, 4], and high-resolution sensing [5-13]. Yet, fully exploiting these capabilities of single NV centers requires strategies to accurately manipulate them. Here, we use optical tweezers as a tool to achieve deterministic trapping and 3D spatial manipulation of individual nano-diamonds hosting a single NV spin. Remarkably, we find the NV axis is nearly fixed inside the trap and can be controlled in-situ, by adjusting the polarization of the trapping light. By combining this unique spatial and angular control with coherent manipulation of the NV spin and fluorescent lifetime measurements near an integrated photonic system, we prove optically trapped NV center as a novel route for both 3D vectorial magnetometry and sensing of the local density of optical states.

  8. Automatic respiration tracking for radiotherapy using optical 3D camera

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Rapid optical three-dimensional (O3D) imaging systems provide accurate digitized 3D surface data in real-time, with no patient contact nor radiation. The accurate 3D surface images offer crucial information in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatments for accurate patient repositioning and respiration management. However, applications of O3D imaging techniques to image-guided radiotherapy have been clinically challenged by body deformation, pathological and anatomical variations among individual patients, extremely high dimensionality of the 3D surface data, and irregular respiration motion. In existing clinical radiation therapy (RT) procedures target displacements are caused by (1) inter-fractional anatomy changes due to weight, swell, food/water intake; (2) intra-fractional variations from anatomy changes within any treatment session due to voluntary/involuntary physiologic processes (e.g. respiration, muscle relaxation); (3) patient setup misalignment in daily reposition due to user errors; and (4) changes of marker or positioning device, etc. Presently, viable solution is lacking for in-vivo tracking of target motion and anatomy changes during the beam-on time without exposing patient with additional ionized radiation or high magnet field. Current O3D-guided radiotherapy systems relay on selected points or areas in the 3D surface to track surface motion. The configuration of the marks or areas may change with time that makes it inconsistent in quantifying and interpreting the respiration patterns. To meet the challenge of performing real-time respiration tracking using O3D imaging technology in IGRT, we propose a new approach to automatic respiration motion analysis based on linear dimensionality reduction technique based on PCA (principle component analysis). Optical 3D image sequence is decomposed with principle component analysis into a limited number of independent (orthogonal) motion patterns (a low dimension eigen-space span by eigen-vectors). New

  9. 3D optical measuring technologies for dimensional inspection

    The results of the R and D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method, development of hole inspection method on the base of diffractive optical elements. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability takes a noncontact inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. For this tasks we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFILE, and technologies for non-contact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic system COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometrical parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of the industrial testing at atomic and railway companies are presented

  10. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  11. Constructing 3D microtubule networks using holographic optical trapping

    Bergman, J.; Osunbayo, O.; Vershinin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to assemble nanoscale structures is a major scientific and engineering challenge. We report a technique which allows precise positioning and manipulation of individual rigid filaments, enabling construction of custom-designed 3D filament networks. This approach uses holographic optical trapping (HOT) for nano-positioning and microtubules (MTs) as network building blocks. MTs are desirable engineering components due to their high aspect ratio, rigidity, and their ability t...

  12. Open-source 3D-printable optics equipment.

    Chenlong Zhang

    Full Text Available Just as the power of the open-source design paradigm has driven down the cost of software to the point that it is accessible to most people, the rise of open-source hardware is poised to drive down the cost of doing experimental science to expand access to everyone. To assist in this aim, this paper introduces a library of open-source 3-D-printable optics components. This library operates as a flexible, low-cost public-domain tool set for developing both research and teaching optics hardware. First, the use of parametric open-source designs using an open-source computer aided design package is described to customize the optics hardware for any application. Second, details are provided on the use of open-source 3-D printers (additive layer manufacturing to fabricate the primary mechanical components, which are then combined to construct complex optics-related devices. Third, the use of the open-source electronics prototyping platform are illustrated as control for optical experimental apparatuses. This study demonstrates an open-source optical library, which significantly reduces the costs associated with much optical equipment, while also enabling relatively easily adapted customizable designs. The cost reductions in general are over 97%, with some components representing only 1% of the current commercial investment for optical products of similar function. The results of this study make its clear that this method of scientific hardware development enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms than previous proprietary methods.

  13. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  14. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L. [and others

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  15. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  16. Simulation of Fully Nonlinear 3-D Numerical Wave Tank

    张晓兔; 滕斌; 宁德志

    2004-01-01

    A fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT) has been simulated by use of a three-dimensional higher order boundary element method (HOBEM) in the time domain. Within the frame of potential flow and the adoption of simply Rankine source, the resulting boundary integral equation is repeatedly solved at each time step and the fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are integrated with time to update its position and boundary values. A smooth technique is also adopted in order to eliminate the possible saw-tooth numerical instabilities. The incident wave at the uptank is given as theoretical wave in this paper. The outgoing waves are absorbed inside a damping zone by spatially varying artificial damping on the free surface at the wave tank end. The numerical results show that the NWT developed by these approaches has a high accuracy and good numerical stability.

  17. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory.

  18. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    . The research presented in Chapter 3 and papers B and C is concerned with the properties and the stable dark soliton propagation and their bound states in nonlocal nonlinear optical media. It is shown that nonlocality of the nonlinearity induces attractive forces between solitons, that leads to the...... formation of bound states of out of phase bright solitons and dark solitons. Also, the newly introduced analogy between the nonlocal cubic nonlinear and the quadratic nonlinear media, presented in paper B and Chapter 3 is discussed. In particular it supplies intuitive physical meaning of the formation of...

  19. Large Scale 3D Image Reconstruction in Optical Interferometry

    Schutz, Antony; Mary, David; Thiébaut, Eric; Soulez, Ferréol

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical optical interferometers (OI) sample the Fourier transform of the intensity distribution of a source at the observation wavelength. Because of rapid atmospheric perturbations, the phases of the complex Fourier samples (visibilities) cannot be directly exploited , and instead linear relationships between the phases are used (phase closures and differential phases). Consequently, specific image reconstruction methods have been devised in the last few decades. Modern polychromatic OI instruments are now paving the way to multiwavelength imaging. This paper presents the derivation of a spatio-spectral ("3D") image reconstruction algorithm called PAINTER (Polychromatic opticAl INTErferometric Reconstruction software). The algorithm is able to solve large scale problems. It relies on an iterative process, which alternates estimation of polychromatic images and of complex visibilities. The complex visibilities are not only estimated from squared moduli and closure phases, but also from differential phase...

  20. A nonlinear 3D containment analysis for airplane impact

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, it is pertinent safety philosophy to design nuclear facilities against airplane impact, despite its very unlikely probability of occurrence. For safety reasons, the following conditions have to be met: 1) In the close impact area of the projectile, the structure can be stressed up to its ultimate load capacity, so that impact energy is dissipated partly. Hereby, it must be strictly clarified that local structural failure within the impact zone is avoided. 2) Residual impact energy is transferred to the 'non-disturbed' containment structure and to the interior structure. The subject of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads shows still clear gaps between the findings of experimental and analytical analyses. To clarify this highly nonlinear phenomena comprehensive tests have recently been performed in Germany. It is the aim of this paper to carry out a three-dimensional analysis of a nuclear facility. To perform the calculations, the finite element ADINA code is applied. In order to obtain optimum results, a very fine mesh leading to several thousand DOF is used. To model the impact area of the concrete structure realistically, its linear and mostly nonlinear material behaviour as well as its failure criteria must be taken into account. Herewith the structural response is reduced due to increased energy dissipation. This reduction rate is valued by variation of the assumed size of impact zone, the load impact location and the assumed load-time function. (orig./RW)

  1. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck

    2013-01-01

    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  2. Precision 3-D microscopy with intensity modulated fibre optic scanners

    Olmos, P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical 3-D imagers constitute a family of precision and useful instruments, easily available on the market in a wide variety of configurations and performances. However, besides their cost they usually provide an image of the object (i.e. a more or less faithful representation of the reality) instead of a truly object's reconstruction. Depending on the detailed working principles of the equipment, this reconstruction may become a challenging task. Here a very simple yet reliable device is described; it is able to form images of opaque objects by illuminating them with an optical fibre and collecting the reflected light with another fibre. Its 3-D capability comes from the spatial filtering imposed by the fibres together with their movement (scanning) along the three directions: transversal (surface) and vertical. This unsophisticated approach allows one to model accurately the entire optical process and to perform the desired reconstruction, finding that information about the surface which is of interest: its profile and its reflectance, ultimately related to the type of material.

  3. 3D OPTICAL AND IR SPECTROSCOPY OF EXCEPTIONAL HII GALAXIES

    E. Telles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I will very brie y summarize some recent results obtained applying 3D spectroscopy to observations of the well known HII galaxy II Zw 40, both in the optical and near-IR. I have studied the distribution of the dust in the starburst region, the velocity and velocity dispersion, and the geometry of the molecular hydrogen and ionized gas. I found a clear correlation between the component of the ISM and the velocity eld suggesting that the latter has a fundamental role in de ning the modes of the star formation process.

  4. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    Ferreira, Mario F

    2011-01-01

    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  5. Non-linear correction for accuracy improvement of the neutron calculations with HEXAB-3D Code

    A differential approach of application of the Improved Coarse Mesh Method in the 3D hexagonal geometry diffusion problem is presented. A non-linear nodal model of improvement based on the solution of the local balance equation in a triangular sub-region of the node with triple decreased mesh step and a presentation of the spatial distribution of the neutron flux by linear combination of trigonometric al hyperbolic functions are presented. A principal program realisation of the differential nonlinear correction in the hexagonal geometry diffusion code HEXA-B-3D is described. Benchmark results for a 3D WWER-1000 benchmark problem are presented

  6. 3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers

    Yan, Cheng; Huang, Su-Juan; Miao, Zhuang; Chang, Zheng; Zeng, Jun-Zhang; Wang, Ting-Yun

    2016-09-01

    A digital holographic microscopic chromatography-based approach with considerably improved accuracy, simplified configuration and performance stability is proposed to measure three dimensional refractive index of special optical fibers. Based on the approach, a measurement system is established incorporating a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer and lab-developed supporting software for data processing. In the system, a phase projection distribution of an optical fiber is utilized to obtain an optimal digital hologram recorded by a CCD, and then an angular spectrum theory-based algorithm is adopted to extract the phase distribution information of an object wave. The rotation of the optic fiber enables the experimental measurements of multi-angle phase information. Based on the filtered back projection algorithm, a 3D refraction index of the optical fiber is thus obtained at high accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, both PANDA fibers and special elliptical optical fiber are considered in the system. The results measured in PANDA fibers agree well with those measured using S14 Refractive Index Profiler, which is, however, not suitable for measuring the property of a special elliptical fiber.

  7. An efficient flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bingham, Harry B.; Lindberg, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The flexible-order, finite difference based fully nonlinear potential flow model described in [H.B. Bingham, H. Zhang, On the accuracy of finite difference solutions for nonlinear water waves, J. Eng. Math. 58 (2007) 211-228] is extended to three dimensions (3D). In order to obtain an optimal...

  8. Linearizing nonlinear optics

    Schmidt, Bruno E; Ernotte, Guilmot; Clerici, Matteo; Morandotti, Roberto; Ibrahim, Heide; Legare, Francois

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of linear optics, light fields do not interact with each other in a medium. Yet, when their field amplitude becomes comparable to the electron binding energies of matter, the nonlinear motion of these electrons emits new dipole radiation whose amplitude, frequency and phase differ from the incoming fields. Such high fields are typically achieved with ultra-short, femtosecond (1fs = 10-15 sec.) laser pulses containing very broad frequency spectra. Here, the matter not only couples incoming and outgoing fields but also causes different spectral components to interact and mix through a convolution process. In this contribution, we describe how frequency domain nonlinear optics overcomes the shortcomings arising from this convolution in conventional time domain nonlinear optics1. We generate light fields with previously inaccessible properties because the uncontrolled coupling of amplitudes and phases is turned off. For example, arbitrary phase functions are transferred linearly to the second har...

  9. Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics

    Thomas, Andrew Stephen

    Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of

  10. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2013-01-01

    This book is mostly concerned on the experimental research of the nonlinear optical characteristics of various media, low- and high-order harmonic generation in different materials, and formation, and nonlinear optical characterization of clusters. We also demonstrate the inter-connection between these areas of nonlinear optics.   Nonlinear optical properties of media such as optical limiting can be applied in various areas of science and technology. To define suitable materials for these applications, one has to carefully analyse the nonlinear optical characteristics of various media, such as the nonlinear refractive indices, coefficients of nonlinear absorption, saturation absorption intensities, etc. Knowing the nonlinear optical parameters of materials is also important for describing the propagation effects, self-interaction of intense laser pulses, and optimisation of various nonlinear optical processes. Among those processes one can admit the importance of the studies of the frequency conversion of c...

  11. 3D parameter reconstruction in hyperspectral diffuse optical tomography

    Saibaba, Arvind K.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Anderson, Pamela G.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Miller, Eric L.; Fantini, Sergio; Kilmer, Misha E.

    2015-03-01

    The imaging of shape perturbation and chromophore concentration using Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) data can be mathematically described as an ill-posed and non-linear inverse problem. The reconstruction algorithm for hyperspectral data using a linearized Born model is prohibitively expensive, both in terms of computation and memory. We model the shape of the perturbation using parametric level-set approach (PaLS). We discuss novel computational strategies for reducing the computational cost based on a Krylov subspace approach for parameteric linear systems and a compression strategy for the parameter-to-observation map. We will demonstrate the validity of our approach by comparison with experiments.

  12. Parsing optical scanned 3D data by Bayesian inference

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2015-10-01

    Optical devices are always used to digitize complex objects to get their shapes in form of point clouds. The results have no semantic meaning about the objects, and tedious process is indispensable to segment the scanned data to get meanings. The reason for a person to perceive an object correctly is the usage of knowledge, so Bayesian inference is used to the goal. A probabilistic And-Or-Graph is used as a unified framework of representation, learning, and recognition for a large number of object categories, and a probabilistic model defined on this And-Or-Graph is learned from a relatively small training set per category. Given a set of 3D scanned data, the Bayesian inference constructs a most probable interpretation of the object, and a semantic segment is obtained from the part decomposition. Some examples are given to explain the method.

  13. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads to a...... decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate the...

  14. Nonlinear fiber optics

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  15. Adaptive control of nonlinear visual servoing systems for 3D cartesian tracking

    Alessandro R. L. Zachi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control strategy for robot manipulators to perform 3D cartesian tracking using visual servoing. Considering a fixed camera, the 3D cartesian motion is decomposed in a 2D motion on a plane orthogonal to the optical axis and a 1D motion parallel to this axis. An image-based visual servoing approach is used to deal with the nonlinear control problem generated by the depth variation without requiring direct depth estimation. Due to the lack of camera calibration, an adaptive control method is used to ensure both depth and planar tracking in the image frame. The depth feedback loop is closed by measuring the image area of a target object attached to the robot end-effector. Simulation and experimental results obtained with a real robot manipulator illustrate the viability of the proposed scheme.Este trabalho apresenta uma estratégia de controle para robôs manipuladores realizarem rastreamento cartesiano 3D utilizando servovisão. Considerando uma câmera fixa, o movimento cartesiano 3D é decomposto em um movimento 2D sobre um plano ortogonal ao eixo óptico e em outro movimento 1D paralelo ao mesmo eixo. Uma abordagem de servovisão baseada em imagem é utilizada para tratar o problema de controle não-linear, gerado pela variação de profundidade, sem a necessidade de estimar esta medida. Devido à ausência de calibração da câmera, um método de controle adaptativo é utilizado para assegurar rastreamento planar e de profundidade nas coordenadas da imagem. A malha de controle de profundidade é fechada através da medição da área da imagem de um objeto fixado no efetuador do robô. Simulação e resultados experimentais, obtidos com um robô manipulador real, ilustram a viabilidade do esquema proposto.

  16. Essentials of nonlinear optics

    Murti, Y V G S

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.

  17. Nonlinear fibre optics overview

    Travers, J. C.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Dudley, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The optical fiber based supercontinuum source has recently become a significant scientific and commercial success, with applications ranging from frequency comb production to advanced medical imaging. This one-of-a-kind book explains the theory of fiber supercontinuum broadening, describes the......, provides a background to the associated nonlinear optical processes, treats the generation mechanisms from continuous wave to femtosecond pulse pump regimes and highlights the diverse applications. A full discussion of numerical methods and comprehensive computer code are also provided, enabling readers to...

  18. High-order finite difference solution for 3D nonlinear wave-structure interaction

    Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

    2010-01-01

    This contribution presents our recent progress on developing an efficient fully-nonlinear potential flow model for simulating 3D wave-wave and wave-structure interaction over arbitrary depths (i.e. in coastal and offshore environment). The model is based on a high-order finite difference scheme...

  19. Cordless hand-held optical 3D sensor

    Munkelt, Christoph; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Kühmstedt, Peter; Schmidt, Ingo; Notni, Gunther

    2007-07-01

    A new mobile optical 3D measurement system using phase correlation based fringe projection technique will be presented. The sensor consist of a digital projection unit and two cameras in a stereo arrangement, whereby both are battery powered. The data transfer to a base station will be done via WLAN. This gives the possibility to use the system in complicate, remote measurement situations, which are typical in archaeology and architecture. In the measurement procedure the sensor will be hand-held by the user, illuminating the object with a sequence of less than 10 fringe patterns, within a time below 200 ms. This short sequence duration was achieved by a new approach, which combines the epipolar constraint with robust phase correlation utilizing a pre-calibrated sensor head, containing two cameras and a digital fringe projector. Furthermore, the system can be utilized to acquire the all around shape of objects by using the phasogrammetric approach with virtual land marks introduced by the authors 1, 2. This way no matching procedures or markers are necessary for the registration of multiple views, which makes the system very flexible in accomplishing different measurement tasks. The realized measurement field is approx. 100 mm up to 400 mm in diameter. The mobile character makes the measurement system useful for a wide range of applications in arts, architecture, archaeology and criminology, which will be shown in the paper.

  20. Magneto-acoustic waves in sunspots: first results from a new 3D nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic code

    Felipe, T; Collados, M

    2010-01-01

    Waves observed in the photosphere and chromosphere of sunspots show complex dynamics and spatial patterns. The interpretation of high-resolution sunspot wave observations requires modeling of three-dimensional non-linear wave propagation and mode transformation in the sunspot upper layers in realistic spot model atmospheres. Here we present the first results of such modeling. We have developed a 3D non-linear numerical code specially designed to calculate the response of magnetic structures in equilibrium to an arbitrary perturbation. The code solves the 3D nonlinear MHD equations for perturbations; it is stabilized by hyper-diffusivity terms and is fully parallelized. The robustness of the code is demonstrated by a number of standard tests. We analyze several simulations of a sunspot perturbed by pulses of different periods at subphotospheric level, from short periods, introduced for academic purposes, to longer and realistic periods of three and five minutes. We present a detailed description of the three-d...

  1. Terahertz Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the nonlinear optical effects – selfphase modulation and saturable absorption of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor. Resulting from THz-induced modulation of Drude plasma, these nonlinear optical effects, in particular, lead to self-shortening and nonlinear spectral...... breathing of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor....

  2. Attosecond Nonlinear Optics

    We report nonlinear multiphoton processes in atoms and molecules by intense high harmonics and their applications to attosecond pulse characterization. Phase matched high harmonics by a loosely focusing geometry produce highly focusable intensity with fully spatiotemporal coherence, which is sufficient to induce nonlinear optical phenomena in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray (XUV) region. With this XUV coherent light source, two-photon double ionization in He is demonstrated with 42-eV high harmonic photons. On the other hand, when intense high harmonics around 20 eV is subjected to N2 molecules, occurrence of Coulomb explosion following to two-photon double ionization is observed in attosecond temporal precision. Taking advantage of larger cross section of two-photon ionization in molecules, we successfully perform the interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train with the ion signals produced by Coulomb explosion of nitrogen molecules. The result reveals the phase relation between attosecond pulses in the train.

  3. Segmentation of the Optic Disc in 3-D OCT Scans of the Optic Nerve Head

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Kwon, Young H.; Sonka, Milan; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading ocular disease causing blindness due to gradual damage to the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss. Segmentations of the optic disc cup and neuroretinal rim can provide important parameters for detecting and tracking this disease. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate a method that can automatically segment the optic disc cup and rim in spectral-domain 3-D OCT (SD-OCT) volumes. Four intraretinal surfaces were segmented using a fast multisc...

  4. Frequency domain nonlinear optics

    Legare, Francois

    2016-05-01

    The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.

  5. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach is based on high-Q optical WGM resonators made with a nonlinear crystal. Such resonators have been demonstrated to dramatically enhance nonlinear...

  6. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters Feature Introduction: Digital Holography and 3D Imaging

    Ting-Chung Poon; Changhe Zhou; Toyohiko Yatagai; Byoungho Lee; Hongchen Zhai

    2011-01-01

    This feature issue is the fifth installment on digital holography since its inception four years ago.The last four issues have been published after the conclusion of each Topical Meeting "Digital Holography and 3D imaging (DH)." However,this feature issue includes a new key feature-Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters Feature Issue.The DH Topical Meeting is the world's premier forum for disseminating the science and technology geared towards digital holography and 3D information processing.Since the meeting's inception in 2007,it has steadily and healthily grown to 130 presentations this year,held in Tokyo,Japan,May 2011.

  7. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    As nonlinear optics further develops as a field of research in electromagnetic wave propagation, its state-of-the-art technologies will continue to strongly impact real-world applications in a variety of fields useful to the practicing scientist and engineer. From basic principles to examples of...... nonlinear phenomena, it describes nonlinear wave propagation in bulk and in waveguiding structures, and includes specific examples of applied nonlinear wave propagation through crystals, optical waveguides, and optical fibers. Providing a theoretical description of nonlinear interaction between light and...

  8. Air-structured optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform

    Cook, Kevin; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md Arafat; Comatti, Jade-Edouard; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-01-01

    A structured optical fibre is drawn from a 3D-printed structured preform. Preforms containing a single ring of holes around the core are fabricated using filament made from a modified butadiene polymer. More broadly, 3D printers capable of processing soft glasses, silica and other materials are likely to come on line in the not-so distant future. 3D printing of optical preforms signals a new milestone in optical fibre manufacture.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of Airy-Vortex 3D wave packets: Emission of vortex light waves

    Driben, Rodislav

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of 3D Airy-vortex wave packets is studied under the action of strong self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Emissions of nonlinear 3D waves out of the main wave packets with the topological charges were demonstrated. Due to the conservation of the total angular momentum, charges of the emitted waves are equal to those carried by the parental light structure. The rapid collapse imposes a severe limitation on the propagation of multidimensional waves in Kerr media. However, the structure of the Airy beam carrier allows the coupling of light from the leading, most intense peak into neighboring peaks and consequently strongly postpones the collapse. The dependence of the critical input amplitude for the appearance of a fast collapse on the beam width is studied for wave packets with zero and non-zero topological charges. Wave packets carrying angular momentum are found to be much more resistant to the rapid collapse, especially those having small width.

  10. Optical 3D watermark based digital image watermarking for telemedicine

    Li, Xiao Wei; Kim, Seok Tae

    2013-12-01

    Region of interest (ROI) of a medical image is an area including important diagnostic information and must be stored without any distortion. This algorithm for application of watermarking technique for non-ROI of the medical image preserving ROI. The paper presents a 3D watermark based medical image watermarking scheme. In this paper, a 3D watermark object is first decomposed into 2D elemental image array (EIA) by a lenslet array, and then the 2D elemental image array data is embedded into the host image. The watermark extraction process is an inverse process of embedding. The extracted EIA through the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique, the 3D watermark can be reconstructed. Because the EIA is composed of a number of elemental images possesses their own perspectives of a 3D watermark object. Even though the embedded watermark data badly damaged, the 3D virtual watermark can be successfully reconstructed. Furthermore, using CAT with various rule number parameters, it is possible to get many channels for embedding. So our method can recover the weak point having only one transform plane in traditional watermarking methods. The effectiveness of the proposed watermarking scheme is demonstrated with the aid of experimental results.

  11. Neutron radiographic image restoration using BM3D frames and nonlinear variance stabilization

    Shuang, Qiao; Wei-jing, Zhao; Jia-ning, Sun

    2015-07-01

    Neutron radiography is a powerful tool for non-destructive investigations in industrial applications. However, the resulting images are degraded inevitably due to some physical limitations. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for neutron image restoration, which utilizes BM3D frames and nonlinear variance stabilization including generalized anscombe transformation and its exact unbiased inverse. Experimental results show that superior to the existing restoration methods, the proposed scheme improves the restoration quality efficiently and exhibits better visual results.

  12. A 3D DISCRETE DUALITY FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR NONLINEAR ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS

    Coudière, Yves; Hubert, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Discrete Duality Finite Volume (DDFV) schemes have recently been developed in 2D to approximate nonlinear diffusion problems on general meshes. In this paper, a 3D extension of these schemes is proposed. The construction of this extension is detailed and its main properties are proved: a priori bounds, well-posedness and error estimates. The practical implementation of this scheme is easy. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate its good behavior.

  13. Toward high-speed 3D nonlinear soft tissue deformation simulations using Abaqus software.

    Idkaidek, Ashraf; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    We aim to achieve a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a porcine liver deformation under a surgical tool pressure using the commercial finite element software Abaqus. The liver geometry is obtained using magnetic resonance imaging, and a nonlinear constitutive law is employed to capture large deformations of the tissue. Effects of implicit versus explicit analysis schemes, element type, and mesh density on computation time are studied. We find that Abaqus explicit and implicit solvers are capable of simulating nonlinear soft tissue deformations accurately using first-order tetrahedral elements in a relatively short time by optimizing the element size. This study provides new insights and guidance on accurate and relatively fast nonlinear soft tissue simulations. Such simulations can provide force feedback during robotic surgery and allow visualization of tissue deformations for surgery planning and training of surgical residents. PMID:26530842

  14. A stabilized complementarity formulation for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, H. W.; Wu, J.; Yan, B.

    2015-10-01

    Bi-modulus materials with different mechanical responses in tension and compression are often found in civil, composite, and biological engineering. Numerical analysis of bimodular materials is strongly nonlinear and convergence is usually a problem for traditional iterative schemes. This paper aims to develop a stabilized computational method for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials. Based on the parametric variational principle, a unified constitutive equation of 3D bimodular materials is proposed, which allows the eight principal stress states to be indicated by three parametric variables introduced in the principal stress directions. The original problem is transformed into a standard linear complementarity problem (LCP) by the parametric virtual work principle and a quadratic programming algorithm is developed by solving the LCP with the classic Lemke's algorithm. Update of elasticity and stiffness matrices is avoided and, thus, the proposed algorithm shows an excellent convergence behavior compared with traditional iterative schemes. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is valid and can accurately analyze mechanical responses of 3D bimodular materials. Also, stability of the algorithm is greatly improved.

  15. Verification of 3D heterogeneous core transport calculation utilizing non-linear iteration technique

    A three dimensional heterogeneous core transport analysis code CHAPLET-3D, which is based on deterministic methods, has been developed. In CHAPLET-3D code, the non-linear iteration technique, which is commonly used in advanced nodal diffusion codes, is employed to perform three dimensional heterogeneous core calculation in form of conventional finite difference method with the accuracy of the method of characteristics in radial two dimensional geometry. For an axial direction solver, in addition to finite difference method and nodal expansion method in diffusion theory, the method of characteristics has been incorporated in order to take account of transport effect. According to the verification tests compared with the results of multi-group Monte Carlo reference calculations, it is found that the accuracy of CHAPLET-3D code for three dimensional heterogeneous core analysis is almost the same level as that of the reference calculation and also demonstrated that the three dimensional core analysis method utilizing the non-linear iteration technique introduced here is valid and useful. (author)

  16. A stabilized complementarity formulation for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, H. W.; Wu, J.; Yan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Bi-modulus materials with different mechanical responses in tension and compression are often found in civil, composite, and biological engineering. Numerical analysis of bimodular materials is strongly nonlinear and convergence is usually a problem for traditional iterative schemes. This paper aims to develop a stabilized computational method for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials. Based on the parametric variational principle, a unified constitutive equation of 3D bimodular materials is proposed, which allows the eight principal stress states to be indicated by three parametric variables introduced in the principal stress directions. The original problem is transformed into a standard linear complementarity problem (LCP) by the parametric virtual work principle and a quadratic programming algorithm is developed by solving the LCP with the classic Lemke's algorithm. Update of elasticity and stiffness matrices is avoided and, thus, the proposed algorithm shows an excellent convergence behavior compared with traditional iterative schemes. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is valid and can accurately analyze mechanical responses of 3D bimodular materials. Also, stability of the algorithm is greatly improved.

  17. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear optics 2013.

    Dadap, J. I.; Karlsson, M.; Panoiu, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics has continued to develop over the last few years at an extremely fast pace, with significant advances being reported in nonlinear optical metamaterials, optical signal processing, quantum optics, nonlinear optics at subwavelength scale, and biophotonics. These exciting new developments have generated significant potential for a broad spectrum of technological applications in which nonlinear-optical processes play a central role.

  18. PRONTO3D users` instructions: A transient dynamic code for nonlinear structural analysis

    Attaway, S.W.; Mello, F.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Ratner, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zadoks, R.I. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This report provides an updated set of users` instructions for PRONTO3D. PRONTO3D is a three-dimensional, transient, solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Eight-node, uniform strain, hexahedral elements and four-node, quadrilateral, uniform strain shells are used in the finite element formulation. An adaptive time step control algorithm is used to improve stability and performance in plasticity problems. Hourglass distortions can be eliminated without disturbing the finite element solution using either the Flanagan-Belytschko hourglass control scheme or an assumed strain hourglass control scheme. All constitutive models in PRONTO3D are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. A robust contact algorithm allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method has been embedded into PRONTO3D using the contact algorithm to couple it with the finite element method.

  19. Characterizing the propagation of gravity waves in 3D nonlinear simulations of solar-like stars

    Alvan, L.; Strugarek, A.; Brun, A. S.; Mathis, S.; Garcia, R. A.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The revolution of helio- and asteroseismology provides access to the detailed properties of stellar interiors by studying the star's oscillation modes. Among them, gravity (g) modes are formed by constructive interferences between progressive internal gravity waves (IGWs), propagating in stellar radiative zones. Our new 3D nonlinear simulations of the interior of a solar-like star allows us to study the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of these waves. Aims: The aim of this article is to clarify our understanding of the behavior of IGWs in a 3D radiative zone and to provide a clear overview of their properties. Methods: We use a method of frequency filtering that reveals the path of individual gravity waves of different frequencies in the radiative zone. Results: We are able to identify the region of propagation of different waves in 2D and 3D, to compare them to the linear raytracing theory and to distinguish between propagative and standing waves (g-modes). We also show that the energy carried by waves is distributed in different planes in the sphere, depending on their azimuthal wave number. Conclusions: We are able to isolate individual IGWs from a complex spectrum and to study their propagation in space and time. In particular, we highlight in this paper the necessity of studying the propagation of waves in 3D spherical geometry, since the distribution of their energy is not equipartitioned in the sphere.

  20. Toward a scalable flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.;

    For marine and coastal applications, current work are directed toward the development of a scalable numerical 3D model for fully nonlinear potential water waves over arbitrary depths. The model is high-order accurate, robust and efficient for large-scale problems, and support will be included for...... flexibility in the description of structures by the use of curvilinear boundary-fitted meshes. The mathematical equations for potential waves in the physical domain is transformed through $\\sigma$-mapping(s) to a time-invariant boundary-fitted domain which then becomes a basis for an efficient solution...

  1. Chirality in Nonlinear Optics

    Haupert, Levi M.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2009-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed the emergence of new measurement approaches and applications for chiral thin films and materials enabled by the observations of the high sensitivity of second-order nonlinear optical measurements to chirality. In thin films, the chiral response to second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation (SFG) from a single molecular monolayer is often comparable with the achiral response. The chiral specificity also allows for symmetry-allowed SFG in isotropic chiral media, confirming predictions made ˜50 years ago. With these experimental demonstrations in hand, an important challenge is the construction of intuitive predictive models that allow the measured chiral response to be meaningfully related back to molecular and macromolecular structure. This review defines and considers three distinct mechanisms for chiral effects in uniaxially oriented assemblies: orientational chirality, intrinsic chirality, and isotropic chirality. The role of each is discussed in experimental and computational studies of bacteriorhodopsin films, binaphthol, and collagen. Collectively, these three model systems support a remarkably simple framework for quantitatively recovering the measured chiral-specific activity.

  2. Optically nonlinear materials

    Whittam, A J

    2001-01-01

    susceptibility from 26 pm/V (same film without octadecanoic acid) to 40 pm/V. This increase in the second-order susceptibility occurred even though the amount of NLO-active dye was effectively diluted by the addition of the inactive octadecanoic acid. The wavelength of the absorption maximum ranged from 346-440 nm and there was direct correlation between the susceptibilities and the transparency of the films at the harmonic wavelength. Hemicyanine dyes were synthesised, with the general formulae: - (a) C sub 1 sub 8 H sub 3 sub 7 -A sup + -[CH=CH-C sub 6 H sub 4] sub x -N(CH sub 3) sub 2 I (b) C sub 1 sub 8 H sub 3 sub 7 -A sup + -[CH=CH] sub y -C sub 6 H sub 4 -N(CH sub 3) sub 2 I where A sup + is a pyridinium or isoquinolinium acceptor, and x = 1 or 2, and y = 1 or 2. The optically nonlinear dyes were investigated via the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The dyes all produced isotherm data, with molecular areas of 22-60 A sup 2 per molecule, which are consistent with the cross-sectional areas of the chromo...

  3. Step-index optical fibre drawn from 3D printed preforms

    CooK, Kevin; Canning, John; Chartier, Loic; Athanaze, Tristan; Hossain, Md Arafat; Han, Chunyang; Comatti, Jade-Edouard; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-01-01

    Optical fibre is drawn from a dual-head 3D printer fabricated preform made of two optically transparent plastics with a high index core (NA ~ 0.25, V > 60). The asymmetry observed in the fibre arises from asymmetry in the 3D printing process. The highly multi-mode optical fibre has losses measured by cut-back as low as {\\alpha} ~ 0.44 dB/cm in the near IR.

  4. Characterizing the propagation of gravity waves in 3D nonlinear simulations of solar-like stars

    Alvan, L; Brun, A S; Mathis, S; Garcia, R A

    2015-01-01

    The revolution of helio- and asteroseismology provides access to the detailed properties of stellar interiors by studying the star's oscillation modes. Among them, gravity (g) modes are formed by constructive interferences between progressive internal gravity waves (IGWs), propagating in stellar radiative zones. Our new 3D nonlinear simulations of the interior of a solar-like star allows us to study the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of these waves. The aim of this article is to clarify our understanding of the behavior of IGWs in a 3D radiative zone and to provide a clear overview of their properties. We use a method of frequency filtering that reveals the path of {individual} gravity waves of different frequencies in the radiative zone. We are able to identify the region of propagation of different waves in 2D and 3D, to compare them to the linear raytracing theory and to distinguish between propagative and standing waves (g modes). We also show that the energy carried by waves is distributed in d...

  5. 3-D Adaptive Sparsity Based Image Compression With Applications to Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Fang, Leyuan; Li, Shutao; Kang, Xudong; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel general-purpose compression method for tomographic images, termed 3D adaptive sparse representation based compression (3D-ASRC). In this paper, we focus on applications of 3D-ASRC for the compression of ophthalmic 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The 3D-ASRC algorithm exploits correlations among adjacent OCT images to improve compression performance, yet is sensitive to preserving their differences. Due to the inherent denoising mechanism of the sparsity based 3D-ASRC, the quality of the compressed images are often better than the raw images they are based on. Experiments on clinical-grade retinal OCT images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed 3D-ASRC over other well-known compression methods. PMID:25561591

  6. Virtual 3D interactive system with embedded multiwavelength optical sensor array and sequential devices

    Wang, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Yi-Pai; Hu, Kuo-Jui

    2012-06-01

    We proposed a virtual 3D-touch system by bare finger, which can detect the 3-axis (x, y, z) information of finger. This system has multi-wavelength optical sensor array embedded on the backplane of TFT panel and sequentail devices on the border of TFT panel. We had developed reflecting mode which can be worked by bare finger for the 3D interaction. A 4-inch mobile 3D-LCD with this proposed system was successfully been demonstrated already.

  7. DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL STRAIN IN 3-D BRAIDED COMPOSITES USING OPTIC FIBER STRAIN SENSORS

    YuanShenfang; HuangRui; LiXianghua; LiuXiaohui

    2004-01-01

    A reliable understanding of the properties of 3-D braided composites is of primary importance for proper utilization of these materials. A new method is introduced to study the mechanical performance of braided composite materials using embedded optic fiber sensors. Experimental research is performed to devise a method of incorporating optic fibers into a 3-D braided composite structure. The efficacy of this new testing method is evaluated on two counts. First,the optical performance of optic fibers is studied before and after incorporated into 3-D braided composites, as well as after completion of the manufacturing process for 3-D braided composites,to validate the ability of the optic fiber to survive the manufacturing process. On the other hand,the influence of incorporated optic fiber on the original braided composite is also researched by tension and compression experiments. Second, two kinds of optic fiber sensors are co-embedded into 3-D braided composites to evaluate their respective ability to measure the internal strain.Experimental results show that multiple optic fiber sensors can be co-braided into 3-D braided composites to determine their internal strain which is difficult to be fulfilled by other current existing methods.

  8. Optic flow-based vision system for autonomous 3D localization and control of small aerial vehicles

    Kendoul, Farid; Fantoni, Isabelle; Nonami, Kenzo

    2009-01-01

    International audience The problem considered in this paper involves the design of a vision-based autopilot for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed autopilot is based on an optic flow-based vision system for autonomous localization and scene mapping, and a nonlinear control system for flight control and guidance. This paper focusses on the development of a real-time 3D vision algorithm for estimating optic flow, aircraft self-motion and depth map, using a low-reso...

  9. Nonlinear optics of matter waves

    Goldstein, E. V.; Moore, M. G.; Zobay, O.; Meystre, P.

    1998-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the way atomic physics is now developing in a way reminiscent of the optics revolution of the 1960's. Thanks in particular to recent developments in atomic trapping and cooling, the new field of atom optics is rapidly leading to exciting new developments such as nonlinear atom optics and quantum atom optics. We illustrate these developments with examples out of our own research.

  10. Novel implementations of optical switch control module and 3D-CSP for 10 Gbps active optical access system

    Wakayama, Koji; Okuno, Michitaka; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Hosomi, Kazuhiko; Sagawa, Misuzu; Sugawara, Toshiki

    2009-11-01

    We propose an optical switch control procedure for high-performance and cost-effective 10 Gbps Active Optical Access System (AOAS) in which optical switches are used instead of optical splitters in PON (Passive Optical Network). We demonstrate the implemented optical switch control module on Optical Switching Unit (OSW) with logic circuits works effectively. We also propose a compact optical 3D-CSP (Chip Scale Package) to achieve the high performance of AOAS without losing cost advantage of PON. We demonstrate the implemented 3D-CSP works effectively.

  11. Long-lived dipolar molecules and Feshbach molecules in a 3D optical lattice

    Chotia, Amodsen; Moses, Steven A; Yan, Bo; Covey, Jacob P; Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S; Ye, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We have realized long-lived ground-state polar molecules in a 3D optical lattice, with a lifetime of up to 25 s, which is limited only by off-resonant scattering of the trapping light. Starting from a 2D optical lattice, we observe that the lifetime increases dramatically as a small lattice potential is added along the tube-shaped lattice traps. The 3D optical lattice also dramatically increases the lifetime for weakly bound Feshbach molecules. For a pure gas of Feshbach molecules, we observe a lifetime of >20 s in a 3D optical lattice; this represents a 100-fold improvement over previous results. This lifetime is also limited by off-resonant scattering, the rate of which is related to the size of the Feshbach molecule. Individually trapped Feshbach molecules in the 3D lattice can be converted to pairs of K and Rb atoms and back with nearly 100% efficiency.

  12. Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

    Lin Xiao-Gang; Liu Wen-Jun; Lei Ming

    2016-03-01

    Oscillating solitons are obtained in nonlinear optics. Analytical study of the variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is used to describe the soliton propagation in those systems, is carried out using the Hirota’s bilinear method. The bilinear forms and analytic soliton solutions are derived, and the relevant properties and features of oscillating solitons are illustrated. Oscillating solitons are controlled by the reciprocal of the group velocity and Kerr nonlinearity. Results of this paper will be valuable to the study of dispersion-managed optical communication system and mode-locked fibre lasers.

  13. An optical real-time 3D measurement for analysis of facial shape and movement

    Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing; Cao, Yiping; Xiang, Liqun

    2003-12-01

    Optical non-contact 3-D shape measurement provides a novel and useful tool for analysis of facial shape and movement in presurgical and postsurgical regular check. In this article we present a system, which allows a precise 3-D visualization of the patient's facial before and after craniofacial surgery. We discussed, in this paper, the real time 3-D image capture, processing and the 3-D phase unwrapping method to recover complex shape deformation when the movement of the mouth. The result of real-time measurement for facial shape and movement will be helpful for the more ideal effect in plastic surgery.

  14. Advanced 3D-reconstruction of biological specimen monitored by non-invasive optical tomography

    Imaging of intricate and delicate subcellular structures along with reliable 3D-reconstruction of cells and tissues may be achieved on the basis of confocal laser scanning microscopy (optical tomography) provided that certain criteria such as proper loading of fluorescent dyes, image acquisition under defined electro-optical conditions, suitable image pre- and postprocessing, etc., are taken into account prior to volume- or surface-rendering for 3D-visualization. (author)

  15. Automatic 3-D Optical Detection on Orientation of Randomly Oriented Industrial Parts for Rapid Robotic Manipulation

    Liang-Chia Chen; Manh-Trung Le; Xuan-Loc Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method employing a developed 3-D optical imaging and processing algorithm for accurate classification of an object’s surface characteristics in robot pick and place manipulation. In the method, 3-D geometry of industrial parts can be rapidly acquired by the developed one-shot imaging optical probe based on Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP) by using digital-fringe projection at a camera’s maximum sensing speed. Following this, the acquired range image can be effe...

  16. Characterization of fatigue resistance in photochromic composite materials for 3D rewritable optical memory applications

    Samoylova, Elena, E-mail: Elena.Samoylova@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Dallari, William; Allione, Marco; Pignatelli, Francesca; Marini, Lara; Cingolani, Roberto; Diaspro, Alberto [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Athanassiou, Athanassia, E-mail: athanassia.athanassiou@iit.it [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies-Unile, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Barsanti, 73010 Arnesano, Lecce (Italy)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: • Fatigue resistance of diarylethene–polymer composites was tested with optical absorption and fluorescence methods upon repetitive UV–VIS irradiation. • Significant differences in fatigue were found in different polymeric matrices and in one-photon and two-photon excitation experiments. • Several explanations for fatigue resistance of the composites are proposed based on the physico-chemical properties of the diarylethenes and polymeric matrices. -- Abstract: Fatigue resistance of the photochromic diarylethene molecules 1,2-bis[2-methylbenzo[b]thyophen-3-yl] -3,3,4,4,5,5-hexafluoro-1-cyclopentene embedded in three different acrylic polymers is studied upon multiple coloration–decoloration cycles. The resistance to photofatigue is found to be different in the three polymeric materials when one-photon excitation was used for the reversible photoconversion experiment. In particular, the photochromic molecules lose their photoisomerization ability faster if they are embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with respect to poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-methyl acrylate) (PEMMA) and poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA). We propose several explanations based on the physico-chemical properties of the matrix and of the photochromic molecules. In the case of two-photon excitation, which is necessary for 3D optical writing, the fatigue resistance is found to be poorer than in the one-photon case. The accelerated photodegradation can be assigned to the non-linear nature of interaction between the polymeric composite material and light.

  17. Characterization of fatigue resistance in photochromic composite materials for 3D rewritable optical memory applications

    Highlights: • Fatigue resistance of diarylethene–polymer composites was tested with optical absorption and fluorescence methods upon repetitive UV–VIS irradiation. • Significant differences in fatigue were found in different polymeric matrices and in one-photon and two-photon excitation experiments. • Several explanations for fatigue resistance of the composites are proposed based on the physico-chemical properties of the diarylethenes and polymeric matrices. -- Abstract: Fatigue resistance of the photochromic diarylethene molecules 1,2-bis[2-methylbenzo[b]thyophen-3-yl] -3,3,4,4,5,5-hexafluoro-1-cyclopentene embedded in three different acrylic polymers is studied upon multiple coloration–decoloration cycles. The resistance to photofatigue is found to be different in the three polymeric materials when one-photon excitation was used for the reversible photoconversion experiment. In particular, the photochromic molecules lose their photoisomerization ability faster if they are embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with respect to poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-methyl acrylate) (PEMMA) and poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA). We propose several explanations based on the physico-chemical properties of the matrix and of the photochromic molecules. In the case of two-photon excitation, which is necessary for 3D optical writing, the fatigue resistance is found to be poorer than in the one-photon case. The accelerated photodegradation can be assigned to the non-linear nature of interaction between the polymeric composite material and light

  18. 3D Nonlinear Numerical Simulation of Intact and Debonded Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Chen Quan(陈权); Marcus L.

    2004-01-01

    To study the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) structures with sections of concrete removed and the reinforcement exposed, 3D nonlinear numerical analysis was performed upon both intact and debonded RC beams by using finite element techniques. The deformational characteristics and the ultimate loads were obtained through numerical models, as well as crack and stress distributions. The failure modes can also be deduced from computational results. Compared with intact beams, the normal assumptions of plane section behaviour is not hold true and the patterns of stress and strain are different in debonded RC beams. The numerical results show good consistency with experimental data. This kind of numerical simulation is a supplement to existing codes.

  19. Neutron radiographic image restoration using BM3D frames and nonlinear variance stabilization

    Shuang, Qiao; Wei-jing, Zhao [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Jia-ning, Sun, E-mail: sunjn118@nenu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China)

    2015-07-21

    Neutron radiography is a powerful tool for non-destructive investigations in industrial applications. However, the resulting images are degraded inevitably due to some physical limitations. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for neutron image restoration, which utilizes BM3D frames and nonlinear variance stabilization including generalized anscombe transformation and its exact unbiased inverse. Experimental results show that superior to the existing restoration methods, the proposed scheme improves the restoration quality efficiently and exhibits better visual results. - Highlights: • Aiming at the degradation features of neutron radiographic images, we propose a novel theoretic restoration model. • According to the restoration model, an explicit algorithm is also presented. • The practical feasibility of the new scheme is verified through some experiments on real neutron radiographic images and standard testing image.

  20. Neutron radiographic image restoration using BM3D frames and nonlinear variance stabilization

    Neutron radiography is a powerful tool for non-destructive investigations in industrial applications. However, the resulting images are degraded inevitably due to some physical limitations. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for neutron image restoration, which utilizes BM3D frames and nonlinear variance stabilization including generalized anscombe transformation and its exact unbiased inverse. Experimental results show that superior to the existing restoration methods, the proposed scheme improves the restoration quality efficiently and exhibits better visual results. - Highlights: • Aiming at the degradation features of neutron radiographic images, we propose a novel theoretic restoration model. • According to the restoration model, an explicit algorithm is also presented. • The practical feasibility of the new scheme is verified through some experiments on real neutron radiographic images and standard testing image

  1. Integrated gravity and gravity gradient 3D inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient

    Qin, Pengbo; Huang, Danian; Yuan, Yuan; Geng, Meixia; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Gravity data, which are critical in mineral, oil, and gas exploration, are obtained from the vertical component of the gravity field, while gravity gradient data are measured from changes in the gravity field in three directions. However, few studies have sought to improve exploration techniques by integrating gravity and gravity gradient data using inversion methods. In this study, we developed a new method to integrate gravity and gravity gradient data in a 3D density inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient (NLCG) method and the minimum gradient support (MGS) functional to regularize the 3D inverse problem and to obtain a clear and accurate image of the anomalous body. The NLCG algorithm, which is suitable for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems and requires no memory storage, was compared to the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton algorithm and the results indicated that the convergence rate of NLCG is slower, but that the storage requirement and computation time is lower. To counteract the decay in kernel function, we introduced a depth weighting function for anomalous bodies at the same depth, with information about anomalous body depth obtained from well log and seismic exploration data. For anomalous bodies at different depths, we introduced a spatial gradient weighting function to incorporate additional information obtained in the inversion. We concluded that the spatial gradient weighting function enhanced the spatial resolution of the recovered model. Furthermore, our results showed that including multiple components for inversion increased the resolution of the recovered model. We validated our model by applying our inversion method to survey data from Vinton salt dome, Louisiana, USA. The results showed good agreement with known geologic information; thus confirming the accuracy of this approach.

  2. Dynamic complex optical fields for optical manipulation, 3D microscopy, and photostimulation of neurotransmitters

    Daria, Vincent R.; Stricker, Christian; Bekkers, John; Redman, Steve; Bachor, Hans

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate a multi-functional system capable of multiple-site two-photon excitation of photo-sensitive compounds as well as transfer of optical mechanical properties on an array of mesoscopic particles. We use holographic projection of a single Ti:Sapphire laser operating in femtosecond pulse mode to show that the projected three-dimensional light patterns have sufficient spatiotemporal photon density for multi-site two-photon excitation of biological fluorescent markers and caged neurotransmitters. Using the same laser operating in continuous-wave mode, we can use the same light patterns for non-invasive transfer of both linear and orbital angular momentum on a variety of mesoscopic particles. The system also incorporates high-speed scanning using acousto-optic modulators to rapidly render 3D images of neuron samples via two-photon microscopy.

  3. Integration of 3D anatomical data obtained by CT imaging and 3D optical scanning for computer aided implant surgery

    Paoli Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A precise placement of dental implants is a crucial step to optimize both prosthetic aspects and functional constraints. In this context, the use of virtual guiding systems has been recognized as a fundamental tool to control the ideal implant position. In particular, complex periodontal surgeries can be performed using preoperative planning based on CT data. The critical point of the procedure relies on the lack of accuracy in transferring CT planning information to surgical field through custom-made stereo-lithographic surgical guides. Methods In this work, a novel methodology is proposed for monitoring loss of accuracy in transferring CT dental information into periodontal surgical field. The methodology is based on integrating 3D data of anatomical (impression and cast and preoperative (radiographic template models, obtained by both CT and optical scanning processes. Results A clinical case, relative to a fully edentulous jaw patient, has been used as test case to assess the accuracy of the various steps concurring in manufacturing surgical guides. In particular, a surgical guide has been designed to place implants in the bone structure of the patient. The analysis of the results has allowed the clinician to monitor all the errors, which have been occurring step by step manufacturing the physical templates. Conclusions The use of an optical scanner, which has a higher resolution and accuracy than CT scanning, has demonstrated to be a valid support to control the precision of the various physical models adopted and to point out possible error sources. A case study regarding a fully edentulous patient has confirmed the feasibility of the proposed methodology.

  4. Implementation of a 3-D nonlinear MHD [magnetohydrodynamics] calculation on the Intel hypercube

    The optimization of numerical schemes and increasing computer capabilities in the last ten years have improved the efficiency of 3-D nonlinear resistive MHD calculations by about two to three orders of magnitude. However, we are still very limited in performing these types of calculations. Hypercubes have a large number of processors with only local memory and bidirectional links among neighbors. The Intel Hypercube at Oak Ridge has 64 processors with 0.5 megabytes of memory per processor. The multiplicity of processors opens new possibilities for the treatment of such computations. The constraint on time and resources favored the approach of using the existing RSF code which solves as an initial value problem the reduced set of MHD equations for a periodic cylindrical geometry. This code includes minimal physics and geometry, but contains the basic three dimensionality and nonlinear structure of the equations. The code solves the reduced set of MHD equations by Fourier expansion in two angular coordinates and finite differences in the radial one. Due to the continuing interest in these calculations and the likelihood that future supercomputers will take greater advantage of parallelism, the present study was initiated by the ORNL Exploratory Studies Committee and funded entirely by Laboratory Discretionary Funds. The objectives of the study were: to ascertain the suitability of MHD calculation for parallel computation, to design and implement a parallel algorithm to perform the computations, and to evaluate the hypercube, and in particular, ORNL's Intel iPSC, for use in MHD computations

  5. Progress in nonlinear nano-optics

    Lienau, Christoph; Grunwald, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in nonlinear nanostructures for ultrafast laser applications. Most recent results in two emerging fields are presented: (i) generation of laser-induced nanostructures in materials like metals, metal oxides and semiconductors, and (ii) ultrafast excitation and energy transfer in nanoscale physical, chemical and hybrid systems. Particular emphasis is laid on the up-to-date controversially discussed mechanisms of sub-wavelength ripple formation including models of self-organized material transport and multiphoton excitation channels, nonlinear optics of plasmonic structures (nanotips, nanowires, 3D-metamaterials), and energy localization and transport on ultrafast time scale and spatial nanoscale. High-resolution spectroscopy, simulation and characterization techniques are reported. New applications of ultrashort-pulsed lasers for materials processing and the use of nanostructured materials for characterizing laser fields and laser-matter-interactions are discussed.

  6. Characterization of a parallel-beam CCD optical-CT apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry

    Krstajic, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

    2007-07-01

    3D measurement of optical attenuation is of interest in a variety of fields of biomedical importance, including spectrophotometry, optical projection tomography (OPT) and analysis of 3D radiation dosimeters. Accurate, precise and economical 3D measurements of optical density (OD) are a crucial step in enabling 3D radiation dosimeters to enter wider use in clinics. Polymer gels and Fricke gels, as well as dosimeters not based around gels, have been characterized for 3D dosimetry over the last two decades. A separate problem is the verification of the best readout method. A number of different imaging modalities (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical CT, x-ray CT and ultrasound) have been suggested for the readout of information from 3D dosimeters. To date only MRI and laser-based optical CT have been characterized in detail. This paper describes some initial steps we have taken in establishing charge coupled device (CCD)-based optical CT as a viable alternative to MRI for readout of 3D radiation dosimeters. The main advantage of CCD-based optical CT over traditional laser-based optical CT is a speed increase of at least an order of magnitude, while the simplicity of its architecture would lend itself to cheaper implementation than both MRI and laser-based optical CT if the camera itself were inexpensive enough. Specifically, we study the following aspects of optical metrology, using high quality test targets: (i) calibration and quality of absorbance measurements and the camera requirements for 3D dosimetry; (ii) the modulation transfer function (MTF) of individual projections; (iii) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the projection and reconstruction domains; (iv) distortion in the projection domain, depth-of-field (DOF) and telecentricity. The principal results for our current apparatus are as follows: (i) SNR of optical absorbance in projections is better than 120:1 for uniform phantoms in absorbance range 0.3 to 1.6 (and better than 200:1 for absorbances 1.0 to

  7. Bone tissue phantoms for optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacing generated by 3D-stereolithography

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Torricelli, Alessandro; Giust, Remo; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Bernhard, Paul; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    A bone tissue phantom prototype allowing to test, in general, optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacings, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry or diffuse correlation spectroscopy, has been developed by 3D-stereolithography technique. It has been demonstrated that complex tissue vascular systems of any geometrical shape can be conceived. Absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and refractive index of the optical phantom have been measured to ensure that the optical parameters r...

  8. Non-linear 3D Born Shear Wave Tomography in Southeastern Asia

    Cao, A.; Panning, M.; Kim, A.; Romanowicz, B.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a 3D radially anisotropic shear velocity model of the upper mantle in southeastern Asia from the inversion of long period seismic multimode waveforms. Our approach is based on normal mode perturbation theory, specifically, on a recent modification of the Born approximation, which we call "N-Born", and which includes a non-linear term that allows the accurate inclusion of accumulated phase shifts which arise when the wavepath traverses a spatially extended region with a smooth velocity anomaly of constant sign. We apply the N-Born approximation in the forward modeling part and calculate linear 3D Born kernels in the inverse part. Our starting model is a 3D radially anisotropic model which we derived from a large dataset of teleseismic multimode long period waveforms in the period range 60 to 400 s, using a finite-frequency 2D approximation (NACT, Li and Romanowicz, 1995). This model covered a larger region of East Asia (longitude 30 to 150 degrees and latitude -10 to 60 degrees), while our N-Born model is restricted to a smaller subregion (longitude 75 to 150 degrees and latitude 0 to 45 degrees) for computational efficiency. In this subregion, our N-Born isotropic and anisotropic models are both parameterized at relatively short wavelengths corresponding to a spherical spline level 6 (~200km). Our N-Born model can fit waveforms as well as the NACT model, with up to ~ 83% variance reduction. While the models agree in general, the N-Born isotropic model shows a stronger fast velocity anomaly beneath the Tibetan plateau in the depth range of 150 km to 250 km, which disappears at greater depth, consistent with other studies. More importantly, the N-Born anisotropic model can recover well the downwelling structure associated with subducted slabs. Beneath the Tibet plateau, radial anisotropy shows VSH>VSV, which is indicative of horizontal rather than vertical flow and may help distinguish between end member models of the tectonics of Tibet.

  9. Nanoimprint of a 3D structure on an optical fiber for light wavefront manipulation

    Calafiore, Giuseppe; Koshelev, Alexander; Allen, Frances I.; Dhuey, Scott; Sassolini, Simone; Wong, Edward; Lum, Paul; Munechika, Keiko; Cabrini, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Integration of complex photonic structures onto optical fiber facets enables powerful platforms with unprecedented optical functionalities. Conventional nanofabrication technologies, however, do not permit viable integration of complex photonic devices onto optical fibers owing to their low throughput and high cost. In this paper we report the fabrication of a three-dimensional structure achieved by direct nanoimprint lithography on the facet of an optical fiber. Nanoimprint processes and tools were specifically developed to enable a high lithographic accuracy and coaxial alignment of the optical device with respect to the fiber core. To demonstrate the capability of this new approach, a 3D beam splitter has been designed, imprinted and optically characterized. Scanning electron microscopy and optical measurements confirmed the good lithographic capabilities of the proposed approach as well as the desired optical performance of the imprinted structure. The inexpensive solution presented here should enable advancements in areas such as integrated optics and sensing, achieving enhanced portability and versatility of fiber optic components.

  10. Nonlinear Optics of Hexaphenyl Nanofibers

    Balzer, Frank; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Neuendorf, Rolf;

    2003-01-01

    measurements reveal that the nonlinear optical transition dipole moment is oriented with an angle of 75° with respect to the needles long axes. The absolute value of the macroscopic second-order susceptibility, averaged over a size distribution of p-6P nanoaggregates, is estimated to be of the order of 6...

  11. Nonlinear optical properties of bacteriorhodopsin

    Hendrickx, Eric; Verbiest, Thierry; Clays, Koen J.; Persoons, Andre P.

    1993-04-01

    In this paper we show the applicability of Hyper-Rayleigh scattering to obtain hyperpolarizabilities of ionic and biochemical compounds. It was found that dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin and its isolated chromophore have considerable second order nonlinear optical properties. Information obtained from depolarization studies of the scattered light is discussed.

  12. Target Tracking in 3-D Using Estimation Based Nonlinear Control Laws for UAVs

    Mousumi Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation based backstepping like control law design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to track a moving target in 3-D space. A ground-based sensor or an onboard seeker antenna provides range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle measurements to a chaser UAV that implements an extended Kalman filter (EKF to estimate the full state of the target. A nonlinear controller then utilizes this estimated target state and the chaser’s state to provide speed, flight path, and course/heading angle commands to the chaser UAV. Tracking performance with respect to measurement uncertainty is evaluated for three cases: (1 stationary white noise; (2 stationary colored noise and (3 non-stationary (range correlated white noise. Furthermore, in an effort to improve tracking performance, the measurement model is made more realistic by taking into consideration range-dependent uncertainties in the measurements, i.e., as the chaser closes in on the target, measurement uncertainties are reduced in the EKF, thus providing the UAV with more accurate control commands. Simulation results for these cases are shown to illustrate target state estimation and trajectory tracking performance.

  13. Regimes of nonlinear depletion and regularity in the 3D Navier–Stokes equations

    The periodic 3D Navier–Stokes equations are analyzed in terms of dimensionless, scaled, L2m-norms of vorticity Dm (1 ⩽ m < ∞). The first in this hierarchy, D1, is the global enstrophy. Three regimes naturally occur in the D1 − Dm plane. Solutions in the first regime, which lie between two concave curves, are shown to be regular, owing to strong nonlinear depletion. Moreover, numerical experiments have suggested, so far, that all dynamics lie in this heavily depleted regime [1]; new numerical evidence for this is presented. Estimates for the dimension of a global attractor and a corresponding inertial range are given for this regime. However, two more regimes can theoretically exist. In the second, which lies between the upper concave curve and a line, the depletion is insufficient to regularize solutions, so no more than Leray's weak solutions exist. In the third, which lies above this line, solutions are regular, but correspond to extreme initial conditions. The paper ends with a discussion on the possibility of transition between these regimes. (paper)

  14. Nonlinear 3-D simulation of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy in the kidney

    Suomi, Visa; Treeby, Bradley; Cleveland, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Kidney cancer is a severe disease which can be treated non-invasively using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. However, tissue in front of the transducer and the deep location of kidney can cause significant losses to the efficiency of the treatment. The effect of attenuation, refraction and reflection due to different tissue types on HIFU therapy of the kidney was studied using a nonlinear ultrasound simulation model. The geometry of the tissue was derived from a computed tomography (CT) dataset of a patient which had been segmented for water, bone, soft tissue, fat and kidney. The combined effect of inhomogeneous attenuation and sound-speed was found to result in an 11.0 dB drop in spatial peak-temporal average (SPTA) intensity in the kidney compared to pure water. The simulation without refraction effects showed a 6.3 dB decrease indicating that both attenuation and refraction contribute to the loss in focal intensity. The losses due to reflections at soft tissue interfaces were less than 0....

  15. 3D printing of tissue-simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for biomedical optical measurement

    Dong, Erbao; Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Han, Yilin; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Optical phantoms are commonly used to validate and calibrate biomedical optical devices in order to ensure accurate measurement of optical properties in biological tissue. However, commonly used optical phantoms are based on homogenous materials that reflect neither optical properties nor multi-layer heterogeneities of biological tissue. Using these phantoms for optical calibration may result in significant bias in biological measurement. We propose to characterize and fabricate tissue simulating phantoms that simulate not only the multi-layer heterogeneities but also optical properties of biological tissue. The tissue characterization module detects tissue structural and functional properties in vivo. The phantom printing module generates 3D tissue structures at different scales by layer-by-layer deposition of phantom materials with different optical properties. The ultimate goal is to fabricate multi-layer tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for optimal calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.

  16. Viewpoint-independent 3D object segmentation for randomly stacked objects using optical object detection

    This work proposes a novel approach to segmenting randomly stacked objects in unstructured 3D point clouds, which are acquired by a random-speckle 3D imaging system for the purpose of automated object detection and reconstruction. An innovative algorithm is proposed; it is based on a novel concept of 3D watershed segmentation and the strategies for resolving over-segmentation and under-segmentation problems. Acquired 3D point clouds are first transformed into a corresponding orthogonally projected depth map along the optical imaging axis of the 3D sensor. A 3D watershed algorithm based on the process of distance transformation is then performed to detect the boundary, called the edge dam, between stacked objects and thereby to segment point clouds individually belonging to two stacked objects. Most importantly, an object-matching algorithm is developed to solve the over- and under-segmentation problems that may arise during the watershed segmentation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method are confirmed experimentally. The results reveal that the proposed method is a fast and effective scheme for the detection and reconstruction of a 3D object in a random stack of such objects. In the experiments, the precision of the segmentation exceeds 95% and the recall exceeds 80%. (paper)

  17. Two-Photon Absorbing Molecules as Potential Materials for 3D Optical Memory

    Kazuya Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent advances in two-photon absorbing photochromic molecules, as potential materials for 3D optical memory, are presented. The investigations introduced in this review indicate that 3D data storage processing at the molecular level is possible. As 3D memory using two-photon absorption allows advantages over existing systems, the use of two-photon absorbing photochromic molecules is preferable. Although there are some photochromic molecules with good properties for memory, in most cases, the two-photon absorption efficiency is not high. Photochromic molecules with high two-photon absorption efficiency are desired. Recently, molecules having much larger two-photon absorption cross sections over 10,000 GM (GM= 10−50 cm4 s molecule−1 photon−1 have been discovered and are expected to open the way to realize two-photon absorption 3D data storage.

  18. Nonlinear fiber optics formerly quantum electronics

    Agrawal, Govind

    1995-01-01

    The field of nonlinear fiber optics has grown substantially since the First Edition of Nonlinear Fiber Optics, published in 1989. Like the First Edition, this Second Edition is a comprehensive, tutorial, and up-to-date account of nonlinear optical phenomena in fiber optics. It synthesizes widely scattered research material and presents it in an accessible manner for students and researchers already engaged in or wishing to enter the field of nonlinear fiber optics. Particular attention is paid to the importance of nonlinear effects in the design of optical fiber communication systems. This is

  19. Nanoimprint of a 3D structure on an optical fiber for light wavefront manipulation

    Calafiore, Giuseppe; Allen, Frances I; Dhuey, Scott; Sassolini, Simone; Wong, Edward; Lum, Paul; Munechika, Keiko; Cabrini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Integration of complex photonic structures onto optical fiber facets enables powerful platforms with unprecedented optical functionalities. Conventional nanofabrication technologies, however, do not permit viable integration of complex photonic devices onto optical fibers owing to their low throughput and high cost. In this paper we report the fabrication of a three dimensional structure achieved by direct Nanoimprint Lithography on the facet of an optical fiber. Nanoimprint processes and tools were specifically developed to enable a high lithographic accuracy and coaxial alignment of the optical device with respect to the fiber core. To demonstrate the capability of this new approach, a 3D beam splitter has been designed, imprinted and optically characterized. Scanning electron microscopy and optical measurements confirmed the excellent lithographic capabilities of the proposed approach as well as the desired optical performance of the imprinted structure. The inexpensive solution presented here should enabl...

  20. Non-linear 3-D Born shear waveform tomography in Southeast Asia

    Panning, Mark P.; Cao, Aimin; Kim, Ahyi; Romanowicz, Barbara A.

    2012-07-01

    Southeast (SE) Asia is a tectonically complex region surrounded by many active source regions, thus an ideal test bed for developments in seismic tomography. Much recent development in tomography has been based on 3-D sensitivity kernels based on the first-order Born approximation, but there are potential problems with this approach when applied to waveform data. In this study, we develop a radially anisotropic model of SE Asia using long-period multimode waveforms. We use a theoretical 'cascade' approach, starting with a large-scale Eurasian model developed using 2-D Non-linear Asymptotic Coupling Theory (NACT) sensitivity kernels, and then using a modified Born approximation (nBorn), shown to be more accurate at modelling waveforms, to invert a subset of the data for structure in a subregion (longitude 75°-150° and latitude 0°-45°). In this subregion, the model is parametrized at a spherical spline level 6 (˜200 km). The data set is also inverted using NACT and purely linear 3-D Born kernels. All three final models fit the data well, with just under 80 per cent variance reduction as calculated using the corresponding theory, but the nBorn model shows more detailed structure than the NACT model throughout and has much better resolution at depths greater than 250 km. Based on variance analysis, the purely linear Born kernels do not provide as good a fit to the data due to deviations from linearity for the waveform data set used in this modelling. The nBorn isotropic model shows a stronger fast velocity anomaly beneath the Tibetan Plateau in the depth range of 150-250 km, which disappears at greater depth, consistent with other studies. It also indicates moderate thinning of the high-velocity plate in the middle of Tibet, consistent with a model where Tibet is underplated by Indian lithosphere from the south and Eurasian lithosphere from the north, in contrast to a model with continuous underplating by Indian lithosphere across the entire plateau. The n

  1. High resolution 3D dosimetry for microbeam radiation therapy using optical CT

    Optical Computed Tomography (CT) is a promising technique for dosimetry of Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), providing high resolution 3D dose maps. Here different MRT irradiation geometries are visualised showing the potential of Optical CT as a tool for future MRT trials. The Peak-to-Valley dose ratio (PVDR) is calculated to be 7 at a depth of 3mm in the radiochromic dosimeter PRESAGE®. This is significantly lower than predicted values and possible reasons for this are discussed

  2. A Closed Form Solution to Segment 3D Motion Using Straight-line Optical Flow

    ZHANG Jing; SHI Fan-huai; MA Wen-juan; LIU Yun-cai

    2008-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of segmenting multiple 3D motion models was proposed fromstraight-line optical flow. It introduced the multibody line optical flow constraint (MLOFC), a polynomial equation relating motion models and line parameters. The motion models can be obtained analytically as the derivative of the MLOFC at the corresponding line measurement, without knowing the motion model associated with that line. Experiments on real and synthetic sequences were also presented.

  3. 3D micro-optical elements for generation of tightly focused vortex beams

    Balčytis Armandas; Hakobyan Davit; Gabalis Martynas; Žukauskas Albertas; Urbonas Darius; Malinauskas Mangirdas; Petruškevičius Raimondas; Brasselet Etienne; Juodkazis Saulius

    2015-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum carrying light beams are usedfor optical trapping and manipulation. This emerging trend provides new challenges involving device miniaturization for improved performance and enhanced functionality at the microscale. Here we discus a new fabrication method based on combining the additive 3D structuring capability laser photopolymerization and the substractive sub-wavelength resolution patterning of focused ion beam lithography to produce micro-optical elements capable ...

  4. Construction modification of data-projector for optical 3D measurement

    Pochmon, Michal; Pravdová, L.; Rössler, T.

    Ostrava: VŠB - TU, 2008 - (Fuxa, J.; Macura, P.; Halama, R.), s. 199-202 ISBN 978-80-248-1774-3. [Experimental Stress Analysis (EAN) 2008. International scientific conference /46./. Horní Bečva (CZ), 02.06.2008-05.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : data -projector * optical 3D measurement Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  5. Fiber Optic 3-D Space Piezoelectric Accelerometer and its Antinoise Technology

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical structure of piezoelectric accelerometer is designed, and the operation equations on X-, Y-, and Z-axes are deduced. The test results of 3-D frequency response are given. Noise disturbances are effectively eliminated by using fiber optic transmission and synchronous detection.

  6. Single-cycle nonlinear optics

    Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik; Goulielmakis, E.; Schultze, M.; Hofstetter, M.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Gagnon, J.; Uiberacker, M.; Aquila, A. L.; gullikson, E. M.; attwood, D. T.; Kienberger, R.; Krausz, F.; Kleineberg, U.

    2008-11-05

    Nonlinear optics plays a central role in the advancement of optical science and laser-based technologies. We report on the confinement of the nonlinear interaction of light with matter to a single wave cycle and demonstrate its utility for time-resolved and strong-field science. The electric field of 3.3-femtosecond, 0.72-micron laser pulses with a controlled and measured waveform ionizes atoms near the crests of the central wave cycle, with ionization being virtually switched off outside this interval. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulses of extreme ultraviolet light (photon energy {approx} 80 electron volts), containing {approx} 0.5 nanojoule of energy, emerge from the interaction with a conversion efficiency of {approx} 10{sup -6}. These tools enable the study of the precision control of electron motion with light fields and electron-electron interactions with a resolution approaching the atomic unit of time ({approx} 24 attoseconds).

  7. Nonlinear Optical Studies of Bacteriorhodopsin

    Rao, D. V. G. L. N.; Aranda, F. J.; Chen, Z.; Akkara, J. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Nakashima, M.

    We report interesting results on nonlinear optics at low powers in bacteriorhodopsin films with applications in all-optical switching and modulation. Chemically stabilized films of bacteriorhodopsin in a polymer matrix for which the lifetime of the excited M state is 3 to 4 orders of magnitude longer than that of water solutions of wild-type bR were used in these experiments. Due to the sensitivity of the films, very small powers of order microwatts are required for optical phase conjugation. The influence of the fast photochemical M to B transition induced by blue light on the saturation intensity, phase conjugate intensity and switching time was established. We also report our measurements of the intensity dependence of the self-focusing and self-defocusing properties of wild-type bR in water solution using the Z-scan technique with low power cw lasers at two wavelengths on either side of the absorption band. Our measurements indicate that the sign of the nonlinearity depends on the wavelength and the magnitude depends on the fluence of the incident laser beam. The observed self-focusing and defocusing is not due to the intrinsic electronic nonlinearity. The observations can be explained in terms of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation that relates the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction.

  8. Performance of an improved first generation optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    Performance analysis of a modified 3D dosimetry optical scanner based on the first generation optical CT scanner OCTOPUS is presented. The system consists of PRESAGE™ dosimeters, the modified 3D scanner, and a new developed in-house user control panel written in Labview program which provides more flexibility to optimize mechanical control and data acquisition technique. The total scanning time has been significantly reduced from initial 8 h to ∼2 h by using the modified scanner. The functional performance of the modified scanner has been evaluated in terms of the mechanical integrity uncertainty of the data acquisition process. Optical density distribution comparison between the modified scanner, OCTOPUS and the treatment plan system has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the agreement between the modified scanner and treatment plans is comparable with that between the OCTOPUS and treatment plans. (note)

  9. 3D optical vortices generated by micro-optical elements and its novel applications

    BU J.; LIN J.; K. J. Moh; B. P. S. Ahluwalia; CHEN H. L.; PENG X.; NIU H. B.; YUAN X.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report on recent development in the areas of optical vortices generated by micro-optical elements and applications of optical vortices, including optical manipulation, radial polarization and secure free space optical communication

  10. 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of optical phantoms simulating heterogeneous biological tissue

    Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    The performance of biomedical optical imaging devices heavily relies on appropriate calibration. However, many of existing calibration phantoms for biomedical optical devices are based on homogenous materials without considering the multi-layer heterogeneous structures observed in biological tissue. Using such a phantom for optical calibration may result in measurement bias. To overcome this problem, we propose a 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of tissue simulating phantoms with multilayer heterogeneous structure. The phantom simulates not only the morphologic characteristics of biological tissue but also absorption and scattering properties. The printing system is based on a 3D motion platform with coordinated control of the DC motors. A special jet nozzle is designed to mix base, scattering, and absorption materials at different ratios. 3D tissue structures are fabricated through layer-by-layer printing with selective deposition of phantom materials of different ingredients. Different mixed ratios of base, scattering and absorption materials have been tested in order to optimize the printing outcome. A spectrometer and a tissue spectrophotometer are used for characterizing phantom absorption and scattering properties. The goal of this project is to fabricate skin tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for the calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.

  11. BER Analysis Using Beat Probability Method of 3D Optical CDMA Networks with Double Balanced Detection

    Chih-Ta Yen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes novel three-dimensional (3D matrices of wavelength/time/spatial code for code-division multiple-access (OCDMA networks, with a double balanced detection mechanism. We construct 3D carrier-hopping prime/modified prime (CHP/MP codes by extending a two-dimensional (2D CHP code integrated with a one-dimensional (1D MP code. The corresponding coder/decoder pairs were based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs and tunable optical delay lines integrated with splitters/combiners. System performance was enhanced by the low cross correlation properties of the 3D code designed to avoid the beat noise phenomenon. The CHP/MP code cardinality increased significantly compared to the CHP code under the same bit error rate (BER. The results indicate that the 3D code method can enhance system performance because both the beating terms and multiple-access interference (MAI were reduced by the double balanced detection mechanism. Additionally, the optical component can also be relaxed for high transmission scenery.

  12. Automatic 3-D Optical Detection on Orientation of Randomly Oriented Industrial Parts for Rapid Robotic Manipulation

    Liang-Chia Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method employing a developed 3-D optical imaging and processing algorithm for accurate classification of an object’s surface characteristics in robot pick and place manipulation. In the method, 3-D geometry of industrial parts can be rapidly acquired by the developed one-shot imaging optical probe based on Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP by using digital-fringe projection at a camera’s maximum sensing speed. Following this, the acquired range image can be effectively segmented into three surface types by classifying point clouds based on the statistical distribution of the normal surface vector of each detected 3-D point, and then the scene ground is reconstructed by applying least squares fitting and classification algorithms. Also, a recursive search process incorporating the region-growing algorithm for registering homogeneous surface regions has been developed. When the detected parts are randomly overlapped on a workbench, a group of defined 3-D surface features, such as surface areas, statistical values of the surface normal distribution and geometric distances of defined features, can be uniquely recognized for detection of the part’s orientation. Experimental testing was performed to validate the feasibility of the developed method for real robotic manipulation.

  13. Graphene - a rather ordinary nonlinear optical material

    khurgin, Jacob B

    2014-01-01

    An analytical expression for the nonlinear refractive index of graphene has been derived and used to obtain the performance metrics of third order nonlinear devices using graphene as a nonlinear medium. None of the metrics is found to be superior to the existing nonlinear optical materials.

  14. Nonlinear Image Formation by Optical Superlattices

    Yang, Bo; Lu, Rong-Er; Yue, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The angular spectrum theory is applied to the nonlinear harmonic generation process in optical superlattices. Several explicit and analytical structure functions are deduced to design optical superlattices for various purposes. Employing this method, nonlinear image formation is achieved during the second-harmonic generation process in a properly designed optical superlattice. This method is universal for both nonlinear beam shaping and nonlinear arbitrary image formation. The theory has been experimentally validated in two-dimensional optical superlattice of LiTaO3 crystals and the results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work not only extends the application of optical superlattices, but also opens a new area for imaging technologies.

  15. 3D printed sensing patches with embedded polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings

    Zubel, Michal G.; Sugden, Kate; Saez-Rodriguez, D.; Nielsen, K.; Bang, O.

    2016-05-01

    The first demonstration of a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating (POFBG) embedded in a 3-D printed structure is reported. Its cyclic strain performance and temperature characteristics are examined and discussed. The sensing patch has a repeatable strain sensitivity of 0.38 pm/μepsilon. Its temperature behaviour is unstable, with temperature sensitivity values varying between 30-40 pm/°C.

  16. Lensfree Optical Tomography for High-Throughput 3D Imaging on a Chip

    ISIKMAN, SERHAN OMER

    2012-01-01

    Light microscopes provide us with the key to observe objects that are orders of magnitude smaller than what the unaided eye can see. Therefore, microscopy has been the cornerstone of science and medicine for centuries. Recently, optical microscopy has seen a growing interest in developing three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques that enable sectional imaging of biological specimen. These imaging techniques, however, are generally quite complex, bulky and expensive in addition to having a lim...

  17. Measurement of abrasion of artificial cotyles using 3D optical scanning topography

    Mandát, Dušan; Nožka, Libor; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Bartoněk, L.

    Zagreb: Croatian Society of Mechanics, 2004 - (Jecic, S.; Semenski, D.), s. 92-93 ISBN 953-96243-6-3. [DANUBIA-ADRIA Symposium on Experimental Methods in Solid Mechanics /21./. Brijuni - Pula (HR), 29.09.2004-02.10.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Grant ostatní: GA-(CZ) FRVŠ48/2004 Keywords : profilometry * 3D topography * cotyle * VRML language Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  18. Development of a 3D finite element model evaluating air-coupled ultrasonic measurements of nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    Uhrig, Matthias P.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2016-02-01

    This research presents a 3D numerical finite element (FE) model which, previously developed, precisely simulates non-contact, air-coupled measurements of nonlinear Rayleigh wave propagation. The commercial FE-solver ABAQUS is used to perform the simulations. First, frequency dependent pressure wave attenuation is investigated numerically to reconstruct the sound pressure distribution along the active surface of the non-contact receiver. Second, constitutive law and excitation source properties are optimized to match nonlinear ultrasonic experimental data. Finally, the FE-model data are fit with analytical solutions showing a good agreement and thus, indicating the significance of the study performed.

  19. Performance of a commercial optical CT scanner and polymer gel dosimeters for 3-D dose verification

    Performance analysis of a commercial three-dimensional (3-D) dose mapping system based on optical CT scanning of polymer gels is presented. The system consists of BANGreg3 polymer gels (MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT), OCTOPUSTM laser CT scanner (MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT), and an in-house developed software for optical CT image reconstruction and 3-D dose distribution comparison between the gel, film measurements and the radiation therapy treatment plans. Various sources of image noise (digitization, electronic, optical, and mechanical) generated by the scanner as well as optical uniformity of the polymer gel are analyzed. The performance of the scanner is further evaluated in terms of the reproducibility of the data acquisition process, the uncertainties at different levels of reconstructed optical density per unit length and the effects of scanning parameters. It is demonstrated that for BANGregistered3 gel phantoms held in cylindrical plastic containers, the relative dose distribution can be reproduced by the scanner with an overall uncertainty of about 3% within approximately 75% of the radius of the container. In regions located closer to the container wall, however, the scanner generates erroneous optical density values that arise from the reflection and refraction of the laser rays at the interface between the gel and the container. The analysis of the accuracy of the polymer gel dosimeter is exemplified by the comparison of the gel/OCT-derived dose distributions with those from film measurements and a commercial treatment planning system (Cadplan, Varian Corporation, Palo Alto, CA) for a 6 cmx6 cm single field of 6 MV x rays and a 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) plan. The gel measurements agree with the treatment plans and the film measurements within the '3%-or-2 mm' criterion throughout the usable, artifact-free central region of the gel volume. Discrepancies among the three data sets are analyzed

  20. WARP3D-Release 10.8: Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Solids using a Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Software Architecture

    Koppenhoefer, Kyle C.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Ruggieri, Claudio; Dodds, Robert H., Jr.; Healy, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes theoretical background material and commands necessary to use the WARP3D finite element code. WARP3D is under continuing development as a research code for the solution of very large-scale, 3-D solid models subjected to static and dynamic loads. Specific features in the code oriented toward the investigation of ductile fracture in metals include a robust finite strain formulation, a general J-integral computation facility (with inertia, face loading), an element extinction facility to model crack growth, nonlinear material models including viscoplastic effects, and the Gurson-Tver-gaard dilatant plasticity model for void growth. The nonlinear, dynamic equilibrium equations are solved using an incremental-iterative, implicit formulation with full Newton iterations to eliminate residual nodal forces. The history integration of the nonlinear equations of motion is accomplished with Newmarks Beta method. A central feature of WARP3D involves the use of a linear-preconditioned conjugate gradient (LPCG) solver implemented in an element-by-element format to replace a conventional direct linear equation solver. This software architecture dramatically reduces both the memory requirements and CPU time for very large, nonlinear solid models since formation of the assembled (dynamic) stiffness matrix is avoided. Analyses thus exhibit the numerical stability for large time (load) steps provided by the implicit formulation coupled with the low memory requirements characteristic of an explicit code. In addition to the much lower memory requirements of the LPCG solver, the CPU time required for solution of the linear equations during each Newton iteration is generally one-half or less of the CPU time required for a traditional direct solver. All other computational aspects of the code (element stiffnesses, element strains, stress updating, element internal forces) are implemented in the element-by- element, blocked architecture. This greatly improves

  1. Nonlinear Characterization of Breast Cancer using Multi-Compression 3D Ultrasound Elastography In Vivo

    Sayed, Ahmed; Layne, Ginger; Abraham, Jame; Mukdadi, Osama

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to introduce a new nonlinear elastography based classification method for human breast masses. Multi-compression elastography imaging is elucidated in this study to differentiate malignant from benign lesions, based on their nonlinear mechanical behavior under compression. Three classification parameters were used and compared in this work: a new nonlinear parameter based on a power-law behavior of the strain difference between breast masses and healthy t...

  2. Minimizing camera-eye optical aberrations during the 3D reconstruction of retinal structures

    Aldana-Iuit, Javier; Martinez-Perez, M. Elena; Espinosa-Romero, Arturo; Diaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2010-05-01

    3D reconstruction of blood vessels is a powerful visualization tool for physicians, since it allows them to refer to qualitative representation of their subject of study. In this paper we propose a 3D reconstruction method of retinal vessels from fundus images. The reconstruction method propose herein uses images of the same retinal structure in epipolar geometry. Images are preprocessed by RISA system for segmenting blood vessels and obtaining feature points for correspondences. The correspondence points process is solved using correlation. The LMedS analysis and Graph Transformation Matching algorithm are used for outliers suppression. Camera projection matrices are computed with the normalized eight point algorithm. Finally, we retrieve 3D position of the retinal tree points by linear triangulation. In order to increase the power of visualization, 3D tree skeletons are represented by surfaces via generalized cylinders whose radius correspond to morphological measurements obtained by RISA. In this paper the complete calibration process including the fundus camera and the optical properties of the eye, the so called camera-eye system is proposed. On one hand, the internal parameters of the fundus camera are obtained by classical algorithms using a reference pattern. On the other hand, we minimize the undesirable efects of the aberrations induced by the eyeball optical system assuming that contact enlarging lens corrects astigmatism, spherical and coma aberrations are reduced changing the aperture size and eye refractive errors are suppressed adjusting camera focus during image acquisition. Evaluation of two self-calibration proposals and results of 3D blood vessel surface reconstruction are presented.

  3. CMOS array of photodiodes with electronic processing for 3D optical reconstruction

    Hornero, Gemma; Montane, Enric; Chapinal, Genis; Moreno, Mauricio; Herms, Atila

    2001-04-01

    It is well known that laser time-of-flight (TOF) and optical triangulation are the most useful optical techniques for distance measurements. The first one is more suitable for large distances, since for short range of distances high modulation frequencies of laser diodes (©200-500MHz) are needed. For these ranges, optical triangulation is simpler, as it is only necessary to read the projection of the laser point over a linear optical sensor without any laser modulation. Laser triangulation is based on the rotation of the object. This motion shifts the projected point over the linear sensor, resulting on 3D information, by means of the whole readout of the linear sensor in each angle position. On the other hand, a hybrid method of triangulation and TOF can be implemented. In this case, a synchronized scanning of a laser beam over the object results in different arrival times of light to each pixel. The 3D information is carried by these delays. Only a single readout of the linear sensor is needed. In this work we present the design of two different linear arrays of photodiodes in CMOS technology, the first one based on the Optical triangulation measurement and the second one based in this hybrid method (TFO). In contrast to PSD (Position Sensitive Device) and CCDs, CMOS technology can include, on the same chip, photodiodes, control and processing electronics, that in the other cases should be implemented with external microcontrollers.

  4. Nanoplasmonic solution for nonlinear optics

    Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg;

    2014-01-01

    spectrum for the silicon dioxide cladding. The blue, cyan and magenta curves correspond to the transmission spectra for the gold waveguides with the width of 10 μm and length of 2, 3, and 4 mm.The polarization of laser beam was tuned to match the transverse magnetic mode of surface plasmonpolaritons in the...... is being under investigation in recent years [3].The purpose of our research is to study nonlinear optical properties of gold waveguides embedded intodielectric medium (silicon dioxide) using picosecond laser spectroscopy. The work includes modeling ofoptical properties of gold waveguides......, fabrication of prototype samples, and optical characterization ofsamples using a picosecond laser source.The prototype samples of gold waveguides embedded into silicon dioxide were fabricated at DTUDanchip. A silicon wafer with pre-made 6.5 μm layer of silicon dioxide was used as a substrate and...

  5. The quantum theory of nonlinear optics

    Drummond, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Playing a prominent role in communications, quantum science and laser physics, quantum nonlinear optics is an increasingly important field. This book presents a self-contained treatment of field quantization and covers topics such as the canonical formalism for fields, phase-space representations and the encompassing problem of quantization of electrodynamics in linear and nonlinear media. Starting with a summary of classical nonlinear optics, it then explains in detail the calculation techniques for quantum nonlinear optical systems and their applications, quantum and classical noise sources in optical fibers and applications of nonlinear optics to quantum information science. Supplemented by end-of-chapter exercises and detailed examples of calculation techniques in different systems, this book is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, condensed matter physics, quantum information and atomic physics. A solid foundation in quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamic...

  6. Block matching 3D random noise filtering for absorption optical projection tomography

    Fumene Feruglio, P; Vinegoni, C; Weissleder, R [Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Gros, J [Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston MA 02115 (United States); Sbarbati, A, E-mail: cvinegoni@mgh.harvard.ed [Department of Morphological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2010-09-21

    Absorption and emission optical projection tomography (OPT), alternatively referred to as optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical-emission computed tomography (optical-ECT), are recently developed three-dimensional imaging techniques with value for developmental biology and ex vivo gene expression studies. The techniques' principles are similar to the ones used for x-ray computed tomography and are based on the approximation of negligible light scattering in optically cleared samples. The optical clearing is achieved by a chemical procedure which aims at substituting the cellular fluids within the sample with a cell membranes' index matching solution. Once cleared the sample presents very low scattering and is then illuminated with a light collimated beam whose intensity is captured in transillumination mode by a CCD camera. Different projection images of the sample are subsequently obtained over a 360{sup 0} full rotation, and a standard backprojection algorithm can be used in a similar fashion as for x-ray tomography in order to obtain absorption maps. Because not all biological samples present significant absorption contrast, it is not always possible to obtain projections with a good signal-to-noise ratio, a condition necessary to achieve high-quality tomographic reconstructions. Such is the case for example, for early stage's embryos. In this work we demonstrate how, through the use of a random noise removal algorithm, the image quality of the reconstructions can be considerably improved even when the noise is strongly present in the acquired projections. Specifically, we implemented a block matching 3D (BM3D) filter applying it separately on each acquired transillumination projection before performing a complete three-dimensional tomographical reconstruction. To test the efficiency of the adopted filtering scheme, a phantom and a real biological sample were processed. In both cases, the BM3D filter led to a signal-to-noise ratio

  7. Nonlinear optical response in higher fullerenes

    Harigaya, K.

    1997-01-01

    Nonlinear optical properties of extracted higher fullerenes - C70, C76, C78, and C84 - are theoretically investigated. Magnitudes of off-resonant third-harmonic-generation are calculated by the intermediate exciton theory. We find that optical nonlinearities of higher fullerenes are a few times larger than those of C60. The magnitudes of nonlinearity tend to increase as the optical gap decreases in higher fullerenes.

  8. 3D optical printing of piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials.

    Kim, Kanguk; Zhu, Wei; Qu, Xin; Aaronson, Chase; McCall, William R; Chen, Shaochen; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    Here we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be optically printed into three-dimensional (3D) microstructures using digital projection printing. Piezoelectric polymers were fabricated by incorporating barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO) nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate and exposing to digital optical masks that could be dynamically altered to generate user-defined 3D microstructures. To enhance the mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the composites, the BTO nanoparticles were chemically modified with acrylate surface groups, which formed direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. The composites with a 10% mass loading of the chemically modified BTO nanoparticles showed piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)) of ∼ 40 pC/N, which were over 10 times larger than composites synthesized with unmodified BTO nanoparticles and over 2 times larger than composites containing unmodified BTO nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes to boost mechanical stress transfer efficiencies. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but lay the groundwork for creating highly efficient piezoelectric polymer materials via nanointerfacial tuning. PMID:25046646

  9. Fast error simulation of optical 3D measurements at translucent objects

    Lutzke, P.; Kühmstedt, P.; Notni, G.

    2012-09-01

    The scan results of optical 3D measurements at translucent objects deviate from the real objects surface. This error is caused by the fact that light is scattered in the objects volume and is not exclusively reflected at its surface. A few approaches were made to separate the surface reflected light from the volume scattered. For smooth objects the surface reflected light is dominantly concentrated in specular direction and could only be observed from a point in this direction. Thus the separation either leads to measurement results only creating data for near specular directions or provides data from not well separated areas. To ensure the flexibility and precision of optical 3D measurement systems for translucent materials it is necessary to enhance the understanding of the error forming process. For this purpose a technique for simulating the 3D measurement at translucent objects is presented. A simple error model is shortly outlined and extended to an efficient simulation environment based upon ordinary raytracing methods. In comparison the results of a Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. Only a few material and object parameters are needed for the raytracing simulation approach. The attempt of in-system collection of these material and object specific parameters is illustrated. The main concept of developing an error-compensation method based on the simulation environment and the collected parameters is described. The complete procedure is using both, the surface reflected and the volume scattered light for further processing.

  10. Stereoscopic particle tracking for 3D touch, vision and closed-loop control in optical tweezers

    Force measurement in an interactive 3D micromanipulation system can allow the user to make delicate adjustments, and to explore surfaces with touch as well as vision. We present a system to achieve this on the micron scale using stereoscopic particle tracking combined with holographic optical tweezers, which can track particles with nanometre accuracy. 2D tracking of particles in each of the stereo images gives 3D positions for each particle. This takes less than 200 µs per image pair, using a 1D 'symmetry transform' applied to each row and column of a 2D image, which can maintain tracking of particles throughout the 10 µm axial range. The only parameters required are the geometry of the imaging system, and therefore there is no need to recalibrate for different particle sizes or refractive indices. Consequently, we can calculate the force exerted by the optical trap in real time at 1 kilohertz, allowing us to implement a force-feedback interface (with a loop rate of 400 Hz). In combination with our OpenGL hologram calculation engine, the system has a closed-loop bandwidth of 20 Hz. This allows us to stabilize trapped particles axially through active feedback, cancelling out some Brownian motion. For the weak traps we use here (spring constant k≈2 pN µm−1), this results in a threefold increase in axial stiffness. We demonstrate the 3D interface by probing an oil droplet, mapping out its surface in the y–z plane

  11. Progress in the Peeling-Ballooning Model of ELMs: Numerical Studies of 3D Nonlinear ELM Dynamics

    Snyder, P B; Wilson, H R; Xu, X Q

    2004-12-13

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the non-linear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outer wall. Similarities to non-linear linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.

  12. PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 3D NONLINEAR ELM DYNAMICS

    SNYDER,P.B; WILSON,H.R; XU,X.Q

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the nonlinear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outboard wall. Similarities to non-linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.

  13. PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 3D NONLINEAR ELM DYNAMICS

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the nonlinear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outboard wall. Similarities to non-linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed

  14. Nonlinear optics: Fundamentals, materials and devices

    The field of nonlinear optics developed gradually with the invention of lasers. After discovery of second-harmonic generation in quartz, many other interesting nonlinear optical processes were rapidly discovered. Theoretical programmes for understanding nonlinear optical phenomena were stimulated simultaneously in accordance to develop structure-property relationships. In the beginning research advances were made on inorganic ferroelectric material followed by semiconductors. In the 1970's the importance of organic materials was realised because of their nonlinear optical responses, fast optical response, high laser damage thresholds, architectural flexibility, and ease of fabrication. At present materials can be classified into three categories: inorganic ferroelectrics, semiconductors, and organic materials. Advances have also been made in quantum chemistry approaches to investigate nonlinear optical susceptibilities and in the development of novel nonlinear optical devices. Generally, inorganic and organic nonlinear optical materials and their related optical processes are reported in separate meetings. This book collects papers covering recent developments and areas of present research in the field of nonlinear optical materials

  15. Architectures and algorithms for all-optical 3D signal processing

    Giglmayr, Josef

    1999-07-01

    All-optical signal processing by >= 2D lightwave circuits (LCs) is (i) aimed to allow the (later) inclusion of the frequency domain and is (ii) subject to photonic integration and thus the architectural and algorithmic framework has to be prepared carefully. Much work has been done in >= 2D algebraic system theory/modern control theory which has been applied in the electronic field of signal and image processing. For the application to modeling, analysis and design of the proposed 3D lightwave circuits (LCs) some elements are needed to describe and evalute the system efficiency as the number of system states of 3D LCs increases dramatically with regard to the number of i/o. Several problems, arising throughput such an attempt, are made transparent and solutions are proposed.

  16. Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method

    Guerrero, Thomas [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Zhang, Geoffrey [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Huang Tzungchi [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Lin Kaping [Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung-Yuan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2004-09-07

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction.

  17. Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method

    Guerrero, Thomas; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Presented at The IASTED Second International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMED 2004), Innsbruck, Austria, 16-18 February 2004.

  18. Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction

  19. On Nonlinear Stability Theorems of 3D Quasi-geostrophic Flow

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear stability criteria for quasi-geostrophic zonally symmetric flow are improved by establishing an invariant of zonal momentum. When applied to the Eady model in a periodic channel with finite zonal length, the improved nonlinear stability criterion is identical to the linear normal-mode stability criterion provided the channel meridional width is no greater than 0.8605... times its channel length (which is the geophysically relevant case).

  20. Nonlinear 3-D beam/connector finite element with warping for a glulam dome

    Kavi, Sandeep A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study are to incorporate Saint-Venant's torsion solution in the analysis of a glulam dome with ABAQUS to include warping of rectangular beams, and to model the nonlinear beam/decking connectors (nails) of the dome in order to develop an effective finite element model of the glulam dome for investigating its ultimate load capacity. The shear modulus is modified to include warping of the beams. The nonlinear connector is defined through a user-c...

  1. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  2. Holey optical fibres for high nonlinearity devices

    Belardi, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a novel type of optical fibre, namely holey optical fibre (HF), for its specific incorporation in optical devices based on fibre nonlinearity. The development of the fabrication technique to produce such a fibre is discussed, and the fibres produced are characterized and used in device applications, proving the advantages of HF technology in the implementation of highly nonlinear optical devices, as well as showing its limitations. The initial fabricat...

  3. Nonlinear analysis of chaotic flow in a 3D closed-loop pulsating heat pipe

    Pouryoussefi, S M

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulation has been conducted for the chaotic flow in a 3D closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (PHP). Heat flux and constant temperature boundary conditions were applied for evaporator and condenser sections, respectively. Water and ethanol were used as working fluids. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method has been employed for two-phase flow simulation. Spectral analysis of temperature time series was carried out using Power Spectrum Density (PSD) method. Existence of dominant peak in PSD diagram indicated periodic or quasi-periodic behavior in temperature oscillations at particular frequencies. Correlation dimension values for ethanol as working fluid was found to be higher than that for water under the same operating conditions. Similar range of Lyapunov exponent values for the PHP with water and ethanol as working fluids indicated strong dependency of Lyapunov exponent to the structure and dimensions of the PHP. An O-ring structure pattern was obtained for reconstructed 3D attractor at periodic or quasi-peri...

  4. Asymptotic Behavior of the 3D Compressible Euler Equations with Nonlinear Damping and Slip Boundary Condition

    Huimin Yu

    2012-01-01

    The asymptotic behavior (as well as the global existence) of classical solutions to the 3D compressible Euler equations are considered. For polytropic perfect gas $(P(\\rho )={P}_{0}{\\rho }^{\\gamma })$ , time asymptotically, it has been proved by Pan and Zhao (2009) that linear damping and slip boundary effect make the density satisfying the porous medium equation and the momentum obeying the classical Darcy's law. In this paper, we use a more general method and extend this resu...

  5. Optical tomographic in-air scanner for external radiation beam 3D gel dosimetry

    Full text: Optical CT scanners are used to measure 3D radiation dose distributions in radiosensitive gels. For radiotherapy dose verification, 3D dose measurements are useful for verification of complex linear accelerator treatment planning and delivery techniques. Presently optical CTs require the use of a liquid bath to match the refractive index of the gel to minimise refraction of the light rays leading to distortion and artifacts. This work aims to develop a technique for scanning gel samples in free-air, without the requirement for a matching liquid bath. The scanner uses a He-Ne laser beam, fanned across the acrylic cylindrical gel container by a rotating mirror. The gel container was designed to produce parallel light ray paths through the gel. A pin phantom was used to quantify geometrical distortion of the reconstructed image, while uniform field exposures were used to consider noise, uniformity and artifacts. Small diameter wires provided an indication of the spatial resolution of the scanner. Pin phantom scans show geometrical distortion comparable to scanners using matching fluid baths. Noise, uniformity and artifacts were not found to be major limitations for this scanner approach. Spatial resolution was limited by laser beam spot size, typically 0.4 mm full width half maximum. A free-air optical CT scanner has been developed with the advantage of scanning without a matching fluid bath. Test results show it has potential to provide suitable quality 3D dosimetry measurements for external beam dose verification, while offering significant advantages in convenience and efficiency for routine use.

  6. Measuring nonlinear stresses generated by defects in 3D colloidal crystals

    Lin, Neil Y C; Schall, Peter; Sethna, James P; Cohen, Itai

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical, structural and functional properties of crystals are determined by their defects and the distribution of stresses surrounding these defects has broad implications for the understanding of transport phenomena. When the defect density rises to levels routinely found in real-world materials, transport is governed by local stresses that are predominantly nonlinear. Such stress fields however, cannot be measured using conventional bulk and local measurement techniques. Here, we report direct and spatially resolved experimental measurements of the nonlinear stresses surrounding colloidal crystalline defect cores, and show that the stresses at vacancy cores generate attractive interactions between them. We also directly visualize the softening of crystalline regions surrounding dislocation cores, and find that stress fluctuations in quiescent polycrystals are uniformly distributed rather than localized at grain boundaries, as is the case in strained atomic polycrystals. Nonlinear stress measurements ...

  7. Optical scanning of dusty 3D-structures formed in a glow discharge

    Karasev, V. Yu.; Dzlieva, E. S.; Ivanov, A. Yu.; Éĭkhval'D, A. I.; Golubev, M. V.

    2009-06-01

    3D-quasi-crystals formed in strata of a glow discharge are scanned in the optical range with the help of a moving laser knife and high-speed videorecording. The spatial positions of dusty grains are determined. The ordering of structures and the type of arrangement of particles are determined from a comparison of pair correlation functions constructed for the structures under study with correlation functions corresponding to ideal crystalline structures. Several types of unit cells are found through the visual collation of separate parts of structures. As compared to data from the literature on experiments in a high-frequency discharge, the structures under study have a clearly pronounced anisotropy.

  8. New light sources and sensors for active optical 3D inspection

    Osten, Wolfgang; Jueptner, Werner P. O.

    1999-11-01

    The implementation of active processing strategies in optical 3D-inspection needs the availability of flexible hardware solutions. The system components illumination and sensor/detector are actively involved in the processing chain by a feedback loop that is controlled by the evaluation process. Therefore this article deals with new light sources and sensor which appeared recently on the market and can be applied successfully for the implementation of active processing principles. Some applications where such new components are used to implement an active measurement strategy are presented.

  9. Quantification of smoothing requirement for 3D optic flow calculation of volumetric images

    Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; Tennakoon, Ruwan B.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2013-01-01

    Complexities of dynamic volumetric imaging challenge the available computer vision techniques on a number of different fronts. This paper examines the relationship between the estimation accuracy and required amount of smoothness for a general solution from a robust statistics perspective. We show...... that a (surprisingly) small amount of local smoothing is required to satisfy both the necessary and sufficient conditions for accurate optic flow estimation. This notion is called 'just enough' smoothing, and its proper implementation has a profound effect on the preservation of local information in processing 3D...

  10. Ultra-compact on-chip LED collimation optics by 3D femtosecond direct laser writing.

    Thiele, Simon; Gissibl, Timo; Giessen, Harald; Herkommer, Alois M

    2016-07-01

    By using two-photon lithographic 3D printing, we demonstrate additive manufacturing of a dielectric concentrator directly on a LED chip. With a size of below 200 μm in diameter and length, light output is increased by a factor of 6.2 in collimation direction, while the emission half-angle is reduced by 50%. We measure excellent form fidelity and irradiance patterns close to simulation. Additionally, a more complex shape design is presented, which exhibits a nonconventional triangular illumination pattern. The introduced method features exceptional design freedoms which can be used to tailor high-quality miniature illumination optics for specific lighting tasks, for example, endoscopy. PMID:27367093

  11. Shot noise limit of the optical 3D measurement methods for smooth surfaces

    The measurement uncertainty of optical 3D measurement methods for smooth surfaces caused by shot noise is investigated. The shot noise is a fundamental property of the quantum nature of light. If all noise sources are eliminated, the shot noise represents the ultimate limit of the measurement uncertainty. The measurement uncertainty is calculated for several simple model methods. The analysis shows that the measurement uncertainty depends on the wavelength of used light, the number of photons used for the measurement, and on a factor that is connected with the geometric arrangement of the measurement setup. (paper)

  12. Time-reversal symmetry in nonlinear optics

    Trzeciecki, M.; Hübner, W.

    2000-01-01

    The applicability of time-reversal symmetry to nonlinear optics is discussed, both from macroscopic (Maxwell equations) and microscopic (quantum theoretical) point of view. We find that only spatial operations can be applied for the symmetry classification of nonlinear optical processes in magnetic, in particular antiferromagnetic, materials. An example is given where both operations (time reversal and a spatial operation) can yield different results.

  13. Diffractive 3D XUV optics at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, recent developments

    Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Firsov, Alexander; Erko, Alexei

    2014-09-01

    The 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional variable line spacing (VLS) gratings based on total external reflection give the unique possibility for spectroscopy and focusing in application to 4th and 5th generation synchrotron sources. We focus on the elaboration of novel approaches for design and fabrication of 3D VLS working in the entire energy range, from THz to hard X-rays. These optical elements have unique combination of properties and can operate at all XUV sources including Free Electron Lasers (FELs), Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and High Harmonic Generators (HHGs). Such 3D DOEs are able to cover the energy range of up to 20 keV with energy resolution λ/Δλ ≥ 1000 for soft x-ray and λ/Δλ ≥ 10000 for hard x-ray. We fabricate 3D VLS for time-resolved spectroscopy (energy range 100 - 2000 eV, 7500-9500 eV), FELs and ERLs (energy range up to 3 keV), and HHGs (energy range 10 - 200 eV).

  14. Polymer optical fibers integrated directly into 3D orthogonal woven composites for sensing

    This study demonstrates that standard polymer optical fibers (POF) can be directly integrated into composites from 3D orthogonal woven preforms during the weaving process and then serve as in-situ sensors to detect damage due to bending or impact loads. Different composite samples with embedded POF were fabricated of 3D orthogonal woven composites with different parameters namely number of y-/x-layers and x-yarn density. The signal of POF was not affected significantly by the preform structure. During application of resin using VARTM technique, significant drop in backscattering level was observed due to pressure caused by vacuum on the embedded POF. Measurements of POF signal while in the final composites after resin cure indicated that the backscattering level almost returned to the original level of un-embedded POF. The POF responded to application of bending and impact loads to the composite with a reduction in the backscattering level. The backscattering level almost returned back to its original level after removing the bending load until damage was present in the composite. Similar behavior occurred due to impact events. As the POF itself is used as the sensor and can be integrated throughout the composite, large sections of future 3D woven composite structures could be monitored without the need for specialized sensors or complex instrumentation. (paper)

  15. 3D optical sectioning with a new hyperspectral confocal fluorescence imaging system.

    Nieman, Linda T.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bachand, George David; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2007-02-01

    A novel hyperspectral fluorescence microscope for high-resolution 3D optical sectioning of cells and other structures has been designed, constructed, and used to investigate a number of different problems. We have significantly extended new multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis methods to deconvolve the hyperspectral image data and to rapidly extract quantitative 3D concentration distribution maps of all emitting species. The imaging system has many advantages over current confocal imaging systems including simultaneous monitoring of numerous highly overlapped fluorophores, immunity to autofluorescence or impurity fluorescence, enhanced sensitivity, and dramatically improved accuracy, reliability, and dynamic range. Efficient data compression in the spectral dimension has allowed personal computers to perform quantitative analysis of hyperspectral images of large size without loss of image quality. We have also developed and tested software to perform analysis of time resolved hyperspectral images using trilinear multivariate analysis methods. The new imaging system is an enabling technology for numerous applications including (1) 3D composition mapping analysis of multicomponent processes occurring during host-pathogen interactions, (2) monitoring microfluidic processes, (3) imaging of molecular motors and (4) understanding photosynthetic processes in wild type and mutant Synechocystis cyanobacteria.

  16. Optical properties of 3d transition metal ion-doped sodium borosilicate glass

    Graphical abstract: Photographs of undoped (SiO2)50 (Na2O)25 (B2O3)25 (SiNaB) glass and transition metal ion-doped (TM)0.5 (SiO2)49.5 (Na2O)25 (B2O3)25 glass samples. - Highlights: • 3d transition metal ion (from Ti to Zn) doped SiO2-Na2O-B2O3 glasses. • Optical properties of doped glasses investigated. • V(IV,V); Cr(III, VI); Mn(II,III); Fe(II,III); Co(II); Ni(II); Cu(II) by XANES, DRS. • Strong visible absorption but only vanadium ion gives strong emission in glass. - Abstract: SiO2-Na2O-B2O3 glasses doped with 3d-transition metal species from Ti to Zn were prepared by the melting-quenching technique and their optical properties were investigated. The X-ray absorption near edge spectra of V, Cr, and Mn-doped glasses indicate that the oxidation states of V(IV, V), Cr(III, VI) and Mn(II, III) exist in the studied glasses. The oxidation states revealed from the diffuse reflectance spectra of the glasses are V(IV, V), Cr(III, VI), Mn(III), Fe(II, III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II). Most of the 3d transition element ions exhibit strong absorption in the visible spectral region in the glass. Under ultraviolet excitation, the undoped sodium borosilicate glass produces weak and broad emission, while doping of vanadium introduces strong and broad emission due to the V(V) charge transfer transition. Only weak emission is observed from Ti(IV), Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II), partly resulting from the strong electron–phonon coupling of the 3d-electrons and the relatively high phonon energy of the studied glass host, with the former leading to dominant nonradiative relaxation based on multiphonon processes for most of the 3d excited states

  17. Optical properties of 3d transition metal ion-doped sodium borosilicate glass

    Wen, Hongli [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Tanner, Peter A., E-mail: peter.a.tanner@gmail.com [Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, 10 Lo Ping Road, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Photographs of undoped (SiO{sub 2}){sub 50} (Na{sub 2}O){sub 25} (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 25} (SiNaB) glass and transition metal ion-doped (TM){sub 0.5} (SiO{sub 2}){sub 49.5} (Na{sub 2}O){sub 25} (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 25} glass samples. - Highlights: • 3d transition metal ion (from Ti to Zn) doped SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses. • Optical properties of doped glasses investigated. • V(IV,V); Cr(III, VI); Mn(II,III); Fe(II,III); Co(II); Ni(II); Cu(II) by XANES, DRS. • Strong visible absorption but only vanadium ion gives strong emission in glass. - Abstract: SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses doped with 3d-transition metal species from Ti to Zn were prepared by the melting-quenching technique and their optical properties were investigated. The X-ray absorption near edge spectra of V, Cr, and Mn-doped glasses indicate that the oxidation states of V(IV, V), Cr(III, VI) and Mn(II, III) exist in the studied glasses. The oxidation states revealed from the diffuse reflectance spectra of the glasses are V(IV, V), Cr(III, VI), Mn(III), Fe(II, III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II). Most of the 3d transition element ions exhibit strong absorption in the visible spectral region in the glass. Under ultraviolet excitation, the undoped sodium borosilicate glass produces weak and broad emission, while doping of vanadium introduces strong and broad emission due to the V(V) charge transfer transition. Only weak emission is observed from Ti(IV), Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II), partly resulting from the strong electron–phonon coupling of the 3d-electrons and the relatively high phonon energy of the studied glass host, with the former leading to dominant nonradiative relaxation based on multiphonon processes for most of the 3d excited states.

  18. A continuation method for computing non-linear 3-D free surface flows

    Petersson, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a pseudo-arclength continuation method for computing non-linear three-dimensional steady potential flow around a submerged body moving in a infinitely deep liquid at constant speed and distance below the free surface.

  19. Nonlinear 3D calculations of turbine blade impact on turbine cover

    This paper present the approach used at the VUJE institute for the evaluation of a ruptured blade impact on the current protection cover of a SKODA 220 MW turbine. Firstly, it briefly describes experiments (Hopkinson-Davies split bar facility, Taylor tests) and numerical simulations used to obtain realistic material parameters needed for the Cowper- Symonds material model that is implemented in the code LS-DYNA3D. Then, numerical simulations, by using the code, of the ruptured blade impact on various protection barriers are presented. These simulations make it possible to find an optimal solution for a new turbine protection cover. (author)

  20. Development of a nonlinear 3D solid finite element model for the calculation of bending moments of flexural members

    Jin Wencheng; Zhou Xiaoyong; Li Na

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model is developed in this paper to calculate the bending moments of flexural members through integration in 3D solid finite element analyses according to the nonlinear constitutive model of concrete and the elastoplastic constitutive model of steel, utilizing the stress condition of the cross-section, considering the destruction characteristic of reinforced concrete members, and based on the plane cross-section assumption. The results of this model give good agreement with those of the classical method. Consequently, we can also deduce the corresponding numerical expression for eccentrically loaded members according to the analysis method.

  1. Fabrication and optical properties of 3D composite photonic crystals of core-shell structures

    Liu Yanping [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yan Zhijun [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lan Wei [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Huang Chunming [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Yinyue [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)]. E-mail: wangyy@lzu.edu.cn

    2007-08-31

    Three-dimensional (3D) composite colloidal photonic crystals with SiO{sub 2} core and ZnO shell were fabricated on borosilicate glass (BSG) substrate by a two-stage deposition method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements show that both the pre-deposited SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/ZnO core-shell structures are oriented with their (1 1 1) axes parallel to the substrates. Optical measurement reveals that the periodic arrays exhibit a photonic band gap in the (1 1 1) direction. The optical properties of SiO{sub 2}/ZnO core-shell structures strongly depend on the size dispersions of colloidal spheres and the intrinsic defects in the sample.

  2. Dual wavelength optical CT scanning of anthropomorphic shaped 3D dosimeters

    To create an optical density map of 3D dosimeter phantoms, the ratio of the transmission profile (either a line or planar) acquired after irradiation of the dosimeter and a pre-irradiation reference scan of the same dosimeter phantom is taken. Any uncertainty in repositioning of the phantom may result in an uncertainty in the optical density map and finally also in the derived dose maps. Correct repositioning is paramount when scanning noncylindrical dosimeter phantoms as any repositioning error will give rise to severe imaging artifacts. We hereby propose a different scanning technique that does not require any repositioning of the dosimeter phantom. In this method, no pre-irradiation san is recorded but the dosimeter phantom is scanned twice with light at two different wavelengths. It is demonstrated that this method is accurate in scanning non-cylindrical anthropomorphic shaped phantoms

  3. Combining supine MRI and 3D optical scanning for improved surgical planning of breast conserving surgeries

    Pallone, Matthew J.; Poplack, Steven P.; Barth, Richard J., Jr.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-02-01

    Image-guided wire localization is the current standard of care for the excision of non-palpable carcinomas during breast conserving surgeries (BCS). The efficacy of this technique depends upon the accuracy of wire placement, maintenance of the fixed wire position (despite patient movement), and the surgeon's understanding of the spatial relationship between the wire and tumor. Notably, breast shape can vary significantly between the imaging and surgical positions. Despite this method of localization, re-excision is needed in approximately 30% of patients due to the proximity of cancer to the specimen margins. These limitations make wire localization an inefficient and imprecise procedure. Alternatively, we investigate a method of image registration and finite element (FE) deformation which correlates preoperative supine MRIs with 3D optical scans of the breast surface. MRI of the breast can accurately define the extents of very small cancers. Furthermore, supine breast MR reduces the amount of tissue deformation between the imaging and surgical positions. At the time of surgery, the surface contour of the breast may be imaged using a handheld 3D laser scanner. With the MR images segmented by tissue type, the two scans are approximately registered using fiducial markers present in both acquisitions. The segmented MRI breast volume is then deformed to match the optical surface using a FE mechanical model of breast tissue. The resulting images provide the surgeon with 3D views and measurements of the tumor shape, volume, and position within the breast as it appears during surgery which may improve surgical guidance and obviate the need for wire localization.

  4. Optical-CT 3D Dosimetry Using Fresnel Lenses with Minimal Refractive-Index Matching Fluid.

    Steven Bache

    Full Text Available Telecentric optical computed tomography (optical-CT is a state-of-the-art method for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional dose distributions in radiochromic dosimeters. In this work a prototype telecentric system (DFOS-Duke Fresnel Optical-CT Scanner is evaluated which incorporates two substantial design changes: the use of Fresnel lenses (reducing lens costs from $10-30K t0 $1-3K and the use of a 'solid tank' (which reduces noise, and the volume of refractively matched fluid from 1ltr to 10cc. The efficacy of DFOS was evaluated by direct comparison against commissioned scanners in our lab. Measured dose distributions from all systems were compared against the predicted dose distributions from a commissioned treatment planning system (TPS. Three treatment plans were investigated including a simple four-field box treatment, a multiple small field delivery, and a complex IMRT treatment. Dosimeters were imaged within 2h post irradiation, using consistent scanning techniques (360 projections acquired at 1 degree intervals, reconstruction at 2mm. DFOS efficacy was evaluated through inspection of dose line-profiles, and 2D and 3D dose and gamma maps. DFOS/TPS gamma pass rates with 3%/3mm dose difference/distance-to-agreement criteria ranged from 89.3% to 92.2%, compared to from 95.6% to 99.0% obtained with the commissioned system. The 3D gamma pass rate between the commissioned system and DFOS was 98.2%. The typical noise rates in DFOS reconstructions were up to 3%, compared to under 2% for the commissioned system. In conclusion, while the introduction of a solid tank proved advantageous with regards to cost and convenience, further work is required to improve the image quality and dose reconstruction accuracy of the new DFOS optical-CT system.

  5. Optical-CT 3D Dosimetry Using Fresnel Lenses with Minimal Refractive-Index Matching Fluid.

    Bache, Steven; Malcolm, Javian; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Telecentric optical computed tomography (optical-CT) is a state-of-the-art method for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional dose distributions in radiochromic dosimeters. In this work a prototype telecentric system (DFOS-Duke Fresnel Optical-CT Scanner) is evaluated which incorporates two substantial design changes: the use of Fresnel lenses (reducing lens costs from $10-30K t0 $1-3K) and the use of a 'solid tank' (which reduces noise, and the volume of refractively matched fluid from 1ltr to 10cc). The efficacy of DFOS was evaluated by direct comparison against commissioned scanners in our lab. Measured dose distributions from all systems were compared against the predicted dose distributions from a commissioned treatment planning system (TPS). Three treatment plans were investigated including a simple four-field box treatment, a multiple small field delivery, and a complex IMRT treatment. Dosimeters were imaged within 2h post irradiation, using consistent scanning techniques (360 projections acquired at 1 degree intervals, reconstruction at 2mm). DFOS efficacy was evaluated through inspection of dose line-profiles, and 2D and 3D dose and gamma maps. DFOS/TPS gamma pass rates with 3%/3mm dose difference/distance-to-agreement criteria ranged from 89.3% to 92.2%, compared to from 95.6% to 99.0% obtained with the commissioned system. The 3D gamma pass rate between the commissioned system and DFOS was 98.2%. The typical noise rates in DFOS reconstructions were up to 3%, compared to under 2% for the commissioned system. In conclusion, while the introduction of a solid tank proved advantageous with regards to cost and convenience, further work is required to improve the image quality and dose reconstruction accuracy of the new DFOS optical-CT system. PMID:27019460

  6. Optical-CT 3D Dosimetry Using Fresnel Lenses with Minimal Refractive-Index Matching Fluid

    Bache, Steven; Malcolm, Javian; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Telecentric optical computed tomography (optical-CT) is a state-of-the-art method for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional dose distributions in radiochromic dosimeters. In this work a prototype telecentric system (DFOS—Duke Fresnel Optical-CT Scanner) is evaluated which incorporates two substantial design changes: the use of Fresnel lenses (reducing lens costs from $10-30K t0 $1-3K) and the use of a ‘solid tank’ (which reduces noise, and the volume of refractively matched fluid from 1ltr to 10cc). The efficacy of DFOS was evaluated by direct comparison against commissioned scanners in our lab. Measured dose distributions from all systems were compared against the predicted dose distributions from a commissioned treatment planning system (TPS). Three treatment plans were investigated including a simple four-field box treatment, a multiple small field delivery, and a complex IMRT treatment. Dosimeters were imaged within 2h post irradiation, using consistent scanning techniques (360 projections acquired at 1 degree intervals, reconstruction at 2mm). DFOS efficacy was evaluated through inspection of dose line-profiles, and 2D and 3D dose and gamma maps. DFOS/TPS gamma pass rates with 3%/3mm dose difference/distance-to-agreement criteria ranged from 89.3% to 92.2%, compared to from 95.6% to 99.0% obtained with the commissioned system. The 3D gamma pass rate between the commissioned system and DFOS was 98.2%. The typical noise rates in DFOS reconstructions were up to 3%, compared to under 2% for the commissioned system. In conclusion, while the introduction of a solid tank proved advantageous with regards to cost and convenience, further work is required to improve the image quality and dose reconstruction accuracy of the new DFOS optical-CT system. PMID:27019460

  7. Improved Uav-Borne 3d Mapping by Fusing Optical and Laserscanner Data

    Jutzi, B.; Weinmann, M.; Meidow, J.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a new method for fusing optical and laserscanner data is presented for improved UAV-borne 3D mapping. We propose to equip an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a small platform which includes two sensors: a standard low-cost digital camera and a lightweight Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW laserscanning device (210 g without cable). Initially, a calibration is carried out for the utilized devices. This involves a geometric camera calibration and the estimation of the position and orientation offset between the two sensors by lever-arm and bore-sight calibration. Subsequently, a feature tracking is performed through the image sequence by considering extracted interest points as well as the projected 3D laser points. These 2D results are fused with the measured laser distances and fed into a bundle adjustment in order to obtain a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). It is demonstrated that an improvement in terms of precision for the pose estimation is derived by fusing optical and laserscanner data.

  8. Non-linear dynamic analysis of ancient masonry structures by 3D rigid block models

    Orduña, Agustin; Ayala, A. Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a formulation for non-linear dynamic analysis of unreinforced masonry structures using rigid block models. This procedure is akin to the distinct element family of methods, nevertheless, we assume that small displacements occur and, therefore, the formulation does not involve the search for new contacts between blocks. This proposal is also related to the rigid element method, although, in this case we use full three-dimensional models and a more robust interface formulation.

  9. Nonlinear Synchronization for Automatic Learning of 3D Pose Variability in Human Motion Sequences

    Mozerov M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A dense matching algorithm that solves the problem of synchronizing prerecorded human motion sequences, which show different speeds and accelerations, is proposed. The approach is based on minimization of MRF energy and solves the problem by using Dynamic Programming. Additionally, an optimal sequence is automatically selected from the input dataset to be a time-scale pattern for all other sequences. The paper utilizes an action specific model which automatically learns the variability of 3D human postures observed in a set of training sequences. The model is trained using the public CMU motion capture dataset for the walking action, and a mean walking performance is automatically learnt. Additionally, statistics about the observed variability of the postures and motion direction are also computed at each time step. The synchronized motion sequences are used to learn a model of human motion for action recognition and full-body tracking purposes.

  10. Fabrication of fully undercut ZnO-based photonic crystal membranes with 3D optical confinement

    Hoffmann, Sandro Phil; Albert, Maximilian; Meier, Cedrik

    2016-09-01

    For studying nonlinear photonics, a highly controllable emission of photons with specific properties is essential. Two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhCs) have proven to be an excellent candidate for manipulating photon emission due to resonator-based effects. Additionally, zinc oxide (ZnO) has high susceptibility coefficients and therefore shows pronounced nonlinear effects. However, in order to fabricate such a cavity, a fully undercut ZnO membrane is required, which is a challenging problem due to poor selectivity of the known etching chemistry for typical substrates such as sapphire or ZnO. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate and characterize fully undercut photonic crystal membranes based on a thin ZnO film sandwiched between two layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on silicon substrates, from the initial growth of the heterostructure throughout the entire fabrication process. This process leads to a fully undercut ZnO-based membrane with adjustable optical confinement in all three dimensions. Finally, photonic resonances within the tailored photonic band gap are achieved due to optimized PhC-design (in-plane) and total internal reflection in the z-direction. The presented approach enables a variety of photon based resonator structures in the UV regime for studying nonlinear effects, including photon-exciton coupling and all-optical switching.

  11. 3DTouch: A wearable 3D input device with an optical sensor and a 9-DOF inertial measurement unit

    Nguyen, Anh; Banic, Amy

    2014-01-01

    We present 3DTouch, a novel 3D wearable input device worn on the fingertip for 3D manipulation tasks. 3DTouch is designed to fill the missing gap of a 3D input device that is self-contained, mobile, and universally working across various 3D platforms. This paper presents a low-cost solution to designing and implementing such a device. Our approach relies on relative positioning technique using an optical laser sensor and a 9-DOF inertial measurement unit. 3DTouch is self-contained, and design...

  12. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-05-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing.

  13. Axial-Stereo 3-D Optical Metrology for Inner Profile of Pipes Using a Scanning Laser Endoscope

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Johnston, Richard S.; Melville, C. David; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-07-01

    As the rapid progress in the development of optoelectronic components and computational power, 3-D optical metrology becomes more and more popular in manufacturing and quality control due to its flexibility and high speed. However, most of the optical metrology methods are limited to external surfaces. This article proposed a new approach to measure tiny internal 3-D surfaces with a scanning fiber endoscope and axial-stereo vision algorithm. A dense, accurate point cloud of internally machined threads was generated to compare with its corresponding X-ray 3-D data as ground truth, and the quantification was analyzed by Iterative Closest Points algorithm.

  14. Landmark papers on photorefractive nonlinear optics

    Yeh, Pochi

    1995-01-01

    This book, intended for students, researchers and engineers, is a collection of classic papers on photorefractive nonlinear optics. Included are landmark papers on fundamental photorefractive phenomena, two-wave mixing, four-wave mixing, phase conjugators and resonators, material growth and physics, and applications in image processing, optical storage and optical computing.

  15. Ring for test of nonlinear integrable optics

    Valishev, A; Kashikhin, V; Danilov, V

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is a promising idea potentially opening the path towards achieving super high beam intensities in circular accelerators. Creation of a tune spread reaching 50% of the betatron tune would provide strong Landau damping and make the beam immune to instabilities. Recent theoretical work has identified a possible way to implement stable nonlinear optics by incorporating nonlinear focusing elements into a specially designed machine lattice. In this report we propose the design of a test accelerator for a proof-of-principle experiment. We discuss possible studies at the machine, requirements on the optics stability and sensitivity to imperfections.

  16. Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers

    Agger, Christian; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Thomsen, Carsten L.;

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a generic nonlinear coupling coefficient, η2 NL ¼ ηjγ=β2jfiber2=jγ=β2jfiber1, which gives a quantitative measure for the efficiency of nonlinear matching of optical fibers by describing how a fundamental soliton couples from one fiber into another. Specifically, we use η......NL to demonstrate a significant soliton selffrequency shift of a fundamental soliton, and we show that nonlinear matching can take precedence over linear mode matching. The nonlinear coupling coefficient depends on both the dispersion (β2) and nonlinearity (γ), as well as on the power coupling...

  17. 3D simulations of supernova remnants evolution including non-linear particle acceleration

    Ferrand, Gilles; Ballet, Jean; Teyssier, Romain; Fraschetti, Federico

    2009-01-01

    If a sizeable fraction of the energy of supernova remnant shocks is channeled into energetic particles (commonly identified with Galactic cosmic rays), then the morphological evolution of the remnants must be distinctly modified. Evidence of such modifications has been recently obtained with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray satellites. To investigate these effects, we coupled a semi-analytical kinetic model of shock acceleration with a 3D hydrodynamic code (by means of an effective adiabatic index). This enables us to study the time-dependent compression of the region between the forward and reverse shocks due to the back reaction of accelerated particles, concomitantly with the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability at the contact discontinuity. Density profiles depend critically on the injection level eta of particles: for eta up to about 10^-4 modifications are weak and progressive, for eta of the order of 10^-3 modifications are strong and immediate. Nevertheless, the extension of the...

  18. Simulation of 3D tumor cell growth using nonlinear finite element method.

    Dong, Shoubing; Yan, Yannan; Tang, Liqun; Meng, Junping; Jiang, Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel parallel computing framework for a nonlinear finite element method (FEM)-based cell model and apply it to simulate avascular tumor growth. We derive computation formulas to simplify the simulation and design the basic algorithms. With the increment of the proliferation generations of tumor cells, the FEM elements may become larger and more distorted. Then, we describe a remesh and refinement processing of the distorted or over large finite elements and the parallel implementation based on Message Passing Interface to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the simulation. We demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the FEM model and the parallelization methods in simulations of early tumor growth. PMID:26213205

  19. Nonlinear stability analysis of 3D Couette flow considering energy transfer conservation

    The transition from laminar plane Couette flow to intermittency is studied within a 108-dimensional Galerkin representation of Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire modes. A distinct transient behaviour is found in the Reynolds number region 325≤R≤350. The results also confirm the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in the intermittency regime as recently found in a higher-dimensional function space. As a crucial point, the conservation of the overall energy-transfer rate is rigorously implemented by renormalizing the nonlinear coefficients of the Galerkin system. As a consequence, there are no runaway trajectories in the cut-off system considered. Surprisingly, further consistency conditions were found in the quadratic terms of the time derivative of the kinetic energy. After they have been taken into account by the renormalization, a quantitatively good fulfillment of the energy balances is achieved

  20. A 3D optical head motion measurement system and its primary application in stereotactic radiosurgery

    Head motion is a significant source of therapy-effect degradation in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). In this study, a 3D optical head motion measurement system with a precision less than 0.1 mm has been developed by our group. During the clinical SRS treatment experiments, three dimensional (3D) positions of infrared light emission diode (ILED) markers on the head-chin, nose tip, forehead and ear were measured with a data sampling rate of once per second for 30 minutes, in frame and frameless sessions, respectively, by this system. The t-test and linear correlation analysis have been used, and the results indicate that the difference of head motion with moldable thermoplastic frame on and without frame was highly statistically significant (p<0.01), and the fixation of the moldable thermoplastic frame in X axial direction (defined in local treatment-couch coordinate system) needs to be reinforced to realize better fixation effect for high degree of treatment precision. It is also shown that the head motion was mainly due to the rotation about the occiput-couch contact point, however, the chin is the most easily movable area on the head. The result implies that in the newly developing frameless SRS treatment, the landmarkers should be attached to the relatively static areas such as forehead and ear. (author)

  1. Numerical and Experimental Verification of a 3D Quasi-Optical System

    Zejian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modular and efficient Gaussian beam (GB analysis method, incorporating frame-based Gabor transformation, GB reflection, and a 3D GB diffraction technique, was developed to analyze both the reflectors and frequency selective surface (FSS in quasi-optical (QO system. To validate this analysis method, a 3D dual-channel QO system operating at 183 and 325 GHz was designed and tested. The proposed QO system employs two-layer structure with a FSS of perforated hexagonal array transmitting the 325 GHz signal on the top layer while diverting the 183 GHz signal to the bottom layer. Measured results of the system demonstrate that the agreement can be achieved down to −30 dB signal level for both channels in the far field pattern. The discrepancy between the calculation and measurement is within 2 dB in the main beam region (2.5 times −3 dB beamwidth, verifying the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method.

  2. WebTOP: Interactive 3D Web-based Simulations for Teaching Waves and Optics

    Mzoughi, Taha; Foley, John; Herring, Davis; Morris, Matt; Wyser, Ben

    2003-03-01

    WebTOP is 3D interactive computer graphics system designed to help students learn about waves and optics. It has been used to help teach undergraduate introductory physics and optics classes. It has sixteen modules that treat the following topics: waves, geometrical optics, reflection and refraction, polarization, interference, diffraction, lasers and scattering. WebTOP simulations have the following characteristics. First, they are three dimensional, i.e., they have navigation controls that allow the user to rotate the scene, pan it, or zoom into it. Secondly, they are interactive. The user can change the parameters either by typing the values into boxes, or by using the mouse cursor to move the corresponding widget in the scene. Thirdly, the simulations are animated, when animation is appropriate. Furthermore, the simulations include vcr-type controls that allow the user to record a session for later retrieval and viewing. Finally, these modules run inside a web browser. They can be run from our website, http://webtop.msstate.edu or be downloaded from this website and run locally. In addition to the simulations, each WebTOP module includes a short description of the theory used, and sets of recorded examples and suggested exercises. WebTOP is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation (DUE 9950569).

  3. 3D micro-optical elements for generation of tightly focused vortex beams

    Balčytis Armandas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital angular momentum carrying light beams are usedfor optical trapping and manipulation. This emerging trend provides new challenges involving device miniaturization for improved performance and enhanced functionality at the microscale. Here we discus a new fabrication method based on combining the additive 3D structuring capability laser photopolymerization and the substractive sub-wavelength resolution patterning of focused ion beam lithography to produce micro-optical elements capable of compound functionality. As a case in point of this approach binary spiral zone pattern based high numerical aperture micro-lenses capable of generating topological charge carrying tightly focused vortex beams in a single wavefront transformation step are presented. The devices were modelled using finite-difference time-domain simulations, and the theoretical predictions were verified by optically characterizing the propagation properties of light transmitted through the fabricated structures. The resulting devices had focal lengths close to the predicted values of f = 18 µm and f = 13 µm as well as topological charge ℓ dependent vortex focal spot sizes of ~ 1:3 µm and ~ 2:0 µm for ℓ = 1 and ℓ = 2 respectively.

  4. Analytical models of icosahedral shells for 3D optical imaging of viruses

    Jafarpour, Aliakbar

    2014-01-01

    A modulated icosahedral shell with an inclusion is a concise description of many viruses, including recently-discovered large double-stranded DNA ones. Many X-ray scattering patterns of such viruses show major polygonal fringes, which can be reproduced in image reconstruction with a homogeneous icosahedral shell. A key question regarding a low-resolution reconstruction is how to introduce further changes to the 3D profile in an efficient way with only a few parameters. Here, we derive and compile different analytical models of such an object with consideration of practical optical setups and typical structures of such viruses. The benefits of such models include 1) inherent filtering and suppressing different numerical errors of a discrete grid, 2) providing a concise and meaningful set of descriptors for feature extraction in high-throughput classification/sorting and higher-resolution cumulative reconstructions, 3) disentangling (physical) resolution from (numerical) discretization step and having a vector ...

  5. Surface roughness characterization of cast components using 3D optical methods

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    scanning probe image processor (SPIP) software and the results of the surface roughness parameters obtained were subjected to statistical analyses. The bearing area ratio was introduced and applied to the surface roughness analysis. From the results, the surface quality of the standard comparators is......A novel method that applies a non-contact technique using a 3D optical system to measure the roughness of selected standard surface roughness comparators used in the foundry industry is presented. This method is described in detail in the paper. Profile and area analyses were performed using...... made in green sand moulds and the surface roughness parameter (Sa) values were compared with those of the standards. Sa parameter suffices for the evaluation of casting surface texture. The S series comparators showed a better description of the surface of castings after shot blasting than the A series...

  6. 3D optical phase reconstruction within PMMA samples using a spectral OCT system

    Briones-R., Manuel d. J.; De La Torre-Ibarra, Manuel H.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique has proved to be a useful method in biomedical areas such as ophthalmology, dentistry, dermatology, among many others. In all these applications the main target is to reconstruct the internal structure of the samples from which the physician's expertise may recognize and diagnose the existence of a disease. Nowadays OCT has been applied one step further and is used to study the mechanics of some particular type of materials, where the resulting information involves more than just their internal structure and the measurement of parameters such as displacements, stress and strain. Here we report on a spectral OCT system used to image the internal 3D microstructure and displacement maps from a PMMA (Poly-methyl-methacrylate) sample, subjected to a deformation by a controlled three point bending and tilting. The internal mechanical response of the polymer is shown as consecutive 2D images.

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of an azobenzene polymer

    The nonlinear optical properties of an azobenzene polymer azo12—MO were investigated by a Z-scan technique. The polymer was synthesized by assembling the liquid-crystalline polymer azo12 with methyl orange. The nonlinear refractive index (1.39 × 10−15 cm2/W) and the nonlinear absorption coefficient (0.11 cm/GW) of azo12—MO were determined with 532-nm picosecond laser pulses at the irradiance of 92.40 GW/cm2. When compared to the nonlinear properties of azo12 and methyl orange, azo12—MO possesses the advantages of its two constituents and shows larger nonlinear optical properties. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Topology optimization of nonlinear optical devices

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the design of nonlinear photonic devices. The nonlinearity stems from a nonlinear material model with a permittivity that depends on the local time-averaged intensity of the electric field. A finite element model is developed for time-harmonic wave propagation and an...... incremental complex Newton–Raphson scheme is used to solve the nonlinear equations. The sensitivities of the objective function with respect to element-wise design variables are found using an adjoint approach and iterative design updates are performed using the method of moving asymptotes. The optimization...... procedure is exemplified by the design of two nonlinear devices. A one-dimensional optical diode is created by distributing a linear and a nonlinear material. The diode allows for higher transmission in one propagation direction compared to the other. The second example illustrates a two-dimensional optical...

  9. Modeling of Nonlinear Mechanical Behavior for 3D Needled C/C-SiC Composites Under Tensile Load

    Xie, Junbo; Fang, Guodong; Chen, Zhen; Liang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    This paper established a macroscopic constitutive model to describe the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of 3D needled C/C-SiC composites under tensile load. Extensive on- and off-axis tensile tests were performed to investigate the macroscopic mechanical behavior and damage characteristics of the composites. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of the material was mainly induced by matrix tensile cracking and fiber/matrix debonding. Permanent deformations and secant modulus degradation were observed in cyclic loading-unloading tests. The nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the material could be described macroscopically by plasticity deformation and stiffness degradation. In the proposed model, we employed a plasticity theory with associated plastic flow rule to describe the evolution of plastic strains. A novel damage variable was also introduced to characterize the stiffness degradation of the material. The damage evolution law was derived from the statistical distribution of material strength. Parameters of the proposed model can be determined from off-axis tensile tests. Stress-strain curves predicted by this model showed reasonable agreement with experimental results.

  10. Modeling of Nonlinear Mechanical Behavior for 3D Needled C/C-SiC Composites Under Tensile Load

    Xie, Junbo; Fang, Guodong; Chen, Zhen; Liang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    This paper established a macroscopic constitutive model to describe the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of 3D needled C/C-SiC composites under tensile load. Extensive on- and off-axis tensile tests were performed to investigate the macroscopic mechanical behavior and damage characteristics of the composites. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of the material was mainly induced by matrix tensile cracking and fiber/matrix debonding. Permanent deformations and secant modulus degradation were observed in cyclic loading-unloading tests. The nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the material could be described macroscopically by plasticity deformation and stiffness degradation. In the proposed model, we employed a plasticity theory with associated plastic flow rule to describe the evolution of plastic strains. A novel damage variable was also introduced to characterize the stiffness degradation of the material. The damage evolution law was derived from the statistical distribution of material strength. Parameters of the proposed model can be determined from off-axis tensile tests. Stress-strain curves predicted by this model showed reasonable agreement with experimental results.

  11. The NCOREL computer program for 3D nonlinear supersonic potential flow computations

    Siclari, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    An innovative computational technique (NCOREL) was established for the treatment of three dimensional supersonic flows. The method is nonlinear in that it solves the nonconservative finite difference analog of the full potential equation and can predict the formation of supercritical cross flow regions, embedded and bow shocks. The method implicitly computes a conical flow at the apex (R = 0) of a spherical coordinate system and uses a fully implicit marching technique to obtain three dimensional cross flow solutions. This implies that the radial Mach number must remain supersonic. The cross flow solutions are obtained by using type dependent transonic relaxation techniques with the type dependency linked to the character of the cross flow velocity (i.e., subsonic/supersonic). The spherical coordinate system and marching on spherical surfaces is ideally suited to the computation of wing flows at low supersonic Mach numbers due to the elimination of the subsonic axial Mach number problems that exist in other marching codes that utilize Cartesian transverse marching planes.

  12. Linear Stability and Nonlinear Evolution of 3D Vortices in Rotating Stratified Flows

    Mahdinia, Mani; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Marcus, Philip

    2014-11-01

    Axisymmetric Gaussian vortices are widely-used to model oceanic vortices. We study their stability in rotating, stratified flows by using the full Boussinesq equations. We created a stability map as a function of the Burger and Rossby numbers of the vortices. We computed the linear growth rates of the most-unstable eigenmodes and their corresponding eigenmodes. Our map shows a significant cyclone/anti-cyclone asymmetry. The vortices are linearly unstable in most of the parameter space that we studied. However, the anticyclonic vortices, over most of the parameter space, have eigenmodes with only very weak growth rates - longer than 50 vortex turn-around times. For oceanic vortices, that time corresponds to several months, so we argue that this slow growth rate means that the oceanic anticyclones lifetimes are not determined by linear stability, but by other processes. We also use our full, nonlinear simulations to show an example of an unstable cyclone with a very fast growing linear eigenmodes. However, we show that cyclone quickly redistributes its vorticity and becomes a stable tripole with a large core that is nearly axisymmetric.

  13. Nonlinear optical localization in embedded chalcogenide waveguide arrays

    Mingshan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the nonlinear optical localization in an embedded waveguide array fabricated in chalcogenide glass. The array, which consists of seven waveguides with circularly symmetric cross sections, is realized by ultrafast laser writing. Light propagation in the chalcogenide waveguide array is studied with near infrared laser pulses centered at 1040 nm. The peak intensity required for nonlinear localization for the 1-cm long waveguide array was 35.1 GW/cm2, using 10-nJ pulses with 300-fs pulse width, which is 70 times lower than that reported in fused silica waveguide arrays and with over 7 times shorter interaction distance. Results reported in this paper demonstrated that ultrafast laser writing is a viable tool to produce 3D all-optical switching waveguide circuits in chalcogenide glass.

  14. Quantum nonlinear optics — photon by photon

    Chang, Darrick E.; Vuletić, Vladan; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2014-01-01

    The realization of strong interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal of both fundamental and technological significance. Scientists have known for over half a century that light fields can interact inside nonlinear optical media, but the nonlinearity of conventional materials is negligible at the light powers associated with individual photons. Nevertheless, remarkable advances in quantum optics have recently culminated in the demonstration of several methods for generati...

  15. Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density

    Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu

    2000-01-17

    We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity. PMID:11015933

  16. Non-linear dynamics of viscous bilayers subjected to an electric field: 3D phase field simulations

    Dritselis, Christos; Karapetsas, George; Bontozoglou, Vasilis

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this work is to investigate the non-linear dynamics of the electro-hydrodynamic instability of a bilayer of immiscible liquids. We consider the case of two viscous films which is separated from the top electrode by air. We assume that the liquids are perfect dielectrics and consider the case of both flat and patterned electrodes. We develop a computational model using the diffuse interface method and carry out 3D numerical simulations fully accounting for the flow and electric field in all phases. We perform a parametric study and investigate the influence of the electric properties of fluids, applied voltage and various geometrical characteristics of the mask. The authors acknowledge the support by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of Greece under the action ``Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers'' (Grant Number PE8/906), co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources.

  17. Automatic registration of optical imagery with 3d lidar data using local combined mutual information

    Parmehr, E. G.; Fraser, C. S.; Zhang, C.; Leach, J.

    2013-10-01

    Automatic registration of multi-sensor data is a basic step in data fusion for photogrammetric and remote sensing applications. The effectiveness of intensity-based methods such as Mutual Information (MI) for automated registration of multi-sensor image has been previously reported for medical and remote sensing applications. In this paper, a new multivariable MI approach that exploits complementary information of inherently registered LiDAR DSM and intensity data to improve the robustness of registering optical imagery and LiDAR point cloud, is presented. LiDAR DSM and intensity information has been utilised in measuring the similarity of LiDAR and optical imagery via the Combined MI. An effective histogramming technique is adopted to facilitate estimation of a 3D probability density function (pdf). In addition, a local similarity measure is introduced to decrease the complexity of optimisation at higher dimensions and computation cost. Therefore, the reliability of registration is improved due to the use of redundant observations of similarity. The performance of the proposed method for registration of satellite and aerial images with LiDAR data in urban and rural areas is experimentally evaluated and the results obtained are discussed.

  18. A 3D approach to reconstruct continuous optical images using lidar and MODIS

    HuaGuo; Huang; Jun; Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monitoring forest health and biomass for changes over time in the global environment requires the provision of continuous satellite images. However, optical images of land surfaces are generally contaminated when clouds are present or rain occurs.Methods: To estimate the actual reflectance of land surfaces masked by clouds and potential rain, 3D simulations by the RAPID radiative transfer model were proposed and conducted on a forest farm dominated by birch and larch in Genhe City, Da Xing’An Ling Mountain in Inner Mongolia, China. The canopy height model(CHM) from lidar data were used to extract individual tree structures(location, height, crown width). Field measurements related tree height to diameter of breast height(DBH), lowest branch height and leaf area index(LAI). Series of Landsat images were used to classify tree species and land cover. MODIS LAI products were used to estimate the LAI of individual trees. Combining all these input variables to drive RAPID, high-resolution optical remote sensing images were simulated and validated with available satellite images.Results: Evaluations on spatial texture, spectral values and directional reflectance were conducted to show comparable results.Conclusions: The study provides a proof-of-concept approach to link lidar and MODIS data in the parameterization of RAPID models for high temporal and spatial resolutions of image reconstruction in forest dominated areas.

  19. 3D reconstruction and characterization of laser induced craters by in situ optical microscopy

    Casal, A.; Cerrato, R.; Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.

    2016-06-01

    A low-cost optical microscope was developed and coupled to an irradiation system in order to study the induced effects on material during a multipulse regime by an in situ visual inspection of the surface, in particular of the spot generated at different pulses. In the case of laser ablation, a reconstruction of the crater in 3D was made from the images of the sample surface taken during the irradiation process, and the subsequent profiles of ablated material were extracted. The implementation of this homemade optical device gives an added value to the irradiation system, providing information about morphology evolution of irradiated area when successive pulses are applied. In particular, the determination of ablation rates in real time can be especially useful for a better understanding and controlling of the ablation process in applications where removal of material is involved, such as laser cleaning and in-depth characterization of multilayered samples and diffusion processes. The validation of the developed microscope was made by a comparison with a commercial confocal microscope configured for the characterization of materials where similar results of crater depth and diameter were obtained for both systems.

  20. Super non-linear RRAM with ultra-low power for 3D vertical nano-crossbar arrays.

    Luo, Qing; Xu, Xiaoxin; Liu, Hongtao; Lv, Hangbing; Gong, Tiancheng; Long, Shibing; Liu, Qi; Sun, Haitao; Banerjee, Writam; Li, Ling; Gao, Jianfeng; Lu, Nianduan; Liu, Ming

    2016-08-25

    Vertical crossbar arrays provide a cost-effective approach for high density three-dimensional (3D) integration of resistive random access memory. However, an individual selector device is not allowed to be integrated with the memory cell separately. The development of V-RRAM has impeded the lack of satisfactory self-selective cells. In this study, we have developed a high performance bilayer self-selective device using HfO2 as the memory switching layer and a mixed ionic and electron conductor as the selective layer. The device exhibits high non-linearity (>10(3)) and ultra-low half-select leakage (<0.1 pA). A four layer vertical crossbar array was successfully demonstrated based on the developed self-selective device. High uniformity, ultra-low leakage, sub-nA operation, self-compliance, and excellent read/write disturbance immunity were achieved. The robust array level performance shows attractive potential for low power and high density 3D data storage applications. PMID:27510434

  1. The Traveling Optical Scanner – Case Study on 3D Shape Models of Ancient Brazilian Skulls

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Gregersen, Kristian Murphy;

    2016-01-01

    , inoffensive and inexpensive 3D scanning modality based on structured light, suitable for capturing the morphology and the appearance of specimens. Benefits of having 3D models are manifold. The 3D models are easy to share among researchers and can be made available to the general public. Advanced...

  2. Infiltrated microstructured fibers as tunable and nonlinear optical devices

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    We study the light guiding properties of microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with nonlinear liquids and demonstrate their applicability for spatial beam control in novel type tunable and nonlinear optical devices.......We study the light guiding properties of microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with nonlinear liquids and demonstrate their applicability for spatial beam control in novel type tunable and nonlinear optical devices....

  3. Real-time 3D Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography guided microvascular anastomosis

    Huang, Yong; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, W. P. A.; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    Vascular and microvascular anastomosis is considered to be the foundation of plastic and reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, transplant surgery, vascular surgery and cardiac surgery. In the last two decades innovative techniques, such as vascular coupling devices, thermo-reversible poloxamers and suture-less cuff have been introduced. Intra-operative surgical guidance using a surgical imaging modality that provides in-depth view and 3D imaging can improve outcome following both conventional and innovative anastomosis techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive high-resolution (micron level), high-speed, 3D imaging modality that has been adopted widely in biomedical and clinical applications. In this work we performed a proof-of-concept evaluation study of OCT as an assisted intraoperative and post-operative imaging modality for microvascular anastomosis of rodent femoral vessels. The OCT imaging modality provided lateral resolution of 12 μm and 3.0 μm axial resolution in air and 0.27 volume/s imaging speed, which could provide the surgeon with clearly visualized vessel lumen wall and suture needle position relative to the vessel during intraoperative imaging. Graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated phase-resolved Doppler OCT (PRDOCT) imaging of the surgical site was performed as a post-operative evaluation of the anastomosed vessels and to visualize the blood flow and thrombus formation. This information could help surgeons improve surgical precision in this highly challenging anastomosis of rodent vessels with diameter less than 0.5 mm. Our imaging modality could not only detect accidental suture through the back wall of lumen but also promptly diagnose and predict thrombosis immediately after reperfusion. Hence, real-time OCT can assist in decision-making process intra-operatively and avoid post-operative complications.

  4. Optical Measurement of Micromechanics and Structure in a 3D Fibrin Extracellular Matrix

    Kotlarchyk, Maxwell Aaron

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanics to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Methods for tuning extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanics in 3D cell culture that rely on increasing the concentration of either protein or cross-linking molecules fail to control important parameters such as pore size, ligand density, and molecular diffusivity. Alternatively, ECM stiffness can be modulated independently from protein concentration by mechanically loading the ECM. We have developed an optical tweezers-based microrheology system to investigate the fundamental role of ECM mechanical properties in determining cellular behavior. Further, this thesis outlines the development of a novel device for generating stiffness gradients in naturally derived ECMs, where stiffness is tuned by inducing strain, while local structure and mechanical properties are directly determined by laser tweezers-based passive and active microrheology respectively. Hydrogel substrates polymerized within 35 mm diameter Petri dishes are strained non-uniformly by the precise rotation of an embedded cylindrical post, and exhibit a position-dependent stiffness with little to no modulation of local mesh geometry. Here we present microrheological studies in the context of fibrin hydrogels. Microrheology and confocal imaging were used to directly measure local changes in micromechanics and structure respectively in unstrained hydrogels of increasing fibrinogen concentration, as well as in our strain gradient device, in which the concentration of fibrinogen is held constant. Orbital particle tracking, and raster image correlation analysis are used to quantify changes in fibrin mechanics on the

  5. Scale-invariant nonlinear optics in gases

    Heyl, C M; Miranda, M; Louisy, M; Kovacs, K; Tosa, V; Balogh, E; Varjú, K; L'Huillier, A; Couairon, A; Arnold, C L

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical methods are becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern photonics. They are, however, often limited to a certain range of input parameters, such as pulse energy and average power, since restrictions arise from, for example, parasitic nonlinear effects, damage problems and geometrical considerations. Here, we show that many nonlinear optics phenomena in gaseous media are scale-invariant if spatial coordinates, gas density and laser pulse energy are scaled appropriately. We develop a general scaling model for (3+1)-dimensional wave equations, demonstrating the invariant scaling of nonlinear pulse propagation in gases. Our model is numerically applied to high-order harmonic generation and filamentation as well as experimentally verified using the example of pulse post-compression via filamentation. Our results provide a simple recipe for up-or downscaling of nonlinear processes in gases with numerous applications in many areas of science.

  6. Completely integrable models of nonlinear optics

    Andrey I Maimistov

    2001-11-01

    The models of the nonlinear optics in which solitons appeared are considered. These models are of paramount importance in studies of nonlinear wave phenomena. The classical examples of phenomena of this kind are the self-focusing, self-induced transparency and parametric interaction of three waves. At present there are a number of theories based on completely integrable systems of equations, which are, both, generations of the original known models and new ones. The modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Sine–Gordon equation, the reduced Maxwell–Bloch equation, Hirota equation, the principal chiral field equations, and the equations of massive Thirring model are some soliton equations, which are usually to be found in nonlinear optics theory.

  7. SURFACE SYMMETRY RESOLUTION OF NONLINEAR OPTICAL TECHNIQUES

    KOOPMANS, B; VANDERWOUDE, F; SAWATZKY, GA

    1992-01-01

    A general rule is derived, relating the order of a nonlinear optical process to the highest possible symmetry which can be resolved in a rotational analysis. We show that with an Nth order optical technique, rotational anisotropy can be observed only up to (N + L)-fold rotational symmetry, where L i

  8. Nonlinear Integrated Optical Waveguides in Chalcogenide Glasses

    Yinlan; Ruan; Barry; Luther-Davies; Weitang; Li; Andrei; Rode; Marek; Samoc

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on the study and measurement of the third order optical nonlinearity in bulk sulfide-based chalcogenide glasses; The fabrication process of the ultrafast laser deposited As-S-(Se)-based chalcogenide films and optical waveguides using two techniques: wet chemistry etching and plasma etching.

  9. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to introduce a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner for three-dimensional (3D) radiation dosimetry. Methods: Two techniques of fan-beam creation were evaluated: a helium-neon laser (HeNe, λ = 543 nm) with line-generating lens, and a laser diode module (LDM, λ = 635 nm) with line-creating head module. Two physical collimator designs were assessed: a single-slot collimator and a multihole collimator. Optimal collimator depth was determined by observing the signal of a single photodiode with varying collimator depths. A method of extending the dynamic range of the system is presented. Two sample types were used for evaluations: nondosimetric absorbent solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters, each housed in 1 liter cylindrical plastic flasks. Imaging protocol investigations were performed to address ring artefacts and image noise. Two image artefact removal techniques were performed in sinogram space. Collimator efficacy was evaluated by imaging highly opaque samples of scatter-based and absorption-based solutions. A noise-based flask registration technique was developed. Two protocols for gel manufacture were examined. Results: The LDM proved advantageous over the HeNe laser due to its reduced noise. Also, the LDM uses a wavelength more suitable for the PRESAGETM dosimeter. Collimator depth of 1.5 cm was found to be an optimal balance between scatter rejection, signal strength, and manufacture ease. The multihole collimator is capable of maintaining accurate scatter-rejection to high levels of opacity with scatter-based solutions (T < 0.015%). Imaging protocol investigations support the need for preirradiation and postirradiation scanning to reduce reflection-based ring artefacts and to accommodate flask imperfections and gel inhomogeneities. Artefact removal techniques in sinogram space eliminate streaking artefacts and reduce ring artefacts of up to ∼40% in magnitude. The flask registration

  10. Mesoscale Engineering of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Complex nonlinear optical materials comprising elemental, compound or alloy quantum dots embedded in appropriate dielectric or semiconducting hosts may be suitable for deployment in photonic devices. Ion implantation, ion exchange followed by ion implantation, and pulsed laser deposition have ail been used to synthesize these materials. However, the correlation between the parameters of energetic-beam synthesis and the nonlinear optical properties is still very rudimentary when one starts to ask what is happening at nanoscale dimensions. Systems integration of complex nonlinear optical materials requires that the mesoscale materials science be well understood within the context of device structures. We discuss the effects of beam energy and energy density on quantum-dot size and spatial distribution, thermal conductivity, quantum-dot composition, crystallinity and defects - and, in turn, on the third-order optical susceptibility of the composite material. Examples from recent work in our laboratories are used to illustrate these effects

  11. 2D and 3D micro-XRF based on polycapillary optics at XLab Frascati

    Polese, C.; Cappuccio, G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Hampai, D.; Liedl, A.; Pace, E.

    2015-08-01

    XRF imaging spectrometry is a powerful tool for materials characterization. A high spatial resolution is often required, in order to appreciate very tiny details of the studied object. With respect to simple pinholes, polycapillary optics allows much more intense fluxes to be achieved. This is fundamental to detect elements in trace and to strongly reduce the global acquisition time that is actually among the main reasons, in addition to radioprotection issues, affecting the competitiveness of XRF imaging with respect to other faster imaging techniques such as multispectral imaging. Unlike other well-known X-ray optics, principally employed for high brilliant radiation source such as synchrotron facilities, polyCO can be efficiently coupled also with conventional X-ray tubes. All these aspects make them the most suitable choice to realize portable, safe and high performing μXRF spectrometers. In this work preliminary results achieved with a novel 2D and 3D XRF facility, called Rainbow X-Ray (RXR), are reported, with particular attention to the spatial resolution achieved. RXR is based on the confocal arrangement of three polycapillary lenses, one focusing the primary beam and the other two capturing the fluorescence signal. The detection system is split in two couples of lens-detector in order to cover a wider energy range. The entire device is a laboratory user-friendly facility and, though it allows measurements on medium-size objects, its dimensions do not preclude it to be transported for in situ analysis on request, thanks also to a properly shielded cabinet.

  12. Exact surface registration of retinal surfaces from 3-D optical coherence tomography images.

    Lee, Sieun; Lebed, Evgeniy; Sarunic, Marinko V; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2015-02-01

    Nonrigid registration of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images is an important problem in studying eye diseases, evaluating the effect of pharmaceuticals in treating vision loss, and performing group-wise cross-sectional analysis. High dimensional nonrigid registration algorithms required for cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis are still being developed for accurate registration of OCT image volumes, with the speckle noise in images presenting a challenge for registration. Development of algorithms for segmentation of OCT images to generate surface models of retinal layers has advanced considerably and several algorithms are now available that can segment retinal OCT images into constituent retinal surfaces. Important morphometric measurements can be extracted if accurate surface registration algorithm for registering retinal surfaces onto corresponding template surfaces were available. In this paper, we present a novel method to perform multiple and simultaneous retinal surface registration, targeted to registering surfaces extracted from ocular volumetric OCT images. This enables a point-to-point correspondence (homology) between template and subject surfaces, allowing for a direct, vertex-wise comparison of morphometric measurements across subject groups. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to localize and analyze regional changes in choroidal and nerve fiber layer thickness among healthy and glaucomatous subjects, allowing for cross-sectional population wise analysis. We also demonstrate the method's ability to track longitudinal changes in optic nerve head morphometry, allowing for within-individual tracking of morphometric changes. This method can also, in the future, be used as a precursor to 3-D OCT image registration to better initialize nonrigid image registration algorithms closer to the desired solution. PMID:25312906

  13. 3-D nuclear analysis of the final optics of a laser driven fusion power plant

    In the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program, power plant designs are assessed with 350 MJ yield targets driven by 40 KrF laser beams. The final optics system that focuses the laser onto the target includes a grazing incidence metallic mirror (GIMM) located at 24 m from the target with 85 angle of incidence. The GIMM is in direct line of sight of the target and has a 50 microns thick aluminum coating. Several options were considered for the substrate material. We performed three-dimensional (3-D) neutronics calculations to assess the impact of the GIMM design options on the nuclear environment at the dielectric focusing and turning mirrors. We used the recently developed MCNPX-CGM Monte Carlo code that allows performing the neutronics calculations directly in the exact CAD model. The most recent continuous energy fusion evaluated nuclear data library (FENDL-2.1) was used. One of the 40 beamlines was modeled with surrounding reflective boundaries. We considered beam duct configuration modifications such as utilizing neutron traps behind the mirrors to reduce radiation streaming. Several variance reduction techniques were utilized to reduce the statistical uncertainties. The results indicate that material choice and thickness for the GIMM impact the nuclear environment at all mirrors. The neutron flux and nuclear heating at the dielectric mirrors are a factor of ∝1.6 higher when AlBeMet is used instead of SiC as substrate in the GIMM. The fast neutron flux decreases by about two orders of magnitude as one moves from the GIMM to the focusing mirror with an additional two orders of magnitude attenuation at the turning mirror accompanied with significant spectrum softening. In this paper, the details of the analysis and results will be presented and the expected optics lifetime will be assessed. (orig.)

  14. Large area 3-D optical coherence tomography imaging of lumpectomy specimens for radiation treatment planning

    Wang, Cuihuan; Kim, Leonard; Barnard, Nicola; Khan, Atif; Pierce, Mark C.

    2016-02-01

    Our long term goal is to develop a high-resolution imaging method for comprehensive assessment of tissue removed during lumpectomy procedures. By identifying regions of high-grade disease within the excised specimen, we aim to develop patient-specific post-operative radiation treatment regimens. We have assembled a benchtop spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system with 1320 nm center wavelength. Automated beam scanning enables "sub-volumes" spanning 5 mm x 5 mm x 2 mm (500 A-lines x 500 B-scans x 2 mm in depth) to be collected in under 15 seconds. A motorized sample positioning stage enables multiple sub-volumes to be acquired across an entire tissue specimen. Sub-volumes are rendered from individual B-scans in 3D Slicer software and en face (XY) images are extracted at specific depths. These images are then tiled together using MosaicJ software to produce a large area en face view (up to 40 mm x 25 mm). After OCT imaging, specimens were sectioned and stained with HE, allowing comparison between OCT image features and disease markers on histopathology. This manuscript describes the technical aspects of image acquisition and reconstruction, and reports initial qualitative comparison between large area en face OCT images and HE stained tissue sections. Future goals include developing image reconstruction algorithms for mapping an entire sample, and registering OCT image volumes with clinical CT and MRI images for post-operative treatment planning.

  15. Optical rogue waves and soliton turbulence in nonlinear fibre optics

    Genty, G.; Dudley, J. M.; de Sterke, C. M.;

    2009-01-01

    We examine optical rogue wave generation in nonlinear fibre propagation in terms of soliton turbulence. We show that higher-order dispersion is sufficient to generate localized rogue soliton structures, and Raman scattering effects are not required.......We examine optical rogue wave generation in nonlinear fibre propagation in terms of soliton turbulence. We show that higher-order dispersion is sufficient to generate localized rogue soliton structures, and Raman scattering effects are not required....

  16. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy.

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-07-25

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  17. Accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system in the process of making ceramic inlays

    Trifković Branka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the results of many years of Cerec® 3D CAD/CAM system technological development is implementation of one intraoral and two extraoral optical scanning methods which, depending on the current indications, are applied in making fixed restorations. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of precision of optical scanning methods by the use of the Cerec®3D CAD/CAM system in the process of making ceramic inlays. Methods. The study was conducted in three experimental groups of inlays prepared using the procedure of three methods of scanning Cerec ®3D system. Ceramic inlays made by conventional methodology were the control group. The accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system computer aided designcomputer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM was indirectly examined by measuring a marginal gap size between inlays and demarcation preparation by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. The results of the study showed a difference in the accuracy of the existing methods of scanning dental CAD/CAM systems. The highest level of accuracy was achieved by the extraoral optical superficial scanning technique. The value of marginal gap size inlays made with the technique of extraoral optical superficial scanning was 32.97 ± 13.17 μ. Techniques of intraoral optical superficial and extraoral point laser scanning showed a lower level of accuracy (40.29 ± 21.46 μ for inlays of intraoral optical superficial scanning and 99.67 ± 37.25 μ for inlays of extraoral point laser scanning. Conclusion. Optical scanning methods in dental CAM/CAM technologies are precise methods of digitizing the spatial models; application of extraoral optical scanning methods provides the hightest precision.

  18. Complex geometrical optics of nonlinear inhomogeneous fibres

    This paper analyses the Gaussian beam (GB) evolution in nonlinear fibres with special attention given to the influence of the initial curvature of the wavefront and to the fibres' permittivity profile. The analysis is performed in the framework of paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO). This method reduces the problem of GB evolution in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media to the solution of ordinary differential equations, which can be easily solved either analytically or numerically. It is shown that the PCGO approach radically simplifies modelling of nonlinear phenomena in fibres as compared with standard methods of nonlinear optics such as the variational method approach and the method of moments. It is shown that the PCGO method readily supplies the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) for a self-focusing fibre with a focusing permittivity profile and provides a number of new results. The discussion on the interplay between the nonlinear (self-focusing and self-defocusing) and linear (focusing and defocusing) components of the total permittivity demonstrates the new possibilities to limit the collapse phenomenon in nonlinear fibres of Kerr type taking into account the effect of initial beam divergence

  19. Complex geometrical optics of nonlinear inhomogeneous fibres

    Berczynski, Pawel

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyses the Gaussian beam (GB) evolution in nonlinear fibres with special attention given to the influence of the initial curvature of the wavefront and to the fibres' permittivity profile. The analysis is performed in the framework of paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO). This method reduces the problem of GB evolution in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media to the solution of ordinary differential equations, which can be easily solved either analytically or numerically. It is shown that the PCGO approach radically simplifies modelling of nonlinear phenomena in fibres as compared with standard methods of nonlinear optics such as the variational method approach and the method of moments. It is shown that the PCGO method readily supplies the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) for a self-focusing fibre with a focusing permittivity profile and provides a number of new results. The discussion on the interplay between the nonlinear (self-focusing and self-defocusing) and linear (focusing and defocusing) components of the total permittivity demonstrates the new possibilities to limit the collapse phenomenon in nonlinear fibres of Kerr type taking into account the effect of initial beam divergence.

  20. Constrained non-linear optimization in 3D reflexion tomography; Problemes d'optimisation non-lineaire avec contraintes en tomographie de reflexion 3D

    Delbos, F.

    2004-11-01

    Reflexion tomography allows the determination of a subsurface velocity model from the travel times of seismic waves. The introduction of a priori information in this inverse problem can lead to the resolution of a constrained non-linear least-squares problem. The goal of the thesis is to improve the resolution techniques of this optimization problem, whose main difficulties are its ill-conditioning, its large scale and an expensive cost function in terms of CPU time. Thanks to a detailed study of the problem and to numerous numerical experiments, we justify the use of a sequential quadratic programming method, in which the tangential quadratic programs are solved by an original augmented Lagrangian method. We show the global linear convergence of the latter. The efficiency and robustness of the approach are demonstrated on several synthetic examples and on two real data cases. (author)

  1. Creation of quantum-degenerate gases of ytterbium in a compact 2D-/3D-magneto-optical trap setup

    Doerscher, Soeren; Thobe, Alexander; Hundt, Bastian; Kochanke, Andre; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Windpassinger, Patrick; Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus [Institut fuer Laserphysik, Zentrum fuer Optische Quantentechnologien, Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg 22761 (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    We report on the first experimental setup based on a 2D-/3D-magneto-optical trap (MOT) scheme to create both Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of several ytterbium isotopes. Our setup does not require a Zeeman slower and offers the flexibility to simultaneously produce ultracold samples of other atomic species. Furthermore, the extraordinary optical access favors future experiments in optical lattices. A 2D-MOT on the strong {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition captures ytterbium directly from a dispenser of atoms and loads a 3D-MOT on the narrow {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination transition. Subsequently, atoms are transferred to a crossed optical dipole trap and cooled evaporatively to quantum degeneracy.

  2. Creation of quantum-degenerate gases of ytterbium in a compact 2D-/3D-magneto-optical trap setup.

    Dörscher, Sören; Thobe, Alexander; Hundt, Bastian; Kochanke, André; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Windpassinger, Patrick; Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    We report on the first experimental setup based on a 2D-/3D-magneto-optical trap (MOT) scheme to create both Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of several ytterbium isotopes. Our setup does not require a Zeeman slower and offers the flexibility to simultaneously produce ultracold samples of other atomic species. Furthermore, the extraordinary optical access favors future experiments in optical lattices. A 2D-MOT on the strong (1)S0 → (1)P1 transition captures ytterbium directly from a dispenser of atoms and loads a 3D-MOT on the narrow (1)S0 → (3)P1 intercombination transition. Subsequently, atoms are transferred to a crossed optical dipole trap and cooled evaporatively to quantum degeneracy. PMID:23635183

  3. Integrated optical devices using bacteriorhodopsin as active nonlinear optical material

    Dér, A; Fábián, L.; Valkai, S.; Wolff, E.; Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Ormos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Coupling of optical data-processing devices with microelectronics, telecocommunication and sensory functions, is among the biggest challenges in molecular electronics. Intensive research is going on to find suitable nonlinear optical materials that could meet the demanding requirements of optoelectronic applications, especially regarding high sensitivity and stability. In addition to inorganic and organic crystals, biological molecules have also been considered for use in in...

  4. Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics

    Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-08-01

    The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.

  5. Diffraction of Gaussian beam in a 3D smoothly inhomogeneous media: eikonal-based complex geometrical optics approach

    Berczynski, P.; Bliokh, K. Yu.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Stateczny, A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an ab initio account of the paraxial complex geometrical optics (CGO) in application to a scalar Gaussian beam propagation and diffraction in a 3D smoothly inhomogeneous medium. The paraxial CGO deals with quadratic expansion of the complex eikonal and reduces the wave problem to the solution of ordinary differential equations of Riccati type. This substantially simplifies description of Gaussian beams diffraction as compared to full wave or parabolic (quasi-optics) equatio...

  6. Dynamic diffraction-limited light-coupling of 3D-maneuvered wave-guided optical waveguides

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin;

    2014-01-01

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). As the WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through the waveguides within their operating volume. We propose the use of...

  7. Using optically scanned 3D data in the restoration of Michelangelo's David

    Scopigno, Roberto; Cignoni, Paolo; Callieri, Marco; Ganovelli, Fabio; Impoco, G.; Pingi, P.; Ponchio, F.

    2003-10-01

    Modern 3D scanning technologies allow to reconstruct 3D digital representations of Cultural Heritage artifacts in a semi-automatic way, characterized by very high accuracy and wealth of details. The availability of an accurate digital representation opens several possibilities of utilization to experts (restorers, archivists, museum curators), or to ordinary people (students, museum visitors). 3D scanned data are commonly used for the production of animations, interactive visualizations, or virtual reality applications. A much more exciting opportunity is to use these data in the restoration of Cultural Heritage artworks. The integration between 3D graphic and restoration represents an open research field where many new supporting tools are required; the David restoration project has given several starting points and guidelines to the definition and development of innovative solutions. Digital 3D models can be used in two different but not subsidiary modes: as an instrument for the execution of specific investigations and as a supporting media for the archival and integration of all the restoration-related information, gathered with the different studies and analysis performed on the artwork. In this paper we present some recent work done in the framework of the Michelangelo's David restoration project. A 3D model of the David was reconstructed by the Digital Michelangelo Project, using laser-based 3D scanning technology. We have developed some tools to make those data accessible and useful in the restoration. Preliminary results are reported here together with some directions for further research.

  8. A 3-D MHD equilibrium description of nonlinearly saturated ideal external kink/peeling structures in tokamaks

    Cooper, W. A.; Graves, J. P.; Duval, B. P.; Porte, L.; Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Tran, T.-M.

    2015-12-01

    > Novel free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three-dimensional (3-D) deformations of the plasma-vacuum interface are computed. The structures obtained look like saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. Large edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number distortions when the edge bootstrap current is large and higher corrugations when this current is small. Linear ideal MHD stability analyses confirm the nonlinear saturated ideal kink equilibrium states produced and we can identify the Pfirsch-Schlüter current as the main linear instability driving mechanism when the edge pressure gradient is large. The dominant non-axisymmetric component of this Pfirsch-Schlüter current drives a near resonant helical parallel current density ribbon that aligns with the near vanishing magnetic shear region caused by the edge bootstrap current. This current ribbon is a manifestation of the outer mode previously found on JET (Solano 2010). We claim that the equilibrium corrugations describe structures that are commonly observed in quiescent H-mode tokamak discharges.

  9. Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime

    Lu, W; Joshi, C; Mori, W B; Silva, L O; Tsung, F S; Tzoufras, M; Vieira, J

    2006-01-01

    The extraordinary ability of space-charge waves in plasmas to accelerate charged particles at gradients that are orders of magnitude greater than in current accelerators has been well documented. We develop a phenomenological framework for Laser WakeField Acceleration (LWFA) in the 3D nonlinear regime, in which the plasma electrons are expelled by the radiation pressure of a short pulse laser, leading to nearly complete blowout. Our theory provides a recipe for designing a LWFA for given laser and plasma parameters and estimates the number and the energy of the accelerated electrons whether self-injected or externally injected. These formulas apply for self-guided as well as externally guided pulses (e.g. by plasma channels). We demonstrate our results by presenting a sample Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of a 30f sec, 200T W laser interacting with a 0.75cm long plasma with density 1.5*10^18 cm^-3 to produce an ultra-short (10f s) mono-energetic bunch of self-injected electrons at 1.5 GeV with 0.3nC of cha...

  10. Analysis of 3D-printed metal for rapid-prototyped reflective terahertz optics

    Headland, Daniel; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Webb, Michael; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Luiten, Andre; Abbott, Derek

    2016-07-01

    We explore the potential of 3D metal printing to realize complex conductive terahertz devices. Factors impacting performance such as printing resolution, surface roughness, oxidation, and material loss are investigated via analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The high degree of control offered by a 3D-printed topology is exploited to realize a zone plate operating at 530 GHz. Reflection efficiency at this frequency is found to be over 90%. The high-performance of this preliminary device suggest that 3D metal printing can play a strong role in guided-wave and general beam control devices in the terahertz range.

  11. Analysis of 3D-printed metal for rapid-prototyped reflective terahertz optics

    Headland, Daniel; Webb, Michael; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Luiten, Andre; Abbott, Derek

    2016-01-01

    We explore the potential of 3D metal printing to realize complex conductive terahertz devices. Factors impacting performance such as printing resolution, surface roughness, oxidation, and material loss are investigated via analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The high degree of control offered by a 3D-printed topology is exploited to realize a zone plate operating at 530 GHz. Reflection efficiency at this frequency is found to be over 90%. The high-performance of this preliminary device suggest that 3D metal printing can play a strong role in guided-wave and general beam control devices in the terahertz range.

  12. Analysis of 3D-printed metal for rapid-prototyped reflective terahertz optics.

    Headland, Daniel; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Webb, Michael; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Luiten, Andre; Abbott, Derek

    2016-07-25

    We explore the potential of 3D metal printing to realize complex conductive terahertz devices. Factors impacting performance such as printing resolution, surface roughness, oxidation, and material loss are investigated via analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The high degree of control offered by a 3D-printed topology is exploited to realize a zone plate operating at 530 GHz. Reflection efficiency at this frequency is found to be over 90%. The high-performance of this preliminary device suggest that 3D metal printing can play a strong role in guided-wave and general beam control devices in the terahertz range. PMID:27464185

  13. Preclinical, fluorescence and diffuse optical tomography: non-contact instrumentation, modeling and time-resolved 3D reconstruction

    Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical Tomography (TR-DOT) is a new non-invasive imaging technique increasingly used in the clinical and preclinical fields. It yields optical absorption and scattering maps of the explored organs, and related physiological parameters. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Diffuse Optical Tomography (TR-FDOT) is based on the detection of fluorescence photons. It provides spatio-temporal maps of fluorescent probe concentrations and life times, and allows access to metabolic and molecular imaging which is important for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, particularly in oncology. The main goal of this thesis was to reconstruct 3D TR-DOT/TR-FDOT images of small animals using time-resolved optical technology. Data were acquired using optical fibers fixed around the animal without contact with its surface. The work was achieved in four steps: 1)- Setting up an imaging device to record the 3D coordinates of an animal's surface; 2)- Modeling the no-contact approach to solve the forward problem; 3)- Processing of the measured signals taking into account the impulse response of the device; 4)- Implementation of a new image reconstruction method based on a selection of carefully chosen points. As a result, good-quality 3D optical images were obtained owing to reduced cross-talk between absorption and scattering. Moreover, the computation time was cut down, compared to full-time methods using whole temporal profiles. (author)

  14. Nonlinear quantum optics mediated by Rydberg interactions

    Firstenberg, O.; Adams, C. S.; Hofferberth, S.

    2016-08-01

    By mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg excitations in ultra-cold atomic ensembles onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency, it is now possible to realize a medium which exhibits a strong optical nonlinearity at the level of individual photons. We review the theoretical concepts and the experimental state-of-the-art of this exciting new field, and discuss first applications in the field of all-optical quantum information processing.

  15. The beginning of quantum nonlinear optics [Invited

    Yariv, Amnon

    2011-01-01

    A description by the author of the early days of nonlinear optics (NLO), and the motivation for the formulation of the quantum theory of NLO, implications to a number of diverse areas, and the background for the prediction of spontaneous parametric fluorescence.

  16. Anomalous optical nonlinearity of dielectric nanodispersions

    Milichko, V. A.; Dzyuba, V. P.; Kul'chin, Yurii N.

    2013-06-01

    We present the results of studying the nonlinear optical response of nanodispersions of semiconductor (TiO2, ZnO) and dielectric (SiO2, Al2O3) nanoparticles of spherical, spheroidal and flake shape, suspended in polar and nonpolar dielectric matrices (water, isopropanol, polymethylsiloxane and transformer oil) by means of z-scanning in the field of low-intensity visible laser radiation. It is found that, unlike semiconductor nanoparticles and particles of spherical shape, flake-shaped SiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles suspended in nonpolar matrices exhibit nonlinear optical response within the intensity interval from 0 to 500 W cm-2 that vanishes at higher intensities. The diagrams of energy states of the optical electrons in nanoparticles that allow explanation of differences in the nonlinear-optical properties of nanodispersions are proposed. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical dependences of nonlinear refractive indices and absorption coefficients on the intensity of radiation is observed.

  17. High field optical nonlinearities in gases

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang

    Optical femtosecond self-channeling in gases, also called femtosecond filamentation, has become an important area of research in high field nonlinear optics. Filamentation occurs when laser light self-focuses in a gas owing to self-induced nonlinearity, and then defocuses in the plasma generated by the self-focused beam. The result of this process repeating itself multiple times is an extended region of plasma formation. Filamentation studies have been motivated by the extremely broad range of applications, especially in air, including pulse compression, supercontinuum generation, broadband high power terahertz pulse generation, discharge triggering and guiding, and remote sensing. Despite the worldwide work in filamentation, the fundamental gas nonlinearities governing self-focusing had never been directly measured in the range of laser intensity up to and including the ionization threshold. This dissertation presents the first such measurements. We absolutely measured the temporal refractive index change of O2, N2, Ar, H2, D2 and N2O caused by highfield ultrashort optical pulses with single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry, cleanly separating for the first time the instantaneous electronic and delayed rotational nonlinear response in diatomic gases. We conclusively showed that a recent claim by several European groups that the optical bound electron nonlinearity saturates and goes negative is not correct. Such a phenomenon would preclude the need for plasma to provide the defocusing contribution for filamentation. Our results show that the 'standard model of filamentation', where the defocusing is provided by plasma, is correct. Finally, we demonstrated that high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses filamenting in gases can generate long-lived gas density `holes' which persist on millisecond timescales, long after the plasma has recombined. Gas density decrements up to ~20% have been measured. The density hole refilling is dominated by thermal

  18. Nonlinear compression of optical solitons

    M N Vinoj; V C Kuriakose

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, we consider nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations, both in the anomalous and normal dispersive regimes, which govern the propagation of a single field in a fiber medium with phase modulation and fibre gain (or loss). The integrability conditions are arrived from linear eigen value problem. The variable transformations which connect the integrable form of modified NLS equations are presented. We succeed in Hirota bilinearzing the equations and on solving, exact bright and dark soliton solutions are obtained. From the results, we show that the soliton is alive, i.e. pulse area can be conserved by the inclusion of gain (or loss) and phase modulation effects.

  19. Design, Analysis, and Initial Testing of a Fiber-Optic Shear Gage for 3D, High-Temperature Flows

    Orr, Matthew William

    2004-01-01

    Design, Analysis, and Initial Testing of a Fiber-Optic Shear Gage for 3D, High-Temperature Flows Matthew W. Orr Dr. Joseph A. Schetz, Chairman Aerospace Engineering Abstract This investigation concerns the design, analysis, and initial testing of a new, two-component wall shear gage for 3D, high-temperature flows. This gage is a direct-measuring, non-nulling design with a round head surrounded by a small gap. Two flexure wheels are used to allow small motions of the flo...

  20. Recent Issues on Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers

    Takashi; Inoue; Osamu; Aso; Shu; Namiki

    2003-01-01

    This talk will discuss the types of optical signal degradation due to fiber nonlinearity and review recently invented fibers for suppressing the effects. It also introduces efficiency of highly nonlinear fibers and their applications to nonlinear signal processing.

  1. 3D modelling of non-linear visco-elasto-plastic crustal and lithospheric processes using LaMEM

    Popov, Anton; Kaus, Boris

    2016-04-01

    LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model) is a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical numerical code to simulate crustal and lithospheric deformation. The code is based on a staggered finite difference (FDSTAG) discretization in space, which is a stable and very efficient technique to solve the (nearly) incompressible Stokes equations that does not suffer from spurious pressure modes or artificial compressibility (a typical feature of low-order finite element techniques). Higher order finite element methods are more accurate than FDSTAG methods under idealized test cases where the jump in viscosity is exactly aligned with the boundaries of the elements. Yet, geodynamically more realistic cases involve evolving subduction zones, nonlinear rheologies or localized plastic shear bands. In these cases, the viscosity pattern evolves spontaneously during a simulation or even during nonlinear iterations, and the advantages of higher order methods disappear and they all converge with approximately first order accuracy, similar to that of FDSTAG [1]. Yet, since FDSTAG methods have considerably less degrees of freedom than quadratic finite element methods, they require about an order of magnitude less memory for the same number of nodes in 3D which also implies that every matrix-vector multiplication is significantly faster. LaMEM is build on top of the PETSc library and uses the particle-in-cell technique to track material properties, history variables which makes it straightforward to incorporate effects like phase changes or chemistry. An internal free surface is present, together with (simple) erosion and sedimentation processes, and a number of methods are available to import complex geometries into the code (e.g, http://geomio.bitbucket.org). Customized Galerkin coupled geometric multigrid preconditioners are implemented which resulted in a good parallel scalability of the code (we have tested LaMEM on 458'752 cores [2]). Yet, the drawback of using FDSTAG

  2. All-optical signal processing in quadratic nonlinear materials

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Bang, Ole

    2002-01-01

    The focal point of the research presented here is all-optical signal processing via nonlinearities. The objective has been to investigate the interaction between optical signals via nonlinearities and how these nonlinearities can be engineered to serve specific purposes. The nonlinear response of materials with a second order nonlinearity, the so-called X(2) materials, is faster and stronger than that of more conventional materials with a cubic nonlinearity. The X(2) materials support spatial...

  3. Propagation of light in(2+1)-dimensional nonlinear optical media with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities

    Ruiyu Hao; Guosheng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The(2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger(NLS)equation with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities is investigated,which describes propagation of light in(2+1)-dimensional nonlinear optical media with inhomogeneous nonlinearities.New types of optical modes and nonlinear effects in optical media are presented numerically.The results reveal that the regular split of beam can be obtained in (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear optical media with inhomogeneous nonlinearities,by adjusting the guiding parameter.Furthermore,the stability of beam regular split is discussed numerically,and the results reveal that the beam regular split is stable to the finite initial perturbations.

  4. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    Someda, CG

    1992-01-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  5. All-optical signal processing in quadratic nonlinear materials

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær

    2002-01-01

    The focal point of the research presented here is all-optical signal processing via nonlinearities. The objective has been to investigate the interaction between optical signals via nonlinearities and how these nonlinearities can be engineered to serve specific purposes. The nonlinear response...

  6. DYNA3D: A nonlinear, explicit, three-dimensional finite element code for solid and structural mechanics, User manual. Revision 1

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report is the User Manual for the 1993 version of DYNA3D, and also serves as a User Guide. DYNA3D is a nonlinear, explicit, finite element code for analyzing the transient dynamic response of three-dimensional solids and structures. The code is fully vectorized and is available on several computer platforms. DYNA3D includes solid, shell, beam, and truss elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many material models are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects, and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding and single surface contact. Rigid materials provide added modeling flexibility. A material model driver with interactive graphics display is incorporated into DYNA3D to permit accurate modeling of complex material response based on experimental data. Along with the DYNA3D Example Problem Manual, this document provides the information necessary to apply DYNA3D to solve a wide range of engineering analysis problems.

  7. Laser beam propagation in nonlinear optical media

    Guha, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    ""This is very unique and promises to be an extremely useful guide to a host of workers in the field. They have given a generalized presentation likely to cover most if not all situations to be encountered in the laboratory, yet also highlight several specific examples that clearly illustrate the methods. They have provided an admirable contribution to the community. If someone makes their living by designing lasers, optical parametric oscillators or other devices employing nonlinear crystals, or designing experiments incorporating laser beam propagation through linear or nonlinear media, then

  8. Dosimetric verification of complex radiotherapy with a 3D optically based dosimetry system - Dose painting and target tracking

    Skyt, Peter S. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus Univ./Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark)], e-mail: skyt@phys.au.dk; Petersen, Joergen B. B.; Yates, Esben S.; Muren, Ludvig P. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus Univ./Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Poulsen, Per R.; Ravkilde, Thomas L. [Dept. of Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Balling, Peter [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Background: The increasing complexity of radiotherapy (RT) has motivated research into three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry. In this study we investigate the use of 3D dosimetry with polymerizing gels and optical computed tomography (optical CT) as a verification tool for complex RT: dose painting and target tracking. Materials and Methods: For the dose painting studies, two dosimeters were irradiated with a seven-field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan with and without dose prescription based on a hypoxia image dataset of a head and neck patient. In the tracking experiments, two dosimeters were irradiated with a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan with and without clinically measured prostate motion and a third with both motion and target tracking. To assess the performance, 3D gamma analyses were performed between measured and calculated stationary dose distributions. Results: Gamma pass-rates of 95.3 % and 97.3 % were achieved for the standard and dose-painted IMRT plans. Gamma pass-rates of 91.4 % and 54.4 % were obtained for the stationary and moving dosimeter, respectively, while tracking increased the pass-rate for the moving dosimeter to 90.4 %. Conclusions: This study has shown that the 3D dosimetry system can reproduce and thus verify complex dose distributions, also when influenced by motion.

  9. Dosimetric verification of complex radiotherapy with a 3D optically based dosimetry system - Dose painting and target tracking

    Background: The increasing complexity of radiotherapy (RT) has motivated research into three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry. In this study we investigate the use of 3D dosimetry with polymerizing gels and optical computed tomography (optical CT) as a verification tool for complex RT: dose painting and target tracking. Materials and Methods: For the dose painting studies, two dosimeters were irradiated with a seven-field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan with and without dose prescription based on a hypoxia image dataset of a head and neck patient. In the tracking experiments, two dosimeters were irradiated with a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan with and without clinically measured prostate motion and a third with both motion and target tracking. To assess the performance, 3D gamma analyses were performed between measured and calculated stationary dose distributions. Results: Gamma pass-rates of 95.3 % and 97.3 % were achieved for the standard and dose-painted IMRT plans. Gamma pass-rates of 91.4 % and 54.4 % were obtained for the stationary and moving dosimeter, respectively, while tracking increased the pass-rate for the moving dosimeter to 90.4 %. Conclusions: This study has shown that the 3D dosimetry system can reproduce and thus verify complex dose distributions, also when influenced by motion

  10. Rigorous theory of molecular orientational nonlinear optics

    Chong Hoon Kwak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical statistical mechanics of the molecular optics theory proposed by Buckingham [A. D. Buckingham and J. A. Pople, Proc. Phys. Soc. A 68, 905 (1955] has been extended to describe the field induced molecular orientational polarization effects on nonlinear optics. In this paper, we present the generalized molecular orientational nonlinear optical processes (MONLO through the calculation of the classical orientational averaging using the Boltzmann type time-averaged orientational interaction energy in the randomly oriented molecular system under the influence of applied electric fields. The focal points of the calculation are (1 the derivation of rigorous tensorial components of the effective molecular hyperpolarizabilities, (2 the molecular orientational polarizations and the electronic polarizations including the well-known third-order dc polarization, dc electric field induced Kerr effect (dc Kerr effect, optical Kerr effect (OKE, dc electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH, degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM and third harmonic generation (THG. We also present some of the new predictive MONLO processes. For second-order MONLO, second-order optical rectification (SOR, Pockels effect and difference frequency generation (DFG are described in terms of the anisotropic coefficients of first hyperpolarizability. And, for third-order MONLO, third-order optical rectification (TOR, dc electric field induced difference frequency generation (EFIDFG and pump-probe transmission are presented.

  11. Rigorous theory of molecular orientational nonlinear optics

    Classical statistical mechanics of the molecular optics theory proposed by Buckingham [A. D. Buckingham and J. A. Pople, Proc. Phys. Soc. A 68, 905 (1955)] has been extended to describe the field induced molecular orientational polarization effects on nonlinear optics. In this paper, we present the generalized molecular orientational nonlinear optical processes (MONLO) through the calculation of the classical orientational averaging using the Boltzmann type time-averaged orientational interaction energy in the randomly oriented molecular system under the influence of applied electric fields. The focal points of the calculation are (1) the derivation of rigorous tensorial components of the effective molecular hyperpolarizabilities, (2) the molecular orientational polarizations and the electronic polarizations including the well-known third-order dc polarization, dc electric field induced Kerr effect (dc Kerr effect), optical Kerr effect (OKE), dc electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH), degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) and third harmonic generation (THG). We also present some of the new predictive MONLO processes. For second-order MONLO, second-order optical rectification (SOR), Pockels effect and difference frequency generation (DFG) are described in terms of the anisotropic coefficients of first hyperpolarizability. And, for third-order MONLO, third-order optical rectification (TOR), dc electric field induced difference frequency generation (EFIDFG) and pump-probe transmission are presented

  12. Order and chaos in polarized nonlinear optics

    Methods for investigating temporal complexity in Hamiltonian systems are applied to the dynamics of a polarized optical laser beam propagating as a travelling wave in a medium with cubically nonlinear polarizability (i.e., a Kerr medium). The theory of Hamiltonian systems with symmetry is used to study the geometry of phase space for the optical problem, transforming from C2 to S2 x (J,θ), where (J,θ) is a symplectic action-angle pair. The bifurcations of the phase portraits of the Hamiltonian motion on S2 are classified and shown graphically. These bifurcations create various saddle connections on S2 as either J (the beam intensity), or the optical parameters of the medium are varied. After this bifurcation analysis, the Melnikov method is used to demonstrate analytically that the saddle connections break and intersect transversely in a Poincare map under spatially periodic perturbations of the optical parameters of the medium. These transverse intersections in the Poincare map imply intermittent polarization switching with extreme sensitivity to initial conditions characterized by a Smale horseshoe construction for the travelling waves of a polarized optical laser pulse. The resulting chaotic behavior in the form of sensitive dependence on initial conditions may have implications for the control and predictability of nonlinear optical polarization switching in birefringent media. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Nonlinearly enhanced sensing in coupled optical microresonators

    Wang, Chao

    Optical microresonators that confine photons to micron dimensions with low loss at telecommunication wavelengths play an important role in building modern all-optical integrated circuit. Such systems attract a considerable amount of interest because of the compact size and easy fabrication with state-of-art technologies. One can use the microresonators as sensors, optical delay lines, filters, interferometers, and lasers. In this thesis, we investigate nonlinear effects for sensing application in microring resonators. We theoretically analyze the effect of the Kerr index, two-photon absorption, free-carrier absorption, and free-carrier dispersion. In particular, selfphase and cross-phase modulations caused by the Kerr index are shown to lead to a bifurcation of degenerate resonator mode intensities. Using coupled mode equations, we present the transmission properties of our resonator system with nonlinear effects included. New sensing mechanisms based on the nonlinear bistability and bifurcation are proposed to enhance the transmission's sensitivity to perturbations of the resonance frequency of the resonators. This is used to develop models of ultra-sensitive gyroscopes and refractive index sensors for detection of chemical analytes. The bifurcation dramatically enhances the Sagnac phase shift and therefore substantially lowers the minimum detectable rotation rate (resonator gyroscope. For index sensing, nonlinearities enhance the resonance frequency shift and a theoretical detection limit of 10-11 RIU is derived assuming common noises in micro-optical systems. In this work, we focus on silicon-on-insulator resonators but we also consider different platforms, including silicon oxynitride, Hydex, and chalcogenide glasses, and discuss the advantages of each. The results we show here highlight novel mechanisms that can be used in practical applications to improve the performance of a microresonator based optical sensor.

  14. Femtosecond single-beam direct laser poling of stable and efficient second-order nonlinear optical properties in glass

    Papon, G.; Marquestaut, N.; Petit, Y.; Royon, A.; Dussauze, M.; Rodriguez, V.; Cardinal, T.; Canioni, L.

    2014-03-01

    We depict a new approach for the localized creation in three dimensions (3D) of a highly demanded nonlinear optical function for integrated optics, namely second harmonic generation. We report on the nonlinear optical characteristics induced by single-beam femtosecond direct laser writing in a tailored silver-containing phosphate glass. The original spatial distribution of the nonlinear pattern, composed of four lines after one single laser writing translation, is observed and modeled with success, demonstrating the electric field induced origin of the second harmonic generation. These efficient second-order nonlinear structures (with χeff(2) ˜ 0.6 pm V-1) with sub-micron scale are impressively stable under thermal constraint up to glass transition temperature, which makes them very promising for new photonic applications, especially when 3D nonlinear architectures are desired.

  15. Femtosecond single-beam direct laser poling of stable and efficient second-order nonlinear optical properties in glass

    We depict a new approach for the localized creation in three dimensions (3D) of a highly demanded nonlinear optical function for integrated optics, namely second harmonic generation. We report on the nonlinear optical characteristics induced by single-beam femtosecond direct laser writing in a tailored silver-containing phosphate glass. The original spatial distribution of the nonlinear pattern, composed of four lines after one single laser writing translation, is observed and modeled with success, demonstrating the electric field induced origin of the second harmonic generation. These efficient second-order nonlinear structures (with χeff(2) ∼ 0.6 pm V−1) with sub-micron scale are impressively stable under thermal constraint up to glass transition temperature, which makes them very promising for new photonic applications, especially when 3D nonlinear architectures are desired

  16. Novel composites for nonlinear optics

    Hameed-Muhammed, Muhammed Subhi

    A fully computerised Temperature-Gradient Zone-Melting (TGZM) apparatus was designed and built in order to produce novel and highly aligned composite films for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). The TGZM apparatus consists of hot and cold aluminium blocks with glass- ceramic thermal insulator sandwiched between the two blocks. The composite films contain SHG-active guest crystals incorporated within a polymer matrix (host) forming a guest/host structure. These composites exhibit good optical performance in terms of SHG output (guest crystal), high mechanical strength, thermal and chemical stability (host polymer). These particular properties are of great importance especially for fibre-optical applications. 3-methyl-4-methoxy-4'-nitrostilbene (MMONS) is SHG-active guest material which was investigated by incorporating it in poly(methyl methacrylate) or PMMA(host polymer). Two PMMA molecular weight distributions (MWD) were used once at a time, in which the effect of that on the overall SHG intensity was clearly observed. It was found that a change of a polymer MWD does alter the output of the SHG signal. MMONS crystals were also embedded in another polymer host called Polystyrene (PS) in order to demonstrate the effect of using two different polymers on the SHG intensity of MMONS aligned films. The samples were cast on a glass slides and placed on the hot side of the TGZM apparatus (crystal growth from melt). Later they were drawn towards the cold side with a drawing rate closely matching the MMONS crystal growth rate and producing highly aligned composite films. A Nd:YAG laser beam (1064 nm) with 10 mJ fundamental energy was incident on the above samples (45° from the optic axis z) using type II phase matching, resulting in a green second harmonic signal of 532 nm. The refractive index mismatch between MMONS and a polymer host such as poly(9-vinyle carbazole) or PVK (used in this project) could cause a major light scattering (i.e light loss) during SHG intensity

  17. Optically nonlinear Langmuir Blodgett films

    Amiri, M A

    2003-01-01

    A series of novel amphiphilic molecules plus a new class of chevron-shaped materials, without aliphatic tails, were designed, synthesised and non-centrosymmetrically aligned by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Their LB films exhibited optical second-harmonic generation (SHG). The chevron-shaped molecules have a central cationic acceptor and two pi-bridged donor groups with an angle of ca. 120 deg between the charge-transfer axes of the D-pi-(A sup +)-pi-D unit. A monolayer LB film of a representative example, 1-butyl-2,6-bis[2- (4-dibutylaminophenyl)vinyl]pyridinium iodide, has an effective susceptibility, chi sup ( sup 2 sup ) sub e sub f sub f , of 120 pm V sup - sup 1 at 1064 nm, a thickness of 1.16 nm and an area in contact with the substrate of 0.91 nm sup 2 molecule sup - sup 1. The second-harmonic intensity (1.6 x 10 sup - sup 4 versus quartz) is similar to those of the extensively studied conventional amphiphilic hemicyanines but as a result of non-centrosymmetric alignment, without the need for long ...

  18. Analytic 3D Imaging of Mammalian Nucleus at Nanoscale Using Coherent X-Rays and Optical Fluorescence Microscopy

    Song, Changyong; Takagi, Masatoshi; Park, Jaehyun; Xu, Rui; Gallagher-Jones, Marcus; Imamoto, Naoko; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Despite the notable progress that has been made with nano-bio imaging probes, quantitative nanoscale imaging of multistructured specimens such as mammalian cells remains challenging due to their inherent structural complexity. Here, we successfully performed three-dimensional (3D) imaging of mammalian nuclei by combining coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy, explicitly visualizing nuclear substructures at several tens of nanometer resolution, and optical fluorescence microscopy, cross confir...

  19. Optical 3D methods for measurement of prosthetic wear of total hip arthroplasty: principles, verification and results

    Rössler, T.; Mandát, Dušan; Gallo, J.; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Pochmon, Michal; Havránek, Vítězslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 15 (2009), 12723-12730. ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : 3D methods * total hip arthroplasty Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.278, year: 2009

  20. Highly nonlinear layered spiral microstructured optical fiber

    Rodrigues, Sílvia M.; Facão, Margarida M.; Latas, Sofia C.; Ferreira, Mário F.

    2013-08-01

    A layered spiral microstructured optical fiber (LS-MOF) is presented, which offers the possibility of a good control of both the dispersion and the nonlinear properties. The proposed design is analyzed using a finite element method considering silica and air as the materials. Zero dispersion, low confinement loss, and a record value of γ = 70.0 W-1/km for the LS-MOF nonlinear parameter are simultaneously obtained at 1.55 μm, whereas a higher value γ = 169.4 W-1/km can be achieved at 1.06 μm. Our results demonstrate the great potential of the LS-MOF for several nonlinear applications, namely for an efficient generation of the supercontinuum.

  1. New Architecture of Optical Interconnect for High-Speed Optical Computerized Data Networks (Nonlinear Response

    El-Sayed A. El-Badawy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Although research into the use of optics in computers has increased in the last and current decades, the fact remains that electronics is still superior to optics in almost every way. Research into the use of optics at this stage mirrors the research into electronics after the 2nd World War. The advantages of using fiber optics over wiring are the same as the argument for using optics over electronics in computers. Even through totally optical computers are now a reality, computers that combine both electronics and optics, electro-optic hybrids, have been in use for some time. In the present paper, architecture of optical interconnect is built up on the bases of four Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Laser Diodes (VCSELD and two optical links where thermal effects of both the diodes and the links are included. Nonlinear relations are correlated to investigate the power-current and the voltage-current dependences of the four devices. The good performance (high speed of the interconnect is deeply and parametrically investigated under wide ranges of the affecting parameters. The high speed performance is processed through three different effects, namely the device 3-dB bandwidth, the link dispersion characteristics, and the transmitted bit rate (soliton. Eight combinations are investigated; each possesses its own characteristics. The best architecture is the one composed of VCSELD that operates at 850 nm and the silica fiber whatever the operating set of causes. This combination possesses the largest device 3-dB bandwidth, the largest link bandwidth and the largest soliton transmitted bit rate. The increase of the ambient temperature reduces the high-speed performance of the interconnect

  2. Nonlinear optics of astaxanthin thin films

    Esser, A.; Fisch, Herbert; Haas, Karl-Heinz; Haedicke, E.; Paust, J.; Schrof, Wolfgang; Ticktin, Anton

    1993-02-01

    Carotinoids exhibit large nonlinear optical properties due to their extended (pi) -electron system. Compared to other polyenes which show a broad distribution of conjugation lengths, carotinoids exhibit a well defined molecular structure, i.e. a well defined conjugation length. Therefore the carotinoid molecules can serve as model compounds to study the relationship between structure and nonlinear optical properties. In this paper the synthesis of four astaxanthins with C-numbers ranging from 30 to 60, their preparation into thin films, wavelength dispersive Third Harmonic Generation (THG) measurements and some molecular modelling calculations will be presented. Resonant (chi) (3) values reach 1.2(DOT)10-10 esu for C60 astaxanthin. In the nonresonant regime a figure of merit (chi) (3)/(alpha) of several 10-13 esu-cm is demonstrated.

  3. New organic crystals for nonlinear optics

    The optical and nonlinear optical properties of some recently prepared organic crystals [2-cyclo-octylamino-5-nitropyridine (COANP)], 4-(n,n-dimethylamino)-3-acetaminonitrobenzene (DAN), 4-n-pyrrolydino-3-acetaminonitrobenzene (PAN), and [2-(alpha-methylbenzylamino-5-nitropyridine (MBANP)] have been investigated. Phase matched type 1 second harmonic generation for Nd:YAG lasers with a peak efficiency of 3.5% has been observed in a 0.9-mm thick COANP crystal which has point group symmetry mm/sup 2/

  4. Flattop beam illumination for 3D imaging ladar with simple optical devices in the wide distance range

    Tsuji, Hidenobu; Nakano, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kameyama, Shumpei

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an illumination optical system for 3D imaging ladar (laser detection and ranging) which forms flattop beam shape by transformation of the Gaussian beam in the wide distance range. The illumination is achieved by beam division and recombination using a prism and a negative powered lens. The optimum condition of the transformation by the optical system is derived. It is confirmed that the flattop distribution can be formed in the wide range of the propagation distance from 1 to 1000 m. The experimental result with the prototype is in good agreement with the calculation result.

  5. Third-order optical nonlinearity of chlorophenols

    Maloney, C.; Blau, W.

    1988-02-01

    Degenerate four-wave mixing of infrared (1.064 μm) pulses with 130 ps duration was studied in o-, p- and m- chlorophenols. Nonlinear susceptibilities χ (3) of (5.5-6.0) × 10 -20 m 2/V 2 were measured. By temporally delaying the incidence of the second pump pulse contributions from an optical Kerr effect and an electrostrictive effect are observed.

  6. High-Throughput Nonlinear Optical Microscopy

    Yew, Elijah Y.S.; So, Peter T. C.; Rowlands, Christopher James; Yew, Elijah Y. S.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution microscopy methods based on different nonlinear optical (NLO) contrast mechanisms are finding numerous applications in biology and medicine. While the basic implementations of these microscopy methods are relatively mature, an important direction of continuing technological innovation lies in improving the throughput of these systems. Throughput improvement is expected to be important for studying fast kinetic processes, for enabling clinical diagnosis and treatment, and for e...

  7. Optical 3D-Nanometry to Study the Function of Biomolecular Motors in Nanotransport

    Nitzsche, Bert

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge in nanotechnology is the controlled transport of cargo on the nanometer scale. A promising approach to this problem is the use of molecular motors of the cellular cytoskeleton. The aim of this work was to develop a method to characterize the behavior of filamentous nanoshuttles – specifically of motor protein-driven microtubules – in three dimensions (3-D). The main requirements to meet were low impact on the nanotransport system, high spatial and temporal resolution, and...

  8. Options in virtual 3D, optical-impression-based planning of dental implants.

    Reich, Sven; Kern, Thomas; Ritter, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    If a 3D radiograph, which in today's dentistry often consists of a CBCT dataset, is available for computerized implant planning, the 3D planning should also consider functional prosthetic aspects. In a conventional workflow, the CBCT is done with a specially produced radiopaque prosthetic setup that makes the desired prosthetic situation visible during virtual implant planning. If an exclusively digital workflow is chosen, intraoral digital impressions are taken. On these digital models, the desired prosthetic suprastructures are designed. The entire datasets are virtually superimposed by a "registration" process on the corresponding structures (teeth) in the CBCTs. Thus, both the osseous and prosthetic structures are visible in one single 3D application and make it possible to consider surgical and prosthetic aspects. After having determined the implant positions on the computer screen, a drilling template is designed digitally. According to this design (CAD), a template is printed or milled in CAM process. This template is the first physically extant product in the entire workflow. The article discusses the options and limitations of this workflow. PMID:25098158

  9. Pre-Processing of Point-Data from Contact and Optical 3D Digitization Sensors

    Mirko Soković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary 3D digitization systems employed by reverse engineering (RE feature ever-growing scanning speeds with the ability to generate large quantity of points in a unit of time. Although advantageous for the quality and efficiency of RE modelling, the huge number of point datas can turn into a serious practical problem, later on, when the CAD model is generated. In addition, 3D digitization processes are very often plagued by measuring errors, which can be attributed to the very nature of measuring systems, various characteristics of the digitized objects and subjective errors by the operator, which also contribute to problems in the CAD model generation process. This paper presents an integral system for the pre-processing of point data, i.e., filtering, smoothing and reduction, based on a cross-sectional RE approach. In the course of the proposed system development, major emphasis was placed on the module for point data reduction, which was designed according to a novel approach with integrated deviation analysis and fuzzy logic reasoning. The developed system was verified through its application on three case studies, on point data from objects of versatile geometries obtained by contact and laser 3D digitization systems. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the system.

  10. Nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optic signal processing

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Photonics is an emerging technology, slated for rapid growth in communications systems, sensors, imagers, and computers. Its growth is driven by the need for speed, reliability, and low cost. New nonlinear polymeric materials will be a key technology in the new wave of photonics devices. Electron-conjubated polymeric materials offer large electro-optic figures of merit, ease of processing into films and fibers, ruggedness, low cost, and a plethora of design options. Several new broad classes of second-order nonlinear optical polymers were developed at the Navy's Michelson Laboratory at China Lake, California. Polar alignment in thin film waveguides was achieved by electric-field poling and Langmuir-Blodgett processing. Our polymers have high softening temperatures and good aging properties. While most of the films can be photobleached with ultraviolet (UV) light, some have excellent stability in the 500-1600 nm range, and UV stability in the 290-310 nm range. The optical nonlinear response of these polymers is subpicosecond. Electro-optic switches, frequency doublers, light modulators, and optical data storage media are some of the device applications anticipated for these polymers.

  11. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Triphenylalanine-based Peptide Nanostructures

    Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Mishina, E. D.; Sigov, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear optical properties of peptide nanobelts and peptide nanospheres, the two types of self-assembled triphenylalanine-based peptide nanostructures, are studied. Nanobelts nonlinear susceptibility tensor components are evaluated, and nanobelts crystal structure and crystallographic orientation are defined on the basis of nonlinear optical mapping and polarization dependences of the second harmonic signal. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to use these materials as biologically compatible nonlinear optical converters.

  12. Soliton Propagation in nonlinear optical fibers : theory and application

    Goy, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of research in nonlinear optical fibers is given. Important background concepts are introduced and explained. Present and future applications of nonlinear optical fibers arc reviewed. A mathematical model of a nonlinear optical fiber is developed using a coupled-mode theory approach, and methods of solving nonlinear partial differential equations arc discussed. A detailed history of research in the field is given, and recommendations for future research are made.

  13. Integrated optical devices using bacteriorhodopsin as active nonlinear optical material

    Dér, András; Fábián, László; Valkai, Sándor; Wolff, Elmar; Ramsden, Jeremy; Ormos, Pál

    2006-08-01

    Coupling of optical data-processing devices with microelectronics, telecocommunication and sensory functions, is among the biggest challenges in molecular electronics. Intensive research is going on to find suitable nonlinear optical materials that could meet the demanding requirements of optoelectronic applications, especially regarding high sensitivity and stability. In addition to inorganic and organic crystals, biological molecules have also been considered for use in integrated optics, among which the bacterial chromoprotein, bacteriorhodopsin (bR) generated the most interest. bR undergoes enormous absorption and concomitant refractive index changes upon initiation of a cyclic series of photoreactions by a burst of actinic light. This effect can be exploited to create highly versatile all-optical logical elements. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by investigating the static and dynamic response of several basic elements of integrated optical devices. Our results show that, due to its relatively high refractive index changes, bR can be used as an active nonlinear optical material to produce a variety of integrated optical switching and modulation effects.

  14. WebTOP: A 3D Interactive System for Teaching and Learning Optics

    Mzoughi, Taha; Herring, S. Davis; Foley, John T.; Morris, Matthew J.; Gilbert, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    WebTOP is a three-dimensional, Web-based, interactive computer graphics system that helps instructors teach and students learn about waves and optics. Current subject areas include waves, geometrical optics, reflection and refraction, polarization, interference, diffraction, lasers, and scattering. Some of the topics covered are suited for…

  15. Optical 3D methods for the measurement of wear in total hip arthroplasty: principles and results

    Rössler, T.; Gallo, J.; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Pochmon, Michal; Mandát, Dušan; Havránek, Vítězslav

    Olomouc : Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2007 - (Křepelka, J.), s. 155-159 ISBN 978-80-244-1844-5 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : prosthetic wear * total hip arthroplasty * optical profilometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  16. Construction of 3D Arrays of Cylindrically Hierarchical Structures with ZnO Nanorods Hydrothermally Synthesized on Optical Fiber Cores

    Weixuan Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With ZnO nanorods hydrothermally synthesized on manually assembled arrays of optical fiber cores, 3D arrays of ZnO nanorod-based cylindrically hierarchical structures with nominal pitch 250 μm or 375 μm were constructed. Based on micrographs of scanning electron microscopy and image processing operators of MATLAB software, the 3D arrays of cylindrically hierarchical structures were quantitatively characterized. The values of the actual diameters, the actual pitches, and the parallelism errors suggest that the process capability of the manual assembling is sufficient and the quality of the 3D arrays of cylindrically hierarchical structures is acceptable. The values of the characteristic parameters such as roughness, skewness, kurtosis, correlation length, and power spectrum density show that the surface morphologies of the cylindrically hierarchical structures not only were affected significantly by Zn2+ concentration of the growth solution but also were anisotropic due to different curvature radii of the optical fiber core at side and front view.

  17. 3D dosimetry for complex stereotactic radiosurgery using a tomographic optical density scanner and BANG polymer gels

    Purpose: Radiation sensitive tissue equivalent BANG polymer gels (MGS Research, Inc., Guilford, CT) have been developed for three dimensional verification of complex radiotherapy treatment plans. This study evaluated the performance of a prototype optical density scanner in verification of a complex radiosurgery treatment plan using linear accelerator based radiosurgery and BANG polymer gel dosimeters. Materials and Methods: BANG polymer gel dosimeters were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery using 6MV photons to single isocenters and to a 3 isocenter radiosurgery plan. Appropriate controls for evaluating the linearity of dose response were irradiated using a water bath and 6MV photons. Two separate methods for imaging the radiation-induced polymerization in the gel were used. The first method, MRI imaging, used the spatial distribution of the NMR transverse relaxation rates (R2) of the water protons in the gel to create a 3D dose map. In the second, a prototype optical density scanner was used to reconstruct a 3D dose distribution from multiple planar images of the gel which were generated using a filtered back-projection algorithm and measurements of optical transmission. Results: Data obtained from MRI imaging and the images generated by the optical scanner were compared with the plan with excellent results. Very close agreement between all three data sets was demonstrated. The BANG polymer gels demonstrated an excellent linearity of response and a very large (∼20 Gray) dynamic range. Conclusion: The ability to permanently record (and interrogate at a later time) integrated 3D dose distributions will be valuable in assessing complex external beam treatment plans such as radiosurgical treatment plans as well as in commissioning and periodic checking of dynamic wedges, multileaf collimators, etc. used for conventionally fractionated conformal radiotherapy. The linearity of response and wide dynamic range are important in the evaluation of radiosurgical

  18. Rapid and Inexpensive Reconstruction of 3D Structures for Micro-Objects Using Common Optical Microscopy

    Berejnov, V V

    2009-01-01

    A simple method of constructing the 3D surface of non-transparent micro-objects by extending the depth-of-field on the whole attainable surface is presented. The series of images of a sample are recorded by the sequential movement of the sample with respect to the microscope focus. The portions of the surface of the sample appear in focus in the different images in the series. The indexed series of the in-focus portions of the sample surface is combined in one sharp 2D image and interpolated into the 3D surface representing the surface of an original micro-object. For an image acquisition and processing we use a conventional upright stage microscope that is operated manually, the inexpensive Helicon Focus software, and the open source MeshLab software. Three objects were tested: an inclined flat glass slide with an imprinted 10 um calibration grid, a regular metal 100x100 per inch mesh, and a highly irregular surface of a material known as a porous electrode used in polyelectrolyte fuel cells. The accuracy of...

  19. Detecting the Chern number of topological Weyl semimetals in 3D optical lattices

    Zhang, Dan-Wei; Cao, Shuai

    2016-06-01

    We propose a realistic scheme to directly probe the Chern number of topological Weyl semimetals in optical lattices. The Weyl semimetal states can be realized with ultracold fermionic atoms trapped in three-dimensional optical lattices, and are topologically characterized by k z -dependent Chern number, where k z is the out-of-plane quasimomentum. We demonstrate with numerical simulations that this characteristic topological invariant can be extracted from the shift of the hybrid Wannier center in the optical lattice, based on the particle pumping approach. Through in situ measurement of atomic density, the topological properties of the Weyl semimetal states are then directly revealed.

  20. Feasibility study of a single-shot 3D electron bunch shape monitor with an electro-optic sampling technique

    Okayasu, Yuichi; Tomizawa, Hiromitsu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Kumagai, Noritaka; Maekawa, Akira; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2013-05-01

    We developed a three-dimensional electron bunch charge distribution (3D-BCD) monitor with single-shot detection, and a spectral decoding based electro-optic (EO) sampling technique for a nondestructive monitor enables real-time reconstruction of the three-dimensional distribution of a bunch charge. We realized three goals by simultaneously probing a number of Pockels EO crystals that surround the electron beam axis with hollow and radial polarized laser pulses. First, we performed a feasibility test as a simple case of a 3D-BCD monitor probing two ZnTe crystals as EO detectors installed on the opposite angle to the electron beam axis and confirmed that we simultaneously obtained both EO signals. Since the adopted hollow probe laser pulse is not only radially polarized but also temporally shifted azimuthally, some disorders in the radial polarization distribution of such a laser pulse were numerically analyzed with a plane-wave expansion method. Based on the above investigations, the 3D-BCD monitor is feasible both in experimental and numerical estimations. Furthermore, we previously developed a femtosecond response organic crystal as a Pockels EO detector and a broadband probe laser (≥350nm in FWHM); the 3D-BCD monitor realizes 30- to 40-fs (FWHM) temporal resolution. Eventually, the monitor is expected to be equipped in such advanced accelerators as XFEL to measure and adjust the electron bunch charge distribution in real time. The 3D-BCD measurement works as a critical tool to provide feedback to seeded FELs.

  1. Neutron detection and characterization for non-proliferation applications using 3D computer optical memories [Use of 3D optical computer memory for radiation detectors/dosimeters. Final progress report

    We have investigated 3-dimensional optical random access memory (3D-ORAM) materials for detection and characterization of charged particles of neutrons by detecting tracks left by the recoil charged particles produced by the neutrons. We have characterized the response of these materials to protons, alpha particles and carbon-12 nuclei as a functions of dose and energy. We have observed individual tracks using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We are investigating the use of neural net analysis to characterize energetic neutron fields from their track structure in these materials

  2. Treating benign optic nerve tumors with a 3-D conformal plan

    A 68 year old male patient presented for radiation therapy for treatment of a benign tumor, a glioma of his left optic nerve. The radiation oncologist intended to prescribe 52.2 Gy to the planning target volume, while maintaining a maximum of 54 Gy to the optic nerves and the optic chiasm and a maximum of 40–45 Gy to the globes in order to minimize the possibility of damaging the optic system, which is especially important as this is a benign tumor. The dosimetrist devised a conformal non-coplanar three-dimensional plan with a slightly weighted forward planning component. This plan was created in approximately 15 minutes after the critical organs and the targets were delineated and resulted in an extremely conformal and homogenous plan, treating the target while sparing the nearby critical structures. This approach can also be extended to other tumors in the brain - benign or malignant

  3. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells

    Guo, Kangxian; Liu, Guanghui; Huang, Lu; Zheng, Xianyi

    2015-08-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells are theoretically investigated within analytical wave functions and numerical quantized energy levels. Our results show that the inner radius, the outer radius and the cut-off angle of spherical dome shells have great influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the total optical absorption coefficients. It is found that with the increase of the inner radius and the outer radius, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients exhibit a blueshift and a redshift, respectively. However, with the increase of the cut-off angle, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients do not shift. Besides, the resonant peaks of linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients climb up and then decrease with increasing the cut-off angle. The influences of the incident optical intensity on the total optical absorption coefficients are studied. It is found that the bleaching effect occurs at higher incident optical intensity.

  4. Full-color holographic 3D imaging system using color optical scanning holography

    Kim, Hayan; Kim, You Seok; Kim, Taegeun

    2016-06-01

    We propose a full-color holographic three-dimensional imaging system that composes a recording stage, a transmission and processing stage and reconstruction stage. In recording stage, color optical scanning holography (OSH) records the complex RGB holograms of an object. In transmission and processing stage, the recorded complex RGB holograms are transmitted to the reconstruction stage after conversion to off-axis RGB holograms. In reconstruction stage, the off-axis RGB holograms are reconstructed optically.

  5. Bacteriorhodopsin: Tunable Optical Nonlinear Magnetic Response

    Bovino, F A; Sibilia, C; Giardina, M; Váró, G; Gergely, C

    2011-01-01

    We report on a strong and tunable magnetic optical nonlinear response of Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) under "off resonance" femtosecond (fs) pulse excitation, by detecting the polarization map of the noncollinear second harmonic signal of an oriented BR film, as a function of the input beam power. BR is a light-driven proton pump with a unique photochemistry initiated by the all trans retinal chromophore embedded in the protein. An elegant application of this photonic molecular machine has been recently found in the new area of optogenetics, where genetic expression of BR in brain cells conferred a light responsivity to the cells enabling thus specific stimulation of neurons. The observed strong tunable magnetic nonlinear response of BR might trigger promising applications in the emerging area of pairing optogenetics and functional magnetic resonance imaging susceptible to provide an unprecedented complete functional mapping of neural circuits.

  6. Advanced in Nonlinear Optics and Laser Research and Development

    The Nonlinear Optics Group (NLOG) at Soreq NRC is engaged in the development of fundamental and applied technology in the related fields of nonlinear optics and laser development. Our work in nonlinear optics started with the goal of improving laser performance. These efforts were successful and opened the way for R and D in nonlinear optics for other applications. Today we use nonlinear optics to enable continuous tunability of lasers, control the path of light beams, modulate a light signal rapidly, provide optical data storage, and supply new means of microscopically probing biological and inorganic samples. Technology maturation and interaction with users will show which aspects of nonlinear optics will make the most impact

  7. Study of negative hydrogen ion beam optics using the 3D3V PIC model

    Miyamoto, K., E-mail: kmiyamot@naruto-u.ac.jp [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima, 772-8502 (Japan); Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522 (Japan); Hanada, M.; Kojima, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1,Mukoyama, Naka, 319-0913 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    The mechanism of negative ion extraction under real conditions with the complex magnetic field is studied by using the 3D PIC simulation code. The extraction region of the negative ion source for the negative ion based neutral beam injection system in fusion reactors is modelled. It is shown that the E x B drift of electrons is caused by the magnetic filter and the electron suppression magnetic field, and the resultant asymmetry of the plasma meniscus. Furthermore, it is indicated that that the asymmetry of the plasma meniscus results in the asymmetry of negative ion beam profile including the beam halo. It could be demonstrated theoretically that the E x B drift is not significantly weakened by the elastic collisions of the electrons with neutral particles.

  8. Study of negative hydrogen ion beam optics using the 3D3V PIC model

    The mechanism of negative ion extraction under real conditions with the complex magnetic field is studied by using the 3D PIC simulation code. The extraction region of the negative ion source for the negative ion based neutral beam injection system in fusion reactors is modelled. It is shown that the E x B drift of electrons is caused by the magnetic filter and the electron suppression magnetic field, and the resultant asymmetry of the plasma meniscus. Furthermore, it is indicated that that the asymmetry of the plasma meniscus results in the asymmetry of negative ion beam profile including the beam halo. It could be demonstrated theoretically that the E x B drift is not significantly weakened by the elastic collisions of the electrons with neutral particles

  9. Optical 3D Nano-fabrication: Drawing or Growing? (Conference Presentation)

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Conventional nanotechnology based on the lithography and scanning probe microscopy is limited to 2D fabrication and modification. Here, I will talk about the method for 3D laser fabrication with two-photon polymerization [1], two-photon isomerization [2], and two-photon photo-reduction [3]. Self-growth technology, such as self-grown fiber structures of polymer [4] and self-grown metallic fractal metamaterials structures [5] will be also discussed. [1] S. Kawata, et. al, Nature 412, 697-698, 2001. [2] S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, Chem Rev. 88, 083110, 2006. [3] Y. -Y. Cao, et. al., Small 5, 1144-1148, 2009 [4] S. Shoji and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 737-739, 1999. [5] N. Takeyasu, N. Nishimura, S. Kawata, submitted.

  10. QUASI-OPTICAL 3-dB HYBRID FOR FUTURE HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    Phase-controlled wave combiners-commutators and isolators for protecting rf sources against reflection from the accelerating structure can be built using a 3-dB hybrid built around a metallic grating used in a ''magic-Y'' configuration. Models of the magic-Y were designed and tested, both at 34.272 GHz using the Omega-P Ka-band magnicon, and at 11.424 GHz using the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon. All elements of the magic-Y were optimized analytically and numerically. A non-vacuum 34 GHz model of the magic Y was built and tested experimentally at a low power. An engineering design for the high power (vacuum) compressor was configured. Similar steps were taken for the 11-GHz version

  11. Optically clearing tissue as an initial step for 3D imaging of core biopsies to diagnose pancreatic cancer

    Das, Ronnie; Agrawal, Aishwarya; Upton, Melissa P.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-02-01

    The pancreas is a deeply seated organ requiring endoscopically, or radiologically guided biopsies for tissue diagnosis. Current approaches include either fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) for cytologic evaluation, or core needle biopsies (CBs), which comprise of tissue cores (L = 1-2 cm, D = 0.4-2.0 mm) for examination by brightfield microscopy. Between procurement and visualization, biospecimens must be processed, sectioned and mounted on glass slides for 2D visualization. Optical information about the native tissue state can be lost with each procedural step and a pathologist cannot appreciate 3D organization from 2D observations of tissue sections 1-8 μm in thickness. Therefore, how might histological disease assessment improve if entire, intact CBs could be imaged in both brightfield and 3D? CBs are mechanically delicate; therefore, a simple device was made to cut intact, simulated CBs (L = 1-2 cm, D = 0.2-0.8 mm) from porcine pancreas. After CBs were laid flat in a chamber, z-stack images at 20x and 40x were acquired through the sample with and without the application of an optical clearing agent (FocusClear®). Intensity of transmitted light increased by 5-15x and islet structures unique to pancreas were clearly visualized 250-300 μm beneath the tissue surface. CBs were then placed in index matching square capillary tubes filled with FocusClear® and a standard optical clearing agent. Brightfield z-stack images were then acquired to present 3D visualization of the CB to the pathologist.

  12. Differential axial contrast of optical sections: laser microtomography and quantitative 3D reconstruction

    Pogorelova, M. A.; Golichenkov, V. A.; Pogorelov, A. G.

    2014-03-01

    Specific features of the quantitative laser microtomography of biological samples are discussed. The method exhibits the main advantages of a confocal microscope (rapid measurement of a stack of parallel optical cross sections and accurate displacement of an object along the optical axis). A relatively high contrast is reached owing to the superposition of pairwise complementary images on neighboring cross sections. A simple and convenient algorithm for image processing does not require additional software and can be computerized using a conventional graphic editor. The applicability of the method is illustrated using volume measurements of a single cell of an early mouse embryo.

  13. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere

  14. Traceability of Height Measurements on Green Sand Molds using Optical 3D Scanning

    Mohaghegh, K.; Yazdanbakhsh, S.A.; Tiedje, N. S.;

    2016-01-01

    (CMM) which is traceable to the meter unit. Optical scanners are increasingly used for dimensional metrology without the risk of damaging the surface, but lack of international standards makes it difficult to establish traceability of their measurements and compare them to tactile instruments...

  15. Polymer optical devices made by reverse and 3D nanoimprint lithography

    Kehagias, Nikolaos; Zelsmann, Marc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.

    2005-06-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), with its apparent simplicity and resolution down to 6 nm, has become an attractive flexible and low-cost technique for nanopatterning of thin films, which themselves act as a mask for further nanofabrication steps, or which can be used as-printed thanks to the functionality of the thin film itself. In this work, we focus on the latter approach and report on our experiments carried out to fabricate organic photonic devices. Silicon stamps, with figures down to 100 nm, are fabricated using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Different fabricated stamps include waveguides, gratings, splitters and interferometers. New fabrication techniques are investigated, namely the combination of NIL with optical lithography and reverse NIL. These two techniques allow producing three-dimensional structures. For the combination of NIL with optical lithography, an original approach is used consisting of a polymer stamp on top of a quartz + metal optical mask. In the case of reverse imprint and multilevel structures, particular attention is paid to adhesion between the stamp, the polymer and the substrate on which the layer is reported. These two techniques are very promising for the fabrication of complex polymer optical devices, like distributed feedback structures, in one step.

  16. Investigation on a replica step gauge for optical 3D scanning of micro parts

    Cantatore, Angela; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.

    2010-01-01

    . The stability over time of the step gauge was evaluated by repetitive measurement campaigns over a period of eight months, using measurements taken with a tactile CMM and with an optical scanner. Surface cooperativeness was investigated by measuring artefact grooves and pitch and comparing results...

  17. Knowledge rule base for the beam optics program TRACE 3-D

    An expert system type of knowledge rule base has been developed for the input parameters used by the particle beam transport program TRACE 3-D. The goal has been to provide the program's user with adequate on-screen information to allow him to initially set up a problem with minimal open-quotes off-lineclose quotes calculations. The focus of this work has been in developing rules for the parameters which define the beam line transport elements. Ten global parameters, the particle mass and charge, beam energy, etc., are used to provide open-quotes expertclose quotes estimates of lower and upper limits for each of the transport element parameters. For example, the limits for the field strength of the quadrupole element are based on a water-cooled, iron-core electromagnet with dimensions derived from practical engineering constraints, and the upper limit for the effective length is scaled with the particle momenta so that initially parallel trajectories do not cross the axis inside the magnet. Limits for the quadrupole doublet and triplet parameters incorporate these rules and additional rules based on stable FODO lattices and bidirectional focusing requirements. The structure of the rule base is outlined and examples for the quadrupole singlet, doublet and triplet are described. The rule base has been implemented within the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) graphical user interface (GUI)

  18. Optical 3D laser measurement system for navigation of autonomous mobile robot

    Básaca-Preciado, Luis C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Rodríguez-Quinonez, Julio C.; García, Xochitl; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Rivas-Lopez, Moises; Hernandez-Balbuena, Daniel; Mercorelli, Paolo; Podrygalo, Mikhail; Gurko, Alexander; Tabakova, Irina; Starostenko, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    In our current research, we are developing a practical autonomous mobile robot navigation system which is capable of performing obstacle avoiding task on an unknown environment. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a robot navigation system which works using a high accuracy localization scheme by dynamic triangulation. Our two main ideas are (1) integration of two principal systems, 3D laser scanning technical vision system (TVS) and mobile robot (MR) navigation system. (2) Novel MR navigation scheme, which allows benefiting from all advantages of precise triangulation localization of the obstacles, mostly over known camera oriented vision systems. For practical use, mobile robots are required to continue their tasks with safety and high accuracy on temporary occlusion condition. Presented in this work, prototype II of TVS is significantly improved over prototype I of our previous publications in the aspects of laser rays alignment, parasitic torque decrease and friction reduction of moving parts. The kinematic model of the MR used in this work is designed considering the optimal data acquisition from the TVS with the main goal of obtaining in real time, the necessary values for the kinematic model of the MR immediately during the calculation of obstacles based on the TVS data.

  19. Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal.

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-10-14

    We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on [Formula: see text] than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation. PMID:27606574

  20. 3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation.

    Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bok; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2015-12-14

    We propose a bar-type three-dimensional holographic head mounted display using two holographic optical elements. Conventional stereoscopic head mounted displays may suffer from eye fatigue because the images presented to each eye are two-dimensional ones, which causes mismatch between the accommodation and vergence responses of the eye. The proposed holographic head mounted display delivers three-dimensional holographic images to each eye, removing the eye fatigue problem. In this paper, we discuss the configuration of the bar-type waveguide head mounted displays and analyze the aberration caused by the non-symmetric diffraction angle of the holographic optical elements which are used as input and output couplers. Pre-distortion of the hologram is also proposed in the paper to compensate the aberration. The experimental results show that proposed head mounted display can present three-dimensional see-through holographic images to each eye with correct focus cues. PMID:26698993

  1. Two-photon imaging of a magneto-fluorescent indicator for 3D optical magnetometry.

    Lee, Hohjai; Brinks, Daan; Cohen, Adam E

    2015-10-19

    We developed an optical method to visualize the three-dimensional distribution of magnetic field strength around magnetic microstructures. We show that the two-photon-excited fluorescence of a chained donor-bridge-acceptor compound, phenanthrene-(CH2)12-O-(CH2)2-N,N-dimethylaniline, is sensitive to ambient magnetic field strength. A test structure is immersed in a solution of the magneto-fluorescent indicator and a custom two-photon microscope maps the fluorescence of this compound. The decay kinetics of the electronic excited state provide a measure of magnetic field that is insensitive to photobleaching, indicator concentration, or local variations in optical excitation or collection efficiency. PMID:26480460

  2. Intensifying the response of distributed optical fibre sensors using 2D and 3D image restoration

    Soto, Marcelo A.; Jaime A. Ramírez; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Distributed optical fibre sensors possess the unique capability of measuring the spatial and temporal map of environmental quantities that can be of great interest for several field applications. Although existing methods for performance enhancement have enabled important progresses in the field, they do not take full advantage of all information present in the measured data, still giving room for substantial improvement over the state-of-the-art. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrat...

  3. Theoretical approaches to incoherent nonlinear optics and their progress

    This review introduces several theoretical approaches to incoherent nonlinear optics, including the methods employing the mutual coherence function, coherent density, self-consistent multimode theory, Wigner's transform, ray-optics, and thermokinetics. We shall focus on the recently developed thermokinetic approach. A comprehensive understanding of these theoretical methods will be valuable in our studies of' incoherent nonlinear effects, and also helpful for the development and improvement of the theories of incoherent nonlinear optics. (authors)

  4. Data Assimilation of Lightning using 1D+3D/4D WRF Var Assimilation Schemes with Non-Linear Observation Operators

    Navon, M. I.; Stefanescu, R.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Marchand, M.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's launch of the GOES-R Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 will provide continuous, full disc, high resolution total lightning (IC + CG) data. The data will be available at a horizontal resolution of approximately 9 km. Compared to other types of data, the assimilation of lightning data into operational numerical models has received relatively little attention. Previous efforts of lightning assimilation mostly have employed nudging. This paper will describe the implementation of 1D+3D/4D Var assimilation schemes of existing ground-based WTLN (Worldwide Total Lightning Network) lightning observations using non-linear observation operators in the incremental WRFDA system. To mimic the expected output of GLM, the WTLN data were used to generate lightning super-observations characterized by flash rates/81 km2/20 min. A major difficulty associated with variational approaches is the complexity of the observation operator that defines the model equivalent of lightning. We use Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) as a proxy between lightning data and model variables. This operator is highly nonlinear. Marecal and Mahfouf (2003) have shown that nonlinearities can prevent direct assimilation of rainfall rates in the ECMWF 4D-VAR (using the incremental formulation proposed by Courtier et al. (1994)) from being successful. Using data from the 2011 Tuscaloosa, AL tornado outbreak, we have proved that the direct assimilation of lightning data into the WRF 3D/4D - Var systems is limited due to this incremental approach. Severe threshold limits must be imposed on the innovation vectors to obtain an improved analysis. We have implemented 1D+3D/4D Var schemes to assimilate lightning observations into the WRF model. Their use avoids innovation vector constrains from preventing the inclusion of a greater number of lightning observations Their use also minimizes the problem that nonlinearities in the moist convective scheme can introduce discontinuities in the cost function

  5. Small-Field Measurements of 3D Polymer Gel Dosimeters through Optical Computed Tomography

    Shih, Cheng-Ting; Lee, Yao-Ting; Wu, Shin-Hua; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    With advances in therapeutic instruments and techniques, three-dimensional dose delivery has been widely used in radiotherapy. The verification of dose distribution in a small field becomes critical because of the obvious dose gradient within the field. The study investigates the dose distributions of various field sizes by using NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter. The dosimeter consists of 5% gelatin, 5% monomers, 3% cross linkers, and 5 mM THPC. After irradiation, a 24 to 96 hour delay was applied, and the gel dosimeters were read by a cone beam optical computed tomography (optical CT) scanner. The dose distributions measured by the NIPAM gel dosimeter were compared to the outputs of the treatment planning system using gamma evaluation. For the criteria of 3%/3 mm, the pass rates for 5 × 5, 3 × 3, 2 × 2, 1 × 1, and 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 were as high as 91.7%, 90.7%, 88.2%, 74.8%, and 37.3%, respectively. For the criteria of 5%/5 mm, the gamma pass rates of the 5 × 5, 3 × 3, and 2 × 2 cm2 fields were over 99%. The NIPAM gel dosimeter provides high chemical stability. With cone-beam optical CT readouts, the NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter has potential for clinical dose verification of small-field irradiation. PMID:26974434

  6. 3D laser inspection of fuel assembly grid spacers for nuclear reactors based on diffractive optical elements

    Finogenov, L. V.; Lemeshko, Yu A.; Zav'yalov, P. S.; Chugui, Yu V.

    2007-06-01

    Ensuring the safety and high operation reliability of nuclear reactors takes 100% inspection of geometrical parameters of fuel assemblies, which include the grid spacers performed as a cellular structure with fuel elements. The required grid spacer geometry of assembly in the transverse and longitudinal cross sections is extremely important for maintaining the necessary heat regime. A universal method for 3D grid spacer inspection using a diffractive optical element (DOE), which generates as the structural illumination a multiple-ring pattern on the inner surface of a grid spacer cell, is investigated. Using some DOEs one can inspect the nomenclature of all produced grids. A special objective has been developed for forming the inner surface cell image. The problems of diffractive elements synthesis, projecting optics calculation, adjusting methods as well as calibration of the experimental measuring system are considered. The algorithms for image processing for different constructive elements of grids (cell, channel hole, outer grid spacer rim) and the experimental results are presented.

  7. Electronic structure and optical property of 3d transition metal doped (5,5) boron nitride nanotube

    The electronic structure and magnetic and optical properties of a 3d transition metal M (M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe) doped (5,5) boron nitride (B19MN20) nanotube are investigated by using the first-principles projector augmented wave potential within density functional theory under the generalized gradient approximation. It is found that B19VN20 and B19MnN20 systems are ideal candidates for spintronic applications, and the B19CrN20 system seems to be a promising diluted magnetic semiconductor. The analyses of optical dielectric functions show that B19CrN20 exhibits a new main peak at about 0.3 eV, and thus may be utilized in fields that are associated with infrared technology, such as infrared detectors, infrared masers, and so on. (orig.)

  8. Diffraction of Gaussian beam in 3D smoothly inhomogeneous media: eikonal-based complex geometrical optics approach

    Berczynski, P; Kravtsov, Y A; Stateczny, A; Kravtsov, Yu.A.

    2005-01-01

    A simple and effective method based on the eikonal form of complex geometrical optics is presented to describe scalar Gaussian beams propagation and diffraction in arbitrary 3D smoothly inhomogeneous medium. Similarly to paraxial WKB approach the method reduces the wave problem to a set of ordinary differential equations of Riccati type. This substantially simplifies the solution as compared to full wave or quasy-optics equations. The method assumes the complex eikonal equation to be solved in paraxial approximation in curvilinear coordinate frame, which is associated with the central ray of the beam and performs Levi-Civita parallel transport. In this way the system of Riccati-type equations is obtained for complex parameters, which characterize both the beam cross-section and the shape of the phase front. For Gaussian beam propagating in homogeneous medium or along the symmetry axis in lens-like medium, these equations possess analytical solutions, otherwise they can be readily solved numerically. In contra...

  9. Analysis and theoretical description of a number of atomic systems with optical 3d-electrons

    The goal of the investigation was to obtain knowledge of spectra of multiple ionized atoms in which 3d electrons play an important role. Two vacuum spectrographs were used: a 6.650 m normal incidence spectrograph for the region 400 A < lambda < 2400 A and a 6.600 m grazing incidence spectrograph for the region below 600 A. In the first five chapters the classification of several thousands of lines in the spectra Co V, Ni V, Cu V, Ni VI and Cu VI is given together with the determination of levels in the 3dsup(n), 3dsup(n-1)4s and 3dsup(n-1)4p configurations in these spectra. The position of the levels has been calculated by means of the parameter method. The calculated level values have been fitted to the experimentally determined values by means of a least squares fit procedure, resulting in optimum parameter values. The parameter values of this final diagonalization have been compared with each other along the sequence Cr-Cu for the 2-5 times ionized atoms. This comparison is discussed in chapter VI. In the last chapter (VII) the application of data, obtained from the analyses of spectra of Fe and Ni ions is considered in the field of astrophysics. The presence of forbidden lines, due to magnetic dipole transitions, of Fe IV, V, VI and VII and Ni IV, V, VI and VII in the spectra of the variable stars RR Telescopii and Eta Carinae is discussed. (Auth.)

  10. All-optical 3D atomic loops generated with Bessel light fields

    Volke-Sepulveda, K

    2008-01-01

    The propagation invariance of Bessel beams as well as their transversal structure are used to perform a comparative analysis of their effect on cold atoms for four different configurations and combinations thereof. We show that, even at temperatures for which the classical description of the atom center of mass motion is valid, the interchange of momentum, energy and orbital angular momentum between light and atoms yields efficient tools for all-optical trapping, transporting and, in general, manipulating the state of motion of cold atoms.

  11. All-optical 3D atomic loops generated with Bessel light fields

    Volke-Sepulveda, Karen; Jauregui, RocIo [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, Mexico 01000 D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: karen@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: rocio@fisica.unam.mx

    2009-04-28

    The propagation invariance of Bessel beams as well as their transversal structure is used to perform a comparative analysis of their effect on cold atoms for four different configurations and combinations thereof. We show that, even at temperatures for which the classical description of the atom's centre-of-mass motion is valid, the interchange of momentum, energy and orbital angular momentum between light and atoms yields efficient tools for all-optical trapping, transporting and, in general, manipulating the state of motion of cold atoms.

  12. All-optical 3D atomic loops generated with Bessel light fields

    The propagation invariance of Bessel beams as well as their transversal structure is used to perform a comparative analysis of their effect on cold atoms for four different configurations and combinations thereof. We show that, even at temperatures for which the classical description of the atom's centre-of-mass motion is valid, the interchange of momentum, energy and orbital angular momentum between light and atoms yields efficient tools for all-optical trapping, transporting and, in general, manipulating the state of motion of cold atoms.

  13. Coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms in a 3D optical lattice

    Wang, Yang; Corcovilos, Theodore A; Kumar, Aishwarya; Weiss, David S

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate arbitrary coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms in a $5\\times 5\\times 5$ array formed by an optical lattice. Addressing is accomplished using rapidly reconfigurable crossed laser beams to selectively ac Stark shift target atoms, so that only target atoms are resonant with state-changing microwaves. The effect of these targeted single qubit gates on the quantum information stored in non-targeted atoms is smaller than $3\\times 10^{-3}$ in state fidelity. This is an important step along the path of converting the scalability promise of neutral atoms into reality.

  14. Phase-retrieved optical projection tomography for 3D imaging through scattering layers

    Ancora, Daniele; Di Battista, Diego; Giasafaki, Georgia; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Liapis, Evangelos; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2016-03-01

    Recently great progress has been made in biological and biomedical imaging by combining non-invasive optical methods, novel adaptive light manipulation and computational techniques for intensity-based phase recovery and three dimensional image reconstruction. In particular and in relation to the work presented here, Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) is a well-established technique for imaging mostly transparent absorbing biological models such as C. Elegans and Danio Rerio. On the contrary, scattering layers like the cocoon surrounding the Drosophila during the pupae stage constitutes a challenge for three dimensional imaging through such a complex structure. However, recent studies enabled image reconstruction through scattering curtains up to few transport mean free paths via phase retrieval iterative algorithms allowing to uncover objects hidden behind complex layers. By combining these two techniques we explore the possibility to perform a three dimensional image reconstruction of fluorescent objects embedded between scattering layers without compromising its structural integrity. Dynamical cross correlation registration was implemented for the registration process due to translational and flipping ambiguity of the phase retrieval problem, in order to provide the correct aligned set of data to perform the back-projection reconstruction. We have thus managed to reconstruct a hidden complex object between static scattering curtains and compared with the effective reconstruction to fully understand the process before the in-vivo biological implementation.

  15. Laser electro-optic system for rapid three-dimensional /3-D/ topographic mapping of surfaces

    Altschuler, M. D.; Altschuler, B. R.; Taboada, J.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the generic utility of a robot in a factory/assembly environment could be substantially enhanced by providing a vision capability to the robot. A standard videocamera for robot vision provides a two-dimensional image which contains insufficient information for a detailed three-dimensional reconstruction of an object. Approaches which supply the additional information needed for the three-dimensional mapping of objects with complex surface shapes are briefly considered and a description is presented of a laser-based system which can provide three-dimensional vision to a robot. The system consists of a laser beam array generator, an optical image recorder, and software for controlling the required operations. The projection of a laser beam array onto a surface produces a dot pattern image which is viewed from one or more suitable perspectives. Attention is given to the mathematical method employed, the space coding technique, the approaches used for obtaining the transformation parameters, the optics for laser beam array generation, the hardware for beam array coding, and aspects of image acquisition.

  16. Dimensionality Reduction Based Optimization Algorithm for Sparse 3-D Image Reconstruction in Diffuse Optical Tomography

    Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Liu, Hanli; Ye, Zhou; Oraintara, Soontorn

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a relatively low cost and portable imaging modality for reconstruction of optical properties in a highly scattering medium, such as human tissue. The inverse problem in DOT is highly ill-posed, making reconstruction of high-quality image a critical challenge. Because of the nature of sparsity in DOT, sparsity regularization has been utilized to achieve high-quality DOT reconstruction. However, conventional approaches using sparse optimization are computationally expensive and have no selection criteria to optimize the regularization parameter. In this paper, a novel algorithm, Dimensionality Reduction based Optimization for DOT (DRO-DOT), is proposed. It reduces the dimensionality of the inverse DOT problem by reducing the number of unknowns in two steps and thereby makes the overall process fast. First, it constructs a low resolution voxel basis based on the sensing-matrix properties to find an image support. Second, it reconstructs the sparse image inside this support. To compensate for the reduced sensitivity with increasing depth, depth compensation is incorporated in DRO-DOT. An efficient method to optimally select the regularization parameter is proposed for obtaining a high-quality DOT image. DRO-DOT is also able to reconstruct high-resolution images even with a limited number of optodes in a spatially limited imaging set-up.

  17. Optical phase conjugation assisted scattering lens: variable focusing and 3D patterning

    Ryu, Jihee; Jang, Mooseok; Eom, Tae Joong; Yang, Changhuei; Chung, Euiheon

    2016-04-01

    Variable light focusing is the ability to flexibly select the focal distance of a lens. This feature presents technical challenges, but is significant for optical interrogation of three-dimensional objects. Numerous lens designs have been proposed to provide flexible light focusing, including zoom, fluid, and liquid-crystal lenses. Although these lenses are useful for macroscale applications, they have limited utility in micron-scale applications due to restricted modulation range and exacting requirements for fabrication and control. Here, we present a holographic focusing method that enables variable light focusing without any physical modification to the lens element. In this method, a scattering layer couples low-angle (transverse wave vector) components into a full angular spectrum, and a digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) system characterizes and plays back the wavefront that focuses through the scattering layer. We demonstrate micron-scale light focusing and patterning over a wide range of focal distances of 22–51 mm. The interferometric nature of the focusing scheme also enables an aberration-free scattering lens. The proposed method provides a unique variable focusing capability for imaging thick specimens or selective photoactivation of neuronal networks.

  18. Recent advances in dental optics - Part I: 3D intraoral scanners for restorative dentistry

    Logozzo, Silvia; Zanetti, Elisabetta M.; Franceschini, Giordano; Kilpelä, Ari; Mäkynen, Anssi

    2014-03-01

    Intra-oral scanning technology is a very fast-growing field in dentistry since it responds to the need of an accurate three-dimensional mapping of the mouth, as required in a large number of procedures such as restorative dentistry and orthodontics. Nowadays, more than 10 intra-oral scanning devices for restorative dentistry have been developed all over the world even if only some of those devices are currently available on the market. All the existing intraoral scanners try to face with problems and disadvantages of traditional impression fabrication process and are based on different non-contact optical technologies and principles. The aim of this publication is to provide an extensive review of existing intraoral scanners for restorative dentistry evaluating their working principles, features and performances.

  19. Optical non-invasive 3D characterization of pottery of pre-colonial Paranaiba valley tribes

    Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.

    2014-08-01

    Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.

  20. Toward acquiring comprehensive radiosurgery field commissioning data using the PRESAGE/optical-CT 3D dosimetry system

    Clift, Corey; Thomas, Andrew; Chang Zheng; Oldham, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Adamovics, John [Department of Chemistry, Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States); Das, Indra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)], E-mail: cclift@montefiore.org

    2010-03-07

    Achieving accurate small field dosimetry is challenging. This study investigates the utility of a radiochromic plastic PRESAGE read with optical-CT for the acquisition of radiosurgery field commissioning data from a Novalis Tx system with a high-definition multileaf collimator (HDMLC). Total scatter factors (S{sub c,p}), beam profiles, and penumbrae were measured for five different radiosurgery fields (5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm) using a commercially available optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS, MGS Research). The percent depth dose (PDD), beam profile and penumbra of the 10 mm field were also measured using a higher resolution in-house prototype CCD-based scanner. Gafchromic EBT film was used for independent verification. Measurements of S{sub c,p} made with PRESAGE and film agreed with mini-ion chamber commissioning data to within 4% for every field (range 0.2-3.6% for PRESAGE, and 1.6-3.6% for EBT). PDD, beam profile and penumbra measurements made with the two PRESAGE/optical-CT systems and film showed good agreement with the high-resolution diode commissioning measurements with a competitive resolution (0.5 mm pixels). The in-house prototype optical-CT scanner allowed much finer resolution compared with previous applications of PRESAGE. The advantages of the PRESAGE (registered) system for small field dosimetry include 3D measurements, negligible volume averaging, directional insensitivity, an absence of beam perturbations, energy and dose rate independence.

  1. Toward acquiring comprehensive radiosurgery field commissioning data using the PRESAGE/optical-CT 3D dosimetry system

    Achieving accurate small field dosimetry is challenging. This study investigates the utility of a radiochromic plastic PRESAGE read with optical-CT for the acquisition of radiosurgery field commissioning data from a Novalis Tx system with a high-definition multileaf collimator (HDMLC). Total scatter factors (Sc,p), beam profiles, and penumbrae were measured for five different radiosurgery fields (5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm) using a commercially available optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS, MGS Research). The percent depth dose (PDD), beam profile and penumbra of the 10 mm field were also measured using a higher resolution in-house prototype CCD-based scanner. Gafchromic EBT film was used for independent verification. Measurements of Sc,p made with PRESAGE and film agreed with mini-ion chamber commissioning data to within 4% for every field (range 0.2-3.6% for PRESAGE, and 1.6-3.6% for EBT). PDD, beam profile and penumbra measurements made with the two PRESAGE/optical-CT systems and film showed good agreement with the high-resolution diode commissioning measurements with a competitive resolution (0.5 mm pixels). The in-house prototype optical-CT scanner allowed much finer resolution compared with previous applications of PRESAGE. The advantages of the PRESAGE (registered) system for small field dosimetry include 3D measurements, negligible volume averaging, directional insensitivity, an absence of beam perturbations, energy and dose rate independence.

  2. 3D reconstruction of the optic nerve head using stereo fundus images for computer-aided diagnosis of glaucoma

    Tang, Li; Kwon, Young H.; Alward, Wallace L. M.; Greenlee, Emily C.; Lee, Kyungmoo; Garvin, Mona K.; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2010-03-01

    The shape of the optic nerve head (ONH) is reconstructed automatically using stereo fundus color images by a robust stereo matching algorithm, which is needed for a quantitative estimate of the amount of nerve fiber loss for patients with glaucoma. Compared to natural scene stereo, fundus images are noisy because of the limits on illumination conditions and imperfections of the optics of the eye, posing challenges to conventional stereo matching approaches. In this paper, multi scale pixel feature vectors which are robust to noise are formulated using a combination of both pixel intensity and gradient features in scale space. Feature vectors associated with potential correspondences are compared with a disparity based matching score. The deep structures of the optic disc are reconstructed with a stack of disparity estimates in scale space. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) data was collected at the same time, and depth information from 3D segmentation was registered with the stereo fundus images to provide the ground truth for performance evaluation. In experiments, the proposed algorithm produces estimates for the shape of the ONH that are close to the OCT based shape, and it shows great potential to help computer-aided diagnosis of glaucoma and other related retinal diseases.

  3. Two Means of Compensating Fiber Nonlinearity Using Optical Phase Conjugation

    Wei, Haiqing; Plant, David V.

    2003-01-01

    Two fiber lines may compensate each other for nonlinearity with the help of optical phase conjugation. The pair of fiber lines and the optical signals in them may be either mirror-symmetric or translationally symmetric about the conjugator.

  4. A New Energy-Based Method for 3-D Finite-Element Nonlinear Flux Linkage computation of Electrical Machines

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    introduced in this paper is much easier to use and is computational faster. This method is derived based on the “apparent energy.” Calculation of the nonlinear flux linkage from this energy avoids numerical differentiation, which is sensitive to numerical errors but is required in the traditional energy...

  5. Nonlinear 3-D Microwave Imaging for Breast-Cancer Screening: Log, Phase, and Log-Phase Formulation

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, Johan Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    The imaging algorithm used in the 3-D microwave imaging system for breast cancer screening, currently being developed at the Technical University of Denmark, is based on an iterative Newton-type algorithm. In this algorithm, the distribution of the electromagnetic constitutive parameters is updated...... their amplitudes and their unwrapped phases. In this paper, simplifications of the log-phase formulation are proposed, namely the log formulation, in which only the logarithm of the amplitudes are used, and the phase formulation, in which only the unwrapped phases are used. These formulations allow for...

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Fiber-Optic Grip Force Sensor with Compliant 3D-Printable Structure for (fMRI Applications

    Tobias L. Bützer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grip force sensors compatible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are used in human motor control and decision-making research, providing objective and sensitive behavioral outcome measures. Commercial sensors are expensive, cover limited force ranges, rely on pneumatic force transmission that cannot detect fast force changes, or are electrically active, which increases the risk of electromagnetic interference. We present the design and evaluation of a low-cost, 3D-printed, inherently MRI-compatible grip force sensor based on a commercial intensity-based fiber-optic sensor. A compliant monobloc structure with flexible hinges transduces grip force to a linear displacement captured by the fiber-optic sensor. The structure can easily be adapted for different force ranges by changing the hinge thickness. A prototype designed for forces up to 800 N was manufactured and showed a highly linear behavior (nonlinearity of 2.37% and an accuracy of 1.57% in a range between zero and 500 N. It can be printed and assembled within one day and for less than $300. Accurate performance was confirmed, both inside and outside a 3 T MRI scanner within a pilot study. Given its simple design allowing for customization of sensing properties and ergonomics for different applications and requirements, the proposed grip force handle offers researchers a valuable scientific tool.

  7. Giant nonlinear optical activity in a plasmonic metamaterial

    Ren, Mengxin; Plum, Eric; Xu, Jingjun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2012-05-01

    In 1950, a quarter of a century after his first-ever nonlinear optical experiment when intensity-dependent absorption was observed in uranium-doped glass, Sergey Vavilov predicted that birefringence, dichroism and polarization rotatory power should be dependent on light intensity. It required the invention of the laser to observe the barely detectable effect of light intensity on the polarization rotatory power of the optically active lithium iodate crystal, the phenomenon now known as the nonlinear optical activity, a high-intensity counterpart of the fundamental optical effect of polarization rotation in chiral media. Here we report that a plasmonic metamaterial exhibits nonlinear optical activity 30 million times stronger than lithium iodate crystals, thus transforming this fundamental phenomenon of polarization nonlinear optics from an esoteric phenomenon into a major effect of nonlinear plasmonics with potential for practical applications.

  8. Optical bistability in a nonlinear-shell-coated metallic nanoparticle

    Hongli Chen; Youming Zhang; Baile Zhang; Lei Gao

    2016-01-01

    We provide a self-consistent mean field approximation in the framework of Mie scattering theory to study the optical bistability of a metallic nanoparticle coated with a nonlinear shell. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coated with a weakly nonlinear shell exhibits optical bistability in a broad range of incident optical intensity. This optical bistability critically relies on the geometry of the shell-coated nanoparticle, especially the fractional volume of the metallic core. The inciden...

  9. 3D optical imagery for motion compensation in a limb ultrasound system

    Ranger, Bryan J.; Feigin, Micha; Zhang, Xiang; Mireault, Al; Raskar, Ramesh; Herr, Hugh M.; Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Conventional processes for prosthetic socket fabrication are heavily subjective, often resulting in an interface to the human body that is neither comfortable nor completely functional. With nearly 100% of amputees reporting that they experience discomfort with the wearing of their prosthetic limb, designing an effective interface to the body can significantly affect quality of life and future health outcomes. Active research in medical imaging and biomechanical tissue modeling of residual limbs has led to significant advances in computer aided prosthetic socket design, demonstrating an interest in moving toward more quantifiable processes that are still patient-specific. In our work, medical ultrasonography is being pursued to acquire data that may quantify and improve the design process and fabrication of prosthetic sockets while greatly reducing cost compared to an MRI-based framework. This paper presents a prototype limb imaging system that uses a medical ultrasound probe, mounted to a mechanical positioning system and submerged in a water bath. The limb imaging is combined with three-dimensional optical imaging for motion compensation. Images are collected circumferentially around the limb and combined into cross-sectional axial image slices, resulting in a compound image that shows tissue distributions and anatomical boundaries similar to magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper we provide a progress update on our system development, along with preliminary results as we move toward full volumetric imaging of residual limbs for prosthetic socket design. This demonstrates a novel multi-modal approach to residual limb imaging.

  10. 3D printed broadband transformation optics based all-dielectric microwave lenses

    Yi, Jianjia; Nawaz Burokur, Shah; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André

    2016-04-01

    Quasi-conformal transformation optics is applied to design electromagnetic devices for focusing and collimating applications at microwave frequencies. Two devices are studied and conceived by solving Laplace’s equation that describes the deformation of a medium in a space transformation. As validation examples, material parameters of two different lenses are derived from the analytical solutions of Laplace’s equation. The first lens is applied to produce an overall directive in-phase emission from an array of sources conformed on a cylindrical structure. The second lens allows deflecting a directive beam to an off-normal direction. Full-wave simulations are performed to verify the functionality of the calculated lenses. Prototypes presenting a graded refractive index are fabricated through three-dimensional polyjet printing using solely dielectric materials. Experimental measurements carried out show very good agreement with numerical simulations, thereby validating the proposed lenses. Such easily realizable designs open the way to low-cost all-dielectric microwave lenses for beam forming and collimation.

  11. ELTs Adaptive Optics for Multi-Objects 3D Spectroscopy Key Parameters and Design Rules

    Neichel, B; Fusco, T; Gendron, E; Puech, M; Rousset, G; Hammer, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last few years, new Adaptive Optics [AO] techniques have emerged to answer new astronomical challenges: Ground-Layer AO [GLAO] and Multi-Conjugate AO [MCAO] to access a wider Field of View [FoV], Multi-Object AO [MOAO] for the simultaneous observation of several faint galaxies, eXtreme AO [XAO] for the detection of faint companions. In this paper, we focus our study to one of these applications : high red-shift galaxy observations using MOAO techniques in the framework of Extremely Large Telescopes [ELTs]. We present the high-level specifications of a dedicated instrument. We choose to describe the scientific requirements with the following criteria : 40% of Ensquared Energy [EE] in H band (1.65um) and in an aperture size from 25 to 150 mas. Considering these specifications we investigate different AO solutions thanks to Fourier based simulations. Sky Coverage [SC] is computed for Natural and Laser Guide Stars [NGS, LGS] systems. We show that specifications are met for NGS-based systems at the cost of ...

  12. Integration of an optical fiber taper with an optical microresonator fabricated in glass by femtosecond laser 3D micromachining

    Song, Jiangxin; Tang, Jialei; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    We report on fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality factor (i. e., Q-factor of ~3.24x10^6 measured under the critical coupling condition) using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. Coupling of light into and out of the microresonator has been realized with a fiber taper that is reliably assembled with the microtoroid. The assembly of the fiber taper to the microtoroid is achieved by welding the fiber taper onto the sidewall of the microtoroid using CO2 laser irradiation. The integrated microresonator maintains a high Q-factor of 3.21x10^5 as measured in air.

  13. 3D registration of intravascular optical coherence tomography and cryo-image volumes for microscopic-resolution validation

    Prabhu, David; Mehanna, Emile; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Wen, Di; Brandt, Eric; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S.; Chamie, Daniel; Yamamoto, Hirosada; Fujino, Yusuke; Farmazilian, Ali; Patel, Jaymin; Costa, Marco; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    High resolution, 100 frames/sec intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) can distinguish plaque types, but further validation is needed, especially for automated plaque characterization. We developed experimental and 3D registration methods, to provide validation of IVOCT pullback volumes using microscopic, brightfield and fluorescent cryoimage volumes, with optional, exactly registered cryo-histology. The innovation was a method to match an IVOCT pullback images, acquired in the catheter reference frame, to a true 3D cryo-image volume. Briefly, an 11-parameter, polynomial virtual catheter was initialized within the cryo-image volume, and perpendicular images were extracted, mimicking IVOCT image acquisition. Virtual catheter parameters were optimized to maximize cryo and IVOCT lumen overlap. Local minima were possible, but when we started within reasonable ranges, every one of 24 digital phantom cases converged to a good solution with a registration error of only +1.34+/-2.65μm (signed distance). Registration was applied to 10 ex-vivo cadaver coronary arteries (LADs), resulting in 10 registered cryo and IVOCT volumes yielding a total of 421 registered 2D-image pairs. Image overlays demonstrated high continuity between vascular and plaque features. Bland- Altman analysis comparing cryo and IVOCT lumen area, showed mean and standard deviation of differences as 0.01+/-0.43 mm2. DICE coefficients were 0.91+/-0.04. Finally, visual assessment on 20 representative cases with easily identifiable features suggested registration accuracy within one frame of IVOCT (+/-200μm), eliminating significant misinterpretations introduced by 1mm errors in the literature. The method will provide 3D data for training of IVOCT plaque algorithms and can be used for validation of other intravascular imaging modalities.

  14. Symposium on New Materials for Nonlinear Optics

    Marder, Seth R.

    1991-01-01

    The New Materials for Nonlinear Optics Symposium was held at the American Chemical Society National Meeting, in Boston on April 22 to 26, 1990. The meeting was a success. Throughout the week the average attendance was over 150 people/session. Several speakers had attendance over 300. The ACS organized a press conference about the meeting, held on Wednesday April 25, 1990 at 2 pm. At the time, the organizers devoted considerable time to educating the press about the importance of NLO research and the potential impact the NLO devices will have on the average person. The American Chemical Society is publishing an ACS Symposium Series monograph edited by the symposium organizers, to provide a permanent record of the proceeding of this meeting.

  15. Nonlinear Optical Image Processing with Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    Downie, John D.; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin film spatial light modulators are uniquely suited to allow nonlinear optical image processing operations to be applied to images with multiplicative noise characteristics. A logarithmic amplitude transmission feature of the film permits the conversion of multiplicative noise to additive noise, which may then be linearly filtered out in the Fourier plane of the transformed image. The bacteriorhodopsin film displays the logarithmic amplitude response for write beam intensities spanning a dynamic range greater than 2.0 orders of magnitude. We present experimental results demonstrating the principle and capability for several different image and noise situations, including deterministic noise and speckle. Using the bacteriorhodopsin film, we successfully filter out image noise from the transformed image that cannot be removed from the original image.

  16. Nonlinear coarse mesh finite difference method based on 3D coupled nodal expansion solution within one-node kernel

    This paper represents a three dimensional nonlinear nodal method to solve the coupled three transverse integrated neutron diffusion equations simultaneously in the one-node kernel. The three transverse integrated neutron diffusion equations are coupled through the transverse leakage terms. Given the incoming partial boundary conditions specified at six node surfaces, the node average fluxes and the surface outgoing currents are solved for at the same time. This method will be useful for the local internal boundary problem or the global-local iteration method. The proposed method is derived representing the intra node neutron distribution with a nodal expansion solution. To verify the accuracy and computing time, it is implied in the MASTER code and tested for the initial steady state of NEACRP A1 problem. The result shows that the same solution with those of the nodal expansion method and nonlinear nodal expansion method

  17. Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil

    Souza, Rogério F.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2009-09-01

    The nonlocal nonlinearity of castor oil was investigated using the Z-scan technique in the CW regime at 514 nm and in femtosecond regime at 810 nm. Large negative nonlinear refractive indexes of thermal origin, thermo-optical coefficients and degree of nonlocality were obtained for both laser excitation wavelengths. The results indicate that the electronic part of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption were negligible. Our results suggest that castor oil is promising candidate as a nonlinear medium for several nonlocal optical applications, such as in spatial soliton propagation, as well as a dispersant agent in the measurement of absorptive properties of nanoparticles.

  18. Simulation of 3D parachute fluid–structure interaction based on nonlinear finite element method and preconditioning finite volume method

    Fan Yuxin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluid–structure interaction method combining a nonlinear finite element algorithm with a preconditioning finite volume method is proposed in this paper to simulate parachute transient dynamics. This method uses a three-dimensional membrane–cable fabric model to represent a parachute system at a highly folded configuration. The large shape change during parachute inflation is computed by the nonlinear Newton–Raphson iteration and the linear system equation is solved by the generalized minimal residual (GMRES method. A membrane wrinkling algorithm is also utilized to evaluate the special uniaxial tension state of membrane elements on the parachute canopy. In order to avoid large time expenses during structural nonlinear iteration, the implicit Hilber–Hughes–Taylor (HHT time integration method is employed. For the fluid dynamic simulations, the Roe and HLLC (Harten–Lax–van Leer contact scheme has been modified and extended to compute flow problems at all speeds. The lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS approximate factorization is applied to accelerate the numerical convergence speed. Finally, the test model of a highly folded C-9 parachute is simulated at a prescribed speed and the results show similar characteristics compared with experimental results and previous literature.

  19. Simulation of 3D parachute fluid-structure interaction based on nonlinear finite element method and preconditioning finite volume method

    Fan Yuxin; Xia Jian

    2014-01-01

    A fluid–structure interaction method combining a nonlinear finite element algorithm with a preconditioning finite volume method is proposed in this paper to simulate parachute tran-sient dynamics. This method uses a three-dimensional membrane–cable fabric model to represent a parachute system at a highly folded configuration. The large shape change during parachute infla-tion is computed by the nonlinear Newton–Raphson iteration and the linear system equation is solved by the generalized minimal residual (GMRES) method. A membrane wrinkling algorithm is also utilized to evaluate the special uniaxial tension state of membrane elements on the parachute canopy. In order to avoid large time expenses during structural nonlinear iteration, the implicit Hil-ber–Hughes–Taylor (HHT) time integration method is employed. For the fluid dynamic simula-tions, the Roe and HLLC (Harten–Lax–van Leer contact) scheme has been modified and extended to compute flow problems at all speeds. The lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS) approximate factorization is applied to accelerate the numerical convergence speed. Finally, the test model of a highly folded C-9 parachute is simulated at a prescribed speed and the results show similar characteristics compared with experimental results and previous literature.

  20. An analogue contact probe using a compact 3D optical sensor for micro/nano coordinate measuring machines

    This paper presents a new analogue contact probe based on a compact 3D optical sensor with high precision. The sensor comprises an autocollimator and a polarizing Michelson interferometer, which can detect two angles and one displacement of the plane mirror at the same time. In this probe system, a tungsten stylus with a ruby tip-ball is attached to a floating plate, which is supported by four V-shape leaf springs fixed to the outer case. When a contact force is applied to the tip, the leaf springs will experience elastic deformation and the plane mirror mounted on the floating plate will be displaced. The force–motion characteristics of this probe were investigated and optimum parameters were obtained with the constraint of allowable physical size of the probe. Simulation results show that the probe is uniform in 3D and its contacting force gradient is within 1 mN µm − 1. Experimental results indicate that the probe has 1 nm resolution,  ± 10 µm measuring range in X − Y plane, 10 µm measuring range in Z direction and within 30 nm measuring standard deviation. The feasibility of the probe has been preliminarily verified by testing the flatness and step height of high precision gauge blocks. (paper)

  1. Numerical nonlinear complex geometrical optics algorithm for the 3D Calderón problem

    Delbary, Fabrice; Knudsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Calderon problem is the mathematical formulation of the inverse problem in Electrical Impedance Tomography and asks for the uniqueness and reconstruction of an electrical conductivity distribution in a bounded domain from the knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map associated to the...

  2. A Photonic Basis for Deriving Nonlinear Optical Response

    Andrews, David L.; Bradshaw, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is generally first presented as an extension of conventional optics. Typically the subject is introduced with reference to a classical oscillatory electric polarization, accommodating correction terms that become significant at high intensities. The material parameters that quantify the extent of the nonlinear response are cast as…

  3. Study of Nonpolaritons in a Kerr Nonlinear Optical Resonator

    WAN Jin-Yin; CHENG Ze

    2006-01-01

    We find that in a Kerr nonlinear optical resonator, the photon system possesses a new kind of quasiparticle,the nonpolariton. The existence of nonpolaritons should be testified by observing the energy density dependence of the velocity and squeezing of nonpolaritons. As we have investigated, the transition energy density of a Kerr nonlinear optical resonator is larger than that of a normal state.

  4. Formation of Optical Solitons in Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    兰胜; 陈雄文

    2004-01-01

    Relying on the huge group velocity dispersion available in photonic crystal (PC) waveguides, we observe the formation of both Bragg grating solitons and gap solitons in nonlinear PC waveguides in numericalexperiments. Also,we indicate the potential applications of optical solitons in optical limiting, optical delay, and pulse compression and the feasibility of observing optical solitons in practical experiments.

  5. Modeling seismic wave propagation and amplification in 1D/2D/3D linear and nonlinear unbounded media

    Semblat, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    To analyze seismic wave propagation in geological structures, it is possible to consider various numerical approaches: the finite difference method, the spectral element method, the boundary element method, the finite element method, the finite volume method, etc. All these methods have various advantages and drawbacks. The amplification of seismic waves in surface soil layers is mainly due to the velocity contrast between these layers and, possibly, to topographic effects around crests and hills. The influence of the geometry of alluvial basins on the amplification process is also know to be large. Nevertheless, strong heterogeneities and complex geometries are not easy to take into account with all numerical methods. 2D/3D models are needed in many situations and the efficiency/accuracy of the numerical methods in such cases is in question. Furthermore, the radiation conditions at infinity are not easy to handle with finite differences or finite/spectral elements whereas it is explicitely accounted in the B...

  6. 3D optical see-through head-mounted display based augmented reality system and its application

    Zhang, Zhenliang; Weng, Dongdong; Liu, Yue; Xiang, Li

    2015-07-01

    The combination of health and entertainment becomes possible due to the development of wearable augmented reality equipment and corresponding application software. In this paper, we implemented a fast calibration extended from SPAAM for an optical see-through head-mounted display (OSTHMD) which was made in our lab. During the calibration, the tracking and recognition techniques upon natural targets were used, and the spatial corresponding points had been set in dispersed and well-distributed positions. We evaluated the precision of this calibration, in which the view angle ranged from 0 degree to 70 degrees. Relying on the results above, we calculated the position of human eyes relative to the world coordinate system and rendered 3D objects in real time with arbitrary complexity on OSTHMD, which accurately matched the real world. Finally, we gave the degree of satisfaction about our device in the combination of entertainment and prevention of cervical vertebra diseases through user feedbacks.

  7. NEW ORGANIC MATERIALS FOR HIGHLY EFFICIENT NONLINEAR OPTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

    Zyss, J.

    1987-01-01

    Fiber optics communication systems, optical computing or industrial as well as scientific laser equipment include a number of nonlinear functions which, in turn, require new highly nonlinear materials to be adequately packaged in devices. Among these functions are electrooptic modulation, frequency mixing, parametric amplification and emission, and logical gating. As opposed to quasi-resonnant nonlinearities originating from confined structures and localized states such as in III-V compound n...

  8. Compensating for Nonlinear Effects in Coherent Detection Optical Transmission Systems

    2012-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearity is one of the most important limiters of capacity in coherent optical communications. In this paper, we review two nonlinear compensation methods: digital backward propagation (BP) and nonlinear electrical equalizer (NLEE) based on the timedomain Volterra series. These compensation algorithms are implemented in a singlechannel 50 Gb/s coherent optical singlecarrier frequency division multiplexed (CO-SCFDM) system transmitting over 10 × 80 km of standard singlemode fiber (SSMF).

  9. Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms

    The authors review the history, current status, physical mechanisms, experimental methods, and applications of nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atomic vapors. They begin by describing the pioneering work of Macaluso and Corbino over a century ago on linear magneto-optical effects (in which the properties of the medium do not depend on the light power) in the vicinity of atomic resonances. These effects are then contrasted with various nonlinear magneto-optical phenomena that have been studied both theoretically and experimentally since the late 1960s. In recent years, the field of nonlinear magneto-optics has experienced a revival of interest that has led to a number of developments, including the observation of ultranarrow (1-Hz) magneto-optical resonances, applications in sensitive magnetometry, nonlinear magneto-optical tomography, and the possibility of a search for parity- and time-reversal-invariance violation in atoms

  10. Fabrication and characterization of a 3-D non-homogeneous tissue-like mouse phantom for optical imaging

    Avtzi, Stella; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2013-11-01

    In vivo optical imaging of biological tissue not only requires the development of new theoretical models and experimental procedures, but also the design and construction of realistic tissue-mimicking phantoms. However, most of the phantoms available currently in literature or the market, have either simple geometrical shapes (cubes, slabs, cylinders) or when realistic in shape they use homogeneous approximations of the tissue or animal under investigation. The goal of this study is to develop a non-homogeneous realistic phantom that matches the anatomical geometry and optical characteristics of the mouse head in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The fabrication of the phantom consisted of three stages. Initially, anatomical information extracted from either mouse head atlases or structural imaging modalities (MRI, XCT) was used to design a digital phantom comprising of the three main layers of the mouse head; the brain, skull and skin. Based on that, initial prototypes were manufactured by using accurate 3D printing, allowing complex objects to be built layer by layer with sub-millimeter resolution. During the second stage the fabrication of individual molds was performed by embedding the prototypes into a rubber-like silicone mixture. In the final stage the detailed phantom was constructed by loading the molds with epoxy resin of controlled optical properties. The optical properties of the resin were regulated by using appropriate quantities of India ink and intralipid. The final phantom consisted of 3 layers, each one with different absorption and scattering coefficient (μa,μs) to simulate the region of the mouse brain, skull and skin.

  11. 3D Forest structure analysis from optical and LIDAR data / Análise 3D da estrutura da floresta com dados ópticos e da LIDAR

    Stefan Lang

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In Austria about half of the entire area (46 % is covered by forests. The majority of these forests are highly managed and controlled in growth. Besides timber production, forest ecosystems play a multifunctional role including climate control, habitat provision and, especially in Austria, protection of settlements. The interrelationships among climatic, ecological, social and economic dimensions of forests require technologies for monitoring both the state and the development of forests. This comprises forest structure, species and age composition and, forest integrity in general. Assessing forest structure for example enables forest managers and natural risk engineers to evaluate whether a forest can fulfill its protective function or not. Traditional methods for assessing forest structure like field inventories and aerial photo interpretation are intrinsically limited in providing spatially continuous information over a large area. The Centre for Geoinformatics (Z_GIS in collaboration with the National Park Bayerischer Wald, Germany and the Stand Montafon, Austria, has tested and applied advanced approaches of integrating multispectral optical data and airborne laser scanning (ALS data for (1 forest stand delineation, (2 single tree detection and (3 forest structure analysis. As optical data we used RGBI line scanner data and CIR air-photos. ALS data were raw point data (10 pulses per sqm and normalized crown models (nCM at 0.5 m and 1 m resolution. (1 Automated stand delineation was done by (a translating a key for manual mapping of forest development phases into a rule-based system via object-relationship modeling (ORM; and (b by performing multi-resolution segmentation and GIS analysis. (2 Strategies for single tree detection using raw ALS data included (a GIS modelling based on a region-growth local maxima algorithm and (b object-based image analysis using super class information class-specific rule sets. (3 Vertical forest structure has

  12. 3-D nonlinear force-free field reconstruction of solar active region 11158 by direct boundary integral equation

    Wang, Rui; Tan, Baolin

    2013-01-01

    A 3-D coronal magnetic field is reconstructed for NOAA 11158 on Feb 14, 2011. A GPU-accelerated direct boundary integral equation (DBIE) method is implemented. This is about 1000 times faster than the original DBIE used on solar NLFFF modeling. Using the SDO/HMI vector magnetogram as the bottom boundary condition, the reconstructed magnetic field lines are compared with the projected EUV loop structures from different views three-dimensionally by SDO/AIA and STEREO A/B spacecraft simultaneously for the first time. They show very good agreement so that the topological configurations of the magnetic fields can be analyzed, thus its role in the flare process of the active region can be better understood. A quantitative comparison with some stereoscopically reconstructed coronal loops shows that the present averaged misalignment angles are at the same order as the state-of-the-art results obtained with reconstructed coronal loops as prescribed conditions and better than other NLFFF methods. It is found that the o...

  13. Comparison of 3D double inversion recovery and 2D STIR FLAIR MR sequences for the imaging of optic neuritis: pilot study

    Hodel, Jerome; Bocher, Anne-Laure; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Outteryck, Olivier; Zephir, Helene; Vermersch, Patrick [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neurology, Lille (France); Lambert, Oriane [Fondation Ophtalmologique Rothschild, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine [Radiation Epidemiology Team, Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Villejuif (France); Chechin, David [Philips Medical Systems, Suresnes (France)

    2014-12-15

    We compared the three-dimensional (3D) double inversion recovery (DIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) short tau inversion recovery (STIR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) for the detection of optic nerve signal abnormality in patients with optic neuritis (ON). The study group consisted of 31 patients with ON (44 pathological nerves) confirmed by visual-evoked potentials used as the reference. MRI examinations included 2D coronal STIR FLAIR and 3D DIR with 3-mm coronal reformats to match with STIR FLAIR. Image artefacts were graded for each portion of the optic nerves. Each set of MR images (2D STIR FLAIR, DIR reformats and multiplanar 3D DIR) was examined independently and separately for the detection of signal abnormality. Cisternal portion of optic nerves was better delineated with DIR (p < 0.001), while artefacts impaired analysis in four patients with STIR FLAIR. Inter-observer agreement was significantly improved (p < 0.001) on 3D DIR (κ = 0.96) compared with STIR FLAIR images (κ = 0.60). Multiplanar DIR images reached the best performance for the diagnosis of ON (95 % sensitive and 94 % specific). Our study showed a high sensitivity and specificity of 3D DIR compared with STIR FLAIR for the detection of ON. These findings suggest that the 3D DIR sequence may be more useful in patients suspected of ON. (orig.)

  14. Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms

    Budker, D.; Gawlik, W.; Kimball, D. F.; Rochester, S. M.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Weis, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we review the history, current status, physical mechanisms, experimental methods, and applications of nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atomic vapors. We begin by describing the pioneering work of Macaluso and Corbino over a century ago on linear magneto-optical effects (in which the properties of the medium do not depend on the light power) in the vicinity of atomic resonances, and contrast these effects with various nonlinear magneto-optical phenomena that have been stud...

  15. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Tang, Hui

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example.

  16. Splittings, coalescence, bunch and snake patterns in the 3D nonlinear Schrödinger equation with anisotropic dispersion

    Germaschewski, K.; Grauer, R.; Bergé, L.;

    2001-01-01

    compression and are shown to split into two symmetric peaks. These peaks can sequentially decay into smaller-scale structures developing near the front edge of a shock, as long as their individual power remains above threshold, until the final dispersion of the wave. Their phase and amplitude dynamics......The self-focusing and splitting mechanisms of waves governed by the cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation with anisotropic dispersion are investigated numerically by means of an adaptive mesh refinement code. Wave-packets having a power far above the self-focusing threshold undergo a transversal...... are detailed and compared with those characterizing collapsing objects with no anisotropic dispersion. Their ability to mutually coalesce is also analyzed and modeled from the interaction of Gaussian components. Next, bunch-type and snake-type instabilities, which result from periodic modulations driven...

  17. Optical and Nonlinear Optical Response of Light Sensor Thin Films

    S. Z. Weisz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available For potential ultrafast optical sensor application, both VO2 thin films andnanocomposite crystal-Si enriched SiO2 thin films grown on fused quartz substrates weresuccessfully prepared using pulsed laser deposition (PLD and RF co-sputteringtechniques. In photoluminescence (PL measurement c-Si/SiO2 film containsnanoparticles of crystal Si exhibits strong red emission with the band maximum rangingfrom 580 to 750 nm. With ultrashort pulsed laser excitation all films show extremelyintense and ultrafast nonlinear optical (NLO response. The recorded holography fromall these thin films in a degenerate-four-wave-mixing configuration shows extremelylarge third-order response. For VO2 thin films, an optically induced semiconductor-tometalphase transition (PT immediately occurred upon laser excitation. it accompanied.It turns out that the fast excited state dynamics was responsible to the induced PT. For c-Si/SiO2 film, its NLO response comes from the contribution of charge carriers created bylaser excitation in conduction band of the c-Si nanoparticles. It was verified byintroducing Eu3+ which is often used as a probe sensing the environment variations. Itturns out that the entire excited state dynamical process associated with the creation,movement and trapping of the charge carriers has a characteristic 500 ps duration.

  18. Impact of nonlinear 3D equilibrium response on edge topology and divertor heat load in Wendelstein 7-X

    Suzuki, Y.; Geiger, J.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of the 3D equilibrium response on the plasma edge topology is studied. In Wendelstein 7-X, the island divertor concept is used to assess scenarios for quasi-steady-state operation. However, the boundary islands necessary for the island divertor are strongly susceptible to plasma beta and toroidal current density effects because of the low magnetic shear. The edge magnetic topology for quasi-steady-state operation scenarios is calculated with the HINT-code to study the accompanying changes of the magnetic field structures. Two magnetic configurations have been selected, which had been investigated in self consistent neoclassical transport simulations for low bootstrap current but which use the alternative natural island chains to the standard iota value of 1 (ι b   =  5/5, periodicity), namely, at high-iota (ι b   =  5/4) and at low-iota (ι b   =  5/6). For the high-iota configuration, the boundary islands are robust but the stochasticity around them is enhanced with beta. The addition of toroidal current densities enhances the stochasticity further. The increased stochasticity changes the footprints on in-vessel components with a direct impact on the corresponding heat loads. In the low-iota configuration the boundary islands used for the island divertor are dislocated radially due to the low shear and even show healing effects, i.e. the island width vanishes. In the latter case the plasma changes from divertor to limiter operation. To realize the predicted high-performance quasi-steady-state operation of the transport simulations, further adjustments of the magnetic configuration may be necessary to achieve a proper divertor compatibility of the scenarios.

  19. Exploring single-molecule interactions through 3D optical trapping and tracking: From thermal noise to protein refolding

    Wong, Wesley Philip

    The focus of this thesis is the development and application of a novel technique for investigating the structure and dynamics of weak interactions between and within single-molecules. This approach is designed to explore unusual features in bi-directional transitions near equilibrium. The basic idea is to infer molecular events by observing changes in the three-dimensional Brownian fluctuations of a functionalized microsphere held weakly near a reactive substrate. Experimentally, I have developed a unique optical tweezers system that combines an interference technique for accurate 3D tracking (˜1 nm vertically, and ˜2-3 nm laterally) with a continuous autofocus system which stabilizes the trap height to within 1-2 mn over hours. A number of different physical and biological systems were investigated with this instrument. Data interpretation was assisted by a multi-scale Brownian Dynamics simulation that I have developed. I have explored the 3D signatures of different molecular tethers, distinguishing between single and multiple attachments, as well as between stiff and soft linkages. As well, I have developed a technique for measuring the force-dependent compliance of molecular tethers from thermal noise fluctuations and demonstrated this with a short ssDNA oligomer. Another practical approach that I have developed for extracting information from fluctuation measurements is Inverse Brownian Dynamics, which yields the underlying potential of mean force and position dependent diffusion coefficient from the Brownian motion of a particle. I have also developed a new force calibration method that takes into account video motion blur, and that uses this information to measure bead dynamics. Perhaps most significantly, I have trade the first direct observations of the refolding of spectrin repeats under mechanical force, and investigated the force-dependent kinetics of this transition.

  20. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Tang, Hui [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798 (Singapore); Reyhanoglu, Mahmut [Physical Sciences Department, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example.

  1. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example

  2. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide microstructured optical fibers

    Trolès, Johann; Brilland, Laurent; Caillaud, Celine; Renversez, Gilles; Mechin, David; Adam, Jean-Luc

    2015-03-01

    Chalcogenide glasses are known for their large transparency in the mid-infrared and their high linear refractive index (>2). They present also a high non-linear coefficient (n2), 100 to 1000 times larger than for silica, depending on the composition. we have developed a casting method to prepare the microstructured chalcogenide preform. This method allows optical losses as low as 0.4 dB/m at 1.55 µm and less than 0.05 dB/m in the mid IR. Various chalcogenide MOFs operating in the IR range has been fabricated in order to associate the high non-linear properties of these glasses and the original MOF properties. For example, small core fibers have been drawn to enhance the non linearities for telecom applications such as signal regeneration and generation of supercontinuum sources. On another hand, in the 3-12 µm window, single mode fibers and exposed core fibers have been realized for Gaussian beams propagation and sensors applications respectively.

  3. Nonlinear optical studies of curcumin metal derivatives with cw laser

    Henari, F. Z., E-mail: fzhenari@rcsi-mub.com; Cassidy, S. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (Bahrain)

    2015-03-30

    We report on measurements of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients for curcumin and curcumin metal complexes of boron, copper, and iron at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique. These materials are found to be novel nonlinear media. It was found that the addition of metals slightly influences its nonlinearity. These materials show a large negative nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/W and negative nonlinear absorption of the order of 10{sup −6} cm/W. The origin of the nonlinearity was investigated by comparison of the formalism that is known as the Gaussian decomposition model with the thermal lens model. The optical limiting behavior based on the nonlinear refractive index was also investigated.

  4. Nonlinear optical studies of curcumin metal derivatives with cw laser

    Henari, F. Z.; Cassidy, S.

    2015-03-01

    We report on measurements of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients for curcumin and curcumin metal complexes of boron, copper, and iron at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique. These materials are found to be novel nonlinear media. It was found that the addition of metals slightly influences its nonlinearity. These materials show a large negative nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10-7 cm2/W and negative nonlinear absorption of the order of 10-6 cm/W. The origin of the nonlinearity was investigated by comparison of the formalism that is known as the Gaussian decomposition model with the thermal lens model. The optical limiting behavior based on the nonlinear refractive index was also investigated.

  5. Nonlinear optical studies of curcumin metal derivatives with cw laser

    We report on measurements of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients for curcumin and curcumin metal complexes of boron, copper, and iron at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique. These materials are found to be novel nonlinear media. It was found that the addition of metals slightly influences its nonlinearity. These materials show a large negative nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10−7 cm2/W and negative nonlinear absorption of the order of 10−6 cm/W. The origin of the nonlinearity was investigated by comparison of the formalism that is known as the Gaussian decomposition model with the thermal lens model. The optical limiting behavior based on the nonlinear refractive index was also investigated

  6. Advances in chemical physics modern nonlinear optics, pt.1

    Rice, Stuart A

    2009-01-01

    Partial table of contents: Hyper-Rayleigh and Hyper-Raman Rotational and Vibrational Spectroscopy (T. Bancewicz & Z. Ożgo). Polarization Properties of Hyper-Rayleigh and Hyper-Raman Scatterings (M. Kozierowski). Fast Molecular Reorientation in Liquid Crystals Probed by Nonlinear Optics (J. Lalanne, et al.). Nonlinear Propagation of Laser Light of Different Polarizations (G. Rivoire). Nonlinear Magneto-Optics of Magnetically Ordered Crystals (R. Zawodny). Dynamical Questions in Quantum Optics (A. Shumovsky). Quantum Resonance Fluorescence from Mutually Correlated Atoms (Z. Fi

  7. Modeling and compensation of transmitter nonlinearity in coherent optical OFDM.

    Amiralizadeh, Siamak; Nguyen, An T; Rusch, Leslie A

    2015-10-01

    We present a comprehensive study of nonlinear distortions from an optical OFDM transmitter. Nonlinearities are introduced by the combination of effects from the digital-to-analog converter (DAC), electrical power amplifier (PA) and optical modulator in the presence of high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). We introduce parameters to quantify the transmitter nonlinearity. High input backoff avoids OFDM signal compression from the PA, but incurs high penalties in power efficiency. At low input backoff, common PAPR reduction techniques are not effective in suppressing the PA nonlinear distortion. A bit error distribution investigation shows a technique combining nonlinear predistortion with PAPR mitigation could achieve good power efficiency by allowing low input backoff. We use training symbols to extract the transmitter nonlinear function. We show that piecewise linear interpolation (PLI) leads to an accurate transmitter nonlinearity characterization. We derive a semi-analytical solution for bit error rate (BER) that validates the PLI approximation accurately captures transmitter nonlinearity. The inverse of the PLI estimate of the nonlinear function is used as a predistorter to suppress transmitter nonlinearity. We investigate performance of the proposed scheme by Monte Carlo simulations. Our simulations show that when DAC resolution is more than 4 bits, BER below forward error correction limit of 3.8 × 10(-3) can be achieved by using predistortion with very low input power backoff for electrical PA and optical modulator. PMID:26480133

  8. Nonlinear and Quantum Optics with Whispering Gallery Resonators

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Matsko, Andrey B; Schwefel, Harald G L; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Optical Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) derive their name from a famous acoustic phenomenon of guiding a wave by a curved boundary observed nearly a century ago. This phenomenon was later realized to have a rather general nature, equally applicable to sound and all other waves, but in particular also to electromagnetic waves ranging from radio frequencies to ultraviolet light. Very high quality factors of optical WGM resonators persisting in a wide wavelength range, their small mode volume, and tunable in- and out- coupling make them exceptionally efficient for nonlinear optical applications. Nonlinear optics facilitates interaction of photons with each other and with other physical systems, and is of prime importance in quantum optics. In this paper we review numerous applications of WGM resonators in nonlinear and quantum optics. We outline the current areas of interest, summarize progress, highlight difficulties, and discuss possible future development trends in these areas.

  9. Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy with integrated dual-axis MEMS scanner for fast 3D imaging and metrology

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cogliati, Andrea; Hayes, Adam; Santhanam, Anand P.; Tankam, Patrice; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2015-10-01

    Fast, robust, nondestructive 3D imaging is needed for characterization of microscopic structures in industrial and clinical applications. A custom micro-electromechanical system (MEMS)-based 2D scanner system was developed to achieve 55 kHz A-scan acquisition in a Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) instrument with a novel multilevel GPU architecture for high-speed imaging. GD-OCM yields high-definition volumetric imaging with dynamic depth of focusing through a bio-inspired liquid lens-based microscope design, which has no moving parts and is suitable for use in a manufacturing setting or in a medical environment. A dual-axis MEMS mirror was chosen to replace two single-axis galvanometer mirrors; as a result, the astigmatism caused by the mismatch between the optical pupil and the scanning location was eliminated and a 12x reduction in volume of the scanning system was achieved. Imaging at an invariant resolution of 2 μm was demonstrated throughout a volume of 1 × 1 × 0.6 mm3, acquired in less than 2 minutes. The MEMS-based scanner resulted in improved image quality, increased robustness and lighter weight of the system - all factors that are critical for on-field deployment. A custom integrated feedback system consisting of a laser diode and a position-sensing detector was developed to investigate the impact of the resonant frequency of the MEMS and the driving signal of the scanner on the movement of the mirror. Results on the metrology of manufactured materials and characterization of tissue samples with GD-OCM are presented.

  10. Dielectric Optical-Controlled Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction

    Cao, Jianjun; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive index. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens, hyperlens, Luneburg lens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designing materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano/micro engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applicat...

  11. Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction

    Cao, Jianjun; Shang, Ce; Zheng, Yuanlin; Feng, Yaming; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-07-01

    A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials’ refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

  12. Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and their Applications

    Zakery, A

    2007-01-01

    Photonics, which uses photons for information and image processing, has been labeled the technology of the 21st century, for which non-linear optical processes provide the key functions of frequency conversion and optical switching. Chalcogenide glass fiber is one of the most promising candidates for use as a non-linear optical medium because of its high optical nonlinearity and long interaction length. Since the chalcogenide glass fibers transmit into the IR, there are numerous potential applications in the civil, medical and military areas. One of the most exciting developments in the future is going to be in the area of rare-earth ion doping of chalcogenide fibers for IR fluorescence emission. The IR light sources, lasers and amplifiers developed using this phenomena will be very useful in civil, medical and military applications. Remote IR spectroscopy and imaging using flexible fibers will be realized for applications. Other future research areas which will inevitably be explored includes non-linear opti...

  13. Intra-Channel Nonlinear Effect on Optical PPM Pulse Transmission

    Sun; Linghao; Jarmo; Takala

    2003-01-01

    PPM encoded Gaussian pulse sequence shows more immunity than non-PPM schemes on optical fiber intra-channel nonlinearity and demonstrated by a numerical study of IXPM and IFWM effects deploying on 100Gb/s single channelsystem.

  14. Extremely nonlocal optical nonlinearities in atoms trapped near a waveguide

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Stimming, Hans Peter; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear optical phenomena are typically local. Here we predict the possibility of highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities for light propagating in atomic media trapped near a nano-waveguide, where long-range interactions between the atoms can be tailored. When the atoms are in an electromagnetically-induced transparency configuration, the atomic interactions are translated to long-range interactions between photons and thus to highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities. We derive and analyze the governing nonlinear propagation equation, finding a roton-like excitation spectrum for light and the emergence of long-range order in its output intensity. These predictions open the door to studies of unexplored wave dynamics and many-body physics with highly-nonlocal interactions of optical fields in one dimension.

  15. Subpicosecond optical pulse compression via an integrated nonlinear chirper.

    Peccianti, Marco; Ferrera, Marcello; Razzari, Luca; Morandotti, Roberto; Little, Brent E; Chu, Sai T; Moss, David J

    2010-04-12

    Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) capable of ultra-fast, signal processing are recognized as being fundamental for future applications involving ultra-short optical pulse propagation, including the ability to meet the exponentially growing global fiber-optic telecommunications bandwidth demand. Integrated all-optical signal processors would carry substantial benefits in terms of performance, cost, footprint, and energy efficiency. Here, we demonstrate an optical pulse compressor based on an integrated nonlinear chirper, capable of operating on a sub-picosecond (> 1Tb/s) time scale. It is CMOS compatible and based on a 45cm long, high index doped silica glass waveguide we achieve pulse compression at relatively low input peak powers, due to the high nonlinearity and low linear and nonlinear losses of the device. The flexibility of this platform in terms of nonlinearity and dispersion allows the implementation of several compression schemes. PMID:20588602

  16. Nonlinear magneto-optical effects in Ba vapor

    Novikova, I; Sarkisyan, D; Welch, G R; Novikova, Irina; Khanbekyan, Alexander; Sarkisyan, David; Welch, George R.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first measurements of linear and nonlinear magneto-optical polarization rotation on an intercombination transition of Ba vapor (lambda= 791.1nm). We observe a maximum polarization rotation angle in Faraday configuration of 15mrad, accompanied by suppression of absorption. A theoretical treatment of the nonlinear Faraday effect in the limit of a strong interacting light field is developed.

  17. Non-linear optics of ultrastrongly coupled cavity polaritons

    Crescimanno, Michael; Liu, Bin; McMaster, Michael; Singer, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Experiments at CWRU have developed organic cavity polaritons that display world-record vacuum Rabi splittings of more than an eV. This ultrastrongly coupled polaritonic matter is a new regime for exploring non-linear optical effects. We apply quantum optics theory to quantitatively determine various non-linear optical effects including types of low harmonic generation (SHG and THG) in single and double cavity polariton systems. Ultrastrongly coupled photon-matter systems such as these may be the foundation for technologies including low-power optical switching and computing.

  18. Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing in Nonlinear Silicon Waveguides

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao;

    2011-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals....

  19. Laser properties of nonlinear optical benzal barbituric acid crystals

    Kondo, Koichi; Fukutome, Masato; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Aso, Hideyuki; Kitaoka, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takatomo

    1991-12-01

    A nonlinear optical crystal, p-methylbenzal-1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid is grown in benzene by means of a temperature-depression method into a large single crystal (10 x 16 x 17 cu mm). The cut-off wavelength is 460 nm, and the effective nonlinear optical coefficient of type I for second-harmonic generation is 8.0 pm/v.

  20. Filtering of matter symmetry properties by circularly polarized nonlinear optics

    Duboisset, Julien; Rigneault, Hervé; Brasselet, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    International audience We propose a direct readout of symmetry information in matter using nonlinear optics. From combinations of circularly and longitudinally polarized optical fields, we construct irreducible spherical field tensors for second- and third-order nonlinear processes. The coupling of these field tensors to the matter susceptibility tensors allows filtering out of the susceptibility symmetries independently of the sample orientation in the laboratory frame. Experimental demon...

  1. Platforms for integrated nonlinear optics compatible with silicon integrated circuits

    Moss, David J

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear photonic chips are capable of generating and processing signals all-optically with performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. We review recent progress in CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, focusing on Hydex glass and silicon nitride and briefly discuss the promising new platform of amorphous silicon. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation, ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement. We highlight their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications.

  2. New CMOS Compatible Platforms for Integrated Nonlinear Optical Signal Processing

    Moss, D J

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear photonic chips have succeeded in generating and processing signals all-optically with performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon-on-insulator has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. This paper reviews some of the recent achievements in CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, focusing on amorphous silicon and Hydex glass, highlighting their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement.

  3. Linear and nonlinear optical, mechanical, electrical and surface studies of a novel nonlinear optical crystal - Manganese mercury thiocyanate (MMTC)

    Josephine Usha, R.; Sagayaraj, P.; Joseph, V.

    2014-12-01

    The highly efficient nonlinear optical single crystal of manganese mercury thiocyanate has been grown from slow evaporation solvent technique. The second harmonic generation and optical transmittance of the grown crystal are studied by Kurtz and Perry powder technique and spectroscopic absorbance spectrum. Mechanical behaviour is analyzed using Vickers microhardness test. The dielectric response of the grown crystal is studied as a function of the temperature and the results are discussed. Further, electronic properties such as plasma energy, Penngap, Fermi energy and electronic polarizability are evaluated. Third order nonlinear optical studies are performed using by single beam Z-scan technique using Nd:YAG laser and parameters such as nonlinear refractive index n2, absorption co-efficient β and nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) are evaluated for the grown crystal. The surface of the grown crystal is analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope analyses.

  4. Optical computation based on nonlinear total reflectional optical switch at the interface

    Jianqi Zhang; Huan Xu

    2009-03-01

    A new scheme of binary half adder and full adder is proposed. It realizes a kind of all-optical computation which is based on the polarization coding technique and the nonlinear total reflectional optical switches.

  5. Effective-medium theory for nonlinear magneto-optics in magnetic granular alloys: cubic nonlinearity

    We propose a simple effective-medium approach for calculating the effective dielectric function of a magnetic metal-insulator granular alloy in which there is a weakly nonlinear relation between electric displacement D and electric field E for both constituent materials of the form Di=εi(0)Ei +χi(3)|Ei|2Ei. We assume that linear εi(0) and cubic nonlinear χi(3) dielectric functions are diagonal and linear with magnetization non-diagonal components. For such metal-insulator composite magneto-optical effects depend on a light intensity and the effective cubic dielectric function χeff(3) can be significantly greater (up to 103 times) than that for constituent materials. The calculation scheme is based on the Bergman and Stroud-Hui theory of nonlinear optical properties of granular matter. The giant cubic magneto-optical nonlinearity is found for composites with metallic volume fraction close to the percolation threshold and at a resonance of optical conductivity. It is shown that a composite may exhibit nonlinear magneto-optics even when both constituent materials have no cubic magneto-optical nonlinearity

  6. Dual-polarization plasmonic metasurface for nonlinear optics.

    Cala' Lesina, Antonino; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre

    2015-06-15

    A plasmonic metasurface for the enhancement of nonlinear optical effects is proposed. The metasurface can simultaneously enhance perpendicularly polarized electric fields in the same volume. We illustrate application of the metasurface to the production of Terahertz radiation via the parametric process of difference frequency generation in 4¯3m non-centro symmetric materials, e.g., GaAs, which has a large second-order nonlinear susceptibility. An enhancement over bulk of almost two orders of magnitude near the surface supports the use of the proposed structure for thin-film, surface-based, or chip-based nonlinear optical applications for several crystal classes. PMID:26076284

  7. Delocalization of nonlinear optical responses in plasmonic nanoantennas

    Viarbitskaya, Sviatlana; Cluzel, Benoit; Francs, Gérard Colas des; Bouhelier, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Remote excitation and emission of two-photon luminescence and second-harmonic generation are observed in micrometer long gold rod optical antennas upon local illumination with a tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond laser beam. We show that the nonlinear radiations can be emitted from the entire antenna and the measured far-field angular patterns bear the information regarding the nature and origins of the respective nonlinear processes. We demonstrate that the nonlinear responses are transported by the propagating surface plasmon at excitation frequency, enabling thereby polariton-mediated tailoring and design of nonlinear responses.

  8. Quantum nonlinear optics using single atom

    Bhattacharya, Arkabrata

    2012-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] In this thesis we tried to investigate the non-linear effects introduced by a generalized interaction of a two-level atom coupled to two photons. Scattering matrices were used to calculate the non-linear effects introduced and the dependence of outgoing frequencies of quantum light on these effects was found. It was seen as quite opposed to typical classical theories, that the non-linear susceptibility for an atom dictates very precise output frequencies from it. As a next step this ...

  9. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al2O3, B = TiO2, and C = HfO2. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths

  10. Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fiber communications

    Mitra, P P; Mitra, Partha P.; Stark, Jason B.

    2000-01-01

    The exponential growth in the rate at which information can be communicated through an optical fiber is a key element in the so called information revolution. However, like all exponential growth laws, there are physical limits to be considered. The nonlinear nature of the propagation of light in optical fiber has made these limits difficult to elucidate. Here we obtain basic insights into the limits to the information capacity of an optical fiber arising from these nonlinearities. The key simplification lies in relating the nonlinear channel to a linear channel with multiplicative noise, for which we are able to obtain analytical results. In fundamental distinction to the linear additive noise case, the capacity does not grow indefinitely with increasing signal power, but has a maximal value. The ideas presented here have broader implications for other nonlinear information channels, such as those involved in sensory transduction in neurobiology. These have been often examined using additive noise linear cha...

  11. Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter

    Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)

  12. Nonlinear optical effects in colloidal carbon nanohorns—a new optical limiting material

    Dengler, Stefanie; Muller, Olivier; Hege, Cordula; Eberle, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    Many carbon based nanomaterials exhibit nonlinear optical response over a large wavelength range when irradiated with intense laser light what makes them promising candidates for optical limiting purposes. Besides nonlinear absorption some of these well studied nanostructures like carbon nanotubes or carbon black owe their prominent limiting efficiency particularly to induced nonlinear scattering. In this paper, our investigations on carbon nanohorns are presented—a new and very promising nonlinear optical material. It offers excellent properties like a low optical limiting threshold and a high nonlinear attenuation when tested with nanosecond laser pulses at wavelengths of 532 nm or 1064 nm. At moderate irradiation levels near the nonlinear threshold our measurements performed on colloidal carbon nanohorns reveal broadband nonlinear absorption as the dominant optical limiting effect. Towards higher irradiation levels significant nonlinear scattering takes place as a secondary process. In contrast to 532 nm, at 1064 nm nonlinear scattering is less strong even at high irradiation levels and the nonlinear response is dominated by nonlinear absorption.

  13. Enhanced nonlinear optical responses in metal-glass nanocomposites

    The 'engineered' nonlinear nanocomposite materials with extremely large values of optical Kerr susceptibility and fast temporal responses that can be precisely tuned to satisfy the requirements of switching applications is of current interest in photonics. Metal quantum-dot composite glasses can exhibit enhanced optical susceptibility, χ(3), whose real and imaginary parts are related to the intensity-dependent refractive index and two-photon absorption coefficient, respectively. Classical (dielectric) and quantum confinement effects come into play in the nonlinear optical responses of these nanocomposites. Metal nanocluster-glass composites have been synthesized by 200 keV Cu+ and 1.5 MeV Au+ ion implantations in fused silica glasses at a dose of 3 x 1016 ions/cm2, followed by thermal annealing in reducing atmosphere to promote cluster growth. UV-Visible spectroscopy has revealed prominent linear absorption bands at characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) frequencies signifying appreciable formation of copper and gold colloids in glass matrices. Third-order optical properties of the composite materials have been studied by Z-Scan and Anti-Resonant Interferometric Nonlinear Spectroscopy (ARINS) measurements. The sign of nonlinear refraction is readily obtained from the Z-Scan signatures. The ARINS technique utilizes the dressing of two unequal-intensity counter-propagating pulsed light beams with differential nonlinear phases, which occur upon traversing the sample if it exhibits nonlinear optical response. This difference in phase manifests itself in the intensity-dependent transmission. The nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient, the real and imaginary parts of the third-order optical susceptibility have been extracted.

  14. Nonlinear optics and light localization in periodic photonic lattices

    Neshev, Dragomir N.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2007-01-01

    We review the recent developments in the field of photonic lattices emphasizing their unique properties for controlling linear and nonlinear propagation of light. We draw some important links between optical lattices and photonic crystals pointing towards practical applications in optical communications and computing, beam shaping, and bio-sensing.

  15. Time reversal noninvariance in quantum mechanics and in nonlinear optics

    Kuz'menko, V. A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental proofs of strong time invariance violation in optics are discussed. Time noninvariance is the only real physical base for explanation the origin of the most phenomena in nonlinear optics. The experimental study of forward and reversed transitions in oriented in uniform electric field molecules is proposed.

  16. Chemical studies on the nonlinear optics of coordina- tion compounds

    2001-01-01

    The exploration of molecule-based nonlinear optical (NLO) materials at the molecular level is one of the novel areas developed recently from the viewpoint of chemistry. This review summarizes some of our recent researches on new NLO materials based on coordination compounds, which may have potential applications in optical devices.

  17. Modified Nonlinear Inverse Synthesis for Optical Links with Distributed Raman Amplification

    Le, Son T; Rosa, Pawel; Ania-Castanon, Juan D; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) and eigenvalue communication with the use of nonlinear signal spectrum (both discrete and continuous), have been recently discussed as a promising transmission method to combat fiber nonlinearity impairments. However, because the NFT-based transmission method employs the integrability property of the lossless nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLSE), the original approach can only be applied directly to optical links with ideal distributed Raman amplification. In this paper, we investigate in details the impact of a non-ideal Raman gain profile on the performance of the nonlinear inverse synthesis (NIS) scheme, in which the transmitted information is encoded directly onto the continuous part of the nonlinear signal spectrum. We propose the lossless path-averaged (LPA) model for fiber links with non-ideal Raman gain profile by taking into account the average effect of the Raman gain. We show that the NIS scheme employing the LPA model can offer a performance gain of 3 dB regard...

  18. Nonlinear-optical, optical, and crystallographic properties of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate

    Li, Zhengdong; Wu, Baichang; Su, Genbo

    1997-07-01

    Bulk crystals of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate were grown from organic solution. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray analysis. The refractive indices were determined by the method of prism minimum deviation. The nonlinear-optical coefficients dij and deff were measured. The nonlinear-optical properties are discussed in terms of crystalline structure.

  19. Laser-induced microwave generation with nonlinear optical crystals

    Borghesani, Francesco; Braggio, Caterina; Carugno, Giovanni; Della Valle, Federico; Ruoso, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    We report about a novel technique to generate microwave radiation by the irradiation of a nonlinear optical crystal with uniformly spaced, ultrashort optical pulses delivered by a mode-locked laser. We study systematically the laser polarization and intensity dependence of the microwave signal to conclusively show that it is a nonlinear phenomenon and that it originates from optical rectification. The measurements have been conducted using KTP, LBO and ZnSe crystals. The observed pulsed microwave signals are harmonically related to the laser pulses repetition rate, a feature that can be exploited to develop an innovative ultrafast laser detector.

  20. Synthesis and nonlinear optical absorption of novel chalcone derivative compounds

    Rahulan, K. Mani; Balamurugan, S.; Meena, K. S.; Yeap, G.-Y.; Kanakam, Charles C.

    2014-03-01

    3-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-1-(4-(4-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one was synthesized and its third order nonlinear optical properties have been investigated using a z-scan technique with nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. The nonlinear absorption behavior of the compound in chloroform presents a distinct difference at different laser intensity. Interestingly, the compound showed a switchover from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) with the increase of excitation intensity. Our studies suggest that compound could be used as a potential candidate for optical device applications such as optical limiters.

  1. Nonlinear optical signal processing on multiwavelength sensitive materials.

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Pashaie, Ramin

    2013-11-01

    Exploiting salient features in the photodynamics of specific types of light sensitive materials, a new approach is presented for realization of parallel nonlinear operations with optics. We briefly review the quantum structure and mathematical models offered for the photodynamics of two multiwavelength sensitive materials, doped crystals of lithium niobate and thick layers of bacteriorhodopsin. Next, a special mode of these dynamics in each material is investigated and a graphical design procedure is offered to produce highly nonlinear optical responses that can be dynamically reshaped via applying minimum changes in the optical setup. PMID:24177084

  2. Nonlinear optical transmission in VOx nanotubes and VOx nanotube composites

    Xu, J.-F.; Czerw, R.; Webster, S.; Carroll, D. L.; Ballato, J.; Nesper, R.

    2002-08-01

    Optical-limiting behavior of vanadium oxide nanotubes is characterized for the visible and infrared spectral ranges using 8 ns pulses from a Nd:YAG laser with an f/40 optical system. Vanadium oxide nanotube dispersions were investigated in both water suspensions and embedded in solid polymethyl methacrylate films. In each case, these nanotubes exhibit strong optical-limiting at 532 nm (in comparison to carbon nanotubes); however, no nonlinear behavior is observed for 1064 nm. This suggests that a two photon or excited state absorption mechanism is responsible for the observed nonlinearity.

  3. Nonlinear Optical Properties in Bismuth-based Glasses

    ZHANG Jianliang; NIE Qiuhua; DAI Shixun; XU Tiefeng; CHEN Feifei; SHEN Xiang; WANG Xunsi

    2011-01-01

    A series of glasses with high Bi2O3 content of Bi2O3-B2O3-WO3 ternary system were chosen and prepared .Their densities and linear refractive indices increase with increasing WO3 content.The optical band gaps Eopt of glasses obtained from ultraviolet absorption edges decreases with increase of WO3 content. Z-scan technique was carried out to investigate the third-order nonlinear optical properties of the glasses. It is found that the nonlinear refraction γ increases with decreasing the optical band gap Eopt, since an increase of WO3 content can promote the non-bridging oxygen ion content, and the highest γ value of samples is 1.173 × 10-14 cm2/W. The results show that these glasses are potential materials in the application of third-order nonlinear optics field.

  4. Telescopic systems with dynamic nonlinear optical correction for distortions

    The review of basic achievements in the field of non-linear adaptive optics is presented. In particular, schematics and properties of adaptive optical telescopes considered in which the image distortions introduced by defects of the primary mirror and other optical elements are compensated by nonlinear optical methods. The conventional methods of laser optics, such as phase conjugation and dynamic holography, make it possible both to solve the problems of classical (imaging) optics related to the building of telescopes for imaging remote objects with high resolution, which are based on large, light-weight or sectional mirrors, and create the systems that produce laser beams with the high-quality wave front. The basic designs of such telescopes are considered and the possibilities of corrections for distortions in them are analysed and confirmed by experiments. (review)

  5. All-optical nonlinear signal processing devices and their applications within fibre-optic communication systems

    Lee, Ju Han

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with research into the development of a range of all-optical fibre based nonlinear devices for optical communication applications. The research can he divided into two main themes. The first concerns the use nf superstructured fibre Bragg grating technology together with fibre based nonlinear devices to improve the overall system performance in both OCDMA and OTDM systems. The second theme area concerns the use of highly nonlinear holey fibre within a range of nonline...

  6. Nonlinear optics at low powers: new mechanism of on-chip optical frequency comb generation

    Rogov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear optical effects provide a natural way of light manipulation and interaction, and form the foundation of applied photonics -- from high-speed signal processing and telecommunication, to ultra-high bandwidth interconnects and information processing. However, relatively weak nonlinear response at optical frequencies calls for operation at high optical powers, or boosting efficiency of nonlinear parametric processes by enhancing local field intensity with high quality-factor resonators near cavity resonance, resulting in reduced operational bandwidth and increased loss due to multi-photon absorption. Here, we present an alternative to this conventional approach, with strong nonlinear optical effects at substantially lower local intensities, based on period-doubling bifurcations near nonlinear cavity anti-resonance, and apply it to low-power optical comb generation in a silicon chip.

  7. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  8. Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations

    The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

  9. Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations

    Manela, Ofer; Segev, Mordechai [Department of Physics and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Christodoulides, Demetrios N [College of Optics/CREOL, University of Central Florida, FL 32816-2700 (United States); Kip, Detlef, E-mail: msegev@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Helmut Schmidt University, 22043 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

  10. The optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles prepared by bioreduction method

    Balbuena Ortega, A.; Arroyo Carrasco, M. L.; Gayou, V. L.; Orduña Díaz, A.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Rojas López, Marlon

    2013-11-01

    Nonlinear optical and electronic properties of nanosized metal particles have drawn considerable attention because of their strong and size-dependent plasmon resonance absorption. In a metal nanoparticle system such as gold dispersed in a transparent matrix, an absorption peak due to surface plasmon resonance is usually observed in the visible spectral region. Metal nanoparticles are of special interest as nonlinear materials for optical switching and computing because of their relatively large third-order nonlinearity (χ3) and ultrafast response time. The purpose of this study was to analyze the nonlinear optical properties of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles. The samples were prepared by biosynthesis method using yeast extract as reducing agent and the nonlinear optical properties of the nanoparticles were investigated using a single beam Z-scan technique with a beam power of 20 mW and operated at wavelength of 514 nm. The reaction between metal ions and yeast extracts were monitored by UV-visible spectra of Au nanoparticles in aqueous solution with different pH (3-6). The surface plasmon peak position was shifted from 528 nm to 573 nm, according to of pH variation 4 to 6. The average particle size was calculated by the absorption peak position using the Fernig method, from 42 to 103 nm. The z-scan curves showed a negative nonlocal nonlinear refractive index with a magnitude dependent on the nanoparticle size.

  11. Investigation of the feasibility of relative 3D dosimetry in the Radiologic Physics Center Head and Neck IMRT phantom using Presage/optical-CT

    Sakhalkar, Harshad; Sterling, David; Adamovics, John; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Oldham, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the application of the Presage∕optical-CT 3D dosimetry system for relative dosimetry in the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) Head and Neck (H&N) IMRT phantom. Performance of the system was evaluated by comparison with the “gold-standard” RPC credentialing test. A modified Presage cylindrical insert was created that extended the capability of the RPC H&N phantom to 3D dosimetry. The RPC phantom was taken through the entire treatment planning procedure with both the standard ...

  12. A new method for real-time co-registration of 3D coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography

    We present a new clinically practical method for online co-registration of 3D quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or optical coherence tomography (OCT). The workflow is based on two modified commercially available software packages. Reconstruction steps are explained and compared to previously available methods. The feasibility for different clinical scenarios is illustrated. The co-registration appears accurate, robust and induced a minimal delay on the normal cath lab activities. This new method is based on the 3D angiographic reconstruction of the catheter path and does not require operator’s identification of landmarks to establish the image synchronization

  13. A new method for real-time co-registration of 3D coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography

    Carlier, Stéphane, E-mail: sgcarlier@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis - UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Department of Cardiology, Erasme University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Didday, Rich [INDEC Medical Systems Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Slots, Tristan [Pie Medical Imaging BV, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kayaert, Peter; Sonck, Jeroen [Department of Cardiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis - UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); El-Mourad, Mike; Preumont, Nicolas [Department of Cardiology, Erasme University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Schoors, Dany; Van Camp, Guy [Department of Cardiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis - UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    We present a new clinically practical method for online co-registration of 3D quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or optical coherence tomography (OCT). The workflow is based on two modified commercially available software packages. Reconstruction steps are explained and compared to previously available methods. The feasibility for different clinical scenarios is illustrated. The co-registration appears accurate, robust and induced a minimal delay on the normal cath lab activities. This new method is based on the 3D angiographic reconstruction of the catheter path and does not require operator’s identification of landmarks to establish the image synchronization.

  14. Absorption-edge calculations of inorganic nonlinear optical crystals

    Wu, Kechen; Chen, Chuangtian

    1992-03-01

    A theoretical model suitable for calculating absorption edges of inorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals is introduced. This model is proved to be useful to elucidate the relationship between electronic structures of NLO-active groups and macroscopic properties of absorption edges on the UV side of most of the inorganic nonlinear optical crystals. A systematic calculation of absorption edges on the UV side for several important inorganic NLO crystals is carried out by means of DV-SCM-Xα method and all calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data. These inorganic NLO crystals include LiB3O5(LBO), β-BaB2O4(BBO), KB5, KDP, Na2SbF5, Ba2TiSi2O8, iodate and NaNO2. The calculated energy level structures of LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4 crystals are compared with the measured XPS spectra. The unusual transparent spectra of KB5 and KDP crystals are partly explained from the microstructure point of view. The effect of lone electron pair in iodate and NaNO2 crystals on their absorption edges are discussed. All these results show that Anionic Group Theory of Nonlinear Optical Crystals is useful to evaluate the absorption edges of the inorganic nonlinear optical crystal and is a powerful tool in a Molecular Engineering approach to search for new nonlinear optical materials.

  15. Complex geometrical optics of inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media

    Berczynski, Pawel

    2013-05-01

    The method of complex geometrical optics (CGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media. CGO method reduces the problem of Gaussian beam propagation in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, CGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the other methods of nonlinear optics such as: variational method approach, method of moments and beam propagation method. The power of CGO method is presented on the example of the evolution of beam intensity and wave front cross-section along curvilinear central ray with torsion in weakly absorptive and nonlinear saturable graded-index fiber, where the effect of initial beam ellipticity is included into our description.

  16. Neutron optical tests of nonlinear wave mechanics

    The free-space propagation of matter waves is analysed with a view to placing an upper limit on the strength of possible non-linear terms in the Schrodinger equation. Such additional terms of the form psiF(/psi/2) were introduced by Bialynicki-Birula and Mycielski in order to counteract the spreading of wave packets, thereby allowing solutions which behave macroscopically like classical particles. For the particularly interesting case of a logarithmic nonlinearity, of the form F=-b ln/psi/2 it is found that the free-space propagation of slow neutrons places a very stringent upper limit on the magnitude of b. Precise measurements of Fresnel diffraction with slow neutrons do not give any evidence for nonlinear effects and allows the deduction of an upper limit for b-15 eV about 3 orders of magnitude smaller than the lower bound proposed by the above authors, making such nonlinearities extremely unlikely in the real world

  17. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  18. All-Optical Parity Circuits Using Nonlinear Directional Coupler

    L. A.Bakhtiar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since in the previous existing optical designs, the electronic-optic-electronic conversion has not been completely eliminated. Construction of the optical circuits with nonlinear waveguides can overcome this drawback. We have developed a nonlinear directional coupler theory to describe novel all-optical parity circuits. By using three channels, appropriate adjusting of the refractive indices, and selecting the correct length for coupling event, even/odd parity circuits can be obtained. The operation of these circuits is simulated with the aid of RSoft CAD-Layout (BeamPROP simulator. Towards the end of the work, we compared the speed of our proposed novel circuit with the existing optical designs and also electronic structure of which we have a better result.

  19. Nonlinear optical studies of single gold nanoparticles

    Dijk, Meindert Alexander van

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are spherical clusters of gold atoms, with diameters typically between 1 and 100 nanometers. The applications of these particles are rather diverse, from optical labels for biological experiments to data carrier for optical data storage. The goal of my project was to develop new

  20. Theoretical studies for novel non-linear optical crystals

    Wu, Kechen; Chen, Chuangtian

    1996-09-01

    To fulfil the "molecular engineering" of non-linear optical crystals, two theoretical models suitable respectively for the studies of the absorption edge and birefringence of a non-linear optical crystal have been set up. Molecular quantum chemical methods have been adopted in the systematic calculations of some typical crystals. DV-SCM-X α methods have been used to calculate the absorption edge on the UV side of BBO, LBO, KB5, KDP, Na 2SbF 5, Ba 2TiSi 2O 8, iodate and NaNO 2 crystals. Ab initio methods have been adopted to study the birefringence of NaNO 2, BBO, LiIO 3 and urea crystals. All the theoretical results agreed well with the experimental values. The relationship between structure and properties has been discussed. The results will be helpful to the search for novel non-linear optical crystals.

  1. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear optical response of bacteriorhodopsin

    Kowalski, Gregory J.

    1996-10-01

    The numerical simulation of the nonlinear optical behavior of bacteriorhodopsin in a solution of water is described. Relationships for the intensity dependent absorption coefficient and index of refraction are developed and used in the numerical simulation of bacteriorhodopsin as an optical limiter and as defocussing element for laser pulses in the picosecond regime. The algorithm is a transient finite volume method that is coupled with a 'ray model' of the radiation which simultaneously solves the heat transfer and Maxwell's equations. The nonlinear behavior of the material is included in this analysis using a modified Euler predictor-corrector integration technique. Calculated power limiting and z-scan curves are in qualitative agreement with experiments. These results indicate that the code can be used to investigate and optimize optical systems which use the nonlinear behavior of bacteriorhodopsin.

  2. Conservation Laws in Higher-Order Nonlinear Optical Effects

    Kim, J; Shin, H J; Kim, Jongbae

    1999-01-01

    Conservation laws of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation are studied in the presence of higher-order nonlinear optical effects including the third-order dispersion and the self-steepening. In a context of group theory, we derive a general expression for infinitely many conserved currents and charges of the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The first few currents and charges are also presented explicitly. Due to the higher-order effects, conservation laws of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation are violated in general. The differences between the types of the conserved currents for the Hirota and the Sasa-Satsuma equations imply that the higher-order terms determine the inherent types of conserved quantities for each integrable cases of the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  3. Nonlinear optical and magneto-optical effects in non-spherical magnetic granular composite

    Ping Xu(须萍); Zhenya Li(李振亚)

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization-induced nonlinear optical and nonlinear magneto-optical properties in a magnetic metal-insulator composite are studied based on a tensor effective medium approximation with shape factor and Taylcr-expansion method. There is a weakly nonlinear relation between electric displacement D and elcctric field E in the composite. The results of our studies on the effective dielectric tensor and the nonlinear susceptibility tensor in a magnetic nanocomposite are surveyed. It is shown that such a metal-insulator composite exhibits the enhancements of optical and magneto-optical nonlinearity. The frequencies at which the enhancements occur, and the amplitude of the enhancement factors depend on the concentration and shape of the magnetic grains.

  4. Particle optics in the TIT-RFQ calculated using a 3D particle-in-cell code

    Beam dynamics in an RFQ at the Tokyo Institute of Technology was analyzed using a 3D particle-in-cell computer code. In this calculation not only space charge force between each macroparticles but also 3D image charge field were included. Beam transmission performance was calculated for two types of vane-tip design with different tip curvature radii. These results are compared with ones obtained with the idealized linear two-term potential. The old vane tip design with a small tip curvature radius has given very poor beam transmission efficiency which cannot be accepted for the actual machine. (author)

  5. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Bi-doped germano-silicate optical fiber

    An optical fiber doped with bismuth was fabricated using the modified chemical vapor deposition method. Both the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the glass fiber were investigated. The resonant nonlinear refractive index was found to be around 3 × 10−15 m2 W−1, which is five orders of magnitude larger than the non-resonant nonlinear refractive index of commercially available single-mode silica fiber. The high resonant nonlinearity of the Bi-doped fiber was attributed as arising from Si-related bismuth active centers. (paper)

  6. Nonlinear optical measurements of glucose concentration

    Yakovlev, V. V.

    2008-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that currently affects about 7% of the US population, or roughly about 20 million people. Effectively controlling diabetes requires regular measurements of the blood sugar levels to ensure the one time insulin injection when the concentration of glucose reaches a critical level. In this report, nonlinear Raman microspectroscopy is demonstrated to be a promising new way of continuous and noninvasive way of measuring the glucose concentration.

  7. Hybrid quantum systems for enhanced nonlinear optical susceptibilities

    Sullivan, Dennis; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been expended in the search for materials with ultra-fast nonlinear-optical susceptibilities, but most fall far below the fundamental limits. This work applies a theoretical materials development program that has identified a promising new hybrid made of a nanorod and a molecule. This system uses the electrostatic dipole moment of the molecule to break the symmetry of the metallic nanostructure that shifts the energy spectrum to make it optimal for a nonlinear-optical response near the fundamental limit. The structural parameters are varied to determine the ideal configuration, providing guidelines for making the best structures.

  8. Nonlinear Distortion of the Fiber Optic Microphone

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    2000-01-01

    Analytical expressions are obtained for predicting the harmonic and intermodulation performance of the fiber optic microphone. These expressions are in terms of the ordinary Bessel functions with arguments dependent on the amplitudes of the acoustical exciting signal.

  9. Optical Beams in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    Królikowski, W.; Bang, Ole; Wyller, J.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons.......We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons....

  10. High-speed signal processing using highly nonlinear optical fibres

    Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2009-01-01

    We review recent progress in all-optical signal processing techniques making use of conventional silica-based highly nonlinear fibres. In particular, we focus on recent demonstrations of ultra-fast processing at 640 Gbit/s and above, as well as on signal processing of novel modulation formats...... relying on the phase of the optical field. Topics covered include all-optical switching of 640 Gbit/s and 1.28 Tbit/s serial data, wavelength conversion at 640 Gbit/s, optical amplitude regeneration of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signals, as well as midspan spectral inversion for differential 8......-state phase shift keying (D8PSK) signals....

  11. A Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor Network for Online 3-D Temperature and Neutron Fluence Mapping in a VHTR Environment

    Tsvetkov, Pavel; Dickerson, Bryan; French, Joseph; McEachern, Donald; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-04-30

    Robust sensing technologies allowing for 3D in-core performance monitoring in real time are of paramount importance for already established LWRs to enhance their reliability and availability per year, and therefore, to further facilitate their economic competitiveness via predictive assessment of the in-core conditions.

  12. Weld line optimization on thermoplastic elastomer micro injection moulded components using 3D focus variation optical microscopy

    Hasnaes, F.B.; Elsborg, R.; Tosello, G.; Calaon, M.; Hansen, H. N.

    The presented study investigates weld line depth development across a micro suspension ring. A focus variation microscope was used to obtain 3D images of the weld line area. Suspension rings produced with different micro injection moulding process parameters were examined to identify the correlat...

  13. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in engineered optical media

    Litchinitser, Natalia

    In this talk, we consider fundamental optical phenomena at the interface of nonlinear and singular optics in artificial media, including theoretical and experimental studies of linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions of vector and singular optical beams in metamaterials. We show that unique optical properties of metamaterials open unlimited prospects to ``engineer'' light itself. Thanks to their ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components, metamaterials open new degrees of freedom for tailoring complex polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. We will discuss several approaches to structured light manipulation on the nanoscale using metal-dielectric, all-dielectric and hyperbolic metamaterials. These new functionalities, including polarization and OAM conversion, beam magnification and de-magnification, and sub-wavelength imaging using novel non-resonant hyperlens are likely to enable a new generation of on-chip or all-fiber structured light applications. The emergence of metamaterials also has a strong potential to enable a plethora of novel nonlinear light-matter interactions and even new nonlinear materials. In particular, nonlinear focusing and defocusing effects are of paramount importance for manipulation of the minimum focusing spot size of structured light beams necessary for nanoscale trapping, manipulation, and fundamental spectroscopic studies. Colloidal suspensions offer as a promising platform for engineering polarizibilities and realization of large and tunable nonlinearities. We will present our recent studies of the phenomenon of spatial modulational instability leading to laser beam filamentation in an engineered soft-matter nonlinear medium. Finally, we introduce so-called virtual hyperbolic metamaterials formed by an array of plasma channels in air as a result of self-focusing of an intense laser pulse, and show that such structure can be used to manipulate microwave beams in a free space. This

  14. Nonlinear optics, active plasmonics and metamaterials with liquid crystals

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2014-03-01

    Nematic liquid crystals possess large and versatile optical nonlinearities suitable for photonics applications spanning the femtoseconds to milliseconds time scales, and across a wide spectral window. We present a comprehensive review of the physical properties and mechanisms that underlie these multiple time scales nonlinearities, delving into individual molecular electronic responses as well as collective ordered-phase dynamical processes. Several exemplary theoretical formalisms and feasibility demonstrations of ultrafast all-optical transmission switching and tunable metamaterials and plasmonic photonic structures where the liquid crystal constituents play the critical role of enabling the processes are discussed. Emphasis is placed on all-optical processes, but we have also highlighted cases where electro-optical means could provide additional control, flexibility and enhancement possibility. We also point out how another phase of chiral nematic, namely, Blue-Phase liquid crystals could circumvent some of the limitations of nematic and present new possibilities.

  15. Towards multimodal nonlinear optical tomography – experimental methodology

    All-optical microspectroscopic and tomographic tools reveal great potential for clinical dermatologic diagnostics, i.e., investigation of human skin and skin diseases. While optical-coherence tomography has been complemented by two-photon fluorescence tomography and second-harmonic generation tomography, a joint study of various nonlinear optical microspectroscopies, i.e., application of the recently developed multimodal imaging approach, to sizable human-tissue samples has not been evaluated up to now. Here, we present such multimodal approach combining different nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms for imaging, namely two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) into a joint microscopic experiment. We show the potential of imaging large skin areas and discuss the information obtained in a case study comparing normal skin and keloid tissue

  16. Nonlinear Optics of Intense Attosecond Light Pulses

    Nazarkin, Alexander

    2006-10-01

    The interaction of an intense light pulse of "subatomic" duration with a system of multiple discrete quantum states is analyzed. The nonperturbative character of the response to the pulse field leading to an efficient conversion into high order harmonics is predicted. The spatial-temporal evolution of the field is shown to obey a generalized nonlinear wave equation of the double-sine-Gordon type. In addition to the solitary wave structures, it predicts a nontrivial regime of pulse amplification accompanied by extreme temporal self-contraction of the amplified field.

  17. Nonlinear optical properties of the magnetized QED Vacuum

    Mendonça, J T

    2007-01-01

    New processes associated with the nonlinear optical properties of the electromagnetic vacuum, as predicted by quantum electrodynamics are described. We consider the presence of a static and a rotating magnetic field. The cases of harmonic generation and two different types of sideband cascades are considered. First order and second order effects with respect to the external magnetic field are discussed in detail. Possible experimental configurations using ultra-intense lasers are compared with the alternative use of cw lasers in stable optical cavities.

  18. Proton radiation therapy (prt) for pediatric optic pathway gliomas: comparison with 3d planned conventional photons and a standard photon technique

    Purpose: Following adequate therapy, excellent long-term survival rates can be achieved for patients with optic pathway gliomas. Therefore, avoidance of treatment-related functional long-term sequelae is of utmost importance. Optimized sparing of normal tissue is of primary concern in the development of new treatment modalities. The present study compares proton radiation therapy (PRT) with a three-dimensional (3D)-planned multiport photon and a lateral beam photon technique for localized and extensive optic pathway tumors. Methods and Materials: Between February 1992 and November 1997, seven children with optic pathway gliomas underwent PRT. For this study, we computed proton, 3D photon, and lateral photon plans based on the same CT data sets, and using the same treatment planning software for all plans. Radiation exposure for normal tissue and discrete organs at risk was quantified based on dose-volume histograms. Results: Gross tumor volume (GTV) ranged from 3.9 cm3 to 127.2 cm3. Conformity index (relation of encompassing isodose to GTV volume) was 2.3 for protons, 2.9 for 3D photons, and 7.3 for lateral photons. The relative increase of normal tissue (NT) encompassed at several isodose levels in relation to NT encompassed by the 95% proton isodose volume was computed. Relative NT volume of proton plan isodoses at the 95%, 90%, 80%, 50%, and 25% isodose level increased from 1 to 1.6, 2.8, 6.4, to a maximum of 13.3. Relative volumes for 3D photons were 1.6, 2.4, 3.8, 11.5, and 34.8. Lateral plan relative values were 6, 8.3, 11.5, 19.2, and 26.8. Analysis for small (3) and larger (> 80 cm3) tumors showed that protons encompassed the smallest volumes of NT at all isodose levels. Comparable conformity and high-dose gradient were achieved for proton and 3D photon plans in small tumors. However, with increasing tumor volume and complexity, differences became larger. At the 50% isodose level, 3D photons were superior to lateral photons for small tumors; this advantage

  19. New approaches for the fabrication of photonic structures of nonlinear optical materials

    Carvajal, J.J., E-mail: joanjosep.carvajal@urv.ca [Fisica i Cristal lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, Marcel li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Pena, A.; Kumar, R.; Pujol, M.C.; Mateos, X.; Aguilo, M. [Fisica i Cristal lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, Marcel li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Diaz, F., E-mail: f.diaz@urv.ca [Fisica i Cristal lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, Marcel li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Vazquez de Aldana, J.R.; Mendez, C.; Moreno, P.; Roso, L. [Servicio Laser, Univ. Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Trifonov, T.; Rodriguez, A.; Alcubilla, R. [Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Kral, Z.; Ferre-Borrull, J.; Pallares, J.; Marsal, L.F. [Dept. d' Enginyeria Electronica, Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Di Finizio, S.; Macovez, R. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    We revisited two different strategies to fabricate 1D photonic crystals of nonlinear optical dielectric materials based on ultrafast laser ablation of the surface of an RbTiOPO{sub 4} crystal, and selective etching of ferroelectric domains of the surface of a periodically poled LiNbO{sub 4} crystal. We evaluated their behaviour as Bragg diffraction gratings. We also presented the recent advances we developed in a new procedure of fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic crystals of KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) grown on the surface of a KTP substrate by liquid phase epitaxial means within the pores of a silicon macroporous template. Optical, structural, morphological, and compositional characterization for the photonic crystals produced through this technique are presented.

  20. Development of a nonlinear optical measurement-4 coherent imaging system

    Chen, Xiaojun; Song, Yinglin; Gu, Jihua; Yang, Junyi; Shui, Min; Hou, Dengke; Zhu, Zongjie

    2009-07-01

    After the nonlinear optical phenomena were discovered, people began to research the techniques to detect the optical nonlinearities of materials. In this paper, a new optical nonlinear measurement technique-4f coherent imaging system is recommended. The system has many advantages: single shot real-time measurement, simple experimental apparatus, high sensitivity, being able to detect the magnitude and sign of both nonlinear absorption and refraction at the same time, low requirement of beam spatial distribution, and so on. This paper introduces the theory of the 4f system and makes a detailed review and expounds development and application of the 4f coherent image system. The nerve of the experiment is improving the phase diaphragm. The shape of the diaphragm from the double-slits to the small rectangular object, and transition to a circular aperture, finally forming a circular phase diaphragm, which is a circular aperture in the center add a phase object. Following these diaphragm changes, the sensitivity of the system is greatly improved. The latest developments of the system are series-wound double 4f coherent imaging technique and the time-resolved pump-probe system based on NIT-PO. The time-resolved pump-probe system based on NIT-PO can be used to measure the dynamic characteristics of excited states nonlinear absorption and refraction.

  1. In vivo tissue has non-linear rheological behavior distinct from 3D biomimetic hydrogels, as determined by AMOTIV microscopy.

    Blehm, Benjamin H; Devine, Alexus; Staunton, Jack R; Tanner, Kandice

    2016-03-01

    Variation in matrix elasticity has been shown to determine cell fate in both differentiation and development of malignant phenotype. The tissue microenvironment provides complex biochemical and biophysical signals in part due to the architectural heterogeneities found in extracellular matrices (ECMs). Three dimensional cell cultures can partially mimic in vivo tissue architecture, but to truly understand the role of viscoelasticity on cell fate, we must first determine in vivo tissue mechanical properties to improve in vitro models. We employed Active Microrheology by Optical Trapping InVivo (AMOTIV), using in situ calibration to measure in vivo zebrafish tissue mechanics. Previously used trap calibration methods overestimate complex moduli by ∼2-20 fold compared to AMOTIV. Applying differential microscale stresses and strains showed that hyaluronic acid (HA) gels display semi-flexible polymer behavior, while laminin-rich ECM hydrogels display flexible polymer behavior. In contrast, zebrafish tissues displayed different moduli at different stresses, with higher power law exponents at lower stresses, indicating that living tissue has greater stress dependence than the 3D hydrogels examined. To our knowledge, this work is the first vertebrate tissue rheological characterization performed in vivo. Our fundamental observations are important for the development and refinement of in vitro platforms. PMID:26773661

  2. Thermo-optical properties and nonlinear optical response of smectic liquid crystals containing gold nanoparticles.

    de Melo, P B; Nunes, A M; Omena, L; do Nascimento, S M S; da Silva, M G A; Meneghetti, M R; de Oliveira, I N

    2015-10-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of the thermo-optical and nonlinear optical properties of smectic samples containing gold nanoparticles with different shapes. By using the time-resolved Z-scan technique, we determine the effects of nanoparticle addition on the critical behavior of the thermal diffusivity and thermo-optical coefficient at the vicinity of the smectic-A-nematic phase transition. Our results reveal that introduction of gold nanoparticles affects the temperature dependence of thermo-optical parameters, due to the local distortions in the orientational order and heat generation provided by guest particles during the laser exposure. Further, we show that a nonlinear optical response may take place at temperatures where the smectic order is well established. We provide a detailed discussion of the effects associated with the introduction gold nanoparticles on the mechanisms behind the thermal transport and optical nonlinearity in liquid-crystal samples. PMID:26565262

  3. Flying triangulation - A motion-robust optical 3D sensor for the real-time shape acquisition of complex objects

    Willomitzer, Florian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Häusler, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    The three-dimensional shape acquisition of objects has become more and more important in the last years. Up to now, there are several well-established methods which already yield impressive results. However, even under quite common conditions like object movement or a complex shaping, most methods become unsatisfying. Thus, the 3D shape acquisition is still a difficult and non-trivial task. We present our measurement principle "Flying Triangulation" which enables a motion-robust 3D acquisition of complex-shaped object surfaces by a freely movable handheld sensor. Since "Flying Triangulation" is scalable, a whole sensor-zoo for different object sizes is presented. Concluding, an overview of current and future fields of investigation is given.

  4. Optical cone beam tomography of Cherenkov-mediated signals for fast 3D dosimetry of x-ray photon beams in water

    Glaser, Adam K., E-mail: Adam.K.Glaser@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Pogue, Brian W., E-mail: Adam.K.Glaser@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Gladstone, David J. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To test the use of a three-dimensional (3D) optical cone beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm, for estimation of the imparted 3D dose distribution from megavoltage photon beams in a water tank for quality assurance, by imaging the induced Cherenkov-excited fluorescence (CEF). Methods: An intensified charge-coupled device coupled to a standard nontelecentric camera lens was used to tomographically acquire two-dimensional (2D) projection images of CEF from a complex multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 600 MU/min. The resulting projections were used to reconstruct the 3D CEF light distribution, a potential surrogate of imparted dose, using a Feldkamp–Davis–Kress cone beam back reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the reconstructed light distributions were compared to the expected dose values from one-dimensional diode scans, 2D film measurements, and the 3D distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system using a gamma index analysis. A Monte Carlo derived correction was applied to the Cherenkov reconstructions to account for beam hardening artifacts. Results: 3D light volumes were successfully reconstructed over a 400 × 400 × 350 mm{sup 3} volume at a resolution of 1 mm. The Cherenkov reconstructions showed agreement with all comparative methods and were also able to recover both inter- and intra-MLC leaf leakage. Based upon a 3%/3 mm criterion, the experimental Cherenkov light measurements showed an 83%–99% pass fraction depending on the chosen threshold dose. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the use of optical cone beam computed tomography using CEF for the profiling of the imparted dose distribution from large area megavoltage photon beams in water.

  5. Optical cone beam tomography of Cherenkov-mediated signals for fast 3D dosimetry of x-ray photon beams in water

    Purpose: To test the use of a three-dimensional (3D) optical cone beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm, for estimation of the imparted 3D dose distribution from megavoltage photon beams in a water tank for quality assurance, by imaging the induced Cherenkov-excited fluorescence (CEF). Methods: An intensified charge-coupled device coupled to a standard nontelecentric camera lens was used to tomographically acquire two-dimensional (2D) projection images of CEF from a complex multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 600 MU/min. The resulting projections were used to reconstruct the 3D CEF light distribution, a potential surrogate of imparted dose, using a Feldkamp–Davis–Kress cone beam back reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the reconstructed light distributions were compared to the expected dose values from one-dimensional diode scans, 2D film measurements, and the 3D distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system using a gamma index analysis. A Monte Carlo derived correction was applied to the Cherenkov reconstructions to account for beam hardening artifacts. Results: 3D light volumes were successfully reconstructed over a 400 × 400 × 350 mm3 volume at a resolution of 1 mm. The Cherenkov reconstructions showed agreement with all comparative methods and were also able to recover both inter- and intra-MLC leaf leakage. Based upon a 3%/3 mm criterion, the experimental Cherenkov light measurements showed an 83%–99% pass fraction depending on the chosen threshold dose. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the use of optical cone beam computed tomography using CEF for the profiling of the imparted dose distribution from large area megavoltage photon beams in water

  6. Fabrication of holographic 3-D polymeric photonic crystals in near-Infrared band and study of Its optical property

    ZHANG Sa-sa; WANG Qing-pu; ZHANG Xing-yu; CHEN Jia-qi; WANG Li

    2008-01-01

    A three-sidewalls-prism holographic method has been provided for the fabrication of 3-D fcc-type polymeric photonic crystal using negative photoresist.Special fabrication treatment has been introduced to ensure the stability of the fabricated nanostructures.The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and the diffraction results testified the good dependability of the fabricared structures.The simulation of the partial band structure is in good agreement with the transmission and reflection spectra obtained by Fouricr transform infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Demonstration of a Chip-based Nonlinear Optical Isolator

    Hua, Shiyue; Jiang, Xiaoshun; Hua, Qian; Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Despite fundamentally challenging in integrated (nano)photonics, achieving chip-based light nonreciprocity becomes increasingly urgent in signal processing and optical communications. Because of material incompatibilities in conventional approaches based on Faraday effects, alternative solutions have resorted to nonlinear processes to obtain one-way transmission. However, revealed dynamic reciprocity in a recent theoretical analysis has pinned down the functionalities of these nonlinear isolators. To overcome this dynamic reciprocity, we here report the first demonstration of a nonlinear optical isolator on a silicon chip enforced by phase-matched parametric amplification. Using a high-Q microtoroid resonator, we realize highly nonreciprocal transport at the 1,550 nm wavelength when waves are simultaneously launched in both forward and backward directions. Our design, compatible with current CMOS technique, yields convincing isolation performance with sufficiently low insertion loss for a wide range of input ...

  8. Photonic quantum transport in a nonlinear optical fiber

    Hafezi, Mohammad; Gritsev, Vladimir; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the transmission of few-photon quantum fields through a strongly nonlinear optical medium. We develop a general approach to investigate non-equilibrium quantum transport of bosonic fields through a finite-size nonlinear medium and apply it to a recently demonstrated experimental system where cold atoms are loaded in a hollow-core optical fiber. We show that when the interaction between photons is effectively repulsive, the system acts as a single-photon switch. In the case of attractive interaction, the system can exhibit either anti-bunching or bunching, associated with the resonant excitation of bound states of photons by the input field. These effects can be observed by probing statistics of photons transmitted through the nonlinear fiber.

  9. Photonic quantum transport in a nonlinear optical fiber

    Hafezi, M.; Chang, D. E.; Gritsev, V.; Demler, E. A.; Lukin, M. D.

    2011-06-01

    We theoretically study the transmission of few-photon quantum fields through a strongly nonlinear optical medium. We develop a general approach to investigate nonequilibrium quantum transport of bosonic fields through a finite-size nonlinear medium and apply it to a recently demonstrated experimental system where cold atoms are loaded in a hollow-core optical fiber. We show that when the interaction between photons is effectively repulsive, the system acts as a single-photon switch. In the case of attractive interaction, the system can exhibit either antibunching or bunching, associated with the resonant excitation of bound states of photons by the input field. These effects can be observed by probing statistics of photons transmitted through the nonlinear fiber.

  10. Extra phase noise from thermal fluctuations in nonlinear optical crystals

    César, J. E. S.; Coelho, A.S.; Cassemiro, K.N.;

    2009-01-01

    We show theoretically and experimentally that scattered light by thermal phonons inside a second-order nonlinear crystal is the source of additional phase noise observed in optical parametric oscillators. This additional phase noise reduces the quantum correlations and has hitherto hindered the d...

  11. Optoelectronic and nonlinear optical processes in low dimensional semiconductors

    B P Singh

    2006-11-01

    Spatial confinement of quantum excitations on their characteristic wavelength scale in low dimensional materials offers unique possibilities to engineer the electronic structure and thereby control their physical properties by way of simple manipulation of geometrical parameters. This has led to an overwhelming interest in quasi-zero dimensional semiconductors or quantum dots as tunable materials for multitude of exciting applications in optoelectronic and nonlinear optical devices and quantum information processing. Large nonlinear optical response and high luminescence quantum yield expected in these systems is a consequence of huge enhancement of transition probabilities ensuing from quantum confinement. High quantum efficiency of photoluminescence, however, is not usually realized in the case of bare semiconductor nanoparticles owing to the presence of surface states. In this talk, I will focus on the role of quantum confinement and surface states in ascertaining nonlinear optical and optoelectronic properties of II–VI semiconductor quantum dots and their nanocomposites. I will also discuss the influence of nonlinear optical processes on their optoelectronic characteristics.

  12. Polaritons and retarded interactions in nonlinear optical susceptibilities

    Knoester, Jasper; Mukamel, Shaul

    1989-01-01

    The role of retarded intermolecular interactions (polariton effects) in the nonlinear optical susceptibilities of condensed phases is studied. A systematic method for calculating these susceptibilities is developed, based on the derivation of reduced equations of motion which couple the electronic v

  13. Nonlinear interaction of meta-atoms through optical coupling

    Slobozhanyuk, A. P.; Kapitanova, P. V.; Filonov, D. S.; Belov, P. A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Powell, D. A. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Shadrivov, I. V.; Kivshar, Yu. S. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Lapine, M., E-mail: mlapine@physics.usyd.edu.au [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); McPhedran, R. C. [Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-01-06

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a multi-frequency nonlinear coupling mechanism between split-ring resonators. We engineer the coupling between two microwave resonators through optical interaction, whilst suppressing the direct electromagnetic coupling. This allows for a power-dependent interaction between the otherwise independent resonators, opening interesting opportunities to address applications in signal processing, filtering, directional coupling, and electromagnetic compatibility.

  14. Nonlinear optical properties of p-substituted benzalbarbituric acids

    Kondo, K.; Ochiai, S.; Takemoto, K.; Irie, M.

    1990-02-01

    A number of p-substituted benzalbarbituric acid derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of p-substituted benzaldehyde with barbituric acid, and their nonlinear optical properties were investigated by using the Kurtz powder test. p-acetamidobenzalbarbituric acid derivatives were found to exhibit the relatively high second-harmonic intensity and have the higher thermal stability.

  15. Stable droplets and nucleation in asymmetric bistable nonlinear optical systems

    The existence and stability properties of localized structures in nonlinear optical cavities with slightly non-equivalent homogeneous solutions and displaying a modulational instability of flat fronts are investigated. We present a new type of stable localized structures in the regime of formation of labyrinthine patterns based on the balance between the curvature and the asymmetry effects

  16. Nonlinear optical cryptosystem resistant to standard and hybrid attacks

    Sinha, Aloka

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nonlinear optical cryptosystem that is resistant to amplitude-phase retrieval attacks, known-plaintext attack and chosen-plaintext attack. A squaring operation is introduced in the encryption path, which thwarts the iterative attacks. This nonlinear operation tends to amplify the error in the estimation during an iterative attack. The decryption process requires the use of a square-root operation. Thus, in the reverse path also, the attacks encounter the nonlinear square-root operation. These two nonlinearities make the iterative attacks unstable, thereby leading to non-convergence of the mean square error (MSE). Our technique is also resistant to hybrid attacks. The technique is general and is shown to work on a variety of images of the type grayscale and binary. Numerical simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed cryptosystem.

  17. Few-photon coherent nonlinear optics with a single molecule

    Maser, Andreas; Utikal, Tobias; Götzinger, Stephan; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    The pioneering experiments of linear spectroscopy were performed using flames in the 1800s, but nonlinear optical measurements had to wait until lasers became available in the twentieth century. Because the nonlinear cross section of materials is very small, usually macroscopic bulk samples and pulsed lasers are used. Numerous efforts have explored coherent nonlinear signal generation from individual nanoparticles or small atomic ensembles with millions of atoms. Experiments on a single semiconductor quantum dot have also been reported, albeit with a very small yield. Here, we report on coherent nonlinear spectroscopy of a single molecule under continuous-wave single-pass illumination, where efficient photon-molecule coupling in a tight focus allows switching of a laser beam by less than a handful of pump photons nearly resonant with the sharp molecular transition. Aside from their fundamental importance, our results emphasize the potential of organic molecules for applications such as quantum information pro...

  18. Nonlinear optics with ZnO nanowires

    Voss, Tobias; Kudyk, Iryna; Wischmeier, Lars; Gutowski, Juergen [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    Second-harmonic generation and two-photon induced photoluminescence from arrays of ZnO nanowires and single nanowires under excitation with femtosecond pulses is experimentally studied. The ratio of relevant components of the nonlinear {chi}{sup (2)} tensor is obtained. The excitation of the nanowire array with femtosecond laser pulses induces significant heating of the free-standing nanowires. The heat distribution is analyzed in phenomenological finite-element studies. Two-photon excitation of a broad internal photoluminescence in single ZnO nanowires is used to perform a single-nanowire transmission experiment. From the transmitted intensity, the band-gap shift in the excited nanowire is obtained. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Optical authentication via photon-synthesized ghost imaging using optical nonlinear correlation

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for optical authentication via photon-synthesized ghost imaging using optical nonlinear correlation. In ghost imaging, multiple series of photons recorded at the object beam arm can be arbitrarily controlled for the generation of synthesized objects. Ghost imaging with sparse reference intensity patterns provides a channel to effectively modulate the noise-like synthesized objects during the recovery, and the reconstructed (noise-like) objects, i.e., added or subtracted information, can be further authenticated by optical nonlinear correlation algorithm. It is expected that the proposed method can provide an effective and promising alternative for ghost-imaging-based optical processing.

  20. Detecting nonlinear acoustic waves in liquids with nonlinear dipole optical antennae

    Maksymov, Ivan S

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important imaging modality for biological systems. High-frequency ultrasound can also (e.g., via acoustical nonlinearities) be used to provide deeply penetrating and high-resolution imaging of vascular structure via catheterisation. The latter is an important diagnostic in vascular health. Typically, ultrasound requires sources and transducers that are greater than, or of order the same size as the wavelength of the acoustic wave. Here we design and theoretically demonstrate that single silver nanorods, acting as optical nonlinear dipole antennae, can be used to detect ultrasound via Brillouin light scattering from linear and nonlinear acoustic waves propagating in bulk water. The nanorods are tuned to operate on high-order plasmon modes in contrast to the usual approach of using fundamental plasmon resonances. The high-order operation also gives rise to enhanced optical third-harmonic generation, which provides an important method for exciting the higher-order Fabry-Perot modes of the dipole...

  1. Nonlinear optical transmission of cyanobacteria-derived optical materials

    Zhao, Edward H.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Zhao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Cyanobacteria-derived optical materials for optical limiting applications have been studied in this work. Six samples have been prepared from cyanobacteria including cyanobacteria suspension in water, extracts in water, methanol, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and pyrolyzed cyanobacteria (PCYB) dispersed in dsDNA (sodium salt from salmon testes) solution and sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, respectively. The extracts contain phycocyanin, chlorophyll a, and carotenoids as measured by optical absorption spectroscopy, while the PCYB is a nanostructural composite composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoringes, and multilayer graphenes, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. The optical limiting responses of the samples have been measured at 532 and 756 nm. The PCYB in dsDNA solution has the best limiting performance out of all the cyanobacteria-derived samples. It outperforms carbon black suspension standard at 532 nm and is a broadband limiter, which makes it attractive for optical limiting applications.

  2. Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material

    Fiore, A.; Berger, V.; Rosencher, E.; Bravetti, P.; Nagle, J.

    1998-01-01

    Frequency conversion in nonlinear optical crystals, is an effective means of generating coherent light at frequencies where lasers perform poorly or are unavailable. For efficient conversion, it is necessary to compensate for optical dispersion, which results in different phase velocities for light of different frequencies. In anisotropic birefringent crystals such as LiNbO3 or KH2PO4 (`KDP'), phase matching can be achieved between electromagnetic waves having different polarizations. But this is not possible for optically isotropic materials, and as a result, cubic materials such as GaAs (which otherwise have attractive nonlinear optical properties) have been little exploited for frequency conversion applications. Quasi-phase-matching schemes,, which have achieved considerable success in LiNbO3 (ref. 4), provide a route to circumventing this problem,, but the difficulty of producing the required pattern of nonlinear properties in isotropic materials, particularly semiconductors, has limited the practical utility of such approaches. Here we demonstrate a different route to phase matching - based on a concept proposed by Van der Ziel 22 years ago - which exploits the artificial birefringence of multilayer composites of GaAs and oxidised AlAs. As GaAs is the material of choice for semiconductor lasers, such optical sources could be integrated in the core of frequency converters based on these composite structures.

  3. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    Alloatti, L., E-mail: alloatti@mit.edu; Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Froelich, A.; Wegener, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Frenzel, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Freude, W. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leuthold, J.; Koos, C., E-mail: christian.koos@kit.edu [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B = TiO{sub 2}, and C = HfO{sub 2}. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  4. Determining the 3D orientation of optically trapped upconverting nanorods by in situ single-particle polarized spectroscopy

    Rodríguez-Sevilla, Paloma; Labrador-Páez, Lucía; Wawrzyńczyk, Dominika; Nyk, Marcin; Samoć, Marek; Kar, Ajoy Kumar; MacKenzie, Mark D.; Paterson, Lynn; Jaque, Daniel; Haro-González, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    An approach to unequivocally determine the three-dimensional orientation of optically manipulated NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ upconverting nanorods (UCNRs) is demonstrated. Long-term immobilization of individual UCNRs inside single and multiple resonant optical traps allow for stable single UCNR spectroscopy studies. Based on the strong polarization dependent upconverted luminescence of UCNRs it is possible to unequivocally determine, in real time, their three-dimensional orientation when optically trapped. In single-beam traps, polarized single particle spectroscopy has concluded that UCNRs orientate parallel to the propagation axis of the trapping beam. On the other hand, when multiple-beam optical tweezers are used, single particle polarization spectroscopy demonstrated how full spatial control over UCNR orientation can be achieved by changing the trap-to-trap distance as well as the relative orientation between optical traps. All these results show the possibility of real time three-dimensional manipulation and tracking of anisotropic nanoparticles with wide potential application in modern nanobiophotonics.An approach to unequivocally determine the three-dimensional orientation of optically manipulated NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ upconverting nanorods (UCNRs) is demonstrated. Long-term immobilization of individual UCNRs inside single and multiple resonant optical traps allow for stable single UCNR spectroscopy studies. Based on the strong polarization dependent upconverted luminescence of UCNRs it is possible to unequivocally determine, in real time, their three-dimensional orientation when optically trapped. In single-beam traps, polarized single particle spectroscopy has concluded that UCNRs orientate parallel to the propagation axis of the trapping beam. On the other hand, when multiple-beam optical tweezers are used, single particle polarization spectroscopy demonstrated how full spatial control over UCNR orientation can be achieved by changing the trap-to-trap distance as well as

  5. Third order nonlinear optical response exhibited by mono- and few-layers of WS2

    Torres-Torres, Carlos; Perea-López, Néstor; Elías, Ana Laura; Gutiérrez, Humberto R.; Cullen, David A.; Berkdemir, Ayse; López-Urías, Florentino; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-06-01

    In this work, strong third order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by WS2 layers are presented. Optical Kerr effect was identified as the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these third order optical nonlinearities. An extraordinary nonlinear refractive index together with an important contribution of a saturated absorptive response was observed to depend on the atomic layer stacking. Comparative experiments performed in mono- and few-layer samples of WS2 revealed that this material is potentially capable of modulating nonlinear optical processes by selective near resonant induced birefringence. We envision applications for developing all-optical bidimensional nonlinear optical devices.

  6. 3D rod-like copper oxide with nanowire hierarchical structure: Ultrasound assisted synthesis from Cu2(OH)3NO3 precursor, optical properties and formation mechanism

    Ba, Ningning; Zhu, Lianjie; Li, Hongbin; Zhang, Guangzhi; Li, Jianfa; Sun, Jingfeng

    2016-03-01

    3-dimensional (3D) rod-like CuO with nanowire hierarchical structure has been synthesized successfully by a facile ultrasound assisted method combined with thermal conversion, using rouaite Cu2(OH)3NO3 as the precursor. The product was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and FT-IR spectrum. Its optical properties were studied by means of UV-Vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. Series of control experiments have been performed to explore influencing factors to the product morphologies and a possible formation mechanism has been proposed. The results show that each CuO rod assembled by tens of nanowires is 200-300 nm in diameter and about 1000 nm in length. Each nanowire contains many interconnected nanoparticles with sizes of about 15 nm. Particularly, ultrasound processing was found beneficial to the formation of the 3D rod-like CuO with nanowire hierarchical structure.

  7. Cavity nonlinear optics with few photons and ultracold quantum particles

    Full text: The light force on particles trapped in the field of a high-Q cavity mode depends on the quantum state of field and particle. Different photon numbers generate different optical potentials and different motional states induce different field evolution. Even for negligible internal particle excitation, which yields linear polarizability, the quantum character of particle motion generates nonlinear field dynamics. We derive a corresponding effective field Hamiltonian containing all the powers of the photon number operator, which predicts nonlinear phase shifts and squeezing even at the few-photon level. Simulations of the full particle-field dynamics confirm this and show significant particle-field entanglement. (author)

  8. Label-free and selective nonlinear fiber-optical biosensing

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Heuck, Mikkel; Agger, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that the inherent nonlinearity of a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) may be used to achieve label-free selective biosensing, thereby eliminating the need for post-processing of the fiber. This first nonlinear biosensor utilizes a change in the modulational instability (MI) gain...... spectrum (a shift of the Stokes- or anti-Stokes wavelength) caused by the selective capture of biomolecules by a sensor layer immobilised on the walls of the holes in the fiber. We find that such changes in the MI gain spectrum can be made detectable, and that engineering of the dispersion is important for...

  9. Nonlinear optical responses of erbium-doped YAG ceramics

    Sun, Wangliang; Yi, Jun; Miao, Lili; Li, Jiang; Xie, Tengfei; Zhao, Chujun; Pan, Yubai; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-07-01

    By performing the Z-scan measurements with ultrafast femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm wavelength, we can unambiguously distinguish the real and imaginary part of the third-order optical nonlinearity of the erbium-doped YAG ceramics. The reverse saturable absorption of the erbium-doped YAG ceramics has been observed experimentally, and the nonlinear refractive index of the ceramics is estimated to be about 10-21 m2/W. The experimental results may provide design guidelines for the high power laser design and its applications.

  10. Self-characterization of linear and nonlinear adaptive optics systems.

    Hampton, Peter J; Conan, Rodolphe; Keskin, Onur; Bradley, Colin; Agathoklis, Pan

    2008-01-10

    We present methods used to determine the linear or nonlinear static response and the linear dynamic response of an adaptive optics (AO) system. This AO system consists of a nonlinear microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror (DM), a linear tip-tilt mirror (TTM), a control computer, and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The system is modeled using a single-input-single-output structure to determine the one-dimensional transfer function of the dynamic response of the chain of system hardware. An AO system has been shown to be able to characterize its own response without additional instrumentation. Experimentally determined models are given for a TTM and a DM. PMID:18188192

  11. Optical Fiber Communications Group of the Nonlinear Transformations

    Lekic, S; Rajilic, Z

    1998-01-01

    A new method for finding solutions of the nonlinear Shrödinger equation is proposed. Comutative multiplicative group of the nonlinear transformations, which operate on stationary localized solutions, enables a consideration of fractal subspaces in the solution space, stability and deterministic chaos. An increase of the transmission rate at the optical fiber communications can be based on new forms of localized stationary solutions, without significant change of input power. The estimated transmission rate is 50 Gbit/s, for certain available soliton transmission systems.

  12. Simple nonlinear interferometer-based all-optical thresholder and its applications for optical CDMA.

    Kravtsov, Konstantin; Prucnal, Paul R; Bubnov, Mikhail M

    2007-10-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of an ultrafast all-optical thresholder based on a nonlinear Sagnac interferometer. The proposed design is intended for operation at very small nonlinear phase shifts. Therefore, it requires an in-loop nonlinearity lower than for the classical nonlinear loop mirror scheme. Only 15 meters of conventional (non-holey) silica-based fiber is used as a nonlinear element. The proposed thresholder is polarization insensitive and is good for multi-wavelength operation, meeting all the requirements for autocorrelation detection in various optical CDMA communication systems. The observed cubic transfer function is superior to the quadratic transfer function of second harmonic generation-based thresholders. PMID:19550579

  13. Report of workshop on X-ray and nonlinear optics

    As synchrotron radiation has advanced to high luminance, the possibility of realizing coherent light has heightened, and the nonlinear optical phenomena in soft and hard X-ray regions have become the object of the concern of X-ray researchers, and also the researchers in the fields of quantum electronics and optical properties. This workshop was held on September 21 and 22, 1993 at National Laboratory for High energy Physics. Lectures were given on the generation of second harmonic of X-ray by utilizing dynamic diffraction, X-ray parametric scattering induced by strong laser beam, the resonance enhancement of X-ray inelastic scattering induced by strong visible light, Raman scattering in soft X-ray region, the control of nonlinear optical processes by strong external field; the experiments, though they are fundamental, they have not been carried out; undulator radiation X-ray and X-ray free electron laser, the improvement of the coherence of X-ray laser, superradiance of Frenkel excitor system and the measurement of superhigh speed pulses in X-ray region. The comment from the standpoint of the research on nonlinear optics was given. In this document, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.)

  14. Ablation and optical third-order nonlinearities in Ag nanoparticles

    Carlos Torres-Torres

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Torres-Torres1, Néstor Peréa-López2, Jorge Alejandro Reyes-Esqueda3, Luis Rodríguez-Fernández3, Alejandro Crespo-Sosa3, Juan Carlos Cheang-Wong3, Alicia Oliver31Section of Graduate Studies and Research, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute, Zacatenco, Distrito Federal, Mexico; 2Laboratory for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research and Advanced Materials Department, IPICYT, Camino a la Presa San Jose, San Luis Potosi, Mexico; 3Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, D.F. 01000, MéxicoAbstract: The optical damage associated with high intensity laser excitation of silver nanoparticles (NPs was studied. In order to investigate the mechanisms of optical nonlinearity of a nanocomposite and their relation with its ablation threshold, a high-purity silica sample implanted with Ag ions was exposed to different nanosecond and picosecond laser irradiations. The magnitude and sign of picosecond refractive and absorptive nonlinearities were measured near and far from the surface plasmon resonance (SPR of the Ag NPs with a self-diffraction technique. Saturable optical absorption and electronic polarization related to self-focusing were identified. Linear absorption is the main process involved in nanosecond laser ablation, but nonlinearities are important for ultrashort picosecond pulses when the absorptive process become significantly dependent on the irradiance. We estimated that near the resonance, picosecond intraband transitions allow an expanded distribution of energy among the NPs, in comparison to the energy distribution resulting in a case of far from resonance, when the most important absorption takes place in silica. We measured important differences in the ablation threshold and we estimated that the high selectiveness of the SPR of Ag NPs as well as their corresponding optical nonlinearities can be strongly significant for laser

  15. Intrinsic optical bistability between left-handed material and nonlinear optical materials

    Shi Hong-Yan; Jiang Yong-Yuan; Sun Xiu-Dong; Guo Ru-Hai; Zhao Yi-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the interface between a left-handed material and a conventional nonlinear material were investigated theoretically and numerically. We found a new phenomenon-optical bistability of the interface.It was shown that the incident intensity, incident angle and permeability ratio between the left-handed and the nonlinear materials could dramatically affect the optical bistable behaviour. We also compared the bistable behaviours of different electromagnetic modes. The results indicated that the TE mode was prior to the TM mode to obtain optical bistability for the same parameter.

  16. Monolithically Integrated InGaAs Nanowires on 3D Structured Silicon-on-Insulator as a New Platform for Full Optical Links.

    Kim, Hyunseok; Farrell, Alan C; Senanayake, Pradeep; Lee, Wook-Jae; Huffaker, Diana L

    2016-03-01

    Monolithically integrated III-V semiconductors on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform can be used as a building block for energy-efficient on-chip optical links. Epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductors on silicon, however, has been challenged by the large mismatches in lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between epitaxial layers and silicon substrates. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the monolithic integration of InGaAs nanowires on the SOI platform and its feasibility for photonics and optoelectronic applications. InGaAs nanowires are grown not only on a planar SOI layer but also on a 3D structured SOI layer by catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The precise positioning of nanowires on 3D structures, including waveguides and gratings, reveals the versatility and practicality of the proposed platform. Photoluminescence measurements exhibit that the composition of ternary InGaAs nanowires grown on the SOI layer has wide tunability covering all telecommunication wavelengths from 1.2 to 1.8 μm. We also show that the emission from an optically pumped single nanowire is effectively coupled and transmitted through an SOI waveguide, explicitly showing that this work lays the foundation for a new platform toward energy-efficient optical links. PMID:26901448

  17. Full-field optical deformation measurement in biomechanics: digital speckle pattern interferometry and 3D digital image correlation applied to bird beaks.

    Soons, Joris; Lava, Pascal; Debruyne, Dimitri; Dirckx, Joris

    2012-10-01

    In this paper two easy-to-use optical setups for the validation of biomechanical finite element (FE) models are presented. First, we show an easy-to-build Michelson digital speckle pattern interferometer (DSPI) setup, yielding the out-of-plane displacement. We also introduce three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC), a stereo photogrammetric technique. Both techniques are non-contact and full field, but they differ in nature and have different magnitudes of sensitivity. In this paper we successfully apply both techniques to validate a multi-layered FE model of a small bird beak, a strong but very light biological composite. DSPI can measure very small deformations, with potentially high signal-to-noise ratios. Its high sensitivity, however, results in high stability requirements and makes it hard to use it outside an optical laboratory and on living samples. In addition, large loads have to be divided into small incremental load steps to avoid phase unwrapping errors and speckle de-correlation. 3D-DIC needs much larger displacements, but automatically yields the strains. It is more flexible, does not have stability requirements, and can easily be used as an optical strain gage. PMID:23026697

  18. From Ewald sphere to Ewald shell in nonlinear optics.

    Huang, Huang; Huang, Cheng-Ping; Zhang, Chao; Hong, Xu-Hao; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Ewald sphere is a simple vector scheme to depict the X-ray Bragg diffraction in a crystal. A similar method, known as the nonlinear Ewald sphere, was employed to illustrate optical frequency conversion processes. We extend the nonlinear Ewald sphere to the Ewald shell construction. With the Ewald shell, a variety of quasi-phase-matching (QPM) effects, such as the collective envelope effect associated with multiple QPM resonances, the enhanced second- harmonic generation due to multiple reciprocal vectors etc., are suggested theoretically and verified experimentally. By rotating the nonlinear photonic crystal sample, the dynamic evolution of these QPM effects has also been observed, which agreed well with the Ewald shell model. PMID:27386951

  19. Complex geometrical optics of Kerr type nonlinear media

    Berczynski, P.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Sukhorukov, A. P.

    2010-03-01

    The paper generalizes paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) for Gaussian beam (GB) propagation in nonlinear media of Kerr type. Ordinary differential equations for the beam amplitude and for complex curvature of the wave front are derived, which describe the evolution of axially symmetric GB in a Kerr type nonlinear medium. It is shown that PCGO readily provides the solutions of NLS equation obtained earlier from diffraction theory on the basis of the aberration-free approach. Besides reproducing classical results of self-focusing PCGO readily describes an influence of the initial curvature of the wave front on the beam evolution in a medium of Kerr type including a nonlinear graded-index fiber. The range of applicability of the PCGO theory is discussed as well which is helpful for avoiding nonphysical solutions.

  20. Large Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities of New Organophosphorus Fullerene Derivative

    刘智波; 田建国; 臧维平; 周文远; 张春平; 郑建禺; 周迎春; 徐华

    2003-01-01

    Optical nonlinearities of new organophosphorus fullerene derivative were determined by the Z-scan method with a pulsed Q-switch Nd:YAG laser at 532nm. The experimental results demonstrated that the derivative has much larger excited-states nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction than C60. A five-level model was utilized to fit the experimental data, and a good agreement is reached. Some parameters such as excited-state absorption cross and refraction cross were obtained. To our knowledge, the excited-state cross section of new organophosphorus fullerene derivative and its effective ratio to the ground-state cross section are the largest values among the fullerene derivatives reported to date.