3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.
1998-12-01
We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.
INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA
Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith
2011-07-01
Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically
3D Molecular dynamics simulations using spheropolytopes
Galindo-Torres, Sergio-Andres; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Wang, Yucang
2008-01-01
We present a simple and efficient method to simulate three-dimensional, complex-shaped, interacting bodies. The particle shape is represented by Minkowski operators. A time-continuous interaction between these bodies is derived using simple concepts of computational geometry. The model (particles + interactions) is efficient, accurate and easy to implement, and it complies with the conservation laws of physics. 3D simulations of hopper flow shows that the non-convexity of the particles strong...
3D FDTD simulations of photonic devices
Full text: In our contribution we will present the recent results on 3D simulations of photonic devices. Particularly, quantum well infrared photodetectors with embedded photonic crystal are optimized to achieve optimal light coupling and quantum efficiency. Furthermore, we study schemes of light coupling into SOI waveguides. Both optical fibre-SOI waveguide and laser-SOI waveguide coupling schemes are investigated. The results of investigations regarding the influence of disorder on the reflection peak in opal 3D photonic crystal will be also presented. This work was supported by the Austrian Nanoinitiative RPC PLATON. (author)
Simulating coronal condensation dynamics in 3D
Moschou, S P; Xia, C; Fang, X
2015-01-01
We present numerical simulations in 3D settings where coronal rain phenomena take place in a magnetic configuration of a quadrupolar arcade system. Our simulation is a magnetohydrodynamic simulation including anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parametrised heating as main thermodynamical features to construct a realistic arcade configuration from chromospheric to coronal heights. The plasma evaporation from chromospheric and transition region heights eventually causes localised runaway condensation events and we witness the formation of plasma blobs due to thermal instability, that evolve dynamically in the heated arcade part and move gradually downwards due to interchange type dynamics. Unlike earlier 2.5D simulations, in this case there is no large scale prominence formation observed, but a continuous coronal rain develops which shows clear indications of Rayleigh-Taylor or interchange instability, that causes the denser plasma located above the transition region to fall do...
Radiative Transfer in 3D Numerical Simulations
Stein, R; Stein, Robert; Nordlund, Aake
2002-01-01
We simulate convection near the solar surface, where the continuum optical depth is of order unity. Hence, to determine the radiative heating and cooling in the energy conservation equation, we must solve the radiative transfer equation (instead of using the diffusion or optically thin cooling approximations). A method efficient enough to calculate the radiation for thousands of time steps is needed. We assume LTE and a non-gray opacity grouped into 4 bins according to strength. We perform a formal solution of the Feautrier equation along a vertical and four straight, slanted, rays (at four azimuthal angles which are rotated 15 deg. every time step). We present details of our method. We also give some results: comparing simulated and observed line profiles for the Sun, showing the importance of 3D transfer for the structure of the mean atmosphere and the eigenfrequencies of p-modes, illustrating Stokes profiles for micropores, and analyzing the effect of radiation on p-mode asymmetries.
3D electrohydrodynamic simulation of electrowetting displays
The fluid dynamic behavior within a pixel of an electrowetting display (EWD) is thoroughly investigated through a 3D simulation. By coupling the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) force deduced from the Maxwell stress tensor with the laminar phase field of the oil–water dual phase, the complete switch processes of an EWD, including the break-up and the electrowetting stages in the switch-on process (with voltage) and the oil spreading in the switch-off process (without voltage), are successfully simulated. By considering the factor of the change in the apparent contact angle at the contact line, the electro–optic performance obtained from the simulation is found to agree well with its corresponding experiment. The proposed model is used to parametrically predict the effect of interfacial (e.g. contact angle of grid) and geometric (e.g. oil thickness and pixel size) properties on the defects of an EWD, such as oil dewetting patterns, oil overflow, and oil non-recovery. With the help of the defect analysis, a highly stable EWD is both experimentally realized and numerically analyzed. (paper)
Planning for brachytherapy using a 3D-simulation model
A 3D-simulation model made with a milling system was applied to HDR-brachytherapy. The 3D-simulation model is used to simulate the 3D-structure of the lesion and the surrounding organs before the actual catheterization for brachytherapy. The first case was recurrent prostatic cancer in a 61-year-old man. The other case was lymph node recurrence of a 71-year-old woman's upper gum cancer. In both cases, the 3D-simulation model was very useful to simulate the 3D-conformation, to plan the treatment process and to avoid the risk accompanying treatment. (author)
Numerical simulation of 3D breaking waves
Fraunie, Philippe; Golay, Frederic
2015-04-01
Numerical methods dealing with two phase flows basically can be classified in two ways : the "interface tracking" methods when the two phases are resolved separately including boundary conditions fixed at the interface and the "interface capturing" methods when a single flow is considered with variable density. Physical and numerical properties of the two approaches are discussed, based on some numerical experiments performed concerning 3D breaking waves. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the Modtercom program of Region PACA.
3D Magnetron simulation with CST STUDIO SUITE
The modeling of magnetrons compared to other tubes is more difficult since it requires 3D modeling rather than a 2D investigation. This is not only due to the geometry which can include complicated details to be modeled in 3D but also due to the interaction process itself. The electric field, magnetic field and particle movement span a 3D space. In this paper 3D simulations of a strapped magnetron with CSTSTUDIO SUITETM are presented. (author)
Charge collection characterization of a 3D silicon radiation detector by using 3D simulations
Kalliopuska, J; Orava, R
2007-01-01
In 3D detectors, the electrodes are processed within the bulk of the sensor material. Therefore, the signal charge is collected independently of the wafer thickness and the collection process is faster due to shorter distances between the charge collection electrodes as compared to a planar detector structure. In this paper, 3D simulations are used to assess the performance of a 3D detector structure in terms of charge sharing, efficiency and speed of charge collection, surface charge, location of the primary interaction and the bias voltage. The measured current pulse is proposed to be delayed due to the resistance–capacitance (RC) product induced by the variation of the serial resistance of the pixel electrode depending on the depth of the primary interaction. Extensive simulations are carried out to characterize the 3D detector structures and to verify the proposed explanation for the delay of the current pulse. A method for testing the hypothesis experimentally is suggested.
3D HYDRA Simulations of NIF Targets
Marinak, M M; Kerbel, G D; Gentile, N A; Jones, O; Pollaine, S; Dittrich, T R; Haan, S W
2000-10-20
The performance of NIF target designs is simulated in three dimensions using the HYDRA multiphysics radiation hydrodynamics code. In simulations of a cylindrical NIF hohlraum that include an imploding capsule, the motion of the wall material inside the hohlraum shows a high degree of axisymmetry. Laser radiation is able to propagate through the entrance hole for the required duration of the pulse. Gross hohlraum energetics in the simulation mirror the results from an axisymmetric simulation. A simulation of a copper-doped beryllium ablator NIF capsule carried out over large solid angle resolved the full spectrum of the most dangerous modes that grow from surface roughness. Hydrodynamic instabilities evolve into the weakly nonlinear regime. There is no evidence of low mode jetting driven by nonlinear mode coupling.
3D HYDRA simulations of NIF targets
Marinak, M M; Kerbel, G D; Gentile, N A; Jones, O; Munro, D; Pollaine, S; Dittrich, T R; Haan, S W
2000-10-30
The performance of NIF target designs is simulated in three dimensions using the HYDRA multiphysics radiation hydrodynamics code. In simulations of a cylindrical NIF hohlraum that include an imploding capsule, all relevant hohlraum features and the detailed laser illumination pattern, the motion of the wall material inside the hohlraum shows a high degree of axisymmetry. Laser light is able to propagate through the entrance hole for the required duration of the pulse. Gross hohlraum energetics mirror the results from an axisymmetric simulation. A NIF capsule simulation resolved the full spectrum of the most dangerous modes that grow from surface roughness. Hydrodynamic instabilities evolve into the weakly nonlinear regime. There is no evidence of anomalous low mode growth driven by nonlinear mode coupling.
3D visualization of port simulation.
Horsthemke, W. H.; Macal, C. M.; Nevins, M. R.
1999-06-14
Affordable and realistic three dimensional visualization technology can be applied to large scale constructive simulations such as the port simulation model, PORTSIM. These visualization tools enhance the experienced planner's ability to form mental models of how seaport operations will unfold when the simulation model is implemented and executed. They also offer unique opportunities to train new planners not only in the use of the simulation model but on the layout and design of seaports. Simulation visualization capabilities are enhanced by borrowing from work on interface design, camera control, and data presentation. Using selective fidelity, the designers of these visualization systems can reduce their time and efforts by concentrating on those features which yield the most value for their simulation. Offering the user various observational tools allows the freedom to simply watch or engage in the simulation without getting lost. Identifying the underlying infrastructure or cargo items with labels can provide useful information at the risk of some visual clutter. The PortVis visualization expands the PORTSIM user base which can benefit from the results provided by this capability, especially in strategic planning, mission rehearsal, and training. Strategic planners will immediately reap the benefits of seeing the impact of increased throughput visually without keeping track of statistical data. Mission rehearsal and training users will have an effective training tool to supplement their operational training exercises which are limited in number because of their high costs. Having another effective training modality in this visualization system allows more training to take place and more personnel to gain an understanding of seaport operations. This simulation and visualization training can be accomplished at lower cost than would be possible for the operational training exercises alone. The application of PORTSIM and PortVis will lead to more efficient
3D MHD Simulations of Spheromak Compression
Stuber, James E.; Woodruff, Simon; O'Bryan, John; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Darpa Spheromak Team
2015-11-01
The adiabatic compression of compact tori could lead to a compact and hence low cost fusion energy system. The critical scientific issues in spheromak compression relate both to confinement properties and to the stability of the configuration undergoing compression. We present results from the NIMROD code modified with the addition of magnetic field coils that allow us to examine the role of rotation on the stability and confinement of the spheromak (extending prior work for the FRC). We present results from a scan in initial rotation, from 0 to 100km/s. We show that strong rotational shear (10km/s over 1cm) occurs. We compare the simulation results with analytic scaling relations for adiabatic compression. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.
3-D template simulation system in Total Hip Arthroplasty
In Total Hip Arthroplastry, 2D template on Plain X-ray is usually used for preoperative planning. But deformity and contracture can cause malposition and measurement error. To reduce those problems, a 3D preoperative simulation system was developed. Three methods were compared in this study. One is to create very accurate AP and ML images which can use for standard 2D template. One is fully 3D preoperative template system using computer graphics. Last one is substantial simulation using stereo-lithography model. 3D geometry data of the bone was made from Helical 3-D CT data. AP and ML surface cutting 3D images of the femur were created using workstation (Advantage Workstation; GE Medical Systems). The extracted 3D geometry was displayed on personal computer using Magics (STL data visualization software), then 3D geometry of the stem was superimposed in it. The full 3D simulation system made it possible to observe the bone and stem geometry from any direction and by any section view. Stereo-lithography model was useful for detailed observation of the femur anatomy. (author)
Numerical Relativity Towards Simulations of 3D Black Hole Coalescence
Seidel, E
1998-01-01
I review recent developments in numerical relativity, focussing on progress made in 3D black hole evolution. Progress in development of black hole initial data, apparent horizon boundary conditions, adaptive mesh refinement, and characteristic evolution is highlighted, as well as full 3D simulations of colliding and distorted black holes. For true 3D distorted holes, with Cauchy evolution techniques, it is now possible to extract highly accurate, nonaxisymmetric waveforms from fully nonlinear simulations, which are verified by comparison to pertubration theory, and with characteristic techniques extremely long term evolutions of 3D black holes are now possible. I also discuss a new code designed for 3D numerical relativity, called Cactus, that will be made public.
Simulations on 3D shape tracking with fibre Bragg gratings
Hooft 't, G.W.; Tirard-Gâtel, A.
2010-01-01
This report deals with the development of a reconstruction algorithm of 3D optical shape sensing. The theoretical frame work is established and simulations are performed for a multicore fiber system without torque.
Web 3D technology for virtual simulation for radiotherapy
Virtual Simulation of patient set-up for radiotherapy using Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs) is becoming popular because of the advantages of higher precision and flexibility in planning at a lower cost. This technology is based on 2D concepts, as the DRR is a 2D image on which beam portals are planned. Web 3D technology is an emerging concept based on true 3D objects
Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators
Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M
2003-01-01
A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.
Čillo, Vladimír
2015-01-01
Tato bakalářská práce se zabýva návrhem a implementací simulátoru 3D tiskárny v jazyce C++ s využitím knihovny Qt. Simulátor předpokládá tiskárnu založenou na nejrozšířenější metodě 3D tisku - Fused Deposition Modeling. Vstupem simulátoru je 3D model ve formátu STL. Pro daný 3D model simulátor poskytuje odhad celkové doby tisku. Součástí simulace je také vizualizace procesu 3D tisku. Výsledkem práce je přenositelný program testovaný pod operačními systémy Linux a Windows. Funkčnost simulátoru...
3D Simulations of line emission from ICF capsules
Line emission from ICF implosions can be used to diagnose the temperature of the DT fuel and provides an indication of the distortion in the fuel-pusher interface. 2D simulations have provided valuable insights into the usefulness of argon and titanium dopants as diagnostics of instabilities. Characterizing the effects of drive asymmetries requires 3D modeling with large demands for computer time and memory, necessitating the use of parallel computers. We present the results of some 3D simulations achieved with a code utilizing both shared memory and distributed parallelism. We discuss the code structure and related performance issues
3D Fiber Orientation Simulation for Plastic Injection Molding
Lin, Baojiu; Jin, Xiaoshi; Zheng, Rong; Costa, Franco S.; Fan, Zhiliang
2004-06-01
Glass fiber reinforced polymer is widely used in the products made using injection molding processing. The distribution of fiber orientation inside plastic parts has direct effects on quality of molded parts. Using computer simulation to predict fiber orientation distribution is one of most efficient ways to assist engineers to do warpage analysis and to find a good design solution to produce high quality plastic parts. Fiber orientation simulation software based on 2-1/2D (midplane /Dual domain mesh) techniques has been used in industry for a decade. However, the 2-1/2D technique is based on the planar Hele-Shaw approximation and it is not suitable when the geometry has complex three-dimensional features which cannot be well approximated by 2D shells. Recently, a full 3D simulation software for fiber orientation has been developed and integrated into Moldflow Plastics Insight 3D simulation software. The theory for this new 3D fiber orientation calculation module is described in this paper. Several examples are also presented to show the benefit in using 3D fiber orientation simulation.
3-D MHD Numerical Simulations of Cloud-Wind Interactions
Gregori, G.; Miniati, Francesco; Ryu, Dongsu; Jones, T. W.
2000-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations investigating the magnetohydrodynamics of cloud-wind interactions. The initial cloud is spherical while the magnetic field is uniform and transverse to the cloud motion. A simplified analytical model that describes the magnetic energy evolution in front of the cloud is developed and compared with simulation results. In addition, it is found the interaction of the cloud with a magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) results in ...
3D Simulation of Nano-Imprint Lithography
Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole
2010-01-01
A proof of concept study of the feasibility of fully three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent simulation of nano-imprint lithography of polymer melt, where the polymer is treated as a structured liquid, has been presented. Considering the flow physics of the polymer as a structured liquid, we have...... followed the line initiated by de Gennes, using a Molecular Stress Function model of the Doi and Edwards type. We have used a 3D Lagrangian Galerkin finite element methods implemented on a parallel computer architecture. In a Lagrangian techniques, the node point follows the particle movement, allowing...
3D Visualization and Simulation of the Human Navigation System
Hjelle, Henrik
2015-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to investigate how 3D visualizations and virtual reality can be used to make the human navigation system understandable for the general public. To do this, a 3D visualization of the human navigation systems components in the brain was created using Second Life. In addition, a simulation of how the cells in this system works was created with the same platform. These two types of visualization were used to see if they gave any learning outcome in relation to the ...
Direct numerical simulation of 3D transitional fluid flows
Full text: For the numerical simulation of the 2D-3D transitional homogeneous and stratified incompressible viscous fluid flows, characterizing by the full Navier-Stokes equations, the splitting on physical factors method is used. The explicit hybrid finite difference scheme of the method has the following behaviors: the second order of accuracy in space, minimum scheme viscosity and dispersion, workable in wide range of Reynolds and Froude numbers and monotonicity. The efficiency of the developed numerical method and the advanced performance of the supercomputers allowed simulating 2D-3D transitional uncompressible viscous fluid flows around the bluff bodies in particular around a cylinder. By the numerical simulation of the fluid flows around 3D circular cylinder it was found that the transition to 3D regime arrives at Re>200. At 200< Re<300 the mode A with wavelength 3.5 d<λ<4.0 d (where d is the diameter of the cylinder) for 3D structures along the axis of a cylinder was observed. At 300< Re<400 the mode B with wavelength 0.8 d<λ<0.9 d was observed. At Re=300 the both modes A and B were observed simultaneously. The regime with large dislocations previously discovered experimentally was first obtained numerically at 210< Re<260. This regime is characterized by flow phase dislocation along the axis of the cylinder and as the effect by the amplitude fall of the lift force coefficient and the variations in the drag coefficient. There was simulated numerically the initiation of the attached internal waves behind the circular cylinder and upstream disturbance area at low Froude and moderate Reynolds numbers. (author)
APROS 3-D core models for simulators and plant analyzers
The 3-D core models of APROS simulation environment can be used in simulator and plant analyzer applications, as well as in safety analysis. The key feature of APROS models is that the same physical models can be used in all applications. For three-dimensional reactor cores the APROS models cover both quadratic BWR and PWR cores and the hexagonal lattice VVER-type cores. In APROS environment the user can select the number of flow channels in the core and either five- or six-equation thermal hydraulic model for these channels. The thermal hydraulic model and the channel description have a decisive effect on the calculation time of the 3-D core model and thus just these selection make at present the major difference between a safety analysis model and a training simulator model. The paper presents examples of various types of 3-D LWR-type core descriptions for simulator and plant analyzer use and discusses the differences of calculation speed and physical results between a typical safety analysis model description and a real-time simulator model description in transients. (author)
3D simulation of CANDU reactor regulating system
Present paper shows the evaluation of the performance of the 3-D modal synthesis based reactor kinetic model in a closed-loop environment in a MATLAB/SIMULINK based Reactor Regulating System (RRS) simulation platform. A notable advantage of the 3-D model is the level of details that it can reveal as compared to the coupled point kinetic model. Using the developed RRS simulation platform, the reactor internal behaviours can be revealed during load-following tests. The test results are also benchmarked against measurements from an existing (CANDU) power plant. It can be concluded that the 3-D reactor model produces more realistic view of the core neutron flux distribution, which is closer to the real plant measurements than that from a coupled point kinetic model. It is also shown that, through a vectorization process, the computational load of the 3-D model is comparable with that of the 14-zone coupled point kinetic model. Furthermore, the developed Graphical User Interface (GUI) software package for RRS implementation represents a user friendly and independent application environment for education training and industrial utilizations. (authors)
3D simulation of coaxial carbon nanotube field effect transistor
We provide a model of coaxial CNTFET geometry. Coaxial devices are of special interest because their geometry allows for better electrostatics. We explore the possibilities of using non-equilibrium Green's function method to get I-V characteristics for CNTFETs. This simulator also includes a graphic user interface (GUI) of Matlab. We review the capabilities of the simulator, and give examples of typical CNTFET's 3D simulations (current-voltage characteristics are a function of parameters such as the length of CNTFET, gate thickness and temperature). The obtained I-V characteristics of the CNTFET are also presented by analytical equations.
Fast 3D stereo flood simulations in urban areas
Hoes, O.; de Haan, G.; Stelling, G.; van Leeuwen, E.; van Dam, A.; Pleumeekers, O.; Schuurmans, W.
2012-04-01
Flood propagation models are essential to study floods as it is problematic to collect data during actual floods. Moreover, models are needed to explore the consequences of additional scenarios above the actual flood itself. The results of these model studies are generally graphs with water levels over time for certain locations or maps with the flood extent in an area for different return periods. A main difficulty with these depictions of flood information is that they do not reflect the seriousness of flood impacts well in terms of life-like human experience. Typically, one needs a (near) flood before measures are implemented. Apparently, a graph or map is not the proper material to convince politicians and policy makers, even if they live in the threatened area. The recent introduction of commercially available 3D stereo projectors and high resolution elevation data make it possible to build life-like visualizations of simulations. In our research we explored using 3D stereo, the recently collected elevation data of the Netherlands (20 laser points per m2!) in combination with aerial photographs, and a new fast 2D flood propagation calculation scheme. This scheme (under construction) is able to simulate floods using such high amounts of data points. The model simulates flood propagation on an irregular grid; at locations with large elevation differences (e.g. in urban areas) and fast flowing water, smaller cells are used compared to flat surfaces where the water is not or hardly flowing. The result of our combination is a very detailed flood simulation model that can be used to simulate floods within a fraction of the current calculation time. The opportunities of models and their results increase enormously with fast calculations and visualizations combined. For example, the model allows on the spot exploration of measures during a flood, with the 3D visualization ensuring that flood impacts become clear for decision makers. We will show the preliminary
A FLOSS Visual EM Simulator for 3D Antennas
Koutsos, Christos A; Zimourtopoulos, Petros E
2010-01-01
This paper introduces the FLOSS Free Libre Open Source Software [VEMSA3D], a contraction of "Visual Electromagnetic Simulator for 3D Antennas", which are geometrically modeled, either exactly or approximately, as thin wire polygonal structures; presents its GUI Graphical User Interface capabilities, in interactive mode and/or in handling suitable formed antenna data files; demonstrates the effectiveness of its use in a number of practical antenna applications, with direct comparison to experimental measurements and other freeware results; and provides the inexperienced user with a specific list of instructions to successfully build the given source code by using only freely available IDE Integrated Development Environment tools-including a cross-platform one. The unrestricted access to source code, beyond the ability for immediate software improvement, offers to independent users and volunteer groups an expandable, in any way, visual antenna simulator, for a genuine research and development work in the field ...
Comparative visual analysis of 3D urban wind simulations
Röber, Niklas; Salim, Mohamed; Grawe, David; Leitl, Bernd; Böttinger, Michael; Schlünzen, Heinke
2016-04-01
Climate simulations are conducted in large quantity for a variety of different applications. Many of these simulations focus on global developments and study the Earth's climate system using a coupled atmosphere ocean model. Other simulations are performed on much smaller regional scales, to study very small fine grained climatic effects. These microscale climate simulations pose similar, yet also different, challenges for the visualization and the analysis of the simulation data. Modern interactive visualization and data analysis techniques are very powerful tools to assist the researcher in answering and communicating complex research questions. This presentation discusses comparative visualization for several different wind simulations, which were created using the microscale climate model MITRAS. The simulations differ in wind direction and speed, but are all centered on the same simulation domain: An area of Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg that hosted the IGA/IBA exhibition in 2013. The experiments contain a scenario case to analyze the effects of single buildings, as well as examine the impact of the Coriolis force within the simulation. The scenario case is additionally compared with real measurements from a wind tunnel experiment to ascertain the accuracy of the simulation and the model itself. We also compare different approaches for tree modeling and evaluate the stability of the model. In this presentation, we describe not only our workflow to efficiently and effectively visualize microscale climate simulation data using common 3D visualization and data analysis techniques, but also discuss how to compare variations of a simulation and how to highlight the subtle differences in between them. For the visualizations we use a range of different 3D tools that feature techniques for statistical data analysis, data selection, as well as linking and brushing.
NECTAR: Simulation and Visualization in a 3D Collaborative Environment
Law, Y.W.; Chan, K. Y.
2002-01-01
For simulation and visualization in a 3D collaborative environment, an architecture called the Nanyang Experimental CollaboraTive ARchitecture (NECTAR) has been developed. The objective is to support multi-user collaboration in a virtual environment with an emphasis on cost-effectiveness and interoperability. The architecture is based on the modular decomposition of a virtual environment system into three basic components: the graphics engine, the user interaction engine, and the networking e...
Applications of Wavelets in 3-D Audio Simulation
无
2000-01-01
Wavelet has been used as a powerful tool in the signal processing and function approx imation recently. This paper presents the application of wavelets for solving two key problems in 3-1 audio simulation. First, we employ discrete wavelet transform (DWT) combined with vector quantisation (VQ) to compress audio data in order to reduce tremendous redundant data storage and transmission times. Secondly, we use wavelets as the activation functions in neural networks called feed-forward wavelet networks to approach auditory localisation information cues (head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are used here). The experimental results demonstrate that the applica tion of wavelets is more efficientand useful in 3-D audio simulation.
3D simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation model
Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing
2014-12-01
We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) model with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed dynamically in the form of a three-dimensional (3D) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded dynamically. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.
3D simulation of plant and living tissue superficial lesions
Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Sindyaeva, Alexandra R.; Zakharov, Valery P.
2008-06-01
The analytic schemes of calculated absorbed and scattered radiation spatial distribution in multilayer plant and living tissues and diagnostic of their physical state are presented. The correct realization of these tasks was obtained with 3D Monte Carlo simulation of optical radiation propagation through multiple scattering medium in TracePro environment. Analysis of simulation data was made by differential backscattering method, which allows to investigate general backscattered radiation dependences on optical and geometrical parameters of living tissue. It was shown that obtained results formed the basis for developing an algorithm of optical superficial inhomogeneous registration and spatial localization. Such diagnosis can be executed in tissues of any arbitrary surface structure. Designed scheme is intended to utilize in contactless macro diagnostics device. The same approach was used for simulation of optical spectra of healthy and diseased virtual leaves for plant tissue pathological changes revealing.
Simulation of current generation in a 3-D plasma model
Two wires carrying current in the same direction will attract each other, and two wires carrying current in the opposite direction will repel each other. Now, consider a test charge in a plasma. If the test charge carries current parallel to the plasma, then it will be pulled toward the plasma core, and if the test charge carries current anti-parallel to the plasma, then it will be pushed to the edge. The electromagnetic coupling between the plasma and a test charge (i.e., the Aparallel circ vparallel term in the test charge's Hamiltonian) breaks the symmetry in the parallel direction, and gives rise to a diffusion coefficient which is dependent on the particle's parallel velocity. This is the basis for the open-quotes preferential lossclose quotes mechanism described in the work by Nunan et al. In our previous 2+1/2 D work, in both cylindrical and toroidal geometries, showed that if the plasma column is centrally fueled, then an initial current increases steadily. The results in straight, cylindrical plasmas showed that self generated parallel current arises without trapped particle or neoclassical diffusion, as assumed by the bootstrap theory. It suggests that the fundamental mechanism seems to be the conservation of particles canonical momenta in the direction of the ignorable coordinate. We have extended the simulation to 3D to verify the model put forth. A scalable 3D EM-PIC code, with a localized field-solver, has been implemented to run on a large class of parallel computers. On the 512-node SP2 at Cornell Theory Center, we have benchmarked the 2+1/2 D calculations using 32 grids in the previously ignored direction, and a 100-fold increase in the number of particles. Our preliminary results show good agreements between the 2+1/2 D and the 3D calculations. We will present our 3D results at the meeting
3D TCAD Simulation for Semiconductor Processes, Devices and Optoelectronics
Li, Simon
2012-01-01
Technology computer-aided design, or TCAD, is critical to today’s semiconductor technology and anybody working in this industry needs to know something about TCAD. This book is about how to use computer software to manufacture and test virtually semiconductor devices in 3D. It brings to life the topic of semiconductor device physics, with a hands-on, tutorial approach that de-emphasizes abstract physics and equations and emphasizes real practice and extensive illustrations. Coverage includes a comprehensive library of devices, representing the state of the art technology, such as SuperJunction LDMOS, GaN LED devices, etc. Provides a vivid, internal view of semiconductor devices, through 3D TCAD simulation; Includes comprehensive coverage of TCAD simulations for both optic and electronic devices, from nano-scale to high-voltage high-power devices; Presents material in a hands-on, tutorial fashion so that industry practitioners will find maximum utility; Includes a comprehensive library of devices, re...
3D numerical simulation and analysis of railgun gouging mechanism
Jin-guo Wu
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A gouging phenomenon with a hypervelocity sliding electrical contact in railgun not only shortens the rail lifetime but also affects the interior ballistic performance. In this paper, a 3-D numerical model was introduced to simulate and analyze the generation mechanism and evolution of the rail gouging phenomenon. The results show that a rail surface bulge is an important factor to induce gouging. High density and high pressure material flow on the contact surface, obliquely extruded into the rail when accelerating the armature to a high velocity, can produce gouging. Both controlling the bulge size to a certain range and selecting suitable materials for rail surface coating will suppress the formation of gouging. The numerical simulation had a good agreement with experiments, which validated the computing model and methodology are reliable.
Coniferous Canopy BRF Simulation Based on 3-D Realistic Scene
Wang, Xin-yun; Guo, Zhi-feng; Qin, Wen-han; Sun, Guo-qing
2011-01-01
It is difficulties for the computer simulation method to study radiation regime at large-scale. Simplified coniferous model was investigate d in the present study. It makes the computer simulation methods such as L-systems and radiosity-graphics combined method (RGM) more powerf ul in remote sensing of heterogeneous coniferous forests over a large -scale region. L-systems is applied to render 3-D coniferous forest scenarios: and RGM model was used to calculate BRF (bidirectional refle ctance factor) in visible and near-infrared regions. Results in this study show that in most cases both agreed well. Meanwhiie at a tree and forest level. the results are also good.
Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation
Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.
1998-06-01
Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to
Maciej H Swat
Full Text Available Tumor cells and structure both evolve due to heritable variation of cell behaviors and selection over periods of weeks to years (somatic evolution. Micro-environmental factors exert selection pressures on tumor-cell behaviors, which influence both the rate and direction of evolution of specific behaviors, especially the development of tumor-cell aggression and resistance to chemotherapies. In this paper, we present, step-by-step, the development of a multi-cell, virtual-tissue model of tumor somatic evolution, simulated using the open-source CompuCell3D modeling environment. Our model includes essential cell behaviors, microenvironmental components and their interactions. Our model provides a platform for exploring selection pressures leading to the evolution of tumor-cell aggression, showing that emergent stratification into regions with different cell survival rates drives the evolution of less cohesive cells with lower levels of cadherins and higher levels of integrins. Such reduced cohesivity is a key hallmark in the progression of many types of solid tumors.
Simulated Photoevaporative Mass Loss from Hot Jupiters in 3D
Tripathi, Anjali; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Krumholz, Mark R.
2015-08-01
Ionizing stellar photons heat the upper regions of planetary atmospheres, driving atmospheric mass loss. Gas escaping from several hot, hydrogen-rich planets has been detected using UV and X-ray transmission spectroscopy. Because these planets are tidally locked, and thus asymmetrically irradiated, escaping gas is unlikely to be spherically symmetric. In this paper, we focus on the effects of asymmetric heating on local outflow structure. We use the Athena code for hydrodynamics to produce 3D simulations of hot Jupiter mass loss that jointly model wind launching and stellar heating via photoionization. Our fiducial planet is an inflated, hot Jupiter with radius {R}{{p}}=2.14{R}{Jup} and mass {M}{{p}}=0.53{M}{Jup}. We irradiate the initially neutral, atomic hydrogen atmosphere with 13.6 eV photons and compute the outflow’s ionization structure. There are clear asymmetries in the atmospheric outflow, including a neutral shadow on the planet’s nightside. Given an incident ionizing UV flux comparable to that of the Sun, we find a steady-state mass loss rate of ˜ 2× {10}10 g s-1. The total mass loss rate and the outflow substructure along the substellar ray show good agreement with earlier 1D models, for two different fluxes. Our 3D data cube can be used to generate the outflow’s extinction spectrum during transit. As a proof of concept, we find absorption of stellar Lyα at Doppler-shifted velocities of up to ±50 km s-1. Our work provides a starting point for further 3D models that can be used to predict observable signatures of hot Jupiter mass loss.
Study, simulation and design of a 3D clinostat
Pavone, Valentina; Guarnieri, Vincenzo; Lobascio, Cesare; Soma, Aurelio; Bosso, Nicola; Lamantea, Matteo Maria
High cost and limited number of physically executable experiments in space have introduced the need for ground simulation systems that enable preparing experiments to be carried out on board, identifying phenomena associated with the altered gravity conditions, and taking advantage of these conditions, as in Biotechnology. Among systems developed to simulate microgravity, especially for life sciences experiments, different types of clinostats were realized. This work deals with mechanical design of a three-dimensional clinostat and simulation of the dynamic behavior of the system by varying the operating parameters. The design and simulation phase was preceded by a careful analysis of the state of art and by the review of the most recent results, in particular from the major investigators of Life Sciences in Space. The mechanical design is quite innovative by adoption of a structure entirely in aluminum, which allows robustness while reducing the overall weight. The transmission system of motion has been optimized by means of brushless DC micro motors, light and compact, which helped to reduce weight, dimensions, power consumption and increase the reliability and durability of the system. The study of the dynamic behavior using SIMPACK, a multibody simulation software, led to results in line with those found in the most important and recent scientific publications. This model was also appropriately configured to represent any desired operating condition, and for eventual system scalability. It would be interesting to generate simulated hypogravity - e.g.: 0.38-g (Mars) or 0.17-g (Moon). This would allow to investigate how terrestrial life forms can grow in other planetary habitats, or to determine the gravity threshold response of different organisms. At the moment, such a system can only be achieved by centrifuges in real microgravity. We are confident that simulation and associated tests with our 3D clinostat can help adjusting the parameters allowing variable g
3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.
Ning Dai
Full Text Available Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.
Parallel FEM simulation of 3-D crack propagation
Full text: Crack propagation simulation is an important topic in many fields, e.g., aeronautical engineering, material sciences, and geophysics. This type of simulation requires a high computational power, mainly at three-dimensional mesh generation and structural analysis steps. These steps usually spend a large amount of computing time and machine resources. The main objective of this work is to provide a fast and accurate system for crack growth simulation in three-dimensional models. The main idea of the methodology presented is to parallelize mesh generation and structural analysis procedures, and to integrate these procedures into a computational environment able to perform automatic arbitrary crack propagation. A parallel mesh generation algorithm has been developed. This algorithm is capable of generating three-dimensional meshes of tetrahedral elements in arbitrary domains with one or multiple embedded cracks. A finite element method program called FEMOOP has been adapted to implement the parallel features. The parallel strategy to solve the set of linear equations is based on an element-by-element scheme in conjunction with a gradient iterative solution. A program called FRANC3D, which is completely integrated with other components of the system, performs crack propagation and geometry updates. The entire system is described in details and a set of parallel simulations of crack propagation are presented to show the reliability of the system. Refs. 4 (author)
Simulations of drift waves in 3D magnetic configurations
Drift waves are commonly held responsible for anomalous transport in tokamak configurations and in particular for the anomalously high heat loss. The next generation of stellarators on the other hand are hoped to be characterized by a much smaller neo-classical transport and by particle confinement close to that of tokamaks. There is nevertheless a strong interest in the stellarator community to study the properties of drift waves in 3D magnetic configurations. To serve this interest we have developed the first global gyrokinetic code, EUTERPE, aimed at the investigation of linear drift wave stability in general toroidal geometry. The physical model assumes electrostatic waves and adiabatic electrons. EUTERPE is a particle-in-cell (PIC) code in which the gyrokinetic Poisson equation is discretized with the finite element method defined in the PEST -1 system of magnetic coordinates. The magnetic geometry is provided by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium code VMEC. The complete 3D model has been successfully validated in toroidal axisymmetric and straight helical geometries and has permitted the first simulation of unstable global ITG driven modes in non-axisymmetric toroidal configurations. As a first application, two configurations have been studied, the Quasi-Axially symmetric Stellarator with three fields periods (QAS3) currently one system under consideration at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Helically Symmetric experiment (HSX) which has recently started operation at the University of Wisconsin. QAS3 is characterized by a tokamak-Iike field in the outer part of the torus. In this structure the drift waves are mainly affected by the magnetic shear and barely by the shape of the plasma. Also, the results are very close to those obtained for a tokamak. On the other hand, results for the HSX configuration, which is characterized by a dominant helical magnetic field, show a clear 3D effect, namely a strong toroidal variation of the drift wave
Linking 1D Stellar Evolution to 3D Hydrodynamical Simulations
Cristini, Andrea; Georgy, Cyril; Meakin, Casey; Arnett, David; Viallet, Maxime
2014-01-01
In this contribution we present initial results of a study on convective boundary mixing (CBM) in massive stellar models using the GENEVA stellar evolution code. Before undertaking costly 3D hydrodynamic simulations, it is important to study the general properties of convective boundaries, such as the: composition jump; pressure gradient; and `stiffness'. Models for a 15Mo star were computed. We found that for convective shells above the core, the lower (in radius or mass) boundaries are `stiffer' according to the bulk Richardson number than the relative upper (Schwarzschild) boundaries. Thus, we expect reduced CBM at the lower boundaries in comparison to the upper. This has implications on flame front propagation and the onset of novae.
3D Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)
Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke
2016-04-01
A 3D dynamic earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few 3D dynamic earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a 3D dynamic earthquake fracture model with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test model, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene triangulation technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM3D, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain 3D dynamic earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also
3D mapping and simulation of Geneva Lake environmental data
Villard, Roch; Maignan, Michel; Kanevski, Mikhail; Rapin, Francois; Klein, Audrey
2010-05-01
The Geneva Lake is the biggest alpine and subalpine lake in central Europe. The depth of this lake is 309 meters and its total volume of water is 89 billions m3. It takes, on average, around twelve years so that waters of the lake are completely brewed. Furthermore the Geneva lake waters are rich in dissolved substances as carbonate, sulfate. The quantity of particles in suspension in the lake, which mainly arrived from the Rhône, is nowadays around height million of tones. The International Commission for the Leman Lake (CIPEL) works about the improvement of the quality of this lake since 1962. In the present study three dimensional environmental data (temperature, oxygen and nitrate) which cover the period from 1954 to 2008, for a total of 27'500 cases are investigated. We are interested to study the evolution of the temperature of the lake because there is an impact on the reproduction of fishes and also because the winter brewing of the water makes the re-oxygenation of deep-water. In order that biological balance is maintained in a lake, there must be enough oxygen in the water. Moreover, we work on nitrate distribution and evolution because contributions in fertilizers cause eutrophication of lake. The data are very numerous when we consider the time series, some of them with more than 300 occurrences, but there are between 2 and 15 data available for spatial cartography. The basic methodology used for the analysis, mapping and simulations of 3D patterns of environmental data is based on geostatistical predictions (family of kriging models) and conditional stochastic simulations. Spatial and temporal variability, 3D monitoring networks changing over time, make this study challenging. An important problem is also to make interpolation/simulations over a long period of time, like ten years. One way used to overcome this problem, consists in using a weighted average of ten variograms during this period. 3D mapping was carried out using environment data for
Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation
Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott
1992-06-01
Recent developments in virtual 3D audio and synthetic aural environments have produced a complex acoustical room simulation. The acoustical simulation models a room with walls, ceiling, and floor of selected sound reflecting/absorbing characteristics and unlimited independent localizable sound sources. This non-visual acoustic simulation, implemented with 4 audio ConvolvotronsTM by Crystal River Engineering and coupled to the listener with a Poihemus IsotrakTM, tracking the listener's head position and orientation, and stereo headphones returning binaural sound, is quite compelling to most listeners with eyes closed. This immersive effect should be reinforced when properly integrated into a full, multi-sensory virtual environment presentation. This paper discusses the design of an interactive, visual virtual environment, complementing the acoustic model and specified to: 1) allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; 2) reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence into the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; 3) enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and 4) serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations. The installed system implements a head-coupled, wide-angle, stereo-optic tracker/viewer and multi-computer simulation control. The portable demonstration system implements a head-mounted wide-angle, stereo-optic display, separate head and pointer electro-magnetic position trackers, a heterogeneous parallel graphics processing system, and object oriented C++ program code.
3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations of Extragalactic Jets
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.
1997-12-01
We present the numerical simulations of relativistic jets propagating initially oblique to the field lines of a magnetized ambient medium. Our simulations incorporate relativistic MHD in a four-dimensional spacetime and clearly show that (a) relatively weak, oblique fields (at 1/16 of the equipartition value) have only a negligible influence on the propagating jet and they are passively pushed away by the relativistically moving head; (b) oblique fields in equipartition with the ambient plasma provide more resistance and cause bending at the jet head, but the magnitude of this deflection and the associated backflow are small compared to those identified by previous studies with a 2-D slab model. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently during the simulations. The effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. Applied to relativistic extragalactic jets from blazars, the new results are encouraging since superluminal outflows exhibit bending near their sources and their environments are profoundly magnetized---but observations do not provide support for irregular kinematics such as large-scale vortical motions and pronounced reverse flows near the points of origin.
Plasma environment of Titan: a 3-D hybrid simulation study
S. Simon
2006-05-01
Full Text Available Titan possesses a dense atmosphere, consisting mainly of molecular nitrogen. Titan's orbit is located within the Saturnian magnetosphere most of the time, where the corotating plasma flow is super-Alfvénic, yet subsonic and submagnetosonic. Since Titan does not possess a significant intrinsic magnetic field, the incident plasma interacts directly with the atmosphere and ionosphere. Due to the characteristic length scales of the interaction region being comparable to the ion gyroradii in the vicinity of Titan, magnetohydrodynamic models can only offer a rough description of Titan's interaction with the corotating magnetospheric plasma flow. For this reason, Titan's plasma environment has been studied by using a 3-D hybrid simulation code, treating the electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas a completely kinetic approach is used to cover ion dynamics. The calculations are performed on a curvilinear simulation grid which is adapted to the spherical geometry of the obstacle. In the model, Titan's dayside ionosphere is mainly generated by solar UV radiation; hence, the local ion production rate depends on the solar zenith angle. Because the Titan interaction features the possibility of having the densest ionosphere located on a face not aligned with the ram flow of the magnetospheric plasma, a variety of different scenarios can be studied. The simulations show the formation of a strong magnetic draping pattern and an extended pick-up region, being highly asymmetric with respect to the direction of the convective electric field. In general, the mechanism giving rise to these structures exhibits similarities to the interaction of the ionospheres of Mars and Venus with the supersonic solar wind. The simulation results are in agreement with data from recent Cassini flybys.
3-D MHD Numerical Simulations of Cloud-Wind Interactions
Gregori, G; Ryu, D; Jones, T W; Miniati, Francesco; Ryu, Dongsu
2000-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations investigating the magnetohydrodynamics of cloud-wind interactions. The initial cloud is spherical while the magnetic field is uniform and transverse to the cloud motion. A simplified analytical model that describes the magnetic energy evolution in front of the cloud is developed and compared with simulation results. In addition, it is found the interaction of the cloud with a magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) results in the formation of a highly structured magnetotail. The magnetic flux in the wake of the cloud organizes into flux ropes and a reconnection, current sheet is developed, as field lines of opposite polarity are brought close together near the symmetry axis. At the same time, magnetic pressure is strongly enhanced at the leading edge of the cloud from the stretching of the field lines that occurs there. This has an important dynamical effect on the subsequent evolution of the cloud, since some unstable modes tend to be strongl...
Simulations of soluble surfactants in 3D multiphase flow
Muradoglu, Metin; Tryggvason, Gretar
2014-10-01
A finite-difference/front-tracking method is developed for simulations of soluble surfactants in 3D multiphase flows. The interfacial and bulk surfactant concentration evolution equations are solved fully coupled with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A non-linear equation of state is used to relate interfacial surface tension to surfactant concentration at the interface. Simple test cases are designed to validate different parts of the numerical algorithm and the computational results are found to be in a good agreement with the analytical solutions. The numerical algorithm is parallelized using a domain-decomposition method. It is then applied to study the effects of soluble surfactants on the motion of buoyancy-driven bubbles in a straight square channel in nearly undeformable (spherical) and deformable (ellipsoidal) regimes. Finally the method is used to examine the effects of soluble surfactants on the lateral migration of bubbles in a pressure-driven channel flow. It is found that surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses counteract the shear-induced lift force and can reverse the lateral bubble migration completely, i.e., the contaminated bubble drifts away from the channel wall and stabilizes at the center of the channel when the surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses are sufficiently large.
Simulated Photoevaporative Mass Loss from Hot Jupiters in 3D
Tripathi, Anjali; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Krumholz, Mark R
2015-01-01
Ionizing stellar photons heat the upper regions of planetary atmospheres, driving atmospheric mass loss. Gas escaping from several hot, hydrogen-rich planets has been detected using UV and X-ray transmission spectroscopy. Because these planets are tidally locked, and thus asymmetrically irradiated, escaping gas is unlikely to be spherically symmetric. In this paper, we focus on the effects of asymmetric heating on local outflow structure. We use the Athena code for hydrodynamics to produce 3D simulations of hot Jupiter mass loss that jointly model wind launching and stellar heating via photoionization. Our fiducial planet is an inflated, hot Jupiter with radius $R_p=2.14 R_{\\rm Jup}$ and mass $M_p = 0.53 M_{\\rm Jup}$. We irradiate the initially neutral, atomic hydrogen atmosphere with 13.6 eV photons and compute the outflow's ionization structure. There are clear asymmetries in the atmospheric outflow, including a neutral shadow on the planet's nightside. Given an incident ionizing UV flux comparable to that ...
3-D simulation of posterior fossa reduction in Chiari I
Yvens Barbosa Fernandes
2016-05-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT We proposed a 3D model to evaluate the role of platybasia and clivus length in the development of Chiari I (CI. Using a computer aided design software, two DICOM files of a normal CT scan and MR were used to simulate different clivus lengths (CL and also different basal angles (BA. The final posterior fossa volume (PFV was obtained for each variation and the percentage of the volumetric change was acquired with the same method. The initial normal values of CL and BA were 35.65 mm and 112.66º respectively, with a total PFV of 209 ml. Ranging the CL from 34.65 to 29.65 – 24.65 – 19.65, there was a PFV decrease of 0.47% – 1.12% – 1.69%, respectively. Ranging the BA from 122.66º to 127.66º – 142.66º, the PFV decreased 0.69% – 3.23%, respectively. Our model highlights the importance of the basal angle and clivus length to the development of CI.
3-D simulation of posterior fossa reduction in Chiari I.
Fernandes, Yvens Barbosa; Perestrelo, Pedro Fábio Mendonça; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Mathias, Roger Neves; Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes da; Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes
2016-05-01
We proposed a 3D model to evaluate the role of platybasia and clivus length in the development of Chiari I (CI). Using a computer aided design software, two DICOM files of a normal CT scan and MR were used to simulate different clivus lengths (CL) and also different basal angles (BA). The final posterior fossa volume (PFV) was obtained for each variation and the percentage of the volumetric change was acquired with the same method. The initial normal values of CL and BA were 35.65 mm and 112.66º respectively, with a total PFV of 209 ml. Ranging the CL from 34.65 to 29.65 - 24.65 - 19.65, there was a PFV decrease of 0.47% - 1.12% - 1.69%, respectively. Ranging the BA from 122.66º to 127.66º - 142.66º, the PFV decreased 0.69% - 3.23%, respectively. Our model highlights the importance of the basal angle and clivus length to the development of CI. PMID:27191237
3-D NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF FLOW LOSS IN HELICAL CHANNEL
ZHAO Ling-zhi; PENG Yan; LU Fang; LI Jian; LI Ran; LIU Bao-lin
2012-01-01
The flow loss of a helical channel Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thruster without MHD effect was numerically studied with 3-D simulations,and a flow loss coefficient ξ was defined to quantify the flow loss and its influencing factors were studied.The results show that ξ decreases in a first-order exponential manner with the pitch of a helical wall and the Reynolds number,and it declines slowly when t / T ＞ 0.2 and Re ＞ 105,a flow guide makes the flow more smooth and uniform,especially in the flow guide and helical wall sub-regions and thus reduces the flow loss greatly,by about 30％ with the averaged value of ξ from 0.0385to 0.027,a rectifier weakens the helical flow and strengthens the axial one in the rectifier and outlet sub-regions,thus reduces the rotational kinetic pressure with the averaged value of ξ declining about 4％ from 0.0385 to 0.037,and ξ decreases with a rectifier's axial length when Re ＞ 105.
Transient simulations in WWER-1000-comparison between DYN3D-ATHLET and DYN3D-RELAP5
Simulations of a real transient of an operating WWER-1000 power plant have been performed using DYN3D-ATHLET (Gru95) and DYN3D-RELAP5 (Koy01) code systems in the frame of activities aimed at a validation of the neutronic / thermal-hydraulic coupled codes. The transient initiated by a main coolant pump switching off, when three of the four main coolant pumps of the plant are in operation (scenario of the VALCO project) is chosen for the simulation. The same models of the plant (except the core nodalization) but two different libraries of macroscopic cross-sections have been used in compared calculations. Additionally, the compared code systems are based on the different / external and internal / coupling techniques. This paper contains a brief description of the coupled codes and the plant model as well as a comparison between the results from simulations (Authors)
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data
Interdisciplinary Collaboration through Designing 3D Simulation Case Studies
Bai, Xin; 10.5121/ijma.2011.3109
2011-01-01
Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for the advance of research. As domain subjects become more and more specialized, researchers need to cross disciplines for insights from peers in other areas to have a broader and deeper understand of a topic at micro- and macro-levels. We developed a 3D virtual learning environment that served as a platform for faculty to plan curriculum, share educational beliefs, and conduct cross-discipline research for effective learning. Based upon the scripts designed by faculty from five disciplines, virtual doctors, nurses, or patients interact in a 3D virtual hospital. The teaching vignettes were then converted to video clips, allowing users to view, pause, replay, or comment on the videos individually or in groups. Unlike many existing platforms, we anticipated a value-added by adding a social networking capacity to this virtual environment. The focus of this paper is on the cost-efficiency and system design of the virtual learning environment.
Interdisciplinary Collaboration through Designing 3D Simulation Case Studies
Xin Bai
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for the advance of research. As domain subjects become more and more specialized, researchers need to cross disciplines for insights from peers in other areas to have a broader and deeper understand of a topic at micro- and macro-levels. We developed a 3D virtual learning environment that served as a platform for faculty to plan curriculum, share educational beliefs, and conduct cross-discipline research for effective learning. Based upon the scripts designed by faculty from five disciplines, virtual doctors, nurses, or patients interact in a 3D virtual hospital. The teaching vignettes were then converted to video clips, allowing users to view, pause, replay, or comment on the videos individually or in groups. Unlike many existing platforms, we anticipated a value-added by adding a social networking capacity to this virtual environment. The focus of this paper is on the cost-efficiency and system design of the virtual learning environment.
Interdisciplinary Collaboration through Designing 3D Simulation Case Studies
Xin Bai
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for the advance of research. As domain subjects become more and more specialized, researchers need to cross disciplines for insights from peers in other areas to have a broader and deeper understand of a topic at micro- and macro-levels. We developed a 3D virtual learning environment that served as a platform for faculty to plan curriculum, share educational beliefs,and conduct cross-discipline research for effective learning. Based upon the scripts designed by facultyfrom five disciplines, virtual doctors, nurses, or patients interact in a 3D virtual hospital. The teaching vignettes were then converted to video clips, allowing users to view, pause, replay, or comment on the videos individually or in groups. Unlike many existing platforms, we anticipated a value-added by adding a social networking capacity to this virtual environment. The focus of this paper is on the cost-efficiency and system design of the virtual learning environment.
Towards the 3D Web with Open Simulator
Oliver, Iain Angus; Miller, Alan Henry David; Allison, Colin; Kennedy, Sarah Elizabeth; Dow, Lisa; Campbell, Anne; Davies, Christopher John; McCaffery, John Philip
2013-01-01
Continuing advances and reduced costs in computational power, graphics processors and network bandwidth have led to 3D immersive multi-user virtual worlds becoming increasingly accessible while offering an improved and engaging Quality of Experience. At the same time the functionality of the World Wide Web continues to expand alongside the computing infrastructure it runs on and pages can now routinely accommodate many forms of interactive multimedia components as standard features - streamin...
3D interactive visualization of crowd simulations at urban scale
Fanini, Bruno; Calori, Luigi
2014-01-01
Digital representations of the urban environment have constantly increased their complexity: starting from fixed chunks of 2D segment depicting the building base to complex data-sets comprising several layer of information such as multi-resolution GIS data combined with on field 3D data acquisition. Cities in particular and urban development in general emerge from the bottom up, so crowd is an essential part of the city environment but it is often absent from most of the intera...
DREAM3D simulations of inner-belt dynamics
Cunningham, Gregory Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-05-26
A 1973 paper by Lyons and Thorne explains the two-belt structure for electrons in the inner magnetosphere as a balance between inward radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere, where the loss to the atmosphere is enabled by pitch-angle scattering from Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. In the 1973 paper, equilibrium solutions to a decoupled set of 1D radial diffusion equations, one for each value of the first invariant of motion, μ, were computed to produce the equilibrium two-belt structure. Each 1D radial diffusion equation incorporated an L-and μ-dependent `lifetime' due to the Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. This decoupling of the problem is appropriate under the assumption that radial diffusion is slow in comparison to pitch-angle scattering. However, for some values of μ and L the lifetime associated with pitch-angle scattering is comparable to the timescale associated with radial diffusion, suggesting that the true equilibrium solutions might reflect `coupled modes' involving pitch-angle scattering and radial diffusion and thus requiring a 3D diffusion model. In the work we show here, we have computed the equilibrium solutions using our 3D diffusion model, DREAM3D, that allows for such coupling. We find that the 3D equilibrium solutions are quite similar to the solutions shown in the 1973 paper when we use the same physical models for radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering from hiss. However, we show that the equilibrium solutions are quite sensitive to various aspects of the physics model employed in the 1973 paper that can be improved, suggesting that additional work needs to be done to understand the two-belt structure.
Using 3-D Numerical Weather Data in Piloted Simulations
Daniels, Taumi S.
2016-01-01
This report describes the process of acquiring and using 3-D numerical model weather data sets in NASA Langley's Research Flight Deck (RFD). A set of software tools implement the process and can be used for other purposes as well. Given time and location information of a weather phenomenon of interest, the user can download associated numerical weather model data. These data are created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model, and are then processed using a set of Mathworks' Matlab(TradeMark) scripts to create the usable 3-D weather data sets. Each data set includes radar re ectivity, water vapor, component winds, temperature, supercooled liquid water, turbulence, pressure, altitude, land elevation, relative humidity, and water phases. An open-source data processing program, wgrib2, is available from NOAA online, and is used along with Matlab scripts. These scripts are described with sucient detail to make future modi cations. These software tools have been used to generate 3-D weather data for various RFD experiments.
3d particle simulations on ultra short laser interaction
Nishihara, Katsunobu; Okamoto, Takashi; Yasui, Hidekazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering
1998-03-01
Two topics related to ultra short laser interaction with matter, linear and nonlinear high frequency conductivity of a solid density hydrogen plasma and anisotropic self-focusing of an intense laser in an overdense plasma, have been investigated with the use of 3-d particle codes. Frequency dependence of linear conductivity in a dense plasma is obtained, which shows anomalous conductivity near plasma frequency. Since nonlinear conductivity decreases with v{sub o}{sup -3}, where v{sub o} is a quivering velocity, an optimum amplitude exists leading to a maximum electron heating. Anisotropic self-focusing of a linear polarized intense laser is observed in an overdense plasma. (author)
Mesh Resolution Effect on 3D RANS Turbomachinery Flow Simulations
Yershov, Sergiy
2016-01-01
The paper presents the study of the effect of a mesh refinement on numerical results of 3D RANS computations of turbomachinery flows. The CFD solver F, which based on the second-order accurate ENO scheme, is used in this study. The simplified multigrid algorithm and local time stepping permit decreasing computational time. The flow computations are performed for a number of turbine and compressor cascades and stages. In all flow cases, the successively refined meshes of H-type with an approximate orthogonalization near the solid walls were generated. The results obtained are compared in order to estimate their both mesh convergence and ability to resolve the transonic flow pattern. It is concluded that for thorough studying the fine phenomena of the 3D turbomachinery flows, it makes sense to use the computational meshes with the number of cells from several millions up to several hundred millions per a single turbomachinery blade channel, while for industrial computations, a mesh of about or less than one mil...
3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of Relativistic Extragalactic Jets
Hughes, P A; Duncan, G C; Hughes, Philip A.; Miller, Mark A.
2002-01-01
We describe a new numerical 3D relativistic hydrodynamical code, the results of validation tests, and a comparison with earlier, 2D studies. The 3D code has been used to study the deflection and precession of relativistic flows. We find that even quite fast jets (gamma~10) can be significantly influenced by impinging on an oblique density gradient, exhibiting a rotation of the Mach disk in the jet's head. The flow is bent via a potentially strong, oblique internal shock that arises due to asymmetric perturbation of the flow by its cocoon. In extreme cases this cocoon can form a marginally relativistic flow orthogonal to the jet, leading to large scale dynamics quite unlike that normally associated with astrophysical jets. Exploration of a gamma=5 flow subject to a large amplitude precession (semi-angle 11.25dg) shows that it retains its integrity, with modest reduction in Lorentz factor and momentum flux, for almost 50 jet-radii, but thereafter, the collimated flow is disrupted. The flow is approximately ball...
3D Numerical Simulation of Projectile Penetration into Concrete Target
无
2008-01-01
Basing on the explicit instantaneous dynamics software MSC-Dytran and the general coupling arithmetic, the process of the projectile penetration into concrete target was simulated with the point-line-surface-body modeling method. Simulation results are in agreement with experimental results. The simulated data could provide design reference for the defense engineering construction and penetrator design.
Parallel Simulation of 3-D Turbulent Flow Through Hydraulic Machinery
徐宇; 吴玉林
2003-01-01
Parallel calculational methods were used to analyze incompressible turbulent flow through hydraulic machinery. Two parallel methods were used to simulate the complex flow field. The space decomposition method divides the computational domain into several sub-ranges. Parallel discrete event simulation divides the whole task into several parts according to their functions. The simulation results were compared with the serial simulation results and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The results give the distribution and configuration of the complex vortices and illustrate the effectiveness of the parallel algorithms for numerical simulation of turbulent flows.
Single-sided sheet-to-tube spot welding investigated by 3D numerical simulations
Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Chergui, Azeddine; Zhang, Wenqi
The single-sided resistance spot welding process is analyzed by a 3D numerical study of sheet-to-tube joining. Finite element simulations are carried out in SORPAS® 3D. Two levels of electrode force and five levels of welding current are simulated. The overall effects of changing current and forc...
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code, studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented: high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code; ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code; studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code; and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs
Simulations of RUTA-70 reactor with CERMET fuel using DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 coupled codes
RUTA-70 model for simulations with the internally coupled codes DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 was developed. A 3-D power distribution in the core is calculated by DYN3D with thermal-hydraulic feedback from the system codes. A steady-state corresponding to the full reactor power and an accident scenario initiated by failure of all primary coolant pumps were simulated with the DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 coupled code systems to verify these codes. The compared coupled codes give close predictions for the initial and final states of the simulated accident but not for the transition between them. The observed deviations are explained by differences in the subcooled boiling models of the employed versions of ATHLET and RELAP5. Nevertheless, both simulations confirm a high level of the reactor inherent safety. The allowed safety margins were not reached. (orig.)
Simulations of RUTA-70 reactor with CERMET fuel using DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 coupled codes
Kozmenkov, Y.; Rohde, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany); Baranaev, Y.; Glebov, A. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation). Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering
2012-08-15
RUTA-70 model for simulations with the internally coupled codes DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 was developed. A 3-D power distribution in the core is calculated by DYN3D with thermal-hydraulic feedback from the system codes. A steady-state corresponding to the full reactor power and an accident scenario initiated by failure of all primary coolant pumps were simulated with the DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 coupled code systems to verify these codes. The compared coupled codes give close predictions for the initial and final states of the simulated accident but not for the transition between them. The observed deviations are explained by differences in the subcooled boiling models of the employed versions of ATHLET and RELAP5. Nevertheless, both simulations confirm a high level of the reactor inherent safety. The allowed safety margins were not reached. (orig.)
Fault interpretation strategy for 3D model simulation
Mendoza, P.; Floricich, M. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA EPM, Caracas (Venezuela)
2002-07-01
A 3-dimensional cellular model and visualization software was developed to help characterize the spatial geometry of a petroleum reservoir in order to determine the distribution of the petrophysical properties in a coherent manner. The 3-D analysis requires the same input data as traditional 2-dimensional methods so it is not more expensive, but it improves the integrity of geologic interpretations. The model makes it possible to generate fault planes which contribute to the understanding of the structural configuration of a petroleum deposit. Visualization tools provide quality control and are used to verify grid geometry in faulted structures and fault planes. The authors present experiences gained in building the geologic model for the LL-03 reservoir in Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo region which forms part of the Bolivar Coastal Field. The reservoir has more than 2,000 well that penetrate its vertical section, of which 1051 have been completed and which make up 30 per cent of the total production of the La Rosa Medium segregation of the Maracaibo District. 5 refs., 17 figs.
3D measurements of buildings and environment for harbor simulators
Börlin, Niclas; Igasto, Christina
2009-01-01
Oryx Simulations develops and manufactures real-time physics simulators for training of harbor crane operator in several of the world’s major harbors. Currently, the modelling process is labor-intensive and a faster solution that can produce accurate, textured models of harbor scenes is desired. The accuracy requirements vary across the scene, and in some areas accuracy can be traded for speed. Due to the heavy equipment involved, reliable error estimates are important throughout the scene. T...
The advanced simulation of fatigue crack growth in complex 3D structures
Kolk, Karsten; Kuhn, Guenther [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Erlangen (Germany)
2006-12-15
An advanced incremental crack growth algorithm for the three-dimensional (3D) simulation of fatigue crack growth in complex 3D structures with linear elastic material behavior is presented. To perform the crack growth simulation as effectively as possible an accurate stress analysis is done by the boundary-element method (BEM) in terms of the 3D dual BEM. The question concerning a reliable 3D crack growth criterion is answered based on experimental observations. All criteria under consideration are numerically realized by a predictor-corrector procedure. The agreement between numerically determined and experimentally observed crack fronts will be shown on both fracture specimens and an industrial application. (orig.)
3D Simulations of methane convective storms on Titan's atmosphere
Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.
2005-08-01
The arrival of the Cassini/Huygens mission to Titan has opened an unprecedented opportunity to study the atmosphere of this satellite. Under the pressure-temperature conditions on Titan, methane, a large atmospheric component amounting perhaps to a 3-5% of the atmosphere, is close to its triple point, potentially playing a similar role as water on Earth. The Huygens probe has shown a terrain shaped by erosion of probably liquid origin, suggestive of past rain. On the other hand, Voyager IRIS spectroscopic observations of Titan imply a saturated atmosphere of methane (amounting perhaps to 150 covered by methane clouds, if we think on Earth meteorology. However, observations from Earth and Cassini have shown that clouds are localized, transient and fast evolving, in particular in the South Pole (currently in its summer season). This might imply a lack of widespread presence on Titan of nuclei where methane could initiate condensation and particle growth with subsequent precipitation. We investigate different scenarios of moist convective storms on Titan using a complete 3D atmospheric model that incorporates a full microphysics treatment required to study cloud formation processes under a saturated atmosphere with low concentration of condensation nuclei. We study local convective development under a variety of atmospheric conditions: sub-saturation, super-saturation, abundances of condensation nuclei fall, condensation nuclei lifted from the ground or gently falling from the stratosphere. We show that under the appropriate circumstances, precipitation rates comparable to typical tropical storms on Earth can be found. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.
SIERRA - A 3-D device simulator for reliability modeling
Chern, Jue-Hsien; Arledge, Lawrence A., Jr.; Yang, Ping; Maeda, John T.
1989-05-01
SIERRA is a three-dimensional general-purpose semiconductor-device simulation program which serves as a foundation for investigating integrated-circuit (IC) device and reliability issues. This program solves the Poisson and continuity equations in silicon under dc, transient, and small-signal conditions. Executing on a vector/parallel minisupercomputer, SIERRA utilizes a matrix solver which uses an incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioned conjugate gradient square (CGS, BCG) method. The ILU-CGS method provides a good compromise between memory size and convergence rate. The authors have observed a 5x to 7x speedup over standard direct methods in simulations of transient problems containing highly coupled Poisson and continuity equations such as those found in reliability-oriented simulations. The application of SIERRA to parasitic CMOS latchup and dynamic random-access memory single-event-upset studies is described.
Humanoid Robot 3 -D Motion Simulation for Hardware Realization
CAO Xi; ZHAO Qun-fei; MA Pei-sun
2007-01-01
In this paper, three dimensions kinematics andkinetics simulation arc discussed for hardware realization ofa physical biped walking-chair robot. The direct and inverseclose-form kinematics solution of the biped walking-chairis deduced. Several gaits are realized with thekinematics solution, including walking straight on levelfloor, going up stair, squatting down and standing up. ZeroMoment Point(ZMP) equation is analyzed considering themovement of the crew. The simulated biped walking-chairrobot is used for mechanical design, gaits development andvalidation before they are tested on real robot.
Coupled cavity 3-D codes for linac tolerance simulations
Three developing codes, based on previous work at Los Alamos (1) are now being used in the Fermilab Linac Upgrade project, to survey system tolerance requirements. Both linear and non-linear beam dynamics of a pi-mode side coupled 805 MHz linac are simulated. Particular attention to the z-plane synchronism has been integrated into the code group, so that klystron drive boundaries can be monitored in the dynamics. All system length errors that contribute to desynchronization, and other data set failures are recognized by the particle PIC code (CAVDYN) to enhance design coherence. Some current results of the CAVDYN code simulations will be discussed
Hierarchical approach to 'atomistic' 3-D MOSFET simulation
Asenov, A.; Brown, A. R.; J. H. Davies; S Saini
1999-01-01
We present a hierarchical approach to the 'atomistic' simulation of aggressively scaled sub-0.1-Î¼m MOSFETs. These devices are so small that their characteristics depend on the precise location of dopant atoms within them, not just on their average density. A full-scale three-dimensional drift-diffusion atomistic simulation approach is first described and used to verify more economical, but restricted, options. To reduce processor time and memory requirements at high drain voltage, we have de...
Vectors in Use in a 3D Juggling Game Simulation
Kynigos, Chronis; Latsi, Maria
2006-01-01
The new representations enabled by the educational computer game the "Juggler" can place vectors in a central role both for controlling and measuring the behaviours of objects in a virtual environment simulating motion in three-dimensional spaces. The mathematical meanings constructed by 13 year-old students in relation to vectors as objects, as a…
Simulation of 3D-CRT treatment for lung cancer
In radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, occurs doses deposition in healthy organs. During the treatment planning are calculated some doses due to photons. This dose deposition in healthy organs could induce to the appearance of new cancers foci. The aim of this study was to analyze the equivalent doses in healthy organs of a patient treated by radiotherapy for lung cancer. In order to calculate the doses, was done a computer simulation of radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, adopting database of the treatment performed by INCA. To perform the simulation was used several tools, among them, the radiation transport code MCNPX, in which was shaped the radiotherapy room and the head from the linear accelerator Varian 2300 C / D, the patient was simulated by Voxel male phantom in Rex,and the treatment protocol adopted considers a beam with energy of 6 MV focusing on three gantry tilt angles (0 deg, 180 deg and 45 deg). In addition, there was variation in the opening of the radiation field according to the angle of inclination. The results of this study point to the organs close to the irradiated area are predominantly affected by the dose due to photons, affecting organs from different body systems, such as esophagus, heart, thymus, spine and lymph nodes. The calculated values demonstrating that the angle of 0 deg was the most responsible for the deposit of unwanted dose. The results showed that the simulations in this paper is developed in accordance with the planning data described in different studies and literature. (author)
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery: 3D Simulation with Gravity Effects
Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Jessen, K.; Shapiro, Alexander;
2010-01-01
Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) utilizes the activity of microorganisms, where microorganisms simultaneously grow in a reservoir and convert substrate into recovery enhancing products (usually, surfactants). In order to predict the performance of a MEOR process, a simulation tool is requir...
Simulation of 3D-CRT treatment for lung cancer
Thalhofer, Jardel L.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Junior, Juraci R.P., E-mail: jardellt@yahoo.com.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rebello, Wilson F., E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: samandacristine@uezo.rj.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Edmilson M., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Centro Universitario da Zona Oeste (UEZO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Colegiado de Comutacao e Matematica; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: delano@inca.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2013-07-01
In radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, occurs doses deposition in healthy organs. During the treatment planning are calculated some doses due to photons. This dose deposition in healthy organs could induce to the appearance of new cancers foci. The aim of this study was to analyze the equivalent doses in healthy organs of a patient treated by radiotherapy for lung cancer. In order to calculate the doses, was done a computer simulation of radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, adopting database of the treatment performed by INCA. To perform the simulation was used several tools, among them, the radiation transport code MCNPX, in which was shaped the radiotherapy room and the head from the linear accelerator Varian 2300 C / D, the patient was simulated by Voxel male phantom in Rex,and the treatment protocol adopted considers a beam with energy of 6 MV focusing on three gantry tilt angles (0 deg, 180 deg and 45 deg). In addition, there was variation in the opening of the radiation field according to the angle of inclination. The results of this study point to the organs close to the irradiated area are predominantly affected by the dose due to photons, affecting organs from different body systems, such as esophagus, heart, thymus, spine and lymph nodes. The calculated values demonstrating that the angle of 0 deg was the most responsible for the deposit of unwanted dose. The results showed that the simulations in this paper is developed in accordance with the planning data described in different studies and literature. (author)
3D simulation of superconducting microwave devices with an electromagnetic-field simulator
Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Yuki; Saito, Y; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2009-01-01
High-frequency microwave applications, such as filters, delay lines, and resonators, are quite important for superconducting electronic devices. In order to design the superconducting microwave devices, circuit parameters should be precisely extracted from the physical structure of the devices. A 3-dimentional electromagnetic-field simulators is very useful for designing microwave devices. However, designing of superconducting microwave devices using a conventional 3D electromagnetic-field si...
Dynamic triangulations for efficient 3D simulation of granular materials
Ferrez, Jean-Albert; Liebling, Thomas M.
2007-01-01
Granular materials are omnipresent in many fields ranging from civil engineering to food, mining and pharmaceutical industries. Often considered a fourth state of matter, they exhibit specific phenomena such as segregation, arching effects, pattern formation, etc. Due to its potential capability of realistically rendering these behaviors, the Distinct Element Method (DEM) is a very enticing simulation technique. Indeed it makes it possible to analyze and observe phenomena that are barely if a...
Advanced 3D Photocathode Modeling and Simulations Final Report
High brightness electron beams required by the proposed Next Linear Collider demand strong advances in photocathode electron gun performance. Significant improvement in the production of such beams with rf photocathode electron guns is hampered by the lack high-fidelity simulations. The critical missing piece in existing gun codes is a physics-based, detailed treatment of the very complex and highly nonlinear photoemission process
3D MHD simulation of polarized emission in SN 1006
Schneiter, E M; Reynoso, E M; Esquivel, A; De Colle, F
2015-01-01
We use three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to model the supernova remnant SN 1006. From our numerical results, we have carried out a polarization study, obtaining synthetic maps of the polarized intensity, the Stokes parameter $Q$, and the polar-referenced angle, which can be compared with observational results. Synthetic maps were computed considering two possible particle acceleration mechanisms: quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular. The comparison of synthetic maps of the Stokes parameter $Q$ maps with observations proves to be a valuable tool to discern unambiguously which mechanism is taking place in the remnant of SN 1006, giving strong support to the quasi-parallel model.
Kolk, K.
2005-07-15
This is an important contribution to reliable simulation of stable fatigue crack growth in real 3D problems under complex loads. The nonlinear crack propagation process requires an incremental solution algorithm. Each increment starts with a load analysis of the current crack configuration using the fast dual boundary element method. The potential of this method is more fully utilized with a fast boundary element formulation. Afater this, a real 3D crack propagation criterion is evaluated which is based on experimental findings and is realized within a preditor-corrector method. Finally, the numeric model is generated for the next increment. This generation is made automatically using a local renetworking algorithm. With the crack propagation module thus developed, complex components, e.g. motor car components, can be analyzed fracture-mechanically on a standard PC. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit leistet einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur zuverlaessigen Simulation des stabilen Ermuedungsrisswachstums in realen 3D-Problemen unter komplexen Belastungen. Der nichtlineare Vorgang des Risswachstums erfordert einen inkrementellen Loesungsalgorithmus. In jedem Inkrement wird zunaechst eine Beanspruchungsanalyse der aktuellen Risskonfiguration mit der leistungsstarken dualen Randelementmethode durchgefuehrt. Das Potenzial dieser Methode wird mit einer schnellen Randelementformulierung weiter ausgeschoepft. Anschliessend wird ein echtes 3D-Rissfortschrittskriterium ausgewertet, welches auf experimentellen Erkenntnissen beruht und innerhalb eines Praediktor-Korrektor-Verfahrens realisiert ist. Abschliessend wird das numerische Modell fuer das naechste Inkrement generiert. Diese Generierung erfolgt automatisch mit einem lokalen Neuvernetzungsalgorithmus. Mit dem entwickelten Rissfortschrittsmodul koennen komplexe Bauteile, z.B. aus dem Automobilbau, erfolgreich auf einem Standard-PC bruchmechanisch analysiert werden.
Plasma boundaries at Mars: a 3-D simulation study
A. Bößwetter
2004-12-01
Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere of planet Mars is studied using a three-dimensional hybrid model. Mars has only a weak intrinsic magnetic field, and consequently its ionosphere is directly affected by the solar wind. The gyroradii of the solar wind protons are in the range of several hundred kilometers and therefore comparable with the characteristic scales of the interaction region. Different boundaries emerge from the interaction of the solar wind with the continuously produced ionospheric heavy-ion plasma, which could be identified as a bow shock (BS, ion composition boundary (ICB and magnetic pile up boundary (MPB, where the latter both turn out to coincide. The simulation results regarding the shape and position of these boundaries are in good agreement with the measurements made by Phobos-2 and MGS spacecraft. It is shown that the positions of these boundaries depend essentially on the ionospheric production rate, the solar wind ram pressure, and the often unconsidered electron temperature of the ionospheric heavy ion plasma. Other consequences are rays of planetary plasma in the tail and heavy ion plasma clouds, which are stripped off from the dayside ICB region by some instability.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (solar wind interactions with unmagnetized bodies – Space plasma physics (discontinuities; numerical simulation studies
3D Computational Simulation of Calcium Leaching in Cement Matrices
Gaitero, J. J.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Calcium leaching is a degradation process consisting in progressive dissolution of the cement paste by migration of calcium atoms to the aggressive solution. It is therefore, a complex phenomenon involving several phases and dissolution and diffusion processes simultaneously. Along this work, a new computational scheme for the simulation of the degradation process in three dimensions was developed and tested. The toolkit was used to simulate accelerated calcium leaching by a 6M ammonium nitrate solution in cement matrices. The obtained outputs were the three dimensional representation of the matrix and the physicochemical properties of individual phases as a consequence of the degradation process. This not only makes it possible to study the evolution of such properties as a function of time but also as a function of the position within the matrix. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental values of the elastic modulus in degraded and undegraded samples.El lixiviado de calcio es un proceso de degradación consistente en la disolución progresiva de la pasta de cemento por la migración de los átomos de calcio a la disolución agresiva. Se trata por tanto de un fenómeno complejo que involucra simultáneamente diferentes fases y procesos de disolución y difusión. En este trabajo se desarrolló y probó una nueva herramienta computacional para la simulación del proceso de degradación en tres dimensiones. Para ello se simuló el lixiviado de calcio acelerado provocado por una disolución de nitrato amónico 6M en matrices de cemento. Como resultado se obtuvieron la representación tridimensional de la matriz y las propiedades físico-químicas sus fases a lo largo del tiempo. Esto permitió estudiar la evolución de dichas propiedades a lo largo del proceso de degradación así como en función de su posición dentro de la matriz. Los resultados obtenidos coinciden con los valores experimentales del módulo elástico tanto
Simulation of Fully Nonlinear 3-D Numerical Wave Tank
张晓兔; 滕斌; 宁德志
2004-01-01
A fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT) has been simulated by use of a three-dimensional higher order boundary element method (HOBEM) in the time domain. Within the frame of potential flow and the adoption of simply Rankine source, the resulting boundary integral equation is repeatedly solved at each time step and the fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are integrated with time to update its position and boundary values. A smooth technique is also adopted in order to eliminate the possible saw-tooth numerical instabilities. The incident wave at the uptank is given as theoretical wave in this paper. The outgoing waves are absorbed inside a damping zone by spatially varying artificial damping on the free surface at the wave tank end. The numerical results show that the NWT developed by these approaches has a high accuracy and good numerical stability.
3-D Coldtest Simulations of W-Band Devices
Petillo, John J.
1998-04-01
Recent advances in the simulation and modeling of vacuum electronic devices has opened up the door for the much-anticipated ``first-pass design success" of these devices by computational means. For W-band, this is an exciting prospect since many current designs begin with scaling from lower-frequency devices. The next step is trial and error by fabrication and experimental testing, which demands high precision machining practices as well as reproducible assembly procedures. This can be a very time-consuming, expensive, and error-prone undertaking. Aside from the unit-to-unit variances in dimensions between prototypes, the repeatability of material properties (e.g., dielectric constant and resistivity) in this frequency band is difficult to measure, predict, and ensure. Computers have no such repeatability problems, and run-to-run differences can be predefined, and subsequently analyzed. The computational limitations include setup difficulty, computer time, computer power, and fidelity of the calculation. For W-band devices with 1% or lower bandwidth, fidelity of the numerical solution is critical in the search for ``first-pass design success" capability. The codes have to not only be up to the task, but the appropriate application of these codes becomes an essential ingredient to predicting the accuracy of the results. These issues as well as cross validation between computational models will be discussed. Several recent simulation results of W-band devices will be presented, along with comparisons with data. These will include the NRL/Litton/CPI gyroklystron input coupler and several CPI Coupled Cavity Tube designs.
Fajardo, Kristel C Meza; Chaillat, Stéphanie; Lenti, Luca
2016-01-01
In this work, we study seismic wave amplification in alluvial basins having 3D standard geometries through the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method in the frequency domain. We investigate how much 3D amplification differs from the 1D (horizontal layering) case. Considering incident fields of plane harmonic waves, we examine the relationships between the amplification level and the most relevant physical parameters of the problem (impedance contrast, 3D aspect ratio, vertical and oblique incidence of plane waves). The FMBEM results show that the most important parameters for wave amplification are the impedance contrast and the so-called equivalent shape ratio. Using these two parameters, we derive simple rules to compute the fundamental frequency for various 3D basin shapes and the corresponding 3D/1D amplification factor for 5% damping. Effects on amplification due to 3D basin asymmetry are also studied and incorporated in the derived rules.
Product management: visualization technology and 3D simulator of Aker Solutions
Tongpradith, Thanaruch
2014-01-01
This Thesis has focused on Visualization and Simulation Technology in oil and gas industry. It contains the common usages and the implementation process of this new advance technology. 3D Visualization Technology has just been introduced since last decades in Exploration & Production of oilfield development. Aker Solutions has introduced the new innovation technology product solutions, which is 3D simulator software for training, planning and testing purposes in relation to operational projec...
Numerical simulation of 3D backward facing step flows at various Reynolds numbers
Louda Petr
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The work deals with the numerical simulation of 3D turbulent flow over backward facing step in a narrow channel. The mathematical model is based on the RANS equations with an explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM. The numerical method uses implicit finite volume upwind discretization. While the eddy viscosity models fail in predicting complex 3D flows, the EARSM model is shown to provide results which agree well with experimental PIV data. The reference experimental data provide the 3D flow field. The simulations are compared with experiment for 3 values of Reynolds number.
Simulação 3D de movimento ortodôntico 3D simulation of orthodontic tooth movement
Norman Duque Penedo
2010-10-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: desenvolver e validar, através do Método dos Elementos Finitos (MEF, um modelo numérico tridimensional (3D de um incisivo central superior para simular o movimento dentário. MÉTODOS: esse modelo contempla a unidade dentária, o osso alveolar e o ligamento periodontal. Permite a simulação dos diferentes movimentos dentários e a determinação dos centros de rotação e de resistência. Limita o movimento ao espaço periodontal, registrando a direção, quantificando o deslocamento dentário e as tensões iniciais no ligamento periodontal. RESULTADOS: a análise dos deslocamentos dentários e das áreas que recebem tensões iniciais possibilita determinar os tipos de movimentos dentários. Com base nas forças ortodônticas, é possível quantificar a intensidade das tensões em cada região do dente, do ligamento periodontal ou do osso alveolar. Com base nas tensões axiais ao longo do ligamento periodontal e da tensão capilar, é possível predizer, teoricamente, as regiões em que deve ocorrer a remodelação óssea. CONCLUSÃO: o modelo foi validado pela determinação do módulo de elasticidade do ligamento periodontal de forma compatível com dados experimentais existentes na literatura. Os métodos utilizados na construção do modelo permitiram a criação de um modelo completo para uma arcada dentária, o qual possibilita realizar variadas simulações que envolvem a mecânica ortodôntica.OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D numerical model of a maxillary central incisor to simulate tooth movement using the Finite Element Method (FEM. METHODS: This model encompasses the tooth, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. It allows the simulation of different tooth movements and the establishment of centers of rotation and resistance. It limits the movement into the periodontal space, recording the direction, quantifying tooth displacement and initial stress in the periodontal ligament. RESULTS: By
The Effects of 3D Computer Simulation on Biology Students' Achievement and Memory Retention
Elangovan, Tavasuria; Ismail, Zurida
2014-01-01
A quasi experimental study was conducted for six weeks to determine the effectiveness of two different 3D computer simulation based teaching methods, that is, realistic simulation and non-realistic simulation on Form Four Biology students' achievement and memory retention in Perak, Malaysia. A sample of 136 Form Four Biology students in Perak,…
3D multiple-point statistics simulation using 2D training images
Comunian, A.; Renard, P.; Straubhaar, J.
2012-03-01
One of the main issues in the application of multiple-point statistics (MPS) to the simulation of three-dimensional (3D) blocks is the lack of a suitable 3D training image. In this work, we compare three methods of overcoming this issue using information coming from bidimensional (2D) training images. One approach is based on the aggregation of probabilities. The other approaches are novel. One relies on merging the lists obtained using the impala algorithm from diverse 2D training images, creating a list of compatible data events that is then used for the MPS simulation. The other (s2Dcd) is based on sequential simulations of 2D slices constrained by the conditioning data computed at the previous simulation steps. These three methods are tested on the reproduction of two 3D images that are used as references, and on a real case study where two training images of sedimentary structures are considered. The tests show that it is possible to obtain 3D MPS simulations with at least two 2D training images. The simulations obtained, in particular those obtained with the s2Dcd method, are close to the references, according to a number of comparison criteria. The CPU time required to simulate with the method s2Dcd is from two to four orders of magnitude smaller than the one required by a MPS simulation performed using a 3D training image, while the results obtained are comparable. This computational efficiency and the possibility of using MPS for 3D simulation without the need for a 3D training image facilitates the inclusion of MPS in Monte Carlo, uncertainty evaluation, and stochastic inverse problems frameworks.
Fire simulation for a 3D character with particles and motion capture data in Blender
Hoikkala, Ville
2016-01-01
The object of this thesis was to study particle based simulations in 3D and how they can be applied to motion capture data. The theoretical part examines the history of 3D and computer graphics concisely and finally particles and simulations. The practical part consists of the case-work involving a fire emitting particle simulation. The study examines two methods of creating a fire simulation in Blender and how they influence the outlook of the particles. It was found that the fire si...
NVision: A 3D Visualization Environment for N-Body Simulations
Markiel, J. A.
2000-05-01
NVision: A 3D Visualization Environment for N-Body Simulations We are developing a set of packages for 3D visualization and analysis of our numerical N-body simulations. These tools are intended to be generalizable to a wide range of related problems including cosmological, planetary dynamics, and molecular dynamics simulations. The applications and source code will be fully available to the community. To prototype this project we have adopted the Java platform with the newly released Java3D extension to take advantage of its portability, object-oriented environment, and availability of extensive documentation and class libraries. We will describe the goals and design principles of the project and demo the currently implemented features, including visualization of cosmological simulations and the simulated collision of two rubble-pile asteroids. This research is supported by NSF grants AST99-73209 and AST99-79891.
Web-Based 3D and Haptic Interactive Environments for e-Learning, Simulation, and Training
Hamza-Lup, Felix G.; Sopin, Ivan
Knowledge creation occurs in the process of social interaction. As our service-based society is evolving into a knowledge-based society, there is an acute need for more effective collaboration and knowledge-sharing systems to be used by geographically scattered people. We present the use of 3D components and standards, such as Web3D, in combination with the haptic paradigm, for e-Learning and simulation.
3D-Simulation und Planung von Anlagen der Hütten- und Walzwerkstechnik
Oppermann, Ingo
2009-01-01
In der Präsentation werden typische Engineeringaufgaben präsentiert, die mit modernen IT-Werkzeugen erledigt werden. Es wird auf die Einführung und die Durchgängigkeit eines 3D-CAD-Systems eingegangen und gezeigt, wie mit diesem System Simulations- und Prozesskettenthemen in der Praxis bei der SMS Siemag AG behandelt werden. Ebenfalls anhand von Beispielen wird die Thematik der großen Baugruppen und der Anlagenplanung im 3D-Engineering dargestellt.
Efficient use of 3d environment models for mobile robot simulation and localization
Corominas Murtra, Andreu; Trulls, Eduard; Mirats-Tur, Josep M.; Sanfeliu, Alberto
2010-01-01
This paper provides a detailed description of a set of algorithms to efficiently manipulate 3D geometric models to compute physical constraints and range observation models, data that is usually required in real-time mobile robotics or simulation. Our approach uses a standard file format to describe the environment and processes the model using the openGL library, a widely-used programming interface for 3D scene manipulation. The paper also presents results on a test model for benchmarking, a...
Completion of PCFLOW3D Model for Simulation of Flow and Dispersion of Pollutants
Kovšca, Jasna
2007-01-01
An upgrade of the three-dimensional baroclinic mathematical model PCFLOW3D with a new turbulence model Smagorinsky-vertical is presented. Several test cases were made to compare this new turbulence model with other turbulence models already built in the PCFLOW3D model. Additional verifications of the test results were performed using the commercial software CORMIX of which main purpose is to simulate the near field areas of pollution inflows. CORMIX is restricted to steady flow...
3D Simulation of External Flooding Events for the RISMC Pathway
Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sampath, Ramprasad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lin, Linyu [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-09-01
Incorporating 3D simulations as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMIC) Toolkit allows analysts to obtain a more complete picture of complex system behavior for events including external plant hazards. External events such as flooding have become more important recently – however these can be analyzed with existing and validated simulated physics toolkits. In this report, we describe these approaches specific to flooding-based analysis using an approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The theory, validation, and example applications of the 3D flooding simulation are described. Integrating these 3D simulation methods into computational risk analysis provides a spatial/visual aspect to the design, improves the realism of results, and can prove visual understanding to validate the analysis of flooding.
Simulations of Coulomb systems with slab geometry using an efficient 3D Ewald summation method
dos Santos, Alexandre P.; Girotto, Matheus; Levin, Yan
2016-04-01
We present a new approach to efficiently simulate electrolytes confined between infinite charged walls using a 3d Ewald summation method. The optimal performance is achieved by separating the electrostatic potential produced by the charged walls from the electrostatic potential of electrolyte. The electric field produced by the 3d periodic images of the walls is constant inside the simulation cell, with the field produced by the transverse images of the charged plates canceling out. The non-neutral confined electrolyte in an external potential can be simulated using 3d Ewald summation with a suitable renormalization of the electrostatic energy, to remove a divergence, and a correction that accounts for the conditional convergence of the resulting lattice sum. The new algorithm is at least an order of magnitude more rapid than the usual simulation methods for the slab geometry and can be further sped up by adopting a particle-particle particle-mesh approach.
3D Simulation of External Flooding Events for the RISMC Pathway
Incorporating 3D simulations as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMIC) Toolkit allows analysts to obtain a more complete picture of complex system behavior for events including external plant hazards. External events such as flooding have become more important recently – however these can be analyzed with existing and validated simulated physics toolkits. In this report, we describe these approaches specific to flooding-based analysis using an approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The theory, validation, and example applications of the 3D flooding simulation are described. Integrating these 3D simulation methods into computational risk analysis provides a spatial/visual aspect to the design, improves the realism of results, and can prove visual understanding to validate the analysis of flooding.
A global simulation of ICRF heating in a 3D magnetic configuration
A global simulation code for the ICRF heating analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic configuration is developed combining two global simulation codes; a drift kinetic equation solver, GNET, and a wave field solver, TASK/WM. Both codes take into account 3D geometry using the numerically obtained 3D MHD equilibrium. The developed simulation code is applied to the LHD configuration as an example. Characteristics of energetic ion distributions in the phase space are clarified in LHD. The simulation results are also compared with experimental results by evaluating the count number of the neutral particle analyzer using the obtained energetic ion distribution, and a relatively good agreement is obtained. (author)
Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Tony Koonce
2014-09-01
Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a prototype for using 3D modeling and simulation engine to improve risk analysis and evaluate reactor structures and components for a given scenario. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.
Application of 3-D numerical simulation software SRIFCAST to produce ductile iron castings
无
2005-01-01
Based on a method using numerical simulation equations and their solution schemes for liquid metal flows and heat transfer during mold filling and the solidification process of casting, 3-D numerical simulation software SRIFCAST was created. This includes enmeshment of casting; velocity and temperature fields calculation; displaying iso-temperature lines;velocity vectors and 3-D temperature fields on a Windows 9x operating system. SRIFCAST was applied to produce sound castings of automobile and diesel engines, and also to connect with microstructure simulation for ductile iron castings.
The M3D-C1 Approach to Simulating 3D 2-fluid Magnetohydrodynamics in Magnetic Fusion Experiments
A new approach for solving the 3D MHD equations in a strongly magnetized toroidal plasma is presented which uses high-order 2D finite elements with C1 continuity. The vector fields use a physics-based decomposition. An efficient implicit time advance separates the velocity and field advance. ITAPS (SCOREC) adaptivity software and TOPS solvers are used
Calculation of residual stresses by means of a 3D numerical weld simulation
Nicak, Tomas; Huemmer, Matthias [AREVA NP GmbH, Postfach 1109 (Germany)
2008-07-01
The numerical weld simulation has developed very fast in recent years. The problem complexity has increased from simple 2D models to full 3D models, which can describe the entire welding process more realistically. As recent research projects indicate, a quantitative assessment of the residual stresses by means of a 3D analysis is possible. The structure integrity can be assessed based on the weld simulation results superimposed with the operating load. Moreover, to support the qualification of welded components parametric studies for optimization of the residual stress distribution in the weld region can be performed. In this paper a full 3D numerical weld simulation for a man-hole drainage nozzle in a steam generator will be presented. The residual stresses are calculated by means of an uncoupled transient thermal and mechanical FE analysis. The paper will present a robust procedure allowing reasonable predictions of the residual stresses for complex structures in industrial practice. (authors)
Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E
2011-01-01
We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645
Simulating binocular vision for no-reference 3D visual quality measurement.
Zhou, Wu-Jie; Yu, Lu; Wu, Ming-Wei
2015-09-01
Perceptual quality measurement of three-dimensional (3D) visual signals has become a fundamental challenge in 3D imaging fields. This paper proposes a novel no-reference (NR) 3D visual quality measurement (VQM) metric that uses simulations of the primary visual cortex (V1) of binocular vision. As the major technical contribution of this study, perceptual properties of simple and complex cells are considered for NR 3D-VQM. More specifically, the metric simulates the receptive fields of simple cells (one class of V1 neurons) using Gaussian derivative functions, and the receptive fields of complex cells (the other class of V1 neurons) using disparity energy responses and binocular rivalry responses. Subsequently, various quality-aware features are extracted from the primary visual cortex; these will change in the presence of distortions. Finally, those features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted 3D visual signal by using support vector regression (SVR). Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of our proposed metric, compared to the relevant full-reference (FR) and NR metrics. PMID:26368467
Madura, Thomas; Gull, Theodore R.; Clementel, Nicola; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Kruip, Chael; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Teodoro, Mairan
2015-01-01
We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (>120 MSun), highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9) binary Eta Carinae. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of Eta Carinae's inner (r ~110 AU) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. These 3D prints reveal important, previously unknown 'finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ~1.045) that protrude radially outward from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively-cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the hot, adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unknown physical features highlight the important role 3D printing can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.
Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface thermal behavior with 3D dynamic gap element
Most of the fuel performance codes that are able to simulate a multidimensional analysis are used to calculate the radial temperature distribution and perform a multidimensional mechanical analysis based on a one-dimensional (1D) temperature result. The FRAPCON-FRAPTRAN code system incorporates a 1D thermal module and two-dimensional (2D) mechanical module when FEM option is activated. In this method, the multidimensional gap conductance model is not required because one-dimensional thermal analysis is carried out. On the other hand, a gap conductance model for a multi-dimension should be developed in the code to perform a multidimensional thermal analysis. ALCYONE developed by CEA introduces an equivalent heat convection coefficient that represents the multidimensional gap conductance. However, the code does not employ dynamic gap conductance which is a function of gap thickness and gap characteristics in direct. The BISON code, which has been developed by INL (Idaho National Laboratory), employed a thermo-mechanical contact method that is specifically designed for tightly-coupled implicit solutions that employ Jacobian-free solution methods. Owing to tightly-coupled implicit solutions, the BISON code solves gap conductance and gap thickness simultaneously with given boundary conditions. In this paper, 3D dynamic gap element has been proposed to resolve convergence issue and nonlinear characteristic of multidimensional gap conductance. To evaluate 3D dynamic gap element module, 3D thermomechanical module using FORTRAN77 has been implemented incorporating 3D dynamic gap element. To demonstrate effect of 3D dynamic gap element, thermal behavior of missing pellet surface (MPS) has been simulated by the developed module. LWR fuel performance codes should incorporate thermo-mechanical loop to solve gap conductance problem, iteratively. However, gap conductance in multidimensional model is difficult issue owing to its nonlinearity and convergence characteristics. In
Study of 3-D Numerical Simulation for Gas Transfer in the Goaf of the Coal Mining
WU Zheng-yan; JIANG Shu-guang; HE Xin-jian; WANG Lan-yun; LIN Bai-quan
2007-01-01
In order to simulate field distribution rules, mathematical models for 3-D air flows and gas transfer in the goaf of the coal mining are established, based on theories of permeability and dynamic dispersion through porous media. A gas dispersion equation in a 3-D field is calculated by use of numerical method on a weighted upstream multi-element balance. Based on data of an example with a U type ventilation mode, surface charts of air pressure distribution and gas concentration are drawn by Graphtool software. Finally, a comparison between actually measured results in the model test and the numerical simulation results is made to proves the numerical implementation feasible.
3-D NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW THROUGH AN ORIFICE SPILL-WAY TUNNEL
无
2002-01-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approachbased on the weakly compressible hydrodynamic equation with a single-plase fluid model for the cavitation flow has been de-veloped and employed in simulating 3-D unsteady viscous flowthrough an orifice type spillwy tunnel. The finite volume ap-proach in space and the predictor-corrector method in timehave been used to the numerical discretization, and the "Lawof wall" is applied at the solid boundary. The velocity, pres-sure fields and the cavitation phenomenon are obtained, thecomputational results show that 3-D LES approach can givemore realistic flow field prediction of the orifice type spillwaytunnel.
CONEX and CORSIKA: a new 3D hybrid model for air shower simulation
The hybrid air shower simulation code CONEX has been implemented as an option in the air shower Monte-Carlo model CORSIKA. In CONEX, Monte-Carlo simulation of high energy interactions is combined with a fast numerical solution of cascade equations. Low energy secondary particles can then be tracked within CORSIKA to obtain the lateral extension of the air shower. This allows the fast and realistic simulation of 3D showers at ultra-high energies.
Schulte, Claudia; Coors, Volker; Eicker, Ursula [Hochschule fuer Technik (HFT), Stuttgart (Germany)
2012-07-01
The biggest potential for heat consumption reduction and CO2 emission reduction in Germany is in older buildings. By applying innovative modernization concepts, primary energy consumption could be reduced by 80 percent. Planning of modernisation and energy concepts requires data on the current status. HFT Stuttgart developed a promising method for assessing heat consumption according to DIN 18599 of urban districts on the basis of 3D models of buildings (CityGML). The method is presented and explained here.
Ground motion simulations in Marmara (Turkey) region from 3D finite difference method
Aochi, Hideo; Ulrich, Thomas; Douglas, John
2016-04-01
In the framework of the European project MARSite (2012-2016), one of the main contributions from our research team was to provide ground-motion simulations for the Marmara region from various earthquake source scenarios. We adopted a 3D finite difference code, taking into account the 3D structure around the Sea of Marmara (including the bathymetry) and the sea layer. We simulated two moderate earthquakes (about Mw4.5) and found that the 3D structure improves significantly the waveforms compared to the 1D layer model. Simulations were carried out for different earthquakes (moderate point sources and large finite sources) in order to provide shake maps (Aochi and Ulrich, BSSA, 2015), to study the variability of ground-motion parameters (Douglas & Aochi, BSSA, 2016) as well as to provide synthetic seismograms for the blind inversion tests (Diao et al., GJI, 2016). The results are also planned to be integrated in broadband ground-motion simulations, tsunamis generation and simulations of triggered landslides (in progress by different partners). The simulations are freely shared among the partners via the internet and the visualization of the results is diffused on the project's homepage. All these simulations should be seen as a reference for this region, as they are based on the latest knowledge that obtained during the MARSite project, although their refinement and validation of the model parameters and the simulations are a continuing research task relying on continuing observations. The numerical code used, the models and the simulations are available on demand.
2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations
Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.
2016-09-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.
3D numerical simulation analysis of passive drag near free surface in swimming
Zhan, Jie-min; Li, Tian-zeng; Chen, Xue-bin; Li, Yok-sheung; Wai, Wing-hong Onyx
2015-04-01
The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k- ɛ turbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer's arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.
A Jones matrix formalism for simulating 3D Polarised Light Imaging of brain tissue
Menzel, Miriam; De Raedt, Hans; Reckfort, Julia; Amunts, Katrin; Axer, Markus
2015-01-01
The neuroimaging technique 3D Polarised Light Imaging (3D-PLI) provides a high-resolution reconstruction of nerve fibres in human post-mortem brains. The orientations of the fibres are derived from birefringence measurements of histological brain sections assuming that the nerve fibres - consisting of an axon and a surrounding myelin sheath - are uniaxial birefringent and that the measured optic axis is oriented in direction of the nerve fibres (macroscopic model). Although experimental studies support this assumption, the molecular structure of the myelin sheath suggests that the birefringence of a nerve fibre can be described more precisely by multiple optic axes oriented radially around the fibre axis (microscopic model). In this paper, we compare the use of the macroscopic and the microscopic model for simulating 3D-PLI by means of the Jones matrix formalism. The simulations show that the macroscopic model ensures a reliable estimation of the fibre orientations as long as the polarimeter does not resolve ...
GRASIL-3D: an Implemention of Dust Effects in the SEDs of Simulated Galaxies
Domínguez-Tenreiro, R; Granato, G L; Schurer, A; Alpresa, P; Silva, L; Brook, C B; Serna, A
2013-01-01
We introduce a new model for the spectral energy distribution of galaxies, GRASIL-3D, which includes a careful modelling of the dust component of the interstellar medium. GRASIL-3D is an entirely new model based on the formalism of an existing and widely applied spectrophotometric model, GRASIL, but specifically designed to be interfaced with galaxies with any arbitrarily given geometry, such as galaxies calculated by theoretical hydrodynamical galaxy formation codes. GRASIL-3D is designed to separately treat radiative transfer in molecular clouds and in the diffuse cirrus component. The code has a general applicability to the outputs of simulated galaxies, either from Lagrangian or Eulerian hydrodynamic codes. As an application, the new model has been interfaced to the P-DEVA and GASOLINE smoothed-particle hydrodynamic codes, and has been used to calculate the spectral energy distribution for a variety of simulated galaxies from UV to sub-millimeter wavelengths, whose comparison with observational data gives...
Kempka, Thomas; Nakaten, Benjamin; De Lucia, Marco; Nakaten, Natalie; Otto, Christopher; Pohl, Maik; Tillner, Elena; Kühn, Michael
2016-04-01
Utilization of the geological subsurface for production and storage of hydrocarbons, chemical energy and heat as well as for waste disposal requires the quantification and mitigation of environmental impacts as well as the improvement of georesources utilization in terms of efficiency and sustainability. The development of tools for coupled process simulations is essential to tackle these challenges, since reliable assessments are only feasible by integrative numerical computations. Coupled processes at reservoir to regional scale determine the behaviour of reservoirs, faults and caprocks, generally demanding for complex 3D geological models to be considered besides available monitoring and experimenting data in coupled numerical simulations. We have been developing a flexible numerical simulation framework that provides efficient workflows for integrating the required data and software packages to carry out coupled process simulations considering, e.g., multiphase fluid flow, geomechanics, geochemistry and heat. Simulation results are stored in structured data formats to allow for an integrated 3D visualization and result interpretation as well as data archiving and its provision to collaborators. The main benefits in using the flexible simulation framework are the integration of data geological and grid data from any third party software package as well as data export to generic 3D visualization tools and archiving formats. The coupling of the required process simulators in time and space is feasible, while different spatial dimensions in the coupled simulations can be integrated, e.g., 0D batch with 3D dynamic simulations. User interaction is established via high-level programming languages, while computational efficiency is achieved by using low-level programming languages. We present three case studies on the assessment of geological subsurface utilization based on different process coupling approaches and numerical simulations.
Development of 3D dynamic gap element for simulation of asymmetric fuel behavior
The accurate modeling of heat transfer across the gap between fuel pellets and the protective cladding is essential to understanding the fuel performance, including cladding stress and behavior under irradiated conditions. To establish a heat transfer model through a gap in the fuel performance code, the gap conductance based on the Ross and Stoute model was employed in most previous works. In this model, the gap conductance that determines the temperature gradient within the gap is a function of gap thickness, which is dependent on mechanical behavior. Recently, many researchers have been developing fuel performance codes based on the finite element method (FE) to calculate the temperature, stress, and strain in 2D or 3D. The gap conductance model for FE can be a challenging issue in terms of convergence and nonlinearity because the elements that are positioned in a gap have a different gap conductance, and the boundary conditions of the gap vary at each iteration step. In this paper, the specified 3D dynamic gap element has been proposed and implemented to simulate asymmetric thermo-mechanical fuel behavior. A thermo-mechanical 3D finite element module incorporating a gap element has been implemented using FORTRAN77. To evaluate the proposed 3D gap element, the missing pellet surface (MPS), which results in an asymmetric heat transfer in the pellet and cladding, was simulated. As a result, the maximum temperature of a pellet for the MPS problem calculated with the specified 3D gap element is much higher than the temperature calculated with a uniform gap conductance model that a multidimensional fuel performance code employs. The results demonstrate that a 3D simulation is essential to evaluate the temperature and stress of the pellet and cladding for an asymmetric geometry simulation. (author)
Simulation System Design of 3-D Panorama of Ship Motions in Wave
LIU Ya-dong; LI Ji-de; LI Zhen
2002-01-01
In this paper a 3-D panoramic simulation system of a ship is described which is developed with the MAXSCRIPT language and VC++ as programming tools on the platform of 3Dsmax. The strip theory method is applied to the motion prediction of the mono-hull. The time history solutions of heave and pitch are obtained in the condition of head sea to provide the primary data on panoramic simulation. The simulation system has following functions: 1)digital simulation;2) panoramic simulation; 3) environmental set-up; 4) render preview and output.
Renal Tumor Cryoablation Planning. The Efficiency of Simulation on Reconstructed 3D CT Scan
Ciprian Valerian LUCAN
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nephron-sparing surgical techniques risks are related to tumor relationships with adjacent anatomic structures. Complexity of the renal anatomy drives the interest to develop tools for 3D reconstruction and surgery simulation. The aim of the article was to assess the simulation on reconstructed 3D CT scan used for planning the cryoablation. Material & Method: A prospective randomized study was performed between Jan. 2007 and July 2009 on 27 patients who underwent retroperitoneoscopic T1a renal tumors cryoablation (RC. All patients were assessed preoperatively by CT scan, also used for 3D volume rendering. In the Gr.A, the patients underwent surgery planning by simulation on 3D CT scan. In the Gr.B., patients underwent standard RC. The two groups were compared in terms of surgical time, bleeding, postoperative drainage, analgesics requirement, hospital stay, time to socio-professional reintegration. Results: Fourteen patients underwent preoperative cryoablation planning (Gr.A and 13 patients underwent standard CR (Gr.B. All parameters analyzed were shorter in the Gr.A. On multivariate logistic regression, only shortens of the surgical time (138.79±5.51 min. in Gr.A. vs. 140.92±5.54 min in Gr.B. and bleeding (164.29±60.22 mL in Gr.A. vs. 215.38±100.80 mL in Gr.B. achieved statistical significance (p<0.05. The number of cryoneedles assessed by simulation had a 92.52% accuracy when compared with those effectively used. Conclusions: Simulation of the cryoablation using reconstructed 3D CT scan improves the surgical results. The application used for simulation was able to accurately assess the number of cryoneedles required for tumor ablation, their direction and approach.
An Object-Oriented Simulator for 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System
Saeed Seyyedi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM values.
WANG Xin-yun; GUO Zhi-feng; QINWen-hans; SUN Guo-qing
2011-01-01
It is difficulties for the computer simulation method to study radiation regime at large-scale.Simplified coniferous model was investigated in the present study.It makes the computer simulation methods such as L-systems and radiosity-graphics combined method (RGM) more powerful in remote sensing of heterogeneous coniferous forests over a large-scale region.L-systems is applied to render 3-D coniferous forest scenarios,and RGM model was used to calculate BRF (bidirectional reflectance factor) in visible and near-infrared regions.Results in this study show that in most cases both agreed well Meanwhile at a tree and forest level,the results are also good.
Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.
2014-01-01
Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (3D) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex 3D flows in Eta Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to constrain the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in Eta Car. We use the SimpleX algorithm to post-process the output from 3D SPH simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species constrain the regions where the observed forbidden emission lines can form. Including collisional ionization is necessary to achieve a better description of the ionization states, especially in the areas shielded from the secondary's radiation. We find that reducing the primary's mass-loss rate increases the volume of ionized gas, creating larger areas where the forbidden emission lines can form. We conclude that post processing 3D SPH data with SimpleX is a viable tool to create ionization maps for Eta Car.
3D CFD Simulations of MOCVD Synthesis System of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
Siti Hajar Othman; Suraya Abdul Rashid; Tinia Idaty Mohd Ghazi; Norhafizah Abdullah
2013-01-01
This paper presents the 3-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation study of metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) producing photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. It aims to provide better understanding of the MOCVD synthesis system especially of deposition process of TiO2 nanoparticles as well as fluid dynamics inside the reactor. The simulated model predicts temperature, velocity, gas streamline, mass fraction of reactants and products, kinetic...
Finite Volume Particle Method for 3-D Elasto-Plastic Solid Simulation
Jahanbakhsh, Ebrahim; Vessaz, Christian; Avellan, François
2014-01-01
Finite Volume Particle Method was successfully used to predict fluid flow behavior for 2-D simulations. In this paper, we present a FVPM which is applicable for 3-D solid mechanics simulations. This method features rectangular top-hat kernels for computing the interaction vectors exactly and efficiently. We employed this method to solve the elasto-plastic constitutive equations. To validate the model, we study the impact of rigid spherical particle to the solid surface with different velociti...
Neutron-induced complex reaction analysis with 3D nuclear track simulation
Complex (multiple) etched tracks are analysed through digitised images and 3D simulation by a purpose-built algorithm. From a binary track image an unfolding procedure is followed to generate a 3D track model, from which several track parameters are estimated. The method presented here allows the deposited energy, that originated from particle fragmentation or carbon spallation by means of induced tracks in commercially available PADC detectors, to be estimated. Results of evaluated nuclear tracks related to 12C (n,3αn') reaction are presented here. The detectors were exposed on the ISS in 2001
3D FEM Simulation of Rolling Load Working on Piercer Plug in Mannesmann Piercing Process
Yoshida, Motohisa
2010-06-01
This paper presents 3D FEM simulation of piercer plug in Mannesmann piercing process. Target is establishment of a virtual piercing experiment tool to assistant piercer plug development. FEM simulation analysis has been applied to Mannesmann piercing process previously. Aspect of those studies is how to simulate material flow in piercing process, especially focused on how to describe ductile fracture which is known as Mannesmann effect. Thus far, simulation of rolling tools has not been focused. Present piercer plugs, made of special alloys, are damaged severely and quickly in case of piercing higher Cr contented alloys in seamless steel tube production process. Therefore, development of FEM simulation on rolling tools has been demanded in production side. 3D FEM analysis of piercer plug is performed with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian—Eulerian) method by using ABAQUS/Explicit 6.9. Simulations are thermo-mechanical, elasto-plastic coupled, and dynamic calculation. Piercer plug and the billet are modeled by solid elements to analyze various factors on stress, strain and temperature. Ductile fracture is not considered in the simulations. Simulation results are correlated sufficiently to experimental results on damage of piercer plugs. Verifying absolute value of simulated factors is hard since there are few empirical methods to measure them. As a conclusion, studied simulations are sufficient as a virtual piercing experiment tool to develop higher performance piercer plugs.
As part of its activity, EDF R and D is developing a new nuclear core simulation code named COCAGNE. This code relies on DIABOLO, a Simplified PN (SPN) method to compute the neutron flux inside the core for eigenvalue calculations. In order to assess the accuracy of SPN calculations, we have developed DOMINO, a new 3D Cartesian SN solver. The parallel implementation of DOMINO is very efficient and allows to complete an eigenvalue calculation involving around 300 x 109 degrees of freedom within a few hours on a single shared-memory supercomputing node. This computation corresponds to a 26-group S8 3D PWR core model used to assess the SPN accuracy. At the pin level, the maximal error for the SP5 DIABOLO fission production rate is lower than 0.2% compared to the S8 DOMINO reference for this 3D PWR core model. (authors)
Courau, T.; Moustafa, S.; Plagne, L.; Poncot, A. [EDF R and D, 1, Av du General de Gaulle, F92141 Clamart cedex (France)
2013-07-01
As part of its activity, EDF R and D is developing a new nuclear core simulation code named COCAGNE. This code relies on DIABOLO, a Simplified PN (SPN) method to compute the neutron flux inside the core for eigenvalue calculations. In order to assess the accuracy of SPN calculations, we have developed DOMINO, a new 3D Cartesian SN solver. The parallel implementation of DOMINO is very efficient and allows to complete an eigenvalue calculation involving around 300 x 10{sup 9} degrees of freedom within a few hours on a single shared-memory supercomputing node. This computation corresponds to a 26-group S{sub 8} 3D PWR core model used to assess the SPN accuracy. At the pin level, the maximal error for the SP{sub 5} DIABOLO fission production rate is lower than 0.2% compared to the S{sub 8} DOMINO reference for this 3D PWR core model. (authors)
3D dynamic simulation of crack propagation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Some experimental observations of Shock Wave Lithotripsy(SWL), which include 3D dynamic crack propagation, are simulated with the aim of reproducing fragmentation of kidney stones with SWL. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of kidney stones by focusing an ultrasonic pressure pulse onto the stones. 3D models with fine discretization are used to accurately capture the high amplitude shear shock waves. For solving the resulting large scale dynamic crack propagation problem, PDS-FEM is used; it provides numerically efficient failure treatments. With a distributed memory parallel code of PDS-FEM, experimentally observed 3D photoelastic images of transient stress waves and crack patterns in cylindrical samples are successfully reproduced. The numerical crack patterns are in good agreement with the experimental ones, quantitatively. The results shows that the high amplitude shear waves induced in solid, by the lithotriptor generated shock wave, play a dominant role in stone fragmentation.
Simulations of 3D-Si sensors for the innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade
Baselga, Marta; Quirion, David
2016-01-01
The LHC is expected to reach luminosities up to 3000fb-1 and the innermost layer of the ATLAS upgrade plans to cope with higher occupancy and to decrease the pixel size. 3D-Si sensors are a good candidate for the innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade since they exhibit good performance under high fluences and the new designs will have smaller pixel size to fulfill the electronics expectations. This paper reports TCAD simulations of the 3D-Si sensors designed at IMB-CNM with non passing-through columns that are being fabricated for the next innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade, shows the charge collection response before and after irradiation, and the response of 3D-Si sensors located at large $\\eta$ angles.
Jung, Jaewoon; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Sugita, Yuji
2016-03-01
Three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (3D FFT) plays an important role in a wide variety of computer simulations and data analyses, including molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this study, we develop hybrid (MPI+OpenMP) parallelization schemes of 3D FFT based on two new volumetric decompositions, mainly for the particle mesh Ewald (PME) calculation in MD simulations. In one scheme, (1d_Alltoall), five all-to-all communications in one dimension are carried out, and in the other, (2d_Alltoall), one two-dimensional all-to-all communication is combined with two all-to-all communications in one dimension. 2d_Alltoall is similar to the conventional volumetric decomposition scheme. We performed benchmark tests of 3D FFT for the systems with different grid sizes using a large number of processors on the K computer in RIKEN AICS. The two schemes show comparable performances, and are better than existing 3D FFTs. The performances of 1d_Alltoall and 2d_Alltoall depend on the supercomputer network system and number of processors in each dimension. There is enough leeway for users to optimize performance for their conditions. In the PME method, short-range real-space interactions as well as long-range reciprocal-space interactions are calculated. Our volumetric decomposition schemes are particularly useful when used in conjunction with the recently developed midpoint cell method for short-range interactions, due to the same decompositions of real and reciprocal spaces. The 1d_Alltoall scheme of 3D FFT takes 4.7 ms to simulate one MD cycle for a virus system containing more than 1 million atoms using 32,768 cores on the K computer.
Simulation of bootstrap current in 2D and 3D ideal magnetic fields in tokamaks
Raghunathan, M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Pedro, M.; Sauter, O.
2016-09-01
We aim to simulate the bootstrap current for a MAST-like spherical tokamak using two approaches for magnetic equilibria including externally caused 3D effects such as resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), the effect of toroidal ripple, and intrinsic 3D effects such as non-resonant internal kink modes. The first approach relies on known neoclassical coefficients in ideal MHD equilibria, using the Sauter (Sauter et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2834) expression valid for all collisionalities in axisymmetry, and the second approach being the quasi-analytic Shaing–Callen (Shaing and Callen 1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3315) model in the collisionless regime for 3D. Using the ideal free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic code VMEC, we compute the flux-surface averaged bootstrap current density, with the Sauter and Shaing–Callen expressions for 2D and 3D ideal MHD equilibria including an edge pressure barrier with the application of resonant magnetic perturbations, and equilibria possessing a saturated non-resonant 1/1 internal kink mode with a weak internal pressure barrier. We compare the applicability of the self-consistent iterative model on the 3D applications and discuss the limitations and advantages of each bootstrap current model for each type of equilibrium.
Twisting Rolls. Heuristic Model and 3D Numerical Simulation of Vortex Patterns
Bouali, S
2003-01-01
We connect an appropriate feedback loop to a model of 2D vertical eddy of airflow which unfolds a wide range of vorticity behavior. Computational fluid dynamics of the twisted roll display a class of long lifespan 3D vortices. On the one hand, the infinitely stable columnar vortex simulated describes waterspouts and tornadoes with extended lifetime. On the other hand, a light modification of the retroaction exhibits strong similarities to tropical cyclones. Moreover, we investigate the outcome of the twisting process vertically shifted. This modelisation leads to the simulation of simultaneous vortices associated to this other class of 3D vortices with short lifespan. Our heuristic dynamical systems lay the foundations of a comprehensive modelisation of vortices since it joins numerical simulations and theory.
Numerical Simulation of Injection Molding Cooling Process Based on 3D Surface Model
CUIShu-biao; ZHOUHua-min; LIDe-qun
2004-01-01
The design of the coohng system of injection molds directly affects both productivity and the quality of the final part. Using the cooling process CAE system to instruct the mold design, the efficiency and quality of design can be improved greatly. At the same time, it is helpful to confirm the cooling system structure and optimize the process conditions. In this paper, the 3D surface model of mold cavity is used to replace the middle-plane model in the simulation by Boundary Element Method, which break the bottleneck of the application of the injection molding simulation softwares base on the middle-plane model. With the improvements of this paper, a practical and commercial simulation software of injection molding cooling process named as HsCAE3D6.0 is developed.
Fast error simulation of optical 3D measurements at translucent objects
Lutzke, P.; Kühmstedt, P.; Notni, G.
2012-09-01
The scan results of optical 3D measurements at translucent objects deviate from the real objects surface. This error is caused by the fact that light is scattered in the objects volume and is not exclusively reflected at its surface. A few approaches were made to separate the surface reflected light from the volume scattered. For smooth objects the surface reflected light is dominantly concentrated in specular direction and could only be observed from a point in this direction. Thus the separation either leads to measurement results only creating data for near specular directions or provides data from not well separated areas. To ensure the flexibility and precision of optical 3D measurement systems for translucent materials it is necessary to enhance the understanding of the error forming process. For this purpose a technique for simulating the 3D measurement at translucent objects is presented. A simple error model is shortly outlined and extended to an efficient simulation environment based upon ordinary raytracing methods. In comparison the results of a Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. Only a few material and object parameters are needed for the raytracing simulation approach. The attempt of in-system collection of these material and object specific parameters is illustrated. The main concept of developing an error-compensation method based on the simulation environment and the collected parameters is described. The complete procedure is using both, the surface reflected and the volume scattered light for further processing.
3-D land subsidence simulation using the NDIS package for MODFLOW
Kang, D. H.; Li, J.
2015-11-01
The standard subsidence package for MODFLOW, MODFLOW-SUB simulates aquifer-system compaction and subsidence assuming that only 1-D-vertical displacement of the aquifer system occurs in response to applied stresses such as drawdowns accompanying groundwater extraction. In the present paper, 3-D movement of an aquifer system in responses to one or more pumping wells is considered using the new aquifer-system deformation package for MODFLOW, NDIS. The simulation of aquifer- system 3-D movement using NDIS was conducted with a stress or hydraulic head dependent specific storage coefficient to simulate nonlinear deformation behavior of aquifer-system sedimentary materials. NDIS's numerical simulation for aquifer horizontal movement is consistent with an analytic solution for horizontal motion in response to pumping from a leaky confined aquifer (Li, 2007). For purposes of comparison, vertical subsidence of the aquifer system in response to groundwater pumping is simulated by the both the NDIS and MODFLOW-SUB models. The results of the simulations show that land subsidence simulated by MODFLOW-SUB is significantly larger and less sensitive to pumping rate and time than that simulated by NDIS. The NDIS simulations also suggest that if the total pumpage is the same, pumping from a single well may induce more land subsidence than pumping from multiple wells.
The simulation of 3D microcalcification clusters in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis
Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D models of microcalcification clusters and describes the validation of their realistic appearance when simulated into 2D digital mammograms and into breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: A micro-CT unit was used to scan 23 breast biopsy specimens of microcalcification clusters with malignant and benign characteristics and their 3D reconstructed datasets were segmented to obtain 3D models of microcalcification clusters. These models were then adjusted for the x-ray spectrum used and for the system resolution and simulated into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. Six radiologists were asked to distinguish between 40 real and 40 simulated clusters of microcalcifications in two separate studies on 2D mammography and tomosynthesis datasets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to test the ability of each observer to distinguish between simulated and real microcalcification clusters. The kappa statistic was applied to assess how often the individual simulated and real microcalcification clusters had received similar scores (''agreement'') on their realistic appearance in both modalities. This analysis was performed for all readers and for the real and the simulated group of microcalcification clusters separately. ''Poor'' agreement would reflect radiologists' confusion between simulated and real clusters, i.e., lesions not systematically evaluated in both modalities as either simulated or real, and would therefore be interpreted as a success of the present models. Results: The area under the ROC curve, averaged over the observers, was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [0.44, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.46 (95% confidence interval [0.29, 0.64]) for the tomosynthesis study, indicating no statistically significant difference between real and simulated
Simulation and laboratory test results of 3D CMS pixel detectors for HL-LHC
Alagoz, E.; Bubna, M.; Krzywda, A.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Povoli, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Solano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Arndt, K.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Boscardin, M.; Kwan, S.; Rivera, R.; Shipsey, I.; Uplegger, L.
2012-08-01
The CMS pixel detector is the innermost tracking device at the LHC, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The current planar sensors located in the innermost layer of the pixel detector will be exposed to very high fluences which will degrade their performances. As a possible replacement for planar pixel sensors in the High Luminosity-LHC (HL-LHC), 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its expected good performance in harsh radiation environments. Studies are also in progress for using 3D silicon pixel detectors in near-beam proton spectrometers at the LHC. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) plays a key role in fabricating 3D silicon detectors in which readout and ohmic electrodes are processed through the silicon substrate instead of being implanted on the silicon surface. 3D pixel devices considered in this study were processed at FBK (Trento, Italy), bump bonded to the CMS pixel readout chip, and characterized in the laboratory. Numerical simulations were also carried out. We report on selected results from laboratory measurements and TCAD simulations.
Capability of coupled 3-D neutronics/thermalhydraulic models to simulate spatial-time effects
Last advancements in computer technology made possible the incorporation on full three-dimensional reactor core model into system transient codes. Best-estimate simulations of interactions between reactor core behavior and plant dynamics have been allowed with 3D neutronics/thermalhydraulic coupled codes. Among these codes, the RELAP5-3D has been applied to the Main Steam Line Break accident to perform three-dimensional core behavior analysis. The advantage of using a 3-D neutronics/thermalhydraulic codes is more evident in the study of strongly asymmetric transient for which simple neutron point kinetic and 1-D thermalhydraulic models are not able to provide an acceptable physical representation of the phenomena that occur in the core. The main objective of this document is to demonstrate the capability to simulated complex spatial-time effects with 3-D coupled codes. Different core nodalizations and coupling schemes have been set up. This has shown that the methodology adopted and the computational tools allow accounting for different detail levels in the core representation. (author)
3D thermal modeling of TRISO fuel coupled with neutronic simulation
Hu, Jianwei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uddin, Rizwan [UNIV OF ILLINIOS
2010-01-01
The Very High Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR) is widely considered as one of the top candidates identified in the Next Generation Nuclear Power-plant (NGNP) Technology Roadmap under the U.S . Depanment of Energy's Generation IV program. TRlSO particle is a common element among different VHTR designs and its performance is critical to the safety and reliability of the whole reactor. A TRISO particle experiences complex thermo-mechanical changes during reactor operation in high temperature and high burnup conditions. TRISO fuel performance analysis requires evaluation of these changes on micro scale. Since most of these changes are temperature dependent, 3D thermal modeling of TRISO fuel is a crucial step of the whole analysis package. In this paper, a 3D numerical thermal model was developed to calculate temperature distribution inside TRISO and pebble under different scenarios. 3D simulation is required because pebbles or TRISOs are always subjected to asymmetric thermal conditions since they are randomly packed together. The numerical model was developed using finite difference method and it was benchmarked against ID analytical results and also results reported from literature. Monte-Carlo models were set up to calculate radial power density profile. Complex convective boundary condition was applied on the pebble outer surface. Three reactors were simulated using this model to calculate temperature distribution under different power levels. Two asymmetric boundary conditions were applied to the pebble to test the 3D capabilities. A gas bubble was hypothesized inside the TRISO kernel and 3D simulation was also carried out under this scenario. Intuition-coherent results were obtained and reported in this paper.
Real-time 3D radiation risk assessment supporting simulation of work in nuclear environments
This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation’s lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers. IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry. This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors. (paper)
Real-time 3D radiation risk assessment supporting simulation of work in nuclear environments.
Szőke, I; Louka, M N; Bryntesen, T R; Bratteli, J; Edvardsen, S T; RøEitrheim, K K; Bodor, K
2014-06-01
This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation's lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers.IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry.This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors. PMID:24727389
Characteristics of tumor and host cells in 3-D simulated microgravity environment
Chopra, V.; Dinh, T.; Wood, T.; Pellis, N.; Hannigan, E.
Co-cultures of three-dimensional (3-D) constructs of one cell type with dispersed cells of a second cell type in low-shear rotating suspension cultures in simulated microgravity environment have been used to investigate invasive properties of normal and malignant cell types. We have shown that the epithelial and endothelial cells undergo a switch in characteristics when grown in an in vitro 3-D environment, that mimics the in vivo host environment as compared with conventional two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer cultures. Histological preparations and immunohistochemical staining procedures of cocultured harvests demonstrated various markers of interest: like collagen vimentin, mucin, elastin, fibrin, fibrinogen, cytokeratin, adhesion molecules and various angiogenic factors by tumor cells from gynecological cancer patients along with fibroblasts, endothelial cells and patient-derived mononuclear cells (n=8). The growth rate was enhanced 10-15 folds by 3-D cocultures of patient-derived cells as compared with 2-D monolayer cultures and 3-D monocultures. The production of interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin -8, vascular endothelial cell growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and angiogenin was studied by using ELISA and RT- PCR. Human umbilical vein-derived endothelial cell (HUVEC) were used to study the mitogenic response of the conditioned medium collected from 3-D monocultures and cocultures during proliferation and migration assays. The conditioned medium collected from 3-D cocultures of cancer cells also 1) increased the expression of message levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor flt-1 and KDR was observed by HUVEC, and 2) increased the expression of intracellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules on the surface of HUVEC, when measured by using Live cell ELISA assays and immunofluorescent staining as compared with 3-D monocultures of normal epithelial cells. There was an increase in production of 1) enzymatic activity that
Clementel, N; Kruip, C J H; Icke, V; Gull, T R
2014-01-01
Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (3D) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex 3D flows in $\\eta$ Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to constrain the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in $\\eta$ Car. We use the SimpleX algorithm to post-process the output from 3D SPH simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species constrain the regions where the observed forbidde...
The Surface of Stellar Models - Now with more 3D simulations!
Trampedach Regner
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We have constructed a grid of 3D hydrodynamic simulations of deep convective and line-blanketed atmospheres. We have developed a new consistent method for computing and employing T(τ relations from these simulations, as surface boundary conditions for 1D stellar structure models. These 1D models have, in turn, had their mixing-length, α, calibrated against the averaged structure of each of the simulations. Both α and T(τ vary significantly with Teff and log g.
3D Simulations of MHD Jet Propagation Through Uniform and Stratified External Environments
O'Neill, S. M.; Tregillis, I. L.; Jones, T. W.; Ryu, Dongsu
2005-01-01
We present a set of high-resolution 3D MHD simulations of steady light, supersonic jets, exploring the influence of jet Mach number and the ambient medium on jet propagation and energy deposition over long distances. The results are compared to simple self-similar scaling relations for the morphological evolution of jet-driven structures and to previously published 2D simulations. For this study we simulated the propagation of light jets with internal Mach numbers 3 and 12 to lengths exceedin...
Determination of key parameters of SEU occurrence using 3-D full cell SRAM simulations
A 3-D entire SRAM cell, based on a 0.35-microm current CMOS technology, is simulated in this work with a DEVICE simulator. The transient current, resulting from a heavy ion strike in the most sensitive region of the cell, is studied as a function of the LET value, the cell layout and the ion penetration depth. A definition of the critical charge is proposed and two new methods are presented to compute this basic amount of charge only using SPICE simulations. Numerical applications are performed with two different generations of submicron CMOS technologies, including the determination of the sensitive thicknesses
3D full-loop simulation of an industrial-scale circulating fluidized boiler
Lu, Bona; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Wei; Li, Jinghai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Multi-phase Complex Systems
2013-07-01
In this study, 3D full-loop simulations of a CFB boiler are carried out. FLUENT {sup registered} 6.3 is used as the solver, where an Eulerian multiphase model with EMMS-based drag model is employed. The wide particle size distribution are considered and divided into several groups to better represent the polydisperse behavior of ash particles. The simulation shows that, compared to the conventional drag model, EMMS-based model predicts more reasonable pressure drop of furnace and larger slip velocity at the lower elevations of the furnace. Further work is under way to improve the full-loop simulation.
3D modeling and simulation of 2G HTS stacks and coils
Use of 2G HTS coated conductors in several power applications has become popular in recent years. Their large current density under high magnetic fields makes them suitable candidates for high power capacity applications such as stacks of tapes, coils, magnets, cables and current leads. For this reason, modeling and simulation of their electromagnetic properties is very desirable in the design and optimization processes. For many applications, when symmetries allow it, simple models consisting of 1D or 2D representations are well suited for providing a satisfying description of the problem at hand. However, certain designs such as racetrack coils and finite-length or non-straight stacks, do pose a 3D problem that cannot be easily reduced to a 2D configuration. Full 3D models have been developed, but their use for simulating superconducting devices is a very challenging task involving a large-scale computational problem. In this work, we present a new method to simulate the electromagnetic transient behavior of 2G HTS stacks and coils. The method, originally used to model stacks of straight superconducting tapes or circular coils in 2D, is now extended to 3D. The main idea is to construct an anisotropic bulk-like equivalent for the stack or coil, such that the geometrical layout of the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and substrate layers is reduced while keeping the overall electromagnetic behavior of the original device. Besides the aforementioned interest in modeling and simulating 2G HTS coated conductors, this work provides a further step towards efficient 3D modeling and simulation of superconducting devices for large-scale applications. (paper)
Holzreuter, R
2013-01-01
We investigate the effects of horizontal radiative transfer (RT) a NLTE on important diagnostic iron lines in a realistic 3-D HD simulation. Using a multi-level atom we compute and compare widely used Fe I line profiles at 3 different levels of approximation (3-D NLTE, 1-D NLTE, LTE). We find that the influence of horizontal RT is of the same order of magnitude as that of NLTE, although spatially more localized. Also, depending on the temperature of the surroundings, horizontal RT is found to weaken or strengthen spectral lines. Line depths and equivalent width may differ by up to 20% against the corresponding LTE value if 3-D RT is applied. Residual intensity contrasts in LTE are found to be larger than those in 3-D NLTE by up to a factor of two. When compared to 1-D NLTE, we find that horizontal RT weakens the contrast by up to 30% almost independently of the angle of line of sight. While the CLV of the 1-D and 3-D NLTE contrasts are of similar form, the LTE contrast CLV shows a different run. The determina...
On 3D simulation of moving objects in a digital earth system
2008-01-01
"How do the rescue helicopters find out an optimized path to arrive at the site of a disaster as soon as possible?" or "How are the flight procedures over mountains and plateaus simulated?" and so on.In this paper a script language on spatial moving objects is presented by abstracting 3D spatial moving objects’ behavior when implementing moving objects simulation in 3D digital Earth scene,which is based on a platform of digital China named "ChinaStar".The definition of this script language,its morphology and syntax,its compiling and mediate language generating,and the behavior and state control of spatial moving objects are discussed emphatically.In addition,the language’s applications and implementation are also discussed.
3D Kinetic Simulations of Topography-Induced Electric Fields at Itokawa Asteroid
Zimmerman, M. I.
2015-12-01
Results from a new 3D kinetic simulation code will be presented, showing how Itokawa's interaction with the solar wind plasma creates an ever-evolving electric field structure as the asteroid rotates. The simulations combine (1) a realistic surface shape model of Itokawa, (2) a careful and self-consistent accounting of surface charging processes, and (3) the freely-available FMMLib3d code library implementing the fast multipole method for electric field calculations. Fine details of the surface potential and electric grounding conditions, as revealed by this new code, could provide critical inputs into planning for a future asteroid retrieval mission in which extended, direct contact with the asteroid could occur.
Stability of 3D Textile Composite Reinforcement Simulations: Solutions to Spurious Transverse Modes
Mathieu, S.; Hamila, N.; Dupé, F.; Descamps, C.; Boisse, P.
2016-08-01
The simulation of thick 3D composite reinforcement forming brings to light new modeling challenges. The specific anisotropic material behavior due to the possible slippage between fibers induces, among other phenomena, the development of spurious transverse modes in bending-dominated 3D simulations. To obtain coherent finite element responses, two solutions are proposed. The first one uses a simple assumed strain formulation usually prescribed to prevent volumetric locking. This solution avoids spurious transverse modes by stiffening of the hourglass modes. Nevertheless the deformation obtained by this approach still suffers from the inability of the standard continuum mechanics of Cauchy to describe fibrous material deformation. The second proposed approach is based on the introduction of a bending stiffness which both avoids the spurious transverse modes and also improves the global behavior of the element formulation by enriching the underlying continuum. To emphasize the differences between different formulations, element stiffnesses are explicitly calculated and compared.
3D COMPUTER SIMULATION FOR LIGNIFICATION OF ANCIENT CHINESE TIMBER BUILDINGS
无
2001-01-01
A pioneer research work was carried out by investigators engaged in surveying and mapping for describing ancient Chinese timber buildings by 3D frame graphs w ith a computer.Users can know the structural layers and the assembly process of the se buildings if the frame graphs are processed further with a computer model.Th is can be implemented by computer simulation technique.This technique display t he raw data on the screen of a computer and interactively manage them by combini ng technologies from computer graphics and image processing,multi-media technol ogy,artificial intelligence,highly parallel real-time computation technique an d human behavior science.This paper presents the implementing procedure of ligni fi cation simulation for large-sized wooden buildings as well as 3D dynamic assembl y of these buildings under the 3DS MAX environment.The results from computer sim ulation are also shown in the paper.
Stability of 3D Textile Composite Reinforcement Simulations: Solutions to Spurious Transverse Modes
Mathieu, S.; Hamila, N.; Dupé, F.; Descamps, C.; Boisse, P.
2016-03-01
The simulation of thick 3D composite reinforcement forming brings to light new modeling challenges. The specific anisotropic material behavior due to the possible slippage between fibers induces, among other phenomena, the development of spurious transverse modes in bending-dominated 3D simulations. To obtain coherent finite element responses, two solutions are proposed. The first one uses a simple assumed strain formulation usually prescribed to prevent volumetric locking. This solution avoids spurious transverse modes by stiffening of the hourglass modes. Nevertheless the deformation obtained by this approach still suffers from the inability of the standard continuum mechanics of Cauchy to describe fibrous material deformation. The second proposed approach is based on the introduction of a bending stiffness which both avoids the spurious transverse modes and also improves the global behavior of the element formulation by enriching the underlying continuum. To emphasize the differences between different formulations, element stiffnesses are explicitly calculated and compared.
Pumping simulations using 3D FEM analysis on multi-pumping wells
Shuhei, KOTANI; Takahumi, KITAOKA; Makoto, NAKAMURA; Harushige, KUSUMI; 楠見, 晴重
2011-01-01
In this research, we chiefly conducted on-site measurement and analysis to examine how the pumping wells influence groundwater behavior. We established a 3D model for groundwater and make suggestions for the adequate management of the groundwater by a pumping simulation analysis. As a result, it can be seen from our research that the fluctuation of water level caused by group wells has been reproduced accurately by using our model.
Non-crimp 3D woven composites unit cell: from geometric modelling to damage simulation
Bedogni, Enrico
2013-01-01
In the last twenty years, the research on composite materials has increased and many progresses have been made. However, there are still unresolved issues concerning the geometric modelling of a material at the meso-level (i.e. on a unit cell) and its damage simulation. In particular, the complexity of the internal geometry of some composite materials, such as 3D textiles, yields to new challenges for the research community. A correct definition of the internal structure in all the important ...
Twisting Rolls. An Heuristic Model and 3D Numerical Simulations of Vortex Patterns
Bouali, Safieddine
2003-01-01
We connect an appropriate feedback loop to a model of 2D vertical eddy of airflow which unfolds a wide range of vorticity behavior. Computational fluid dynamics of the twisted roll display a class of long lifespan 3D vortices. On the one hand, the infinitely stable columnar vortex simulated describes waterspouts and tornadoes with extended lifetime. On the other hand, a light modification of the retroaction exhibits strong similarities to tropical cyclones. Moreover, we investigate the outcom...
3D MHD simulations of pellet injection and disruptions in tokamak plasmas
Nonlinear MHD simulation results of pellet injection show that MHD forces can accelerate large pellets, injected on the high field side of a tokamak, to the plasma center. Magnetic reconnection can produce a reverse shear q profile. Ballooning instability caused by pellets is also reduced by high field side injection. Studies are also reported of the current quench phase of disruptions, which can cause 3D halo currents and runaway electrons. (author)
3D simulation of Industrial Hall in case of fire. Benchmark between ABAQUS, ANSYS and SAFIR
Vassart, Olivier; Cajot, Louis-Guy; O'Connor, Marc; Shenkai, Y.; Fraud, C.; Zhao, Bin; De la Quintana, Jesus; Martinez de Aragon, J.; Franssen, Jean-Marc; Gens, Frederic
2004-01-01
For simple storey buildings, the structural behaviour in case of fire is relevant only for the safety of the firemen. The protection of occupants and goods is a matter of fire spread, smoke propagation, active fire fighting measures and evacuation facilities. Brittle failure, progressive collapse and partial failure of façades elements outwards may endanger the fire fighters and have to be avoided. In order to deal with such an objective, the simulation softwares has to cover the 3D structura...
BioFVM: an efficient, parallelized diffusive transport solver for 3-D biological simulations
Ghaffarizadeh, Ahmadreza; Friedman, Samuel H.; Macklin, Paul
2015-01-01
Motivation: Computational models of multicellular systems require solving systems of PDEs for release, uptake, decay and diffusion of multiple substrates in 3D, particularly when incorporating the impact of drugs, growth substrates and signaling factors on cell receptors and subcellular systems biology. Results: We introduce BioFVM, a diffusive transport solver tailored to biological problems. BioFVM can simulate release and uptake of many substrates by cell and bulk sources, diffusion and de...
The Idea and Concept of Metos3D: A Marine Ecosystem Toolkit for Optimization and Simulation in 3D
Piwonski, Jaroslaw
2014-01-01
The simulation and parameter optimization of coupled ocean circulation and ecosystem models in three space dimensions is one of the most challenging tasks in numerical climate research. Here we present a scientific toolkit that aims at supporting researchers by defining clear coupling interfaces, providing state-of-the-art numerical methods for simulation, parallelization and optimization while using only freely available and (to a great extend) platform-independent software. Besides defining a user-friendly coupling interface (API) for marine ecosystem or biogeochemical models, we heavily rely on the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific computation (PETSc) developed at Argonne Nat. Lab. for a wide variety of parallel linear and non-linear solvers and optimizers. We specifically focus on the usage of matrix-free Newton-Krylov methods for the fast computation of steady periodic solutions, and make use of the Transport Matrix Method (TMM) introduced by Khatiwala et al.
3D flow past transonic turbine cascade SE 1050 — Experiment and numerical simulations
Šimurda, D.; Fürst, J.; Luxa, M.
2013-08-01
This paper is concerned with experimental and numerical research on 3D flow past prismatic turbine cascade SE1050 (known in QNET network as open test case SE1050). The primary goal was to assess the influence of the inlet velocity profile on the flow structures in the interblade channel and on the flow field parameters at the cascade exit and to compare these findings to results of numerical simulations. Investigations of 3D flow past the cascade with non-uniform inlet velocity profile were carried out both experimentally and numerically at subsonic ( M 2is = 0.8) and at transonic ( M 2is = 1.2) regime at design angle of incidence. Experimental data was obtained using a traversing device with a five-hole conical probe. Numerically, the 3D flow was simulated by open source code OpenFOAM and in-house code. Analyses of experimental data and CFD simulations have revealed the development of distinctive vortex structures resulting from non-uniform inlet velocity profile. Origin of these structures results in increased loss of kinetic energy and spanwise shift of kinetic energy loss coefficient distribution. Differences found between the subsonic and the transonic case confirm earlier findings available in the literature. Results of CFD and experiments agree reasonably well.
Modeling and simulating the adaptive electrical properties of stochastic polymeric 3D networks
Memristors are passive two-terminal circuit elements that combine resistance and memory. Although in theory memristors are a very promising approach to fabricate hardware with adaptive properties, there are only very few implementations able to show their basic properties. We recently developed stochastic polymeric matrices with a functionality that evidences the formation of self-assembled three-dimensional (3D) networks of memristors. We demonstrated that those networks show the typical hysteretic behavior observed in the ‘one input-one output’ memristive configuration. Interestingly, using different protocols to electrically stimulate the networks, we also observed that their adaptive properties are similar to those present in the nervous system. Here, we model and simulate the electrical properties of these self-assembled polymeric networks of memristors, the topology of which is defined stochastically. First, we show that the model recreates the hysteretic behavior observed in the real experiments. Second, we demonstrate that the networks modeled indeed have a 3D instead of a planar functionality. Finally, we show that the adaptive properties of the networks depend on their connectivity pattern. Our model was able to replicate fundamental qualitative behavior of the real organic 3D memristor networks; yet, through the simulations, we also explored other interesting properties, such as the relation between connectivity patterns and adaptive properties. Our model and simulations represent an interesting tool to understand the very complex behavior of self-assembled memristor networks, which can finally help to predict and formulate hypotheses for future experiments. (paper)
Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald
2014-03-01
The performance of biomedical optical imaging devices heavily relies on appropriate calibration. However, many of existing calibration phantoms for biomedical optical devices are based on homogenous materials without considering the multi-layer heterogeneous structures observed in biological tissue. Using such a phantom for optical calibration may result in measurement bias. To overcome this problem, we propose a 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of tissue simulating phantoms with multilayer heterogeneous structure. The phantom simulates not only the morphologic characteristics of biological tissue but also absorption and scattering properties. The printing system is based on a 3D motion platform with coordinated control of the DC motors. A special jet nozzle is designed to mix base, scattering, and absorption materials at different ratios. 3D tissue structures are fabricated through layer-by-layer printing with selective deposition of phantom materials of different ingredients. Different mixed ratios of base, scattering and absorption materials have been tested in order to optimize the printing outcome. A spectrometer and a tissue spectrophotometer are used for characterizing phantom absorption and scattering properties. The goal of this project is to fabricate skin tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for the calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.
Three-dimensional parallel UNIPIC-3D code for simulations of high-power microwave devices
Wang, Jianguo; Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui; Liu, Chunliang; Li, Yongdong; Wang, Hongguang; Qiao, Hailiang; Fu, Meiyan; Yuan, Yuan
2010-07-01
This paper introduces a self-developed, three-dimensional parallel fully electromagnetic particle simulation code UNIPIC-3D. In this code, the electromagnetic fields are updated using the second-order, finite-difference time-domain method, and the particles are moved using the relativistic Newton-Lorentz force equation. The electromagnetic field and particles are coupled through the current term in Maxwell's equations. Two numerical examples are used to verify the algorithms adopted in this code, numerical results agree well with theoretical ones. This code can be used to simulate the high-power microwave (HPM) devices, such as the relativistic backward wave oscillator, coaxial vircator, and magnetically insulated line oscillator, etc. UNIPIC-3D is written in the object-oriented C++ language and can be run on a variety of platforms including WINDOWS, LINUX, and UNIX. Users can use the graphical user's interface to create the complex geometric structures of the simulated HPM devices, which can be automatically meshed by UNIPIC-3D code. This code has a powerful postprocessor which can display the electric field, magnetic field, current, voltage, power, spectrum, momentum of particles, etc. For the sake of comparison, the results computed by using the two-and-a-half-dimensional UNIPIC code are also provided for the same parameters of HPM devices, the numerical results computed from these two codes agree well with each other.
3D Numerical Simulation on the Sloshing Waves Excited by the Seismic Shacking
Zhang, Lin; Wu, Tso-Ren
2016-04-01
In the event of 2015 Nepal earthquake, a video clip broadcasted worldwide showed a violent water spilling in a hotel swimming pool. This sloshing phenomenon indicates a potential water loss in the sensitive facilities, e.g. the spent fuel pools in nuclear power plant, has to be taken into account carefully under the consideration of seismic-induced ground acceleration. In the previous studies, the simulation of sloshing mainly focused on the pressure force on the structure by using a simplified Spring-Mass Method developed in the field of solid mechanics. However, restricted by the assumptions of plane water surface and limited wave height, significant error will be made in evaluating the amount of water loss in the tank. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamical model, Splash3D, was adopted for studying the sloshing problem accurately. Splash3D solved 3D Navier-Stokes Equation directly with Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulent closure. The Volume-of-fluid (VOF) method with piecewise linear interface calculation (PLIC) was used to track the complex breaking water surface. The time series acceleration of a design seismic was loaded to excite the water. With few restrictions from the assumptions, the accuracy of the simulation results were improved dramatically. A series model validations were conducted by compared to a 2D theoretical solution, and a 3D experimental data. Good comparisons can be seen. After the validation, we performed the simulation for considering a sloshing case in a rectangular water tank with a dimension of 12 m long, 8 m wide, 8 m deep, which contained water with 7 m in depth. The seismic movement was imported by considering time-series acceleration in three dimensions, which were about 0.5 g to 1.2 g in the horizontal directions, and 0.3 g to 1 g in the vertical direction. We focused the discussions on the kinematics of the water surface, wave breaking, velocity field, pressure field, water force on the side walls, and, most
Experimental validation of a numerical simulation on a ballscrew system by 3D photoelasticity
Germaneau A.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator (THSA system equips the whole airbus line. One component of this system is a ball-screw system on which spalling problems appear on the balls. This phenomenon is mostly due to local high pressures and reduces the service life of the system. 3D numerical simulations are usually used to tackle this kind of problems but are subjected to assumptions. As the aim of the project is to build a numerical model able to predict pressure distribution, these assumptions need to be experimentally assessed to be perfectly relevant of the real load distribution in the ball screw system. Due to the 3D geometry of the specimen, a 3D measurement technique, Scattered Light Photoelasticity (SLP, has been chosen to perform experimental measurements,. Because of complexity of the geometry, the study is divided in three steps; the present paper is dealing with the second one where a demonstrator ball-screw system is manufactured in casted epoxy to perform the SLP. This technique gives information on 3D stress fields inside the epoxy specimen from the analysis of photoelastic fringes. They are compared to numerical ones and indicate whether numerical boundary conditions are relevant of the experimental ball-screw system behaviour.
OptogenSIM: a 3D Monte Carlo simulation platform for light delivery design in optogenetics.
Liu, Yuming; Jacques, Steven L; Azimipour, Mehdi; Rogers, Jeremy D; Pashaie, Ramin; Eliceiri, Kevin W
2015-12-01
Optimizing light delivery for optogenetics is critical in order to accurately stimulate the neurons of interest while reducing nonspecific effects such as tissue heating or photodamage. Light distribution is typically predicted using the assumption of tissue homogeneity, which oversimplifies light transport in heterogeneous brain. Here, we present an open-source 3D simulation platform, OptogenSIM, which eliminates this assumption. This platform integrates a voxel-based 3D Monte Carlo model, generic optical property models of brain tissues, and a well-defined 3D mouse brain tissue atlas. The application of this platform in brain data models demonstrates that brain heterogeneity has moderate to significant impact depending on application conditions. Estimated light density contours can show the region of any specified power density in the 3D brain space and thus can help optimize the light delivery settings, such as the optical fiber position, fiber diameter, fiber numerical aperture, light wavelength and power. OptogenSIM is freely available and can be easily adapted to incorporate additional brain atlases. PMID:26713200
Characterizing the propagation of gravity waves in 3D nonlinear simulations of solar-like stars
Alvan, L.; Strugarek, A.; Brun, A. S.; Mathis, S.; Garcia, R. A.
2015-09-01
Context. The revolution of helio- and asteroseismology provides access to the detailed properties of stellar interiors by studying the star's oscillation modes. Among them, gravity (g) modes are formed by constructive interferences between progressive internal gravity waves (IGWs), propagating in stellar radiative zones. Our new 3D nonlinear simulations of the interior of a solar-like star allows us to study the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of these waves. Aims: The aim of this article is to clarify our understanding of the behavior of IGWs in a 3D radiative zone and to provide a clear overview of their properties. Methods: We use a method of frequency filtering that reveals the path of individual gravity waves of different frequencies in the radiative zone. Results: We are able to identify the region of propagation of different waves in 2D and 3D, to compare them to the linear raytracing theory and to distinguish between propagative and standing waves (g-modes). We also show that the energy carried by waves is distributed in different planes in the sphere, depending on their azimuthal wave number. Conclusions: We are able to isolate individual IGWs from a complex spectrum and to study their propagation in space and time. In particular, we highlight in this paper the necessity of studying the propagation of waves in 3D spherical geometry, since the distribution of their energy is not equipartitioned in the sphere.
Performance of dental students versus prosthodontics residents on a 3D immersive haptic simulator.
Eve, Elizabeth J; Koo, Samuel; Alshihri, Abdulmonem A; Cormier, Jeremy; Kozhenikov, Maria; Donoff, R Bruce; Karimbux, Nadeem Y
2014-04-01
This study evaluated the performance of dental students versus prosthodontics residents on a simulated caries removal exercise using a newly designed, 3D immersive haptic simulator. The intent of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the simulator's construct validity, which in the context of this experiment was defined as its ability to detect a statistically significant performance difference between novice dental students (n=12) and experienced prosthodontics residents (n=14). Both groups received equivalent calibration training on the simulator and repeated the same caries removal exercise three times. Novice and experienced subjects' average performance differed significantly on the caries removal exercise with respect to the percentage of carious lesion removed and volume of surrounding sound tooth structure removed (pimmersive haptic simulator. These results are a first step in establishing the validity of this device. PMID:24706694
Implementation of Headtracking and 3D Stereo with Unity and VRPN for Computer Simulations
Noyes, Matthew A.
2013-01-01
This paper explores low-cost hardware and software methods to provide depth cues traditionally absent in monocular displays. The use of a VRPN server in conjunction with a Microsoft Kinect and/or Nintendo Wiimote to provide head tracking information to a Unity application, and NVIDIA 3D Vision for retinal disparity support, is discussed. Methods are suggested to implement this technology with NASA's EDGE simulation graphics package, along with potential caveats. Finally, future applications of this technology to astronaut crew training, particularly when combined with an omnidirectional treadmill for virtual locomotion and NASA's ARGOS system for reduced gravity simulation, are discussed.
3D CFD simulation of hydrodynamics of a 150 MWe circulating fluidized bed boiler
Nan Zhang; Bona Lu; Wei Wang; Jinghai Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Process Engineering
2010-08-15
An Eulerian granular multiphase model with a drag coefficient based on the energy minimization multi-scale (EMMS) model was used to perform a three-dimensional (3D), full-loop, time-dependent simulation of hydrodynamics of a 150 MWe circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Simulation results were presented in terms of the pressure profile around the whole loop of solids circulation, profiles of solids volume fraction and solids vertical velocity, as well as the non-uniform distribution of solid fluxes into two parallel cyclones.
Simulation of the impact of 3-D porosity distribution in metallic U-10Zr fuels
Yun, Di; Yacout, Abdellatif M.; Stan, Marius; Bauer, Theodore H.; Wright, Arthur E.
2014-05-01
Evolution of porosity generated in metallic U-Zr fuel irradiated in fast spectrum reactors leads to changes in fuel properties and impacts important phenomena such as heat transport and constituent redistribution. The porosity is generated as a result of the accumulation of fission gases and is affected by the possible bond sodium infiltration into the fuel. Typically, the impact of porosity development on properties, such as thermal conductivity, is accounted for through empirical correlations that are dependent on porosity and infiltrated sodium fractions. Currently available simulation tools make it possible to take into account fuel 3-D porosity distributions, potentially eliminating the need for such correlations. This development allows for a more realistic representation of the porosity evolution in metallic fuel and creates a framework for truly mechanistic fuel development models. In this work, COMSOL multi-physics simulation platform is used to model 3-D porosity distributions and simulate heat transport in metallic U-10Zr fuel. Available experimental data regarding microstructural evolution of fuel that was irradiated in EBR-II and associated phase stability information are used to guide the simulation. The impact of changes in porosity characteristics on material properties is estimated and the results are compared with calculated temperature distributions. The simulations demonstrate the developed capability and importance of accounting for detailed porosity distribution features for accurate fuel performance evaluation.
3D Simulation of Velocity Profile of Turbulent Flow in Open Channel with Complex Geometry
Kamel, Benoumessad; Ilhem, Kriba; Ali, Fourar; Abdelbaki, Djebaili
Simulation of open channel flow or river flow presents unique challenge to numerical simulators, which is widely used in the applications of computational fluid dynamics. The prediction is extremely difficult because the flow in open channel is usually transient and turbulent, the geometry is irregular and curved, and the free-surface elevation is varying with time. The results from a 3D non-linear k- ɛ turbulence model are presented to investigate the flow structure, the velocity distribution and mass transport process in a meandering compound open channel and a straight open channel. The 3D numerical model for calculating flow is set up in cylinder coordinates in order to calculate the complex boundary channel. The finite volume method is used to disperse the governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is applied to acquire the coupling of velocity and pressure. The non-linear k- ɛ turbulent model has good useful value because of taking into account the anisotropy and not increasing the computational time. The main contributions of this study are developing a numerical method that can be applied to predict the flow in river bends with various bend curvatures and different width-depth ratios. This study demonstrates that the 3D non-linear k- ɛ turbulence model can be used for analyzing flow structures, the velocity distribution and pollutant transport in the complex boundary open channel, this model is applicable for real river and wetland problem.
Feasibility of the integration of CRONOS, a 3-D neutronics code, into real-time simulators
In its effort to contribute to nuclear power plant safety, CEA proposes the integration of an engineering grade 3-D neutronics code into a real-time plant analyser. This paper describes the capabilities of the neutronics code CRONOS to achieve a fast running performance. First, we will present current core models in simulators and explain their drawbacks. Secondly, the mean features of CRONOS's spatial-kinetics methods will be reviewed. We will then present an optimum core representation with respect to mesh size, choice of finite elements (FE) basis and execution time, for accurate results as well as the multi 1-D thermal-hydraulics (T/H) model developed to take into account 3-D effects in updating the cross-sections. A Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) End-of-Life (EOL) Hot-Zero-Power (HZP) accident will be used as an example, before we conclude with the perspectives of integrating CRONOS's 3-D core model into real-time simulators. (author)
Simulation domain size requirements for elastic response of 3D polycrystalline materials
Ozturk, Tugce; Stein, Clayton; Pokharel, Reeju; Hefferan, Christopher; Tucker, Harris; Jha, Sushant; John, Reji; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Kenesei, Peter; Suter, Robert M.; Rollett, Anthony D.
2016-01-01
A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based spectral algorithm is used to compute the full field mechanical response of polycrystalline microstructures. The field distributions in a specific region are used to determine the sensitivity of the method to the number of surrounding grains through quantification of the divergence of the field values from the largest simulation domain, as successively smaller surrounding volumes are included in the simulation. The analysis considers a mapped 3D structure where the location of interest is taken to be a particular pair of surface grains that enclose a small fatigue crack, and synthetically created statistically representative microstructures to further investigate the effect of anisotropy, loading condition, loading direction, and texture. The synthetic structures are generated via DREAM3D and the measured material is a cyclically loaded, Ni-based, low solvus high refractory (LSHR) superalloy that was characterized via 3D high energy x-ray diffraction microscopy (HEDM). Point-wise comparison of distributions in the grain pairs shows that, in order to obtain a Pearson correlation coefficient larger than 99%, the domain must extend to at least the third nearest neighbor. For an elastic FFT calculation, the stress-strain distributions are not sensitive to the shape of the domain. The main result is that convergence can be specified in terms of the number of grains surrounding a region of interest.
Full Core 3-D Simulation of a Partial MOX LWR Core
S. Bays; W. Skerjanc; M. Pope
2009-05-01
A comparative analysis and comparison of results obtained between 2-D lattice calculations and 3-D full core nodal calculations, in the frame of MOX fuel design, was conducted. This study revealed a set of advantages and disadvantages, with respect to each method, which can be used to guide the level of accuracy desired for future fuel and fuel cycle calculations. For the purpose of isotopic generation for fuel cycle analyses, the approach of using a 2-D lattice code (i.e., fuel assembly in infinite lattice) gave reasonable predictions of uranium and plutonium isotope concentrations at the predicted 3-D core simulation batch average discharge burnup. However, it was found that the 2-D lattice calculation can under-predict the power of pins located along a shared edge between MOX and UO2 by as much as 20%. In this analysis, this error did not occur in the peak pin. However, this was a coincidence and does not rule out the possibility that the peak pin could occur in a lattice position with high calculation uncertainty in future un-optimized studies. Another important consideration in realistic fuel design is the prediction of the peak axial burnup and neutron fluence. The use of 3-D core simulation gave peak burnup conditions, at the pellet level, to be approximately 1.4 times greater than what can be predicted using back-of-the-envelope assumptions of average specific power and irradiation time.
Feasibility of the integration of CRONOS, a 3-D neutronics code, into real-time simulators
Ragusa, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2001-07-01
In its effort to contribute to nuclear power plant safety, CEA proposes the integration of an engineering grade 3-D neutronics code into a real-time plant analyser. This paper describes the capabilities of the neutronics code CRONOS to achieve a fast running performance. First, we will present current core models in simulators and explain their drawbacks. Secondly, the mean features of CRONOS's spatial-kinetics methods will be reviewed. We will then present an optimum core representation with respect to mesh size, choice of finite elements (FE) basis and execution time, for accurate results as well as the multi 1-D thermal-hydraulics (T/H) model developed to take into account 3-D effects in updating the cross-sections. A Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) End-of-Life (EOL) Hot-Zero-Power (HZP) accident will be used as an example, before we conclude with the perspectives of integrating CRONOS's 3-D core model into real-time simulators. (author)
Lorentz boosted frame simulation of Laser wakefield acceleration in quasi-3D geometry
Yu, Peicheng; Davidson, Asher; Tableman, Adam; Dalichaouch, Thamine; Meyers, Michael D; Tsung, Frank S; Decyk, Viktor K; Fiuza, Frederico; Vieira, Jorge; Fonseca, Ricardo A; Lu, Wei; Silva, Luis O; Mori, Warren B
2015-01-01
When modeling laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) using the particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in a Lorentz boosted frame, the plasma is drifting relativistically at $\\beta_b c$ towards the laser, which can lead to a computational speedup of $\\sim \\gamma_b^2=(1-\\beta_b^2)^{-1}$. Meanwhile, when LWFA is modeled in the quasi-3D geometry in which the electromagnetic fields and current are decomposed into a limited number of azimuthal harmonics, speedups are achieved by modeling three dimensional problems with the computation load on the order of two dimensional $r-z$ simulations. Here, we describe how to combine the speed ups from the Lorentz boosted frame and quasi-3D algorithms. The key to the combination is the use of a hybrid Yee-FFT solver in the quasi-3D geometry that can be used to effectively eliminate the Numerical Cerenkov Instability (NCI) that inevitably arises in a Lorentz boosted frame due to the unphysical coupling of Langmuir modes and EM modes of the relativistically drifting plasma in these simul...
Young, R. P.; Collins, D.; Hazzard, J.; Heath, A. [Department of Earth Sciences, Liverpool University, 4 Brownlow street, UK-0 L69 3GP Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pettitt, W.; Baker, C. [Applied Seismology Consultants LTD, 10 Belmont, Shropshire, UK-S41 ITE Shrewsbury (United Kingdom); Billaux, D.; Cundall, P.; Potyondy, D.; Dedecker, F. [Itasca Consultants S.A., Centre Scientifique A. Moiroux, 64, chemin des Mouilles, F69130 Ecully (France); Svemar, C. [Svensk Karnbranslemantering AB, SKB, Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory, PL 300, S-57295 Figeholm (Sweden); Lebon, P. [ANDRA, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 7, rue Jean Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France)
2004-07-01
This paper presents current results from work performed within the European Commission project SAFETI. The main objective of SAFETI is to develop and test an innovative 3D numerical modelling procedure that will enable the 3-D simulation of nuclear waste repositories in rock. The modelling code is called AC/DC (Adaptive Continuum/ Dis-Continuum) and is partially based on Itasca Consulting Group's Particle Flow Code (PFC). Results are presented from the laboratory validation study where algorithms and procedures have been developed and tested to allow accurate 'Models for Rock' to be produced. Preliminary results are also presented on the use of AC/DC with parallel processors and adaptive logic. During the final year of the project a detailed model of the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory will be produced using up to 128 processors on the parallel super computing facility at Liverpool University. (authors)
Application of FUN3D Solver for Aeroacoustics Simulation of a Nose Landing Gear Configuration
Vatsa, Veer N.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
2011-01-01
Numerical simulations have been performed for a nose landing gear configuration corresponding to the experimental tests conducted in the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A widely used unstructured grid code, FUN3D, is examined for solving the unsteady flow field associated with this configuration. A series of successively finer unstructured grids has been generated to assess the effect of grid refinement. Solutions have been obtained on purely tetrahedral grids as well as mixed element grids using hybrid RANS/LES turbulence models. The agreement of FUN3D solutions with experimental data on the same size mesh is better on mixed element grids compared to pure tetrahedral grids, and in general improves with grid refinement.
HEXBU-3D, a three-dimensional PWR-simulator program for hexagonal fuel assemblies
HEXBU-3D is a three-dimensional nodal simulator program for PWR reactors. It is designed for a reactor core that consists of hexagonal fuel assemblies and of big follower-type control assemblies. The program solves two-group diffusion equations in homogenized fuel assembly geometry by a sophisticated nodal method. The treatment of feedback effects from xenon-poisoning, fuel temperature, moderator temperature and density and soluble boron concentration are included in the program. The nodal equations are solved by a fast two-level iteration technique and the eigenvalue can be either the effective multiplication factor or the boron concentration of the moderator. Burnup calculations are performed by tabulated sets of burnup-dependent cross sections evaluated by a cell burnup program. HEXBY-3D has been originally programmed in FORTRAN V for the UNIVAC 1108 computer, but there is also another version which is operable on the CDC CYBER 170 computer. (author)
Numerical simulations of self-propelled swimming of 3D bionic fish school
无
2009-01-01
Numerical simulations of self-propelled swimming of a three dimensional bionic fish and fish school in a viscous fluid are carried out. This is done with the assistance of a parallel software package produced for 3D moving boundary problems. This computational fluid dynamics package combines the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method, the immersed boundary method and VOF (volume of fluid) method. By using the package results of the self-propelled swimming of a 3D bionic fish and fish school in a vis- cous fluid are obtained. With comparison to the existing experimental measurements of living fishes, the predicted structure of vortical wakes is in good agreement with the measurements.
Numerical simulations of self-propelled swimming of 3D bionic fish school
WU ChuiJie; WANG Liang
2009-01-01
Numerical simulations of self-propelled swimming of a three dimensional bionic fish and fish school in a viscous fluid are carried out. This is done with the assistance of a parallel software package producedfor 3D moving boundary problems. This computational fluid dynamics package combines the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method, the immersed boundary method and VOF (volume of fluid) method. By using the package results of the self-propelled swimming of a 3D bionic fish and fish school in a vis cous fluid are obtained. With comparison to the existing experimental measurements of living fishes, the predicted structure of vortical wakes is in good agreement with the measurements.
This paper presents current results from work performed within the European Commission project SAFETI. The main objective of SAFETI is to develop and test an innovative 3D numerical modelling procedure that will enable the 3-D simulation of nuclear waste repositories in rock. The modelling code is called AC/DC (Adaptive Continuum/ Dis-Continuum) and is partially based on Itasca Consulting Group's Particle Flow Code (PFC). Results are presented from the laboratory validation study where algorithms and procedures have been developed and tested to allow accurate 'Models for Rock' to be produced. Preliminary results are also presented on the use of AC/DC with parallel processors and adaptive logic. During the final year of the project a detailed model of the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory will be produced using up to 128 processors on the parallel super computing facility at Liverpool University. (authors)
The current status of the development of the technology on 3D computer simulation in Japan
The development background and property of the COSIDA, which is the 3D computer simulation system for the analysis on the dismantling procedure of the nuclear facilities in Japan was reviewed. The function of the visualization on the work area, Kinematics analysis and dismantling scenario analysis, which are the sub systems of the COSIDA, has been investigated. The physical, geometrical and radiological properties were modelled in 2D or 3D in the sub system of the visualization of the work area. In the sub system of the kinematics analysis, the command set on the basic work procedure for the control of the motion of the models at a cyber space was driven. The suitability of the command set was estimated by the application of COSIDA to the programming on the motion of the remote dismantling tools for dismantling the components of the nuclear facilities at cyber space
3D Finite Volume Simulation of Accretion Discs with Spiral Shocks
Makita, M; Makita, Makoto; Matsuda, Takuya
1998-01-01
We perform 2D and 3D numerical simulations of an accretion disc in a close binary system using the Simplified Flux vector Splitting (SFS) finite volume method. In our calculations, gas is assumed to be the ideal one, and we calculate the cases with gamma=1.01, 1.05, 1.1 and 1.2. The mass ratio of the mass losing star to the mass accreting star is unity. Our results show that spiral shocks are formed on the accretion disc in all cases. In 2D calculations we find that the smaller gamma is, the more tightly the spiral winds. We observe this trend in 3D calculations as well in somewhat weaker sense.
Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-01-01
Three-dimensional melting problems are investigated numerically with Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Regarding algorithm's accuracy and stability, Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) models are employed to simplify the collision term in LBM. Temperature and velocity fields are solved with double distribution functions, respectively. 3-D melting problems are solved with double MRT models for the first time in this article. The key point for the numerical simulation of a melting problem is the methods to obtain the location of the melting front and this article uses interfacial tracking method. The interfacial tracking method combines advantages of both deforming and fixed grid approaches. The location of the melting front was obtained by calculating the energy balance at the solid-liquid interface. Various 3-D conduction controlled melting problems are solved firstly to verify the numerical method. Liquid fraction tendency and temperature distribution obtained from numerical methods agree with the analytical result...
Correlated 3D Nanoscale Mapping and Simulation of Coupled Plasmonic Nanoparticles.
Haberfehlner, Georg; Trügler, Andreas; Schmidt, Franz P; Hörl, Anton; Hofer, Ferdinand; Hohenester, Ulrich; Kothleitner, Gerald
2015-11-11
Electron tomography in combination with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) experiments and simulations was used to unravel the interplay between structure and plasmonic properties of a silver nanocuboid dimer. The precise 3D geometry of the particles fabricated by means of electron beam lithography was reconstructed through electron tomography, and the full three-dimensional information was used as an input for simulations of energy-loss spectra and plasmon resonance maps. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory was found throughout, bringing the comparison between EELS imaging and simulations to a quantitative and correlative level. In addition, interface mode patterns, normally masked by the projection nature of a transmission microscopy investigation, could be unambiguously identified through tomographic reconstruction. This work overcomes the need for geometrical assumptions or symmetry restrictions of the sample in simulations and paves the way for detailed investigations of realistic and complex plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:26495933
Impact of 3D-model thickness on FE-simulations of microstructure
Soppa, Ewa, E-mail: ewa.soppa@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Nellesen, Jens [Dortmunder Initiative zur rechnerintegrierten Fertigung (RIF) e.V., Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Strasse 20, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Romanova, Varvara [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, pr. Academicheskii 2/1, 634021 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fischer, Gottfried [Dortmunder Initiative zur rechnerintegrierten Fertigung (RIF) e.V., Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Strasse 20, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Crostack, Horst-Artur [Lehrstuhl fuer Qualitaetswesen (LQW), Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 20, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Beckmann, Felix [GKSS-Research Center, c/o GKSS at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)
2010-01-15
To investigate the effect of model thickness on simulated strain and stress fields in two-phase materials three-dimensional and two-dimensional finite element simulations were performed. The microstructure of the models was generated both by a stochastic procedure and by transforming computer tomograms representing the microstructure into a FE mesh (artificial and realistic models, respectively). The simulated equivalent plastic strains at the surface of the realistic model were compared to equivalent strain maps obtained by digital image correlation of SEM images. The results of this study demonstrate that 2D FE simulations generally do not describe the mechanical behaviour of two-phase materials adequately. The calculated distribution of surface strain coincides with the measured one only if the thickness of 3D model exceeds a minimum value that corresponds to microstructural length scale of the material. Therefore, the thickness should be equal or larger than this minimum to get correct results at the surface.
Toward high-speed 3D nonlinear soft tissue deformation simulations using Abaqus software.
Idkaidek, Ashraf; Jasiuk, Iwona
2015-12-01
We aim to achieve a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a porcine liver deformation under a surgical tool pressure using the commercial finite element software Abaqus. The liver geometry is obtained using magnetic resonance imaging, and a nonlinear constitutive law is employed to capture large deformations of the tissue. Effects of implicit versus explicit analysis schemes, element type, and mesh density on computation time are studied. We find that Abaqus explicit and implicit solvers are capable of simulating nonlinear soft tissue deformations accurately using first-order tetrahedral elements in a relatively short time by optimizing the element size. This study provides new insights and guidance on accurate and relatively fast nonlinear soft tissue simulations. Such simulations can provide force feedback during robotic surgery and allow visualization of tissue deformations for surgery planning and training of surgical residents. PMID:26530842
Modeling of Neuronal Growth In Vitro: Comparison of Simulation Tools NETMORPH and CX3D
Aćimović J
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We simulate the growth of neuronal networks using the two recently published tools, NETMORPH and CX3D. The goals of the work are (1 to examine and compare the simulation tools, (2 to construct a model of growth of neocortical cultures, and (3 to characterize the changes in network connectivity during growth, using standard graph theoretic methods. Parameters for the neocortical culture are chosen after consulting both the experimental and the computational work presented in the literature. The first (three weeks in culture are known to be a time of development of extensive dendritic and axonal arbors and establishment of synaptic connections between the neurons. We simulate the growth of networks from day 1 to day 21. It is shown that for the properly selected parameters, the simulators can reproduce the experimentally obtained connectivity. The selected graph theoretic methods can capture the structural changes during growth.
Hoffmann Alex C.
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Particle tracks in a hydrocyclone generated both experimentally by positron emission particle tracking (PEPT and numerically with Eulerian-Lagranian CFD have been studied and compared. A hydrocyclone with a cylinder-on-cone design was used in this study, the geometries used in the CFD simulations and in the experiments being identical. It is shown that it is possible to track a fast-moving particle in a hydrocyclone using PEPT with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The numerical 3-D particle trajectories were generated using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES turbulence model for the fluid and Lagrangian particle tracking for the particles. The behaviors of the particles were analyzed in detail and were found to be consistent between experiments and CFD simulations. The tracks of the particles are discussed and related to the fluid flow field visualized in the CFD simulations using the cross-sectional static pressure distribution.
Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps for Seattle, Washington, Based on 3D Ground-Motion Simulations
Frankel, A. D.; Stephenson, W. J.; Carver, D. L.; Williams, R. A.; Odum, J. K.; Rhea, S.
2007-12-01
We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Seattle using over 500 3D finite-difference simulations of ground motions from earthquakes in the Seattle fault zone, Cascadia subduction zone, South Whidbey Island fault, and background shallow and deep source areas. The maps depict 1 Hz response spectral accelerations with 2, 5, and 10% probabilities of being exceeded in 50 years. The simulations were used to generate site and source dependent amplification factors that are applied to rock-site attenuation relations. The maps incorporate essentially the same fault sources and earthquake recurrence times as the 2002 national seismic hazard maps. The simulations included basin surface waves and basin-edge focusing effects from a 3D model of the Seattle basin. The 3D velocity model was validated by modeling several earthquakes in the region, including the 2001 M6.8 Nisqually earthquake, that were recorded by our Seattle Urban Seismic Network and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. The simulations duplicate our observation that earthquakes from the south and southwest typically produce larger amplifications in the Seattle basin than earthquakes from other azimuths, relative to rock sites outside the basin. Finite-fault simulations were run for earthquakes along the Seattle fault zone, with magnitudes ranging from 6.6 to 7.2, so that the effects of rupture directivity were included. Nonlinear amplification factors for soft-soil sites of fill and alluvium were also applied in the maps. For the Cascadia subduction zone, 3D simulations with point sources at different locations along the zone were used to determine amplification factors across Seattle expected for great subduction-zone earthquakes. These new urban seismic hazard maps are based on determinations of hazard for 7236 sites with a spacing of 280 m. The maps show that the highest hazard locations for this frequency band (around 1 Hz) are soft-soil sites (fill and alluvium) within the Seattle basin and
3D Numerical Simulation of Overbank Flow in Non-Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates
ZHANG Ming-liang; SHEN Yong-ming; WU Xiu-guang
2005-01-01
The velocity field in meandering compound channels with overbank flow is highly three dimensional. To date, its features have been investigated experimentally and little research has been undertaken to investigate the feasibility of reproducing these velocity fields with computer models. If computer modeling were to prove successful in this context, it could become a useful prediction technique and research tool to enhance our understanding of natural river dynamics. A 3-D k-ε turbulence hydrodynamic model in curvilinear coordinates is established to simulate the overbank flow. The body-fitted coordinate is adopted in the horizontal plane, the part grid is adopted in the vertical direction, and the wall-function method is employed to simulate the bed resistance. The model is applied to the simulation of the meandering channel with straight flood plain banks, and the main velocities and secondary velocities for both the longitudinal and cross sections are presented. Comparison and analysis show that the results of simulation are fit to reflect the results of experiment. These results show the application value of the model to 3D overbank flow.
Water flow prediction for Membranes using 3D simulations with detailed morphology
Shi, Meixia
2015-04-01
The membrane morphology significantly influences membrane performance. For osmotically driven membrane processes, the morphology strongly affects the internal concentration polarization. Different membrane morphologies were generated by simulation and their influence on membrane performance was studied, using a 3D model. The simulation results were experimentally validated for two classical phase-inversion membrane morphologies: sponge- and finger-like structures. Membrane porosity and scanning electron microscopy image information were used as model input. The permeance results from the simulation fit well the experimentally measured permeances. Water permeances were predicted for different kinds of finger-like cavity membranes with different finger-like cavity lengths and various finger-like cavity sets, as well as for membranes with cylindrical cavities. The results provide realistic information on how to increase water permeance, and also illustrate that membrane’s complete morphology is important for the accurate water permeance evaluation. Evaluations only based on porosity might be misleading, and the new 3D simulation approach gives a more realistic representation.
3D hybrid and MHD/particle simulations of field-reversed configurations
A nonlinear 3D code in cylindrical geometry is being developed for the stability studies of FRC. Two numerical schemes have been implemented: a hybrid scheme with particle ions and fluid electrons, and MHD/particle scheme in which the background plasma is described by MHD equations. And energetic ions are treated via particle simulations. The MHD equations are advanced on a finite-difference mesh in a cylindrical coordinate system, while particle pushing is done on 3D Cartesian grids. Full ion dynamics is retained in order to include large-orbit effects (with s∼1), which are important for the tilt mode stabilization in FRC. Also, in contrast to the previous work, δf method is utilized to reduce numerical noise in the simulations. The code has been benchmarked against previous MHD simulation of tilting instability in FRC. It was found that rigid rotation reduces the growth rate, but does not stabilize the mode even for rotation rates equal to the Alfven time. Sheared rotation is found to be destabilizing for the velocity profile considered. Simulations with a fast ion beam with 1 % of the bulk ion density and s∼3 did not show a reduction in growth rate of the tilting instability. (author)
3D Simulation of Dam-break effect on a Solid Wall using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Suprijadi,; Naa, Christian; Putra, Anggy Trisnawan
2013-01-01
Dam is built for water supply, water flow or flooding control and electricity energy storage, but in other hand, dam is one of the most dangerous natural disaster in many countries including in Indonesia. The impact of dam break in neighbour area and is huge and many flooding in remote area, as happen in Dam Situ Gintung in Tangerang (close to Jakarta) in 2009. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), is one of numerical method based on Lagrangian grid which is ap- plied in astrophysical simulation may be used to solve the simulation on dam break effect. The development of SPH methods become alternative methods to solving Navier Stokes equation, which is main key in fluid dynamic simulation. In this paper, SPH is developed for supporting solid par- ticles in use for 3D dam break effect (3D-DBE) simulation. Solid particle have been treated same as fluid particles with additional calculation for converting gained position became translation and rotation of solid object in a whole body. With this capability, the r...
Modeling simulation and visualization of conformal 3D lung tumor dosimetry
Lung tumors move during breathing depending on the patient's patho-physiological condition and orientation, thereby compromising the accurate deposition of the radiation dose during radiotherapy. In this paper, we present and validate a computer-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving tumor and its surrounding normal tissues. The computer-based simulation framework models a 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the tumor motion during a simulated dose delivery both as a self-reproducible motion and a random motion using the dose extracted from a treatment plan, and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited. A radiation treatment plan of a small lung tumor (1-3 cm diameter) was developed in a commercial planning system (iPlan software, BrainLab, Munich, Germany) to simulate the radiation dose delivered. The dose for each radiation field was extracted from the software. The tumor motion was simulated for varying values of its rate, amplitude and direction within a single breath as well as from one breath to another. Such variations represent the variations in tumor motion induced by breathing variations. During the simulation of dose delivery, the dose on the target was summed to generate the real-time dose to the tumor for each beam independently. The simulation results show that the dose accumulated on the tumor varies significantly with both the tumor size and the tumor's motion rate, amplitude and direction. For a given tumor motion rate, amplitude and direction, the smaller the tumor size the smaller is the percentage of the radiation dose accumulated. The simulation results are validated by comparing the center plane of the 3D tumor with 2D film dosimetry measurements using a programmable 4D motion phantom moving in a self-reproducible pattern. The results also show the real-time capability of the framework at 40 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the
吴开腾; 宁建国
2003-01-01
A numerical method is presented that simulates 3D explosive field problems. A code MMIC3D using this method can be used to simulate the propagation and reflected effects of all kinds of rigid boundaries to shock waves produced by an explosive source. These numerical results indicate that the code MMIC3D has the ability in computing cases such as 3D shock waves produced by air explosion, vortex region of the shock wave, the Mach wave, and reflected waves behind rigid boundaries.
Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Ruf, B.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.; Minea, T.
2014-02-01
Decreasing the co-extracted electron current while simultaneously keeping negative ion (NI) current sufficiently high is a crucial issue on the development plasma source system for ITER Neutral Beam Injector. To support finding the best extraction conditions the 3D Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision electrostatic code ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) has been developed. Close collaboration with experiments and other numerical models allows performing realistic simulations with relevant input parameters: plasma properties, geometry of the extraction aperture, full 3D magnetic field map, etc. For the first time ONIX has been benchmarked with commercial positive ions tracing code KOBRA3D. A very good agreement in terms of the meniscus position and depth has been found. Simulation of NI extraction with different e/NI ratio in bulk plasma shows high relevance of the direct negative ion extraction from the surface produced NI in order to obtain extracted NI current as in the experimental results from BATMAN testbed.
Gravitational Wave Signals from 3D Neutrino Hydrodynamics Simulations of Core-Collapse Supernovae
Andresen, Haakon; Mueller, Ewald; Janka, Hans-Thomas
2016-01-01
We present gravitational wave (GW) signal predictions from four 3D multi-group neutrino hydrodynamics simulations of core-collapse supernovae of progenitors with 11.2 Msun, 20 Msun, and 27 Msun. GW emission in the pre-explosion phase strongly depends on whether the post-shock flow is dominated by the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) or convection and differs considerably from 2D models. SASI activity produces a strong signal component below 250 Hz through asymmetric mass motions in the gain layer and a non-resonant coupling to the proto-neutron star (PNS). Both convection- and SASI-dominated models show GW emission above 250 Hz, but with considerably lower amplitudes than in 2D. This is due to a different excitation mechanism for high-frequency l=2 motions in the PNS surface, which are predominantly excited by PNS convection in 3D. Resonant excitation of high-frequency surface g-modes in 3D by mass motions in the gain layer is suppressed compared to 2D because of smaller downflow velocities and a l...
Characterizing the propagation of gravity waves in 3D nonlinear simulations of solar-like stars
Alvan, L; Brun, A S; Mathis, S; Garcia, R A
2015-01-01
The revolution of helio- and asteroseismology provides access to the detailed properties of stellar interiors by studying the star's oscillation modes. Among them, gravity (g) modes are formed by constructive interferences between progressive internal gravity waves (IGWs), propagating in stellar radiative zones. Our new 3D nonlinear simulations of the interior of a solar-like star allows us to study the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of these waves. The aim of this article is to clarify our understanding of the behavior of IGWs in a 3D radiative zone and to provide a clear overview of their properties. We use a method of frequency filtering that reveals the path of {individual} gravity waves of different frequencies in the radiative zone. We are able to identify the region of propagation of different waves in 2D and 3D, to compare them to the linear raytracing theory and to distinguish between propagative and standing waves (g modes). We also show that the energy carried by waves is distributed in d...
RV functional imaging: 3-D echo-derived dynamic geometry and flow field simulations.
Pasipoularides, Ares D; Shu, Ming; Womack, Michael S; Shah, Ashish; Von Ramm, Olaf; Glower, Donald D
2003-01-01
We describe a novel functional imaging approach for quantitative analysis of right ventricular (RV) blood flow patterns in specific experimental animals (or humans) using real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography (RT3D). The method is independent of the digital imaging modality used. It comprises three parts. First, a semiautomated segmentation aided by intraluminal contrast medium locates the RV endocardial surface. Second, a geometric scheme for dynamic RV chamber reconstruction applies a time interpolation procedure to the RT3D data to quantify wall geometry and motion at 400 Hz. A volumetric prism method validated the dynamic geometric reconstruction against simultaneous sonomicrometric canine measurements. Finally, the RV endocardial border motion information is used for mesh generation on a computational fluid dynamics solver to simulate development of the early RV diastolic inflow field. Boundary conditions (tessellated endocardial surface nodal velocities) for the solver are directly derived from the endocardial geometry and motion information. The new functional imaging approach may yield important kinematic information on the distribution of instantaneous velocities in the RV diastolic flow field of specific normal or diseased hearts. PMID:12388220
Detecting drug use in adolescents using a 3D simulation program
Luis Iribarne
2010-11-01
Full Text Available This work presents a new 3D simulation program, called MiiSchool, and its application to the detection of problem behaviours appearing in school settings. We begin by describing some of the main features of the Mii School program. Then, we present the results of a study in which adolescents responded to Mii School simulations involving the consumption of alcoholic drinks, cigarettes, cannabis, cocaine, and MDMA (ecstasy. We established a“risk profile” based on the observed response patterns. We also present results concerning user satisfaction with the program and the extent to which users felt that the simulated scenes were realistic. Lastly, we discuss the usefulness of Mii School as a tool for assessing drug use in school settings.
3D printing of tissue-simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for biomedical optical measurement
Dong, Erbao; Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Han, Yilin; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Ronald
2016-01-01
Optical phantoms are commonly used to validate and calibrate biomedical optical devices in order to ensure accurate measurement of optical properties in biological tissue. However, commonly used optical phantoms are based on homogenous materials that reflect neither optical properties nor multi-layer heterogeneities of biological tissue. Using these phantoms for optical calibration may result in significant bias in biological measurement. We propose to characterize and fabricate tissue simulating phantoms that simulate not only the multi-layer heterogeneities but also optical properties of biological tissue. The tissue characterization module detects tissue structural and functional properties in vivo. The phantom printing module generates 3D tissue structures at different scales by layer-by-layer deposition of phantom materials with different optical properties. The ultimate goal is to fabricate multi-layer tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for optimal calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.
Pathways for Observing Stellar Surfaces Using 3D Hydrodynamical Simulations of Evolved Stars
Chiavassa, A
2015-01-01
Evolved stars are among the largest and brightest stars and they are ideal targets for the new generation of sensitive, high resolution instrumentation that provides spectrophotometric, interferometric, astrometric, and imaging observables. The interpretation of the complex stellar surface images requires numerical simulations of stellar convection that take into account multi-dimensional time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics with realistic input physics. We show how the evolved star simulations are obtained using the radiative hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD and how the accurate observables are computed with the post-processing radiative transfer code Optim3D. The synergy between observations and theoretical work is supported by a proper and quantitative analysis using these simulations, and by strong constraints from the observational side.
ZHANG AMan; YAO XiongLiang; LI Jia; GUO Jun
2008-01-01
Based on the potential flow theory,the vortex ring is introduced to simulate the toroidal bubble,and the boundary element method is applied to simulate the evo-lution of the bubble.Elastic-plasticity of structure being taken into account,the interaction between the bubble and the elastic-plastic structure is computed by combining the boundary element method (BEM) and the finite element method (FEM),and a corresponding 3D computing program is developed.This program is used to simulate the three-dimensional bubble dynamics in free field,near wall and near the elastic-plastic structure,and the numerical results are compared with the existing experimental results.The error is within 10%.The effects of different boundaries upon the bubble dynamics are presented by studying the bubble dy-namics near different boundaries.
hp-HGS strategy for inverse 3D DC resistivity logging measurement simulations
Gajda-Zaǵorska, Ewa
2012-06-02
In this paper we present a twin adaptive strategy hp-HGS for solving inverse problems related to 3D DC borehole resistivity measurement simulations. The term “simulation of measurements” is widely used by the geophysical community. A quantity of interest, voltage, is measured at a receiver electrode located in the logging instrument. We use the self-adaptive goal-oriented hp-Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) computer simulations of the process of measurements in deviated wells (when the angle between the borehole and formation layers are < 90 deg). We also employ the hierarchical genetic search (HGS) algorithm to solve the inverse problem. Each individual in the population represents a single conﬁguration of the formation layers. The evaluation of the individual is performed by solving the direct problem by means of the hp-FEM algorithm and by comparison with measured logging curve. We conclude the paper with some discussion on the parallelization of the algorithm.
A 3D technique for simulation of irregular electron treatment fields using a digital camera
Cerrobend inserts, which define electron field apertures, are manufactured at our institution using perspex templates. Contours are reproduced manually on these templates at the simulator from the field outlines drawn on the skin or mask of a patient. A previously reported technique for simulation of electron treatment fields uses a digital camera to eliminate the need for such templates. However, avoidance of the image distortions introduced by non-flat surfaces on which the electron field outlines were drawn could only be achieved by limiting the application of this technique to surfaces which were flat or near flat. We present a technique that employs a digital camera and allows simulation of electron treatment fields contoured on an anatomical surface of an arbitrary three-dimensional (3D) shape, such as that of the neck, extremities, face, or breast. The procedure is fast, accurate, and easy to perform
2008-01-01
Based on the potential flow theory, the vortex ring is introduced to simulate the toroidal bubble, and the boundary element method is applied to simulate the evo- lution of the bubble. Elastic-plasticity of structure being taken into account, the interaction between the bubble and the elastic-plastic structure is computed by combining the boundary element method (BEM) and the finite element method (FEM), and a corresponding 3D computing program is developed. This program is used to simulate the three-dimensional bubble dynamics in free field, near wall and near the elastic-plastic structure, and the numerical results are compared with the existing experimental results. The error is within 10%. The effects of different boundaries upon the bubble dynamics are presented by studying the bubble dy- namics near different boundaries.
Aeroacoustic Simulation of Nose Landing Gear on Adaptive Unstructured Grids With FUN3D
Vatsa, Veer N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Park, Michael A.; Lockhard, David P.
2013-01-01
Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida's open-jet acoustic facility known as the UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center, is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. Starting with a coarse grid, a series of successively finer grids were generated using the adaptive gridding methodology available in the FUN3D code. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these computations. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions obtained on these grids are compared with the measured data. In general, the correlation with the experimental data improves with grid refinement. A similar trend is observed for sound pressure levels obtained by using these CFD solutions as input to a FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the farfield noise levels. In general, the numerical solutions obtained on adapted grids compare well with the hand-tuned enriched fine grid solutions and experimental data. In addition, the grid adaption strategy discussed here simplifies the grid generation process, and results in improved computational efficiency of CFD simulations.
Aeroacoustic Simulation of a Nose Landing Gear in an Open Jet Facility Using FUN3D
Vatsa, Veer N.; Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Carlson, Jan-Renee
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida s open-jet acoustic facility known as UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver, FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these computations. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions compare favorably with the measured data. Unsteady flowfield data obtained from the FUN3D code are used as input to a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the sound pressure levels at microphones placed in the farfield. Significant improvement in predicted noise levels is obtained when the flowfield data from the open jet UFAFF simulations is used as compared to the case using flowfield data from the closed-wall BART configuration.
3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Galactic Supernova Remnant CTB 109
Bolte, Jan; Breitschwerdt, Dieter
2015-01-01
Using detailed 3D hydrodynamic simulations we study the nature of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) CTB 109 (G109.1-1.0), which is well-known for its semicircular shape and a bright diffuse X-ray emission feature inside the SNR. Our model has been designed to explain the observed morphology, with a special emphasis on the bright emission feature inside the SNR. Moreover, we determine the age of the remnant and compare our findings with X-ray observations. With CTB 109 we test a new method of detailed numerical simulations of diffuse young objects, using realistic initial conditions derived directly from observations. We performed numerical 3D simulations with the RAMSES code. The initial density structure has been directly taken from $^{12}$CO emission data, adding an additional dense cloud, which, when it is shocked, causes the bright emission feature. From parameter studies we obtained the position $(\\ell , b)=(109.1545^\\circ , -1.0078^\\circ)$ for an elliptical cloud with $n_\\text{cloud}=25~\\text{cm}^{-3...
3D simulations of globules and pillars formation around HII regions: turbulence and shock curvature
Tremblin, P; Minier, V; Schmidt, W; Schneider, N
2012-01-01
We investigate the interplay between the ionization radiation from massive stars and the turbulence inside the surrounding molecular gas thanks to 3D numerical simulations. We used the 3D hydrodynamical code HERACLES to model an initial turbulent medium that is ionized and heated by an ionizing source. Three different simulations are performed with different mean Mach numbers (1, 2 and 4). A non-equilibrium model for the ionization and the associated thermal processes was used. This revealed to be crucial when turbulent ram pressure is of the same order as the ionized-gas pressure. The density structures initiated by the turbulence cause local curvatures of the dense shell formed by the ionization compression. When the curvature of the shell is sufficient, the shell collapse on itself to form a pillar while a smaller curvature leads to the formation of dense clumps that are accelerated with the shell and therefore remain in the shell during the simulation. When the turbulent ram pressure of the cold gas is su...
RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun
Rimjaem, S.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.
2014-02-01
A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012©. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.
RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun
Rimjaem, S., E-mail: sakhorn.rimjaem@cmu.ac.th [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)
2014-02-01
A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012{sup ©}. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.
High-resolution 3D simulations of NIF ignition targets performed on Sequoia with HYDRA
Marinak, M. M.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.; Koning, J. M.; Schroeder, C. R.
2015-11-01
Developments in the multiphysics ICF code HYDRA enable it to perform large-scale simulations on the Sequoia machine at LLNL. With an aggregate computing power of 20 Petaflops, Sequoia offers an unprecedented capability to resolve the physical processes in NIF ignition targets for a more complete, consistent treatment of the sources of asymmetry. We describe modifications to HYDRA that enable it to scale to over one million processes on Sequoia. These include new options for replicating parts of the mesh over a subset of the processes, to avoid strong scaling limits. We consider results from a 3D full ignition capsule-only simulation performed using over one billion zones run on 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations through modes l = 200. We also report progress towards a high-resolution 3D integrated hohlraum simulation performed using 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations on the ignition capsule through modes l = 70. These aim for the most complete calculations yet of the interactions and overall impact of the various sources of asymmetry for NIF ignition targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 3-D FLOW FIELD IN ARCIFORM PLUNGE POOL
无
2002-01-01
The 3-D complex turbulent flow fields in aplunge pool with arciform bottom are simulated by using thek-ε model in body-fitted coordinates. The calculated results re-veal the flow characteristics in the arciform plunge pool underthe different flood discharge conditions, which can not be easi-ly obtained in the physical model test because the measure-ment of the complex velocity is very difficult. The calculatedflow fields are helpful to understand in depth the hydrauliccharacteristics of plunge pool. The calculated and the meas-ured pressure distributions on the pool bottom are comparedand in good agreement.
DET3D - A CFD tool for simulating hydrogen combustion in nuclear reactor safety
In this paper, the CFD code DET3D is described which has been used for simulating assumed accident scenarios in nuclear reactors (fission and fusion, see e.g. [4, 5, 11]) involving hydrogen detonations in complex 3-dimensional geometries. Two validation calculations against experiments are discussed in detail: (i) a hydrogen-air detonation in a 12 m long straight tube with a truly 3-dimensional inner obstacle, and (ii) a pure radiolytic gas detonation in a 5 m long U-shaped tube at 44 bar initial pressure. (author)
Large-eddy simulation of 3-D corner separation in a linear compressor cascade
Gao, Feng; Ma, Wei; Zambonini, Gherardo; Boudet, Jérôme; Ottavy, Xavier; Lu, Lipeng; Shao, Liang
2015-01-01
The increase of the thrust/weight ratio of aircraft engines is extremely restricted by different 3-D flow loss mechanisms. One of them is the corner separation that can form at the junction between a blade suction side and a hub or shroud. In this paper, in order to further investigate the turbulent characteristics of corner separation, large-eddy simulation (LES) is conducted on a compressor cascade configuration using NACA65 blade profiles (chord based Reynolds number: 3.82 × 105), in compa...
Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D
Computational science is paramount to the understanding of underlying processes in internal combustion engines of the future that will utilize non-petroleum-based alternative fuels, including carbon-neutral biofuels, and burn in new combustion regimes that will attain high efficiency while minimizing emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. Next-generation engines will likely operate at higher pressures, with greater amounts of dilution and utilize alternative fuels that exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, there is a significant role for high-fidelity simulations, direct numerical simulations (DNS), specifically designed to capture key turbulence-chemistry interactions in these relatively uncharted combustion regimes, and in particular, that can discriminate the effects of differences in fuel properties. In DNS, all of the relevant turbulence and flame scales are resolved numerically using high-order accurate numerical algorithms. As a consequence terascale DNS are computationally intensive, require massive amounts of computing power and generate tens of terabytes of data. Recent results from terascale DNS of turbulent flames are presented here, illustrating its role in elucidating flame stabilization mechanisms in a lifted turbulent hydrogen/air jet flame in a hot air coflow, and the flame structure of a fuel-lean turbulent premixed jet flame. Computing at this scale requires close collaborations between computer and combustion scientists to provide optimized scaleable algorithms and software for terascale simulations, efficient collective parallel I/O, tools for volume visualization of multiscale, multivariate data and automating the combustion workflow. The enabling computer science, applied to combustion science, is also required in many other terascale physics and engineering simulations. In particular, performance monitoring is used to identify the performance of key kernels in the DNS code, S3D and especially memory
Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D
Chen, J. H.; Choudhary, A.; de Supinski, B.; DeVries, M.; Hawkes, E. R.; Klasky, S.; Liao, W. K.; Ma, K. L.; Mellor-Crummey, J.; Podhorszki, N.; Sankaran, R.; Shende, S.; Yoo, C. S.
2009-01-01
Computational science is paramount to the understanding of underlying processes in internal combustion engines of the future that will utilize non-petroleum-based alternative fuels, including carbon-neutral biofuels, and burn in new combustion regimes that will attain high efficiency while minimizing emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. Next-generation engines will likely operate at higher pressures, with greater amounts of dilution and utilize alternative fuels that exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, there is a significant role for high-fidelity simulations, direct numerical simulations (DNS), specifically designed to capture key turbulence-chemistry interactions in these relatively uncharted combustion regimes, and in particular, that can discriminate the effects of differences in fuel properties. In DNS, all of the relevant turbulence and flame scales are resolved numerically using high-order accurate numerical algorithms. As a consequence terascale DNS are computationally intensive, require massive amounts of computing power and generate tens of terabytes of data. Recent results from terascale DNS of turbulent flames are presented here, illustrating its role in elucidating flame stabilization mechanisms in a lifted turbulent hydrogen/air jet flame in a hot air coflow, and the flame structure of a fuel-lean turbulent premixed jet flame. Computing at this scale requires close collaborations between computer and combustion scientists to provide optimized scaleable algorithms and software for terascale simulations, efficient collective parallel I/O, tools for volume visualization of multiscale, multivariate data and automating the combustion workflow. The enabling computer science, applied to combustion science, is also required in many other terascale physics and engineering simulations. In particular, performance monitoring is used to identify the performance of key kernels in the DNS code, S3D and especially memory
Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.
2014-04-01
At the heart of the spectacular bipolar Homunculus nebula lies an extremely luminous (5*10^6 L_sun) colliding wind binary with a highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9), 5.54-year orbit and a total mass ~ 110 M_sun. Our closest (D ~ 2.3 kpc) and best example of a pre-hypernova environment, Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions, stellar wind-wind collisions, and massive star evolution. In order to improve our knowledge of the system, we need to generate synthetic observations and compare them with the already available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer post-processing of 3D SPH hydrodynamical simulations of the interacting winds of Eta Carinae. We use SimpleX algorithm to obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, this results in ionization maps of both species that constrain the regions where these lines can form. These results will allow us to put constraints on the number of ionizing photons coming from the companion. This construction of synthetic observations allows us to obtain insight into the highly complex 3D flows in Eta, from the shape of the ionized volume and its resulting optical/spectral appearance.
Quasi 3D refined simulation of flow and pollutant transport in a meandering River Reach
Li-ren Yu
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a quasi 3D numerical simulation in a meandering river reach of the Yellow River, aiming to develop a tool for modeling turbulent flows and pollutant transport in complex natural waters. The recently built depth-averaged two-equation turbulence model, together with and models, were used to close non-simplified quasi 3D hydrodynamic fundamental governing equations. The discretized equations were solved by advanced multi-grid iterative method under non-orthogonal body-fitted coarse and fine two-levels’ grids with collocated variable arrangement. Except for steady flow and transport computation, the processes of contaminant inpouring and plume development, caused by the side-discharge from a tribytary, also have been investigated numerically. The used three closure approaches are suitable for modeling strong mixing turbulence. The established model with higher order of magnitude of transported variable provides a possibility to elevate the computational precision. Based on the developed mathematical model, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics software, namely Q3drm1.0, was developed. This numerical tool focuses on the refined simulations of the steady and unsteady problems of flow and temperature/contaminant transports in complicated computational domains with the strong ability to deal with different discharge situations: side-discharge, point-source discharge/point-sink, and area-source discharge from the slope along bank. In this article, the study of side-discharge is presented only.
PIV measurement of the flow field in a domestic refrigerator model: Comparison with 3D simulations
Ben Amara, S.; Laguerre, O.; Flick, D. [UMR Genie Industriel Alimentaire (Cemagref-AgroParisTech-INRA) - Cemagref, Parc de Tourvoie, BP 44, 92185 Antony Cedex (France); Charrier-Mojtabi, M.-C.; Lartigue, B. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire PHASE, E.A. 3208, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)
2008-12-15
PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements of flow field due to natural convection in a parallelepipedic enclosure representing a domestic refrigerator model (scale 1) have been undertaken in order to determine the thickness of the hydrodynamic boundary layers and to study the flow motions depending on the boundary conditions applied on the vertical walls. One of the vertical walls is maintained at a negative and constant temperature either on the totality or on one part of its surface: this wall acts as the evaporator. The other walls are in contact with external air at constant temperature. The velocity measurements have been made in the symmetry plane of the enclosure. Unsteady recirculations have been observed at the bottom of the cavity. The influence of both the temperature and the dimension of the cold wall has been studied. Numerical simulations using CFD software (Fluent) have been then performed. In the numerical model, we assumed that the temperature of the evaporator is constant while an uniform global heat transfer coefficient has been used to describe the heat exchange with the external air at constant temperature. We considered laminar 3D flows and took into account the heat transfer by radiation between the different walls of the cavity. The results obtained with the 3D numerical simulations are in quite good agreement with the experimental airflow measurements using the PIV technique. (author)
Takahashi, M.; Kawabata, Y.; Washitani, T.; Tanaka, S.; Maeda, S.; Mimotogi, S.
2014-03-01
In progress of lithography technologies, the importance of Mask3D analysis has been emphasized because the influence of mask topography effects is not avoidable to be increased explosively. An electromagnetic filed simulation method, such as FDTD, RCWA and FEM, is applied to analyze those complicated phenomena. We have investigated Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP) method, which is one of the Method of Characteristics (MoC), for Mask3D analysis in optical lithography. CIP method can reproduce the phase of propagating waves with less numerical error by using high order polynomial function. The restrictions of grid distance are relaxed with spatial grid. Therefore this method reduces the number of grid points in complex structure. In this paper, we study the feasibility of CIP scheme applying a non-uniform and spatial-interpolated grid to practical mask patterns. The number of grid points might be increased in complex layout and topological structure since these structures require a dense grid to remain the fidelity of each design. We propose a spatial interpolation method based on CIP method same as time-domain interpolation to reduce the number of grid points to be computed. The simulation results of two meshing methods with spatial interpolation are shown.
3-D electromagnetic plasma particle simulations on the Intel Delta parallel computer
A three-dimensional electromagnetic PIC code has been developed on the 512 node Intel Touchstone Delta MIMD parallel computer. This code is based on the General Concurrent PIC algorithm which uses a domain decomposition to divide the computation among the processors. The 3D simulation domain can be partitioned into 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional sub-domains. Particles must be exchanged between processors as they move among the subdomains. The Intel Delta allows one to use this code for very-large-scale simulations (i.e. over 108 particles and 106 grid cells). The parallel efficiency of this code is measured, and the overall code performance on the Delta is compared with that on Cray supercomputers. It is shown that their code runs with a high parallel efficiency of ≥ 95% for large size problems. The particle push time achieved is 115 nsecs/particle/time step for 162 million particles on 512 nodes. Comparing with the performance on a single processor Cray C90, this represents a factor of 58 speedup. The code uses a finite-difference leap frog method for field solve which is significantly more efficient than fast fourier transforms on parallel computers. The performance of this code on the 128 node Cray T3D will also be discussed
A NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 3-D INNER FLOW IN UP-STREAM PUMPING MECHANICAL SEAL
ZHANG Jin-feng; YUAN Shou-qi; FU Yong-hong; FANG Yu-jian
2006-01-01
Numerical simulation of 3-D inner flow between Up-stream Pumping Mechanical Face Seals (UPMFS) faces was initially done by CFD software, which made the flow visualization come true.Simulation results directly discover the action of hydrodynamic lubrication, and by comparison with that of Conventional Mechanic Face Seals (CMFS), the advantage over bigger bearing capability, less friction and much less leakage are explained clearly.Otherwise there are also some different ideas and results from precedent analysis and computational research results: dynamic and static pressure profiles can be obtained respectively instead of the analytic total pressure distribution only, pressure distribution is nonlinear, while always be solved as linear, lower pressure is observed at the area of inner diameter caused by the grooves, but its possible cavitations effects to the performance of UPMFS still need further study.
Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software FLOW-3D Cast ®
M. Sirviö
2009-01-01
Full Text Available ConiferRob - A patternless casting technique, originally conceived at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and furtherdeveloped at its spin-off company, Simtech Systems, offers up to 40% savings in product development costs, and up to two months shorterdevelopment times compared to conventional techniques. Savings of this order can be very valuable on today's highly competitivemarkets. Casting simulation is commonly used for designing of casting systems. However, most of the software are today old fashioned and predicting just shrinkage porosity. Flow Science, VTT and Simtech have developed new software called FLOW-3D Cast ® , whichcan simulate surface defects, air entrainment, filters, core gas problems and even a cavitation.
Hayek, W; Carlsson, M; Trampedach, R; Collet, R; Gudiksen, B V; Hansteen, V H; Leenaarts, J
2010-01-01
We present the implementation of a radiative transfer solver with coherent scattering in the new BIFROST code for radiative magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of stellar surface convection. The code is fully parallelized using MPI domain decomposition, which allows for large grid sizes and improved resolution of hydrodynamical structures. We apply the code to simulate the surface granulation in a solar-type star, ignoring magnetic fields, and investigate the importance of coherent scattering for the atmospheric structure. A scattering term is added to the radiative transfer equation, requiring an iterative computation of the radiation field. We use a short-characteristics-based Gauss-Seidel acceleration scheme to compute radiative flux divergences for the energy equation. The effects of coherent scattering are tested by comparing the temperature stratification of three 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical atmosphere models of a solar-type star: without scattering, with continuum scattering only, and with bo...
Investigating the guiding of streamers in nitrogen/oxygen mixtures with 3D simulations
Teunissen, Jannis; Nijdam, Sander; Takahashi, Eiichi; Ebert, Ute
2014-10-01
Recent experiments by S. Nijdam and E. Takahashi have demonstrated that streamers can be guided by weak pre-ionization in nitrogen/oxygen mixtures, as long as there is not too much oxygen (less than 1%). The pre-ionization was created by a laser beam, and was orders of magnitude lower than the density in a streamer channel. Here, we will study the guiding of streamers with 3D numerical simulations. First, we present simulations that can be compared with the experiments and confirm that the laser pre-ionization does not introduce space charge effects by itself. Then we investigate topics as: the conditions under which guiding can occur; how photoionization reduces the guiding at higher oxygen concentrations and whether guided streamers keep their propagation direction outside the pre-ionization. JT was supported by STW Project 10755, SN by the FY2012 Researcher Exchange Program between JSPS and NWO, and ET by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24560249.
3D Transient CFD Simulation of Scroll Compressors with the Tip Seal
Gao, Haiyang; Ding, Hui; Jiang, Yu
2015-08-01
A new template simulation tool is developed for scroll compressors/expanders capable of modelling tip seal leakages. This scroll template generates a high quality 3D multiblock structured mesh from user-input stationary and orbiting scroll surfaces. The mesh movement is then automatically calculated to account for every position of the orbiting scroll, maintaining good grid quality and smooth movement throughout the whole revolution. A state- of-the-art efficient CFD solver is used to solve Navier-Stokes equations, capable of simulation with both real gas and ideal gas. A case study is presented for a generic scroll compressor with refrigerant R410A. The case was run with and without the tip seal volumes. Comparisons are made to show the impact of tip seals on the compressor performance.
VAWT (Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines) stochastic loads using a 3-D turbulence simulation
Homicz, Gregory F.
The stochastic (i.e., random) aerodynamic loads created by atmospheric turbulence are thought to be a primary cause of premature blade fatigue in Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs). This paper describes a computer program for the prediction of these stochastic loads, based on a full 3-D simulation of the turbulence field. Computed results using this model are compared with the deterministic (periodic) loads which occur in the absence of turbulence, and with the predictions of an earlier model which employed a 1-D simulation of the turbulence. The results show that not only are instantaneous loads significantly influenced by turbulence, but that load distributions averaged over numerous revolutions are affected as well. A particularly interesting finding is that, for the same mean wind speed, the average output power is altered by turbulence.
Synthetic 3D modeling of active regions and simulation of their multi-wavelength emission
Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Loukitcheva, Maria A.; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A.; Gary, Dale E.
2015-04-01
To facilitate the study of solar active regions, we have created a synthetic modeling framework that combines 3D magnetic structures obtained from magnetic extrapolations with simplified 1D thermal models of the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. To handle, visualize, and use such synthetic data cubes to compute multi-wavelength emission maps and compare them with observations, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our simulation tools, GX_Simulator (ftp://sohoftp.nascom.nasa.gov/solarsoft/packages/gx_simulator/), developed earlier for modeling emission from flaring loops. The greatly enhanced, object-based architecture, which now runs on Windows, Mac, and UNIX platform, offers important new capabilities that include the ability to either import 3D density and temperature distribution models, or to assign to each individual voxel numerically defined coronal or chromospheric temperature and densities, or coronal Differential Emission Measure distributions. Due to these new capabilities, the GX_Simulator can now apply parametric heating models involving average properties of the magnetic field lines crossing a given voxel volume, as well as compute and investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio (to be compared with VLA or EOVSA data), (sub-)millimeter (ALMA), EUV (AIA/SDO), and X-ray (RHESSI) emission calculated from the model. The application integrates shared-object libraries containing fast free-free, gyrosynchrotron, and gyroresonance emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++, and soft and hard X-ray and EUV codes developed in IDL. We use this tool to model and analyze an active region and compare the synthetic emission maps obtained in different wavelengths with observations.This work was partially supported by NSF grants AGS-1250374, AGS-1262772, NASA grant NNX14AC87G, the Marie Curie International Research Staff Exchange Scheme "Radiosun" (PEOPLE-2011-IRSES-295272), RFBR grants 14-02-91157, 15-02-01089, 15-02-03717, 15
Gibson, Stephen
2011-01-01
In this paper the author will describe and show examples of his live audio-visual work for 3D spatial environments. These projects use motion tracking technology to enable users to interact with sound, light and video using their body movements in 3D space, simulating the effect of synaesthesia.
A simulation technique for 3D MR-guided acoustic radiation force imaging
Payne, Allison, E-mail: apayne@ucair.med.utah.edu [Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Bever, Josh de [Department of Computer Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Farrer, Alexis [Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Coats, Brittany [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Parker, Dennis L. [Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108 (United States); Christensen, Douglas A. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)
2015-02-15
Purpose: In magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapies, the in situ characterization of the focal spot location and quality is critical. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is a technique that measures the tissue displacement caused by the radiation force exerted by the ultrasound beam. This work presents a new technique to model the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model. Methods: When a steady-state point-source force acts internally in an infinite homogeneous medium, the displacement of the material in all directions is given by the Somigliana elastostatic tensor. The radiation force field, which is caused by absorption and reflection of the incident ultrasound intensity pattern, will be spatially distributed, and the tensor formulation takes the form of a convolution of a 3D Green’s function with the force field. The dynamic accumulation of MR phase during the ultrasound pulse can be theoretically accounted for through a time-of-arrival weighting of the Green’s function. This theoretical model was evaluated experimentally in gelatin phantoms of varied stiffness (125-, 175-, and 250-bloom). The acoustic and mechanical properties of the phantoms used as parameters of the model were measured using independent techniques. Displacements at focal depths of 30- and 45-mm in the phantoms were measured by a 3D spin echo MR-ARFI segmented-EPI sequence. Results: The simulated displacements agreed with the MR-ARFI measured displacements for all bloom values and focal depths with a normalized RMS difference of 0.055 (range 0.028–0.12). The displacement magnitude decreased and the displacement pattern broadened with increased bloom value for both focal depths, as predicted by the theory. Conclusions: A new technique that models the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model theory has been rigorously validated through comparison
3D Simulation of the Entire Process of Earthquake Generation at Subduction-Zone Plate Boundaries
Matsu'Ura, M.; Hashimoto, C.; Fukuyama, E.
2003-12-01
In general, the entire process of earthquake generation consists of tectonic loading due to relative plate motion, quasi-static rupture nucleation, dynamic rupture propagation and stop, and restoration of fault strength. This process can be completely described by a coupled nonlinear system, which consists of an elastic/viscoelastic slip-response function that relates fault slip to shear stress change and a fault constitutive law that prescribes change in shear strength with fault slip and contact time. The shear stress and the shear strength are related with each other through boundary conditions on the fault. The driving force of this system is observed relative plate motion. The system to describe the earthquake generation cycle is conceptually quite simple. The complexity in practical modelling mainly comes from complexity in structure of the real earth. As a product of Crustal Activity Modelling Program (CAMP), which is one of the three main programs composing the Solid Earth Simulator project (1998-2003) promoted by MEXT, we have completed a physics-based predictive simulation model for the entire process of earthquake generation cycles in and around Japan, where the four plates of Pacific, North American, Philippine Sea and Eurasian are interacting with each other in a very complicated way. The total simulation system consists of a crust-mantle structure model, a tectonic loading model and a dynamic rupture model. First, we constructed a realistic 3D standard model of plate interfaces in and around Japan by applying an inversion technique to ISC hypocenter distribution data, and computed viscoelastic slip-response functions for this structure model. Second, we introduced the slip- and time-dependent fault constitutive law with an inherent strength-restoration mechanism as a basic equation governing the entire process of earthquake generation. Third, combining all these elements, we developed a simulation model for quasi-static stress accumulation due to
The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis
Shaheen, Eman, E-mail: eman.shaheen@uzleuven.be; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)
2014-08-15
Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly
The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis
Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly
Mammogram synthesis using a 3D simulation. II. Evaluation of synthetic mammogram texture
We have evaluated a method for synthesizing mammograms by comparing the texture of clinical and synthetic mammograms. The synthesis algorithm is based upon simulations of breast tissue and the mammographic imaging process. Mammogram texture was synthesized by projections of simulated adipose tissue compartments. It was hypothesized that the synthetic and clinical texture have similar properties, assuming that the mammogram texture reflects the 3D tissue distribution. The size of the projected compartments was computed by mathematical morphology. The texture energy and fractal dimension were also computed and analyzed in terms of the distribution of texture features within four different tissue regions in clinical and synthetic mammograms. Comparison of the cumulative distributions of the mean features computed from 95 mammograms showed that the synthetic images simulate the mean features of the texture of clinical mammograms. Correlation of clinical and synthetic texture feature histograms, averaged over all images, showed that the synthetic images can simulate the range of features seen over a large group of mammograms. The best agreement with clinical texture was achieved for simulated compartments with radii of 4-13.3 mm in predominantly adipose tissue regions, and radii of 2.7-5.33 and 1.3-2.7 mm in retroareolar and dense fibroglandular tissue regions, respectively
Augmented reality intravenous injection simulator based 3D medical imaging for veterinary medicine.
Lee, S; Lee, J; Lee, A; Park, N; Lee, S; Song, S; Seo, A; Lee, H; Kim, J-I; Eom, K
2013-05-01
Augmented reality (AR) is a technology which enables users to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or composited with it. AR simulators have been developed and used in human medicine, but not in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to develop an AR intravenous (IV) injection simulator to train veterinary and pre-veterinary students to perform canine venipuncture. Computed tomographic (CT) images of a beagle dog were scanned using a 64-channel multidetector. The CT images were transformed into volumetric data sets using an image segmentation method and were converted into a stereolithography format for creating 3D models. An AR-based interface was developed for an AR simulator for IV injection. Veterinary and pre-veterinary student volunteers were randomly assigned to an AR-trained group or a control group trained using more traditional methods (n = 20/group; n = 8 pre-veterinary students and n = 12 veterinary students in each group) and their proficiency at IV injection technique in live dogs was assessed after training was completed. Students were also asked to complete a questionnaire which was administered after using the simulator. The group that was trained using an AR simulator were more proficient at IV injection technique using real dogs than the control group (P ≤ 0.01). The students agreed that they learned the IV injection technique through the AR simulator. Although the system used in this study needs to be modified before it can be adopted for veterinary educational use, AR simulation has been shown to be a very effective tool for training medical personnel. Using the technology reported here, veterinary AR simulators could be developed for future use in veterinary education. PMID:23103217
Inogamov, Nail A.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.
2016-02-01
There are many important applications in which the ultrashort diffraction-limited and therefore tightly focused laser pulses irradiates metal films mounted on dielectric substrate. Here we present the detailed picture of laser peeling and 3D structure formation of the thin (relative to a depth of a heat affected zone in the bulk targets) gold films on glass substrate. The underlying physics of such diffraction-limited laser peeling was not well understood previously. Our approach is based on a physical model which takes into consideration the new calculations of the two-temperature (2T) equation of state (2T EoS) and the two-temperature transport coefficients together with the coupling parameter between electron and ion subsystems. The usage of the 2T EoS and the kinetic coefficients is required because absorption of an ultrashort pulse with duration of 10-1000 fs excites electron subsystem of metal and transfers substance into the 2T state with hot electrons (typical electron temperatures 1-3 eV) and much colder ions. It is shown that formation of submicrometer-sized 3D structures is a result of the electron-ion energy transfer, melting, and delamination of film from substrate under combined action of electron and ion pressures, capillary deceleration of the delaminated liquid metal or semiconductor, and ultrafast freezing of molten material. We found that the freezing is going in non-equilibrium regime with strongly overcooled liquid phase. In this case the Stefan approximation is non-applicable because the solidification front speed is limited by the diffusion rate of atoms in the molten material. To solve the problem we have developed the 2T Lagrangian code including all this reach physics in. We also used the high-performance combined Monte- Carlo and molecular dynamics code for simulation of surface 3D nanostructuring at later times after completion of electron-ion relaxation.
3D Simulation of Ultrasound in the Ultra-Distal Human Radius
Kaufman, Jonathan J.; Luo, Gangming; Siffert, Robert S.
The overall objective of this research is to develop an ultrasonic method for non-invasive assessment of the ultradistal radius (UDR). The specific objective of this study was to examine the propagation of ultrasound through the UDR and determine the relationships between bone mass and ultrasound, as well as the ability of ultrasound to discriminate between fracture and non-fracture cases. High-resolution peripheral-QCT (HR-pQCT) images were obtained from a set of 110 subjects that were part of a larger study on osteoporosis. Twenty-three of the subjects had experienced a UDR fracture within the past 2 years; the other 87 subjects served as controls. Each 3D image was used to simulate ultrasound measurements that would result from propagation through the UDR, from its anterior to its posterior surfaces. The simulation was carried out using Wave3000 (CyberLogic, Inc., New York, USA), which solves the full 3D viscoelastic wave equation using a finite difference time domain method. Bone mineral density associated with each radius was computed for each subject, and an ultrasound parameter known as net time delay (NTD) was evaluated. NTD has been shown to be highly correlated with total bone mass in both in vitro and clinical studies. Significant correlations were found between NTD and total bone mass (R2 = 0.91, p < 0.001). The data also showed a statistically significant difference in the NTD for the fracture and non-fracture cases (i.e., a decrease in mean NTD of 14% (P < 0.001), with a t-test statistic of 3.8). The study shows that ultrasound is correlated with bone mass at the UDR, as well as with fracture incidence. Therefore ultrasound may prove useful as a simple and convenient method for non-invasive assessment of osteoporosis and fracture risk. Work is ongoing to compare the simulated ultrasound data with clinical ultrasound measurements made on the same individuals.
The dark side of photovoltaic — 3D simulation of glare assessing risk and discomfort
Rose, Thomas; Wollert, Alexander
2015-04-15
Photovoltaic (PV) systems form an important force in the implementation of renewable energies, but as we all know, the force has always its dark side. Besides efficiency considerations and discussions about architectures of power distribution networks, the increasing numbers of installations of PV systems for implementing renewable energies have secondary effects. PV systems can generate glare due to optical reflections and hence might be a serious concern. On the one hand, glare could affect safety, e.g. regarding traffic. On the other hand, glare is a constant source of discomfort in vicinities of PV systems. Hence, assessment of glare is decisive for the success of renewable energies near municipalities and traffic zones for the success of solar power. Several courts decided on the change of PV systems and even on their de-installation because of glare effects. Thus, location-based assessments are required to limit potential reflections and to avoid risks for public infrastructure or discomfort of residents. The question arises on how to calculate reflections accurately according to the environment's topography. Our approach is founded in a 3D-based simulation methodology to calculate and visualize reflections based on the geometry of the environment of PV systems. This computational model is implemented by an interactive tool for simulation and visualization. Hence, project planners receive flexible assistance for adjusting the parameters of solar panels amid the planning process and in particular before the installation of a PV system. - Highlights: • Solar panels cause glare that impacts neighborhoods and traffic infrastructures. • Glare might cause disability and discomfort. • 3D environment for the calculation of glare • Interactive tool to simulate and visualize reflections • Impact assessment of solar power plant farms.
Large-eddy simulation of 3D turbulent flow past a complete marine hydrokinetic turbine
Kang, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2011-12-01
A high-resolution computational framework was recently developed by Kang et al (Adv. Water Resour., submitted) for simulating three-dimensional (3D), turbulent flow past real-life, complete marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine configurations. In this model the complex turbine geometry is resolved by employing the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method, which solves the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear domains with embedded arbitrarily complex, moving and/or stationary immersed boundaries (Ge and Sotiropoulos, 2007). Turbulence is simulated using the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach adapted in the context of the CURVIB method, with a wall model based on solving the simplified boundary layer equations used to reconstruct boundary conditions near all solid surfaces (Kang et al., 2011). The model can resolve the flow patterns generated by the rotor and all stationary components of the turbine as well as the interactions of the flow structures with the channel bed. We apply this model to carry out LES of the flow past the model-size hydrokinetic turbine deployed in the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory main channel. The mean velocities and second-order turbulence statistics measured in the downstream wake using acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) are compared with the LES results. The comparisons show that the computed mean velocities and turbulent stresses are in good agreement with the measurements. The high-resolution LES data are used to explore physically important downstream flow characteristics such as the time-averaged wake structure, recovery of cross-sectionally averaged power potential, near-bed scour potential, etc. This work is supported by Verdant Power.
The dark side of photovoltaic — 3D simulation of glare assessing risk and discomfort
Photovoltaic (PV) systems form an important force in the implementation of renewable energies, but as we all know, the force has always its dark side. Besides efficiency considerations and discussions about architectures of power distribution networks, the increasing numbers of installations of PV systems for implementing renewable energies have secondary effects. PV systems can generate glare due to optical reflections and hence might be a serious concern. On the one hand, glare could affect safety, e.g. regarding traffic. On the other hand, glare is a constant source of discomfort in vicinities of PV systems. Hence, assessment of glare is decisive for the success of renewable energies near municipalities and traffic zones for the success of solar power. Several courts decided on the change of PV systems and even on their de-installation because of glare effects. Thus, location-based assessments are required to limit potential reflections and to avoid risks for public infrastructure or discomfort of residents. The question arises on how to calculate reflections accurately according to the environment's topography. Our approach is founded in a 3D-based simulation methodology to calculate and visualize reflections based on the geometry of the environment of PV systems. This computational model is implemented by an interactive tool for simulation and visualization. Hence, project planners receive flexible assistance for adjusting the parameters of solar panels amid the planning process and in particular before the installation of a PV system. - Highlights: • Solar panels cause glare that impacts neighborhoods and traffic infrastructures. • Glare might cause disability and discomfort. • 3D environment for the calculation of glare • Interactive tool to simulate and visualize reflections • Impact assessment of solar power plant farms
Combination of intensity-based image registration with 3D simulation in radiation therapy
Li, Pan; Malsch, Urban; Bendl, Rolf
2008-09-01
Modern techniques of radiotherapy like intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) make it possible to deliver high dose to tumors of different irregular shapes at the same time sparing surrounding healthy tissue. However, internal tumor motion makes precise calculation of the delivered dose distribution challenging. This makes analysis of tumor motion necessary. One way to describe target motion is using image registration. Many registration methods have already been developed previously. However, most of them belong either to geometric approaches or to intensity approaches. Methods which take account of anatomical information and results of intensity matching can greatly improve the results of image registration. Based on this idea, a combined method of image registration followed by 3D modeling and simulation was introduced in this project. Experiments were carried out for five patients 4DCT lung datasets. In the 3D simulation, models obtained from images of end-exhalation were deformed to the state of end-inhalation. Diaphragm motions were around -25 mm in the cranial-caudal (CC) direction. To verify the quality of our new method, displacements of landmarks were calculated and compared with measurements in the CT images. Improvement of accuracy after simulations has been shown compared to the results obtained only by intensity-based image registration. The average improvement was 0.97 mm. The average Euclidean error of the combined method was around 3.77 mm. Unrealistic motions such as curl-shaped deformations in the results of image registration were corrected. The combined method required less than 30 min. Our method provides information about the deformation of the target volume, which we need for dose optimization and target definition in our planning system.
A Completely 3D Model for the Simulation of Mechanized Tunnel Excavation
Zhao, Kai; Janutolo, Michele; Barla, Giovanni
2012-07-01
For long deep tunnels as currently under construction through the Alps, mechanized excavation using tunnel boring machines (TBMs) contributes significantly to savings in construction time and costs. Questions are, however, posed due to the severe ground conditions which are in cases anticipated or encountered along the main tunnel alignment. A major geological hazard is the squeezing of weak rocks, but also brittle failure can represent a significant problem. For the design of mechanized tunnelling in such conditions, the complex interaction between the rock mass, the tunnel machine, its system components, and the tunnel support need to be analysed in detail and this can be carried out by three-dimensional (3D) models including all these components. However, the state-of-the-art shows that very few fully 3D models for mechanical deep tunnel excavation in rock have been developed so far. A completely three-dimensional simulator of mechanised tunnel excavation is presented in this paper. The TBM of reference is a technologically advanced double shield TBM designed to cope with both conditions. Design analyses with reference to spalling hazard along the Brenner and squeezing along the Lyon-Turin Base Tunnel are discussed.
3D MHD free surface fluid flow simulation based on magnetic-field induction equations
The purpose of this paper is to present our recent efforts on 3D MHD model development and our results based on the technique derived from induced-magnetic-field equations. Two important features are utilized in our numerical method to obtain convergent solutions. First, a penalty factor is introduced in order to force the local divergence free condition of the magnetic fields. The second is that we extend the insulating wall thickness to ensure that the induced magnetic field at its boundaries is null. These simulation results for lithium film free surface flows under NSTX outboard mid-plane magnetic field configurations have shown that 3D MHD effects from a surface normal field gradient cause return currents to interact with surface normal fields and produce unfavorable MHD forces. This leads to a substantial change in flow pattern and a reduction in flow velocity, with most of the flow spilling over one side of the chute. These critical phenomena can not be revealed by 2D models. Additionally, a design which overcomes these undesired flow characteristics is obtained
3D simulation of integrated multi-coil ICP source with azimuthal modes
Brcka, Jozef
2015-09-01
Integrated multi-coil (IMC) planar ICP source with azimuthal motion is presented. Scaling ICP sources to larger substrate size is always complicated due to many technical issues and is challenged by the plasma chemistry. The source described in this work has capability of azimuthally moving plasma and has potential for large area and high density plasma applications. Hence, this system does not have an ideal axial symmetry, the 3D model approach has to be used to assess its transient performance. Moreover, reactor walls are imposing stronger boundary conditions on distribution of the radicals in ``off-axis reactive plasma.'' Intrinsic asymmetry of source and plasma were investigated by 3D fluid model developed under Plasma Module framework and supported by COMSOL Multiphysics solvers. Operation modes have potential to control plasma distribution, reaction chemistry and increase/modulate radicals' production. Simulation confirmed assumption that plasma distribution may essentially change in different gas. Under specific conditions integrated multi-coil ICP source is producing pulsed plasma. Temporal, spatial and population plasma characteristics were investigated in an inert carrier gas (Ar) and reactive plasma consisting of several gases (Ar, H2, CO and CH4).
Numerical simulation of a 3-D flow within a storage area hexagonal modular pavement systems
This numerical study has been performed to predict the flow patterns and characteristics within a storage area Hexagonal Modular Pavement Systems. Throughout the design and planning period for future construction are increasingly integrating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) into the process. A commercially known software, FLOW-3D, is applied to numerically solve the Navier-stokes equations for solution domains which are separated into three regions with overlapping boundaries to efficiently accommodate the grid resolutions, namely the honeycomb shaped modular, gravel and combined honeycomb shaped modular with gravel fill. The filtration of the fluid within the interstices of a permeable pavement is evaluated by integrating the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) inside the voids rather than making use of the widespread porous media approach. In conclusion, the results from numerical simulation are generally well agreed with the existing data and flow information such as flow patterns at increased flow, discharge rate and pressure is obtained to be used for engineering design purpose. Overall, the potential for FLOW-3D to model various geometries and configurations appears great. It should be noted that CFD should not be considered a complete replacement for physical modelling; however, it can definitely be used as a supplementary tool throughout the pavement design process.
Photospheric Emission of Collapsar Jet in 3D Relativistic Radiation Hydrodynamical Simulation
Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Warren, Donald C; Barkov, Maxim V
2015-01-01
We explore the photospheric emission from a relativistic jet breaking out from a massive stellar envelope based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and post-process radiation transfer calculations in three dimensions (3D). To investigate the impact of 3D dynamics on the emission, two models of injection conditions are considered for the jet at the center of the progenitor star: one with periodic precession and another without precession. We show that structures developed within the jet due to the interaction with the stellar envelope, as well as due to the precession, have a significant imprint on the resulting emission. Particularly, we find that the signature of precession activity by the central engine is not smeared out and can be directly observed in the light curve as a periodic signal. We also show non-thermal features that can account for observations of gamma-ray bursts are produced in the resulting spectra, even though only thermal photons are injected initially and the effect of non-thermal ...
3D cut-cell modelling for high-resolution atmospheric simulations
Yamazaki, H; Nikiforakis, N
2015-01-01
With the recent, rapid development of computer technology, the resolution of atmospheric numerical models has increased substantially. As a result, steep gradients in mountainous terrain are now being resolved in high-resolution models. This results in large truncation errors in those models using terrain-following coordinates. In this study, a new 3D Cartesian coordinate non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is developed. A cut-cell representation of topography based on finite-volume discretization is combined with a cell-merging approach, in which small cut-cells are merged with neighboring cells either vertically or horizontally. In addition, a block-structured mesh-refinement technique achieves a variable resolution on the model grid with the finest resolution occurring close to the terrain surface. The model successfully reproduces a flow over a 3D bell-shaped hill that shows a good agreement with the flow predicted by the linear theory. The ability of the model to simulate flows over steep terrain is demons...
The paper describes the successfully performed verification tests with the ATLAS simulator environment and the coupled QUABOX/CUBBOX-ATHLET code system with enhanced option of switching from point kinetics (PK) to 3D calculations. (authors)
Aeroacoustic Simulations of a Nose Landing Gear Using FUN3D on Pointwise Unstructured Grids
Vatsa, Veer N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Rhoads, John; Lockard, David P.
2015-01-01
Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed (PDCC) nose landing gear configuration that was tested in the University of Florida's open-jet acoustic facility known as the UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver FUN3D is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. Mixed-element grids generated using the Pointwise(TradeMark) grid generation software are used for these simulations. Particular care is taken to ensure quality cells and proper resolution in critical areas of interest in an effort to minimize errors introduced by numerical artifacts. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these simulations. Solutions are also presented for a wall function model coupled to the standard turbulence model. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions obtained on these Pointwise grids are compared with the measured data and previous numerical solutions. The resulting CFD solutions are used as input to a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the farfield noise levels in the flyover and sideline directions. The computed noise levels compare well with previous CFD solutions and experimental data.
3D Simulation of Flow with Free Surface Based on Adaptive Octree Mesh System
Li Shaowu; Zhuang Qian; Huang Xiaoyun; Wang Dong
2015-01-01
The technique of adaptive tree mesh is an effective way to reduce computational cost through automatic adjustment of cell size according to necessity. In the present study, the 2D numerical N-S solver based on the adaptive quadtree mesh system was extended to a 3D one, in which a spatially adaptive octree mesh system and multiple parti-cle level set method were adopted for the convenience to deal with the air-water-structure multiple-medium coexisting domain. The stretching process of a dumbbell was simulated and the results indicate that the meshes are well adaptable to the free surface. The collapsing process of water column impinging a circle cylinder was simulated and from the results, it can be seen that the processes of fluid splitting and merging are properly simulated. The interaction of sec-ond-order Stokes waves with a square cylinder was simulated and the obtained drag force is consistent with the result by the Morison’s wave force formula with the coefficient values of the stable drag component and the inertial force component being set as 2.54.
WebTOP: Interactive 3D Web-based Simulations for Teaching Waves and Optics
Mzoughi, Taha; Foley, John; Herring, Davis; Morris, Matt; Wyser, Ben
2003-03-01
WebTOP is 3D interactive computer graphics system designed to help students learn about waves and optics. It has been used to help teach undergraduate introductory physics and optics classes. It has sixteen modules that treat the following topics: waves, geometrical optics, reflection and refraction, polarization, interference, diffraction, lasers and scattering. WebTOP simulations have the following characteristics. First, they are three dimensional, i.e., they have navigation controls that allow the user to rotate the scene, pan it, or zoom into it. Secondly, they are interactive. The user can change the parameters either by typing the values into boxes, or by using the mouse cursor to move the corresponding widget in the scene. Thirdly, the simulations are animated, when animation is appropriate. Furthermore, the simulations include vcr-type controls that allow the user to record a session for later retrieval and viewing. Finally, these modules run inside a web browser. They can be run from our website, http://webtop.msstate.edu or be downloaded from this website and run locally. In addition to the simulations, each WebTOP module includes a short description of the theory used, and sets of recorded examples and suggested exercises. WebTOP is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation (DUE 9950569).
The Shock Dynamics of Heterogeneous YSO Jets: 3-D Simulations Meet Multi-Epoch Observations
Hansen, E C; Hartigan, P; Lebedev, S V
2016-01-01
High resolution observations of Young Stellar Object (YSO) jets show them to be composed of many small-scale knots or clumps. In this paper we report results of 3-D numerical simulations designed to study how such clumps interact and create morphologies and kinematic patterns seen in emission line observations. Our simulations focus on clump scale dynamics by imposing velocity differences between spherical, over-dense regions which then lead to the formation of bow shocks as faster clumps overtake slower material. We show that much of the spatial structure apparent in emission line images of jets arises from the dynamics and interactions of these bow shocks. Our simulations show a variety of time-dependent features, including bright knots associated with Mach stems where the shocks intersect, a "frothy" emission structure that arises from the presence of the Non-linear Thin Shell Instability (NTSI) along the surfaces of the bow shocks, and the merging and fragmentation of clumps. Our simulations use a new non...
A GIS-Based 3D Simulation for Occupant Evacuation in a Building
TANG Fangqin; ZHANG Xin
2008-01-01
The evacuation efficiency of building plans is of obvious importance to the public safety.The cem- plexity of building plans,however,makes it difficult for the efficiency evaluation.This paper presents a com- putational model AutoEscape,which can simulate the evacuation process for any given occupant distribu. Uon in buildings.Designed as an extensible multi-level structure, the model constructs the geometry level and occupant level and establishes the interactions between levels.The GIS-based environmental analysis is realized to automatically generate the geometric representation and formulate the cognition of agents. The multi-agent based technology is employed to simulate the crowd behaviom with autonomously acting individuals.A visualization component,which provides 3D free observations for the simulation process,is developed on the platform of OGRE and integrated into the system interface in form of ActiveX control.Fi- nally,a case study has been conducted and the results have been compared with the results of an existing model to show the reliability and capacity of AutoEscape simulation.
Recent progress in 3D EM/EM-PIC simulation with ARGUS and parallel ARGUS
ARGUS is an integrated, 3-D, volumetric simulation model for systems involving electric and magnetic fields and charged particles, including materials embedded in the simulation region. The code offers the capability to carry out time domain and frequency domain electromagnetic simulations of complex physical systems. ARGUS offers a boolean solid model structure input capability that can include essentially arbitrary structures on the computational domain, and a modular architecture that allows multiple physics packages to access the same data structure and to share common code utilities. Physics modules are in place to compute electrostatic and electromagnetic fields, the normal modes of RF structures, and self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation in either a time dependent mode or a steady state mode. The PIC modules include multiple particle species, the Lorentz equations of motion, and algorithms for the creation of particles by emission from material surfaces, injection onto the grid, and ionization. In this paper, we present an updated overview of ARGUS, with particular emphasis given in recent algorithmic and computational advances. These include a completely rewritten frequency domain solver which efficiently treats lossy materials and periodic structures, a parallel version of ARGUS with support for both shared memory parallel vector (i.e. CRAY) machines and distributed memory massively parallel MIMD systems, and numerous new applications of the code
Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation
Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.
2015-01-01
Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice-accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional (3-D) features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-in. chord, two-dimensional (2-D) straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice-accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 × 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For five of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3 percent with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately 1 deg or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several
Gao, Nuo; Zhu, Shan-an; He, Bin
2005-01-01
We have developed a new three dimensional (3-D) conductivity imaging approach and have used it to detect human brain conductivity changes corresponding to acute cerebral stroke. The proposed Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) approach is based on the J-Substitution algorithm and is expanded to imaging 3-D subject conductivity distribution changes. Computer simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the present MREIT imaging approach. Simulations of both types o...
Numerical methods for 3D tokamak simulations using a flux-surface independent grid
A numerical approach for 3D tokamak simulations using a flux surface independent grid is presented. The grid consists of few poloidal planes with a Cartesian Isotropic grid within each poloidal plane. Perpendicular operators can be discretised within a poloidal plane using standard second order finite difference methods. The discretisation of parallel operators is achieved with a field line following map and an interpolation. The application of the support operator method to the parallel diffusion operator conserves the self-adjointness of the operator on the discrete level and keeps the numerical decay rate at a low level. The developed numerical methods can be applied to geometries where an X-point is present.
The power spectrum of solar convection flows from high-resolution observations and 3D simulations
Chaouche, L Yelles; Bonet, J A
2014-01-01
We compare Fourier spectra of photospheric velocity fields from very high resolution IMaX observations to those from recent 3D numerical magnetoconvection models. We carry out a proper comparison by synthesizing spectral lines from the numerical models and then applying to them the adequate residual instrumental degradation that affects the observational data. Also, the validity of the usual observational proxies is tested by obtaining synthetic observations from the numerical boxes and comparing the velocity proxies to the actual velocity values from the numerical grid. For the observations, data from the SUNRISE/IMaX instrument with about 120 km spatial resolution are used, thus allowing the calculation of observational Fourier spectra well into the subgranular range. For the simulations, we use four series of runs obtained with the STAGGER code and synthesize the IMaX spectral line (FeI 5250.2 A) from them. Proxies for the velocity field are obtained via Dopplergrams (vertical component) and local correlat...
Cognitive/emotional models for human behavior representation in 3D avatar simulations
Peterson, James K.
2004-08-01
Simplified models of human cognition and emotional response are presented which are based on models of auditory/ visual polymodal fusion. At the core of these models is a computational model of Area 37 of the temporal cortex which is based on new isocortex models presented recently by Grossberg. These models are trained using carefully chosen auditory (musical sequences), visual (paintings) and higher level abstract (meta level) data obtained from studies of how optimization strategies are chosen in response to outside managerial inputs. The software modules developed are then used as inputs to character generation codes in standard 3D virtual world simulations. The auditory and visual training data also enable the development of simple music and painting composition generators which significantly enhance one's ability to validate the cognitive model. The cognitive models are handled as interacting software agents implemented as CORBA objects to allow the use of multiple language coding choices (C++, Java, Python etc) and efficient use of legacy code.
3-D NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF CONVOY-GENERATED WAVES IN A RESTRICTED WATERWAY
JI Sheng Cheng; OUAHSINE Abdellatif; SMAOUI Hassan; SERGENT Philippe
2012-01-01
We consider waves generated by the passing of convoys in a restricted waterway.The magnitude of these waves depends mainly on the geometrical and kinematical parameters of the convoy,such as the speed and the hull geometry.The objective of this study is to predict the relationship between these geometrical and kinematical parameters and the amplitude of ship-generated waves as well as the water plane drawdown.Numerical simulations are conducted by solving the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations along with the standard k-ε model for turbulent processes.The results are compared first with the empirical model and second with experimental measurements performed by the French company Compagnie National du Rh(o)ne (CNR).
3D hydrodynamical simulations of the large scale structure of W50-SS433
Zavala, Jesús; Cerqueira, Adriano H; Dubner, Gloria M
2008-01-01
We present 3D hydrodynamical simulations of a precessing jet propagating inside a supernova remnant (SNR) shell, particularly applied to the W50-SS433 system in a search for the origin of its peculiar elongated morphology. Several runs were carried out with different values for the mass loss rate of the jet, the initial radius of the SNR, and the opening angle of the precession cone. We found that our models successfully reproduce the scale and morphology of W50 when the opening angle of the jets is set to 10$\\degr$ or if this angle linearly varies with time. For these models, more realistic runs were made considering that the remnant is expanding into an interstellar medium (ISM) with an exponential density profile (as HI observations suggest). Taking into account all these ingredients, the large scale morphology of the W50-SS 433 system, including the asymmetry between the lobes (formed by the jet-SNR interaction), is well reproduced.
3D Nonlinear Numerical Simulation of Intact and Debonded Reinforced Concrete Beams
Chen Quan(陈权); Marcus L.
2004-01-01
To study the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) structures with sections of concrete removed and the reinforcement exposed, 3D nonlinear numerical analysis was performed upon both intact and debonded RC beams by using finite element techniques. The deformational characteristics and the ultimate loads were obtained through numerical models, as well as crack and stress distributions. The failure modes can also be deduced from computational results. Compared with intact beams, the normal assumptions of plane section behaviour is not hold true and the patterns of stress and strain are different in debonded RC beams. The numerical results show good consistency with experimental data. This kind of numerical simulation is a supplement to existing codes.
Natural circulation decay heat removal is one of the significant issues for fast reactor safety, especially in long term station blackout events. Several sodium experiments were carried out using a 7-subassembly core model for core thermal hydraulics under natural circulation conditions and for onset transients of natural circulation in a decay heat removal system (DHRS) including natural draft. Significant heat removal via inter-wrapper flow was confirmed in the experiments. Solidification of sodium in an air cooler is one of key issues in loss of heat sink events. Natural circulation characteristics under long-term decay heat removal were also obtained. Multi-dimensional phenomena, e.g., thermal stratification and bypass flow in plenums and/or heat exchangers, may influence the natural circulation. Thus, 3D simulation method was developed for entire region in the primary loop. Comparison of temperature distributions in a DHRS heat exchanger between experiment and analysis was done. (author)
Evaluation of simulation-based scatter correction for 3-D PET cardiac imaging
Quantitative imaging of the human thorax poses one of the most difficult challenges for three-dimensional (3-D) (septaless) positron emission tomography (PET), due to the strong attenuation of the annihilation radiation and the large contribution of scattered photons to the data. In [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of the heart with the patient's arms in the field of view, the contribution of scattered events can exceed 50% of the total detected coincidences. Accurate correction for this scatter component is necessary for meaningful quantitative image analysis and tracer kinetic modeling. For this reason, the authors have implemented a single-scatter simulation technique for scatter correction in positron volume imaging. In this paper they describe this algorithm and present scatter correction results from human and chest phantom studies
3D etching profile evolution simulation using sparse field level set method
Radenovic, B; Lee, J K; Radenovic, Branislav
2004-01-01
Level set method, introduced by Osher and Sethian [1], is a highly robust and accurate computational technique for tracking of moving interfaces in etching, deposition and photolithography processes. It originates from the idea to view the moving front as a particular level set of a higher dimensional function, so the topological merging and breaking, sharp gradients and cusps can form naturally, and the effects of curvature can be easily incorporated. The corresponding equations of motion for the propagating surfaces, which resemble Hamilton-Jacobi equations with parabolic right-hand sides, can be solved using methods for solving hyperbolic conservation laws, ensuring in that the way correct entropy-satisfying solution [2]. In this paper we describe an application of the sparse field method for solving level set equations in 3D plasma etching simulations. Sparse field method itself, developed by Whitaker [3] and broadly used in image processing community, is an alternative to the usual combination of narrow ...
Relativistic MHD simulations of core-collapse GRB jets: 3D instabilities and magnetic dissipation
Bromberg, Omer
2015-01-01
Relativistic jets naturally occur in astrophysical systems that involve accretion onto compact objects, such as core collapse of massive stars in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and accretion onto supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN). It is generally accepted that these jets are powered electromagnetically, by the magnetised rotation of a central compact object. However, how they produce the observed emission and survive the propagation for many orders of magnitude in distance without being disrupted by current-driven non-axisymmetric instabilities is the subject of active debate. We carry out time-dependent 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic, Poynting flux dominated jets. The jets are launched self-consistently by the rotation of a strongly magnetised central compact object. This determines the natural degree of azimuthal magnetic field winding, a crucial factor that controls jet stability. We find that the jets are susceptible to two types of instability: (i) a globa...
Implementation of 3D Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation on a Cluster of Symmetric Multiprocessors
雷咏梅; 蒋英; 等
2002-01-01
This paper presents a new approach to parallelize 3D lattice Monte Carlo algorithms used in the numerical simulation of polymer on ZiQiang 2000-a cluster of symmetric multiprocessors(SMPs).The combined load for cell and energy calculations over the time step is balanced together to form a single spatial decomposition.Basic aspects and strategies of running Monte Carlo calculations on parallel computers are studied.Different steps involved in porting the software on a parallel architecture based on ZiQiang 2000 running under Linux and MPI are described briefly.It is found that parallelization becomes more advantageous when either the lattice is very large or the model contains many cells and chains.
3D simulations of axially confined heavy ion beams in round and square pipes
We have been using the 3d PIC code WARP6 to model the behavior of beams in a heavy ion induction accelerator; such linacs are candidates for an ICF driver. Improvements have been added to the code to model an axially confined beam using comoving axial electric fields to simulate the confining ''ears'' applied to the accelerating pulses in a real system. We have also added a facility for modeling a beam in a round pipe, applying a capacity matrix to each axial Fourier mode in turn. These additions are described along with results, such as the effect of pipe shape on the beam quality degradation from quadrupole misalignments. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Tredit A 3-D multigroup diffusion theory simulator for hexagonal fuel assembly cores
A multigroup 3-D reactor core simulator based on neutron diffusion theory, called TREDIT has been developed for Light Water Reactors (LWRs). It considers triangle shaped meshes in X-Y plane and variable mesh spacing in Z-direction. Thus it is especially suited for designing and analysing LWR cores with hexagonal fuel assemblied like the Russian WWER reactors. When fuel assembly cross-sections in multigroup form are input as fitted constants, the computer code TREDIT can build up core burnup distribution with power distribution computed for initial reactor conditions. The results of this code have been compared with another diffusion theory based code and found satisfactory. Xenon feedback effects on core power distribution are demonstrated. (author)
Parallel 3D Finite Element Particle-in-Cell Simulations with Pic3P
Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; /SLAC; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; /Brookhaven
2009-06-19
SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel 3D Finite Element electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell code Pic3P. Designed for simulations of beam-cavity interactions dominated by space charge effects, Pic3P solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations self-consistently and includes space-charge, retardation and boundary effects from first principles. Higher-order Finite Element methods with adaptive refinement on conformal unstructured meshes lead to highly efficient use of computational resources. Massively parallel processing with dynamic load balancing enables large-scale modeling of photoinjectors with unprecedented accuracy, aiding the design and operation of next-generation accelerator facilities. Applications include the LCLS RF gun and the BNL polarized SRF gun.
Analysis of writing characteristics of CF-SPT head using 3-D read/write simulation system
Ohtake, Masaya; Takahashi, Norio; Shinagawa, Kiminari
2004-01-01
Recently, the increase of areal recording density is remarkable. In order to develop a high density recording device, a read/write (R/W) simulation using three dimensional (3-D) magnetic field analysis is indispensable. In this paper, the magnetic field in a cusp-field single-pole-type (CF-SPT) head with discrete track media is analyzed using a 3-D R/W simulation system, in which edge-based finite element method and 3-D medium hysteresis model based on the ensemble of the Stoner-Wohlfarth (SW...
Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2008-08-10
The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI
Simulation of bacteria transport processes in a river with Flow3D
Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Bui, Minh Duc; Rutschmann, Peter
2014-05-01
Water quality aspects are getting more and more important due to the European water Framework directive (WFD). One problem related to this topic is the inflow of untreated wastewater due to combined sewer overflows into a river. The wastewater mixture contains even bacteria like E. coli and Enterococci which are markers for water quality. In our work we investigated the transport of these bacteria in river Isar by using a large-scale flume in the outside area of our lab (Oskar von Miller Institute). Therefor we could collect basic data and knowledge about the processes which occur during bacteria sedimentation and remobilisation. In our flume we could use the real grain with the exact size distribution curve as in the river Isar which we want to simulate and we had the chance to nurture a biofilm which is realistic for the analysed situation. This biofilm plays an important role in the remobilisation processes, because the bacteria are hindered to be washed out back into the bulk phase as fast and in such an amount as this would happen without biofilm. The results of our experiments are now used for a module in the 3D software Flow3D to simulate the effects of a point source inlet of raw wastewater on the water quality. Therefor we have to implement the bacteria not as a problem of concentration with advection and diffusion but as single particles which can be inactivated during the process of settling and need to be hindered from remobilisation by the biofilm. This biofilm has special characteristic, it is slippery and has a special thickness which influences the chance of bacteria being removed. To achieve realistic results we have to include the biofilm with more than a probabilistic-tool to make sure that our module is transferable. The module should be as flexible as possible to be improved step by step with increasing quality of dataset.
Simulation of abrasive flow machining process for 2D and 3D mixture models
Dash, Rupalika; Maity, Kalipada
2015-12-01
Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a
Realistic 3D Terrain Roaming and Real-Time Flight Simulation
Que, Xiang; Liu, Gang; He, Zhenwen; Qi, Guang
2014-12-01
This paper presents an integrate method, which can provide access to current status and the dynamic visible scanning topography, to enhance the interactive during the terrain roaming and real-time flight simulation. A digital elevation model and digital ortho-photo map data integrated algorithm is proposed as the base algorithm for our approach to build a realistic 3D terrain scene. A new technique with help of render to texture and head of display for generating the navigation pane is used. In the flight simulating, in order to eliminate flying "jump", we employs the multidimensional linear interpolation method to adjust the camera parameters dynamically and steadily. Meanwhile, based on the principle of scanning laser imaging, we draw pseudo color figures by scanning topography in different directions according to the real-time flying status. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is prospective for applications and the method can improve the effect and enhance dynamic interaction during the real-time flight.
3D simulations of young core-collapse supernova remnants undergoing efficient particle acceleration
Ferrand, Gilles
2016-01-01
Within our Galaxy, supernova remnants are believed to be the major sources of cosmic rays up to the "knee". However important questions remain regarding the share of the hadronic and leptonic components, and the fraction of the supernova energy channelled into these components. We address such question by the means of numerical simulations that combine a hydrodynamic treatment of the shock wave with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. Performing 3D simulations allows us to produce synthetic projected maps and spectra of the thermal and non-thermal emission, that can be compared with multi-wavelength observations (in radio, X-rays, and gamma-rays). Supernovae come in different types, and although their energy budget is of the same order, their remnants have different properties, and so may contribute in different ways to the pool of Galactic cosmic-rays. Our first simulations were focused on thermonuclear supernovae, like Tycho's SNR, that usually occur in a mostly undisturbed medium. Here we present...
The Making of FR Is I. Numerical Hydrodynamic 3D Simulations of Low Power Jets
Massaglia, S; Rossi, P; Capetti, S; Mignone, A
2016-01-01
Extragalactic radiosources have been classified in two classes, Fanaroff-Riley I and II, which differ in morphology and radio power. Strongly emitting sources belong to the edge brightened FR II class while the weak ones to the edge darkened FR I class. The origin of this dichotomy is not yet fully understood. Numerical simulations are successful in generating FR~II morphologies but they fail to reproduce the diffuse structure of FR Is. By means of hydro-dynamical 3D simulations of supersonic jets, we investigate how the displayed morphologies depend on the jet parameters. Bow shocks and Mach disks at the jet's head, likely responsible for the presence of hot spots in the FR II sources, disappear for a jet kinetic power less than 10^43 erg/s. This threshold compares favorably with the luminosity at which the FR~I/FR~II transition is observed. The problem is addressed by numerical means carrying out three-dimensional HD simulations of supersonic jets that propagate in a non homogeneous medium with the ambient ...
Multi-scale 3D simulation of lightning and thunderstorm electrodynamics
Kabirzadeh, R.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Liang, C.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U.
2014-12-01
Despite centuries studying thunderstorm electrodynamics, our understanding of these phenomena remains limited. The difficulty lies partly in the large number of processes and their mutual dependency and the wide range of temporal and the spatial scales involved. In this study we combine two numerical models to move toward a simulation that addresses these broad scales. First, we use a 3D numerical model to calculate the large scale quasi-electrostatic (QES) fields and charge distributions built up by updrafts in the thundercloud. This model self-consistently accounts for the conductivities, particle densities, large scale currents and charging mechanisms inside a thundercloud in the atmosphere. Second, we use a time-domain fractal lightning (TDFL) model developed that takes into account both the thermodynamics and electrodynamics of leader development and the return stroke on small time and spatial scales (Liang et al. 2014). The QES model simulates slow thunderstorm charging dynamics, and then passes the state to the TDFL model when a flash is ready to trigger. Using this combined simulation, we explain some recently observed patterns of lightning inside a thunderstorm and within a flash (e.g. Zoghzoghy et al. 2013, 2014). We attempt to constrain properties of the thundercloud like the size and shape of the charge pockets removed from the thundercloud, the flash rate and updraft currents, the relative occurrence rate of different types of lightning, and the cloud charge distribution structure effects on the lightning type.
Easy, Luke; Omotani, John; Dudson, Benjamin; Havlíčková, Eva; Tamain, Patrick; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders H
2014-01-01
This paper presents simulations of isolated 3D filaments in a slab geometry obtained using a 3D reduced fluid code. First, systematic scans were performed to investigate how the dynamics of a filament are affected by its amplitude, perpendicular size and parallel extent. The perpendicular size of the filament was found to have a strong influence on its motions, as it determined the relative importance of parallel currents to polarisation and viscous currents, whilst drift-wave instabilities were observed if the initial amplitude of the blob was increased sufficiently. Next, the 3D simulations were compared to 2D simulations using different parallel closures; namely, the sheath dissipation closure, which neglects parallel gradients, and the vorticity advection closure, which neglects the influence of parallel currents. The vorticity advection closure was found to not replicate the 3D perpendicular dynamics and overestimated the initial radial acceleration of all the filaments studied. In contrast, a more satis...
We developed a computer-aided interactive surgical simulation system for craniofacial anomalies based on three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction CT imaging. This system has four functions: 1) 3-D surface reconstruction display with an accelerated projection method; 2) Surgical simulation to cut, move, rotate, and reverse bone-blocks over the reference 3-D image on the CRT screen; 3) 3-D display of the simulated image in arbitrary views; and 4) Prediction of postoperative skin surface features displayed as 3-D images in arbitrary views. Retrospective surgical simulation has been performed on three patients who underwent the fronto-orbital advancement procedures for brachycephaly and two who underwent the reconstructive procedure for scaphocephaly. The predicted configurations of the cranium and skin surface were well simulated when compared to the postoperative images in 3-D arbitrary views. In practical use, this software might be used for an on-line system connected to a large scale general-purpose computer. (author)
A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration - a simulation study
3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 ± 0.6 (deg.) and 4.1 ± 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 ± 0.7 (deg.) and 4.2 ± 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications
Granato, Gian Luigi; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Obreja, Aura; Borgani, Stefano; De Lucia, Gabriella; Murante, Giuseppe
2015-06-01
We compute and study the infrared and sub-mm properties of high-redshift (z ≳ 1) simulated clusters and protoclusters. The results of a large set of hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations including active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, have been treated with the recently developed radiative transfer code GRASIL-3D, which accounts for the effect of dust reprocessing in an arbitrary geometry. Here, we have slightly generalized the code to adapt it to the present purpose. Then we have post-processed boxes of physical size 2 Mpc encompassing each of the 24 most massive clusters identified at z = 0, at several redshifts between 0.5 and 3, producing IR and sub-mm mock images of these regions and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the radiation coming out from them. While this field is in its infancy from the observational point of view, rapid development is expected in the near future thanks to observations performed in the far-IR and sub-mm bands. Notably, we find that in this spectral regime our prediction are little affected by the assumption required by this post-processing, and the emission is mostly powered by star formation (SF) rather than accretion on to super massive black hole (SMBH). The comparison with the little observational information currently available, highlights that the simulated cluster regions never attain the impressive star formation rates suggested by these observations. This problem becomes more intriguing taking into account that the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the same simulations turn out to be too massive. It seems that the interplay between the feedback schemes and the star formation model should be revised, possibly incorporating a positive feedback mode.
Ultra-fast hybrid CPU-GPU multiple scatter simulation for 3-D PET.
Kim, Kyung Sang; Son, Young Don; Cho, Zang Hee; Ra, Jong Beom; Ye, Jong Chul
2014-01-01
Scatter correction is very important in 3-D PET reconstruction due to a large scatter contribution in measurements. Currently, one of the most popular methods is the so-called single scatter simulation (SSS), which considers single Compton scattering contributions from many randomly distributed scatter points. The SSS enables a fast calculation of scattering with a relatively high accuracy; however, the accuracy of SSS is dependent on the accuracy of tail fitting to find a correct scaling factor, which is often difficult in low photon count measurements. To overcome this drawback as well as to improve accuracy of scatter estimation by incorporating multiple scattering contribution, we propose a multiple scatter simulation (MSS) based on a simplified Monte Carlo (MC) simulation that considers photon migration and interactions due to photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering. Unlike the SSS, the MSS calculates a scaling factor by comparing simulated prompt data with the measured data in the whole volume, which enables a more robust estimation of a scaling factor. Even though the proposed MSS is based on MC, a significant acceleration of the computational time is possible by using a virtual detector array with a larger pitch by exploiting that the scatter distribution varies slowly in spatial domain. Furthermore, our MSS implementation is nicely fit to a parallel implementation using graphic processor unit (GPU). In particular, we exploit a hybrid CPU-GPU technique using the open multiprocessing and the compute unified device architecture, which results in 128.3 times faster than using a single CPU. Overall, the computational time of MSS is 9.4 s for a high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) system. The performance of the proposed MSS is validated through actual experiments using an HRRT. PMID:24403412
Radiative 3D MHD simulations of the spontaneous small-scale eruptions in the solar atmosphere
Kitiashvili, Irina N.
2015-08-01
Studying non-linear turbulent dynamics of the solar atmosphere is important for understanding mechanism of the solar and stellar brightness variations. High-resolution observations of the quiet Sun reveal ubiquitous distributions of high-speed jets, which are transport mass and energy into the solar corona and feeding the solar wind. However, the origin of these eruption events is still unknown. Using 3D realistic MHD numerical simulations we find that small-scale eruptions are produced by ubiquitous magnetized vortex tubes generated by the Sun's turbulent convection in subsurface layers. The swirling vortex tubes (resembling tornadoes) penetrate into the solar atmosphere, capture and stretch background magnetic field, and push the surrounding material up, generating shocks. Our simulations reveal complicated high-speed flow patterns and thermodynamic and magnetic structure in the erupting vortex tubes and shows that the eruptions are initiated in the subsurface layers and are driven by high-pressure gradients in the subphotosphere and photosphere and by the Lorentz force in the higher atmosphere layers. I will discuss about properties of these eruptions, their effects on brightness and spectral variations and comparison with observations.
Taha, Uday; Shabeeb, Ahmed; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio
2016-04-01
This work analyzed the variability of sprinkler irrigation application over a bare soil, both in terms of water application efficiency and uniformity, by integrating and comparing the information on the irrigation depth data (ID), as measured by catch cans, soil water storage in the upper root zone, as measured by TDR probes, and a 3D simulations of water flow in soils. Three irrigation tests were performed at three different pressures (2, 3 and 4 bar). A lateral water redistribution was observed and simulated after each irrigation event by comparing spatial distributions of site-specific water application efficiency (AEs), as well as ratios of site-specific actual water storage increase (SWEs) and irrigation depth (IDs) to the water content before irrigation. Because of soil water redistribution processes, distribution uniformity based on soil storages was systematically higher than the catch can uniformity. The obvious consequence of lateral water redistribution processes was that the soil smoothing action on non-uniformity observed at the surface increased both with depth and over time. At a given depth the uniformity of soil water storages always attained the same value, whatever the pressure considered and the catch can-based uniformity coefficient. It was concluded that, for the case of random distribution of ID, the uniformity of water storages is driven by the soil behavior rather than by the irrigation system.
3D Gyrokinetic simulation of the relaxation of magnetized temperature filaments
Sydora, Richard; Morales, George; Maggs, James; van Compernolle, Bart
2015-11-01
An electromagnetic, 3D gyrokinetic particle simulation model is used to study the relaxation of magnetized electron temperature filaments embedded in a large, uniform plasma of lower temperature. The study provides insight into the role of unstable drift-Alfvén waves observed in a basic electron heat transport experiment. At saturation onset, the unstable temperature-gradient-driven drift-Alfvén fluctuations display a spiral spatial pattern, similar to laboratory measurements, which causes the rearrangement of the temperature profile. After linear instability saturation the system exhibits very different behavior depending on the inclusion of modes without variation along the magnetic field. In their absence the initial filament evolves into a broadened temperature profile, self-consistent with undamped, finite amplitude drift-Alfvén waves, however, their inclusion causes the destruction of the filament and damping of the drift-Alfvén modes leading to a final state consisting of undamped convective cells and multiple smaller-scale filaments. Simulation particle tracking and permutation entropy analysis reveal an underlying chaotic dynamics associated with the anomalous transport. This work is supported by NSERC, Canada and U.S. DOE/NSF.
3D simulations of the early stages of AGN jets: geometry, thermodynamics and backflow
Cielo, S; Macciò, A V; Romeo, A D; Silk, J
2013-01-01
We investigate the interplay between jets from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) and the surrounding InterStellar Medium (ISM) through full 3D, high resolution, Adaptive Mesh Refinement simulations performed with the FLASH code. We follow the jet- ISM system for several Myr in its transition from an early, compact source to an extended one including a large cocoon. During the jet evolution, we identify three major evolutionary stages and we find that, contrary to the prediction of popular theoretical models, none of the simulations shows a self-similar behavior. We also follow the evolution of the energy budget, and find that the fraction of input power deposited into the ISM (the AGN coupling constant) is of order of a few percent during the first few Myr. This is in broad agreement with galaxy formation models employing AGN feedback. However, we find that in these early stages, this energy is deposited only in a small fraction (< 1%) of the total ISM volume. Finally we demonstrate the relevance of backflows ...
3d and r,z particle simulations of Heavy Ion Fusion beams
The space-charge-dominated beams in a Heavy Ion beam driven inertial Fusion (HIF) accelerator must be focuses onto small (few mm) spots at the fusion target, and so preservation of a small emittance is crucial. The nonlinear beam self-fields can lead to emittance growth; thus, a self-consistent field description is necessary. We have developed a multi-dimensional time-dependent discrete particle simulation code, WARP, and are using it to study the behavior of HIF beams. The code's 3d package combines features of an accelerator code and a particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation. Novel techniques allow it to follow beams through many accelerator elements over long distances and around bends. We have used the code to understand the emittance growth observed in the MBE4 experiment at. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) under conditions of aggressive drift-compression. We are currently applying it to LBL's planned ILSE experiments, and (most recently) to an ESQ injector option being evaluated for ILSE. The code's r, z package is being used to study the axial confinement afforded by the shaped ends of the accelerating pulses, and to study longitudinal instability induced by induction module impedance
Pelton turbine Needle erosion prediction based on 3D three- phase flow simulation
Pelton turbine, which applied to the high water head and small flow rate, is widely used in the mountainous area. During the operation period the sediment contained in the water does not only induce the abrasion of the buckets, but also leads to the erosion at the nozzle which may damage the needle structure. The nozzle and needle structure are mainly used to form high quality cylindrical jet and increase the efficiency of energy exchange in the runner to the most. Thus the needle erosion will lead to the deformation of jet, and then may cause the efficiency loss and cavitation. The favourable prediction of abrasion characteristic of needle can effectively guide the optimization design and maintenance of needle structure. This paper simulated the unsteady three-dimensional multi-phase flow in the nozzle and injected jet flow. As the jet containing water and sediment is injected into the free atmosphere air with high velocity, the VOF model was adopted to predict the water and air flow. The sediment is simplified into round solid particle and the discrete particle model (DPM) was employed to predict the needle abrasion characteristic. The sand particle tracks were analyzed to interpret the mechanism of sand erosion on the needle surface. And the numerical result of needle abrasion was obtained and compared with the abrasion field observation. The similarity of abrasion pattern between the numerical results and field observation illustrated the validity of the 3D multi-phase flow simulation method
Characterization of an SRF gun: a 3D full wave simulation
Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Wang, J.
2011-03-28
We characterized a BNL 1.3GHz half-cell SRF gun is tested for GaAs photocathode. The gun already was simulated several years ago via two-dimensional (2D) numerical codes (i.e., Superfish and Parmela) with and without the beam. In this paper, we discuss our investigation of its characteristics using a three dimensional (3D) full-wave code (CST STUDIO SUITE{trademark}).The input/pickup couplers are sited symmetrically on the same side of the gun at an angle of 180{sup o}. In particular, the inner conductor of the pickup coupler is considerably shorter than that of the input coupler. We evaluated the cross-talk between the beam (trajectory) and the signal on the input coupler compared our findings with published results based on analytical models. The CST STUDIO SUITE{trademark} also was used to predict the field within the cavity; particularly, a combination of transient/eigenmode solvers was employed to accurately construct the RF field for the particles, which also includes the effects of the couplers. Finally, we explored the beam's dynamics with a particle in cell (PIC) simulation, validated the results and compare them with 2D code result.
A parametric study of mucociliary transport by numerical simulations of 3D non-homogeneous mucus.
Chatelin, Robin; Poncet, Philippe
2016-06-14
Mucociliary clearance is the natural flow of the mucus which covers and protects the lung from the outer world. Pathologies, like cystic fibrosis, highly change the biological parameters of the mucus flow leading to stagnation situations and pathogens proliferation. As the lung exhibits a complex dyadic structure, in-vivo experimental study of mucociliary clearance is almost impossible and numerical simulations can bring important knowledge about this biological flow. This paper brings a detailed study of the biological parameters influence on the mucociliary clearance, in particular for pathological situations such as cystic fibrosis. Using recent suitable numerical methods, a non-homogeneous mucus flow (including non-linearities) can be simulated efficiently in 3D, allowing the identification of the meaningful parameters involved in this biological flow. Among these parameters, it is shown that the mucus viscosity, the stiffness transition between pericilliary fluid and mucus, the pericilliary fluid height as well as both cilia length and beating frequency have a great influence on the mucociliary transport. PMID:27126985
3D-MHD simulations of an accretion disk with star-disk boundary layer
Steinacker, A; Steinacker, Adriane; Papaloizou, John C.B.
2002-01-01
We present global 3D MHD simulations of geometrically thin but unstratified accretion disks in which a near Keplerian disk rotates between two bounding regions with initial rotation profiles that are stable to the MRI. The inner region models the boundary layer between the disk and an assumed more slowly rotating central, non magnetic star. We investigate the dynamical evolution of this system in response to initial vertical and toroidal fields imposed in a variety of domains contained within the near Keplerian disk. Cases with both non zero and zero net magnetic flux are considered and sustained dynamo activity found in runs for up to fifty orbital periods at the outer boundary of the near Keplerian disk. Simulations starting from fields with small radial scale and with zero net flux lead to the lowest levels of turbulence and smoothest variation of disk mean state variables. For our computational set up, average values of the Shakura & Sunyaev (1973) $\\alpha$ parameter in the Keplerian disk are typicall...
The use of CAFE-3D for the simulation of tunnel fires
Fires after accidents inside tunnels, such as the July 2001 Howard Street Tunnel fire in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, have raised stakeholder questions concerning the survivability of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transport cask when exposed to similar thermal environments. The analysis of tunnel fires is a computational challenge because of the need for very large computational domains in order to fully simulate such a problem. In this paper, the analyses of two different tunnel fire scenarios are described and the performance of typical SNF casks when exposed to these tunnel fire environments is discussed. The CAFE-3D fire code is used to model a series of fires inside tunnels, and the thermal performance of a SNF transportation cask within such fire environments is estimated with the use of the MSC PATRAN-P/Thermal finite element analysis code. The methodology used to simulate this type of fire scenario as well as a description of the manner in which the CAFE code couples the computational fluid dynamics and the finite element analysis techniques are also presented
Nonlinear 3-D simulation of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy in the kidney
Suomi, Visa; Treeby, Bradley; Cleveland, Robin
2016-01-01
Kidney cancer is a severe disease which can be treated non-invasively using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. However, tissue in front of the transducer and the deep location of kidney can cause significant losses to the efficiency of the treatment. The effect of attenuation, refraction and reflection due to different tissue types on HIFU therapy of the kidney was studied using a nonlinear ultrasound simulation model. The geometry of the tissue was derived from a computed tomography (CT) dataset of a patient which had been segmented for water, bone, soft tissue, fat and kidney. The combined effect of inhomogeneous attenuation and sound-speed was found to result in an 11.0 dB drop in spatial peak-temporal average (SPTA) intensity in the kidney compared to pure water. The simulation without refraction effects showed a 6.3 dB decrease indicating that both attenuation and refraction contribute to the loss in focal intensity. The losses due to reflections at soft tissue interfaces were less than 0....
This paper presents the simulation of 3D free surface flows by the two-phase least-squares finite element method (LSFEM). It is believed that this is the first time the LSFEM be extended from a 2D model to a 3D one and applied to investigate the 3D free surface flow phenomena. The dynamic and kinematic boundary conditions of free surface are described in an Eulerian coordinate system. The governing 3D Navier-Stokes equations in association with the color function are solved by the element-by-element scheme. In this simulation, the volume of fluid (VOF) method and continuous stress force (CSF) models are applied for the determination of the interface between the two phases of liquid and gas. The free surface position at each time step is determined by the distribution of the color function. The formation of the 3D model is carefully examined; and the quantitative comparisons of the 3D numerical simulations with experimental measurements and previous 2D numerical results are verified in good agreement. For the partial dam-break flows, it is shown that the two-phase LSFEM can effectively simulate the 3D flows. The unsteady water surface profiles of dam-break flow moving over an obstacle and the liquid drop are also simulated in this study. A 3D two-phase LSFEM has been established and carefully justified by some benchmark free surface flows. The method will be useful for the actual application to the two-phase flows with two immiscible fluids, such as liquid-gas flow, and metallurgic flow.
This document is a user's manual for the Rn3D finite element code. Rn3D was developed to simulate gas flow and radon transport in variably saturated, nonisothermal porous media. The Rn3D model is applicable to a wide range of problems involving radon transport in soil because it can simulate either steady-state or transient flow and transport in one-, two- or three-dimensions (including radially symmetric two-dimensional problems). The porous materials may be heterogeneous and anisotropic. This manual describes all pertinent mathematics related to the governing, boundary, and constitutive equations of the model, as well as the development of the finite element equations used in the code. Instructions are given for constructing Rn3D input files and executing the code, as well as a description of all output files generated by the code. Five verification problems are given that test various aspects of code operation, complete with example input files, FORTRAN programs for the respective analytical solutions, and plots of model results. An example simulation is presented to illustrate the type of problem Rn3D is designed to solve. Finally, instructions are given on how to convert Rn3D to simulate systems other than radon, air, and water
Ngirmang, Gregory K; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John T; Chowdhury, Enam A; Frische, Kyle; Roquemore, W M
2015-01-01
We present 3D Particle-in-Cell (PIC) modeling of an ultra-intense laser experiment by the Extreme Light group at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) using the PIC code LSP. This is the first time PIC simulations have been performed in 3D for this experiment which involves an ultra-intense, short-pulse (30 fs) laser interacting with a water jet target at normal incidence. These 3D PIC simulation results are compared to results from 2D(3$v$) PIC simulations for both $5.4\\cdot10^{17}$ W cm$^{-2}$ and $3\\cdot10^{18}$ W cm$^{-2}$ intensities. Comparing the 2D(3$v$) and 3D simulation results, the laser-energy-to-ejected-electron-energy conversion efficiencies were comparable, but the angular distribution of ejected electrons show interesting differences with qualitative differences at higher intensity. An analytic plane-wave model is provided that provides some explanation for the angular distribution and energies of ejected electrons in the 2D(3$v$) simulations. We also performed a 3D simulation with circular...
3D Hot Test Simulations of a 220 GHz Folded Waveguide Traveling Wave Tube Using a CFDTD PIC Method
Lin, Ming-Chieh; Song, Heather
2015-11-01
Millimeter or sub-THz wave sources centered at 220 GHz is of interest due to the potential for its commercial and military applications including high resolution radar, remote sensing, and high-data-rate communications. It has been demonstrated via 3D cold test finite element method (FEM) simulations that a folded waveguide traveling wave tube (FWTWT) can be designed and optimized at this frequency range with a small signal gain of 18 dB over a comparatively broad (-3 dB) bandwidth of ~ 10%. On the other hand, 3D hot test simulations of a V-band ladder TWT have been successfully demonstrated using a conformal finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD) particle-in-cell (PIC) method for center frequency of 50 GHz. In the present work, the 220 GHz FWTWT designs have been reviewed and studied. 3D Cold test simulations using both the CFDTD and FEM methods have been carried out and compared with each other as basis for 3D hot test CFDTD PIC simulations. The preliminary simulation result shows that the gain-bandwidth features at 220 GHz are achievable while carefully avoiding beam interceptions. Our study shows that the interaction characteristics are very sensitive to the operating beam parameters. Detail simulation results and discussions will be presented.
Zaka, A.; Singer, J.; Dornel, E.; Garetto, D.; Rideau, D.; Rafhay, Q.; Clerc, R.; Manceau, J.-P.; Degors, N.; Boccaccio, C.; Tavernier, C.; Jaouen, H.
2011-09-01
The impact of 3D device architecture in aggressively scaled embedded non-volatile memories has been investigated by means of experiments and 3D TCAD simulations. A complete 3D calibration methodology covering DC and transient operating regimes has been introduced and validated against measurements for different technological options. This approach has been employed to determine the key features for device optimization. In particular, shallow trench isolation corners around the active area have been identified as critical regions of the memory cell for program and erase operations, as well as for gate coupling ratio optimization.
A 3D incompressible thermal lattice Boltzmann model is proposed in this paper to solve 3D incompressible thermal flow problems. Two different particle velocity models of D3Q15 and D3Q19 are incorporated in our thermal model. It is indicated that the present thermal model is simple and easy for implementation. It is validated by its application to simulate the 3D natural convection of air in a cubical enclosure, which is heated differentially at two vertical side walls. Good agreement was obtained between the present results and those from a Navier-Stokes solver
From micro-scale 3D simulations to macro-scale model of periodic porous media
Crevacore, Eleonora; Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Sethi, Rajandrea; Messina, Francesca
2015-04-01
In environmental engineering, the transport of colloidal suspensions in porous media is studied to understand the fate of potentially harmful nano-particles and to design new remediation technologies. In this perspective, averaging techniques applied to micro-scale numerical simulations are a powerful tool to extrapolate accurate macro-scale models. Choosing two simplified packing configurations of soil grains and starting from a single elementary cell (module), it is possible to take advantage of the periodicity of the structures to reduce the computation costs of full 3D simulations. Steady-state flow simulations for incompressible fluid in laminar regime are implemented. Transport simulations are based on the pore-scale advection-diffusion equation, that can be enriched introducing also the Stokes velocity (to consider the gravity effect) and the interception mechanism. Simulations are carried on a domain composed of several elementary modules, that serve as control volumes in a finite volume method for the macro-scale method. The periodicity of the medium involves the periodicity of the flow field and this will be of great importance during the up-scaling procedure, allowing relevant simplifications. Micro-scale numerical data are treated in order to compute the mean concentration (volume and area averages) and fluxes on each module. The simulation results are used to compare the micro-scale averaged equation to the integral form of the macroscopic one, making a distinction between those terms that could be computed exactly and those for which a closure in needed. Of particular interest it is the investigation of the origin of macro-scale terms such as the dispersion and tortuosity, trying to describe them with micro-scale known quantities. Traditionally, to study the colloidal transport many simplifications are introduced, such those concerning ultra-simplified geometry that usually account for a single collector. Gradual removal of such hypothesis leads to a
Description of FEL3D: A three dimensional simulation code for TOK and FEL
FEL3D is a three dimensional simulation code, written for the purpose of calculating the parameters of coherent radiation emitted by electrons in an undulator. The program was written predominantly for simulating the coherent super-radiant harmonic frequency emission of electrons which are being bunched by an external laser beam while propagating in an undulator magnet. This super-radiant emission is to be studied in the TOK (transverse optical klystron) experiment, which is under construction in the NSLS department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The program can also calculate the stimulated emission radiometric properties of a free electron laser (FEL) taking into account three dimensional effects. While this application is presently limited to the small gain operation regime of FEL's, extension to the high gain regime is expected to be relatively easy. The code is based on a semi-analytical concept. Instead of a full numerical solution of the Maxwell-Lorentz equations, the trajectories of the electron in the wiggler field are calculated analytically, and the radiation fields are expanded in terms of free space eigen-modes. This approach permits efficient computation, with a computation time of about 0.1 sec/electron on the BNL IBM 3090. The code reflects the important three dimensional features of the electron beam, the modulating laser beam, and the emitted radiation field. The statistical approach is based on averaging over the electron initial conditions according to a given distribution function in phase space, rather than via Monte-Carlo simulation. The present version of the program is written for uniform periodic wiggler field, but extension to nonuniform fields is straightforward. 4 figs., 5 tabs
Characterization of double modified internal gate pixel by 3D simulation study
Aurola, A.; Marochkin, V.; Tuuva, T.
2015-01-01
We have developed a novel detector concept based on Modified Internal Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET) wherein a buried Modified Internal Gate (MIG) is implanted underneath a channel of a FET. In between the MIG and the channel of the FET there is a depleted semiconductor material forming a potential barrier between charges in the channel and similar type signal charges located in the MIG. The signal charges in the MIG have a measurable effect on the conductance of the channel. In this paper a double MIGFET pixel is investigated comprising two MIGFETs. By transferring the signal charges between the two MIGs Non-Destructive Correlated Double Sampling Readout (NDCDSR) is enabled. The proposed MIG radiation detector suits particularly well for low-light-level imaging, X-ray spectroscopy, as well as synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facilities. The reason for the excellent X-ray detection performance stems from the fact that interface related issues can be considerably mitigated since interface generated dark noise can be completely avoided and interface generated 1/f and Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise can be considerably reduced due to a deep buried channel readout configuration. Electrical parameters of the double MIGFET pixel have been evaluated by 3D TCAD simulation study. Simulation results show the absence of interface generated dark noise, significantly reduced interface generated 1/f and RTS noise, well performing NDCDSR operation, and blooming protection due to an inherent vertical anti-blooming structure. In addition, the backside illuminated thick fully depleted pixel design provides a homogeneous radiation entry window, low crosstalk due to lack of diffusion, and good quantum efficiency for low energy X-rays and NIR light. These facts result in excellent Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and very low crosstalk enabling thus excellent X-ray energy and spatial resolution. The simulation demonstrates the charge to current conversion gain for
Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline; Henrion, Vincent; Pellerin, Jeanne
2012-01-01
International audience This paper presents a method to stochastically simulate 3D karstic networks and more specifically branchwork pattern cave systems. Considering that they can be compared with 3D fluvial networks, the topological classification of Strahler and the corresponding ratios of Horton are used to define three morphometric parameters. These parameters are integrated in an algorithm that computes branches hierarchically to obtain a final network organized around the main observ...
The leading-edge simulation software for 3D EM and charged particle dynamics, and its applications
The latest 3D electromagnetic and charged particle dynamics simulation software enables scientists and engineers to develop accelerators and its components in less time at a lower cost as compared to testing experientially, even when only personal computers are available. These simulations provide solutions for various applications in industry, medicine and research, including non-destructive inspection, radiation cancer treatment, medical device sterilization and synchrotron radiation. Additionally, we are benefiting from advances in computer hardware technology, especially GPU computing. This paper reviews the current status of the latest 3D EM and charged particle dynamics simulation software and its applications. (author)
Software Development: 3D Animations and Creating User Interfaces for Realistic Simulations
Gordillo, Orlando Enrique
2015-01-01
My fall 2015 semester was spent at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center working in the Integrated Graphics, Operations, and Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL). My first project was to create a video animation that could tell the story of OMICS. OMICS is a term being used in the field of biomedical science to describe the collective technologies that study biological systems, such as what makes up a cell and how it functions with other systems. In the IGOAL I used a large 23 inch Wacom monitor to draw storyboards, graphics, and line art animations. I used Blender as the 3D environment to sculpt, shape, cut or modify the several scenes and models for the video. A challenge creating this video was to take a term used in biomedical science and describe it in such a way that an 8th grade student can understand. I used a line art style because it would visually set the tone for what we thought was an educational style. In order to get a handle on the perspective and overall feel for the animation without overloading my workspace, I split up the 2 minute animation into several scenes. I used Blender's python scripting capabilities which allowed for the addition of plugins to add or modify tools. The scripts can also directly interact with the objects to create naturalistic patterns or movements. After collecting the rendered scenes, I used Blender's built-in video editing workspace to output the animation. My second project was to write software that emulates a physical system's interface. The interface was to simulate a boat, ROV, and winch system. Simulations are a time and cost effective way to test complicated data and provide training for operators without having to use expensive hardware. We created the virtual controls with 3-D Blender models and 2-D graphics, and then add functionality in C# using the Unity game engine. The Unity engine provides several essential behaviors of a simulator, such as the start and update functions. A framework for Unity, which was developed in
Mandumpala Devassy, B.; Edelbauer, W.; Greif, D.
2015-12-01
Cavitation and its effect on spray formation and its dispersion play a crucial role in proper engine combustion and controlled emission. This study focuses on these effects in a typical common rail 6-hole diesel injector accounting for 3D needle movement and flow compressibility effects. Coupled numerical simulations using 1D and 3D CFD codes are used for this investigation. Previous studies in this direction have already presented a detailed structure of the adopted methodology. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study investigates the effect of 3D needle movement and cavitation on the spray formation for pilot and main injection events for a typical diesel engine operating point. The present setup performs a 3D compressible multiphase simulation coupled with a standalone 1D high pressure flow simulation. The simulation proceeds by the mutual communication between 1D and 3D solvers. In this work a typical common rail injector with a mini-sac nozzle is studied. The lateral and radial movement of the needle and its effect on the cavitation generation and the subsequent spray penetration are analyzed. The result indicates the effect of compressibility of the liquid on damping the needle forces, and also the difference in the spray penetration levels due to the asymmetrical flow field. Therefore, this work intends to provide an efficient and user-friendly engineering tool for simulating a complete fuel injector including spray propagation.
3D finite element simulation of effects of deflection rate on energy absorption for TRIP steel
Hayashi, Asuka; Pham, Hang; Iwamoto, Takeshi
2015-09-01
Recently, with the requirement of lighter weight and more safety for a design of automobile, energy absorption capability of structural materials has become important. TRIP (Transformation-induced Plasticity) steel is expected to apply to safety members because of excellent energy absorption capability and ductility. Past studies proved that such excellent characteristics in TRIP steel are dominated by strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during plastic deformation. Because SIMT strongly depends on deformation rate and temperature, an investigation of the effects of deformation rate and temperature on energy absorption in TRIP is essential. Although energy absorption capability of material can be estimated by J-integral experimentally by using pre-cracked specimen, it is difficult to determine volume fraction of martensite and temperature rise during the crack extension. In addition, their effects on J-integral, especially at high deformation rate in experiment might be quite hard. Thus, a computational prediction needs to be performed. In this study, bending deformation behavior of pre-cracked specimen until the onset point of crack extension are predicted by 3D finite element simulation based on the transformation kinetics model proposed by Iwamoto et al. (1998). It is challenged to take effects of temperature, volume fraction of martensite and deformation rate into account. Then, the mechanism for higher energy absorption characteristic will be discussed.
Ito, Takashi; Pilat, Marcin L; Suzuki, Reiji; Arita, Takaya
2016-01-01
Recent studies have reported that population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics, occurring at different time scales, can be affected by each other. Our purpose is to explore the interaction between population and evolutionary dynamics using an artificial life approach based on a 3D physically simulated environment in the context of predator-prey and morphology-behavior coevolution. The morphologies and behaviors of virtual prey creatures are evolved using a genetic algorithm based on the predation interactions between predators and prey. Both population sizes are also changed, depending on the fitness. We observe two types of cyclic behaviors, corresponding to short-term and long-term dynamics. The former can be interpreted as a simple population dynamics of Lotka-Volterra type. It is shown that the latter cycle is based on the interaction between the changes in the prey strategy against predators and the long-term change in both population sizes, resulting partly from a tradeoff between their defensive success and the cost of defense. PMID:26934093
3D numerical model of the Omega Nebula (M17): simulated thermal X-ray emission
Reyes-Iturbide, J; Rosado, M; Rodríguez-Gónzalez, A; González, R F; Esquivel, A
2009-01-01
We present 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the superbubble M17, also known as the Omega nebula, carried out with the adaptive grid code yguazu'-a, which includes radiative cooling. The superbubble is modelled considering the winds of 11 individual stars from the open cluster inside the nebula (NGC 6618), for which there are estimates of the mass loss rates and terminal velocities based on their spectral types. These stars are located inside a dense interstellar medium, and they are bounded by two dense molecular clouds. We carried out three numerical models of this scenario, considering different line of sight positions of the stars (the position in the plane of the sky is known, thus fixed). Synthetic thermal X-ray emission maps are calculated from the numerical models and compared with ROSAT observations of this astrophysical object. Our models reproduce successfully both the observed X-ray morphology and the total X-ray luminosity, without taking into account thermal conduction effects.
3D Simulations of the ``Keyhole'' Hohlraum for Shock Timing on NIF
Robey, H. F.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Jones, O. S.
2007-11-01
Ignition implosions planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require a pulse shape with a carefully designed series of steps, which launch a series of shocks through the ablator and DT fuel. The relative timing of these shocks must be tuned to better than +/- 100ps to maintain the DT fuel on a sufficiently low adiabat. To meet these requirements, pre-ignition tuning experiments using a modified hohlraum geometry are being planned. This modified geometry, known as the ``keyhole'' hohlraum, adds a re-entrant gold cone, which passes through the hohlraum and capsule walls, to provide an optical line-of-sight to directly measure the shocks as they break out of the ablator. In order to assess the surrogacy of this modified geometry, 3D simulations using HYDRA [1] have been performed. The drive conditions and the resulting effect on shock timing in the keyhole hohlraum will be compared with the corresponding results for the standard ignition hohlraum. [1] M.M. Marinak, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001).
Modeling and simulation of 3D thermal stresses of large-sized castings in solidification processes
无
2004-01-01
When heavy machines and large scaled receiver system of communication equipment are manufactured, it always needs to produce large- sized steel castings, aluminum castings and etc. Some defects of hot cracking by thermal stress often appear during solidification process as these castings are produced, which results in failure of castings.Therefore predicting the effects of technological parameters for production of castings on the thermal stress during solidification process becomes an important means. In this paper, the mathematical models have been established and numerical calculation of temperature fields by using finite difference method (FDM) and then thermal stress fields by using finite element method (FEM) during solidification process of castings have been carried out. The technological parameters of production have been optimized by the results of calculation and the defects of hot cracking have been eliminated. Modeling and simulation of 3D thermal stress during solidification processes of large-sized castings provided a scientific basis, which promoted further development of advanced manufacturing technique.
3-D Simulation of a prototype pump-turbine during starting period in turbine model
Three dimensional (3-D), unsteady flows in a prototype pump-turbine during a transient process of start-up at no load condition were studied using the computational fluid dynamics method. The fluid coupling and DM method were used to calculate the rotational speed for each time step. The dynamic mesh (DM) method and remeshing method were applied to simulate the rotation of guide vanes. Calculations were performed based on the v-bar 2−f turbulence model, and the calculation results were compared and verified by experimental data. Transient explicit characteristics such as the flow-rate, head, torque of the runner etc., as well as the internal flow during the start-up were analyzed. The amplitude of pressure fluctuation was larger as the rotational speed of runner increased. The pump-turbine was more unstable with the decrease of the moment of inertia. The impact jet flow in the runner has a direct relationship with the increase of the torque of runner. No stall phenomenon in the runner when the pump-turbine runs close to no load opening condition. This calculation was based on a prototype of a pumped storage power station and the computational method could be used in the fault diagnosis of transient operation
Turbulence and Steady Flows in 3D Global Stratified MHD Simulations of Accretion Disks
Flock, M; Klahr, H; Turner, N J; Henning, Th
2011-01-01
We present full 2 Pi global 3-D stratified MHD simulations of accretion disks. We interpret our results in the context of proto-planetary disks. We investigate the turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) using the PLUTO Godunov code in spherical coordinates with the accurate and robust HLLD Riemann solver. We follow the turbulence for more than 1500 orbits at the innermost radius of the domain to measure the overall strength of turbulent motions and the detailed accretion flow pattern. We find that regions within two scale heights of the midplane have a turbulent Mach number of about 0.1 and a magnetic pressure two to three orders of magnitude less than the gas pressure, while outside three scale heights the magnetic pressure equals or exceeds the gas pressure and the turbulence is transonic, leading to large density fluctuations. The strongest large-scale density disturbances are spiral density waves, and the strongest of these waves has m=5. No clear meridional circulation appears in t...
3D MHD Simulations of Planet Migration in Turbulent Stratified Disks
Uribe, Ana; Flock, Mario; Henning, Thomas
2011-01-01
We performed 3D MHD simulations of planet migration in stratified disks using the Godunov code PLUTO, where the disk is turbulent due to the magnetorotational instability. We study the migration for planets with different planet-star mass ratios $q=M_{p}/M_{s}$. In agreement with previous studies, for the low-mass planet cases ($q=5\\times10^{-6}$ and $10^{-5}$), migration is dominated by random fluctuations in the torque. For a Jupiter-mass planet $(q=M_{p}/M_{s}=10^{-3}$ for $M_{s}=1M_{\\odot})$, we find a reduction of the magnetic stress inside the orbit of the planet and around the gap region. After an initial stage where the torque on the planet is positive, it reverses and we recover migration rates similar to those found in disks where the turbulent viscosity is modelled by an $\\alpha$ viscosity. For the intermediate-mass planets ($q=5\\times10^{-5}, 10^{-4}$ and $2\\times10^{-4}$) we find a new and so far unexpected behavior. In some cases they experience sustained and systematic outwards migration for th...
Method of internal 3D flow field numerical simulation for hydrodynamic torque converter
Tao SHANG; Dingxuan ZHAO; Yuankun ZHANG; Xiangen GUO; Xiangzhong SHI
2008-01-01
To enhance the performance of a hydrody-namic torque converter and thoroughly understand the trait of inside flow, a numerical simulation method of internal 3D flow for the three-element centrifugal hydrodynamic torque converter was systematically researched and expatiated in this paper. First, the internal flow field of each impeller was calculated. The curves that illustrate the relationships between the pressure differences of the inlet and outlet versus flux were drawn. Second, the concurrent working point of each impeller was approximately estimated. Finally, a calculation was performed considering the influence on each impeller. The flow field of a working point was solved by multiple calculations and the actual working condition was gradually determined. The pressure and velocity distributions of the flow field were proposed. The performance parameters of the hydrodynamic torque converter were predicted. The calculation method, and the proposed pressure and velocity distribution of the flow field, have practical significance for the design and improvement of a hydrodynamic torque converter.
Numerical simulation on the evolution of cloud particles in 3-D convective cloud
LIU XiaoLi; NIU ShengJie
2009-01-01
A 3-D convective cloud model with compressible non-hydrostatic dynamics and the spectral bin microphysics of a 2-D slab-symmetric model has been used to simulate an observed supercell storm occurring on 29 June, 2000 near Bird City, Kansas, USA. The main objective of this paper is to study the evolution of particles in this convective storm with bin spectral microphysics scheme. Graupels form and grow through two mechanisms, deposition and riming, with the riming process dominant on top of the inflow and in the upper portion of main updraft. Over the outflow and during the developing and mature stages of the storm, graupel particles mainly grow through deposition with dominant unimodal spectra. Most fall out after growing up. Reducing initial relative humidity disturbance (increasing initial potential temperature disturbance) has negative impact on the formation and growth of graupels over the inflow (outflow). This study shows that large graupel and hail could be suppressed by altering the deposition and coalescence process over the inflow and main updraft. At different locations of the convective cells and with different initial humidity and potential temperature disturbance, the graupel formation and growth mechanisms are different, so as to the feasible hail suppression locations and methods.
Surface-effect corrections for solar-like oscillations using 3D hydrodynamical simulations
Sonoi, T; Belkacem, K; Ludwig, H -G; Caffau, E; Mosser, B
2015-01-01
The space-borne missions have provided us with a wealth of high-quality observational data that allows for seismic inferences of stellar interiors. This requires the computation of precise and accurate theoretical frequencies, but imperfect modeling of the uppermost stellar layers introduces systematic errors. To overcome this problem, an empirical correction has been introduced by Kjeldsen et al. (2008, ApJ, 683, L175) and is now commonly used for seismic inferences. Nevertheless, we still lack a physical justification allowing for the quantification of the surface-effect corrections. We used a grid of these simulations computed with the CO$^5$BOLD code to model the outer layers of solar-like stars. Upper layers of the corresponding 1D standard models were then replaced by the layers obtained from the horizontally averaged 3D models. The frequency differences between these patched models and the 1D standard models were then calculated using the adiabatic approximation and allowed us to constrain the Kjeldsen...
Trapping Solids at the Inner Edge of the Dead Zone: 3-D Global MHD Simulations
Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Turner, Neal J; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas
2010-01-01
The poorly-ionized interior of the protoplanetary disk is the location where dust coagulation processes may be most efficient. However even here, planetesimal formation may be limited by the loss of solid material through radial drift, and by collisional fragmentation of the particles. Our aim is to investigate the possibility that solid particles are trapped at local pressure maxima in the dynamically evolving disk. We perform the first 3-D global non-ideal MHD calculations of the disk treating the turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability. The domain contains an inner MRI-active region near the young star and an outer midplane dead zone, with the transition between the two modeled by a sharp increase in the magnetic diffusivity. The azimuthal magnetic fields generated in the active zone oscillate over time, changing sign about every 150 years. We thus observe the radial structure of the `butterfly pattern' seen previously in local shearing-box simulations. The mean magnetic field diffuses from...
Melioli, C; Raga, A
2005-01-01
Most galaxies present supernova shock fronts interacting with a cloudy interstellar medium. Particularly, in this work we are interested to study the by-products of SNR-clouds in a starburst (SB) system. Due to the high SN rate in this environment, a cloud may be shocked more than once by SNRs. These interactions can have an important role in the recycling of matter from the clouds to the ISM and vice-versa. Their study is also relevant to understand the evolution of the ISM density and the structure of the clouds embedded in it. In the present work, we have focused our attention on the global effects of the interactions between clouds and SN shock waves in the ISM of SB environments, and performed 3-D radiative cooling hydrodynamical simulations with the adaptive YGUAZU grid code. We have also considered the effects of the photo-evaporation due to the presence of a high number of UV photons from hot stars and supernovae (SNe). The results have shown that, in the presence of radiative cooling, instead of an e...
STATICS ANALYSIS AND OPENGL BASED 3D SIMULATION OF COLLABORATIVE RECONFIGURABLE PLANETARY ROBOTS
Zhang Zheng; Ma Shugen; Li Bin; Zhang Liping; Cao Binggang
2006-01-01
Objective To study mechanics characteristics of two cooperative reconfigurable planetary robots when they get across an obstacle, and to find out the relationship between the maximum height of a stair with the configuration of the two-robot, and to find some restrictions of kinematics for the cooperation. Methods Multirobot cooperation theory is used in the whole study process. Inverse kinematics of the robot is used to form a desired configuration in the cooperation process. Static equations are established to analyze the relations between the friction factor, the configuration of robots and the maximum height of a stair. Kinematics analysis is used to find the restrictions of the two collaborative robots in position, velocity and acceleration. Results 3D simulation shows that the two cooperative robots can climb up a stair under the condition of a certain height and a certain friction factor between robot wheel and the surface of the stair. Following the restrictions of kinematics, the climbing mission is fulfilled successfully and smoothly. Conclusion The maximum height of a stair, which the two cooperative robots can climb up, is involved in the configuration of robots, friction factor between the stair and the robots. The most strict restriction of the friction factor does not appear in the horizontal position. In any case, the maximum height is smaller than half of the distance between the centroid of robot1 with the centroid of robot2. However, the height can be higher than the radius of one robot wheel, which profit from the collaboration.
Bauknecht, Andreas; Steinert, Torsten; Spengler, Carsten; Suck, Gerrit
2013-07-01
Thermoelectric (TE) modules with annular geometry are very attractive for waste heat recovery within the automotive world, especially when integrated as stacks into tubular heat exchangers. The required temperature difference is built up between the coolant, which flows inside an inner tube, and the exhaust gas, which flows around an outer tube. The flow pattern of the exhaust gas can be axial or circumferential, which can lead to higher heat transfer coefficients on the outer surface of the tube. However, this multidimensional construction in combination with a complex flow pattern can lead to a nonuniform heat flux. Additionally, the system experiences a nonuniform temperature distribution which consequently leads to complex conditions regarding the electrical potential. The relevant effects are investigated using a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical model implemented in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation environment Star-CCM+. The model supports temperature-dependent characteristics of the materials, contact resistances, and parasitic effects in the TE module. Furthermore, it involves techniques to quickly find the exact maximum power point of the TE module with the given boundary conditions. Using the validated model the influence of the nonuniform temperature distribution is investigated with emphasis on the electrical output and TE efficiency.
3-D Simulation of a prototype pump-turbine during starting period in turbine model
Chen, T. J.; Luo, X. Q.; Guo, P. C.; Wu, Y. L.
2013-12-01
Three dimensional (3-D), unsteady flows in a prototype pump-turbine during a transient process of start-up at no load condition were studied using the computational fluid dynamics method. The fluid coupling and DM method were used to calculate the rotational speed for each time step. The dynamic mesh (DM) method and remeshing method were applied to simulate the rotation of guide vanes. Calculations were performed based on the bar v2-f turbulence model, and the calculation results were compared and verified by experimental data. Transient explicit characteristics such as the flow-rate, head, torque of the runner etc., as well as the internal flow during the start-up were analyzed. The amplitude of pressure fluctuation was larger as the rotational speed of runner increased. The pump-turbine was more unstable with the decrease of the moment of inertia. The impact jet flow in the runner has a direct relationship with the increase of the torque of runner. No stall phenomenon in the runner when the pump-turbine runs close to no load opening condition. This calculation was based on a prototype of a pumped storage power station and the computational method could be used in the fault diagnosis of transient operation.
3D finite element simulation of TIG weld pool with free surface
The aim of this paper is to propose a three-dimensional weld pool model for the moving gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process, in order to understand the main factors that limit the weld quality and improve the productivity, especially with respect to the welding speed. Simulation is a very powerful tool to help in understanding the physical phenomena in the weld process. A 3D finite element model of heat and fluid flow in weld pool considering free surface of the pool and traveling speed has been developed for the GTAW process. Cast3M software is used to compute all the governing equations. The free surface of the weld pool is calculated by minimizing the total surface energy. The combined effects of surface tension gradient, buoyancy force, arc pressure, arc drag force to drive the fluid flow is included in our model. The deformation of the weld pool surface and the welding speed affect fluid flow, heat flow and thus temperature gradients and molten pool dimensions. Welding trials study is presented to compare our numerical results with macrography of the molten pool. (authors)
In vitro bioactivity of 3D Ti-mesh with bioceramic coatings in simulated body fluid
Wei Yi
2014-09-01
Full Text Available 3D Ti-mesh has been coated with bioceramics under different coating conditions, such as material compositions and micro-porosity, using a dip casting method. Hydroxyapatite (HA, micro-HA particles (HAp, a bioglass (BG and their different mixtures together with polymer additives were used to control HA-coating microstructures. Layered composites with the following coating-to-substrate designs, such as BG/Ti, HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti, were fabricated. The bioactivity of these coated composites and the uncoated Ti-mesh substrate was then investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The Ti-mesh substrate and BG/Ti composite did not induce biomimetic apatite deposition when they were immersed in SBF for the selected BG, a pressable dental ceramic, used in this study. After seven days in SBF, an apatite layer was formed on both HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti composites. The difference is the apatite layer on the HAp + BG/BG/Ti composite was rougher and contained more micro-pores, while the apatite layer on the HA + BG/BG/Ti composite was dense and smooth. The formation of biomimetic apatite, being more bioresorbable, is favored for bone regeneration.
Simulation of a 3D unsteady flow in an axial turbine stage
Straka Petr
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The contribution deals with a numerical simulation of an unsteady ﬂow in an axial turbine stage. The solution is performed using an in-house numerical code developed in the Aeronautical and Test Institute, Plc. in Prague. The numerical code is based on a ﬁnite volume discretization of governing equations (Favre averaged Navier-Stokes equations and a two-equations turbulence model. The temporal integration is based on the implicit second-order backward Euler formula, which is realized through the iteration process in dual time. The proposed numerical method is used for solution of the 3D, unsteady, viscous turbulent ﬂow of a perfect gas in the axial turbine stage. The ﬂow path consists of an input nozzle, stator blade-wheel, rotor blade-wheel, a shroud-seal gap and a diffuser. Attention is paid to the inﬂuence of a secondary ﬂow structures, such as generated vortices and ﬂow in shroud-seal gap.
Simon, Sven; Motschmann, Uwe
2009-12-01
A 3D, multi-species hybrid model (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) has been applied to the interaction between Saturn's largest satellite Titan and the plasma in the giant planet's outer magnetosphere. In contrast to the idealized picture deduced from Voyager 1 data, recent observations made by the Cassini magnetometer instrument suggest that the ambient magnetic field is not directed perpendicular to Titan's orbital plane. Therefore, our purpose is to investigate systematically how Titan's induced magnetosphere is affected by a tilt of the upstream magnetic field. In the first part of our study, the structure of Titan's induced magnetosphere is analyzed as a function of the angle between the ambient magnetic field B and the bulk velocity u of the corotating plasma flow. Our simulations show that introducing a flow-aligned magnetic field component goes along with an asymmetrization of Titan's magnetotail, in addition to the asymmetry that already arises from the large gyroradii of the ion species involved in the interaction. In the vicinity of Titan, the field lines become strongly twisted, permitting the wakeside magnetic lobe structure to even penetrate into the satellite's geometric plasma shadow. However, despite the increased complexity of Titan's magnetic environment, the overall characteristics of the pick-up tail remain practically the same as in the case of "ideal" magnetic field orientation (B⊥u). In the second part of our study, we investigate in real-time the transition that Titan's plasma interaction undergoes during a change of the ambient magnetic field direction. In contrast to earlier analyses of Titan's plasma environment under non-stationary upstream conditions, the tilt of the ambient magnetic field is again taken into account. While in the case of B being perpendicular to u, the reconfiguration of Titan's induced magnetosphere is mainly governed by reconnection, our simulations suggest that when a flow-aligned field component is included
Multi-scale self-organisation of edge plasma turbulent transport in 3D global simulations
Tamain, P.; Ghendrih, Ph; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colin, C.; Fedorczak, N.; Nace, N.; Schwander, F.; Serre, E.
2015-05-01
The 3D global edge turbulence code TOKAM3X is used to study the properties of edge particle turbulent transport in circular limited plasmas, including both closed and open flux surfaces. Turbulence is driven by an incoming particle flux from the core plasma and no scale separation between the equilibrium and the fluctuations is assumed. Simulations show the existence of a complex self-organization of turbulence transport coupling scales ranging from a few Larmor radii up to the machine scale. Particle transport is largely dominated by small scale turbulence with fluctuations forming quasi field-aligned filaments. Radial particle transport is intermittent and associated with the propagation of coherent structures on long distances via avalanches. Long range correlations are also found in the poloidal and toroidal direction. The statistical properties of fluctuations vary with the radial and poloidal directions, with larger fluctuation levels and intermittency found in the outboard scrape-off layer (SOL). Radial turbulent transport is strongly ballooned, with 90% of the flux at the separatrix flowing through the low-field side. One of the main consequences is the existence of quasi-sonic asymmetric parallel flows driving a net rotation of the plasma. Simulations also show the spontaneous onset of an intermittent E × B rotation characterized by a larger shear at the separatrix. Strong correlation is found between the turbulent particle flux and the E × B flow shear in a phenomenology reminiscent of H-mode physics. The poloidal position of the limiter is a key player in the observed dynamics.
Jinya, John; Bipasha, Paul S.
2016-05-01
Clouds strongly modulate the Earths energy balance and its atmosphere through their interaction with the solar and terrestrial radiation. They interact with radiation in various ways like scattering, emission and absorption. By observing these changes in radiation at different wavelength, cloud properties can be estimated. Cloud properties are of utmost importance in studying different weather and climate phenomena. At present, no satellite provides cloud microphysical parameters over the Indian region with high temporal resolution. INSAT-3D imager observations in 6 spectral channels from geostationary platform offer opportunity to study continuous cloud properties over Indian region. Visible (0.65 μm) and shortwave-infrared (1.67 μm) channel radiances can be used to retrieve cloud microphysical parameters such as cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud effective radius (CER). In this paper, we have carried out a feasibility study with the objective of cloud microphysics retrieval. For this, an inter-comparison of 15 globally available radiative transfer models (RTM) were carried out with the aim of generating a Look-up- Table (LUT). SBDART model was chosen for the simulations. The sensitivity of each spectral channel to different cloud properties was investigated. The inputs to the RT model were configured over our study region (50°S - 50°N and 20°E - 130°E) and a large number of simulations were carried out using random input vectors to generate the LUT. The determination of cloud optical thickness and cloud effective radius from spectral reflectance measurements constitutes the inverse problem and is typically solved by comparing the measured reflectances with entries in LUT and searching for the combination of COT and CER that gives the best fit. The products are available on the website www.mosdac.gov.in
Ziegle, Jens; Müller, Bernhard H.; Neumann, Bernd; Hoeschen, Christoph
2016-03-01
A new 3D breast computed tomography (CT) system is under development enabling imaging of microcalcifications in a fully uncompressed breast including posterior chest wall tissue. The system setup uses a steered electron beam impinging on small tungsten targets surrounding the breast to emit X-rays. A realization of the corresponding detector concept is presented in this work and it is modeled through Monte Carlo simulations in order to quantify first characteristics of transmission and secondary photons. The modeled system comprises a vertical alignment of linear detectors hold by a case that also hosts the breast. Detectors are separated by gaps to allow the passage of X-rays towards the breast volume. The detectors located directly on the opposite side of the gaps detect incident X-rays. Mechanically moving parts in an imaging system increase the duration of image acquisition and thus can cause motion artifacts. So, a major advantage of the presented system design is the combination of the fixed detectors and the fast steering electron beam which enable a greatly reduced scan time. Thereby potential motion artifacts are reduced so that the visualization of small structures such as microcalcifications is improved. The result of the simulation of a single projection shows high attenuation by parts of the detector electronics causing low count levels at the opposing detectors which would require a flat field correction, but it also shows a secondary to transmission ratio of all counted X-rays of less than 1 percent. Additionally, a single slice with details of various sizes was reconstructed using filtered backprojection. The smallest detail which was still visible in the reconstructed image has a size of 0.2mm.
L. Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In solar wind, dissipation of slow-mode magnetosonic waves may play a significant role in heating the solar wind, and these modes contribute essentially to the solar wind compressible turbulence. Most previous identifications of slow waves utilized the characteristic negative correlation between δ|B| and δρ. However, that criterion does not well identify quasi-parallel slow waves, for which δ|B| is negligible compared to δρ. Here we present a new method of identification, which will be used in 3-D compressible simulation. It is based on two criteria: (1 that VpB0 (phase speed projected along B0 is around ± cs, and that (2 there exists a clear correlation of δv|| and δρ. Our research demonstrates that if vA > cs, slow waves possess correlation between δv|| and δρ, with δρ / δv|| ≈ ± ρ0 / cs. This method helps us to distinguish slow-mode waves from fast and Alfvén waves, both of which do not have this polarity relation. The criteria are insensitive to the propagation angle θk B, defined as the angle between wave vector k and B0; they can be applied with a wide range of β if only vA > cs. In our numerical simulation, we have identified four cases of slow wave trains with this method. The slow wave trains seem to deform, probably caused by interaction with other waves; as a result, fast or Alfvén waves may be produced during the interaction and seem to propagate bidirectionally away. Our identification and analysis of the wave trains provide useful methods for investigations of compressible turbulence in the solar wind or in similar environments, and will thus deepen understandings of slow waves in the turbulence.
Albedo and heat transport in 3-D model simulations of the early Archean climate
H. Kienert
2013-08-01
Full Text Available At the beginning of the Archean eon (ca. 3.8 billion years ago, the Earth's climate state was significantly different from today due to the lower solar luminosity, smaller continental fraction, higher rotation rate and, presumably, significantly larger greenhouse gas concentrations. All these aspects play a role in solutions to the "faint young Sun paradox" which must explain why the ocean surface was not fully frozen at that time. Here, we present 3-D model simulations of climate states that are consistent with early Archean boundary conditions and have different CO2 concentrations, aiming at an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of the early Archean climate system. In order to do so, we have appropriately modified an intermediate complexity climate model that couples a statistical-dynamical atmosphere model (involving parameterizations of the dynamics to an ocean general circulation model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea-ice model. We focus on three states: one of them is ice-free, one has the same mean surface air temperature of 288 K as today's Earth and the third one is the coldest stable state in which there is still an area with liquid surface water (i.e. the critical state at the transition to a "snowball Earth". We find a reduction in meridional heat transport compared to today, which leads to a steeper latitudinal temperature profile and has atmospheric as well as oceanic contributions. Ocean surface velocities are largely zonal, and the strength of the atmospheric meridional circulation is significantly reduced in all three states. These aspects contribute to the observed relation between global mean temperature and albedo, which we suggest as a parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback for 1-D model simulations of the early Archean and thus the faint young Sun problem.
Finite-Difference Algorithm for Simulating 3D Electromagnetic Wavefields in Conductive Media
Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.
2013-12-01
Electromagnetic (EM) wavefields are routinely used in geophysical exploration for detection and characterization of subsurface geological formations of economic interest. Recorded EM signals depend strongly on the current conductivity of geologic media. Hence, they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of saturated porous bodies. In order to enhance understanding of field-recorded data, we are developing a numerical algorithm for simulating three-dimensional (3D) EM wave propagation and diffusion in heterogeneous conductive materials. Maxwell's equations are combined with isotropic constitutive relations to obtain a set of six, coupled, first-order partial differential equations governing the electric and magnetic vectors. An advantage of this system is that it does not contain spatial derivatives of the three medium parameters electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, and current conductivity. Numerical solution methodology consists of explicit, time-domain finite-differencing on a 3D staggered rectangular grid. Temporal and spatial FD operators have order 2 and N, where N is user-selectable. We use an artificially-large electric permittivity to maximize the FD timestep, and thus reduce execution time. For the low frequencies typically used in geophysical exploration, accuracy is not unduly compromised. Grid boundary reflections are mitigated via convolutional perfectly matched layers (C-PMLs) imposed at the six grid flanks. A shared-memory-parallel code implementation via OpenMP directives enables rapid algorithm execution on a multi-thread computational platform. Good agreement is obtained in comparisons of numerically-generated data with reference solutions. EM wavefields are sourced via point current density and magnetic dipole vectors. Spatially-extended inductive sources (current carrying wire loops) are under development. We are particularly interested in accurate representation of high-conductivity sub-grid-scale features that are common
W.-L. Lee
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada using CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4 global model with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation [3-D − PP (plane-parallel] adjustment to ensure that energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations of the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains, but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while decreases for higher elevations with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases in higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.
The power spectrum of solar convection flows from high-resolution observations and 3D simulations
Yelles Chaouche, L.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Bonet, J. A.
2014-03-01
Context. Understanding solar surface magnetoconvection requires the study of the Fourier spectra of the velocity fields. Nowadays, observations are available that resolve very small spatial scales, well into the subgranular range, almost reaching the scales routinely resolved in numerical magnetoconvection simulations. Comparison of numerical and observational data at present can provide an assessment of the validity of the observational proxies. Aims: Our aims are: (1) to obtain Fourier spectra for the photospheric velocity fields using the spectropolarimetric observations with the highest spatial resolution so far (~120 km), thus reaching for the first time spatial scales well into the subgranular range; (2) to calculate corresponding Fourier spectra from realistic 3D numerical simulations of magnetoconvection and carry out a proper comparison with their observational counterparts considering the residual instrumental degradation in the observational data; and (3) to test the observational proxies on the basis of the numerical data alone, by comparing the actual velocity field in the simulations with synthetic observations obtained from the numerical boxes. Methods: (a) For the observations, data from the SUNRISE/IMaX spectropolarimeter are used. (b) For the simulations, we use four series of runs obtained with the STAGGER code for different average signed vertical magnetic field values (0, 50, 100, and 200 G). Spectral line profiles are synthesized from the numerical boxes for the same line observed by IMaX (Fe I 5250.2 Å) and degraded to match the performance of the IMaX instrument. Proxies for the velocity field are obtained via Dopplergrams (vertical component) and local correlation tracking (LCT, for the horizontal component). Fourier power spectra are calculated and a comparison between the synthetic and observational data sets carried out. (c) For the internal comparison of the numerical data, velocity values on constant optical depth surfaces are used
Wakefield Simulation of CLIC PETS Structure Using Parallel 3D Finite Element Time-Domain Solver T3P
Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; /SLAC; Syratchev, I.; /CERN
2009-06-19
In recent years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel 3D Finite Element electromagnetic time-domain code T3P. Higher-order Finite Element methods on conformal unstructured meshes and massively parallel processing allow unprecedented simulation accuracy for wakefield computations and simulations of transient effects in realistic accelerator structures. Applications include simulation of wakefield damping in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) power extraction and transfer structure (PETS).
Rauch, Travis M.
2006-01-01
Visualizing operations environments in three dimensions (3D) supports the warfighters' ability to make rapid, well-informed decisions by presenting complex systems in a naturalistic, integrated display format. Unfortunately, constructing these environments is a time-consuming task requiring specific expertise not typically available in the command center. The future use of 3D visualization in military operations depends on the ability of personnel with minimal graphics experience to create vi...
Trapping solids at the inner edge of the dead zone: 3-D global MHD simulations
Dzyurkevich, N.; Flock, M.; Turner, N. J.; Klahr, H.; Henning, Th.
2010-06-01
Context. The poorly-ionized interior of the protoplanetary disk or “dead zone” is the location where dust coagulation processes may be most efficient. However even here, planetesimal formation may be limited by the loss of solid material through radial drift, and by collisional fragmentation of the particles. Both depend on the turbulent properties of the gas. Aims: Our aim here is to investigate the possibility that solid particles are trapped at local pressure maxima in the dynamically evolving disk. We perform the first 3-D global non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) calculations of a section of the disk treating the turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI). Methods: We use the ZeusMP code with a fixed Ohmic resistivity distribution. The domain contains an inner MRI-active region near the young star and an outer midplane dead zone, with the transition between the two modeled by a sharp increase in the magnetic diffusivity. Results: The azimuthal magnetic fields generated in the active zone oscillate over time, changing sign about every 150 years. We thus observe the radial structure of the “butterfly pattern” seen previously in local shearing-box simulations. The mean magnetic field diffuses from the active zone into the dead zone, where the Reynolds stress nevertheless dominates, giving a residual α between 10-4 and 10-3. The greater total accretion stress in the active zone leads to a net reduction in the surface density, so that after 800 years an approximate steady state is reached in which a local radial maximum in the midplane pressure lies near the transition radius. We also observe the formation of density ridges within the active zone. Conclusions: The dead zone in our models possesses a mean magnetic field, significant Reynolds stresses and a steady local pressure maximum at the inner edge, where the outward migration of planetary embryos and the efficient trapping of solid material are possible.
Steinberg, Arnold D; Bashook, Philip G; Drummond, James; Ashrafi, Seema; Zefran, Milos
2007-12-01
Haptic technology (sense of touch) along with 3D-virtual reality (VR) graphics, creating lifelike training simulations, was used to develop a dental training simulator system (PerioSim). This preliminary study was designed to evaluate whether faculty considered PerioSim realistic and useful for training and evaluating basic procedural skills of students. The haptic device employed was a PHANToM and the simulator a Dell Xeon 530 workstation with 3D, VR oral models and instruments viewed on a stereoscopic monitor. An onscreen VR periodontal probe or explorer was manipulated by operating the PHANToM for sensing lifelike contact and interactions with the teeth and gingiva. Thirty experienced clinical dental and dental hygiene faculty judged the realism of the system. A PowerPoint presentation on one screen provided instructions for the simulator use with the 3D, VR simulator on a second stereoscopic monitor viewed with 3D goggles. Faculty/practitioners found the images very realistic for teeth and instruments, but less so for gingiva. Tactile sensation was realistic for teeth but not so for gingiva. The onscreen instructions were very useful with high potential for teaching. Faculty members anticipated incorporating this device into teaching and were enthusiastic about its potential for evaluating students' basic procedural skills. This study suggests that the preliminary "evidence-of-concept" was successful and PerioSim may aid students in developing necessary dental tactile skills. PMID:18096883
XIE Hongqin; WU Zengmao; GAO Shanhong
2004-01-01
A series of test simulations are performed to evaluate the impact of satellite-derived meteorological data on numerical typhoon track prediction. Geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS-5) and NOAA's TIROS operational vertical sounder (TOVS) observations are used in the experiments. A three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) assimilation scheme is developed to assimilate the satellite data directly into the Penn State-NCAR nonhydrostatic meteorological model (MM5). Three-dimensional objective analysis fields based on the T213 results and conventional observations are employed as the background fields of the initialization. The comparisons of the simulated typhoon tracks are carried out, which correspond respectively to assimilate different kinds of satellite data. It is found that, compared with the experiment without satellite data assimilation, the 3D-Var assimilation schemes lead to significant improvements on typhoon track prediction. Track errors reduce from approximately 25% at 24 h to approximately 30% at 48 h for 3D-Var assimilation experiments.
Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju
2015-12-01
SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed.
Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A
2016-01-01
To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls. PMID:27046584
Experiences with the coupled code system S3R/RELAP5-3D in training simulators
The paper describes the implementation of S3R (core neutronics) and RELAP5-3D (RCS thermal-hydraulics) in a PWR training simulator for the Grohnde NPP located at the Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft (KSG) in Essen, Germany. The models are briefly described as well as the coupling between these two codes and the interface with the rest of the simulator. The paper also describes the procedure that will be used to update the simulator core data after future core reloads. Results from the integrated simulator are presented. (orig.)
An Interactive 3D Graphics Modeler Based on Simulated Human Immune System
Hiroaki Nishino
2008-07-01
Full Text Available We propose an intuitive computer graphics authoring method based on interactive evolutionary computation (IEC. Our previous systems employed genetic algorithm (GA and mainly focused on rapid exploration of a single optimum 3D graphics model. The proposed method adopts a different computation strategy called immune algorithm (IA to ease the creation of varied 3D models even if a user doesn’t have any specific idea of final 3D products. Because artistic work like graphics design needs a process to diversify the user’s imagery, a tool that allows the user to select his/her preferred ones from a broad range of possible design solutions is particularly desired. IA enables the user to effectively explore a wealth of solutions in a huge 3D parametric space by using its essential mechanisms such as antibody formation and self-regulating function. We conducted an experiment to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method helps the user to easily generating wide variety of 3D graphics models.
WANG Xi-fen; ZHOU Huai-chun
2005-01-01
The control of 3-D temperature distribution in a utility boiler furnace is essential for the safe, economic and clean operation of pcfired furnace with multi-burner system. The development of the visualization of 3-D temperature distributions in pc-fired furnaces makes it possible for a new combustion control strategy directly with the fumacs temperature as its goal to improve the control quality for the combustion processes. Studied in this paper is such a new strategy that the whole furnace is divided into several parts in the vertical direction, and the average temperature and its bias from the center in every cross section can be extracted from the visualization results of the 3-D temperature distributions. In the simulation stage, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code served to calculate the 3-D temperature distributions in a furnace, then a linear model was set up to relate the features of the temperature distributions with the input of the combustion processes, such as the flow rates of fuel and air fed into the furnaces through all the burners. The adaptive genetic algorithm was adopted to find the optimal combination of the whole input parameters which ensure to form an optimal 3-D temperature field in the furnace desired for the operation of boiler. Simulation results showed that the strategy could soon find the factors making the temperature distribution apart from the optimal state and give correct adjusting suggestions.
Fully 3D Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Double Post-Hole Convolute on PTS Facility
Zhao, Hailong; Dong, Ye; Zhou, Haijing; Zou, Wenkang; Institute of Fluid Physics Collaboration; Institute of Applied Physics; Computational Mathematics Collaboration
2015-11-01
In order to get better understand of energy transforming and converging process during High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments, fully 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code NEPTUNE3D was used to provide numerical approach towards parameters which could hardly be acquired through diagnostics. Cubic region (34cm × 34cm × 18cm) including the double post-hole convolute (DPHC) on the primary test stand (PTS) facility was chosen to perform a series of fully 3D PIC simulations, calculating ability of codes were tested and preliminary simulation results about DPHC on PTS facility were discussed. Taking advantages of 3D simulation codes and large-scale parallel computation, massive data (~ 250GB) could be acquired in less than 5 hours and clear process of current transforming and electron emission in DPHC were demonstrated with the help of visualization tools. Cold-chamber tests were performed during which only cathode electron emission was considered without temperature rise or ion emission, current loss efficiency was estimated to be 0.46% ~ 0.48% by comparisons between output magnetic field profiles with or without electron emission. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205145, 11305015, 11475155).
Simulated and Real Sheet-of-Light 3D Object Scanning Using a-Si:H Thin Film PSD Arrays
Javier Contreras
2015-11-01
Full Text Available A MATLAB/SIMULINK software simulation model (structure and component blocks has been constructed in order to view and analyze the potential of the PSD (Position Sensitive Detector array concept technology before it is further expanded or developed. This simulation allows changing most of its parameters, such as the number of elements in the PSD array, the direction of vision, the viewing/scanning angle, the object rotation, translation, sample/scan/simulation time, etc. In addition, results show for the first time the possibility of scanning an object in 3D when using an a-Si:H thin film 128 PSD array sensor and hardware/software system. Moreover, this sensor technology is able to perform these scans and render 3D objects at high speeds and high resolutions when using a sheet-of-light laser within a triangulation platform. As shown by the simulation, a substantial enhancement in 3D object profile image quality and realism can be achieved by increasing the number of elements of the PSD array sensor as well as by achieving an optimal position response from the sensor since clearly the definition of the 3D object profile depends on the correct and accurate position response of each detector as well as on the size of the PSD array.
Simulation of Natural Scene Based on 3-D IFS Theory%基于3-D IFS理论的自然景观模拟
王兴元; 刘波
2003-01-01
This article elaborates the theory of Iterated Function System (IFS)and gives the stochastic algorithm and the deterministic algorithm with which to construct IFS attractor. Based on the technique of coloring, lighting, shadow and mist in computer graphics, the authors construct a series of 3 dimension IFS (3-D IFS)characterized with the feature of natural scene on computer. The changing rules of the 3-D IFS are also discussed when the parameters mentioned above are changed.
Research on the Inner Water Flow Field in a Hydrocyclone by the Method of 3D Numerical Simulation
Hui Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The inner water flow field in a hydrocyclone was simulated by the software of computational fluid dynamics-FLUENT, using RSM turbulent model. The air core, 3D velocity field distribution and pressure field distribution were simulated and contrasted with experimental results. The results indicated that the air core was through from the inlet to the outlet. The simulated 3D velocity field distribution was consistent with the results obtained by the experiments. The axial symmetry of pressure field distribution was quite good and the pressure gradient was very large. All these results tested the reliability of the method of numerical simulation and provided a reference for the further research of solid-liquid separation and the optimizing design of the hydrocyclone.
Simulations of 3D LPI's relevant to IFE using the PIC code OSIRIS
Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Winjum, B. J.
2014-10-01
We will study three dimensional effects of laser plasma instabilities, including backward raman scattering, the high frequency hybrid instability, and the two plasmon instability using OSIRIS in 3D Cartesian geometry and cylindrical 2D OSIRIS with azimuthal mode decompositions. With our new capabilities we hope to demonstrate that we are capable of studying single speckle physics relevant to IFE in an efficent manner.
Simulation of some plant transients by the coupled code system ATHLET/KIKO3D
The assessment of coupled reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic computation with the KIKO3D-ATHLET code is provided. The details of data flow in the coupling are reviewed and some selected results of the validation are described. The validated coupled system code is used in the safety analysis for WWER reactor. (Authors)
Simulation of some plant transients by the coupled code system ATHLET/KIKO3D
The assessment of coupled reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics computations with the coupled KIKO3D-ATHLET code system is provided, from two stand-alone codes. The details of data flow in the coupling are reviewed and some selected results of the validation are described. The validated coupled system code is used in the safety analysis for VVER reactors. (author)
Development and Validation of a 3D Clinostat for the Study of Cells during Microgravity Simulation.
Russomano, T; Cardoso, R; Falcao, F; Dalmarco, G; V Dos Santos, C; F Dos Santos, L; G de Azevedo, D; Dos Santos, M; Martinelli, L; Motta, J; Forraz, N; McGuckin, C
2005-01-01
The clinostat was originally used to find out why plant roots appear to grow predominantly toward the center of the Earth. Over the last 2-3 decades, slow- and fast-rotating 2D and 3D clinostats have been used to assess cellular adaptation to this environment. A cell culture is placed in a spin module of the clinostat platform and its rotation is set empirically (2-3 rpm). The machine is then allowed to run for a specified period (hours to days) after which the cultures are removed and assayed for specific properties, such as cell growth, size and shape, distribution of receptors, integrity of the cytoskeleton or gene expression. A 3D clinostat was developed by the Microgravity Laboratory/IPCT-PUCRS group and validated by the Stem Cell Group of Kingston University London, which used 4 different types of human cancer cells and cord blood stem cells (CBSC). After rotation for 19h at 37degC, 5%CO2 humidified atmosphere, the 3D clinostat significantly improved proliferation potential of all tested cell populations when compared to static cultures. After only 5 days, high definition microscopic analysis revealed that all CBSC adhered and expanded onto the BDtrade 3D collagen composite scaffolds, and cross-developed into hepatocyte-like cells upon stimulation. PMID:17282243
Design, simulation, fabrication, and preliminary tests of 3D CMS pixel detectors for the super-LHC
Koybasi, Ozhan; /Purdue U.; Bortoletto, Daniela; /Purdue U.; Hansen, Thor-Erik; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kok, Angela; /SINTEF, Oslo; Hansen, Trond Andreas; /SINTEF, Oslo; Lietaer, Nicolas; /SINTEF, Oslo; Jensen, Geir Uri; /SINTEF, Oslo; Summanwar, Anand; /SINTEF, Oslo; Bolla, Gino; /Purdue U.; Kwan, Simon Wing Lok; /Fermilab
2010-01-01
The Super-LHC upgrade puts strong demands on the radiation hardness of the innermost tracking detectors of the CMS, which cannot be fulfilled with any conventional planar detector design. The so-called 3D detector architectures, which feature columnar electrodes passing through the substrate thickness, are under investigation as a potential solution for the closest operation points to the beams, where the radiation fluence is estimated to reach 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Two different 3D detector designs with CMS pixel readout electronics are being developed and evaluated for their advantages and drawbacks. The fabrication of full-3D active edge CMS pixel devices with p-type substrate has been successfully completed at SINTEF. In this paper, we study the expected post-irradiation behaviors of these devices with simulations and, after a brief description of their fabrication, we report the first leakage current measurement results as performed on wafer.
Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.
2015-05-01
We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (Community Climate System Model version 4; Community Atmosphere Model/Community Land Model - CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23° x 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation (3-D-PP (plane-parallel)) adjustment to ensure that the energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher-elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while it decreases for higher elevations, with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases at higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.
Hamamatsu SHR74000 is a newly designed full three-dimensional (3D) whole body positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with small crystal size and large field of view (FOV). With the improvement of sensitivity, the scatter events increase significantly at the same time, especially for large objects. Monte Carlo simulations help us to understand the scatter phenomena and provide good references for scatter correction. In this paper, we introduce an effective scatter correction method based on single scatter simulation for the new PET scanner, which accounts for the full 3D scatter correction. With the results from Monte Carlo simulations, we implement a new scale method with special concentration on scatter events from outside the axial FOV and multiple scatter events. The effects of scatter correction are investigated and evaluated by phantom experiments; the results show good improvements in quantitative accuracy and contrast of the images, even for large objects. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
3-D CFD simulation of natural convection of air over a circular cylinder in a cuboidal box
The objective of this study is to investigate the transient 3-D numerical simulations of natural convection of air around a circular cylinder (76.2 mm OD and 560 mm length) enclosed in a cuboidal box of 1000 mm X 600 mm X 1200 mm. The value of Ra number is 1.3 X 106. The 2-D numerical simulations are also performed and the comparison between the 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations has been presented in terms of Nusselt number. The effect of top wall to cylinder distance on the flow pattern has also been investigated for the case of conducting ceiling. The flow becomes unstable and oscillating depending on the distance between cylinder and ceiling. The time varying behavior of the Nu number has also shown. (author)
Yu, Peicheng; Xu, Xinlu; Davidson, Asher; Tableman, Adam; Dalichaouch, Thamine; Li, Fei; Meyers, Michael D.; An, Weiming; Tsung, Frank S.; Decyk, Viktor K.; Fiuza, Frederico; Vieira, Jorge; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Lu, Wei; Silva, Luis O.; Mori, Warren B.
2016-07-01
When modeling laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) using the particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in a Lorentz boosted frame, the plasma is drifting relativistically at βb c towards the laser, which can lead to a computational speedup of ∼ γSUB>/bSUB>2 = (1 -space-time distribution of the LWFA data in the lab and boosted frame, we propose to use a moving window to follow the drifting plasma, instead of following the laser driver as is done in the LWFA lab frame simulations, in order to further reduce the computational loads. We describe the details of how the NCI is mitigated for the quasi-3D geometry, the setups for simulations which combine the Lorentz boosted frame, quasi-3D geometry, and the use of a moving window, and compare the results from these simulations against their corresponding lab frame cases. Good agreement is obtained among these sample simulations, particularly when there is no self-trapping, which demonstrates it is possible to combine the Lorentz boosted frame and the quasi-3D algorithms when modeling LWFA. We also discuss the preliminary speedups achieved in these sample simulations.
Wendling, A.; Daniel, J. L.; Hivet, G.; Vidal-Sallé, E.; Boisse, P.
2015-12-01
Numerical simulation is a powerful tool to predict the mechanical behavior and the feasibility of composite parts. Among the available numerical approaches, as far as woven reinforced composites are concerned, 3D finite element simulation at the mesoscopic scale leads to a good compromise between realism and complexity. At this scale, the fibrous reinforcement is modeled by an interlacement of yarns assumed to be homogeneous that have to be accurately represented. Among the numerous issues induced by these simulations, the first one consists in providing a representative meshed geometrical model of the unit cell at the mesoscopic scale. The second one consists in enabling a fast data input in the finite element software (contacts definition, boundary conditions, elements reorientation, etc.) so as to obtain results within reasonable time. Based on parameterized 3D CAD modeling tool of unit-cells of dry fabrics already developed, this paper presents an efficient strategy which permits an automated meshing of the models with 3D hexahedral elements and to accelerate of several orders of magnitude the simulation data input. Finally, the overall modeling strategy is illustrated by examples of finite element simulation of the mechanical behavior of fabrics.
Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow regularized by 3D phase contrast MRI
Rispoli, Vinicius C; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna S;
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is used clinically for quantitative assessment of cardiovascular flow and function, as it is capable of providing directly-measured 3D velocity maps. Alternatively, vascular flow can be estimated from model-based computation fluid...... approach in regularizing 3D flow fields is evaluated. METHODS: The proposed algorithm incorporates both a Newtonian fluid physics model and a linear PC-MRI signal model. The model equations are solved numerically using a modified CFD algorithm. The numerical solution corresponds to the optimal solution of...... dynamics (CFD) calculations. CFD provides arbitrarily high resolution, but its accuracy hinges on model assumptions, while velocity fields measured with PC-MRI generally do not satisfy the equations of fluid dynamics, provide limited resolution, and suffer from partial volume effects. The purpose of this...
Guo, Hanqi; Phillips, Carolyn L; Peterka, Tom; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Glatz, Andreas
2016-01-01
We propose a method for the vortex extraction and tracking of superconducting magnetic flux vortices for both structured and unstructured mesh data. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, magnetic flux vortices are well-defined features in a complex-valued order parameter field, and their dynamics determine electromagnetic properties in type-II superconductors. Our method represents each vortex line (a 1D curve embedded in 3D space) as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field in both space and time. For a time-varying discrete dataset, our vortex extraction and tracking method is as accurate as the data discretization. We then apply 3D visualization and 2D event diagrams to the extraction and tracking results to help scientists understand vortex dynamics and macroscale superconductor behavior in greater detail than previously possible. PMID:26529730
Justification for a 2D versus 3D fingertip finite element model during static contact simulations.
Harih, Gregor; Tada, Mitsunori; Dolšak, Bojan
2016-10-01
The biomechanical response of a human hand during contact with various products has not been investigated in details yet. It has been shown that excessive contact pressure on the soft tissue can result in discomfort, pain and also cumulative traumatic disorders. This manuscript explores the benefits and limitations of a simplified two-dimensional vs. an anatomically correct three-dimensional finite element model of a human fingertip. Most authors still use 2D FE fingertip models due to their simplicity and reduced computational costs. However we show that an anatomically correct 3D FE fingertip model can provide additional insight into the biomechanical behaviour. The use of 2D fingertip FE models is justified when observing peak contact pressure values as well as displacement during the contact for the given studied cross-section. On the other hand, an anatomically correct 3D FE fingertip model provides a contact pressure distribution, which reflects the fingertip's anatomy. PMID:26856769
Numerical simulation of the filling stage in injection molding based on a 3D model
GENG Tie; LI De-qun; ZHOU Hua-min
2005-01-01
Most injection molded parts are three-dimensional, with complex geometrical configurations and thick/thin wall sections. The change of the thickness of parts has significant influence on flow during injection molding. This paper presents a 3D finite element model to deal with the three-dimensional flow, which can more accurately predict the filling process than a 2. 5D model. In this model, equal-order velocity-pressure interpolation method is successfully employed and the relation between velocity and pressure is obtained from the discretized momentum equation in order to derive the pressure equation. A 3D control volume scheme is employed to track the flow front. The validity of the model has been tested through the analysis of the flow in a cavity.
Probing the fuzzy sphere regularisation in simulations of the 3d λφ4 model
We regularise the 3d λφ4 model by discretising the Euclidean time and representing the spatial part on a fuzzy sphere. The latter involves a truncated expansion of the field in spherical harmonics. This yields a numerically tractable formulation, which constitutes an unconventional alternative to the lattice. In contrast to the 2d version, the radius R plays an independent role. We explore the phase diagram in terms of R and the cutoff, as well as the parameters m2 and λ. Thus we identify the phases of disorder, uniform order and non-uniform order. We compare the result to the phase diagrams of the 3d model on a non-commutative torus, and of the 2d model on a fuzzy sphere. Our data at strong coupling reproduce accurately the behaviour of a matrix chain, which corresponds to the c = 1-model in string theory. This observation enables a conjecture about the thermodynamic limit. (orig.)
Probing the fuzzy sphere regularisation in simulations of the 3d λφ4 model
We regularise the 3d λφ4 model by discretising the Euclidean time and representing the spatial part on a fuzzy sphere. The latter involves a truncated expansion of the field in spherical harmonics. This yields a numerically tractable formulation, which constitutes an unconventional alternative to the lattice. In contrast to the 2d version, the radius R plays an independent role. We explore the phase diagram in terms of R and the cutoff, as well as the parameters m2 and λ. Thus we identify the phases of disorder, uniform order and non-uniform order. We compare the result to the phase diagrams of the 3d model on a non-commutative torus, and of the 2d model on a fuzzy sphere. Our data at strong coupling reproduce accurately the behaviour of a matrix chain, which corresponds to the c = 1-model in string theory. This observation enables a conjecture about the thermodynamic limit
Probing the fuzzy sphere regularisation in simulations of the $3d \\lambda \\phi^4$ model
Medina, Julieta; O'Connor, Denjoe
2008-01-01
We regularise the 3d \\lambda \\phi^4 model by discretising the Euclidean time and representing the spatial part on a fuzzy sphere. The latter involves a truncated expansion of the field in spherical harmonics. This yields a numerically tractable formulation, which constitutes an unconventional alternative to the lattice. In contrast to the 2d version, the radius R plays an independent r\\^{o}le. We explore the phase diagram in terms of R and the cutoff, as well as the parameters m^2 and \\lambda. Thus we identify the phases of disorder, uniform order and non-uniform order. We compare the result to the phase diagrams of the 3d model on a non-commutative torus, and of the 2d model on a fuzzy sphere. Our data at strong coupling reproduce accurately the behaviour of a matrix chain, which corresponds to the c=1-model in string theory. This observation enables a conjecture about the thermodynamic limit.
Simulation 3D electromagnetique et thermomecanique d'une cavite RF
Launay, F
2003-01-01
Une etude thermomecanique 3D de l'extremite de lame a l'entree du RFQ d'IPHI a ete menee avec le code I-DEAS. Le but est de comparer les temperatures atteintes, les contraintes et les deformations calculees a partir des densites de puissance RF deposee sur la lame obtenues a partir de deux codes de calcul electromagnetique differents: SOPRANO et MAFIA
Simulation study of a 3-D device integrating FinFET and UTBFET
Fahad, Hossain M.
2015-01-01
By integrating 3-D nonplanar fins and 2-D ultrathin bodies, wavy FinFETs merge two formerly competing technologies on a silicon-on-insulator platform to deliver enhanced transistor performance compared with conventional trigate FinFETs with unprecedented levels of chip-area efficiency. This makes it suitable for ultralarge-scale integration high-performance logic at and beyond the 10-nm technology node.
Trapping Solids at the Inner Edge of the Dead Zone: 3-D Global MHD Simulations
Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas
2010-01-01
The poorly-ionized interior of the protoplanetary disk is the location where dust coagulation processes may be most efficient. However even here, planetesimal formation may be limited by the loss of solid material through radial drift, and by collisional fragmentation of the particles. Our aim is to investigate the possibility that solid particles are trapped at local pressure maxima in the dynamically evolving disk. We perform the first 3-D global non-ideal MHD calculations of the disk treat...
Edge-based electric field formulation in 3D CSEM simulations: A parallel approach
Castillo-Reyes, Octavio; de la Puente, Josep; Puzyrev, Vladimir; Cela, José M.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a parallel computing scheme for the data computation that arise when applying one of the most popular electromagnetic methods in exploration geophysics, namely, controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM). The computational approach is based on linear edge finite element method in 3D isotropic domains. The total electromagnetic field is decomposed into primary and secondary electromagnetic field. The primary field is calculated analytically using an horizontal layered-e...
The Light Water Reactor (LWR) dynamics code DYN3D is extended and adopted for the application to block-type High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A procedure for the cross section generation for the HTGR core calculations was developed. The modified Reactivity-Equivalent Physical Transformation (RPT) approach is applied in order to eliminate the double-heterogeneity of HTGR fuel elements in the deterministic lattice calculations. A full core analysis of the reference simplified HTGR core is performed with DYN3D using macroscopic nodal cross sections provided by HELIOS. The SP3 transport approximation is integrated into the multi-group DYN3D code to take anisotropy of the neutron flux and heterogeneity of the core more precisely into account. The SP3 method was developed for hexagonal geometry of the graphite blocks, where the hexagons are subdivided into triangular nodes. A 3D heat conduction module coupled with a channel-type coolant flow model is implemented into the code. It is shown that there is significant redistribution of the produced heat by heat conduction between the graphite blocks. (orig.)
Jara, Carlos Alberto; Candelas, Francisco Andres; Torres, Fernando; Salzmann, Christophe; Gillet, Denis; Esquembre, Francisco; Dormido, Sebastián
2012-01-01
This paper presents a new collaborative e-learning system based on a real-time synchronized communication among virtual laboratories. This original approach provides a new tool which integrates virtual laboratories inside a synchronous collaborative e-learning framework. This system is based on the automatic generation of WebGL simulations from 3D Easy Java Simulations applets. These WebGL simulations created are synchronized through the Internet in order to integrate them in an on-line coll...
GAO Nuo; ZHU Shan-an; HE Bin
2005-01-01
We have developed a new three dimensional (3-D) conductivity imaging approach and have used it to detect human brain conductivity changes corresponding to acute cerebral stroke. The proposed Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) approach is based on the J-Substitution algorithm and is expanded to imaging 3-D subject conductivity distribution changes. Computer simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the present MREIT imaging approach.Simulations of both types of cerebral stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke, were performed on a four-sphere head model Simulation results showed that the correlation coefficient (CC) and relative error (RE) between target and estimated conductivity distributions were 0.9245±0.0068 and 8.9997%±0.0084%, for hemorrhagic stroke, and 0.6748±0.0197 and 8.8986%±0.0089%,for ischemic stroke, when the SNR (signal-to-noise radio) of added GWN (Gaussian White Noise) was 40. The convergence characteristic was also evaluated according to the changes of CC and RE with different iteration numbers. The CC increases and RE decreases monotonously with the increasing number of iterations. The present simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed 3-D MREIT approach in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke detection and suggest that the method may become a useful alternative in clinical diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke in humans.
End-to-end simulation of the C-ADS injector Ⅱ with a 3-D field map
The Injector II, one of the two parallel injectors of the high-current superconducting proton driver linac for the China Accelerator-Driven System (C-ADS) project, is being designed and constructed by the Institute of Modern Physics. At present, the design work for the injector is almost finished. End-to-end simulation has been carried out using the TRACK multiparticle simulation code to check the match between each acceleration section and the performance of the injector as a whole. Moreover, multiparticle simulations with all kinds of errors and misalignments have been performed to define the requirements of each device. The simulation results indicate that the lattice design is robust. In this paper, the results of end-to-end simulation and error simulation with a 3-D field map are presented. (authors)
SIMULATION PROCESS OF REMOVING NON-METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN ALUMINUM ALLOYS USING THE PROGRAM FLOW-3D
N. V. Sletova; I. N. Volnov; S. P. Zadrutsky; V. A. Chaikin
2015-01-01
The perspective materials for making fining preparations for the silumins are the calcium and strontium carbonates from the environmental safety point of view are shown. Principle possibility of using dispersed carbonates in the fining mixtures is confirmed by late inoculation process research using simulation FLOW-3D.The high efficiency of the fining mixture with the inoculants effect is confirmed by the industrial tests
SIMULATION PROCESS OF REMOVING NON-METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN ALUMINUM ALLOYS USING THE PROGRAM FLOW-3D
N. V. Sletova
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The perspective materials for making fining preparations for the silumins are the calcium and strontium carbonates from the environmental safety point of view are shown. Principle possibility of using dispersed carbonates in the fining mixtures is confirmed by late inoculation process research using simulation FLOW-3D.The high efficiency of the fining mixture with the inoculants effect is confirmed by the industrial tests
Highlights: ► This paper presents 2D plane strain and 3D simulations of pellet–cladding interaction during base irradiation and ramp tests. ► Inverse analysis is used to estimate the evolution of friction at the pellet–clad interface with burnup. ► The number of radial cracks that form in ramped rodlets is the main parameter on which inverse analysis is based. ► Calculations show that the sole evolution of the friction coefficient with burnup is sufficient to capture the radial crack pattern. ► A simple relation between the friction coefficient and the burnup is thus proposed and used in 3D simulations of PCI. - Abstract: This paper presents 2D(r, θ) plane strain and 3D simulations of PCI during base irradiation and ramp tests. Inverse analysis is used to estimate the evolution of friction at the pellet–clad interface with burnup. The number of radial cracks that form during power ramp tests in seventeen UO2-Zy4 rodlets with burnups in the range 20–60 GWd/tU is the main parameter on which inverse analysis is based. It is shown that the sole evolution of the friction coefficient with burnup is sufficient to capture the radial crack pattern of the rodlets after power ramping. A simple relation between the friction coefficient and the burnup variation after initial pellet–clad contact is thus proposed and used in 3D simulations of PCI. The delayed gap closing at mid-pellet level with respect to inter-pellet level leads to an axial variation of the friction coefficient, with maximum values near the pellet ends. The consequences in terms of PCI failure propensity are then discussed.
Unidirectional high fiber content composites: Automatic 3D FE model generation and damage simulation
Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon
2009-01-01
A new method and a software code for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical FE models of unidirectional long-fiber-reinforced composite (LFRC) with high fiber volume fraction with random fiber arrangement are presented. The fiber arrangement in the cross-section is generated through random...... movements of fibers from their initial regular hexagonal arrangement. Damageable layers are introduced into the fibers to take into account the random distribution of the fiber strengths. A series of computational experiments on the glass fibers reinforced polymer epoxy matrix composite is performed to...
Computer Simulation of Flow in CSO “OK3D Evropská”
Pollert, J
2000-01-01
During the last 30 years, a number of devices has been developed for dynamic separation of settle able solids in wastewaters. Initially, these separators were used for control of Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) pollution by retaining the bulk of solids in the underflow, directed to the sewage treatment plant (STP), and allowing combined sewage with reduced pollutant loads to overflow from the sewer systém. This paper is describing CSO “OK 3D Evropská” in Prague 6 on Evropská Street. Inlet...
Probing the fuzzy sphere regularisation in simulations of the 3d \\lambda \\phi^4 model
Medina, Julieta; Bietenholz, Wolfgang; O'Connor, Denjoe
2007-01-01
We regularise the 3d \\lambda \\phi^4 model by discretising the Euclidean time and representing the spatial part on a fuzzy sphere. The latter involves a truncated expansion of the field in spherical harmonics. This yields a numerically tractable formulation, which constitutes an unconventional alternative to the lattice. In contrast to the 2d version, the radius R plays an independent r\\^{o}le. We explore the phase diagram in terms of R and the cutoff, as well as the parameters m^2 and \\lambda...
Benchmarks of 3D Laplace Equation Solvers in a Cubic Configuration for Streamer Simulation
Joseph-Marie, Plewa; Olivier, Ducasse; Philippe, Dessante; Carolyn, Jacobs; Olivier, Eichwald; Nicolas, Renon; Mohammed, Yousfi
2016-05-01
The aim of this paper is to test a developed SOR R&B method using the Chebyshev accelerator algorithm to solve the Laplace equation in a cubic 3D configuration. Comparisons are made in terms of precision and computing time with other elliptic equation solvers proposed in the open source LIS library. The first results, obtained by using a single core on a HPC, show that the developed SOR R&B method is efficient when the spectral radius needed for the Chebyshev acceleration is carefully pre-estimated. Preliminary results obtained with a parallelized code using the MPI library are also discussed when the calculation is distributed over one hundred cores.
To model key aspects of surface morphology evolution and to overcome one of the main barriers to the implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography in semiconductor processing, the 3D Monte Carlo simulation of ion-beam deposition on pit-type defects was performed. Typical pit defects have depths in the 5–20 nm range and are about 10 times that wide. The aspect ratio of a defect cross section defined as depth divided by the full width at half maximum was used to measure the defect profile (decoration) as a function of film thickness. Previous attempts to model this system used 2D level set methods; 3D calculations using these methods were found to be too computationally intensive. In an effort to model the system in 3D the simulation of this study used the Solid-on-Solid aggregation model to deposit particles onto initial substrate defects. Surface diffusion was then simulated to relax the defect. Aspect ratio decay data was collected from the simulated defects and analyzed. The model was validated for defect evolution by comparing simulations to the experimental scanning transmission electron microscopy data. The statistics of effective activation energy were considered to show that observed defects have important geometric differences which define a unique aspect ratio decay path. Close fitting to the observed case was utilized to validate Monte Carlo physical models of thin film growth for use in predicting the multilayer profile of pit-type defects. - Highlights: • Model pit-type defects in multilayers using Monte Carlo methods. • Simulation substrates derived from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) scan defects • AFM scanned defect simulations return close fitting to the physical observations • Activation energy statistics on the surface show unique aspect ratio decay paths. • A test using of the fitting case applied to a different situation works accurately
Yan, X.; Cai, D.; Nishikawa, K.; Lembege, B.
2004-12-01
We made our efforts to parallelize the global 3D HPF Electromagnetic particle model (EMPM) for several years and have also reported our meaningful simulation results that revealed the essential physics involved in interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere using this EMPM (Nishikawa et al., 1995; Nishikawa, 1997, 1998a, b, 2001, 2002) in our PC cluster and supercomputer(D.S. Cai et al., 2001, 2003). Sash patterns and related phenomena have been observed and reported in some satellite observations (Fujumoto et al. 1997; Maynard, 2001), and have motivated 3D MHD simulations (White and al., 1998). We also investigated it with our global 3D parallelized HPF EMPM with dawnward IMF By (K.-I. Nishikawa, 1998) and recently new simulation with dusk-ward IMF By was accomplished in the new VPP5000 supercomputer. In the new simulations performed on the new VPP5000 supercomputer of Tsukuba University, we used larger domain size, 305×205×205, smaller grid size (Δ ), 0.5R E(the radium of the Earth), more total particle number, 220,000,000 (about 8 pairs per cell). At first, we run this code until we get the so-called quasi-stationary status; After the quasi-stationary status was established, we applied a northward IMF (B z=0.2), and then wait until the IMF arrives around the magnetopuase. After the arrival of IMF, we begin to change the IMF from northward to duskward (IMF B y=-0.2). The results revealed that the groove structure at the day-side magnetopause, that causes particle entry into inner magnetosphere and the cross structure or S-structure at near magneto-tail are formed. Moreover, in contrast with MHD simulations, kinetic characteristic of this event is also analyzed self-consistently with this simulation. The new simulation provides new and more detailed insights for the observed sash event.
Clementel, Nicola; Kruip, Chael J H; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter
2015-01-01
Spectral observations of the massive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae show phase-dependent variations, in intensity and velocity, of numerous helium emission and absorption lines throughout the entire 5.54-year orbit. Approaching periastron, the 3D structure of the wind-wind interaction region (WWIR) gets highly distorted due to the eccentric ($e \\sim 0.9$) binary orbit. The secondary star ($\\eta_{\\mathrm{B}}$) at these phases is located deep within the primary's dense wind photosphere. The combination of these effects is thought to be the cause of the particularly interesting features observed in the helium lines at periastron. We perform 3D radiative transfer simulations of $\\eta$ Car's interacting winds at periastron. Using the SimpleX radiative transfer algorithm, we post-process output from 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of the inner 150 au of the $\\eta$ Car system for two different primary star mass-loss rates ($\\dot{M}_{\\eta_{\\mathrm{A}}}$). Using previous results from simulations at ap...
雷雨
2014-01-01
本文简要介绍了3DS MAX SCRIPT面向对象脚本语言的主要功能，如脚本语言的编辑器和监听器，UI界面，数据的I/O接口，及数学函数。并且描述了SCRIPT语言在三维模拟井眼轨迹方面的应用实例，实例主要以解决实际问题为导向，并结合3DMAX软件的脚本语言，根据杏6-2-丙503井和芳104-92井测量得到的深度、斜度、方位，以这三项作为数据输入，通过数学函数转换为计算机可识别的节点，并且用连线函数将节点坐标连接起来，经过渲染绘制成三维立体图像，同时生成动画，利于从各个角度观测。程序设计以结构化编程为主，可以根据客户需要添加各个模块的功能，同时能够满足大批量井绘制图像的要求。本文作者通过对实例的目标分析，流程设计，解释源代码，描述程序的运行情况，对这个方向的开发应用进行了初步的探讨。希望抛砖引玉，能够让更多人了解到3DS MAX强大的图像生成能力和编程功能，为油田3DMAX应用和二次开发贡献更多的力量。%This paper briefly introduces the main function of the 3DS MAX SCRIPT object-oriented scripting languages, such as script editor and listener, UI interface, data I/O interface, and the mathematical function. And describes the application of SCRIPT language in the 3D simulation of hole trajectory, examples mainly aiming to solve practical problems, and combined with the 3DMAX scripting language, according to the XING 6-2-C 503 wells and FANG104-92 well measured depth, inclination, orientation, use the three as the data input, converted to node the computer can be identified by a mathematical function, and connecting the nodes coordinate with line function, make three-dimensional image after drawing and rendering, animation, benefit from each angle observation. Program design of structured programming, can according to the customer need to add the function of each module
Computer Simulation of Flow in CSO “OK3D Evropská”
J. Pollert
2000-01-01
Full Text Available During the last 30 years, a number of devices has been developed for dynamic separation of settle able solids in wastewaters. Initially, these separators were used for control of Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO pollution by retaining the bulk of solids in the underflow, directed to the sewage treatment plant (STP, and allowing combined sewage with reduced pollutant loads to overflow from the sewer systém. This paper is describing CSO “OK 3D Evropská” in Prague 6 on Evropská Street. Inlet to CSO is 3 m diameter tube collecting water from location of Oepy, Vokovice, Liboc and Ruzyně. The outflow throttle pipe is 1.1 m in diameter and continues to central wastewater treatment plant and overflow is ending in Šárecký creek. Šárecký creek flows through the Šárka valley which is environmentally protected area. CSO “OK 3D Evropská" has high overflow crest and probability of the function is 0.44 per year.
Simulating 3D $Z_2$ Topological Nodes in Nonsymmorphic Photonic Crystals
Wang, Hai-Xiao; Hang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Huanyang; Kee, Hae-Young; Jiang, Jian-Hua
2016-01-01
We propose an all-dielectric, space-time reversal symmetric photonics-crystal architecture that possess 3D Dirac points and line-nodes with nontrivial $Z_2$ topological charge, which can be realized at infrared and microwave frequencies. The protected degeneracy of bands is achieved via nonsymmorphic symmetries despite the lack of Kramers degeneracy in photonic crystal systems. Two orthogonal screw axes lead to 3D $Z_2$ Dirac points on high symmetry Brillouin zone (BZ) boundary line. On the other hand, twofold $Z_2$ line-nodes appear around the $\\Gamma$-point due to a combination of nonsymmorphic and point-group symmetries. The lowest line-node is deterministic because of degeneracy partner switching between Bloch states with opposite parities. A pair of Fermi arcs associated with $Z_2$ topological charge is emerged below light-line and protected by total internal reflection on certain photonic-crystal-air interfaces. These robust surface states offer an unique opportunity to realize "open cavity" with strong...
3D numerical simulation of the transport of chemical signature compounds from buried landmines
Irrazabal, Maik; Borrero, Ernesto; Briano, Julio G.; Castro, Miguel; Hernandez, Samuel P.
2005-06-01
The transport of the chemical signature compounds from buried landmines in a three-dimensional (3D) array has been numerically modeled using the finite-volume technique. Compounds such as trinitrotoluene, dinitrotoluene, and their degradation products, are semi volatile and somewhat soluble in water. Furthermore, they can strongly adsorb to the soil and undergo chemical and biological degradation. Consequently, the spatial and temporal concentration distributions of such chemicals depend on the mobility of the water and gaseous phases, their molecular and mechanical diffusion, adsorption characteristics, soil water content, compaction, and environmental factors. A 3D framework is required since two-dimensional (2D) symmetry may easily fade due to terrain topography: non-flat surfaces, soil heterogeneity, or underground fractures. The spatial and temporal distribution of the chemical-signature-compounds, in an inclined grid has been obtained. The fact that the chemicals may migrate horizontally, giving higher surface concentrations at positions not directly on top of the objects, emphasizes the need for understanding the transport mechanism when a chemical detector is used. Deformation in the concentration contours after rainfall is observed in the inclined surface and is attributed to both: the advective flux, and to the water flux at the surface caused by the slope. The analysis of the displacements in the position of the maximum concentrations at the surface, respect to the actual location of the mine, in an inclined system, is presented.
Simulation of the 3D viscoelastic free surface flow by a parallel corrected particle scheme
Jin-Lian, Ren; Tao, Jiang
2016-02-01
In this work, the behavior of the three-dimensional (3D) jet coiling based on the viscoelastic Oldroyd-B model is investigated by a corrected particle scheme, which is named the smoothed particle hydrodynamics with corrected symmetric kernel gradient and shifting particle technique (SPH_CS_SP) method. The accuracy and stability of SPH_CS_SP method is first tested by solving Poiseuille flow and Taylor-Green flow. Then the capacity for the SPH_CS_SP method to solve the viscoelastic fluid is verified by the polymer flow through a periodic array of cylinders. Moreover, the convergence of the SPH_CS_SP method is also investigated. Finally, the proposed method is further applied to the 3D viscoelastic jet coiling problem, and the influences of macroscopic parameters on the jet coiling are discussed. The numerical results show that the SPH_CS_SP method has higher accuracy and better stability than the traditional SPH method and other corrected SPH method, and can improve the tensile instability. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20130436 and BK20150436) and the Natural Science Foundation of the Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 15KJB110025).
A 3D simulation case study of airport air traffic handling
H. de Swaan Arons
1996-01-01
textabstractModern Windows-based simulation packages bring simulation within reach of decision-makers. The use of graphics enables the manager to observe an animation of the simulated reality, to focus on the essentials of the model without the need to bother about implementation details. In most ap
The percolation threshold problem in insulating polymers filled with exfoliated conductive graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) is re-examined in this 3D Monte Carlo simulation study. GNPs are modelled as solid discs wrapped by electrically conductive layers of certain thickness which represent half of the electron tunnelling distance. Two scenarios of 'impenetrable' and 'penetrable' GNPs are implemented in the simulations. The percolation thresholds for both scenarios are plotted versus the electron tunnelling distance for various GNP thicknesses. The assumption of successful dispersion and exfoliation, and the incorporation of the electron tunnelling phenomenon in the impenetrable simulations suggest that the simulated percolation thresholds are lower bounds for any experimental study. Finally, the simulation results are discussed and compared with other experimental studies.
Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL
2012-08-01
Three dimensional simulation capabilities are currently being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element modeling software, to investigate thermal expansion of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) s low enriched uranium fuel plates. To validate simulations, 3D models have also been developed for the experimental setup used by Cheverton and Kelley in 1968 to investigate the buckling and thermal deflections of HFIR s highly enriched uranium fuel plates. Results for several simulations are presented in this report, and comparisons with the experimental data are provided when data are available. A close agreement between the simulation results and experimental findings demonstrates that the COMSOL simulations are able to capture the thermal expansion physics accurately and that COMSOL could be deployed as a predictive tool for more advanced computations at realistic HFIR conditions to study temperature-induced fuel plate deflection behavior.
3D element imaging using NSECT for the detection of renal cancer: a simulation study in MCNP
Viana, R. S.; Agasthya, G. A.; Yoriyaz, H.; Kapadia, A. J.
2013-09-01
This work describes a simulation study investigating the application of neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) for noninvasive 3D imaging of renal cancer in vivo. Using MCNP5 simulations, we describe a method of diagnosing renal cancer in the body by mapping the 3D distribution of elements present in tumors using the NSECT technique. A human phantom containing the kidneys and other major organs was modeled in MCNP5. The element composition of each organ was based on values reported in literature. The two kidneys were modeled to contain elements reported in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and healthy kidney tissue. Simulated NSECT scans were executed to determine the 3D element distribution of the phantom body. Elements specific to RCC and healthy kidney tissue were then analyzed to identify the locations of the diseased and healthy kidneys and generate tomographic images of the tumor. The extent of the RCC lesion inside the kidney was determined using 3D volume rendering. A similar procedure was used to generate images of each individual organ in the body. Six isotopes were studied in this work—32S, 12C, 23Na, 14N, 31P and 39K. The results demonstrated that through a single NSECT scan performed in vivo, it is possible to identify the location of the kidneys and other organs within the body, determine the extent of the tumor within the organ, and to quantify the differences between cancer and healthy tissue-related isotopes with p ≤ 0.05. All of the images demonstrated appropriate concentration changes between the organs, with some discrepancy observed in 31P, 39K and 23Na. The discrepancies were likely due to the low concentration of the elements in the tissue that were below the current detection sensitivity of the NSECT technique.
Variable-shape E-beam litography: Proximity effect simulation of 3D micro and nano sructures
Matějka, Milan; Urbánek, M.; Kolařík, V.; Horáček, M.; Krátký, Stanislav; Mikšík, P.; Vašina, J.
Ostrava: TANGER Ltd, 2012, s. 729-732. ISBN 978-80-87294-32-1. [NANOCON 2012. International Conference /4./. Brno (CZ), 23.10.2012-25.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/576; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA TA ČR TE01020233 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : 3D resist structures * variable shape electron beam lithography * proximity effect simulation and correction * polymer resist * development process simulation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering
Human Body Modeling and Posture Simulating Based on 3D Surface Scan Data
马永有; 张辉; 任少云; 蒋寿伟
2003-01-01
This paper presents a new approach for modeling the human body by considering the motion state and the shape of whole body. The body model consists of a skeleton kinematic model and a surface model. The former is used to determine the posture of the body,and the latter is used to generate the body shape according to the given posture. The body surface is reconstructed with multi-segment B-spline surfaces based on the 3D scan data from a real human body.Using only a few joints parameters and the original surface scan data, the various body postures and the shape can be generated easily. The model has a strong potential of being used for ergonomic design,garment design, virtual reality environment, as well as creating human animation, etc.
Experimental validation of 3D simulations of tungsten melt erosion under ITER-like transient loads
Tungsten in form of a macrobrush structure is foreseen as one of two candidate materials for the ITER divertor. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage are surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of plasma facing components (PFC). The damage to W-macrobrush targets under repetitive ELM-like heat loads corresponding to the conditions of the plasma gun QSPA-T and ITER is numerically investigated with the three-dimensional melt motion code MEMOS. The calculations revealed a significant damage to brush edges caused by the interaction of impacting plasma with the lateral surfaces. In addition, experimentally observed overlapping of brush gaps by molten tungsten was numerically confirmed. These 3D effects of the repetitive transient loads may significantly influence the PFC lifetime.
Simulation Study of Real Time 3-D Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming for Ultrasound Imaging
Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Stuart, Matthias Bo;
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new beamforming method for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging using a 2-D matrix transducer. To obtain images with sufficient resolution and contrast, several thousand elements are needed. The proposed method reduces the required channel count from the...... transducer to the main imaging system, by including electronics in the transducer handle. The reduction of element channel count is achieved using a sequential beamforming scheme. The beamforming scheme is a combination of a fixed focus beamformer in the transducer and a second dynamic focus beamformer in...... the main system. The real-time imaging capability is achieved using a synthetic aperture beamforming technique, utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual elements that in combination can generate an image. The two core capabilities in combination is named Synthetic Aperture Sequential...
3D Navier-Stokes Simulations of a rotor designed for Maximum Aerodynamic Efficiency
Johansen, Jeppe; Madsen, Helge. Aa.; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels
2007-01-01
The present paper describes the design of a three-bladed wind turbine rotor taking into account maximum aerodynamic efficiency only and not considering structural as well as offdesign issues. The rotor was designed assuming constant induction for most of the blade span, but near the tip region a...... constant load was assumed. The rotor design was obtained using an Actuator Disc model and was subsequently verified using both a free wake Lifting Line method and a full 3D Navier-Stokes solver. Excellent agreement was obtained using the three models. Global mechanical power coefficient, CP, reached a...... value of slightly above 0.51, while global thrust coefficient, CT, was 0.87. The local power coefficient, Cp, increased to slightly above the Betz limit on the inner part of the rotor as well as the local thrust coefficient, Ct, increased to a value above 1.1. This agrees well with the theory of de...
The Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) thermal-hydraulic model adopted in the Korea Nuclear Plant Education Center (KNPEC)-2 simulator was provided in the early 1980s. The reference plant for KNPEC-2 is the Yong Gwang Nuclear Unit 1, which is a Westinghouse-type 3-loop, 950 MW(electric) pressurized water reactor. Because of the limited computational capability at that time, it uses overly simplified physical models and assumptions for a real-time simulation of NSSS thermal-hydraulic transients. This may entail inaccurate results and thus, the possibility of so-called ''negative training,'' especially for complicated two-phase flows in the reactor coolant system. To resolve the problem, we developed a realistic NSSS thermal-hydraulic program (named ARTS code) based on the best-estimate code RETRAN-3D. The systematic assessment of ARTS has been conducted by both a stand-alone test and an integrated test in the simulator environment. The non-integrated stand-alone test (NIST) results were reasonable in terms of accuracy, real-time simulation capability, and robustness. After successful completion of the NIST, ARTS was integrated with a 3-D reactor kinetics model and other system models. The site acceptance test (SAT) has been completed successively and confirmed to comply with the ANSI/ANS-3.5-1998 simulator software performance criteria. This paper presents our efforts for the ARTS development and some test results of the NIST and SAT
A SPECT system simulator built on the SolidWorksTM 3D-Design package
LI, XIN; Furenlid, Lars R.
2014-01-01
We have developed a GPU-accelerated SPECT system simulator that integrates into instrument-design workflow [1]. This simulator includes a gamma-ray tracing module that can rapidly propagate gamma-ray photons through arbitrary apertures modeled by SolidWorksTM-created stereolithography (.STL) representations with a full complement of physics cross sections [2, 3]. This software also contains a scintillation detector simulation module that can model a scintillation detector with arbitrary scint...
Simulation of Asymmetric Destabilization of Mine-void Rock Masses Using a Large 3D Physical Model
Lai, X. P.; Shan, P. F.; Cao, J. T.; Cui, F.; Sun, H.
2016-02-01
When mechanized sub-horizontal section top coal caving (SSTCC) is used as an underground mining method for exploiting extremely steep and thick coal seams (ESTCS), a large-scale surrounding rock caving may be violently created and have the potential to induce asymmetric destabilization from mine voids. In this study, a methodology for assessing the destabilization was developed to simulate the Weihuliang coal mine in the Urumchi coal field, China. Coal-rock mass and geological structure characterization were integrated with rock mechanics testing for assessment of the methodology and factors influencing asymmetric destabilization. The porous rock-like composite material ensured accuracy for building a 3D geological physical model of mechanized SSTCC by combining multi-mean timely track monitoring including acoustic emission, crack optical acquirement, roof separation observation, and close-field photogrammetry. An asymmetric 3D modeling analysis for destabilization characteristics was completed. Data from the simulated hydraulic support and buried pressure sensor provided effective information that was linked with stress-strain relationship of the working face in ESTCS. The results of the 3D physical model experiments combined with hybrid statistical methods were effective for predicting dynamic hazards in ESTCS.
Numerical Simulations of High-Frequency Respiratory Flows in 2D and 3D Lung Bifurcation Models
Chen, Zixi; Parameswaran, Shamini; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming; Raj, Rishi; Parameswaran, Siva
2014-07-01
To better understand the human pulmonary system and optimize the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) design, numerical simulations were conducted under normal breathing frequency and HFOV condition using a CFD code Ansys Fluent and its user-defined C programs. 2D and 3D double bifurcating lung models were created, and the geometry corresponds to fifth to seventh generations of airways with the dimensions based on the Weibel's pulmonary model. Computations were carried out for different Reynolds numbers (Re = 400 and 1000) and Womersley numbers (α = 4 and 16) to study the air flow fields, gas transportation, and wall shear stresses in the lung airways. Flow structure was compared with experimental results. Both 2D and 3D numerical models successfully reproduced many results observed in the experiment. The oxygen concentration distribution in the lung model was investigated to analyze the influence of flow oscillation on gas transport inside the lung model.
Finite Element Simulation on the Spin-forming of the 3D Non-axisymmetric Thin-Walled Tubes
无
2006-01-01
The roller movement trace for the 3D non-axisymmetric thin-walled tubes is a complex space curve. Besides the roller rotation caused by contact with the blank, the roller rotates around the workpiece together with the main spindle, and also moves simultaneously along the direction of the revolution radius. The method to correctly establish the finite element (FE) models of the metal spinning is based on the MSC. MARC software was introduced. The calculation formulas considering both the revolution and rotation of the roller were obtained by the mathematical deduction. The saving calculation points m should be a multiple of 4 for one revolution of the roller around the workpiece to obtain the maximum forming force for the spinning of the 3D non-axisymmetric thin-walled tubes. The simulation results conform well to the experimental ones for several spinning methods; the maximum error is less than ±15%.
K. N. Liou
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Essentially all modern climate models utilize a plane-parallel (PP radiative transfer approach in physics parameterizations; however, the potential errors that arise from neglecting three-dimensional (3-D interactions between radiation and mountains/snow on climate simulations have not been studied and quantified. This paper is a continuation of our efforts to investigate 3-D mountains/snow effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky and Sierra-Nevada Mountains. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model applied at a 30 km grid resolution with incorporation of a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization covering a time period from 1 November 2007 to 31 May 2008 during which abundant snowfall occurred. Comparison of the 3-D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3-D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes and on the consequent elevation-dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. In particular, during the winter months, large deviations (3-D–PP of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours due to shading effects for elevations below 2.5 km. During spring, positive deviations shift to earlier morning. Over the mountain tops above 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40–60 W m−2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas
ReefSAM - Reef Sedimentary Accretion Model: A new 3D coral reef evolution model/simulator
Barrett, Samuel; Webster, Jody
2013-04-01
Coral reefs show characteristic morphological patterns (e.g. coral dominated margins with detrital carbonate dominated lagoons/back-reef) and temporal development (e.g. Hopley et al. 2007). While the processes which lead to predictable patterns on a range of scales have been discussed qualitatively, a full quantitative understanding of the range of processes and parameters involved requires modelling. Previous attempts to model complex Holocene reef systems (i.e. One Tree Reef, GBR - Barrett and Webster 2012) using a carbonate stratigraphic forward model (Carbonate3D - Warrlich et al. 2002) identified a number of important but unsimulated processes and potential model improvements. ReefSAM has been written from scratch in Matlab using these findings and experiences from using Carbonate3D. It simulates coralgal accretion and carbonate sand production and transport. Specific improvements include: 1. a more complex hydrodynamic model based on wave refraction and incorporating vertical (depth) and lateral (substrate dependent) variations in transport energy and erosion. 2. a complex reef growth model incorporating depth, wave energy/turbidity and substrate composition. 3. Paleo-water depth, paleo-wave energy and bio-zone (combination of paleo-water depth and wave energy) model outputs allowing coralgal habitat changes through time and space to be simulated and compared to observational data. The model is compared to the well studied One Tree Reef - tests similar to those undertaken in Barrett and Webster 2012 with Carbonate3D are presented. Model development coincides with plans for further intensive drilling at One Tree Reef (mid 2013) providing an opportunity to test the model predictively. The model is still in active development. References: Barrett, S.J., Webster, J.M.,2012. Holocene evolution of the Great Barrier Reef: Insights from 3D numerical modelling. Sedimentary Geology 265-266, 56-71. Warrlich, G.M.D., Waltham, D.A., Bosence D.W.J., 2002. Quantifying the
NuGrid: Nuclear Burning in 3-D Double Degenerate Merger Simulations
Diehl, Steven; Hungerford, Aimee; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Bennett, Michael; Herwig, Falk; Hirschi, Raphael; Pignatari, Marco; Magkotsios, Georgios; Timmes, Francis X; Young, Patrick; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Motl, Patrick; Tohline, Joel E
2008-01-01
We present preliminary results from recent high-resolution double-degenerate merger simulations with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. We put particular emphasis on verification and validation in our effort and show the importance of details in the initial condition setup for the final outcome of the simulation. We also stress the dynamical importance of including shocks in the simulations. These results represent a first step toward a suite of simulations that will shed light on the question whether double-degenerate mergers are a viable path toward type 1a supernovae. In future simulations, we will make use of the capabilities of the NuGrid collaboration in post-processing SPH particle trajectories with a complete nuclear network to follow the detailed nuclear reactions during the dynamic merger phase.
Understanding the Rayleigh-Taylor instability through 1D and 3D simulations
Mikhaeil, Mark; Denissen, Nicholas; Ranjan, Devesh
2015-11-01
A series of Rayleigh-Taylor instability numerical simulations were completed using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrocode FLAG developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. One-dimensional simulations employed a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach with turbulence closure models selected from the Besnard-Harlow-Rauenzahn family of models. Growth rate parameters and turbulence statistics are derived from these simulations and compared between closure models. Variations from experimental results are explored and used to validate the models. The effect of density ratio on the bubble-spike growth rate asymmetry is also investigated. High resolution three-dimensional large eddy simulations (LES) are also completed and presented. LES were initialized using a multi-modal perturbation prescribed from experimental data collected at the Georgia Institute of Technology multi-layer Gas Tunnel facility. Turbulence statistics are gathered by averaging many simulations started with different initial conditions. Late time development is compared to Gas Tunnel experimental results and previous LES.
Particle tracks in a hydro-cyclone generated both experimentally by positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) and numerically with Eulerian-Lagrangian CFD have been studied and compared. A hydro-cyclone with a cylinder-on-cone design was used in this study, the geometries used in the CFD simulations and in the experiments being identical. It is shown that it is possible to track a fast-moving particle in a hydro-cyclone using PEPT with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The numerical 3-D particle trajectories were generated using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model for the fluid and Lagrangian particle tracking for the particles. The behaviors of the particles were analyzed in detail and were found to be consistent between experiments and CFD simulations. The tracks of the particles are discussed and related to the fluid flow field visualized in the CFD simulations using the cross-sectional static pressure distribution. (authors)
Xu, Zexuan; Hu, Bill X.; Davis, Hal; Cao, Jianhua
2015-05-01
A research version of CFP (Conduit Flow Process) code, CFPv2, is applied with UMT3D to simulate long term (1966-2018) nitrate-N contamination transport processes in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), northern Florida, where karst conduit networks are well developed. Groundwater flow in the WKP limestone porous matrix is simulated using Darcy's law, and non-laminar flow within conduits is described by Darcy-Weisbach equation. Nitrate-N conduit transport and advective exchanges of groundwater and nitrate-N between conduits and limestone matrix are calculated by CFPv2 and UMT3D, instead of MODFLOW and MT3DMS since Reynolds numbers for flows in conduits are over the criteria of laminar flow. The developed numerical model is calibrated by field observations and then applied to simulate nitrate-N transport in the WKP. The numerical simulations verify the theories that two sprayfields near the City of Tallahassee and septic tanks in the rural area are major nitrate-N point sources within the WKP. High nitrate-N concentrations occur near Lost Creek Sink, and conduits of Wakulla Spring and Spring Creek Springs where aquifer discharge groundwater. Conduit networks control nitrate-N transport and regional contaminant distributions in the WKP, as nitrate-N is transported through conduits rapidly and spread over large areas.
Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan 20133 (Italy); Richard, P. [LUNAM Université, IFSTTAR, site de Nantes, GPEM/MAST, route de Bouaye CS 4, 44344 Bouguenais (France); Brodu, N. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)
2014-05-15
We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature.
We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature
Simulations of Gyrosynchrotron Microwave Emission from an Oscillating 3D Magnetic Loop
Kuznetsov, Alexey; Reznikova, Veronika
2015-01-01
Radio observations of solar flares often reveal various periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations. Most likely, these oscillations are caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations of flaring loops which modulate the emission. Interpretation of the observations requires comparing them with simulations. We simulate the gyrosynchrotron radio emission from a semi-circular (toroidal-shaped) magnetic loop containing sausage-mode MHD oscillations. The aim is to detect the observable signatures specific to the considered MHD mode and to study their dependence on the various source parameters. The MHD waves are simulated using a linear three-dimensional model of a magnetized plasma cylinder; both standing and propagating waves are considered. The curved loop is formed by replicating the MHD solutions along the plasma cylinder and bending the cylinder; this model allows us to study the effect of varying the viewing angle along the loop. The radio emission is simulated using a three-dimensional model and its spatial a...
Simulation of 3D tumor cell growth using nonlinear finite element method.
Dong, Shoubing; Yan, Yannan; Tang, Liqun; Meng, Junping; Jiang, Yi
2016-06-01
We propose a novel parallel computing framework for a nonlinear finite element method (FEM)-based cell model and apply it to simulate avascular tumor growth. We derive computation formulas to simplify the simulation and design the basic algorithms. With the increment of the proliferation generations of tumor cells, the FEM elements may become larger and more distorted. Then, we describe a remesh and refinement processing of the distorted or over large finite elements and the parallel implementation based on Message Passing Interface to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the simulation. We demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the FEM model and the parallelization methods in simulations of early tumor growth. PMID:26213205
3D FEM Numerical Simulation of Seismic Pile-supported Bridge Structure Reaction in Liquefying Ground
Ling XianZhang, Tang Liang and Xu Pengju
2011-04-01
Full Text Available This study examines the establishment of liquefied ground pile-soil-bridge seismic interaction analysis of three-dimensional finite element analysis method for the simulation of liquefied ground shaking table test of pile-soil seismic interaction analysis, undertake OpenSees finite element based numerical simulation platform, for the shaking table test based on two-phase saturated porous media, Comparative numerical and experimental results, detailed test pile dynamic response of bridge structure and dynamic properties, especially liquefaction pore pressure, liquefaction of pile foundation and the dynamic response of the free field. Finite element method can reasonably predict the site of pore pressure, dynamic response; despite the conventional beam element simulation of pile, pile dynamic response can still accurately simulated.
2D and 3D Core-Collapse Supernovae Simulation Results Obtained with the CHIMERA Code
Bruenn, S W; Hix, W R; Blondin, J M; Marronetti, P; Messer, O E B; Dirk, C J; Yoshida, S
2010-01-01
Much progress in realistic modeling of core-collapse supernovae has occurred recently through the availability of multi-teraflop machines and the increasing sophistication of supernova codes. These improvements are enabling simulations with enough realism that the explosion mechanism, long a mystery, may soon be delineated. We briefly describe the CHIMERA code, a supernova code we have developed to simulate core-collapse supernovae in 1, 2, and 3 spatial dimensions. We then describe the results of an ongoing suite of 2D simulations initiated from a 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar mass progenitor. These have all exhibited explosions and are currently in the expanding phase with the shock at between 5,000 and 20,000 km. We also briefly describe an ongoing simulation in 3 spatial dimensions initiated from the 15 solar mass progenitor.
Optimal Control Strategy Search Using a Simplest 3-D PWR Xenon Oscillation Simulator
Power spatial oscillations due to the transient xenon spatial distribution are well known as xenon oscillation in large PWRs. When the reactor size becomes larger than the current design, then even radial oscillations can be also divergent. Even if the radial oscillation is convergent, when some control rods malfunction occurs, it is necessary to suppress the oscillation in as short time as possible. In such cases, optimal control strategy is required. Generally speaking the optimality search based on the modern control theory requires a lot of calculation for the evaluation of state variables. In the case of control rod malfunctions the xenon oscillation could be three dimensional. In such case, direct core calculations would be inevitable. From this point of view a very simple model, only four point reactor model, has been developed and verified. In this paper, an example of a procedure and the results for optimal control strategy search are presented. It is shown that we have only one optimal strategy within a half cycle of the oscillation with fixed control strength. It is also shown that a 3-D xenon oscillation introduced by a control rod malfunction can not be controlled by only one control step as can be done for axial oscillations. They might be quite strong limitations to the operators. Thus it is recommended that a strategy generator, which is quick in analyzing and easy to use, might be installed in a monitoring system or operator guiding system. (author)
Steady state 3-D simulation of CANDU6 moderator circulation under the normal operating condition
Moderator circulation inside the CANDU-6 reactor vessel of Wolsong 2/3/4 (KOREA) under normal operating condition is analyzed by using computational fluid dynamics for predicting the local subcooling of the moderator in the vicinity of the calandria tubes. The buoyancy effect induced by internal heating is accounted for by the Boussinesq approximation. The standard k-ε turbulence model associated with logarithmic wall treatment is applied to predict the turbulent jet flows from eight inlet nozzles. The matrix of calandria tubes in the core region is simplified as porous media, in which anisotropic hydraulic impedance is modeled using an empirical correlation of frictional pressure loss. The governing equations are solved by CFX-4.4, a commercial CFD code developed by AEA technology. The CFD model has been successfully validated against experimental data obtained in the Stern Laboratories Inc. (SLI) in Hamilton, Ontario. Steady-state 3-D prediction of the CANDU-6 moderator circulation under normal operating conditions gives a maximum moderator temperature of 82.9oC at the upper core region, which corresponds to the minimum subcooling temperature of 24.8oC considering hydrostatic pressure increase. The flow pattern on the normal plane to z-axis is determined as 'mixed-type'. (author)
Numerical simulation of the 3D behavior of thermal buoyant airflows in pentahedral spaces
Ridouane, El Hassan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Vermont, 33 Colchester Avenue, 201 Votey Building, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)], E-mail: eridouan@uvm.edu; Campo, Antonio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Vermont, 33 Colchester Avenue, 201 Votey Building, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)
2008-10-15
A numerical study of three-dimensional natural convection in an attic space with heated horizontal base and cooled upper walls is presented. Every previous study pertinent to this subject as of today has assumed that the flow in attics is two-dimensional and restricted to triangular cavities. This problem is examined for fixed aspect ratios holding width to height of 2 and depth to height of 3.33 and Rayleigh numbers ranging from 10{sup 4} to 8 x 10{sup 5}. The coupled system of conservation equations, subject to the proper boundary conditions, along with the equation of state assuming the air behaves as a perfect gas are solved with the finite volume method. In the conservation equations, the second-order-accurate QUICK scheme was used for the discretization of the convective terms and the SIMPLE scheme for the pressure-velocity coupling. It is categorically found that the flow in the attic is 3D. From the physics of the problem, two steady-state solutions are possible. The symmetrical solution prevails for relatively low Rayleigh numbers. However, as the Ra is gradually increased, a transition occurs at a critical value Ra{sub C}. Above this value of Ra{sub C}, an asymmetrical solution exhibiting a pitchfork bifurcation arises and eventually becomes steady. Results are presented detailing the occurrence of the pitchfork bifurcation and the resulting flow patterns are described.
Time-dependent 3D simulations of the hemodynamics in a stented coronary artery
Faik, Isam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6 (Canada); Mongrain, Rosaire [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6 (Canada); Leask, Richard L [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6 (Canada); Rodes-Cabau, Josep [Laval Hospital, Laval University, 2725 chemin Ste-Foy, Ste-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4G5 (Canada); Larose, Eric [Laval Hospital, Laval University, 2725 chemin Ste-Foy, Ste-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4G5 (Canada); Bertrand, Olivier [Laval Hospital, Laval University, 2725 chemin Ste-Foy, Ste-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4G5 (Canada)
2007-03-01
Stenting is becoming the major interventional cardiology procedure worldwide. However restenosis remains a major limitation to the effectiveness of stents. Alterations to the local hemodynamics in the stented segment of the artery could be a potential factor in the development of in-stent restenosis. The characterization of wall shear stress and of blood flow patterns in a stented artery is therefore necessary for a good understanding of the role of hemodynamics in the development of in-stent restenosis. We have used a time-dependent 3D numerical model of a stented coronary artery to study the characteristics of the blood flow and the shear stress distribution. Our results show that the presence of the stent produces significant secondary flow that is limited to an annulus in the near wall region. Low shear stress zones were localized in the vicinity of the struts while the tips of the struts exhibited high values of shear stress. These results support the hypothesis that local hemodynamics may affect the development of in-stent restenosis and could influence the choice of stent geometries for future stent designs.
A NURBS-based generalized finite element scheme for 3D simulation of heterogeneous materials
Safdari, Masoud; Najafi, Ahmad R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Geubelle, Philippe H.
2016-08-01
A 3D NURBS-based interface-enriched generalized finite element method (NIGFEM) is introduced to solve problems with complex discontinuous gradient fields observed in the analysis of heterogeneous materials. The method utilizes simple structured meshes of hexahedral elements that do not necessarily conform to the material interfaces in heterogeneous materials. By avoiding the creation of conforming meshes used in conventional FEM, the NIGFEM leads to significant simplification of the mesh generation process. To achieve an accurate solution in elements that are crossed by material interfaces, the NIGFEM utilizes Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to enrich the solution field locally. The accuracy and convergence of the NIGFEM are tested by solving a benchmark problem. We observe that the NIGFEM preserves an optimal rate of convergence, and provides additional advantages including the accurate capture of the solution fields in the vicinity of material interfaces and the built-in capability for hierarchical mesh refinement. Finally, the use of the NIGFEM in the computational analysis of heterogeneous materials is discussed.
3D Numerical Simulations of AGN Outflows in Clusters and Groups
Gaspari, M; Brighenti, F; D'Ercole, A
2009-01-01
We compute 3D gasdynamical models of jet outflows from the central AGN, that carry mass as well as energy to the hot gas in galaxy clusters and groups. These flows have many attractive attributes for solving the cooling flow problem: why the hot gas temperature and density profiles resemble cooling flows but show no spectral evidence of cooling to low temperatures. Subrelativistic jets, described by a few parameters, are assumed to be activated when gas flows toward or cools near a central SMBH. Using approximate models for a rich cluster (A1795), a poor cluster (2A 0336+096) and a group (NGC 5044), we show that mass-carrying jets with intermediate mechanical efficiencies ($\\sim10^{-3}$) can reduce for many Gyr the global cooling rate to or below the low values implied by X-spectra, while maintaining $T$ and $\\rho$ profiles similar to those observed, at least in clusters. Groups are much more sensitive to AGN heating and present extreme time variability in both profiles. Finally, the intermittency of the feed...
3D simulations of supernova remnants evolution including non-linear particle acceleration
Ferrand, Gilles; Ballet, Jean; Teyssier, Romain; Fraschetti, Federico
2009-01-01
If a sizeable fraction of the energy of supernova remnant shocks is channeled into energetic particles (commonly identified with Galactic cosmic rays), then the morphological evolution of the remnants must be distinctly modified. Evidence of such modifications has been recently obtained with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray satellites. To investigate these effects, we coupled a semi-analytical kinetic model of shock acceleration with a 3D hydrodynamic code (by means of an effective adiabatic index). This enables us to study the time-dependent compression of the region between the forward and reverse shocks due to the back reaction of accelerated particles, concomitantly with the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability at the contact discontinuity. Density profiles depend critically on the injection level eta of particles: for eta up to about 10^-4 modifications are weak and progressive, for eta of the order of 10^-3 modifications are strong and immediate. Nevertheless, the extension of the...
3D Design & Simulation of a Z Shape Antenna with a CPW Tx Line
Protap Mollick
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents design of à new Z shaped antenna with a cpw (coplanar waveguide transmission line. In this proposed research paper, the impedance increases with a pair of Z shape combined design on the FR-4 substrate and ground plane. The main features of the Z antenna are the compact dimensions and band-operating characteristics that are obtained without modifying the radiator or the ground plane. The antenna consists of a linear patch as radiator, a partial CPW-ground plane, and a slotted conductor-backed plane. Impedance matching for dual-band operations is achieved by a pair of mirror square-shaped slots at the conductor-backed plane. This antenna size is very compact with 28.8 mm × 37.2 mm × 1.6 mm and covers 1.696 GHz to 2.646 GHz and can be used for GSM and WLAN applications. Our designing aim is to describe radiation pattern both 3D and normal and discuss obtained gain.
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of 3-D Separated Flow Field around a Blunt Body
无
1999-01-01
@@Motivated by re-designing a fuselage in engineering application, the numerical and experimental investigation of the separated flow field around a special blunt body is described in this thesis. The aerodynamic response of the blunt body is successively studied. The thesis consists of four parts: the numerical simulation of the flow field around a two-dimensional blunt body; the numerical simulation of the flow field around a three-dimensional blunt body; the flow
Simulation of 3D Flow in Turbine Blade Rows including the Effects of Coolant Ejection
Jian-Jun LIU; Bai-Tao AN; Yun-Tao ZENG
2008-01-01
This paper describes the numerical simulation of three-dimensional viscous flows in air-cooled turbine blade rows with the effects of coolant ejection. A TVD Navier-Stokes flow solver incorporated with Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and multi-grid convergence acceleration algorithm are used for the simulation. The influences of coolant ejection on the main flow are accounted by volumetric coolant source terms. Numerical results for a four-stage turbine are presented and discussed.
BOAST-VHS. 3D 3-Phase Black Oil Applied Simulator
Chang, M.; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)
1992-01-01
BOAST-VHS is a three-dimensional, three-phase, finite-difference black oil simulator developed for use on a personal computer. It simulates isothermal, Darcy flow in three dimensions. The simulator assumes that the reservoir fluids can be described by three fluid phases (oil, gas, and water) of constant composition whose properties are functions of pressure only. BOAST-VHS can simulate oil and/or gas recovery by fluid expansion, displacement, gravity drainage, and imbibition mechanisms. BOAST-VHS is recommended as a cost-effective reservoir simulation tool for the study of such problems as primary depletion, pressure maintenance (by water and/or gas injection) and basic secondary recovery operations (such as waterflooding) in a black oil reservoir using slanted or horizontal wells, in addition to conventional vertical wells. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of rate or pressure constraints on well performance. The model also allows the user to add or recomplete wells during the period represented by the simulation. BOAST-VHS has flexible initialization capabilities, a bubble point tracking scheme, an automatic time-step control method, a zero transmissibility option (inactive grid blocks), and a material balance check on solution stability.
Harder, Stine; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Martin;
2016-01-01
three-dimensional (3D) head model for acquisition of individual HRTFs. Two aspects were investigated; whether a 3D-printed model can replace measurements on a human listener and whether numerical simulations can replace acoustic measurements. For this purpose, HRTFs were acoustically measured for four...... human listeners and for a 3D printed head model of one of these listeners. Further, HRTFs were simulated by applying the finite element method to the 3D head model. The monaural spectral features and spectral distortions were very similar between re-measurements and between human and printed...
Slip flow through a converging microchannel: experiments and 3D simulations
An experimental and 3D numerical study of gaseous slip flow through a converging microchannel is presented in this paper. The measurements reported are with nitrogen gas flowing through the microchannel with convergence angles (4°, 8° and 12°), hydraulic diameters (118, 147 and 177 µm) and lengths (10, 20 and 30 mm). The measurements cover the entire slip flow regime and a part of the continuum and transition regimes (the Knudsen number is between 0.0004 and 0.14); the flow is laminar (the Reynolds number is between 0.5 and 1015). The static pressure drop is measured for various mass flow rates. The overall pressure drop increases with a decrease in the convergence angle and has a relatively large contribution of the viscous component. The numerical solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations with Maxwell’s slip boundary condition explore two different flow behaviors: uniform centerline velocity with linear pressure variation in the initial and the middle part of the microchannel and flow acceleration with nonlinear pressure variation in the last part of the microchannel. The centerline velocity and the wall shear stress increase with a decrease in the convergence angle. The concept of a characteristic length scale for a converging microchannel is also explored. The location of the characteristic length is a function of the Knudsen number and approaches the microchannel outlet with rarefaction. These results on gaseous slip flow through converging microchannels are observed to be considerably different than continuum flow. (paper)
Kai, Zhu; Enyu, Guo; Wenqian, Zhou; Sansan, Shuai; Tao, Jing; Hongliang, Hou; Yanjin, Xu
2015-06-01
Metal-foam materials have been used increasingly in industry for their low-density, high-toughness and high impact resistance properties. Understanding the macro-scale mechanical properties of these materials is essential to evaluate their actual performance and thus to optimize the structures and properties accordingly. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomographytechnique is a promising method to study 3D structures at small length scales, which provides high spatial resolution and allows the researchers to observe the change of structures/features in situ without destroying the original objects. In this work, the real 3D structure of closed-cell aluminum foam was obtained by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography. The reconstructed 3D model of the foam was further utilized as input for the subsequent mechanical study to investigate the localized deformation behaviors and evolution process of the foam under longitudinal quasi-static uniaxial compressive loading. By analyzing the simulated results, it is demonstrated that the deformation bands always initiate and propagate along the cell walls which are finally folded upon loading. And the large spherical cells are more susceptible to yielding, as well as to the stress concentration than the cells with other shapes. This finding is consistent with the experimental results.
Tiglio, M H; Neilsen, D W; Tiglio, Manuel; Lehner, Luis; Neilsen, David
2003-01-01
We present three-dimensional simulations of Einstein equations implementing a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations with dynamical lapse. The numerical implementation makes use of techniques that guarantee linear numerical stability for the associated initial-boundary value problem. The code is first tested with a gauge wave solution, where rather larger amplitudes and for significantly longer times are obtained with respect to other state of the art implementations. Additionally, by minimizing a suitably defined energy for the constraints in terms of free constraint-functions in the formulation one can dynamically single out preferred values of these functions for the problem at hand. We apply the technique to fully three-dimensional simulations of a stationary black hole spacetime with excision of the singularity, considerably extending the lifetime of the simulations.
3D simulations of self-propelled, reconstructed jellyfish using vortex methods
Rasmussen, J T; Storti, F; Koumoutsakos, P; Walther, J H
2009-01-01
We present simulations of the vortex dynamics associated with the self-propelled motion of jellyfish. The geometry is obtained from image segmentation of video recordings from live jellyfish. The numerical simulations are performed using three-dimensional viscous, vortex particle methods with Brinkman penalization to impose the kinematics of the jellyfish motion. We study two types of strokes recorded in the experiment1. The first type (stroke A) produces two vortex rings during the stroke: one outside the bell during the power stroke and one inside the bell during the recovery stroke. The second type (stroke B) produces three vortex rings: one ring during the power stroke and two vortex rings during the recovery stroke. Both strokes propel the jellyfish, with stroke B producing the highest velocity. The speed of the jellyfish scales with the square root of the Reynolds number. The simulations are visualized in a fluid dynamics video.
Design and Maxwell 3D simulation of small permanent magnetic actuator
Zhang Guangcai; Xu Yajie; Chang Yan; Chen Qiaoyan; Yang Xiaodong
2014-01-01
According to the magnetic circuit design theory and performance requirements of magnetic field, an H-type permanent magnetic actuator that generates uniform magnetic field larger than 0.4 T in the interested re- gion has been designed in this paper. The static magnetic field simulation analysis was done by Ansoft＇ s Max- well three-dimensional （3D） software. The simulation results showed that the magnetic field of this system can meet the requirements, and this permanent magnetic actuator designed in this paper can be used in small nuclear magnetic resonance （NMR） svstem.
Simulation in 3 dimensions of a cycle 18 months for an BWR type reactor using the Nod3D program
The development of own codes that you/they allow the simulation in 3 dimensions of the nucleus of a reactor and be of easy maintenance, without the consequent payment of expensive use licenses, it can be a factor that propitiates the technological independence. In the Department of Nuclear Engineering (DIN) of the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics (ESFM) of the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) a denominated program Nod3D has been developed with the one that one can simulate the operation of a reactor BWR in 3 dimensions calculating the effective multiplication factor (kJJ3, as well as the distribution of the flow neutronic and of the axial and radial profiles of the power, inside a means of well-known characteristics solving the equations of diffusion of neutrons numerically in stationary state and geometry XYZ using the mathematical nodal method RTN0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec of index zero). One of the limitations of the program Nod3D is that it doesn't allow to consider the burnt of the fuel in an independent way considering feedback, this makes it in an implicit way considering the effective sections in each step of burnt and these sections are obtained of the code Core Master LEND. However even given this limitation, the results obtained in the simulation of a cycle of typical operation of a reactor of the type BWR are similar to those reported by the code Core Master LENDS. The results of the keJ - that were obtained with the program Nod3D they were compared with the results of the code Core Master LEND, presenting a difference smaller than 0.2% (200 pcm), and in the case of the axial profile of power, the maxim differs it was of 2.5%. (Author)
In this paper we combine a stochastic 3D microstructure model of a fiber based gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells with a Lattice Boltzmann model for fluid transport. We focus on a simple approach of compressing the planar oriented virtual geometry of paper-type gas diffusion layer from Toray. Material parameters – permeability and tortuosity – are calculated from simulation of one phase, one component gas flow in stochastic geometries. We analyze the statistical spread of simulation results on ensembles of the virtual geometry, both uncompressed and compressed. The influence of the compression is discussed with regard to the Kozeny–Carman equation. The effective transport properties calculated from transport simulations in compressed gas diffusion layers agree well with a trend based on the Kozeny–Carman equation
Glatzmaier, G.
2013-12-01
In 2016 NASA's Juno spacecraft will begin making high fidelity gravity and magnetic measurements near the surface of Jupiter that will provide clues to Jupiter's internal structure and dynamics. To prepare for the interpretation of these data, we are producing 3D dynamo simulations that self-consistently solve for the gravity and magnetic fields throughout the interior and exterior of our simulated gas giant. Knowing the trajectories of the 34 11-day polar orbits Juno will make around Jupiter as Jupiter rotates, we calculate the three components of the gravity and magnetic fields that Juno would measure as a function of time for two different simulated giant planet dynamos: one having latitudinally banded zonal winds that exist only in a shallow surface layer and one with banded zonal winds that extend deep below the surface. The different dynamo solutions are obtained by making different specifications for poorly known quantities, like the amplitude and radial dependence of the effective viscous diffusivity within Jupiter. By identifying fundamental differences in the 3D data that Juno would collect for these two scenarios, we will provide a dynamically self-consistent test for inferring the structure and amplitude of the zonal winds in Jupiter's interior. For example, a latitudinally banded pattern of magnetic field measured by Juno would suggest that strong zonal winds extend well below the surface to where the electrical conductivity is high enough for the generation of Jupiter's magnetic field.
Multi-coupling dynamic model and 3d simulation program for in-situ leaching of uranium mining
The in-situ leaching of uranium mining is a very complicated non-linear dynamic system, which involves couplings and positive/negative feedback among many factors and processes. A comprehensive, coupled multi-factors and processes dynamic model and simulation method was established to study the in-situ leaching of uranium mining. The model accounts for most coupling among various processes as following: (1) rock texture mechanics and its evolution, (2)the incremental stress rheology of rock deformation, (3) 3-D viscoelastic/ plastic multi-deformation processes, (4) hydrofracturing, (5) tensorial (anisotropic) fracture and rock permeability, (6) water-rock interactions and mass-transport (both advective and diffusive), (7) dissolution-induced chemical compaction, (8) multi-phase fluid flow. A 3-D simulation program was compiled based on Fortran and C++. An example illustrating the application of this model to simulating acidification, production and terminal stage of in situ leaching of uranium mining is presented for the some mine in Xinjiang, China. This model and program can be used for theoretical study, mine design, production management, the study of contaminant transport and restoration in groundwater of in-situ leaching of uranium mining. (authors)
Asenov, Asen; Brown, A. R.; Slavcheva, G.; Davies, J. H.
2000-01-01
When MOSFETs are scaled to deep submicron dimensions the discreteness and randomness of the dopant charges in the channel region introduces significant fluctuations in the device characteristics. This effect, predicted 20 year ago, has been confirmed experimentally and in simulation studies. The impact of the fluctuations on the functionality, yield, and reliability of the corresponding systems shifts the paradigm of the numerical device simulation. It becomes insufficient to simulate only one device representing one macroscopical design in a continuous charge approximation. An ensemble of macroscopically identical but microscopically different devices has to be characterized by simulation of statistically significant samples. The aims of the numerical simulations shift from predicting the characteristics of a single device with continuous doping towards estimating the mean values and the standard deviations of basic design parameters such as threshold voltage, subthreshold slope, transconductance, drive current, etc. for the whole ensemble of 'atomistically' different devices in the system. It has to be pointed out that even the mean values obtained from 'atomistic' simulations are not identical to the values obtained from continuous doping simulations. In this paper we present a hierarchical approach to the 'atomistic' simulation of aggressively scaled decanano MOSFETs. A full scale 3D drift-diffusion'atomostic' simulation approach is first described and used for verification of the more economical, but also more restricted, options. To reduce the processor time and memory requirements at high drain voltage we have developed a self-consistent option based on a thin slab solution of the current continuity equation only in the channel region. This is coupled to the Poisson's equation solution in the whole simulation domain in the Gummel iteration cycles. The accuracy of this approach is investigated in comparison with the full self-consistent solution. At low drain
T. Voinier
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.
A small scale experimental facility was designed to study the thermal hydraulic phenomena in the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The facility was scaled down from the full scale RCCS system by applying scaling laws. A set of RELAP5-3D simulations were performed to confirm the scaling calculations, and to refine and optimize the facility's configuration, instrumentation selection, and layout. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations using StarCCM+ were performed in order to study the flow patterns and two-phase water behavior in selected locations of the facility where expected complex flow structure occurs. (author)
3-D numerical simulation on the vibration of liquid sodium's free surface in sodium pool of FBR
This paper succeeds in simulating three-dimensional incompressible flows with free surface, complicated in-flow and out-flow boundary conditions and internal obstacles, and also can treat these fluid flows in arbitrary shape vessel using a partial cell. According to all kinds of the element influencing the free surface's vibration in sodium pool it may give the various wave's form, the highest and lowest position, and the amount of the vibration. This paper introduces the brief principle of VOF numerical method, develops the computational program based on NASA-VOF3D, provides some results about the free surface's vibration in sodium pool of FBR
Signatures of small-scale heating events in EUV spectral lines as modeled from 3D MHD simulations
Guerreiro, Nuno; Haberreiter, Margit; Hansteen, Viggo; Curdt, Werner; Schmutz, Werner
2014-05-01
We aim at understanding the implications of small scale heating events in the solar atmosphere for the variations of the solar spectral irradiance. We present a technique for identification and characterization of these events in 3D simulations of the solar atmosphere. An accurate property determination of these events in time and space will help us to understand how spectral lines, in particular in the EUV, respond to them and which kind of spectral signatures one would expect to find in observations as from SOHO/SUMER and eventually from future space missions, as for example observations by SPICE on board Solar Orbiter.
2-D/3-D quench simulation using ANSYS for epoxy impregnated $Nb_{3}$ Sn high field magnets
Yamada, R; Marscin, E; Rey, J M; Wake, M
2003-01-01
A quench program using ANSYS is developed for the high field collider magnet for 3-D analysis. Its computational procedure is explained. The quench program is applied to a one meter Nb/sub 3/Sn high field model magnet, which is epoxy impregnated. The quench simulation program is used to estimate the temperature and mechanical stress inside the coil as well as over the whole magnet. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for longer magnets. (6 refs).
2.5D real waveform and real noise simulation of receiver functions in 3D models
Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, B. H.; Balling, N.
seismometer is simulated individually through the following steps: A 2D section is extracted from the 3D model along the direction towards the hypocentre. A properly slanted plane or curved impulsive wavefront is propagated through this 2D section, resulting in noise free and spectrally complete synthetic...... seismometer data. The real vertical component signal is taken as a proxy of the real impingent wavefield, so by convolution and subsequent addition of real ambient noise recorded just before the P-arrival we get synthetic vertical and horizontal component data which very closely match the spectral signal...
B. Hallouet
2007-08-01
Full Text Available We have performed 3D simulations of complex effective permittivity and permeability for random binary mixtures of cubic particles below the percolation threshold. We compare two topological classes that correspond to different spatial particle arrangements: cermet topology and aggregate topology. At a low filling factor of f=10%, where most particles are surrounded by matrix material, the respective effective material parameters are indistinguishable. At higher concentrations, a systematic difference emerges: cermet topology is characterized by lower effective permittivity and permeability values. A distinction between topological classes might thus be a useful concept for the analysis of real systems, especially in cases where no exact effective-medium model is available.
Ferrara, P; Ciofini, M; Esposito, L; Hostaša, J; Labate, L; Lapucci, A; Pirri, A; Toci, G; Vannini, M; Gizzi, L A
2014-03-10
We present a study of Yb:YAG active media slabs, based on a ceramic layered structure with different doping levels. We developed a procedure allowing 3D numerical analysis of the slab optical properties as a consequence of the thermal load induced by the pump process. The simulations are compared with a set of experimental results in order to validate the procedure. These structured ceramics appear promising in appropriate geometrical configurations, and thus are intended to be applied in the construction of High Energy Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL) systems working in high repetition-rate pulsed regimes. PMID:24663877
Simulation-aided optimization of detector design using portable representation of 3D objects
Use of the Standard Tessellation Language (STL) for automatic transport of CAD 1 geometry into Geant is presented. The hybrid approach of combining Geant native and STL objects is preferred. The tradeoffs between the CPU cost of the simulation and the accuracy of tessellation are discussed
A 3D finite element simulation model for TBM tunnelling in soft ground
Kasper, Thomas; Meschke, Günther
2004-12-01
A three-dimensional finite element simulation model for shield-driven tunnel excavation is presented. The model takes into account all relevant components of the construction process (the soil and the ground water, the tunnel boring machine with frictional contact to the soil, the hydraulic jacks, the tunnel lining and the tail void grouting). The paper gives a detailed description of the model components and the stepwise procedure to simulate the construction process. The soil and the grout material are modelled as saturated porous media using a two-field finite element formulation. This allows to take into account the groundwater, the grouting pressure and the fluid interaction between the soil and slurry at the cutting face and between the soil and grout around the tail void. A Cam-Clay plasticity model is used to describe the material behaviour of cohesive soils. The cementitious grouting material in the tail void is modelled as an ageing elastic material with time-dependent stiffness and permeability. To allow for an automated computation of arbitrarily long and also curvilinear driving paths with suitable finite element meshes, the simulation procedure has been fully automated. The simulation of a tunnel advance in soft cohesive soil below the ground water table is presented and the results are compared with measurements taken from the literature. Copyright
Jovian Plasma Torus Interaction with Europa: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation. First results
Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, D. G.
2010-01-01
The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa-moon-magnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements, (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy etal.,2007;Shematovichetal.,2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyro radius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions).Non-thermal distributions of upstream plasma will be addressed in future work. Photoionization,electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider two models for background plasma:(a) with O(++) ions; (b) with O(++) and S(++) ions. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended cold population (Cassidyetal.,2007). A few first simulations already include an induced magnetic dipole; however, several important effects of induced magnetic fields arising from oceanic shell conductivity will be addressed in later work.
3D CFD simulation of flashing flows in a converging-diverging nozzle
Liao, Yixiang, E-mail: y.liao@hzdr.de; Lucas, Dirk
2015-10-15
Highlights: • Flashing flow in a converging-diverging nozzle simulated. • Three-dimensional CFD simulation using two-fluid model used. • Satisfactory agreement in cross-section averaged parameters. • Reasons for discrepancies in radial profiles discussed. • Obvious improvement in comparison to 1D calculations. - Abstract: Flashing of initially sub-cooled water in a vertical circular converging-diverging nozzle is simulated with two-fluid model incorporating drag and non-drag forces. Phase change is assumed to be induced only by interphase heat transfer while pressure jump across the interface is ignored. The reliability of CFD simulations is confirmed by comparison with experimental data and one-dimensional results basing on a drift-flux model. Satisfactory prediction of mass flow rate and cross-section averaged parameters is achieved. The predicted radial distribution of void fraction is however much more flat than the measured one. The discrepancy is found to be caused by the effect of lift force and the reversal of relative velocity. Cases characterised with large pressure-undershoot exhibit significant pressure non-equilibrium effect in form of a pressure recovery process. Sensitivity tests on bubble number density, heat transfer coefficient as well as nucleation are performed.
Numerical scheme for riser motion calculation during 3-D VIV simulation
Huang, Kevin; Chen, Hamn-Ching; Chen, Chia-Rong
2011-10-01
This paper presents a numerical scheme for riser motion calculation and its application to riser VIV simulations. The discretisation of the governing differential equation is studied first. The top tensioned risers are simplified as tensioned beams. A centered space and forward time finite difference scheme is derived from the governing equations of motion. Then an implicit method is adopted for better numerical stability. The method meets von Neumann criteria and is shown to be unconditionally stable. The discretized linear algebraic equations are solved using a LU decomposition method. This approach is then applied to a series of benchmark cases with known solutions. The comparisons show good agreement. Finally the method is applied to practical riser VIV simulations. The studied cases cover a wide range of riser VIV problems, i.e. different riser outer diameter, length, tensioning conditions, and current profiles. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the numerical simulations and experimental data on riser motions and cross-flow VIV a/D . These validations and comparisons confirm that the present numerical scheme for riser motion calculation is valid and effective for long riser VIV simulation.
3D Moving-Mesh Simulations of Galactic Center Cloud G2
Anninos, Peter; Wilson, Julia; Murray, Stephen D
2012-01-01
Using three-dimensional, moving-mesh simulations, we investigate the future evolution of the recently discovered gas cloud G2 traveling through the galactic center. We consider the case of a spherical cloud initially in pressure equilibrium with the background. Our suite of simulations explores the following parameters: the equation of state, radial profiles of the background gas, and start times for the evolution. Our primary focus is on how the fate of this cloud will affect the future activity of Sgr A*. From our simulations we expect an average feeding rate in the range of 5-19 \\times 10^{-8} solar masses per year beginning in 2013 and lasting for at least 7 years (our simulations stop in year 2020). The accretion varies by less than a factor of three on timescales <1 month, and shows no more than a factor of 10 difference between the maximum and minimum. These rates are comparable to the current estimated accretion rate in the immediate vicinity of Sgr A*, although they represent only a small (<5%)...
Update on 3D Moving Mesh Simulations of Galactic Center Cloud G2
Fragile, P Chris; Murray, Stephen D
2014-01-01
Using three-dimensional, moving-mesh simulations, we investigate the future evolution of the recently discovered gas cloud G2 traveling through the galactic center. From our simulations we expect an average feeding rate onto Sgr A* in the range of $(5-19) \\times 10^{-8} M_\\odot\\mathrm{~yr}^{-1}$ beginning in 2014. This accretion varies by less than a factor of three on timescales of about 1 month, and shows no more than a factor of 10 difference between the maximum and minimum observed rates within any given model. These rates are comparable to the current estimated accretion rate in the immediate vicinity of Sgr A*, although they represent only a small (<10%) increase over the current expected feeding rate at the effective inner boundary of our simulations $(r_\\mathrm{acc} = 750 R_S \\sim 10^{15} \\mathrm{cm})$. We also explore multiple possible equations of state to describe the gas. In examining the Br-$\\gamma$ light curves produced from our simulations, we find that all of our isothermal models predict s...
Progress on a New Integrated 3-D UCG Simulator and its Initial Application
Nitao, J J; Camp, D W; Buscheck, T A; White, J A; Burton, G C; Wagoner, J L; Chen, M
2011-09-22
A comprehensive simulator is being developed for underground coal gasification (UCG), with the capability to support site selection, design, hazard analyses, operations, and monitoring (Nitao et al., 2010). UCG is computationally challenging because it involves tightly-coupled multi-physical/chemical processes, with vastly different timescales. This new capability will predict cavity growth, product gas composition and rate, and the interaction with the host environment, accounting for site characteristics, injection gas composition and rate, and associated water-well extraction rates. Progress on the new simulator includes completion and system integration of a wall model, a rock spalling model, a cavity boundary tracking model, a one-dimensional cavity gas reactive transport model, a rudimentary rubble heat, mass, and reaction model, and coupling with a pre-existing hydrology simulator. An existing geomechanical simulator was enhanced to model cavity collapse and overburden subsidence. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is being evaluated to model cavity gas flow and combustion in two and three dimensions. Although the simulator is midway in its development, it was applied to modeling the Hoe Creek III field test (Stephens, 1981) conducted in the 1970s, in order to evaluate and demonstrate the simulator's basic capabilities, gain experience, and guide future development. Furthermore, it is consistent with our philosophy of incremental, spiral software development, which helps in identifying and resolving potential problems early in the process. The simulation accounts for two coal seams, two injection points, and air and oxygen phases. Approximate extent and shape of cavity growth showed reasonable agreement with interpreted field data. Product gas composition and carbon consumed could not be simultaneously matched for a given set of parameter values due to the rudimentary rubble model currently used, although they can be matched using
A holistic 3D finite element simulation model for thermoelectric power generator element
Highlights: • Development of a holistic simulation model for the thermoelectric energy harvester. • Account for delta Seebeck coefficient and carrier charge densities variations. • Solution of thermo-electric coupling problem with finite element method. • Model capable of predicting phenomena not captured by traditional models. • A simulation tool for design of innovative TEM materials and structures. - Abstract: Harvesting the thermal energy stored in the ambient environment provides a potential sustainable energy source. Thermoelectric power generators have advantages of having no moving parts, being durable, and light-weighted. These unique features are advantageous for many applications (i.e., carry-on medical devices, embedded infrastructure sensors, aerospace, transportation, etc.). To ensure the efficient applications of thermoelectric energy harvesting system, the behaviors of such systems need to be fully understood. Finite element simulations provide important tools for such purpose. Although modeling the performance of thermoelectric modules has been conducted by many researchers, due to the complexity in solving the coupled problem, the influences of the effective Seebeck coefficient and carrier density variations on the performance of thermoelectric system are generally neglected. This results in an overestimation of the power generator performance under strong-ionization temperature region. This paper presents an advanced simulation model for thermoelectric elements that considers the effects of both factors. The mathematical basis of this model is firstly presented. Finite element simulations are then implemented on a thermoelectric power generator unit. The characteristics of the thermoelectric power generator and their relationship to its performance are discussed under different working temperature regions. The internal physics processes of the TEM harvester are analyzed from the results of computational simulations. The new model
Robustness of numerical TIG welding simulation of 3D structures in stainless steel 316L
The numerical welding simulation is considered to be one of those mechanical problems that have the great level of nonlinearity and which requires a good knowledge in various scientific fields. The 'Robustness Analysis' is a suitable tool to control the quality and guarantee the reliability of numerical welding results. The robustness of a numerical simulation of welding is related to the sensitivity of the modelling assumptions on the input parameters. A simulation is known as robust if the result that it produces is not very sensitive to uncertainties of the input data. The term 'Robust' was coined in statistics by G.E.P. Box in 1953. Various definitions of greater or lesser mathematical rigor are possible for the term, but in general, referring to a statistical estimator, it means 'insensitive to small deviation from the idealized assumptions for which the estimator is optimized. In order to evaluate the robustness of numerical welding simulation, sensitivity analyses on thermomechanical models and parameters have been conducted. At the first step, we research a reference solution which gives the best agreement with the thermal and mechanical experimental results. The second step consists in determining through numerical simulations which parameters have the largest influence on residual stresses induced by the welding process. The residual stresses were predicted using finite element method performed with Code-Aster of EDF and SYSWELD of ESI-GROUP. An analysis of robustness can prove to be heavy and expensive making it an unjustifiable route. However, only with development such tool of analysis can predictive methods become a useful tool for industry. (author)
Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper; Trier, Peter
2009-01-01
BACKGROUND: Existing virtual simulators for middle ear surgery are based on 3-dimensional (3D) models from computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging data in which image quality is limited by the lack of detail (maximum, approximately 50 voxels/mm3), natural color, and texture of the sour...
GeoFlow: 3D numerical simulation of supercritical thermal convective states
Futterer, B; Egbers, C [Department of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Siemens-Halske-Ring 14, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Hollerbach, R [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: futterer@tu-cottbus.de
2008-11-01
'GeoFlow' is a thermal convection experiment in rotating spherical shell geometry, which is going to take place in microgravity environment of International Space Station. We present numerical preliminary studies of the spherical Rayleigh-Benard problem under an artificial central force field. Numerical simulation is done with a pseudospectral method. Special focus here is the simulation of flow states at selected parameter points of Rayleigh and Taylor number of a defined plan for experimental runs on ISS. One loop will contain thermal convection without rotation, i.e. rising temperature gradient between inner and outer sphere. Another loop investigates convection superimposed by rotation, i.e. fixing temperature gradient and then rising rotation rate. In such cases different transitions are expected to be observed. Just rising Rayleigh number shows different stable states depending on initial conditions. Fixing Rayleigh number and then rising up Taylor number leads to traverse of different convective states showing rich dynamics of the system.
3D plasma fluid simulations in divertor tokamaks. Final technical report, 1993--1995
The main accomplishment of this grant was the development of a finite element time dependent magnetofluid code, FEMHD. The code is nonlinear and three dimensional. In the poloidal plane, the elemental cells of the mesh are triangles, which offer both simplicity and adaptability. In the third, toroidal, direction, there is an option of a standard staggered finite difference mesh, or Fourier transforms. The FEMHD code runs on several platforms, including Crays, UNIX workstations, and a parallel version runs on an IBM SP1. Several problems have been considered with the unstructured mesh FEMHD code. They are (1) MHD simulations in divertor tokamaks; (2) simulations of ELM-like ballooning modes in divertor tokamaks; and (3) reconnection and singular MHD equilibria
Yaghobi Nakisa; Ghoreishy Mir Hamid Reza
2009-01-01
The oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) over titanate perovskite catalyst has been developed by three-dimensional numerical simulations of flow field coupled with heat transfer as well as heterogeneous kinetic model.The reaction was assumed to take place both in the gas phase and on the catalytic surface.Kinetic rate constants were experimentally obtained using a ten step kinetic model.The simulation results agree quite well with the data of OCM experiments,which were used to investigate the effect of temperature on the selectivity and conversion obtained in the methane oxidative coupling process.The conversion of methane linearly increased with temperature and the selectivity of C2 was practically constant in the temperature range of 973-1073 K.The study shows that CFD tools make it possible to implement the heterogeneous kinetic model even for high exothermic reaction such as OCM.
无
2002-01-01
Through the study of mutual process between groundwater systems and eco-environmental water demand, the eco-environmental water demand is brought into groundwater systems model as the important water consumption item and unification of groundwater's economic, environmental and ecological functions were taken into account. Based on eco-environmental water demand at Da'an in Jilin province, a three-dimensional simulation and optimized management model of groundwater systems was established. All water balance components of groundwater systems in 1998 and 1999 were simulated with this model and the best optimal exploitation scheme of groundwater systems in 2000 was determined, so that groundwater resource was efficiently utilized and good economic, ecologic and social benefits were obtained.
Simulation of the Initial 3-D Instability of an Impacting Drop Vortex Ring
Sigurdson, Lorenz; Wiwchar, Justin; Walther, Jens Honore
2013-01-01
Computational vortex particle method simulations of a perturbed vortex ring are performed to recreate and understand the instability seen in impacting water drop experiments. Three fundamentally different initial vorticity distributions are used to attempt to trigger a Widnall instability, a...... Rayleigh centrifugal instability, or a vortex breakdown-type instability. Simulations which simply have a perturbed solitary ring result in an instability similar to that seen experimentally. Waviness of the core which would be expected from a Widnall instability is not visible. Adding an opposite......, though tests are not conclusive. Perhaps the opposite-signed secondary vortex was not strong enough or placed appropriately. Elliptical streamlines , as expected, are visible in the core of the solitary ring at early times. Support from the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council grant...
Simulation to track 3D location in GSM through NS2 and real life
Gupta, Anand; Bosco, MS Don; Shashidhar, Vinay; 10.5121/jgraphhoc.2010.2103
2010-01-01
In recent times the cost of mobile communication has dropped significantly leading to a dramatic increase in mobile phone usage. The widespread usage has led mobiles to emerge as a strong alternative for other applications one of which is tracking. This has enabled law-enforcing agencies to detect overspeeding vehicles and organizations to keep track its employees. The 3 major ways of tracking being employed presently are (a) via GPS [1] (b) signal attenuation property of a packet [3] and (c) using GSM Network [2]. The initial cost of GPS is very high resulting in low usage whereas (b) needs a very high precision measuring device. The paper presents a GSM-based tracking technique which eliminates the above mentioned overheads, implements it in NS2 and shows the limitations of the real life simulation. An accuracy of 97% was achieved during NS2 simulation which is comparable to the above mentioned alternate methods of tracking.
Simulation to track 3D location in GSM through NS2 and real life
Anand Gupta
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In recent times the cost of mobile communication has dropped significantly leading to a dramaticincrease in mobile phone usage. The widespread usage has led mobiles to emerge as a strong alternativefor other applications one of which is tracking. This has enabled law-enforcing agencies to detect overspeedingvehicles and organizations to keep track its employees. The 3 major ways of tracking beingemployed presently are (a via GPS [1] (b signal attenuation property of a packet [3] and (c using GSMNetwork [2]. The initial cost of GPS is very high resulting in low usage whereas (b needs a very highprecision measuring device. The paper presents a GSM-based tracking technique which eliminates theabove mentioned overheads, implements it in NS2 and shows the limitations of the real life simulation. Anaccuracy of 97% was achieved during NS2 simulation which is comparable to the above mentionedalternate methods of tracking.
3D Numerical Simulations of f-Mode Propagation Through Magnetic Flux Tubes
Daiffallah, K; Bendib, A; Cameron, R; Gizon, L
2010-01-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulations have been used to study the scattering of a surface-gravity wave packet by vertical magnetic flux tubes, with radii from 200 km to 3 Mm, embedded in stratified polytropic atmosphere. The scattered wave was found to consist primarily of m=0 (axisymmetric) and m=1 modes. It was found that the ratio of the amplitude of these two modes is strongly dependant on the radius of the flux tube: The kink mode is the dominant mode excited in tubes with a small radius while the sausage mode is dominant for large tubes. Simulations of this type provide a simple, efficient and robust way to start understanding the seismic signature of flux tubes, which have recently began to be observed.
Rosenblum, Erica; Traxler, Adrienne; Stellmach, Stephan
2010-01-01
Double-diffusive convection, often referred to as semi-convection in astrophysics, occurs in thermally and compositionally stratified systems which are stable according to the Ledoux-criterion but unstable according to the Schwarzchild criterion. This process has been given relatively little attention so far, and its properties remain poorly constrained. In this paper, we present and analyze a set of three-dimensional simulations of this phenomenon in a Cartesian domain under the Boussinesq approximation. We find that in some cases the double-diffusive convection saturates into a state of homogeneous turbulence, but with turbulent fluxes several orders of magnitude smaller than those expected from direct overturning convection. In other cases the system rapidly and spontaneously develops closely-packed thermo-compositional layers, which later successively merge until a single layer is left. We compare the output of our simulations with an existing theory of layer formation in the oceanographic context, and fi...
Wavelet-based adaptive numerical simulation of unsteady 3D flow around a bluff body
de Stefano, Giuliano; Vasilyev, Oleg
2012-11-01
The unsteady three-dimensional flow past a two-dimensional bluff body is numerically simulated using a wavelet-based method. The body is modeled by exploiting the Brinkman volume-penalization method, which results in modifying the governing equations with the addition of an appropriate forcing term inside the spatial region occupied by the obstacle. The volume-penalized incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved by means of the adaptive wavelet collocation method, where the non-uniform spatial grid is dynamically adapted to the flow evolution. The combined approach is successfully applied to the simulation of vortex shedding flow behind a stationary prism with square cross-section. The computation is conducted at transitional Reynolds numbers, where fundamental unstable three-dimensional vortical structures exist, by well-predicting the unsteady forces arising from fluid-structure interaction.
Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software FLOW-3D Cast ®
M. Sirviö; M. Woś
2009-01-01
ConiferRob - A patternless casting technique, originally conceived at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and furtherdeveloped at its spin-off company, Simtech Systems, offers up to 40% savings in product development costs, and up to two months shorterdevelopment times compared to conventional techniques. Savings of this order can be very valuable on today's highly competitivemarkets. Casting simulation is commonly used for designing of casting systems. However, most of the software are ...
Chicea, Anca-Lucia
2015-09-01
The paper presents the process of building geometric and kinematic models of a technological equipment used in the process of manufacturing devices. First, the process of building the model for a six axes industrial robot is presented. In the second part of the paper, the process of building the model for a five-axis CNC milling machining center is also shown. Both models can be used for accurate cutting processes simulation of complex parts, such as prosthetic devices.
The Role of Helicity in Magnetic Reconnection: 3D Numerical Simulations
Antiochos, Spiro K.; DeVore, C. Richard
1999-01-01
We demonstrate that conservation of global helicity plays only a minor role in determining the nature and consequences of magnetic reconnection in the solar atmosphere. First, we show that observations of the solar coronal magnetic field are in direct conflict with Taylor's theory. Next, we present results from three-dimensional MHD simulations of the shearing of bipolar and multi-polar coronal magnetic fields by photospheric footpoint motions, and discuss the implications of these results fo...
Numerical simulation of complex 3D compressible viscous flows through rotating blade passage
Despotović M.; Babić Milun; Milovanović D.; Šušteršič Vanja
2003-01-01
This paper describes a three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes code, which has been developed for analysis of turbocompressor blade rows and other internal flows. Despite numerous numerical techniques and statement that Computational Fluid Dynamics has reached state of the art, issues related to successful simulations represent valuable database of how particular technique behave for a specifie problem. This paper deals with rapid numerical method accurate enough to be used as a design ...
Y. N. Petrenko
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of a crane control system is to provide load transfer with minimum swinging. The paper presents a developed three-dimensional simulation model of a bridge crane with fuzzy logic controller designed with application of genetic algorithms. Comparative indices of oscillation while load transferring are given in the paper. The indices have been obtained at various parameters of the fuzzy logic controller.
Multiscale simulation of mixing processes using 3D-parallel, fluid-structure interaction techniques
Valette, Rudy; Vergnes, Bruno; Coupez, Thierry
2008-01-01
International audience This work focuses on the development of a general finite element code, called Ximex®, devoted to the three-dimensional direct simulation of mixing processes of complex fluids. The code is based on a simplified fictitious domain method coupled with a "level-set" approach to represent the rigid moving boundaries, such as screws and rotors, as well as free surfaces. These techniques, combined with the use of parallel computing, allow computing the time-dependent flow of...
Virial theorem analysis of 3D numerical simulations of MHD self-gravitating turbulence
Shadmehri, Mohsen; Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier
2001-01-01
We discuss the virial balance of all members of a cloud ensemble in numerical simulations of self-gravitating MHD turbulence. We first discuss the choice of reference frame for evaluating the terms entering the virial theorem (VT), concluding that the balance of each cloud should be measured in its own reference frame. We then report preliminary results suggesting that a) the clouds are far from virial equilibrium, with the ``geometric'' (time derivative) terms dominating the VT. b) The surfa...
3D-Modeling and Energy Simulation of a Single Family House in Southern Greece
Liotsios, Kyriakos
2012-01-01
Energy usage deriving from human activities is increasing day by day acting against the quality of the environment and the sustainable use of natural resources. The major impact of these actions is reflected on the quality of daily life. In order to face the challenge of preserving an acceptable balance between human needs and environmental status, the combination of proper design and energy simulation of buildings is the key towards smarter and more sustainable solutions. Solutions that cove...