3D Servicescape Model: Atmospheric Qualities of Virtual Reality Retailing
Aasim Munir Dad
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a 3D servicescape conceptual model which explores the potential effect of 3D virtual reality retail stores’ environment on shoppers' behaviour. Extensive review of literature within two different domains, namely: servicescape models, and retail atmospherics, was carried out in order to propose a conceptual model. Further, eight detailed interviews were conducted to confirm the stimulus dimension of the conceptual model. A 3D servicescape conceptual model is offered on the basis of stimulus-organism-dimension, which proposes that a 3D virtual reality retail (VRR store environment consists of physical, social, socially symbolic and natural dimensions. These dimensions are proposed to affect shoppers’ behaviour through the mediating variables of emotions (pleasure and arousal. An interrelationship between pleasure and arousal, as mediating variables, is also proposed. This research opens a number of new avenues for further research through the proposed model of shoppers’ behaviour in a VRR store environment. Further, a systematic taxonomy development of VRR store environment is attempted through this proposed model that may prove to be an important step in theory building. A comprehensive 3D service scape model along with a large number of propositions is made to define a 3D VRR store environment.
Limb darkening laws for two exoplanet host stars derived from 3D stellar model atmospheres
Hayek, W; Pont, F; Asplund, M
2012-01-01
We compare limb darkening laws derived from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres and 1D hydrostatic MARCS models for the host stars of the two transiting exoplanet systems HD 209458 and HD 189733. The surface brightness distribution of the stellar disks is calculated using 3D LTE spectrum formation and opacity sampling. We test our predictions using least-squares fits of model light curves to primary eclipses that were observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The limb darkening law derived from the 3D model of HD 209458 between 2900 A and 5700 A produces significantly better fits to the HST data, removing systematic residuals that were previously observed for model light curves based on 1D predictions. This difference arises mainly from the shallower mean temperature structure of the 3D model, which is a consequence of the explicit simulation of surface granulation. In the case of HD 189733, the model atmospheres produce practically equivalent limb darkening curves between 2900 A and 5700 A, partly due ...
Validation of 3-D CFD Model of Tritium Transport in the Atmosphere
When solving 3-D problems for the atmospheric impurity transport in the bounded area, it is essential for the atmospheric dynamics to be correctly computed taking into account the actual terrain topography and environments specified by the boundary conditions. Such conditions as turbulence, convection, condensation and moisture evaporation processes, etc. are to be also taken into account as well as the interaction processes among impurities (gases, aerosols), atmosphere and the Earth's surface.3-D computational fluid dynamics model(CFD) developed on the basis of SRP hydrodynamic code was used to simulate tritium plume evolution and tritium transport in atmosphere under the area with relatively complex topography. SRP code is based on the continuum motion equations (Navier-Stockes equations) and thermodynamic relations taking into account specific features of atmospheric flows and complex topography and is designed to use on PC-type computers.The model has been validated using experimental release of tritium with specified source term and meteorology. Due to low release height above the underlying surface a fine grid was used in the vertical direction near the underlying surface. HT and HTO/H2O vertical fluxes were taken into account. Evolution of HT and HTO activities at 2 sampling locations along the plume axe were available for model-experiment inter-comparison. The modeling results of HT and HTO activities in the air during plume travel are in satisfactory agreement with observed values
Solar Chemical Abundances Determined with a CO5BOLD 3D Model Atmosphere
Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Freytag, Bernd; Bonifacio, Piercarlo
2010-01-01
In the last decade, the photospheric solar metallicity as determined from spectroscopy experienced a remarkable downward revision. Part of this effect can be attributed to an improvement of atomic data and the inclusion of NLTE computations, but also the use of hydrodynamical model atmospheres seemed to play a role. This "decrease" with time of the metallicity of the solar photosphere increased the disagreement with the results from helioseismology. With a CO5BOLD 3D model of the solar atmosphere, the CIFIST team at the Paris Observatory re-determined the photospheric solar abundances of several elements, among them C, N, and O. The spectroscopic abundances are obtained by fitting the equivalent width and/or the profile of observed spectral lines with synthetic spectra computed from the 3D model atmosphere. We conclude that the effects of granular fluctuations depend on the characteristics of the individual lines, but are found to be relevant only in a few particular cases. 3D effects are not reponsible for t...
Solar Chemical Abundances Determined with a CO5BOLD 3D Model Atmosphere
Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Bonifacio, P.
2011-02-01
In the last decade, the photospheric solar metallicity as determined from spectroscopy experienced a remarkable downward revision. Part of this effect can be attributed to an improvement of atomic data and the inclusion of NLTE computations, but also the use of hydrodynamical model atmospheres seemed to play a role. This "decrease" with time of the metallicity of the solar photosphere increased the disagreement with the results from helioseismology. With a CO 5 BOLD 3D model of the solar atmosphere, the CIFIST team at the Paris Observatory re-determined the photospheric solar abundances of several elements, among them C, N, and O. The spectroscopic abundances are obtained by fitting the equivalent width and/or the profile of observed spectral lines with synthetic spectra computed from the 3D model atmosphere. We conclude that the effects of granular fluctuations depend on the characteristics of the individual lines, but are found to be relevant only in a few particular cases. 3D effects are not responsible for the systematic lowering of the solar abundances in recent years. The solar metallicity resulting from this analysis is Z=0.0153, Z/ X=0.0209.
3D cut-cell modelling for high-resolution atmospheric simulations
Yamazaki, H; Nikiforakis, N
2015-01-01
With the recent, rapid development of computer technology, the resolution of atmospheric numerical models has increased substantially. As a result, steep gradients in mountainous terrain are now being resolved in high-resolution models. This results in large truncation errors in those models using terrain-following coordinates. In this study, a new 3D Cartesian coordinate non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is developed. A cut-cell representation of topography based on finite-volume discretization is combined with a cell-merging approach, in which small cut-cells are merged with neighboring cells either vertically or horizontally. In addition, a block-structured mesh-refinement technique achieves a variable resolution on the model grid with the finest resolution occurring close to the terrain surface. The model successfully reproduces a flow over a 3D bell-shaped hill that shows a good agreement with the flow predicted by the linear theory. The ability of the model to simulate flows over steep terrain is demons...
Partial redistribution in 3D non-LTE radiative transfer in solar atmosphere models
Sukhorukov, Andrii V
2016-01-01
Resonance spectral lines such as H I Ly {\\alpha}, Mg II h&k, and Ca II H&K that form in the solar chromosphere are influenced by the effects of 3D radiative transfer as well as partial redistribution (PRD). So far no one has modeled these lines including both effects simultaneously owing to the high computing demands of existing algorithms. Such modeling is however indispensable for accurate diagnostics of the chromosphere. We present a computationally tractable method to treat PRD scattering in 3D model atmospheres using a 3D non-LTE radiative transfer code. To make the method memory-friendly, we use the hybrid approximation of Leenaarts et al. (2012) for the redistribution integral. To make it fast, we use linear interpolation on equidistant frequency grids. We verify our algorithm against computations with the RH code and analyze it for stability, convergence, and usefulness of acceleration using model atoms of Mg II with the h&k lines and H I with the Ly {\\alpha} line treated in PRD. A typical...
Use of coupled ozone fields in a 3-D circulation model of the middle atmosphere
T. Reddmann
Full Text Available With a detailed chemistry scheme for the middle atmosphere up to 70 km which has been added to the 3-D Karlsruhe simulation model of the middle atmosphere (KASIMA, the effects of coupling chemistry and dynamics through ozone are studied for the middle atmosphere. An uncoupled version using an ozone climatology for determining heating rates and a coupled version using on-line ozone are compared in a 10-month integration with meteorological analyses for the winter 1992/93 as the lower boundary condition. Both versions simulate the meteorological situation satisfactorily, but exhibit a too cold lower stratosphere. The on-line ozone differs from the climatological data between 20 and 40 km by exhibiting too high ozone values, whereas in the lower mesosphere the ozone values are too low. The coupled model version is stable and differs only above 40 km significantly from the uncoupled version. Direct heating effects are identified to cause most of the differences. The well-known negative correlation between temperature and ozone is reproduced in the model. As a result, the coupled version slightly approaches the climatological ozone field. Further feedback effects are studied by using the on-line ozone field as a basis for an artificial climatology. For non-disturbed ozone conditions realistic monthly and zonally averaged ozone data are sufficient to determine the heating rates for modelling the middle atmosphere.
Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere · composition and chemistry · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics.
Charnay, Benjamin; Misra, Amit; Leconte, Jérémy; Arney, Giada
2015-01-01
The warm sub-Neptune GJ1214b has a featureless transit spectrum which may be due to the presence of high and thick clouds or haze. Here, we simulate the atmosphere of GJ1214b with a 3D General Circulation Model for cloudy hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, including cloud radiative effects. We show that the atmospheric circulation is strong enough to transport micrometric cloud particles to the upper atmosphere and generally leads to a minimum of cloud at the equator. By scattering stellar light, clouds increase the planetary albedo to 0.4-0.6 and cool the atmosphere below 1 mbar. However, the heating by ZnS clouds leads to the formation of a stratospheric thermal inversion above 10 mbar, with temperatures potentially high enough on the dayside to evaporate KCl clouds. We show that flat transit spectra consistent with HST observations are possible if cloud particle radii are around 0.5 micron, and that such clouds should be optically thin at wavelengths > 3 microns. Using simulated cloudy atmospheres that fit th...
Non-LTE oxygen line formation in 3D hydrodynamic model stellar atmospheres
Amarsi, A M; Collet, R; Leenaarts, J
2015-01-01
The OI 777 nm lines are among the most commonly used diagnostics for the oxygen abundances in the atmospheres of FGK-type stars. However, they form in conditions that are far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We explore the departures from LTE of atomic oxygen, and their impact on OI lines, across the Stagger-grid of three-dimensional hydrodynamic model atmospheres. For the OI 777 nm triplet we find significant departures from LTE. These departures are larger in stars with larger effective temperatures, smaller surface gravities, and larger oxygen abundances. We present grids of predicted 3D non-LTE based equivalent widths for the OI616nm, [OI] 630 nm, [OI] 636 nm, and OI 777 nm lines, as well as abundance corrections to 1D LTE based results.
Numerical modelling of pollution dispersion in 3D atmospheric boundary layer
Benes, L.; Bodnar, T.; Kozel, K. [Czech Technical Univ. of Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Technical Mathematics; Fraunie, Ph. [Univ. de Toulon et du Var, La Garde (France). Lab. de Sondages Electromagnetiques et Environnemental Terrestre
2002-07-01
The main goal of this work is to present the applicable models and numerical methods for solution of flow and pollution dispersion in 3D atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Mathematical models are based on the system of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations and its simplifications. The sets of governing equations are completed by the transport equations for passive impurities and potential temperature. A simple algebraic turbulent closure model is used. The thermal stability phenomenon is taken into account. For each mathematical model a numerical scheme based on finite-difference or finite-volume discretization is proposed and discussed. Some results of numerical tests are presented for pollution dispersion from point sources and flows over simple geometries. (orig.)
The Solar Photospheric Oxygen Abundance and the Role of 3D Model Atmospheres
Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.
2008-09-01
The solar oxygen abundance has undergone a major downward revision in the last decade, reputedly as a result of employing 3D hydrodynamical simulations to model the inhomogeneous structure of the solar photosphere. The very low oxygen abundance advocated by Asplund et al. 2004, A(O)=8.66, together with the downward revision of the abundances of other key elements, has created serious problems for solar models to explain the helioseismic measurements. In an effort to contribute to the dispute of whether the Sun has "solar" or "sub-solar" abundances, we have re-derived its photospheric abundance of oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements, independently of previous analyses. We applied a state-of-the art 3D (CO5BOLD) hydrodynamical simulation of the solar granulation as well as different 1D model atmospheres for the line by line spectroscopic abundance determinations. The analysis is based on both standard disk-center and full-disk spectral atlases; for oxygen we acquired in addition spectra at different heliocentric angles. The derived abundances are the result of equivalent width and/or line profile fitting of the available atomic lines. Our recommended oxygen abundance is A(O)=8.76+- 0.07, 0.1 dex higher than the value of Asplund et al. (2004). Our current estimate of the overall solar metallicity is 0.014< Z<0.016. Questions we discuss include: (i) Is the general downward revision of the solar abundances a 3D effect? (ii) How large are the abundance corrections due to horizontal inhomogeneities? (iii) What is the main reason for the differences between the abundances obtained in our study and those derived by Apslund and coworkers? (iv) How large are the uncertainties in the observed solar spectra? (v) What is the reason why the two forbidden oxygen lines, [OI] lambda 630 nm and [OI] lambda 636.3 nm, give significantly different answers for the solar oxygen abundance?
Titan's past and future: 3D modeling of a pure nitrogen atmosphere and geological implications
Charnay, Benjamin; Tobie, Gabriel; Sotin, Christophe; Wordsworth, Robin
2014-01-01
Several clues indicate that Titan's atmosphere has been depleted in methane during some period of its history, possibly as recently as 0.5-1 billion years ago. It could also happen in the future. Under these conditions, the atmosphere becomes only composed of nitrogen with a range of temperature and pressure allowing liquid or solid nitrogen to condense. Here, we explore these exotic climates throughout Titan's history with a 3D Global Climate Model (GCM) including the nitrogen cycle and the radiative effect of nitrogen clouds. We show that for the last billion years, only small polar nitrogen lakes should have formed. Yet, before 1 Ga, a significant part of the atmosphere could have condensed, forming deep nitrogen polar seas, which could have flowed and flooded the equatorial regions. Alternatively, nitrogen could be frozen on the surface like on Triton, but this would require an initial surface albedo higher than 0.65 at 4 Ga. Such a state could be stable even today if nitrogen ice albedo is higher than th...
Hundebøl, Jesper
wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...
Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis
2012-01-01
This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...
The StaggerGrid Project: a Grid of 3D Model Atmospheres for High-Precision Spectroscopy
Collet, Remo; Asplund, Martin
2011-01-01
In this contribution, we present the StaggerGrid, a collaborative project for the construction of a comprehensive grid of time-dependent, three-dimensional (3D), hydrodynamic model atmospheres of solar- and late-type stars with different effective temperatures, surface gravities, and chemical compositions. We illustrate the main characteristics of these 3D models and their effects on the predicted strengths, wavelength-shifts, and shapes of spectral lines, highlighting the differences with respect to calculations based on classical, one-dimensional, hydrostatic models, and discuss some of their possible applications to elemental abundance analysis of stellar spectra in the context of large observational surveys.
Loukitcheva, Maria; Carlsson, Mats; White, Stephen
2015-01-01
Aims. We use advanced 3D NLTE radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere to carry out detailed tests of chromospheric diagnostics at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Methods. We focused on the diagnostics of the thermal structure of the chromosphere in the wavelength bands from 0.4 mm up to 9.6 mm that can be accessed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) and investigated how these diagnostics are affected by the instrumental resolution. Results. We find that the formation height range of the millimeter radiation depends on the location in the simulation domain and is related to the underlying magnetic structure. Nonetheless, the brightness temperature is a reasonable measure of the gas temperature at the effective formation height at a given location on the solar surface. There is considerable scatter in this relationship, but this is significantly reduced when very weak magnetic fields are avoided. Our results indicate that although instrumental smearin...
On line contribution functions and examining spectral line formation in 3D model stellar atmospheres
Amarsi, Anish Mayur
2015-01-01
Line contribution functions are useful diagnostics for studying spectral line formation in stellar atmospheres. I derive an expression for the contribution function to the abso- lute flux depression that emerges from three-dimensional box-in-a-star model stellar atmospheres. I illustrate the result by comparing the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) spectral line formation of the high-excitation permitted OI777nm lines with the non-LTE case.
Evaluating Satellite Observed CO2 Column by a 3-D Atmospheric Transport Model
Satellite remote sensing is the latest method of measuring atmospheric CO2, which covers a wide range and makes periodic observation. But due to lack of ground-based observation sites, global satellite observed CO2 column is not evaluated efficiently. This paper assess the applicability of using GEOS-Chem model to forward simulate atmospheric CO2 for verifying Greenhouse Gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT) observed CO2 column. It is shown that GEOS-Chem performs well in modelling atmospheric CO2 and there are generally no significant differences between ground-based observation and model results. According to the comparsion, the spatial and temporal distribution of XCO2 agrees well between GOSAT and GEOS-Chem. GOSAT XCO2 is turned out to be 2.6 ppm lower than the model results. The mean difference observed between GOSAT and GEOS-Chem varies from −1.8 to −3.1 ppm seasonally, with the standard deviation ranging from 1.4 to 2.1 ppm. And in general, the difference is larger in summer than that in winter, in land area than in sea area. It might have been caused by the different land-sea distribution and eco-system's changing with seasons
Assessing the habitability of planets with Earth-like atmospheres with 1D and 3D climate modeling
Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Kitzmann, D.; Kunze, M.; Langematz, U.; Patzer, A. B. C.; Rauer, H.; Stracke, B.
2016-07-01
Context. The habitable zone (HZ) describes the range of orbital distances around a star where the existence of liquid water on the surface of an Earth-like planet is in principle possible. The applicability of one-dimensional (1D) climate models for the estimation of the HZ boundaries has been questioned by recent three-dimensional (3D) climate studies. While 3D studies can calculate the water vapor, ice albedo, and cloud feedback self-consistently and therefore allow for a deeper understanding and the identification of relevant climate processes, 1D model studies rely on fewer model assumptions and can be more easily applied to the large parameter space possible for extrasolar planets. Aims: We evaluate the applicability of 1D climate models to estimate the potential habitability of Earth-like extrasolar planets by comparing our 1D model results to those of 3D climate studies in the literature. We vary the two important planetary properties, surface albedo and relative humidity, in the 1D model. These depend on climate feedbacks that are not treated self-consistently in most 1D models. Methods: We applied a cloud-free 1D radiative-convective climate model to calculate the climate of Earth-like planets around different types of main-sequence stars with varying surface albedo and relative humidity profile. We compared the results to those of 3D model calculations available in the literature and investigated to what extent the 1D model can approximate the surface temperatures calculated by the 3D models. Results: The 1D parameter study results in a large range of climates possible for an Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like atmosphere and water reservoir at a certain stellar insolation. At some stellar insolations the full spectrum of climate states could be realized, i.e., uninhabitable conditions due to surface temperatures that are too high or too low as well as habitable surface conditions, depending only on the relative humidity and surface albedo assumed. When
Petry, H.; Ebel, A.; Franzkowiak, V.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Moellhoff, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie
1997-12-31
The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.
Magic, Zazralt; Asplund, Martin
2014-01-01
We investigate the relation between 1D atmosphere models that rely on the mixing length theory and models based on full 3D radiative hydrodynamic (RHD) calculations to describe convection in the envelopes of late-type stars. The adiabatic entropy value of the deep convection zone, s_bot, and the entropy jump, {\\Delta}s, determined from the 3D RHD models, are matched with the mixing length parameter, {\\alpha}_MLT, from 1D hydrostatic atmosphere models with identical microphysics (opacities and equation-of-state). We also derive the mass mixing length, {\\alpha}_m, and the vertical correlation length of the vertical velocity, C[v_z,v_z], directly from the 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar subsurface convection. The calibrated mixing length parameter for the Sun is {\\alpha}_MLT (s_bot) = 1.98. For different stellar parameters, {\\alpha}_MLT varies systematically in the range of 1.7 - 2.4. In particular, {\\alpha}_MLT decreases towards higher effective temperature, lower surface gravity and higher metallicity...
Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere
Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie
1997-12-31
A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.
3D modeling of GJ1214b's atmosphere: vertical mixing driven by an anti-Hadley circulation
Charnay, Benjamin; Leconte, Jérémy
2015-01-01
GJ1214b is a warm sub-Neptune transiting in front of a nearby M dwarf star. Recent observations indicate the presence of high and thick clouds or haze whose presence requires strong atmospheric mixing. In order to understand the transport and distribution of such clouds/haze, we study the atmospheric circulation and the vertical mixing of GJ1214b with a 3D General Circulation Model for cloud-free hydrogen-dominated atmospheres (metallicity of 1, 10 and 100 times the solar value) and for a water-dominated atmosphere. We analyze the effect of the atmospheric metallicity on the thermal structure and zonal winds. We also analyze the zonal mean meridional circulation and show that it corresponds to an anti-Hadley circulation in most of the atmosphere with upwelling at mid-latitude and downwelling at the equator in average. This circulation must be present on a large range of synchronously rotating exoplanets with strong impact on cloud formation and distribution. Using simple tracers, we show that vertical winds o...
Forget, Francois; Millour, Ehouarn; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Kerber, Laura; Leconte, Jeremy; Marcq, Emmanuel; Haberle, Robert M
2012-01-01
On the basis of geological evidence, it is often stated that the early martian climate was warm enough for liquid water to flow on the surface thanks to the greenhouse effect of a thick atmosphere. We present 3D global climate simulations of the early martian climate performed assuming a faint young sun and a CO2 atmosphere with pressure between 0.1 and 7 bars. The model includes a detailed radiative transfer model using revised CO2 gas collision induced absorption properties, and a parameterisation of the CO2 ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties. A wide range of possible climates is explored by using various values of obliquities, orbital parameters, cloud microphysic parameters, atmospheric dust loading, and surface properties. Unlike on present day Mars, for pressures higher than a fraction of a bar, surface temperatures vary with altitude because of the adiabatic cooling and warming of the atmosphere when it moves vertically. In most simulations, CO2 ice clouds cover a major part of the planet...
6Li detection in metal-poor stars: can 3D model atmospheres solve the second lithium problem?
Steffen, M; Caffau, E; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Spite, M
2012-01-01
The presence of 6Li in the atmospheres of metal-poor halo stars is usually inferred from the detection of a subtle extra depression in the red wing of the 7Li doublet line at 670.8 nm. However, the intrinsic line asymmetry caused by convective flows in the photospheres of cool stars is almost indistinguishable from the asymmetry produced by a weak 6Li blend on a (presumed) symmetric 7Li profile. Previous determinations of the 6Li/ 7Li isotopic ratio based on 1D model atmospheres, ignoring the convection-induced line asymmetry, must therefore be considered as upper limits. By comparing synthetic 1D LTE and 3D non-LTE line profiles of the Li 670.8 nm feature, we quantify the differential effect of the convective line asymmetry on the derived 6Li abundance as a function of effective temperature, gravity, and metallicity. As expected, we find that the asymmetry effect systematically reduces the resulting 6Li/7Li ratios. Depending on the stellar parameters, the 3D-1D offset in 6Li/7Li ranges between -0.005 and -0....
Rodrigues, Marcos; Robinson, Alan; Alboul, Lyuba; Brink, Willie
2006-01-01
3D face recognition is an open field. In this paper we present a method for 3D facial recognition based on Principal Components Analysis. The method uses a relatively large number of facial measurements and ratios and yields reliable recognition. We also highlight our approach to sensor development for fast 3D model acquisition and automatic facial feature extraction.
Magic, Zazralt
2014-01-01
In the surface layers of late-type stars, stellar convection is manifested with its typical granulation pattern due to the presence of convective motions. The resulting photospheric up- and downflows leave imprints in the observed spectral line profiles. We perform a careful statistical analysis of stellar granulation and its properties for different stellar parameters. We employ realistic 3D radiative hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of surface convection from the Stagger-grid, a comprehensive grid of atmosphere models that covers a large parameter space in terms of Teff, logg, and [Fe/H]. Individual granules are detected from the (bolometric) intensity maps at disk center with an efficient granulation pattern recognition algorithm. From these we derive their respective properties: diameter, fractal dimension (area-perimeter relation), geometry, topology, variation of intensity, temperature, density and velocity with granule size. Also, the correlation of the physical properties at the optical surface are stud...
I. V. Mingalev
2006-09-01
Full Text Available We present the first results of a 3-D General Circulation Model of Titan's atmosphere which differs from traditional models in that the hydrostatic equation is not used and all three components of the neutral gas velocity are obtained from the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. The current version of our GCM is, however, a simplified version, as it uses a predescribed temperature field in the model region thereby avoiding the complex simulation of radiative transfer based on the energy equation. We present the first simulation results and compare them to the results of existing GCMs and direct wind observations. The wind speeds obtained from our GCM correspond well with data obtained during the Huygens probe descent through Titan's atmosphere. We interpret the most unexpected feature of these data which consist of the presence of a non-monotonicity of the altitude profile of the zonal wind speed between 60 and 75 km.
Development of a 3D Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) coupled to a Land Surface Model
Bisht, G.; Riley, W. J.; Lorenzetti, D.; Tang, J.
2015-12-01
Exchange of water between the atmosphere and biosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) influences global hydrological, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. Isotopic analysis has shown that evapotranspiration over the continents is largely dominated by transpiration. Water is taken up from soil by plant roots, transported through the plant's vascular system, and evaporated from the leaves. Yet current Land Surface Models (LSMs) integrated into Earth System Models (ESMs) treat plant roots as passive components. These models distribute the ET sink vertically over the soil column, neglect the vertical pressure distribution along the plant vascular system, and assume that leaves can directly access water from any soil layer within the root zone. Numerous studies have suggested that increased warming due to climate change will lead drought and heat-induced tree mortality. A more mechanistic treatment of water dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) is essential for investigating the fate of ecosystems under a warmer climate. In this work, we describe a 3D SPAC model that can be coupled to a LSM. The SPAC model uses the variably saturated Richards equations to simulate water transport. The model uses individual governing equations and constitutive relationships for the various SPAC components (i.e., soil, root, and xylem). Finite volume spatial discretization and backward Euler temporal discretization is used to solve the SPAC model. The Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) is used to numerically integrate the discretized system of equations. Furthermore, PETSc's multi-physics coupling capability (DMComposite) is used to solve the tightly coupled system of equations of the SPAC model. Numerical results are presented for multiple test problems.
Arroyo-Torres, B; Chiavassa, A; Scholz, M; Freytag, B; Marcaide, J M; Hauschildt, P H; Wood, P R; Abellan, F J
2015-01-01
We present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants, increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of 3 RSGs in the near-infrared K-band with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution. To comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3-D convection, and new 1-D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Our near-infrared flux spectra are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict ...
Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle
2006-01-01
We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...
Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K
2006-01-01
We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...
Manos, Harry
2016-01-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…
2007-01-01
The results of four gas tracer experiments of atmospheric dispersion on a regional scale are used for the benchmarking of two atmospheric dispersion modeling codes, MINERVE-SPRAY (CEA), and NOSTRADAMUS (IBRAE). The main topic of this comparison is to estimate the Lagrangian code capability to predict the radionuclide atmospheric transfer on a large field, in the case of risk assessment of nuclear power plant for example. For the four experiments, the results of calculations show a rather...
Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle
2006-01-01
We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}
Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K
2006-01-01
We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations
Assessing the habitability of planets with Earth-like atmospheres with 1D and 3D climate modeling
Godolt, M; Kitzmann, D; Kunze, M; Langematz, U; Patzer, A B C; Rauer, H; Stracke, B
2016-01-01
The habitable zone (HZ) describes the range of orbital distances around a star where the existence of liquid water on the surface of an Earth-like planet is in principle possible. While 3D climate studies can calculate the water vapor, ice albedo, and cloud feedback self-consistently and therefore allow for a deeper understanding and the identification of relevant climate processes, 1D model studies rely on fewer model assumptions and can be more easily applied to the large parameter space possible for exoplanets. We evaluate the applicability of 1D climate models to estimate the potential habitability of Earth-like exoplanets by comparing our 1D model results to those of 3D climate studies in the literature. We applied a cloud-free 1D radiative-convective climate model to calculate the climate of Earth-like planets around different types of main-sequence stars with varying surface albedo and relative humidity profile. These parameters depend on climate feedbacks that are not treated self-consistently in most...
A new Monte Carlo atmospheric radiative transfer model is presented which is designed to support the interpretation of UV/vis/near-IR spectroscopic measurements of scattered Sun light in the atmosphere. The integro differential equation describing the underlying transport process and its formal solution are discussed. A stochastic approach to solve the differential equation, the Monte Carlo method, is deduced and its application to the formal solution is demonstrated. It is shown how model photon trajectories of the resulting ray tracing algorithm are used to estimate functionals of the radiation field such as radiances, actinic fluxes and light path integrals. In addition, Jacobians of the former quantities with respect to optical parameters of the atmosphere are analyzed. Model output quantities are validated against measurements, by self-consistency tests and through inter comparisons with other radiative transfer models.
Manos, Harry
2016-03-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.
Post processing of 3D models for 3D printing
Pikovnik, Tomaž
2015-01-01
According to the opinion of some experts the additive manufacturing or 3D printing will change manufacturing industry, because any individual could print their own model according to his or her wishes. In this graduation thesis some of the additive manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore in the production of house scale model in 1:100 is presented, starting from modeling to printing. Special attention is given to postprocessing of the building model elements us...
Sta. Maria, M.; Ketefian, G. S.; Jacobson, M. Z.
2010-12-01
In order to simulate better the effects of wind turbines on meteorology and climate, a parameterization based on the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory was developed and integrated into a high-resolution 3-D non-hydrostatic atmospheric model that conserves several domain-integrated quantities. The BEM model calculates the forces the blade exerts on the atmosphere and feeds it back as body forces in the momentum equations of the atmospheric model. Since the BEM method calculates these forces along a turbine blade, the parameterization allows for model spatial resolutions on the order of a few to tens of meters. This study examines the advantages and limitations of such a parameterization. The BEM calculates the rotational force that the blades exert on the air, and this study investigates whether this parameterization is able to capture rotation in the wake. The dependency on model resolution is also studied to determine the optimum model resolution for simulating wind turbine-atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric model is also used to estimate the distance downwind of a turbine at which wind speeds recover. This is an important parameter for determining optimal wind farm spacing. Model results will be compared with previous parameterizations and wake data gathered in the field and from wind tunnel studies.
François Van Dorpe
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The results of four gas tracer experiments of atmospheric dispersion on a regional scale are used for the benchmarking of two atmospheric dispersion modeling codes, MINERVE-SPRAY (CEA, and NOSTRADAMUS (IBRAE. The main topic of this comparison is to estimate the Lagrangian code capability to predict the radionuclide atmospheric transfer on a large field, in the case of risk assessment of nuclear power plant for example. For the four experiments, the results of calculations show a rather good agreement between the two codes, and the order of magnitude of the concentrations measured on the soil is predicted. Simulation is best for sampling points located ten kilometers from the source, while we note a divergence for more distant points results (difference in concentrations by a factor 2 to 5. This divergence may be explained by the fact that, for these four experiments, only one weather station (near the point source was used on a field of 10 000 km2, generating the simulation of a uniform wind field throughout the calculation domain.
The results of four gas tracer experiments of atmospheric dispersion on a regional scale are used for the benchmarking of two atmospheric dispersion modeling codes, MINERVE-SPRAY (CEA), and NOSTRADAMUS (IBRAE). The main topic of this comparison is to estimate the Lagrangian code capability to predict the radionuclide atmospheric transfer on a large field, in the case of risk assessment of nuclear power plant for example. For the four experiments, the results of calculations show a rather good agreement between the two codes, and the order of magnitude of the concentrations measured on the soil is predicted. Simulation is best for sampling points located ten kilometers from the source, while we note a divergence for more distant points results (difference in concentrations by a factor 2 to 5). This divergence may be explained by the fact that, for these four experiments, only one weather station (near the point source) was used on a field of 10000 km2, generating the simulation of a uniform wind field throughout the calculation domain.
Wang, Mian
This thesis research is consist of four chapters, including biomimetic three-dimensional tissue engineered nanostructured bone model for breast cancer bone metastasis study (Chapter one), cold atmospheric plasma for selectively ablating metastatic breast cancer (Chapter two), design of biomimetic and bioactive cold plasma modified nanostructured scaffolds for enhanced osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (Chapter three), and enhanced osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cell functions on titanium with hydrothermally treated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite/magnetically treated carbon nanotubes for orthopedic applications (Chapter four). All the thesis research is focused on nanomaterials and the use of cold plasma technique for various biomedical applications.
MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...
Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling
Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.
2016-06-01
Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.
NLTE line formation of Fe for late-type stars. I. Standard stars with 1D and <3D> model atmospheres
Bergemann, Maria; Collet, Remo; Magic, Zazralt; Asplund, Martin
2012-01-01
We investigate departures from LTE in the line formation of Fe for a number of well-studied late-type stars in different evolutionary stages. A new model of Fe atom was constructed from the most up-to-date theoretical and experimental atomic data available so far. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation calculations for Fe were performed using 1D hydrostatic MARCS and MAFAGS-OS model atmospheres, as well as the spatial and temporal average stratifications from full 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar convection computed using the Stagger code. It is shown that the Fe I/Fe II ionization balance can be well established with the 1D and mean 3D models under NLTE including calibrated inelastic collisions with H I calculated from the Drawin's (1969) formulae. Strong low-excitation Fe I lines are very sensitive to the atmospheric structure; classical 1D models fail to provide consistent excitation balance, particularly so for cool metal-poor stars. A better agreement between Fe I lines spannin...
3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre
Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.
2012-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D
Wittkowski, M; Freytag, B; Scholz, M; Hoefner, S; Karovicova, I; Whitelock, P A
2016-01-01
We obtained a total of 20 near-infrared K-band spectro-interferometric snapshot observations of the Mira variables o Cet, R Leo, R Aqr, X Hya, W Vel, and R Cnc with a spectral resolution of about 1500. We compared observed flux and visibility spectra with predictions by CODEX 1D dynamic model atmospheres and with azimuthally averaged intensities based on CO5BOLD 3D dynamic model atmospheres including convection. Our visibility data confirm the presence of spatially extended molecular atmospheres located above the continuum radii with large-scale inhomogeneities or clumps that contribute a few percent of the total flux. The detailed structure of the inhomogeneities or clumps show a variability on time scales of 3 months and above. Both modeling attempts provided satisfactory fits to our data. In particular, they are both consistent with the observed decrease in the visibility function at molecular bands of water vapor and CO, indicating a spatially extended molecular atmosphere. Observational variability phase...
J.-D. Paris
2010-07-01
Full Text Available We evaluate the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model (v8-02-01 of CO2 over 2003–2006, driven by GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorology from the NASA Goddard Global Modelling and Assimilation Office, using surface, aircraft and space-borne concentration measurements of CO2. We use an established ensemble Kalman filter to estimate a posteriori biospheric+biomass burning (BS+BB and oceanic (OC CO2 fluxes from 22 geographical regions, following the TransCom 3 protocol, using boundary layer CO2 data from a subset of GLOBALVIEW surface sites. Global annual net BS+BB+OC CO2 fluxes over 2004–2006 for GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 meteorology are −4.4±0.9 (−4.2±0.9, −3.9±0.9 (−4.5±0.9, and −5.2±0.9 (−4.9±0.9 Pg C yr−1 , respectively. The regional a posteriori fluxes are broadly consistent in the sign and magnitude of the TransCom-3 study for 1992–1996, but we find larger net sinks over northern and southern continents. We find large departures from our a priori over Europe during summer 2003, over temperate Eurasia during 2004, and over North America during 2005, reflecting an incomplete description of terrestrial carbon dynamics. We find GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 a posteriori CO2 concentrations reproduce the observed surface trend of 1.91–2.43 ppm yr−1, depending on latitude, within 0.15 ppm yr−1 (0.2 ppm yr−1 and the seasonal cycle within 0.2 ppm (0.2 ppm at all latitudes. We find the a posteriori model reproduces the aircraft vertical profile measurements of CO2 over North America and Siberia generally within 1.5 ppm in the free and upper troposphere but can be biased by up to 4–5 ppm in the boundary layer at the start and end of the growing season. The model has a small negative bias in the free troposphere CO2 trend (1.95–2.19 ppm yr−1 compared to AIRS data which has a trend of 2.21–2.63 ppm yr−1 during 2004–2006, consistent with surface data. Model CO2 concentrations in the upper troposphere, evaluated using CONTRAIL (Comprehensive
Sibylle Dueri
2010-03-01
Full Text Available A 3D hydrodynamic and contaminant fate model was implemented for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs in Thau lagoon. The hydrodynamic model was tested against temperature and salinity measurements, while the contaminant fate model was assessed against available data collected at different stations inside the lagoon. The model results allow an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of contaminants in the lagoon, the seasonality of loads and the role of atmospheric deposition for the input of PCDD/Fs. The outcome suggests that air is an important source of PCDD/Fs for this ecosystem, therefore the monitoring of air pollution is very appropriate for assessing the inputs of these contaminants. These results call for the development of integrated environmental protection policies.
Face Detection with a 3D Model
Barbu, Adrian; Lay, Nathan; Gramajo, Gary
2014-01-01
This paper presents a part-based face detection approach where the spatial relationship between the face parts is represented by a hidden 3D model with six parameters. The computational complexity of the search in the six dimensional pose space is addressed by proposing meaningful 3D pose candidates by image-based regression from detected face keypoint locations. The 3D pose candidates are evaluated using a parameter sensitive classifier based on difference features relative to the 3D pose. A...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aqua carries six state-of-the-art instruments to observe the Earth's oceans, atmosphere, land, ice and snow covers, and vegetation, providing high measurement...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aura observes the chemical content of the atmosphere to track the state of the ozone layer and the dispersion of airborne pollution. Polygons: 6 Vertices: 4
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite provides new insight into the role that clouds and atmospheric aerosols...
FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS
My Abdellah Kassimi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.
Gallagher, A J; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Spite, M
2016-01-01
Recent developments in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral synthesis code Linfor3D have meant that, for the first time, large spectral wavelength regions, such as molecular bands, can be synthesised with it in a short amount of time. A detailed spectral analysis of the synthetic G-band for several dwarf turn-off-type 3D atmospheres (5850 <= T_eff [K] <= 6550, 4.0 <= log g <= 4.5, -3.0 <= [Fe/H] <= -1.0) was conducted, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We also examine carbon and oxygen molecule formation at various metallicity regimes and discuss the impact it has on the G-band. Using a qualitative approach, we describe the different behaviours between the 3D atmospheres and the traditional one-dimensional (1D) atmospheres and how the different physics involved inevitably leads to abundance corrections, which differ over varying metallicities. Spectra computed in 1D were fit to every 3D spectrum to determine the 3D abundance correction. Early analysis revealed that the ...
Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno
2001-01-01
We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....
Spatial data modelling for 3D GIS
Abdul-Rahman, Alias
2007-01-01
This book covers fundamental aspects of spatial data modelling specifically on the aspect of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and structuring. Realisation of ""true"" 3D GIS spatial system needs a lot of effort, and the process is taking place in various research centres and universities in some countries. The development of spatial data modelling for 3D objects is the focus of this book.
3D Simulations of methane convective storms on Titan's atmosphere
Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.
2005-08-01
The arrival of the Cassini/Huygens mission to Titan has opened an unprecedented opportunity to study the atmosphere of this satellite. Under the pressure-temperature conditions on Titan, methane, a large atmospheric component amounting perhaps to a 3-5% of the atmosphere, is close to its triple point, potentially playing a similar role as water on Earth. The Huygens probe has shown a terrain shaped by erosion of probably liquid origin, suggestive of past rain. On the other hand, Voyager IRIS spectroscopic observations of Titan imply a saturated atmosphere of methane (amounting perhaps to 150 covered by methane clouds, if we think on Earth meteorology. However, observations from Earth and Cassini have shown that clouds are localized, transient and fast evolving, in particular in the South Pole (currently in its summer season). This might imply a lack of widespread presence on Titan of nuclei where methane could initiate condensation and particle growth with subsequent precipitation. We investigate different scenarios of moist convective storms on Titan using a complete 3D atmospheric model that incorporates a full microphysics treatment required to study cloud formation processes under a saturated atmosphere with low concentration of condensation nuclei. We study local convective development under a variety of atmospheric conditions: sub-saturation, super-saturation, abundances of condensation nuclei fall, condensation nuclei lifted from the ground or gently falling from the stratosphere. We show that under the appropriate circumstances, precipitation rates comparable to typical tropical storms on Earth can be found. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.
Compression of 3D models with NURBS
Santa Cruz Ducci, Diego; Ebrahimi, Touradj
2005-01-01
With recent progress in computing, algorithmics and telecommunications, 3D models are increasingly used in various multimedia applications. Examples include visualization, gaming, entertainment and virtual reality. In the multimedia domain 3D models have been traditionally represented as polygonal meshes. This piecewise planar representation can be thought of as the analogy of bitmap images for 3D surfaces. As bitmap images, they enjoy great flexibility and are particularly well suited to des...
3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre
Abduhl Rahman, A.; P. J. M. Van Oosterom; T. C. Hua; Sharkawi, K.H.; E. E. Duncan; Azri, N.; Hassan, M. I.
2012-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D cadastre since more and more related agencies attempt to develop or embed 3D components into the MPC. We also intend to describe the initiative by Malaysian national mapping and cadastral agency (...
Curating Architectural 3D CAD Models
MacKenzie Smith
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 Increasing demand to manage and preserve 3-dimensional models for a variety of physical phenomena (e.g., building and engineering designs, computer games, or scientific visualizations is creating new challenges for digital archives. Preserving 3D models requires identifying technical formats for the models that can be maintained over time, and the available formats offer different advantages and disadvantages depending on the intended future uses of the models. Additionally, the metadata required to manage 3D models is not yet standardized, and getting intellectual proposal rights for digital models is uncharted territory. The FACADE Project at MIT is investigating these challenges in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC industry and has developed recommendations and systems to support digital archives in dealing with digital 3D models and related data. These results can also be generalized to other domains doing 3D modeling.
3-D Human Modeling and Animation
Ratner, Peter
2012-01-01
3-D Human Modeling and Animation Third Edition All the tools and techniques you need to bring human figures to 3-D life Thanks to today's remarkable technology, artists can create and animate realistic, three-dimensional human figures that were not possible just a few years ago. This easy-to-follow book guides you through all the necessary steps to adapt your own artistic skill in figure drawing, painting, and sculpture to this exciting digital canvas. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation, Third Edition starts you off with simple modeling, then prepares you for more advanced techniques for crea
Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface
Kodge B. G.
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.
Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface
Kodge, B G
2011-01-01
The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.
Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis
This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.
A polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model for the computation of radiative transfer inside three-dimensional inhomogeneous mediums is described. This code is based on Monte Carlo methods and takes into account the polarization state of the light. Specificities introduced by such consideration are presented. After validation of the model by comparisons with adding-doubling computations, examples of reflectances simulated from a synthetic inhomogeneous cirrus cloud are analyzed and compared with reflectances obtained with the classical assumption of a plane parallel homogeneous cloud (1D approximation). As polarized reflectance is known to saturate for optical thickness of about 3, one could think that they should be less sensitive to 3D effects than total reflectances. However, at high spatial resolution (80 m), values of polarized reflectances much higher than the ones predicted by the 1D theory can be reached. The study of the reflectances of a step cloud shows that these large values are the results of illumination and shadowing effects similar to those often observed on total reflectances. In addition, we show that for larger spatial resolution (10 km), the so-called plane-parallel bias leads to a non-negligible overestimation of the polarized reflectances of about 7-8%.
Automatic balancing of 3D models
Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2014-01-01
3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...
3D face modeling, analysis and recognition
Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco
2013-01-01
3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s
Creating a 3D Game Character Model
Paasikivi, Joni
2014-01-01
This thesis goes through the process of modeling a low poly 3D model for a video game project from the perspective of a novice 3D artist. The goal was to prepare a stylized low polygon model of less than 6000 triangles, based on pre-made design and a living person. The program used in this project was 3Ds Max. The process starts with the creation of the reference images for the 3Ds Max and goes through the process of modeling the wireframe model, unwrapping the model for texturizing, and crea...
Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models
Morales, Jose A.
2012-09-01
Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.
Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis
Hanen, Akkari, E-mail: bettaieb.hanen@topnet.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Imen, Bhouri, E-mail: bhouri_imen@yahoo.f [Unite de recherche ondelettes et multifractals, Faculte des sciences (Tunisia); Asma, Ben Abdallah, E-mail: asma.babdallah@cristal.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Patrick, Dubois, E-mail: pdubois@chru-lille.f [INSERM, U 703, Lille (France); Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed, E-mail: medhedi.bedoui@fmm.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia)
2009-09-28
This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.
3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report
Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang
2014-09-01
Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.
3D gender recognition using cognitive modeling
Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Hansen, Thomas;
2013-01-01
We use 3D scans of human faces and cognitive modeling to estimate the “gender strength”. The “gender strength” is a continuous class variable of the gender, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To visualize some of the visual trends humans use when performing gender classification, we...
3D gender recognition using cognitive modeling
Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Hansen, Thomas; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold
2013-01-01
We use 3D scans of human faces and cognitive modeling to estimate the “gender strength”. The “gender strength” is a continuous class variable of the gender, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To visualize some of the visual trends humans use when performing gender classification, ...
3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling
Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.;
2015-01-01
Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...
Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D
Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge
2004-01-01
This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.
Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models
Guo, Jianwei
2013-10-01
We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Integrated Biogeomorphological Modeling Using Delft3D
Ye, Q.; Jagers, B.
2011-12-01
The skill of numerical morphological models has improved significantly from the early 2D uniform, total load sediment models (with steady state or infrequent wave updates) to recent 3D hydrodynamic models with multiple suspended and bed load sediment fractions and bed stratigraphy (online coupled with waves). Although there remain many open questions within this combined field of hydro- and morphodynamics, we observe an increasing need to include biological processes in the overall dynamics. In riverine and inter-tidal environments, there is often an important influence by riparian vegetation and macrobenthos. Over the past decade more and more researchers have started to extend the simulation environment with wrapper scripts and other quick code hacks to estimate their influence on morphological development in coastal, estuarine and riverine environments. Although one can in this way quickly analyze different approaches, these research tools have generally not been designed with reuse, performance and portability in mind. We have now implemented a reusable, flexible, and efficient two-way link between the Delft3D open source framework for hydrodynamics, waves and morphology, and the water quality and ecology modules. The same link will be used for 1D, 2D and 3D modeling on networks and both structured and unstructured grids. We will describe the concepts of the overall system, and illustrate it with some first results.
Adaptive Enhancement of 3D Scenes using Hierarchical Registration of Texture-Mapped 3D Models
Ramalingam, Srikumar; Lodha, Suresh
2003-01-01
Adaptive fusion of new information in a 3D urban scene is an important goal to achieve in computer vision, graphics, and visualization. In this work we acquire new image pairs of a scene from closer distances and extract 3D models of successively higher resolutions. We present a new hierarchical approach to register these texture-mapped 3D models with a coarse 3D texture mapped model of an urban scene. First, we use the standard reconstruction algorithm to construct 3D models after establishi...
GENERATING 3D MODEL FROM VIDEO
Svetlana Mijakovska
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the process of 3D modelling from video is presented. Analysed previous research related to this process, and specifically described algorithms for detecting and matching key points. We described their advantages and disadvantages, and made a critical analysis of algorithms. In this paper, the three detectors (SUSAN, Plessey and Förstner are tested and compare. We used video taken with hand held camera of a cube and compare these detectors on it (taking into account their parameters of accuracy and repeatability. In conclusion, we practically made 3D model of the cube from video used these detectors in the first step of the process and three algorithms (RANSAC, MSAC and MLESAC for matching data.
Sensing and compressing 3-D models
Krumm, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent System Sensors and Controls Dept.
1998-02-01
The goal of this research project was to create a passive and robust computer vision system for producing 3-D computer models of arbitrary scenes. Although the authors were unsuccessful in achieving the overall goal, several components of this research have shown significant potential. Of particular interest is the application of parametric eigenspace methods for planar pose measurement of partially occluded objects in gray-level images. The techniques presented provide a simple, accurate, and robust solution to the planar pose measurement problem. In addition, the representational efficiency of eigenspace methods used with gray-level features were successfully extended to binary features, which are less sensitive to illumination changes. The results of this research are presented in two papers that were written during the course of this project. The papers are included in sections 2 and 3. The first section of this report summarizes the 3-D modeling efforts.
Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Rettig, Michael; Steinebach, Martin
2014-02-01
3D models and applications are of utmost interest in both science and industry. With the increment of their usage, their number and thereby the challenge to correctly identify them increases. Content identification is commonly done by cryptographic hashes. However, they fail as a solution in application scenarios such as computer aided design (CAD), scientific visualization or video games, because even the smallest alteration of the 3D model, e.g. conversion or compression operations, massively changes the cryptographic hash as well. Therefore, this work presents a robust hashing algorithm for 3D mesh data. The algorithm applies several different bit extraction methods. They are built to resist desired alterations of the model as well as malicious attacks intending to prevent correct allocation. The different bit extraction methods are tested against each other and, as far as possible, the hashing algorithm is compared to the state of the art. The parameters tested are robustness, security and runtime performance as well as False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), also the probability calculation of hash collision is included. The introduced hashing algorithm is kept adaptive e.g. in hash length, to serve as a proper tool for all applications in practice.
Alfredsson, Jonas
2008-01-01
This report describes the work and the results found when comparing three different 3d modeler applications. The programs are 3ds Max, Maya and Cinema 4D. The comparisons focus on the possibilities/the amount of freedom these programs interface offer to its plugins. The comparisons are made from the point of view of a tool for creating animations developed as a plugin for these modelers. This plugins demands on the system it is loaded into have been analyzed and from the results of this analy...
3D modeling of buildings outstanding sites
Héno, Rapha?le
2014-01-01
Conventional topographic databases, obtained by capture on aerial or spatial images provide a simplified 3D modeling of our urban environment, answering the needs of numerous applications (development, risk prevention, mobility management, etc.). However, when we have to represent and analyze more complex sites (monuments, civil engineering works, archeological sites, etc.), these models no longer suffice and other acquisition and processing means have to be implemented. This book focuses on the study of adapted lifting means for "notable buildings". The methods tackled in this book cover las
The dual gonihedric 3D Ising model
Johnston, D A [Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Ranasinghe, R P K C M, E-mail: D.A.Johnston@hw.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila (Sri Lanka)
2011-07-22
We investigate the dual of the {kappa} = 0 gonihedric Ising model on a 3D cubic lattice, which may be written as an anisotropically coupled Ashkin-Teller model. The original {kappa} = 0 gonihedric model has a purely plaquette interaction, displays a first order transition and possesses a highly degenerate ground state. We find that the dual model admits a similar large ground state degeneracy as a result of the anisotropic couplings and investigate the coupled mean-field equations for the model on a single cube. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations which confirm a first order phase transition in the model and suggest that the ground state degeneracy persists throughout the low temperature phase. Some exploratory cooling simulations also hint at non-trivial dynamical behaviour.
The dual gonihedric 3D Ising model
We investigate the dual of the κ = 0 gonihedric Ising model on a 3D cubic lattice, which may be written as an anisotropically coupled Ashkin-Teller model. The original κ = 0 gonihedric model has a purely plaquette interaction, displays a first order transition and possesses a highly degenerate ground state. We find that the dual model admits a similar large ground state degeneracy as a result of the anisotropic couplings and investigate the coupled mean-field equations for the model on a single cube. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations which confirm a first order phase transition in the model and suggest that the ground state degeneracy persists throughout the low temperature phase. Some exploratory cooling simulations also hint at non-trivial dynamical behaviour.
3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy
Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel
2015-11-01
Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.
Design and Implementation of 3D Model Database for General-Purpose 3D GIS
XU Weiping; ZHU Qing; DU Zhiqiang; ZHANG Yeting
2010-01-01
To improve the reusability of three-dimensional (3D) models and simplify the complexity of natural scene reconstruction, this paper presents a 3D model database for universal 3D GIS. After the introduction of its extensible function architecture,accompanied by the conclusion of implicit spatial-temporal hierarchy of models in any reconstructed scene of 3D GIS for general purpose, several key issues are discussed in detail, such as the storage and management of 3D models and related retrieval and load method, as well as the interfaces for further on-demand development. Finally, the validity and feasibility of this model database are proved through its application in the development of 3D visualization system of railway operation.
Dong, C.; Bougher, S. W.; Ma, Y.; Toth, G.; Lee, Y.; Nagy, A. F.; Tenishev, V.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Meng, X.; Combi, M. R.
2013-12-01
The study of the solar wind interaction with Mars upper atmosphere/ionosphere has triggered a great of interest in recent years. Among the large number of topics in this research area, the investigation of ion escape fluxes has become increasingly important due to its potential impact on the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere (e.g., loss of water) over its history. In the present work, we adopt the 3-D Mars cold neutral atmosphere profiles (0~300 km) from the newly developed and validated Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) and the 3-D hot oxygen profiles (100km~5RM) from the exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS). We apply these 3-D model outputs fields into the 3-D BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD model (100km~20RM) that can better simulate the interplay between Mars upper atmosphere and solar wind by considering the dynamics of individual ion species. The multi-fluid model solves separate continuity, momentum and energy equations for each ion species (H+, O+, O2+, CO2+). The M-GITM model together with the AMPS exosphere model take into account the effects of solar cycle and seasonal variations on both cold and hot neutral atmospheres, allowing us to investigate the corresponding effects on the Mars upper atmosphere ion escape by using a one-way coupling approach, i.e., both the M-GITM and AMPS model outputs are used as the inputs for the multi-fluid model and M-GITM is used as input into the AMPS exosphere model. The calculations are carried out for selected cases with different nominal solar wind, solar cycle and crustal field orientation conditions. This work has the potential to provide predictions of ion escape rates for comparison to future data to be returned by the MAVEN primary mission (2014-2016) and thereby improve our understanding of present day escape processes. Acknowledgments: The work presented here was supported by NASA grants NNH10CC04C, NNX09AL26G, NSF grant ATM-0535811.
3D Model Assisted Image Segmentation
Jayawardena, Srimal; Hutter, Marcus
2012-01-01
The problem of segmenting a given image into coherent regions is important in Computer Vision and many industrial applications require segmenting a known object into its components. Examples include identifying individual parts of a component for process control work in a manufacturing plant and identifying parts of a car from a photo for automatic damage detection. Unfortunately most of an object's parts of interest in such applications share the same pixel characteristics, having similar colour and texture. This makes segmenting the object into its components a non-trivial task for conventional image segmentation algorithms. In this paper, we propose a "Model Assisted Segmentation" method to tackle this problem. A 3D model of the object is registered over the given image by optimising a novel gradient based loss function. This registration obtains the full 3D pose from an image of the object. The image can have an arbitrary view of the object and is not limited to a particular set of views. The segmentation...
Using 3D Scanning in 3D Character Modeling and Game Figure Production
guo, Jun
2008-01-01
The theme of this thesis was to discuss the theory of 3D scanning, focus on the flowchart of using 3D NextEngine Desktop Scanner hardware and software as well as the 3D game character exporting and importing in both 3ds Max and CryENGINE2 Sandbox2. The purpose of this final-year project was to scan models made of modeling paste using the 3D NextEngine ScanStudio. The models were developed and imported as raw files into 3dsMax. At the same step, the skeletons were adjusted an...
MC3D modelling of stratified explosion
It is known that a steam explosion can occur in a stratified geometry and that the observed yields are lower than in the case of explosion in a premixture configuration. However, very few models are available to quantify the amount of melt which can be involved and the pressure peak that can be developed. In the stratified application of the MC3D code, mixing and fragmentation of the melt are explained by the growth of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities due to the shear flow of the two phase coolant above the melt. Such a model is then used to recalculate the Frost-Ciccarelli tin-water experiment. Pressure peak, speed of propagation, bubble shape and erosion height are well reproduced as well as the influence of the inertial constraint (height of the water pool). (author)
Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark
Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.
2012-04-01
In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the
A compressor model has been implemented in the RELAP5-3D code. The model is similar to that of the existing pump model, and performs the same function on a gas as the pump performs on a single-phase or two-phase fluid. The compressor component consists of an inlet junction and a control volume, and optionally, an outlet junction. This feature permits cascading compressor components in series. The equations describing the physics of the compressor are derived from first principles. These equations are used to obtain the head, the torque, and the energy dissipation. Compressor performance is specified using a map, specific to the design of the machine, in terms of the ratio of outlet-to-inlet total (or stagnation) pressure and adiabatic efficiency as functions of rotational velocity and flow rate. The input quantities are specified in terms of dimensionless variables, which are corrected to stagnation density and stagnation sound speed. A small correction was formulated for the input of efficiency to account for the error introduced by assumption of constant density when integrating the momentum equation. Comparison of the results of steady-state operation of the compressor model to those of the MIT design calculation showed excellent agreement for both pressure ratio and power
Bertrand, Tanguy; Forget, Francois
2016-04-01
To interpret New Horizons observations and simulate the Pluto climate system, we have developed a Global Climate Model (GCM) of Pluto's atmosphere. In addition to a 3D "dynamical core" which solves the equation of meteorology, the model takes into account the N2 condensation and sublimation and its thermal and dynamical effects, the vertical turbulent mixing, the radiative transfer through methane and carbon monoxide, molecular thermal conduction, and a detailed surface thermal model with different thermal inertia for various timescales (diurnal, seasonal). The GCM also includes a detailed model of the CH4 and CO cycles, taking into account their transport by the atmospheric circulation and turbulence, as well as their condensation and sublimation on the surface and in the atmosphere, possibly forming methane ice clouds. The GCM consistently predicts the 3D methane abundance in the atmosphere, which is used as an input for our radiative transfer calculation. In a second phase, we also developed a volatile transport model, derived from the GCM, which can be run over thousands of years in order to reach consistent initial states for the GCM runs and better explore the seasonal processes on Pluto. Results obtained with the volatile transport model show that the distribution of N2, CH4 and CO ices primarily depends on the seasonal thermal inertia used for the different ices, and is affected by the assumed topography as well. As observed, it is possible to form a large and permanent nitrogen glacier with CO and CH4 ice deposits in an equatorial basin corresponding to Sputnik Planum, while having a surface pressure evolution consistent with stellar occultations and New Horizons data. In addition, most of the methane ice is sequestered with N2 ice in the basin but seasonal polar caps of CH4 frosts also form explaining the bright polar caps observed with Hubble in the 1980s and in line with New Horizons observations. Using such balanced combination of surface and
3D Geological Modeling under Extremely Complex Geological Conditions
Yanlin Shao; Ailing Zheng; Youbin He; Keyan Xiao
2012-01-01
3D modeling method is divided into geospatial modeling and 3D geological modeling. 3D geological modeling technique has become a favorable tool for people to observe and analyze the geological body enriched in mineral resources. Unlike geospatial modeling, 3D geological modeling must consider various geological conditions affecting spatial shape and petrophysical distribution of geological body for its complexity. This article analyzes the uncertainty, complexity and diversity of geological b...
Forget, Francois; Bertrand, Tanguy; Vangvichith, Melanie; Leconte, Jeremy
2015-11-01
To interpret New Horizons observations and simulate the Pluto climate system, we have developed a Global Climate Model (GCM) of Pluto's atmosphere. In addition to a 3D "dynamical core" which solves the equations of meteorology, the model takes into account the N2 condensation and sublimation and its thermal and dynamical effects, the vertical turbulent mixing, the radiative transfer through methane and carbon monoxide, molecular thermal conduction, and a detailed surface thermal model with different thermal inertia for various timescales (diurnal, seasonal).The GCM also includes a detailed model of the CH4 and CO cycles, taking into account their transport by the atmospheric circulation and turbulence, as well as their condensation and sublimation on the surface and in the atmosphere, possibly forming methane ice clouds. The GCM consistently predicts the 3D methane abundance in the atmosphere, which is used as an input for our radiative transfer calculation.Because of the radiative timescales, the surface thermal inertia and the slow evolution of the methane cycle, the model takes more than 20 years to become insensitive to the assumed atmospheric initial states. We typically start our simulations in 1975 to simulate 2015, but remain sensitive to the assumed initial ices distribution and seasonal thermal inertia map. The simulated thermal structure and waves can be compared to the New Horizons occultations measurements. As observed, the longitudinal variability is very limited, for fundamental reasons.In addition, we have developed a 3D model of the formation of organic hazes within the GCM. It includes the different steps of aerosols formation as understood on Titan: photolysis of CH4 in the upper atmosphere by the Lyman-alpha radiation, production of various gaseous precursor species, conversion into solid particles through chemistry and aggregation processes, and gravitational sedimentation. Significant amount of haze particles are found to be present at all
3D Models of Stellar Interactions
Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Booth, R.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Harries, T.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Corradi, R.
2014-04-01
Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.
Efficient 3D scene modeling and mosaicing
Nicosevici, Tudor
2013-01-01
This book proposes a complete pipeline for monocular (single camera) based 3D mapping of terrestrial and underwater environments. The aim is to provide a solution to large-scale scene modeling that is both accurate and efficient. To this end, we have developed a novel Structure from Motion algorithm that increases mapping accuracy by registering camera views directly with the maps. The camera registration uses a dual approach that adapts to the type of environment being mapped. In order to further increase the accuracy of the resulting maps, a new method is presented, allowing detection of images corresponding to the same scene region (crossovers). Crossovers then used in conjunction with global alignment methods in order to highly reduce estimation errors, especially when mapping large areas. Our method is based on Visual Bag of Words paradigm (BoW), offering a more efficient and simpler solution by eliminating the training stage, generally required by state of the art BoW algorithms. Also, towards dev...
VIRTUAL 3D CITY MODELING: TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
S. P. Singh; K. Jain; V. R. Mandla
2013-01-01
3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach ...
Building 3D models with modo 701
García, Juan Jiménez
2013-01-01
The book will focus on creating a sample application throughout the book, building gradually from chapter to chapter.If you are new to the 3D world, this is the key to getting started with a modern software in the modern visualization industry. Only minimal previous knowledge is needed.If you have some previous knowledge about 3D content creation, you will find useful tricks that will differentiate the learning experience from a typical user manual from this, a practical guide concerning the most common problems and situations and how to solve them.
B. Aouizerats
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Obtaining a good description of aerosol optical properties for a physically and chemically complex evolving aerosol is computationally very expensive at present. The goal of this work is to propose a new numerical module computing the optical properties for complex aerosol particles at low numerical cost so that it can be implemented in atmospheric models. This method aims to compute the optical properties online as a function of a given complex refractive index deduced from the aerosol chemical composition and the size parameters corresponding to the particles.
The construction of look-up tables from the imaginary and the real part of the complex refractive index and size parameters will also be explained. This approach is validated for observations acquired during the EUCAARI (European integrated project on aerosol cloud climate air quality interactions campaign on the Cabauw tower during May 2008 and its computing cost is also estimated.
These comparisons show that the module manages to reproduce the scattering and absorbing behaviour of the aerosol during most of the fifteen-day period of observation with a very cheap computationally cost.
3D fast wavelet network model-assisted 3D face recognition
Said, Salwa; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; Ben Amar, Chokri
2015-12-01
In last years, the emergence of 3D shape in face recognition is due to its robustness to pose and illumination changes. These attractive benefits are not all the challenges to achieve satisfactory recognition rate. Other challenges such as facial expressions and computing time of matching algorithms remain to be explored. In this context, we propose our 3D face recognition approach using 3D wavelet networks. Our approach contains two stages: learning stage and recognition stage. For the training we propose a novel algorithm based on 3D fast wavelet transform. From 3D coordinates of the face (x,y,z), we proceed to voxelization to get a 3D volume which will be decomposed by 3D fast wavelet transform and modeled after that with a wavelet network, then their associated weights are considered as vector features to represent each training face . For the recognition stage, an unknown identity face is projected on all the training WN to obtain a new vector features after every projection. A similarity score is computed between the old and the obtained vector features. To show the efficiency of our approach, experimental results were performed on all the FRGC v.2 benchmark.
Using Insight3D to produce a 3D building model
Natlačen, Daša
2015-01-01
The leadership in object 3D modeling was in the past decade taken over by integration of close range photogrammetry and computer vision. Major progress was achieved in the development of software tools, which enable obtaining spatial data from series of images taken from different perspectives. In order to gain new experience, Insight3D application was chosen to be addressed in this master’s thesis out of the rich set of software tools available on the market. The main goal of ...
3D Modeling Techniques for Print and Digital Media
Stephens, Megan Ashley
In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create 3D models, 3D scanning, and 3D printing. The models created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a model of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart models from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and 3D scanning, and successfully printed 3D heart models. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate models for use in both animation and print media. The 3D scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to 3D print using two different techniques as well.
Planning for brachytherapy using a 3D-simulation model
A 3D-simulation model made with a milling system was applied to HDR-brachytherapy. The 3D-simulation model is used to simulate the 3D-structure of the lesion and the surrounding organs before the actual catheterization for brachytherapy. The first case was recurrent prostatic cancer in a 61-year-old man. The other case was lymph node recurrence of a 71-year-old woman's upper gum cancer. In both cases, the 3D-simulation model was very useful to simulate the 3D-conformation, to plan the treatment process and to avoid the risk accompanying treatment. (author)
3D PIC Modeling of Microcavity Discharge
Hopkins, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald; Moore, Christopher; Yee, Benjamin; Moorman, Matthew
2015-09-01
We present a number of techniques and challenges in simulating the transient behavior of a microcavity discharge. Our microcavities are typically cylindrical with diameters approximately 50 - 100 μm, heights of 50 - 200 μm, pressure near atmospheric, and operate at a few hundred volts. We employ a fully kinetic simulation methodology, the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method, with interparticle collisions handled via methods based on direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). In particular, we explicitly include kinetic electrons. Some of the challenges we encounter include variations in number densities, external circuit coupling, and time step resolution constraints. By employing dynamic particle weighting (particle weights vary over time by species and location) we can mitigate some of the challenges modeling systems with 107 variations in number densities. Smoothing mechanisms have been used to attempt to mitigate external circuit response. We perform our simulations on hundreds or thousands of processing cores to accommodate the computational work inherent in using relatively small time step sizes (e.g., 50 fs for a 100 ns calculation). In addition, particle weighting issues inherent to three-dimensional low temperature plasma systems will be mentioned. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Integrating 3D modeling, photogrammetry and design
Foster, Shaun
2014-01-01
This book looks at the convergent nature of technology and its relationship to the field of photogrammetry and 3D design. This is a facet of a broader discussion of the nature of technology itself and the relationship of technology to art, as well as an examination of the educational process. In the field of technology-influenced design-based education it is natural to push for advanced technology, yet within a larger institution the constraints of budget and adherence to tradition must be accepted. These opposing forces create a natural balance; in some cases constraints lead to greater creat
3D modeling of metallic grain growth
George, D.; Carlson, N.; Gammel, J.T.; Kuprat, A.
1999-06-01
This paper will describe simulating metallic grain growth using the Gradient Weighted Moving Finite Elements code, GRAIN3D. The authors also describe the set of mesh topology change operations developed to respond to changes in the physical topology such as the collapse of grains and to maintain uniform calculational mesh quality. Validation of the method is demonstrated by comparison to analytic calculations. The authors present results of multigrain simulations where grain boundaries evolve by mean curvature motion and include results which incorporate grain boundary orientation dependence.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Jason 1 is an oceanography mission to monitor global ocean circulation, study the ties between the oceans and atmosphere, improve global climate forecasts and...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launched in April 2006, CloudSat monitors the state of the Earth’s atmosphere and weather with a sophisticated radar system. The instrument, jointly developed with...
APPLICATION OF 3D MODELING IN 3D PRINTING FOR THE LOWER JAW RECONSTRUCTION
Yu. Yu. Dikov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aim of study: improvement of functional and aesthetic results of microsurgery reconstructions of the lower jaw due to the use of the methodology of 3D modeling and 3D printing. Application of this methodology has been demonstrated on the example of treatment of 4 patients with locally distributed tumors of the mouth cavity, who underwent excision of the tumor with simultaneous reconstruction of the lower jaw with revascularized fibular graft.Before, one patient has already undergo segmental resection of the lower jaw with the defect replacement with the avascular ileac graft and a reconstruction plate. Then, a relapse of the disease and lysis of the graft has developed with him. Modeling of the graft according to the shape of the lower jaw was performed by making osteotomies of the bone part of the graft using three-dimensional virtual models created by computed tomography data. Then these 3D models were printed with a 3D printer of plastic with the scale of 1:1 with the fused deposition modeling (FDM technology and were used during the surgery in the course of modeling of the graft. Sterilizing of the plastic model was performed in the formalin chamber.This methodology allowed more specific reconstruction of the resected fragment of the lower jaw and get better functional and aesthetic results and prepare patients to further dental rehabilitation. Advantages of this methodology are the possibility of simultaneous performance of stages of reconstruction and resection and shortening of the time of surgery.
OCTG Premium Threaded Connection 3D Parametric Finite Element Model
Ahsan, Nabeel
2016-01-01
Full 360 degree 3D finite element models are the most complete representation of Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) premium threaded connections. Full 3D models can represent helical threads and boundary conditions required to simulate make-up and service loading. A methodology is developed to create a 360 degree full 3D parametric finite element model with helical threads as an effective design and analysis tool. The approach is demonstrated with the creation of a metal-to-metal seal integral ...
Summary on Several Key Techniques in 3D Geological Modeling
Gang Mei
2014-01-01
Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of vario...
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 3D MODELING SOFTWARE FOR UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY
Yanagi, H; H. Chikatsu
2016-01-01
UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algori...
Statistical Model of the 3-D Braided Composites Strength
XIAO Laiyuan; ZUO Weiwei; CAI Ganwei; LIAO Daoxun
2007-01-01
Based on the statistical model for the tensile statistical strength of unidirectional composite materials and the stress analysis of 3-D braided composites, a new method is proposed to calculate the tensile statistical strength of the 3-D braided composites. With this method, the strength of 3-D braided composites can be calculated with very large accuracy, and the statistical parameters of 3-D braided composites can be determined. The numerical result shows that the tensile statistical strength of 3-D braided composites can be predicted using this method.
Life in 3D is never flat: 3D models to optimise drug delivery.
Fitzgerald, Kathleen A; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Curtin, Caroline M; O' Brien, Fergal J; O' Driscoll, Caitriona M
2015-10-10
The development of safe, effective and patient-acceptable drug products is an expensive and lengthy process and the risk of failure at different stages of the development life-cycle is high. Improved biopharmaceutical tools which are robust, easy to use and accurately predict the in vivo response are urgently required to help address these issues. In this review the advantages and challenges of in vitro 3D versus 2D cell culture models will be discussed in terms of evaluating new drug products at the pre-clinical development stage. Examples of models with a 3D architecture including scaffolds, cell-derived matrices, multicellular spheroids and biochips will be described. The ability to simulate the microenvironment of tumours and vital organs including the liver, kidney, heart and intestine which have major impact on drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and toxicity will be evaluated. Examples of the application of 3D models including a role in formulation development, pharmacokinetic profiling and toxicity testing will be critically assessed. Although utilisation of 3D cell culture models in the field of drug delivery is still in its infancy, the area is attracting high levels of interest and is likely to become a significant in vitro tool to assist in drug product development thus reducing the requirement for unnecessary animal studies. PMID:26220617
3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries
Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah;
2014-01-01
The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using...
Automatic Generation of 3D Building Models for Sustainable Development
Sugihara, Kenichi
2015-01-01
3D city models are important in urban planning for sustainable development. Urban planners draw maps for efficient land use and a compact city. 3D city models based on these maps are quite effective in understanding what, if this alternative plan is realized, the image of a sustainable city will be. However, enormous time and labour has to be consumed to create these 3D models, using 3D modelling software such as 3ds Max or SketchUp. In order to automate the laborious steps, a GIS and CG inte...
Importing a 3D model from an industrial design
Tran Thi, Thien
2015-01-01
In the media industry, sharing and transferring a 3D model to other programs for different stages of design is widely used. The final year project was carried out based on a case study in which a 3D model was imported from an industrial design to Autodesk 3ds Max. The thesis focuses on defining the workflow for importing a third-party 3D model to the 3ds Max program. In general, importing a 3D model made by one program to another one always presents many challenges. The purposes of this s...
3D scene modeling from multiple range views
Sequeira, Vitor; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Ribeiro, M. Isabel
1995-09-01
This paper presents a new 3D scene analysis system that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometric model of real-world scenes from multiple range images acquired by a laser range finder on board of a mobile robot. The reconstruction is achieved through an integrated procedure including range data acquisition, geometrical feature extraction, registration, and integration of multiple views. Different descriptions of the final 3D scene model are obtained: a polygonal triangular mesh, a surface description in terms of planar and biquadratics surfaces, and a 3D boundary representation. Relevant experimental results from the complete 3D scene modeling are presented. Direct applications of this technique include 3D reconstruction and/or update of architectual or industrial plans into a CAD model, design verification of buildings, navigation of autonomous robots, and input to virtual reality systems.
Späth, Florian; Behrendt, Andreas; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea; Wulfmeyer, Volker
2016-01-01
High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) water vapor data of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are required to improve our understanding of land–atmosphere exchange processes. For this purpose, the scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) was developed as well as new analysis tools and visualization methods. The instrument determines 3-D fields of the atmospheric water vapor number density with a temporal resolution of a few secon...
Visualization of 3D Geological Models on Google Earth
Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.
2013-05-01
Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (3D) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize 3D geological models on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) was used to represent different 3D geological models such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the 3D render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize 3D geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) 3D volume model and (d) 3D grid model of Grossmont formation on Google Earth
IVIS-3D: A tool for interactive 3D-visualisation of gravity models
Klesper, C.
EDV-based interactive visualisation methods have become a very essential part in the modelling and analysing of three-dimensional models in geoscience. The value of enhanced 3D-visualization for the process of modelling and validation of complex models increases with the number of capabilities to change independently display parameters and to combine different data, like model and process information. But this value also falls with increasing information and methods which slow down user interaction and confuses the user with too much information and the complexity of user interfaces (Houlding, 1994). Especially for interactive 3D-visualization and validation of geometric models, existing modelling systems can meet the user requirements only inadequate. So lacks of functionality are often compensated by the user with a patchwork of different programs. Now the task was to find or create new visualisation methods, to combine the capabilities of interactive 3D-visualization with an intuitive environment and to adapt these features to the existing gravity and magnetic modelling program IGMAS (Götze et al., 1988); (Schmidt, 1996).
a Fast Method for Measuring the Similarity Between 3d Model and 3d Point Cloud
Zhang, Zongliang; Li, Jonathan; Li, Xin; Lin, Yangbin; Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng
2016-06-01
This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between 3D Model and 3D point Cloud (SimMC). It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as 3D object retrieval and inverse procedural modelling. In our proposed method, the surface area of model and the Distance from Model to point Cloud (DistMC) are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from model and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to Model (DistCM) is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and model. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of model to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.
A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning
Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin
2009-01-01
Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…
The interplay of sunlight with clouds is a ubiquitous and often pleasant visual experience, but it conjures up major challenges for weather, climate, environmental science and beyond. Those engaged in the characterization of clouds (and the clear air nearby) by remote sensing methods are even more confronted. The problem comes, on the one hand, from the spatial complexity of real clouds and, on the other hand, from the dominance of multiple scattering in the radiation transport. The former ingredient contrasts sharply with the still popular representation of clouds as homogeneous plane-parallel slabs for the purposes of radiative transfer computations. In typical cloud scenes the opposite asymptotic transport regimes of diffusion and ballistic propagation coexist. We survey the three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer literature over the past 50 years and identify three concurrent and intertwining thrusts: first, how to assess the damage (bias) caused by 3D effects in the operational 1D radiative transfer models? Second, how to mitigate this damage? Finally, can we exploit 3D radiative transfer phenomena to innovate observation methods and technologies? We quickly realize that the smallest scale resolved computationally or observationally may be artificial but is nonetheless a key quantity that separates the 3D radiative transfer solutions into two broad and complementary classes: stochastic and deterministic. Both approaches draw on classic and contemporary statistical, mathematical and computational physics.
From 2D to 3D: Using Illumination Cones to Build 3d Face Model
Xiao, S S; Jin, M [TianJin University, Collage of Precision Instrument and Opto-Ectronics Engineering (China)
2006-10-15
To solve the problem derivate by lighting condition and position of the camera, a new method using illumination cones to build 3d face model has been proposed. Due to illumination variability, the same object can show dramatic difference even as being viewed in fixed pose. To handle this variability, an object recognition system must employ a representation that is either invariant to, or can model this variability. The proposed technique presents an appearance-based method for modeling the variability due to illumination in the images of objects. The method differs from past appearance-based methods. Evenmore, a small set of training images is used to generate a representation that the illumination cone models the complete set of images of an object with Lambertian reflectance surface under a combination of arbitrary point light sources at infinity. After building up the illumination cones, researches focus on how to present the 3d model of the face. Combining illumination and texture feature to build up 3d model of the face make it easy solving the problem in recognition of face under different pose.
From 2D to 3D: Using Illumination Cones to Build 3d Face Model
To solve the problem derivate by lighting condition and position of the camera, a new method using illumination cones to build 3d face model has been proposed. Due to illumination variability, the same object can show dramatic difference even as being viewed in fixed pose. To handle this variability, an object recognition system must employ a representation that is either invariant to, or can model this variability. The proposed technique presents an appearance-based method for modeling the variability due to illumination in the images of objects. The method differs from past appearance-based methods. Evenmore, a small set of training images is used to generate a representation that the illumination cone models the complete set of images of an object with Lambertian reflectance surface under a combination of arbitrary point light sources at infinity. After building up the illumination cones, researches focus on how to present the 3d model of the face. Combining illumination and texture feature to build up 3d model of the face make it easy solving the problem in recognition of face under different pose
Numerical simulation of 3D flows in atmospheric boundary layer
Šimonek, Jiří; Kozel, K.; Jaňour, Zbyněk
Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, v. v. i, 2012 - (Šimurda, D.; Kozel, K.), s. 93-96 ISBN 978-80-87012-40-6. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics 2012 . Praha (CZ), 15.02. 2012 -17.02. 2012 ] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1271 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : numerical solution * atmospheric boundary layer * Navier-Stokes equation s Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology
Numerical 3-D Modelling of Overflows
Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.; Christensen, E. D.
2008-01-01
-dimensional so-called Volume of Fluid Models (VOF-models) based on the full Navier-Stokes equations (named NS3 and developed by DHI Water & Environment) As a general conclusion, the two numerical models show excellent results when compared with measurements. However, considerable errors occur when......The present study uses laboratory experiments to evaluate the reliability of two types of numerical models of sewers systems: - 1-dimensional model based on the extended Saint-Venant equation including the term for curvature of the water surface (the so-called Boussinesq approximation) - 2- and 3...
Værkanalyse med digitale 3D modeller
Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude
2006-01-01
Projektet afprøve muligheder for Værkanalyse af danske arkitekturværker med anvendelse af digitale 3D modeller. Arkitektstuderende har i en workshop udarbejdet en 3D model af Arkitekt Vilhelm Lauritzens bygning til Københavns Lufthavn fra 1939. Modellen er herefter videreudviklet og yderligere...
Octree-based Robust Watermarking for 3D Model
Su Cai
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Three robust blind watermarking methods of 3D models based on Octree are proposed in this paper: OTC-W, OTP-W and Zero-W. Primary Component Analysis and Octree partition are used on 3D meshes. A scrambled binary image for OTC-W and a scrambled RGB image for OTP-W are separately embedded adaptively into the single child nodes at the bottom level of Octree structure. The watermark can be extracted without the original image and 3D model. Those two methods have high embedding capacity for 3D meshes. Meanwhile, they are robust against geometric transformation (like translation, rotation, uniform scaling and vertex reordering attacks. For Zero-W, higher nodes of Octree are used to construct ‘Zero-watermark’, which can resist simplification, noise and remeshing attacks. All those three methods are fit for 3D point cloud data and arbitrary 3D meshes.Three robust blind watermarking methods of 3D models based on Octree are proposed in this paper: OTC-W, OTP-W and Zero-W. Primary Component Analysis and Octree partition are used on 3D meshes. A scrambled binary image for OTC-W and a scrambled RGB image for OTP-W are separately embedded adaptively into the single child nodes at the bottom level of Octree structure. The watermark can be extracted without the original image and 3D model. Those two methods have high embedding capacity for 3D meshes. Meanwhile, they are robust against geometric transformation (like translation, rotation, uniform scaling and vertex reordering attacks. For Zero-W, higher nodes of Octree are used to construct ‘Zero-watermark’, which can resist simplification, noise and remeshing attacks. All those three methods are fit for 3D point cloud data and arbitrary 3D meshes.
An Automated 3d Indoor Topological Navigation Network Modelling
Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.
2015-10-01
Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), 3D indoor modelling and 3D indoor navigation models. In this paper, an automated 3D topological indoor network generated from inaccurate 3D building models is proposed. In a normal scenario, 3D indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate 3D models with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The modelling results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.
EDGE REMOVAL OF 3D POLYGONAL MODEL USING MAYA API
SAMEER ARORA
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In various applications of computer graphics, 3D polygonal modeling is used, which consists millions of triangular polygon. In this polygon attributes – vertices, edges and faces’ details are to be stored. In order to control the processing time, storing space, and transfer speed, it is often required to reduce the information ofthese polygonal 3D models. In this paper an effort is made to reduce the number of edges. There are various methods to reduce faces and edges of these 3D models. A C++ dynamic link library as Maya Plugin has been created to remove number of edges of 3D triangular polygon model using the Quadric Error Metrics (QEM in MAYA v2010 x64 API. QEM allows fast and accurate geometric simplification of 3D models.
Several Strategies on 3D Modeling of Manmade Objects
SHAO Zhenfeng; LI Deren; CHENG Qimin
2004-01-01
Several different strategies of 3D modeling are adopted for different kinds of manmade objects. Firstly, for those manmade objects with regular structure, if 2D information is available and elevation information can be obtained conveniently, then 3D modeling of them can be executed directly. Secondly, for those manmade objects with complicated structure comparatively and related stereo images pair can be acquired, in the light of topology-based 3D model we finish 3D modeling of them by integrating automatic and semi-automatic object extraction. Thirdly, for the most complicated objects whose geometrical information cannot be got from stereo images pair completely, we turn to topological 3D model based on CAD.
Highway 3D model from image and lidar data
Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan
2014-05-01
We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.
An Automatic Registration Algorithm for 3D Maxillofacial Model
Qiu, Luwen; Zhou, Zhongwei; Guo, Jixiang; Lv, Jiancheng
2016-09-01
3D image registration aims at aligning two 3D data sets in a common coordinate system, which has been widely used in computer vision, pattern recognition and computer assisted surgery. One challenging problem in 3D registration is that point-wise correspondences between two point sets are often unknown apriori. In this work, we develop an automatic algorithm for 3D maxillofacial models registration including facial surface model and skull model. Our proposed registration algorithm can achieve a good alignment result between partial and whole maxillofacial model in spite of ambiguous matching, which has a potential application in the oral and maxillofacial reparative and reconstructive surgery. The proposed algorithm includes three steps: (1) 3D-SIFT features extraction and FPFH descriptors construction; (2) feature matching using SAC-IA; (3) coarse rigid alignment and refinement by ICP. Experiments on facial surfaces and mandible skull models demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm.
<3D> NLTE line formation in the atmospheres of red supergiants
Bergemann, Maria; Davies, Ben; Plez, Bertrand; Gazak, Zach; Chiavassa, Andrea
2013-01-01
Red supergiants with their enormous brightness at J-band are ideal probes of cosmic chemical composition. It is therefore crucial to have realistic models of radiative transfer in their atmospheres, which will permit determination of abundances accurate to 0.15 dex, the precision attainable with future telescope facilities in galaxies as distant as tens of Mpc. Here, we study the effects of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) on the formation of iron, titanium, and silicon lines, which dominate J-band spectra of red supergiants. It is shown that the NLTE radiative transfer models enable accurate derivation of metallicity and effective temperature in the J-band. We also discuss consequences for RSG spectrum synthesis in different spectral windows, including the heavily TiO-blanketed optical region, and atmospheric structure. We then touch upon challenges of NLTE integration with new generation of 3D hydrodynamical RSG models and present the first calculations of NLTE spectra with the mean 3D model of Be...
NASA 3D Models: Cassini Assembly
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Includes orbiter from CAD models. Accurate (to a fault) except no thermal blanketing is shown (this would cover most of the central structure of the spacecraft)....
A study of the 3D radiative transfer effect in cloudy atmospheres
Okata, M.; Teruyuki, N.; Suzuki, K.
2015-12-01
Evaluation of the effect of clouds in the atmosphere is a significant problem in the Earth's radiation budget study with their large uncertainties of microphysics and the optical properties. In this situation, we still need more investigations of 3D cloud radiative transer problems using not only models but also satellite observational data.For this purpose, we have developed a 3D-Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is implemented with various functions compatible with the OpenCLASTR R-Star radiation code for radiance and flux computation, i.e. forward and backward tracing routines, non-linear k-distribution parameterization (Sekiguchi and Nakajima, 2008) for broad band solar flux calculation, and DM-method for flux and TMS-method for upward radiance (Nakajima and Tnaka 1998). We also developed a Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as a method for a construction of 3D cloud field with MODIS/AQUA and CPR/CloudSat data. We then selected a best-matched radar reflectivity factor profile from the library for each of off-nadir pixels of MODIS where CPR profile is not available, by minimizing the deviation between library MODIS parameters and those at the pixel. In this study, we have used three cloud microphysical parameters as key parameters for the MIDPM, i.e. effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and top of cloud temperature, and estimated 3D cloud radiation budget. We examined the discrepancies between satellite observed and mode-simulated radiances and three cloud microphysical parameter's pattern for studying the effects of cloud optical and microphysical properties on the radiation budget of the cloud-laden atmospheres.
A 3D Model Reconstruction Method Using Slice Images
LI Hong-an; KANG Bao-sheng
2013-01-01
Aiming at achieving the high accuracy 3D model from slice images, a new model reconstruction method using slice im-ages is proposed. Wanting to extract the outermost contours from slice images, the method of the improved GVF-Snake model with optimized force field and ray method is employed. And then, the 3D model is reconstructed by contour connection using the im-proved shortest diagonal method and judgment function of contour fracture. The results show that the accuracy of reconstruction 3D model is improved.
Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications
Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.
2013-08-01
3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3
Micro- and macroturbulence predictions from CO5BOLD 3D stellar atmospheres
Steffen, M; Ludwig, H -G
2013-01-01
We present an overview of the current status of our efforts to derive the microturbulence and macroturbulence parameters (ximic and ximac) from the CIFIST grid of CO5BOLD 3D model atmospheres as a function of the basic stellar parameters Teff, log g, and [M/H]. The latest results for the Sun and Procyon show that the derived microturbulence parameter depends significantly on the numerical resolution of the underlying 3D simulation, confirming that `low-resolution' models tend to underestimate the true value of ximic. Extending the investigation to twelve further simulations with different Teff, log g, and [M/H], we obtain a first impression of the predicted trend of ximic over the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram: in agreement with empirical evidence, microturbulence increases towards higher effective temperature and lower gravity. The metallicity dependence of ximic must be interpreted with care, since it also reflects the deviation between the 1D and 3D photospheric temperature stratifications that increases sys...
Micro- and macroturbulence predictions from CO5BOLD 3D stellar atmospheres .
Steffen, M.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.
We present an overview of the current status of our efforts to derive the microturbulence and macroturbulence parameters (xi_mic and xi_mac) from the CIFIST grid of CO5BOLD 3D model atmospheres as a function of the basic stellar parameters T_{eff}, log g, and [M/H]. The latest results for the Sun and Procyon show that the derived microturbulence parameter depends significantly on the numerical resolution of the underlying 3D simulation, confirming that `low-resolution' models tend to underestimate the true value of xi_mic . Extending the investigation to 12 further simulations with different T_{eff}, log g, and [M/H], we obtain a first impression of the predicted trend of xi_mic over the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram: in agreement with empirical evidence, microturbulence increases towards higher effective temperature and lower gravity. The metallicity dependence of xi_mic must be interpreted with care, since it also reflects the deviation between the 1D and 3D photospheric temperature stratifications that increases systematically towards lower [M/H].
Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study
Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.
2014-06-01
3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city
Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing
McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter
Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.
Technology for creating interactive 3D model printing equipment
Розенберг, О. А.; Хохлова, Розалія Анатоліївна
2013-01-01
The article analyzed the software to create interactive 3D models of printing equipment. The analysis revealed the advantages and disadvantages presented by the editors and determined the direction of research. The main parameters that influence the choice of software for interactive 3D simulation models, study models of production technologies in different applications are constructed classification software.The recommendations on the choice of the software to model, depending on the particu...
3D Model Retrieval Based on Semantic and Shape Indexes
Kassimi, My Abdellah
2011-01-01
The size of 3D models used on the web or stored in databases is becoming increasingly high. Then, an efficient method that allows users to find similar 3D objects for a given 3D model query has become necessary. Keywords and the geometry of a 3D model cannot meet the needs of users' retrieval because they do not include the semantic information. In this paper, a new method has been proposed to 3D models retrieval using semantic concepts combined with shape indexes. To obtain these concepts, we use the machine learning methods to label 3D models by k-means algorithm in measures and shape indexes space. Moreover, semantic concepts have been organized and represented by ontology language OWL and spatial relationships are used to disambiguate among models of similar appearance. The SPARQL query language has been used to question the information displayed in this language and to compute the similarity between two 3D models. We interpret our results using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database and the results show ...
Hayek, W; Carlsson, M; Trampedach, R; Collet, R; Gudiksen, B V; Hansteen, V H; Leenaarts, J
2010-01-01
We present the implementation of a radiative transfer solver with coherent scattering in the new BIFROST code for radiative magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of stellar surface convection. The code is fully parallelized using MPI domain decomposition, which allows for large grid sizes and improved resolution of hydrodynamical structures. We apply the code to simulate the surface granulation in a solar-type star, ignoring magnetic fields, and investigate the importance of coherent scattering for the atmospheric structure. A scattering term is added to the radiative transfer equation, requiring an iterative computation of the radiation field. We use a short-characteristics-based Gauss-Seidel acceleration scheme to compute radiative flux divergences for the energy equation. The effects of coherent scattering are tested by comparing the temperature stratification of three 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical atmosphere models of a solar-type star: without scattering, with continuum scattering only, and with bo...
Performance Analysis of a 3D Ionosphere Tomographic Model
Liu Zhi-zhao; Gao Yang
2003-01-01
A 3D high precision ionospheric model is developed based on tomography technique. This tomographic model employs GPS data observed by an operational network of dual-frequency GPS receivers. The methodology of developing a 3D ionospheric tomography model is briefly summarized. However emphasis is put on the analysis and evaluation of the accuracy variation of 3D ionosphere modeling with respect to the change of GPS data cutoff angle.Three typical cutoff angle values (15°, 20° and 25°) are tested. For each testing cutoff angle, the performances of the3D ionospheric model constructed using tomography technique are assessed by calibrating the model predicted ionospheric TEC with the GPS measured TEC and by employing the model predicted TEC to a practical GPS positioning application single point positioning (SPP).Test results indicate the 3D model predicted VTEC has about 0.4 TECU improvement in accuracy when cutoff angle rises from 15° to 20°. However, no apparent improvement is found from 20° to 25°. The model's improvement is also validated by the better SPP accuracy of 3D model than its counterpart-dual frequency model in the 20° and 25° cases.
Tangible 3D modeling of coherent and themed structures
Walther, Jeppe Ullè; Bærentzen, J. Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik
2016-01-01
We present CubeBuilder, a system for interactive, tangible 3D shape modeling. CubeBuilder allows the user to create a digital 3D model by placing physical, non-interlocking cubic blocks. These blocks may be placed in a completely arbitrary fashion and combined with other objects. In effect, this...... turns the task of 3D modeling into a playful activity that hardly requires any learning on the part of the user. The blocks are registered using a depth camera and entered into the cube graph where each block is a node and adjacent blocks are connected by edges. From the cube graph, we transform the...
The 3D model: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using 3D parameter plots.
Picker, Katharina M
2004-04-01
The aim of the study was to analyze very differently deforming materials using 3D parameter plots and consequently to gain deeper insights into the densification and deformation process described with the 3D model in order to define an ideal tableting excipient. The excipients used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), sodium chloride (NaCl), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, mannitol, alpha-lactose monohydrate, maltose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), cellulose acetate (CAC), maize starch, potato starch, pregelatinized starch, and maltodextrine. All of the materials were tableted to graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) using an eccentric tableting machine. The data which resulted, namely force, displacement, and time, were analyzed by the application of 3D modeling. Different particle size fractions of DCPD, CAC, and MCC were analyzed in addition. Brittle deforming materials such as DCPD exhibited a completely different 3D parameter plot, with low time plasticity, d, and low pressure plasticity, e, and a strong decrease in omega values when densification increased, in contrast to the plastically deforming MCC, which had much higher d, e, and omega values. e and omega values changed only slightly when densification increased for MCC. NaCl showed less of a decrease in omega values than DCPD did, and the d and e values were between those of MCC and DCPD. The sugar alcohols, xylitol and mannitol, behaved in a similar fashion to sodium chloride. This is also valid for the crystalline sugars, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and maltose. However, the sugars are more brittle than the sugar alcohols. The cellulose derivatives, HPMC, NaCMC, and CAC, are as plastic as MCC, however, their elasticity depends on substitution indicated by lower (more elastic) or higher (less elastic) omega values. The native starches, maize starch and potato starch, are very elastic, and pregelatinized starch and maltodextrine are
The 3-Dimensional Core Model DYN3D
Mittag, Siegfried; Rohde, Ulrich; Grundmann, Ulrich
2010-01-01
Analyzing the safety margins in transients and accidents of nuclear reactors 3-dimensional models of the core were used to avoid conservative assumptions needed for point kinetics or 1-dimensional models. Therefore the 3D code DYN3D has been developed for the analysis of reactivity initiated accidents (RIA) in thermal nuclear reactors. The power distributions are calculated with the help of nodal expansion methods (NEM) for hexagonal and Cartesian geometry. The fuel rod model and the thermohy...
3-D network model and its parameter calibration
LIU; Xiaoyu(刘晓宇); LIANG; Naigang(梁乃刚); LI; Min(李敏)
2002-01-01
A material model, whose framework is parallel spring-bundles oriented in 3-D space, isproposed. Based on a discussion of the discrete schemes and optimum discretization of the solidangles, a 3-D network cell consisted of one-dimensional components is developed with its geomet-rical and physical parameters calibrated. It is proved that the 3-D network model is able to exactlysimulate materials with arbitrary Poisson ratio from 0 to 1/2, breaking through the limit that the pre-vious models in the literature are only suitable for materials with Poisson ratio from 0 to 1/3. A sim-plified model is also proposed to realize high computation accuracy within Iow computation cost.Examples demonstrate that the 3-D network model has particular superiority in the simulation ofshort-fiber reinforced composites.
Detailed Primitive-Based 3d Modeling of Architectural Elements
Remondino, F.; Lo Buglio, D.; Nony, N.; De Luca, L.
2012-07-01
The article describes a pipeline, based on image-data, for the 3D reconstruction of building façades or architectural elements and the successive modeling using geometric primitives. The approach overcome some existing problems in modeling architectural elements and deliver efficient-in-size reality-based textured 3D models useful for metric applications. For the 3D reconstruction, an opensource pipeline developed within the TAPENADE project is employed. In the successive modeling steps, the user manually selects an area containing an architectural element (capital, column, bas-relief, window tympanum, etc.) and then the procedure fits geometric primitives and computes disparity and displacement maps in order to tie visual and geometric information together in a light but detailed 3D model. Examples are reported and commented.
A method of 3D modeling and codec
QI Yue; YANG Shen; CAI Su; HOU Fei; SHEN XuKun; ZHAO QinPing
2009-01-01
3D modeling and codec of real objects are hot Issues in the field of virtual reality. In this paper, we propose an automatic registration two range Images method and a cycle based automatic global reg-istration algorithm for rapidly and automatically registering all range Images and constructing a real-istic 3D model. Besides, to meet the requirement of huge data transmission over Internet, we present a 3D mesh encoding/decoding method for encoding geometry, topology and attribute data with high compression ratio and supporting progressive transmission. The research results have already been applied successfully in digital museum.
3D Image Modelling and Specific Treatments in Orthodontics Domain
Dionysis Goularas
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, we present a 3D specific dental plaster treatment system for orthodontics. From computer tomography scanner images, we propose first a 3D image modelling and reconstruction method of the Mandible and Maxillary based on an adaptive triangulation allowing management of contours meant for the complex topologies. Secondly, we present two specific treatment methods directly achieved on obtained 3D model allowing the automatic correction for the setting in occlusion of the Mandible and the Maxillary, and the teeth segmentation allowing more specific dental examinations. Finally, these specific treatments are presented via a client/server application with the aim of allowing a telediagnosis and treatment.
Surface modelling in 3D city information system
Igor Petz
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Geographical information systems deal with terrain, cartographical and urban information; these systems allow gathering, maintaining and presentation of the included data. The approach of combininggeographical information systems with visualization methods of virtual reality is presented in this article. Virtual 3D City Information System is a project which purpose is to model parts of the city to 3D graphics using polygonal modelling for modelling objects by representing their surfaces using polygons. Realappearance is provided by using textures. Usually 3D exterior contains large data set of polygons. Presented system contains three parts: editor (modelling part, database and visualisation part. Thesystem is controlled by script (Python language using too. In conclusion are described some results of visualization of 3D scene that is represented as Košice city part.
Animation of 3D Model of Human Head
V. Michalcin
2007-04-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the new algorithm of animation of 3D model of the human head in combination with its global motion. The designed algorithm is very fast and with low calculation requirements, because it does not need the synthesis of the input videosequence for estimation of the animation parameters as well as the parameters of global motion. The used 3D model Candide generates different expressions using its animation units which are controlled by the animation parameters. These ones are estimated on the basis of optical flow without the need of extracting of the feature points in the frames of the input videosequence because they are given by the selected vertices of the animation units of the calibrated 3D model Candide. The established multiple iterations inside the designed animation algorithm of 3D model of the human head between two successive frames significantly improved its accuracy above all for the large motion.
Interactive 3D computer model of the human corneolimbal region
Molvaer, Rikke Kongshaug; Andreasen, Arne; Heegaard, Steffen;
2013-01-01
plan. In all, one low-magnification and 24 high-magnification interactive 3D models were created. Immunohistochemistry against stem cell markers p63 and ΔNp63α was performed as a supplement to the 3D models. RESULTS: Using the interactive 3D models, we identified three types of stem cell niches......PURPOSE: This study aims to clarify the existence of and to map the localization of different proposed stem cell niches in the corneal limbal region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One human eye was cut into 2200 consecutive sections. Every other section was stained with haematoxylin and eosin, digitized...... in the superior limbal region and one LEC, six LCs and 12 FSPs in the inferior limbal region. Only few LECs, LCs and FSPs were localized nasally and temporally. CONCLUSION: Interactive 3D models are a powerful tool that may help to shed more light on the existence and spatial localization of the different stem...
Formal representation of 3D structural geological models
Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle
2016-05-01
The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.
3D models for teaching and learning geosciences
Ward, Emma
2011-01-01
Although 3D geological models have been used in teaching as early as 1841, recent developments in 3D geological modelling methods and visualisation at the British Geological Survey (BGS) are providing unique resources for teaching and learning geoscience in the 21st century. Today’s geoscience students utilise a variety of cognitive processes and spatial skills during their learning experience. These include the application of schema’s, image construction, detecting patterns...
Numerical modelling of 3D woven preform deformations
Green, S D; Long, A.C.; El Said, B. S. F.; Hallett, S. R.
2014-01-01
In order to accurately predict the performance of 3D woven composites, it is necessary that realistic textile geometry is considered, since failure typically initiates at regions of high deformation or resin pockets. This paper presents the development of a finite element model based on the multi-chain digital element technique, as applied to simulate weaving and compaction of an orthogonal 3D woven composite. The model was reduced to the scale of the unit cell facilitating high fidelity resu...
Comparison of OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D for neutral atmospheric flow over complex terrain
Cavar, Dalibor; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Martinez, Benjamin, Jr; Zahle, Frederik; Berg, Jacob; Kelly, Mark C.
2016-01-01
The flow solvers OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D are compared in the case of neutral atmospheric flow over terrain using the test cases of Askervein and Bolund hills. Both solvers are run using the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes k– turbulence model. One of the main modeling differences between the two solvers is the wall-function approach. The Open-FOAM v.1.7.1 uses a Nikuradse’s sand roughness model, while EllipSys3D uses a model based on the atmosphericroughness length. It is found th...
Performance Evaluation of 3d Modeling Software for Uav Photogrammetry
Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.
2016-06-01
UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using 3D coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.
Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models
Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.
2012-07-01
Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.
Virtual Vixens 3D character modeling and scene placement
von Koenigsmarck, Arndt
2007-01-01
Features software workshops for 3ds Max, Maya, CINEMA 4D, Lightwave, and Softimage XSI.Hot, hotter, hottest. See how today''s leading modeling artists create 3D characters that sizzle and get the techniques you''ll need to create your own virtual vixens.Steven Stahlberg, Liam Kemp, Marco Patrito, and Sze Jones from Blur Studio are just a few of the 3D artists who share their secrets for making the fantasy females you wish were real. You''ll get their personal stories, insights into the profession, and new ways to conceive and construct your own 3D characters.Then, seven hands-on workshops demo
3-D numerical modelling of flow around a groin
Miller, R.; Roulund, A.; Sumer, B. Mutlu;
2003-01-01
A 3-D flow code, EllipSys3D, has been implemented to simulate the 3-D flow around a groin in steady current. The k turbulence model has been used for closure. Two kinds of groins are considered: (1) A vertical-wall groin, and (2) A groin with a side slope. Steady-flow simulations were conducted....... The paper reports early results of the investigation. The simulations capture main features of the flow around the groin. The horseshoe vortex in front of the vertical-wall groin is resolved. The vortex shedding at the head is not resolved because no transient flow simulations have been conducted at...
Validation of multipoint kinetics model against 3D Trikin Code
Validation of multipoint kinetics formulation for RELAP5 code has been carried out against 3D TRIKIN code. Core behavior of an asymmetric reactivity transient has been simulated through artificial tuning of lattice constants in 3D code. Individual node normalized reactivity has been conserved and power estimates from multipoint model have been compared with 3D simulation. It has been observed that localized peak power estimates from multipoint simulation are on higher side and therefore are conservative in nature. Improvements in multipoint formulation in regards to evolving coupling coefficients and involving more number of nodes can help in improving its accuracy to some extent. (author)
Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling
Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.
2013-08-01
3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.
WU Jian; CAO Dai-yong
2006-01-01
Sedimentary facies study is an important method in describing the property and distribution of reservoir. 3D geological modeling is a powerful tool in 3D characterization of geological bodies. By combining the sedimentary facies study with 3D geological modeling to generate 3D sedimentary facies model, the 3D geometry and distribution feature of sand bodies can be more accurately characterized, particularly in 3D view. In Liuchu oilfield of Jizhong depression, the Ed2IV formation was recognized as meandering river deposition facies and five sedimentary facies were identified, which include point bar sand, levee, channel margin, abandoned channel and floodplain. All the 24 sand body facies in Ed2IV were mapped and the 3D sedimentary facies model established based on 2D facies maps. The result shows that the 3D sedimentary facies model is well matched for the research result of sedimentary facies. Being an extension of traditional sedimentary study, the 3D sedimentary facies model can be used to describe the 3D geometry and distribution orders of a single sand body more reliably and more accurately.
Creating physical 3D stereolithograph models of brain and skull.
Daniel J Kelley
Full Text Available The human brain and skull are three dimensional (3D anatomical structures with complex surfaces. However, medical images are often two dimensional (2D and provide incomplete visualization of structural morphology. To overcome this loss in dimension, we developed and validated a freely available, semi-automated pathway to build 3D virtual reality (VR and hand-held, stereolithograph models. To evaluate whether surface visualization in 3D was more informative than in 2D, undergraduate students (n = 50 used the Gillespie scale to rate 3D VR and physical models of both a living patient-volunteer's brain and the skull of Phineas Gage, a historically famous railroad worker whose misfortune with a projectile tamping iron provided the first evidence of a structure-function relationship in brain. Using our processing pathway, we successfully fabricated human brain and skull replicas and validated that the stereolithograph model preserved the scale of the VR model. Based on the Gillespie ratings, students indicated that the biological utility and quality of visual information at the surface of VR and stereolithograph models were greater than the 2D images from which they were derived. The method we developed is useful to create VR and stereolithograph 3D models from medical images and can be used to model hard or soft tissue in living or preserved specimens. Compared to 2D images, VR and stereolithograph models provide an extra dimension that enhances both the quality of visual information and utility of surface visualization in neuroscience and medicine.
3D Bioprinting of Tissue/Organ Models.
Pati, Falguni; Gantelius, Jesper; Svahn, Helene Andersson
2016-04-01
In vitro tissue/organ models are useful platforms that can facilitate systematic, repetitive, and quantitative investigations of drugs/chemicals. The primary objective when developing tissue/organ models is to reproduce physiologically relevant functions that typically require complex culture systems. Bioprinting offers exciting prospects for constructing 3D tissue/organ models, as it enables the reproducible, automated production of complex living tissues. Bioprinted tissues/organs may prove useful for screening novel compounds or predicting toxicity, as the spatial and chemical complexity inherent to native tissues/organs can be recreated. In this Review, we highlight the importance of developing 3D in vitro tissue/organ models by 3D bioprinting techniques, characterization of these models for evaluating their resemblance to native tissue, and their application in the prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing, and as disease/tumor models. PMID:26895542
3D web visualization of huge CityGML models
Prandi, F.; Devigili, F.; Soave, M.; Di Staso, U.; De Amicis, R.
2015-08-01
Nowadays, rapid technological development into acquiring geo-spatial information; joined to the capabilities to process these data in a relative short period of time, allows the generation of detailed 3D textured city models that will become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and, can be used to integrate various data from different sources for public accessible visualisation and many other applications. One of the main bottlenecks, which at the moment limit the use of these datasets to few experts, is a lack on efficient visualization systems through the web and interoperable frameworks that allow standardising the access to the city models. The work presented in this paper tries to satisfy these two requirements developing a 3D web-based visualization system based on OGC standards and effective visualization concepts. The architectural framework, based on Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts, provides the 3D city data to a web client designed to support the view process in a very effective way. The first part of the work is to design a framework compliant to the 3D Portrayal Service drafted by the of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) 3D standardization working group. The latter is related to the development of an effective web client able to render in an efficient way the 3D city models.
3D MODEL OF TRANSFER OF POLLUTIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES TO THE AIR
Sukhinov, A.; Gadelshina, B.; Lyubomischenko, D.
2008-01-01
The article states the main ideas of mathematical simulation of pollution distribution from motor transport in the city atmosphere. Emission estimation model is based on solution of dual problems. A 3D model of advection-diffusion is shown. All models are paralleled on memory distribution system using domain decomposition method.
Arbitrary modeling of TSVs for 3D integrated circuits
Salah, Khaled; El-Rouby, Alaa
2014-01-01
This book presents a wide-band and technology independent, SPICE-compatible RLC model for through-silicon vias (TSVs) in 3D integrated circuits. This model accounts for a variety of effects, including skin effect, depletion capacitance and nearby contact effects. Readers will benefit from in-depth coverage of concepts and technology such as 3D integration, Macro modeling, dimensional analysis and compact modeling, as well as closed form equations for the through silicon via parasitics. Concepts covered are demonstrated by using TSVs in applications such as a spiral inductor?and inductive-based
3D Modelling of Biological Systems for Biomimetics
Shujun Zhang; Kevin Hapeshi; Ashok K. Bhattacharya
2004-01-01
With the advanced development of computer-based enabling technologies, many engineering, medical, biology,chemistry, physics and food science etc have developed to the unprecedented levels, which lead to many research and development interests in various multi-discipline areas. Among them, biomimetics is one of the most promising and attractive branches of study. Biomimetics is a branch of study that uses biological systems as a model to develop synthetic systems.To learn from nature, one of the fundamental issues is to understand the natural systems such animals, insects, plants and human beings etc. The geometrical characterization and representation of natural systems is an important fundamental work for biomimetics research. 3D modeling plays a key role in the geometrical characterization and representation, especially in computer graphical visualization. This paper firstly presents the typical procedure of 3D modelling methods and then reviews the previous work of 3D geometrical modelling techniques and systems developed for industrial, medical and animation applications. Especially the paper discusses the problems associated with the existing techniques and systems when they are applied to 3D modelling of biological systems. Based upon the discussions, the paper proposes some areas of research interests in 3D modelling of biological systems and for Biomimetics.
Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl
2016-08-01
The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463
Support Vector Machine active learning for 3D model retrieval
无
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel Support Vector Machine active learning algorithm for effective 3D model retrieval using the concept of relevance feedback. The proposed method learns from the most informative objects which are marked by the user, and then creates a boundary separating the relevant models from irrelevant ones. What it needs is only a small number of 3D models labelled by the user. It can grasp the user's semantic knowledge rapidly and accurately. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the retrieval effectiveness. Compared with four state-of-the-art query refinement schemes for 3D model retrieval, it provides superior retrieval performance after no more than two rounds of relevance feedback.
Chau, Chieu Vinh
2007-01-01
The interest for a detailed and high solution city model has been large within the project” Optical signature analysis” at the department for Sensor Technology in FOI, Linköping. Thus, a textured 3D-model over Norrköping is needed, which later can be imported into simulation software to study optical signature in urban environment. The aim with this thesis work is to be able to use the result as a multi-used 3D-model within applications of the Swedish defence force for future usage. It is imp...
Modeling real conditions of 'Ukrytie' object in 3D measurement
The article covers a technology of creation on soft products basis for designing: AutoCad, and computer graphics and animation 3D Studio, 3DS MAX, of 3D model of geometrical parameters of current conditions of building structures, technological equipment, fuel-containing materials, concrete, water of ruined Unit 4, 'Ukryttia' object, of Chernobyl NPP. The model built using the above technology will be applied in the future as a basis when automating the design and computer modeling of processes at the 'Ukryttia' object
Potential of 3D City Models to assess flood vulnerability
Schröter, Kai; Bochow, Mathias; Schüttig, Martin; Nagel, Claus; Ross, Lutz; Kreibich, Heidi
2016-04-01
Vulnerability, as the product of exposure and susceptibility, is a key factor of the flood risk equation. Furthermore, the estimation of flood loss is very sensitive to the choice of the vulnerability model. Still, in contrast to elaborate hazard simulations, vulnerability is often considered in a simplified manner concerning the spatial resolution and geo-location of exposed objects as well as the susceptibility of these objects at risk. Usually, area specific potential flood loss is quantified on the level of aggregated land-use classes, and both hazard intensity and resistance characteristics of affected objects are represented in highly simplified terms. We investigate the potential of 3D City Models and spatial features derived from remote sensing data to improve the differentiation of vulnerability in flood risk assessment. 3D City Models are based on CityGML, an application scheme of the Geography Markup Language (GML), which represents the 3D geometry, 3D topology, semantics and appearance of objects on different levels of detail. As such, 3D City Models offer detailed spatial information which is useful to describe the exposure and to characterize the susceptibility of residential buildings at risk. This information is further consolidated with spatial features of the building stock derived from remote sensing data. Using this database a spatially detailed flood vulnerability model is developed by means of data-mining. Empirical flood damage data are used to derive and to validate flood susceptibility models for individual objects. We present first results from a prototype application in the city of Dresden, Germany. The vulnerability modeling based on 3D City Models and remote sensing data is compared i) to the generally accepted good engineering practice based on area specific loss potential and ii) to a highly detailed representation of flood vulnerability based on a building typology using urban structure types. Comparisons are drawn in terms of
3D head model classification using optimized EGI
Tong, Xin; Wong, Hau-san; Ma, Bo
2006-02-01
With the general availability of 3D digitizers and scanners, 3D graphical models have been used widely in a variety of applications. This has led to the development of search engines for 3D models. Especially, 3D head model classification and retrieval have received more and more attention in view of their many potential applications in criminal identifications, computer animation, movie industry and medical industry. This paper addresses the 3D head model classification problem using 2D subspace analysis methods such as 2D principal component analysis (2D PCA[3]) and 2D fisher discriminant analysis (2DLDA[5]). It takes advantage of the fact that the histogram is a 2D image, and we can extract the most useful information from these 2D images to get a good result accordingingly. As a result, there are two main advantages: First, we can perform less calculation to obtain the same rate of classification; second, we can reduce the dimensionality more than PCA to obtain a higher efficiency.
Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)
Zeng, Xubin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Troch, Peter [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Pelletier, Jon [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Niu, Guo-Yue [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Gochis, David [NCAR Research Applications Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)
2015-11-15
This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM).
3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol
The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ERα are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ERα in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.
Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators
Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M
2003-01-01
A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.
Diffusion approximation for modeling of 3-D radiation distributions
A three-dimensional transport code DIF3D, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to model the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and modeling of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs
3D subsurface temperature model of Europe for geothermal exploration
Limberger, J.; Wees, J.D. van
2014-01-01
For the assessment of geothermal resources in Europe we constructed a digital 3D temperature model of the European crust and sedimentary basins, incorporating publicly available temperature data. Using European crustal thickness models and indirect parameters such as surface heat flow measurements,
3D Shape Modeling Using High Level Descriptors
Andersen, Vedrana
The goal of this Ph.D. project is to investigate and improve the methods for describing the surface of 3D objects, with focus on modeling geometric texture on surfaces. Surface modeling being a large field of research, the work done during this project concentrated around a few smaller areas...
Validation of a 3-D hemispheric nested air pollution model
Frohn, L. M.; Christensen, J.H.; Brandt, J; C. Geels; Hansen, K. M.
2003-01-01
Several air pollution transport models have been developed at the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark over the last decade (DREAM, DEHM, ACDEP and DEOM). A new 3-D nested Eulerian transport-chemistry model: REGIonal high resolutioN Air pollution model (REGINA) is based on modules and parameterisations from these models as well as new methods. The model covers the majority of the Northern Hemisphere with currently one nest...
ENHANCED LOD CONCEPTS FOR VIRTUAL 3D CITY MODELS
Benner, J.; Geiger, A; G. Gröger; Häfele, K.-H.; Löwner, M.-O.
2013-01-01
Virtual 3D city models contain digital three dimensional representations of city objects like buildings, streets or technical infrastructure. Because size and complexity of these models continuously grow, a Level of Detail (LoD) concept effectively supporting the partitioning of a complete model into alternative models of different complexity and providing metadata, addressing informational content, complexity and quality of each alternative model is indispensable. After a short over...
Modelling Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco 3D engineering software
Seabroke, G M; Hopkinson, G; Burt, D; Robbins, M; Holland, A
2010-01-01
Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco 3D engineering software model of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and 3D position within the charge packet as input to microscopic models being developed to simulate radiation damage.
Automatic Generation of 3D Building Models with Multiple Roofs
Kenichi Sugihara; Yoshitugu Hayashi
2008-01-01
Based on building footprints (building polygons) on digital maps, we are proposing the GIS and CG integrated system that automatically generates 3D building models with multiple roofs. Most building polygons' edges meet at right angles (orthogonal polygon). The integrated system partitions orthogonal building polygons into a set of rectangles and places rectangular roofs and box-shaped building bodies on these rectangles. In order to partition an orthogonal polygon, we proposed a useful polygon expression in deciding from which vertex a dividing line is drawn. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for partitioning building polygons and show the process of creating 3D roof models.
Modelling Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco 3D engineering software
Seabroke, G. M.; Prod'Homme, T.; Hopkinson, G.; Burt, D.; Robbins, M.; Holland, A.
2011-02-01
Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco 3D engineering software model of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and 3D position within the charge packet as input to microscopic models being developed to simulate radiation damage.
Round table session on '3D-city-modeling'
Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno
According to eCAADe's mission, the exchange and collaboration within the area of computer aided architectural design education and research, while respecting the pedagogical and administrative approaches in the different schools and countries, can be regarded as a core activity. On the occasion of...... eCAADe 2001 in Helsinki a working session on the topic "3D-City-Modeling" was held, in which a varietybundle of papers was presented. The eCAADe 2002 round table session on "3D-City-Modeling" is opening up for an intensive discussion on a number of goals which were elaborated by a working group in...
Round table session on '3D-city-modeling
Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno
According to eCAADs's mission, the exchange and collaboration within the area of computer aided architectural design education and research, while respecting the pedagogical and administrative approaches in the different schools and countries, can be regarded as a core activity. On the occasion of...... eCAADe 2001 in Helsinki a working session on the topic "3D-City-Modeling" was held, in which a varietybundle of papers was presented. The eCAADe 2002 round table session on "3D-City-Modeling" is opening up for an intensive discussion on a number of goals which were elaborated by a working group in...
Design and modeling for 3D ICS and interposers
Swaminathan, Madhavan
2013-01-01
3D Integration is being touted as the next semiconductor revolution. This book provides a comprehensive coverage on the design and modeling aspects of 3D integration, in particularly, focus on its electrical behavior. Looking from the perspective the Silicon Via (TSV) and Glass Via (TGV) technology, the book introduces 3DICs and Interposers as a technology, and presents its application in numerical modeling, signal integrity, power integrity and thermal integrity. The authors underscored the potential of this technology in design exchange formats and power distribution.
Probabilistic reasoning for assembly-based 3D modeling
Chaudhuri, Siddhartha
2011-01-01
Assembly-based modeling is a promising approach to broadening the accessibility of 3D modeling. In assembly-based modeling, new models are assembled from shape components extracted from a database. A key challenge in assembly-based modeling is the identification of relevant components to be presented to the user. In this paper, we introduce a probabilistic reasoning approach to this problem. Given a repository of shapes, our approach learns a probabilistic graphical model that encodes semantic and geometric relationships among shape components. The probabilistic model is used to present components that are semantically and stylistically compatible with the 3D model that is being assembled. Our experiments indicate that the probabilistic model increases the relevance of presented components. © 2011 ACM.
Parallel Optimization of 3D Cardiac Electrophysiological Model Using GPU
Yong Xia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Large-scale 3D virtual heart model simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart modeling. In this study, using a 3D sheep atrial model as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the 3D atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue model was split into two components: one is the single cell model (ordinary differential equation and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain model (partial differential equation. Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart model, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for 3D whole heart simulations.
Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments
Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.
2016-06-01
With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.
Mirko Borisov
2014-12-01
Full Text Available U radu se opisuju 3D modeli geopodataka i njihova primjena. Na geodetskim planovima i topografskim kartama najčešće se primjenjuju metode prikaza terena (reljefa pomoću kota i izohipsi. Međutim, sa pojavom novih tehnologija mijenja se način vizualizacije i naglašava koncept 3D modela geopodataka. Pritom, koriste se različiti pojmovi: digitalni model visina (DMV, digitalni model terena (DMT, digitalni model površi (DMP i drugo. Infrastruktura i 3D modeli geopodataka su standardizovani, ali se vizualizacija i detaljnost sadržaja mijenja i usklađuje prema namjeni i razmjeri prikaza. Primjena 3D modela geopodataka u digitalnom obliku (raster ili vektor postaje sve više aktuelna i putem interneta. Zato je važno razlikovati navedene pojmove i odlike 3D modela geopodataka kao i mogućnosti njihove primjene. : This paper describes the 3D geodata models and their application. On geodetic plans and topographic maps commonly applied methods of terrain (relief by spots elevation and contour lines. However, with the advent of new technologies the way of the visualisation is changing and highlights the concept 3D geodata model. Namely, there are different concepts: digital elevation model (DEM, digital terrain model (DTM, digital surface model (DSP and so on. Infrastructure and 3D geodata models are standardized, while the visualization and details of information change and adjust the needs and aspect ratio display. Application of 3D geodata models in digital format (raster or vector is becoming increasingly topical over the internet. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between certain concepts and features of 3D geodata models and the possibility of their application.
Robust model-based 3d/3D fusion using sparse matching for minimally invasive surgery.
Neumann, Dominik; Grbic, Sasa; John, Matthias; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Ionasec, Razvan
2013-01-01
Classical surgery is being disrupted by minimally invasive and transcatheter procedures. As there is no direct view or access to the affected anatomy, advanced imaging techniques such as 3D C-arm CT and C-arm fluoroscopy are routinely used for intra-operative guidance. However, intra-operative modalities have limited image quality of the soft tissue and a reliable assessment of the cardiac anatomy can only be made by injecting contrast agent, which is harmful to the patient and requires complex acquisition protocols. We propose a novel sparse matching approach for fusing high quality pre-operative CT and non-contrasted, non-gated intra-operative C-arm CT by utilizing robust machine learning and numerical optimization techniques. Thus, high-quality patient-specific models can be extracted from the pre-operative CT and mapped to the intra-operative imaging environment to guide minimally invasive procedures. Extensive quantitative experiments demonstrate that our model-based fusion approach has an average execution time of 2.9 s, while the accuracy lies within expert user confidence intervals. PMID:24505663
3D Model Generation From the Engineering Drawing
Vaský, Jozef; Eliáš, Michal; Bezák, Pavol; Červeňanská, Zuzana; Izakovič, Ladislav
2010-01-01
The contribution deals with the transformation of engineering drawings in a paper form into a 3D computer representation. A 3D computer model can be further processed in CAD/CAM system, it can be modified, archived, and a technical drawing can be then generated from it as well. The transformation process from paper form to the data one is a complex and difficult one, particularly owing to the different types of drawings, forms of displayed objects and encountered errors and deviations from technical standards. The algorithm for 3D model generating from an orthogonal vector input representing a simplified technical drawing of the rotational part is described in this contribution. The algorithm was experimentally implemented as ObjectARX application in the AutoCAD system and the test sample as the representation of the rotational part was used for verificaton.
Causal Dynamical Triangulation of 3D Tensor Model
Kawabe, Hiroshi
2016-01-01
We extend the string field theory of the two dimensional (2D) generalized causal dynamical triangulation (GCDT) with the Ishibashi-Kawai (IK-) type interaction formulated by the matrix model, to the three dimensional (3D) model of the surface field theory. Based on the loop gas model, we construct a tensor model for the discretized surface field and then apply it the stochastic quantization method. In the double scaling limit, the model is characterized by two scaling dimensions $D$ and $D_N$, the power indices of the minimal length as the scaling parameter. The continuum GCDT model with the IK-type interaction is realized with the similar restriction in the $D_N$-$D$ space, to the 2D model. The distinct property in the 3D model is that the quantum effect contains the IK-type interaction only, while the ordinary splitting interaction is excluded.
Geodiversity: Exploration of 3D geological model space
Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.
2013-05-01
The process of building a 3D model necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional models. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during model construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the modelling process. Uncertainties are introduced into the 3D model during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single model. Practices such as these are likely to result in a model that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a 3D model of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological 3D models that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between models in order to understand the effect uncertainty has models geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the model suite. End-member models geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the model suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine
Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.
2013-09-01
Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of 3D city models have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the 3D data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual 3D representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of 3D city models has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the 3D city models. Today, 3D city models are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, modelling 3D objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for 3D modelling available in the market. Generating 3D buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using 3D data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage 3D city models data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of 3D city models in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0
Estimation of shape model parameters for 3D surfaces
Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Darkner, Sune; Fripp, Jurgen; Ourselin, Sébastien; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
surfaces using distance maps, which enables the estimation of model parameters without the requirement of point correspondence. For applications with acquisition limitations such as speed and cost, this formulation enables the fitting of a statistical shape model to arbitrarily sampled data. The method is......Statistical shape models are widely used as a compact way of representing shape variation. Fitting a shape model to unseen data enables characterizing the data in terms of the model parameters. In this paper a Gauss-Newton optimization scheme is proposed to estimate shape model parameters of 3D...... applied to a database of 3D surfaces from a section of the porcine pelvic bone extracted from 33 CT scans. A leave-one-out validation shows that the parameters of the first 3 modes of the shape model can be predicted with a mean difference within [-0.01,0.02] from the true mean, with a standard deviation...
Teaching the geological subsurface with 3D models
Thorpe, Steve; Ward, Emma
2014-05-01
3D geological models have great potential as a resource when teaching geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for many students. Today's earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been producing digital 3D geological models for over 10 years. The models produced are revolutionising the working practices, data standards and products of the BGS. Sharing our geoscience information with academia is highlighted throughout the BGS strategy as is instilling practical skills in future geoscience professionals, such as model building and interpretation. In 2009 a project was launched to investigate the potential of the models as a teaching resource. The study included justifying if and how the models help students to learn, how models have been used historically, and how other forms of modelling are being used today. BGS now produce 3D geological models for use by anyone teaching or learning geoscience. They incorporate educational strategies that will develop geospatial skills and alleviate potential problems that some students experience. They are contained within contemporary case studies and show standard geological concepts, structures, sedimentary rocks, cross sections and field techniques. 3D geological models of the Isle of Wight and Ingleborough
3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System
Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.
2016-04-01
Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.
APROS 3-D core models for simulators and plant analyzers
The 3-D core models of APROS simulation environment can be used in simulator and plant analyzer applications, as well as in safety analysis. The key feature of APROS models is that the same physical models can be used in all applications. For three-dimensional reactor cores the APROS models cover both quadratic BWR and PWR cores and the hexagonal lattice VVER-type cores. In APROS environment the user can select the number of flow channels in the core and either five- or six-equation thermal hydraulic model for these channels. The thermal hydraulic model and the channel description have a decisive effect on the calculation time of the 3-D core model and thus just these selection make at present the major difference between a safety analysis model and a training simulator model. The paper presents examples of various types of 3-D LWR-type core descriptions for simulator and plant analyzer use and discusses the differences of calculation speed and physical results between a typical safety analysis model description and a real-time simulator model description in transients. (author)
Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Kumar, Prashant; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Pal, P. K.; Kaushik, Nitesh; Sangar, Ghansham
2016-03-01
The advanced Indian meteorological geostationary satellite INSAT-3D was launched on 26 July 2013 with an improved imager and an infrared sounder and is placed at 82°E over the Indian Ocean region. With the advancement in retrieval techniques of different atmospheric parameters and with improved imager data have enhanced the scope for better understanding of the different tropical atmospheric processes over this region. The retrieval techniques and accuracy of one such parameter, Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV) has improved significantly with the availability of improved spatial resolution data along with more options of spectral channels in the INSAT-3D imager. The present work is mainly focused on providing brief descriptions of INSAT-3D data and AMV derivation processes using these data. It also discussed the initial quality assessment of INSAT-3D AMVs for a period of six months starting from 01 February 2014 to 31 July 2014 with other independent observations: i) Meteosat-7 AMVs available over this region, ii) in-situ radiosonde wind measurements, iii) cloud tracked winds from Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and iv) numerical model analysis. It is observed from this study that the qualities of newly derived INSAT-3D AMVs are comparable with existing two versions of Meteosat-7 AMVs over this region. To demonstrate its initial application, INSAT-3D AMVs are assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and it is found that the assimilation of newly derived AMVs has helped in reduction of track forecast errors of the recent cyclonic storm NANAUK over the Arabian Sea. Though, the present study is limited to its application to one case study, however, it will provide some guidance to the operational agencies for implementation of this new AMV dataset for future applications in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) over the south Asia region.
Monocular model-based 3D tracking of rigid objects
Lepetit, Vincent
2014-01-01
Many applications require tracking complex 3D objects. These include visual serving of robotic arms on specific target objects, Augmented Reality systems that require real time registration of the object to be augmented, and head tracking systems that sophisticated interfaces can use. Computer vision offers solutions that are cheap, practical and non-invasive. ""Monocular Model-Based 3D Tracking of Rigid Objects"" reviews the different techniques and approaches that have been developed by industry and research. First, important mathematical tools are introduced: camera representation, robust e
Automatic 3D Modeling of the Urban Landscape
Esteban, I.; Dijk, J.; Groen, F.A.
2010-01-01
In this paper we present a fully automatic system for building 3D models of urban areas at the street level. We propose a novel approach for the accurate estimation of the scale consistent camera pose given two previous images. We employ a new method for global optimization and use a novel sampling
3D Property Modeling of Void Ratio by Cokriging
Yao Lingqing; Pan Mao; Cheng Qiuming
2008-01-01
Void ratio measures compactness of ground soil in geotechnical engineering. When samples are collected in certain area for mapping void ratios, other relevant types of properties such as water content may be also analyzed. To map the spatial distribution of void ratio in the area based on these types of point, observation data interpolation is often needed. Owing to the variance of sampling density along the horizontal and vertical directions, special consideration is required to handle anisotropy of estimator. 3D property modeling aims at predicting the overall distribution of property values from limited samples, and geostatistical method can he employed naturally here because they help to minimize the mean square error of estimation. To construct 3D property model of void ratio, cokriging was used considering its mutual correlation with water content, which is another important soil parameter. Moreover, K-D tree was adopted to organize the samples to accelerate neighbor query in 3D space during the above modeling process. At last, spatial configuration of void ratio distribution in an engineering body was modeled through 3D visualization, which provides important information for civil engineering purpose.
Building a 3-D Appearance Model of the Human Face
Sjöstrand, Karl; Larsen, Rasmus; Lading, Brian
2003-01-01
This paper describes a method for building an appearance model from three-dimensional data of human faces. The data consists of 3-D vertices, polygons and a texture map. The method uses a set of nine manually placed landmarks to automatically form a dense correspondence of thousands of points. This makes sure the model is able to capture the subtle details of a face. The model can be used for face segmentation and fully automated face registration.
Building a 3-D Appearance Model of the Human Face
Sjöstrand, Karl; Larsen, Rasmus; Lading, Brian
2003-01-01
This paper describes a method for building an appearance model from three-dimensional data of human faces. The data consists of 3-D vertices, polygons and a texture map. The method uses a set of nine manually placed landmarks to automatically form a dense correspondence of thousands of points. This...... makes sure the model is able to capture the subtle details of a face. The model can be used for face segmentation and fully automated face registration....
Thermal 3D Modeling of Geothermal Area Using Terrestrial Photogrammetry
Akcay, Ozgun; Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Erenoglu, Oya; Yılmazturk, Ferruh; Karaca, Zeki
2015-04-01
Photogrammetry and computer vision, sciences producing high accuracy 3D models from digital images based on projective geometry. 3D models can also be produced using thermal camera images using photogrammetry and computer vision techniques. Thermal images are capable of displaying hotspots on geothermal areas as a heat source in details. In the research, Tuzla geothermal area in Çanakkale province of Turkey is inspected using imaging techniques of terrestrial photogrammetry. Both a digital camera Canon EOS 650D and an infrared camera Optris PI 450 are used to obtain images of the thermal site. Calibration parameters (focal length, principle point, distortion coefficients) of thermal and digital cameras are determined using the calibration test field at the laboratory before the field work. In order to provide the georeferencing and the robustness of the 3D model, aluminum discs having diameter of 30 centimeters as ground control points (GCPs) are set to the geothermal area appropriately before imaging. Aluminum targets are chosen as the GCP because they are determined on the image depending on the contrast reflectance rate of the aluminum. Using GNSS RTK receivers supplying ±1 cm accuracy positioning, GCPs are measured so as to implement photogrammetric process successfully with thermal images. Numerous corresponding points are detected on the overlapped images with image matching techniques. Later on, bundle block adjustment is applied to calculate the revised interior orientation parameters of camera and exterior orientation parameters of camera positions. The 3D model showing details of the surface temperatures of the geothermal area are produced with multi view stereo (MVS) technique. The technique is able to produce 3D representation (point cloud, mesh and textured surface) of the field from both the thermal and digital images. The research presents that photogrammetric evaluation of thermal images is a noteworthy method to obtain a quick- accurate 3D
3D geometric modelling of hand-woven textile
Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Conroy, D. Wood
2008-02-01
Geometric modeling and haptic rendering of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. A haptic representation is created by adding the physical properties of an object to its geometric configuration. While research has been conducted into geometric modeling of fabric, current systems require time-consuming manual recognition of textile specifications and data entry. The development of a generic approach for construction of the 3D geometric model of a woven textile is pursued in this work. The geometric model would be superimposed by a haptic model in the future work. The focus at this stage is on hand-woven textile artifacts for display in museums. A fuzzy rule based algorithm is applied to the still images of the artifacts to generate the 3D model. The derived model is exported as a 3D VRML model of the textile for visual representation and haptic rendering. An overview of the approach is provided and the developed algorithm is described. The approach is validated by applying the algorithm to different textile samples and comparing the produced models with the actual structure and pattern of the samples.
Use Models like Maps in a 3D SDI
Gietzel, Jan; Gabriel, Paul; Schaeben, Helmut; Le, Hai Ha
2013-04-01
Digital geological applications have become 3D up to 4D modelling of the underground. The modellers are working very heterogeneously in terms of its applied software systems. On the other hand the 3D/4D modelling of the subsurface has become part of the geological surveys all around the world. This implies a wide spread group of users working in different institutions aiming to work together on one subsurface model. Established 3D/4D-modelling software systems mainly use a file based approach to store data, which is in a high contrast to the needs of a central administrated and network based data transfer approach. At the department of geophysics and geo information sciences at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, the GST system for managing 3D and 4D geosciences data in a databases system was developed and is now continued by the company GiGa infosystems. The GST-Framework includes a storage engine, a web service for sharing and a number of client software including a browser based client interface for visualising, accessing and manipulating geological CAD data. Including a check out system GST supports multi user editing on huge models, designed to manage seamless high resolution models of the subsurface. While working on complex projects various software is used for the creation of the model, the prediction of properties and final simulation. A problem rising from the use of several software is the interoperability of the models. Due to conversion errors different working groups use mainly different raw data. This results in different models, which have to be corrected with additional effort. One platform sharing the models is strongly demanded. One high potential solution is a centralized and software independent storage, which will be presented.
Statistical skull models from 3D X-ray images
Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan
2006-01-01
We present 2 statistical models of the skull and mandible built upon an elastic registration method of 3D meshes. The aim of this work is to relate degrees of freedom of skull anatomy, as static relations are of main interest for anthropology and legal medicine. Statistical models can effectively provide reconstructions together with statistical precision. In our applications, patient-specific meshes of the skull and the mandible are high-density meshes, extracted from 3D CT scans. All our patient-specific meshes are registrated in a subject-shared reference system using our 3D-to-3D elastic matching algorithm. Registration is based upon the minimization of a distance between the high density mesh and a shared low density mesh, defined on the vertexes, in a multi resolution approach. A Principal Component analysis is performed on the normalised registrated data to build a statistical linear model of the skull and mandible shape variation. The accuracy of the reconstruction is under the millimetre in the shape...
Anisotropic 3D Modeling for Long Offset VSP Survey Design
Today's seismic techniques allow the geoscientist to do the interpretation more quantitatively. AVO and anisotropy measurements are the examples of DHI (Direct Hydrocarbon Indication). These measurements can be done accurately using long offset borehole seismic survey such as walk away VSP, having the geophones located down hole close to the target formation. This paper will show the importance 3D seismic modeling prior to the survey, by simulating the seismic wave propagation in three-dimensional volume filled with continuous material properties. This pre-survey modeling can help us suppressing the uncertainties and narrowing the error bars on the real survey. Some examples from offshore Nigeria showed dramatic geometrical differences between ordinary 2D compared to 3D observations Assumption that the seismic wave travels in 2D plane is not always acceptable for survey design. The examples also demonstrated the ability to observe some critical information such as the limit of incidence angle, compromise between resolution and image coverage, effects of velocity anomalies, anisotropy and dipping formations on lateral coverage. Fluid effect in 3D modeling will also be discussed here. Amplitude anomalies are predicted by replacing different type of fluids effect in the target reservoirs, as well as various types of AVO classes. A well-prepared long offset VSP survey is very critical to provide us high quality and high accuracy information that can be used to calibrate and optimise the full 3D seismic processing and interpretation in the area. This process is known as Well Driven Seismic (WDS)
3D Geological modelling - towards a European level infrastructure
Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.
2013-04-01
The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving 3D geological models and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate models at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative model delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering 3D geological model data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring 3D geological models? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large
Quasi-3D Multi-scale Modeling Framework Development
Arakawa, A.; Jung, J.
2008-12-01
When models are truncated in or near an energetically active range of the spectrum, model physics must be changed as the resolution changes. The model physics of GCMs and that of CRMs are, however, quite different from each other and at present there is no unified formulation of model physics that automatically provides transition between these model physics. The Quasi-3D (Q3D) Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) is an attempt to bridge this gap. Like the recently proposed Heterogeneous Multiscale Method (HMM) (E and Engquist 2003), MMF combines a macroscopic model, GCM, and a microscopic model, CRM. Unlike the traditional multiscale methods such as the multi-grid and adapted mesh refinement techniques, HMM and MMF are for solving multi-physics problems. They share the common objective "to design combined macroscopic-microscopic computational methods that are much more efficient than solving the full microscopic model and at the same time give the information we need" (E et al. 2008). The question is then how to meet this objective in practice, which can be highly problem dependent. In HHM, the efficiency is gained typically by localization of the microscale problem. Following the pioneering work by Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz (1999) and Grabowski (2001), MMF takes advantage of the fact that 2D CRMs are reasonably successful in simulating deep clouds. In this approach, the efficiency is gained by sacrificing the three-dimensionality of cloud-scale motion. It also "localizes" the algorithm through embedding a CRM in each GCM grid box using cyclic boundary condition. The Q3D MMF is an attempt to reduce the expense due to these constraints by partially including the cloud-scale 3D effects and extending the CRM beyond individual GCM grid boxes. As currently formulated, the Q3D MMF is a 4D estimation/prediction framework that combines a GCM with a 3D anelastic cloud-resolving vector vorticity equation model (VVM) applied to a network of horizontal grids. The network
Modeling Perception of 3D Forms Using Fuzzy Knowledge Bases
Achiche, Sofiane; Ahmed, Saeema
the aesthetics of their products are likely to be perceived are of value. In this paper the authors propose an approach to formalize the relationship between geometric information of a 3D object and the intended perception using fuzzy logic. 3D objects (shapes) created by design engineering students...... to evoke a certain perception were analysed. Three different fuzzy logic models, with different input variables, for evaluating massiveness and lightness in a form are proposed. The uthors identified geometric information as inputs of the fuzzy model and developed a set of fuzzy if/then rules to map...... the relationships between the fuzzy sets on each input premise and the output premise. In our case the output premise of the fuzzy logic model is the level of belonging to the design context (perception). An evaluation of how users perceived the shapes was conducted to validate the fuzzy logic models...
Integrated modeling and 3D visualization for mine complex fields
LI Zhong-xue; SUN En-ji; LI Cui-ping; MA Bin
2007-01-01
Proposed a novel approach to the problem of mine complex fields in a perspective of digital modeling and visual representation, and it aimed at developing a theoretical framework for mine complex fields with the factors and their relationships delineated in a unified manner and at building a prototype for an integrated system of methods, models,and techniques with mine complex fields modeled digitally and represented visually. Specifically, the paper addressed the issues of data mining and knowledge discovery techniques as used in the processing of geological and ore deposit samples, digital modeling techniques as used in the description of mine complex fields, 3D visual simulation techniques as used in the representation of ore bodies and underground excavations, seamless interfacing techniques with other systems such as CAD and web GIS as used in the restructuring of 2D data into 3D models and mapping of 3D models onto 2D graphics, and implementation techniques as used in the case of building a web based prototype system for the integrated modeling and visualization of underground mines.
A 3D Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo Model
Miesch, Mark S
2014-01-01
We present a 3D kinematic solar dynamo model in which poloidal field is generated by the emergence and dispersal of tilted sunspot pairs (more generally Bipolar Magnetic Regions, or BMRs). The axisymmetric component of this model functions similarly to previous 2D Babcock-Leighton (BL) dynamo models that employ a double-ring prescription for poloidal field generation but we generalize this prescription into a 3D flux emergence algorithm that places BMRs on the surface in response to the dynamo-generated toroidal field. In this way, the model can be regarded as a unification of BL dynamo models (2D in radius/latitude) and surface flux transport models (2D in latitude/longitude) into a more self-consistent framework that captures the full 3D structure of the evolving magnetic field. The model reproduces some basic features of the solar cycle including an 11-yr periodicity, equatorward migration of toroidal flux in the deep convection zone, and poleward propagation of poloidal flux at the surface. The poleward-p...
Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco
2016-04-01
The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D
Building Statistical Shape Spaces for 3D Human Modeling
Pishchulin, Leonid; Wuhrer, Stefanie; Helten, Thomas; Theobalt, Christian; Schiele, Bernt
2015-01-01
Statistical models of 3D human shape and pose learned from scan databases have developed into valuable tools to solve a variety of vision and graphics problems. Unfortunately, most publicly available models are of limited expressiveness as they were learned on very small databases that hardly reflect the true variety in human body shapes. In this paper, we contribute by rebuilding a widely used statistical body representation from the largest commercially available scan database, and making t...
Geometric and Colour Data Fusion for Outdoor 3D Models
Ricardo Chacón
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture, we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields.
Towards a 3d Spatial Urban Energy Modelling Approach
Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.
2013-09-01
Today's needs to reduce the environmental impact of energy use impose dramatic changes for energy infrastructure and existing demand patterns (e.g. buildings) corresponding to their specific context. In addition, future energy systems are expected to integrate a considerable share of fluctuating power sources and equally a high share of distributed generation of electricity. Energy system models capable of describing such future systems and allowing the simulation of the impact of these developments thus require a spatial representation in order to reflect the local context and the boundary conditions. This paper describes two recent research approaches developed at EIFER in the fields of (a) geo-localised simulation of heat energy demand in cities based on 3D morphological data and (b) spatially explicit Agent-Based Models (ABM) for the simulation of smart grids. 3D city models were used to assess solar potential and heat energy demand of residential buildings which enable cities to target the building refurbishment potentials. Distributed energy systems require innovative modelling techniques where individual components are represented and can interact. With this approach, several smart grid demonstrators were simulated, where heterogeneous models are spatially represented. Coupling 3D geodata with energy system ABMs holds different advantages for both approaches. On one hand, energy system models can be enhanced with high resolution data from 3D city models and their semantic relations. Furthermore, they allow for spatial analysis and visualisation of the results, with emphasis on spatially and structurally correlations among the different layers (e.g. infrastructure, buildings, administrative zones) to provide an integrated approach. On the other hand, 3D models can benefit from more detailed system description of energy infrastructure, representing dynamic phenomena and high resolution models for energy use at component level. The proposed modelling strategies
3D Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo Models
Miesch, Mark S.; Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Teweldebirhan, Kinfe; Upton, Lisa
2016-05-01
We present results from the new STABLE (Surface flux Transport and Babcock Leighton) Dynamo Model. STABLE is a 3D Babcock-Leighton/Flux Transport dynamo model in which the source of poloidal field is the explicit emergence, distortion, and dispersal of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). In this talk I will discuss initial results with axisymmetric flow fields, focusing on the operation of the model, the general features of the cyclic solutions, and the challenge of achieving supercritical dynamo solutions using only the Babcock-Leighton source term. Then I will present dynamo simulations that include 3D convective flow fields based on the observed velocity power spectrum inferred from photospheric Dopplergrams. I'll use these simulations to assess how the explicit transport and amplification of fields by surface convection influences the operation of the dynamo. I will also discuss the role of surface magnetic fields in regulating the subsurface toroidal flux budget.
Technical illustration based on 3D CSG models
GENG Wei-dong; DING Lei; YU Hong-feng; PAN Yun-he
2005-01-01
This paper presents an automatic non-photorealistic rendering approach to generating technical illustration from 3D models. It first decomposes the 3D object into a set of CSG primitives, and then performs the hidden surface removal based on the prioritized list, in which the rendition order of CSG primitives is sorted out by depth. Then, each primitive is illustrated by the pre-defined empirical lighting model, and the system mimics the stroke-drawing by user-specified style. In order to artistically and flexibly modulate the illumination, the empirical lighting model is defined by three major components: parameters of multi-level lighting intensities, parametric spatial occupations for each lighting level, and an interpolation method to calculate the lighting units into the spatial occupation of CSG primitives, instead of"pixel-by-pixel" painting. This region-by-region shading facilitates the simulation of illustration styles.
3-D model-based tracking for UAV indoor localization.
Teulière, Céline; Marchand, Eric; Eck, Laurent
2015-05-01
This paper proposes a novel model-based tracking approach for 3-D localization. One main difficulty of standard model-based approach lies in the presence of low-level ambiguities between different edges. In this paper, given a 3-D model of the edges of the environment, we derive a multiple hypotheses tracker which retrieves the potential poses of the camera from the observations in the image. We also show how these candidate poses can be integrated into a particle filtering framework to guide the particle set toward the peaks of the distribution. Motivated by the UAV indoor localization problem where GPS signal is not available, we validate the algorithm on real image sequences from UAV flights. PMID:25099967
Engineering cancer microenvironments for in vitro 3-D tumor models
Waseem Asghar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The natural microenvironment of tumors is composed of extracellular matrix (ECM, blood vasculature, and supporting stromal cells. The physical characteristics of ECM as well as the cellular components play a vital role in controlling cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and differentiation. To mimic the tumor microenvironment outside the human body for drug testing, two-dimensional (2-D and murine tumor models are routinely used. Although these conventional approaches are employed in preclinical studies, they still present challenges. For example, murine tumor models are expensive and difficult to adopt for routine drug screening. On the other hand, 2-D in vitro models are simple to perform, but they do not recapitulate natural tumor microenvironment, because they do not capture important three-dimensional (3-D cell–cell, cell–matrix signaling pathways, and multi-cellular heterogeneous components of the tumor microenvironment such as stromal and immune cells. The three-dimensional (3-D in vitro tumor models aim to closely mimic cancer microenvironments and have emerged as an alternative to routinely used methods for drug screening. Herein, we review recent advances in 3-D tumor model generation and highlight directions for future applications in drug testing.
GPU-accelerated 3-D model-based tracking
Model-based approaches to tracking the pose of a 3-D object in video are effective but computationally demanding. While statistical estimation techniques, such as the particle filter, are often employed to minimize the search space, real-time performance remains unachievable on current generation CPUs. Recent advances in graphics processing units (GPUs) have brought massively parallel computational power to the desktop environment and powerful developer tools, such as NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), have provided programmers with a mechanism to exploit it. NVIDIA GPUs' single-instruction multiple-thread (SIMT) programming model is well-suited to many computer vision tasks, particularly model-based tracking, which requires several hundred 3-D model poses to be dynamically configured, rendered, and evaluated against each frame in the video sequence. Using 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) rigid hand tracking as an example application, this work harnesses consumer-grade GPUs to achieve real-time, 3-D model-based, markerless object tracking in monocular video.
A 3D alcoholic liver disease model on a chip.
Lee, JaeSeo; Choi, BongHwan; No, Da Yoon; Lee, GeonHui; Lee, Seung-Ri; Oh, HyunJik; Lee, Sang-Hoon
2016-03-14
Alcohol is one of the main causes of liver diseases, and the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) treatment methods has been one of the hottest issues. For this purpose, development of in vitro models mimicking the in vivo physiology is one of the critical requirements, and they help to determine the disease mechanisms and to discover the treatment method. Herein, a three-dimensional (3D) ALD model was developed and its superior features in mimicking the in vivo condition were demonstrated. A spheroid-based microfluidic chip was employed for the development of the 3D in vitro model of ALD progression. We co-cultured rat primary hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in a fluidic chip to investigate the role of HSCs in the recovery of liver with ALD. An interstitial level of flow derived by an osmotic pump was applied to the chip to provide in vivo mimicking of fluid activity. Using this in vitro tool, we were able to observe structural changes and decreased hepatic functions with the increase in ethanol concentration. The recovery process of liver injured by alcohol was observed by providing fresh culture medium to the damaged 3D liver tissue for few days. A reversibly- and irreversibly-injured ALD model was established. The proposed model can not only be used for the research of alcoholic disease mechanism, but also has the potential for use in studies of hepatotoxicity and drug screening applications. PMID:26857817
3D modeling of dual-gate FinFET.
Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John
2012-01-01
The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands 3D modeling for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco modeling tool with quantization effects, we modeled a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in 3D. We compared it with a 2D model of the same device. We demonstrated that 3D modeling produces more accurate results. As 3D modeling results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device. PMID:23148493
Error Analysis Of 3d Polygonal Model:A Survey
Devendra Singh Rajput
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Various applications of computer graphics, (like animation, scientific visualization, and virtual reality involve the manipulation of geometric models. They are generally represented by triangular meshes due to its wide acceptance to process on rendering systems. The need of realism and high visual fidelity and the latest advances on scanning devices has increased complexity and size of triangular meshes. The original 3D model gets modified because of activities like approximation, transmission, processing and storage etc. Mostly the modification occurs due to simplification approaches which primarily use geometric distance metric as their simplification criteria. But it is hard to measure a small distance error accurately whereas other geometric or appearance error (like high curvature, thin region, color, texture, normals and volumetric has greater importance. Hence it is essential to understand the applicability of various parameters to evaluate the quality of 3D model. This paper briefly surveys the various errors analysis techniques, error metrics and tools to assess the quality of 3D mesh models.
CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models
Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz
2012-07-01
CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its
3D root canal modeling for advanced endodontic treatment
Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet
2002-06-01
More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building 3-D tooth model from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into 3D mathematical model representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.
3D fracture permeability modelling in offshore Arabian Gulf reservoir
Bushara, M.N.; El Tawel, A.; Borougha, H.; Dabbouk, C. [Zakum Development Co., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Daly, C. [Roxar Ltd., Dubai (United Arab Emirates)
2001-06-01
A stochastic method has been developed to predict fracture permeability distribution for oil fields. This new method does a better job than current methods in determining water encroachment trends. The method was developed based on a study conducted on a carbonate reservoir located offshore Abu Dhabi. The 3D model allows petroleum engineers to assess fractures and to better understand their geologic control in terms of permeability in reservoirs with single porosity models. In this study, strain field over the reservoir, which correlated with test permeability, was obtained from curvature analysis and calibrated to strain calculated from core fractures. Curvature analysis included some uncertainties such as strain estimates, details of fracture spatial geometry and shear/strike-slip movements. It was concluded that these uncertainties could be eliminated with better strain field determination and 3D seismic data. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Camera Calibration by Registration Stereo Reconstruction to 3D Model
Klečka, J.
2015-01-01
Paper aims at unusual way to camera calibration. The main idea is that by registration of uncalibrated stereo reconstruction to 3D model of the same scene is eliminated ambiguity of the reconstruction. The reason for this is that exact metric scene reconstruction from image pair can be understate as information equivalent to calibration of the source camera pair. Described principles were verified by experiment on real data and results are presented at the end of the paper.
Modeling 2D and 3D Horizontal Wells Using CVFA
Chen, Zhangxin; Huan, Guanren; Li, Baoyan
2003-01-01
In this paper we present an application of the recently developed control volume function approximation (CVFA) method to the modeling and simulation of 2D and 3D horizontal wells in petroleum reservoirs. The base grid for this method is based on a Voronoi grid. One of the features of the CVFA is that the flux at the interfaces of control volumes can be accurately computed via function approximations. Also, it reduces grid orientation effects and applies to any shape of eleme...
Study of 3D-modelling software environments
Егорова, Ирина Николаевна; Гайдамащук, Алиса Владимировна
2013-01-01
The study of three-dimensional modeling software packages such as Autodesk Maya, Autodesk 3Ds Studio Max, Lightwave 3D, Maxon Cinema 4D, Blender, ZBrush was conducted in the paper. The analysis of software packages allowed to identify the most effective ones. These were Autodesk Maya, Autodesk 3Ds Studio Max and ZBrush packages. The selected software packages were used for the creation of a computer scene, the main elements of which are interior, character and animation. Practical research al...
Registration of 3D Face Scans with Average Face Models
Salah, Albert Ali; Alyuz, N.; Akarun, L.
2008-01-01
The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all faces in the gallery. We explore the approach of registering the new facial surface to an average face model (AFM), which automatically establishes correspondence to the pre-registered gallery faces. We propose ...
PIXIE3D: An efficient, fully implicit, parallel, 3D extended MHD code for fusion plasma modeling
PIXIE3D is a modern, parallel, state-of-the-art extended MHD code that employs fully implicit methods for efficiency and accuracy. It features a general geometry formulation, and is therefore suitable for the study of many magnetic fusion configurations of interest. PIXIE3D advances the state of the art in extended MHD modeling in two fundamental ways. Firstly, it employs a novel conservative finite volume scheme which is remarkably robust and stable, and demands very small physical and/or numerical dissipation. This is a fundamental requirement when one wants to study fusion plasmas with realistic conductivities. Secondly, PIXIE3D features fully-implicit time stepping, employing Newton-Krylov methods for inverting the associated nonlinear systems. These methods have been shown to be scalable and efficient when preconditioned properly. Novel preconditioned ideas (so-called physics based), which were prototypes in the context of reduced MHD, have been adapted for 3D primitive-variable resistive MHD in PIXIE3D, and are currently being extended to Hall MHD. PIXIE3D is fully parallel, employing PETSc for parallelism. PIXIE3D has been thoroughly benchmarked against linear theory and against other available extended MHD codes on nonlinear test problems (such as the GEM reconnection challenge). We are currently in the process of extending such comparisons to fusion-relevant problems in realistic geometries. In this talk, we will describe both the spatial discretization approach and the preconditioning strategy employed for extended MHD in PIXIE3D. We will report on recent benchmarking studies between PIXIE3D and other 3D extended MHD codes, and will demonstrate its usefulness in a variety of fusion-relevant configurations such as Tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches. (Author)
Modeling 3D faces from samplings via compressive sensing
Sun, Qi; Tang, Yanlong; Hu, Ping
2013-07-01
3D data is easier to acquire for family entertainment purpose today because of the mass-production, cheapness and portability of domestic RGBD sensors, e.g., Microsoft Kinect. However, the accuracy of facial modeling is affected by the roughness and instability of the raw input data from such sensors. To overcome this problem, we introduce compressive sensing (CS) method to build a novel 3D super-resolution scheme to reconstruct high-resolution facial models from rough samples captured by Kinect. Unlike the simple frame fusion super-resolution method, this approach aims to acquire compressed samples for storage before a high-resolution image is produced. In this scheme, depth frames are firstly captured and then each of them is measured into compressed samples using sparse coding. Next, the samples are fused to produce an optimal one and finally a high-resolution image is recovered from the fused sample. This framework is able to recover 3D facial model of a given user from compressed simples and this can reducing storage space as well as measurement cost in future devices e.g., single-pixel depth cameras. Hence, this work can potentially be applied into future applications, such as access control system using face recognition, and smart phones with depth cameras, which need high resolution and little measure time.
Prototype coupling of the CFD code ANSYS CFX with the 3D neutron kinetic core model DYN3D
Analyses of postulated reactivity initiated accidents in nuclear reactors are carried out using 3D neutron kinetic core models. The feedback is usually calculated using 1D thermal hydraulic models for channel flow, partly with the possibility of cross flow between these channels. A different possibility is the use of subchannel codes for the determination of the feedback. The code DYN3D developed at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is an example for a 3D neutron kinetic core model. In its basic version, the code contains models for the solution of the 3D neutron diffusion equation in two energy groups for fuel assemblies with rectangular and hexagonal cross section. Recently the code was extended to an arbitrary number of energy groups. Further, a simplified transport approximation for the flux calculation was implemented for fuel assemblies with quadratic cross section. The CFD code ANSYS CFX is the reference CFD code of the German CFD Network in Nuclear Reactor Safety. One of the goals of the co-operation inside this network is the development of CFD software for the simulation of multi-dimensional flows in reactor cooling systems. This includes the coupling of the CFD code ANSYS CFX with the 3D neutron kinetic core model DYN3D. (orig.)
Chaufray, J.-Y.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Forget, F.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Leblanc, F.; Modolo, R.; Hess, S.
2015-01-01
We present the temporal variability of the atomic and molecular hydrogen density derived from a 3D General Circulation Model describing the martian atmosphere from the surface to the exobase. A kinetic exospheric model is used to compute the hydrogen density above the exobase. We use these models to study the diurnal and seasonal variations of the hydrogen density and the Jeans escape rate as well as their variations with solar activity, assuming a classic dust scenario. We find that the diurnal variations of the hydrogen density are important with a peak in the dawn region during equinoxes and a peak on the nightside during solstices. These features result from the dynamics of the martian upper atmosphere. The variations of the atomic hydrogen Jeans escape with seasons and solar activity are in the range 1.3 × 1025 s-1-4.4 × 1026 s-1. A factor ∼8 is due to the seasonal variations with a maximum during the winter solstice in the northern hemisphere and a minimum during the summer solstice in the northern hemisphere that we attribute to the variation of the Mars-Sun distance. A factor ∼5 is due to the solar cycle with a maximum escape rate at high solar activity. The variations of the molecular hydrogen Jeans escape with seasons and solar activity are in the range 3 × 1022 s-1-6 × 1024 s-1. A factor ∼10 is due to the seasonal variations with a maximum during the winter solstice in the northern hemisphere and a minimum during the summer solstice in the northern hemisphere. A factor ∼20 is due to the solar cycle with a maximum escape rate at high solar activity. If Jeans escape is the major escape channel for hydrogen, the hydrogen escape is never limited by diffusion. The hydrogen density above 10,000 km presents seasonal and solar cycle variations similar to the Jeans escape rate at all latitudes and local times. This 3D temporal model of the hydrogen thermosphere/exosphere will be useful to interpret future MAVEN observations and the consequences of the
3D-printer visualization of neuron models
Robert A McDougal
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Neurons come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. In a quest to understand this neuronal diversity, researchers have three-dimensionally traced tens of thousands of neurons; many of these tracings are freely available through online repositories like NeuroMorpho.Org and ModelDB. Tracings can be visualized on the computer screen, used for statistical analysis of the properties of different cell types, used to simulate neuronal behavior, and more. We introduce the use of 3D printing as a technique for visualizing traced morphologies. Our method for generating printable versions of a cell or group of cells is to expand dendrite and axon diameters and then to transform the wireframe tracing into a 3D object with a neuronal surface generating algorithm like Constructive Tessellated Neuronal Geometry (CTNG. We show that 3D printed cells can be readily examined, manipulated, and compared with other neurons to gain insight into both the biology and the reconstruction process. We share our printable models in a new database, 3DModelDB, and encourage others to do the same with cells that they generate using our code or other methods. To provide additional context, 3DModelDB provides a simulatable version of each cell, links to papers that use or describe it, and links to associated entries in other databases.
Right approach to 3D modeling using CAD tools
Baddam, Mounica Reddy
The thesis provides a step-by-step methodology to enable an instructor dealing with CAD tools to optimally guide his/her students through an understandable 3D modeling approach which will not only enhance their knowledge about the tool's usage but also enable them to achieve their desired result in comparatively lesser time. In the known practical field, there is particularly very little information available to apply CAD skills to formal beginners' training sessions. Additionally, advent of new software in 3D domain cumulates updating into a more difficult task. Keeping up to the industry's advanced requirements emphasizes the importance of more skilled hands in the field of CAD development, rather than just prioritizing manufacturing in terms of complex software features. The thesis analyses different 3D modeling approaches specified to the varieties of CAD tools currently available in the market. Utilizing performance-time databases, learning curves have been generated to measure their performance time, feature count etc. Based on the results, improvement parameters have also been provided for (Asperl, 2005).
Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems
K. Yüksek
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform (DTP with spatial data and query processing capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized Directional Replacement Policy (DRP based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in Digital Surface Modeling (DSM and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g. X3-D and VRML and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.
Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems
Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.
2016-01-01
In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.
3D climate modeling of Earth-like extrasolar planets orbiting different types of host stars
Godolt, M; Hamann-Reinus, A; Kitzmann, D; Kunze, M; Langematz, U; von Paris, P; Patzer, A B C; Rauer, H; Stracke, B
2015-01-01
The potential habitability of a terrestrial planet is usually defined by the possible existence of liquid water on its surface. The potential presence of liquid water depends on many factors such as, most importantly, surface temperatures. The properties of the planetary atmosphere and its interaction with the radiative energy provided by the planet's host star are thereby of decisive importance. In this study we investigate the influence of different main-sequence stars upon the climate of Earth-like extrasolar planets and their potential habitability by applying a 3D Earth climate model accounting for local and dynamical processes. The calculations have been performed for planets with Earth-like atmospheres at orbital distances where the total amount of energy received from the various host stars equals the solar constant. In contrast to previous 3D modeling studies, we include the effect of ozone radiative heating upon the vertical temperature structure of the atmospheres. The global orbital mean results o...
Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering
Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.
2016-06-01
This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
3D Geologic Model of the San Diego Area
Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.
2015-12-01
Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative model characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a model limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation models to develop a 3D geologic model of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this model, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the model by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The 3D geologic model corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.
Etruscans in 3D - Surveying and 3D modeling for a better access and understanding of heritage -
B. Jiménez Fernández-Palacios; Rizzi., A; F. Remondino
2013-01-01
Archaeological 3D digital documentation of monuments and historical sites should be considered a precious source of information and it can be very useful for preservation, conservation, restoration and reconstruction of Cultural Heritage. This paper reports a work dealing with 3D surveying and modeling of different Etruscan heritage sites, featuring necropolis with underground frescoed tombs dating back to VII-IV century B.C., located in the area corresponding roughly to the actual central It...
3D computer model of the VINCY cyclotron magnet
The VINCY Cyclotron magnetic field simulation was performed with the help of the three-dimensional (3D) software. The following aspects of the system were considered: 3D calculation of the magnetic field in the median plane, 3D calculation of the magnetic field in the extraction region, 3D calculation of the stray magnetic field. 8 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs
3D Massive MIMO Systems: Channel Modeling and Performance Analysis
Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain
2015-03-01
Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems of current LTE releases are capable of adaptation in the azimuth only. More recently, the trend is to enhance the system performance by exploiting the channel\\'s degrees of freedom in the elevation through the dynamic adaptation of the vertical antenna beam pattern. This necessitates the derivation and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) channels. Over the years, channel models have evolved to address the challenges of wireless communication technologies. In parallel to theoretical studies on channel modeling, many standardized channel models like COST-based models, 3GPP SCM, WINNER, ITU have emerged that act as references for industries and telecommunication companies to assess system-level and link-level performances of advanced signal processing techniques over real-like channels. Given the existing channels are only two dimensional (2D) in nature; a large effort in channel modeling is needed to study the impact of the channel component in the elevation direction. The first part of this work sheds light on the current 3GPP activity around 3D channel modeling and beamforming, an aspect that to our knowledge has not been extensively covered by a research publication. The standardized MIMO channel model is presented, that incorporates both the propagation effects of the environment and the radio effects of the antennas. In order to facilitate future studies on the use of 3D beamforming, the main features of the proposed 3D channel model are discussed. A brief overview of the future 3GPP 3D channel model being outlined for the next generation of wireless networks is also provided. In the subsequent part of this work, we present an information-theoretic channel model for MIMO systems that supports the elevation dimension. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy, which enables us to determine the distribution of the channel matrix consistent with the prior information on the angles of departure and
Subduction zone guided waves: 3D modelling and attenuation effects
Garth, T.; Rietbrock, A.
2013-12-01
Waveform modelling is an important tool for understanding complex seismic structures such as subduction zone waveguides. These structures are often simplified to 2D structures for modelling purposes to reduce computational costs. In the case of subduction zone waveguide affects, 2D models have shown that dispersed arrivals are caused by a low velocity waveguide, inferred to be subducted oceanic crust and/or hydrated outer rise normal faults. However, due to the 2D modelling limitations the inferred seismic properties such as velocity contrast and waveguide thickness are still debated. Here we test these limitations with full 3D waveform modelling. For waveguide effects to be observable the waveform must be accurately modelled to relatively high frequencies (> 2 Hz). This requires a small grid spacing due to the high seismic velocities present in subduction zones. A large area must be modelled as well due to the long propagation distances (400 - 600 km) of waves interacting with subduction zone waveguides. The combination of the large model area and small grid spacing required means that these simulations require a large amount of computational resources, only available at high performance computational centres like the UK National super computer HECTOR (used in this study). To minimize the cost of modelling for such a large area, the width of the model area perpendicular to the subduction trench (the y-direction) is made as small as possible. This reduces the overall volume of the 3D model domain. Therefore the wave field is simulated in a model ';corridor' of the subduction zone velocity structure. This introduces new potential sources of error particularly from grazing wave side reflections in the y-direction. Various dampening methods are explored to reduce these grazing side reflections, including perfectly matched layers (PML) and more traditional exponential dampening layers. Defining a corridor model allows waveguide affects to be modelled up to at least 2
Image-Based 3D Face Modeling System
Vladimir Vezhnevets
2005-08-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an automatic system for 3D face modeling using frontal and profile images taken by an ordinary digital camera. The system consists of four subsystems including frontal feature detection, profile feature detection, shape deformation, and texture generation modules. The frontal and profile feature detection modules automatically extract the facial parts such as the eye, nose, mouth, and ear. The shape deformation module utilizes the detected features to deform the generic head mesh model such that the deformed model coincides with the detected features. A texture is created by combining the facial textures augmented from the input images and the synthesized texture and mapped onto the deformed generic head model. This paper provides a practical system for 3D face modeling, which is highly automated by aggregating, customizing, and optimizing a bunch of individual computer vision algorithms. The experimental results show a highly automated process of modeling, which is sufficiently robust to various imaging conditions. The whole model creation including all the optional manual corrections takes only 2Ã¢ÂˆÂ¼3 minutes.
Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.
2015-03-01
During image segmentation, 3D Statistical Shape Models (SSM) usually conduct a limited search for target landmarks within one-dimensional search profiles perpendicular to the model surface. In addition, landmark appearance is modeled only locally based on linear profiles and weak learners, altogether leading to segmentation errors from landmark ambiguities and limited search coverage. We present a new method for 3D SSM segmentation based on 3D Random Forest Regression Voting. For each surface landmark, a Random Regression Forest is trained that learns a 3D spatial displacement function between the according reference landmark and a set of surrounding sample points, based on an infinite set of non-local randomized 3D Haar-like features. Landmark search is then conducted omni-directionally within 3D search spaces, where voxelwise forest predictions on landmark position contribute to a common voting map which reflects the overall position estimate. Segmentation experiments were conducted on a set of 45 CT volumes of the human liver, of which 40 images were randomly chosen for training and 5 for testing. Without parameter optimization, using a simple candidate selection and a single resolution approach, excellent results were achieved, while faster convergence and better concavity segmentation were observed, altogether underlining the potential of our approach in terms of increased robustness from distinct landmark detection and from better search coverage.
Line defects in the 3d Ising model
Billó, M; Gaiotto, D; Gliozzi, F; Meineri, M; Pellegrini, R
2013-01-01
We investigate the properties of the twist line defect in the critical 3d Ising model using Monte Carlo simulations. In this model the twist line defect is the boundary of a surface of frustrated links or, in a dual description, the Wilson line of the Z2 gauge theory. We test the hypothesis that the twist line defect flows to a conformal line defect at criticality and evaluate numerically the low-lying spectrum of anomalous dimensions of the local operators which live on the defect as well as mixed correlation functions of local operators in the bulk and on the defect.
Towards Forward Modeling of 3D Heterogeneity in D" region
To, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Romanowicz, B.
2002-12-01
The presence of strong lateral heterogeneity in D" is now well documented. While tomographic modeling provides constraints on the large scale patterns, strong variations on shorter scales are best addressed by forward modeling. Appropriate tools are needed for forward modeling that will handle strong 3D heterogeneity, at relatively short periods and including diffracted waves. We use a coupled mode/SEM (Spectral Element Method) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3D models of the D" layer down to 1/12s. This coupled method (Capdeville, 2001) affords faster computations than SEM in cases where heterogeneity can be restricted to a specific layer. We compare them with observed waveforms for several events in the Western Pacific. Observed and synthetic travel time trends are very consistent, although in most cases the observed residuals are significantly larger. Waveform amplitudes are less consistent. In order to understand the origin of the amplitude difference, we test the effect of 3D heterogeneity on Sdiff phase. In particular, the results show opposite trends in the amplitude of Sdiff due to heterogeneity located near the CMB or well above it. This provides constraints on the location of the causative velocity heterogeneity. Because the forward modeling approach requires many iterations, the coupled mode/SEM approach is still computationally intensive. It is more efficient to use a less accurate traditional approach to first get closer to a final model, and only then use coupled mode/SEM to refine the model. Ray theory is the most expedient way to calculate travel times. However, it is an infinite frequency approximation and not appropriate to handle diffracting waves. We show that ray theory predicts larger travel time anomaly for Sdiff phase than the one obtained by coupled mode/SEM. Although it is based on a weak heterogeneity assumption, Non-linear Asymptotic Coupling Theory(NACT) (Li and Romanowicz, 1995) helps to overcome this difficulty. It can handle
On Angular Sampling Methods for 3-D Spatial Channel Models
Fan, Wei; Jämsä, Tommi; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund
2015-01-01
This paper discusses generating three dimensional (3D) spatial channel models with emphasis on the angular sampling methods. Three angular sampling methods, i.e. modified uniform power sampling, modified uniform angular sampling, and random pairing methods are proposed and investigated in detail....... The random pairing method, which uses only twenty sinusoids in the ray-based model for generating the channels, presents good results if the spatial channel cluster is with a small elevation angle spread. For spatial clusters with large elevation angle spreads, however, the random pairing method would...
Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques
Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.
2015-08-01
The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.
3-D Rigid Models from Partial Views - Global Factorization
Aguiar, Pedro M Q; Gonçalves, Bruno B
2010-01-01
The so-called factorization methods recover 3-D rigid structure from motion by factorizing an observation matrix that collects 2-D projections of features. These methods became popular due to their robustness - they use a large number of views, which constrains adequately the solution - and computational simplicity - the large number of unknowns is computed through an SVD, avoiding non-linear optimization. However, they require that all the entries of the observation matrix are known. This is unlikely to happen in practice, due to self-occlusion and limited field of view. Also, when processing long videos, regions that become occluded often appear again later. Current factorization methods process these as new regions, leading to less accurate estimates of 3-D structure. In this paper, we propose a global factorization method that infers complete 3-D models directly from the 2-D projections in the entire set of available video frames. Our method decides whether a region that has become visible is a region tha...
Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling
Novak, Roman
2016-09-01
Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.
Simulation of current generation in a 3-D plasma model
Two wires carrying current in the same direction will attract each other, and two wires carrying current in the opposite direction will repel each other. Now, consider a test charge in a plasma. If the test charge carries current parallel to the plasma, then it will be pulled toward the plasma core, and if the test charge carries current anti-parallel to the plasma, then it will be pushed to the edge. The electromagnetic coupling between the plasma and a test charge (i.e., the Aparallel circ vparallel term in the test charge's Hamiltonian) breaks the symmetry in the parallel direction, and gives rise to a diffusion coefficient which is dependent on the particle's parallel velocity. This is the basis for the open-quotes preferential lossclose quotes mechanism described in the work by Nunan et al. In our previous 2+1/2 D work, in both cylindrical and toroidal geometries, showed that if the plasma column is centrally fueled, then an initial current increases steadily. The results in straight, cylindrical plasmas showed that self generated parallel current arises without trapped particle or neoclassical diffusion, as assumed by the bootstrap theory. It suggests that the fundamental mechanism seems to be the conservation of particles canonical momenta in the direction of the ignorable coordinate. We have extended the simulation to 3D to verify the model put forth. A scalable 3D EM-PIC code, with a localized field-solver, has been implemented to run on a large class of parallel computers. On the 512-node SP2 at Cornell Theory Center, we have benchmarked the 2+1/2 D calculations using 32 grids in the previously ignored direction, and a 100-fold increase in the number of particles. Our preliminary results show good agreements between the 2+1/2 D and the 3D calculations. We will present our 3D results at the meeting
Testing Mercury Porosimetry with 3D Printed Porosity Models
Hasiuk, F.; Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.
2014-12-01
Mercury intrusion porosimetry is one of the most widely used techniques to study the porous nature of a geological and man-made materials. In the geosciences, it is commonly used to describe petroleum reservoir and seal rocks as well as to grade aggregates for the design of asphalt and portland cement concretes. It's wide utility stems from its ability to characterize a wide range of pore throat sizes (from nanometers to around a millimeter). The fundamental physical model underlying mercury intrusion porosimetry, the Washburn Equation, is based on the assumption that rock porosity can be described as a bundle of cylindrical tubes. 3D printing technology, also known as rapid prototyping, allows the construction of intricate and accurate models, exactly what is required to build models of rock porosity. We evaluate the applicability of the Washburn Equation by comparing properties (like porosity, pore and pore throat size distribution, and surface area) computed on digital porosity models (built from CT data, CAD designs, or periodic geometries) to properties measured via mercury intrusion porosimetry on 3D printed versions of the same digital porosity models.
Inferring 3D Articulated Models for Box Packaging Robot
Yang, Heran; Cong, Matthew; Saxena, Ashutosh
2011-01-01
Given a point cloud, we consider inferring kinematic models of 3D articulated objects such as boxes for the purpose of manipulating them. While previous work has shown how to extract a planar kinematic model (often represented as a linear chain), such planar models do not apply to 3D objects that are composed of segments often linked to the other segments in cyclic configurations. We present an approach for building a model that captures the relation between the input point cloud features and the object segment as well as the relation between the neighboring object segments. We use a conditional random field that allows us to model the dependencies between different segments of the object. We test our approach on inferring the kinematic structure from partial and noisy point cloud data for a wide variety of boxes including cake boxes, pizza boxes, and cardboard cartons of several sizes. The inferred structure enables our robot to successfully close these boxes by manipulating the flaps.
3D model tools for architecture and archaeology reconstruction
Vlad, Ioan; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Stoian, Mircea; Vilceanu, Clara-Beatrice
2016-06-01
The main objective of architectural and patrimonial survey is to provide a precise documentation of the status quo of the surveyed objects (monuments, buildings, archaeological object and sites) for preservation and protection, for scientific studies and restoration purposes, for the presentation to the general public. Cultural heritage documentation includes an interdisciplinary approach having as purpose an overall understanding of the object itself and an integration of the information which characterize it. The accuracy and the precision of the model are directly influenced by the quality of the measurements realized on field and by the quality of the software. The software is in the process of continuous development, which brings many improvements. On the other side, compared to aerial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry and particularly architectural photogrammetry is not limited to vertical photographs with special cameras. The methodology of terrestrial photogrammetry has changed significantly and various photographic acquisitions are widely in use. In this context, the present paper brings forward a comparative study of TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and digital photogrammetry for 3D modeling. The authors take into account the accuracy of the 3D models obtained, the overall costs involved for each technology and method and the 4th dimension - time. The paper proves its applicability as photogrammetric technologies are nowadays used at a large scale for obtaining the 3D model of cultural heritage objects, efficacious in their assessment and monitoring, thus contributing to historic conservation. Its importance also lies in highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method used - very important issue for both the industrial and scientific segment when facing decisions such as in which technology to invest more research and funds.
Exploiting Textured 3D Models for Developing Serious Games
Kontogianni, G.; Georgopoulos, A.
2015-08-01
Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic 3D textured models which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how 3D textured models which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The 3D models used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc.) is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these models were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.
The Engelbourg's ruins: from 3D TLS point cloud acquisition to 3D virtual and historic models
Koehl, Mathieu; Berger, Solveig; Nobile, Sylvain
2014-05-01
The Castle of Engelbourg was built at the beginning of the 13th century, at the top of the Schlossberg. It is situated on the territory of the municipality of Thann (France), at the crossroads of Alsace and Lorraine, and dominates the outlet of the valley of Thur. Its strategic position was one of the causes of its systematic destructions during the 17th century, and Louis XIV finished his fate by ordering his demolition in 1673. Today only few vestiges remain, of which a section of the main tower from about 7m of diameter and 4m of wide laying on its slice, unique characteristic in the regional castral landscape. It is visible since the valley, was named "the Eye of the witch", and became a key attraction of the region. The site, which extends over approximately one hectare, is for several years the object of numerous archaeological studies and is at the heart of a project of valuation of the vestiges today. It was indeed a key objective, among the numerous planned works, to realize a 3D model of the site in its current state, in other words, a virtual model "such as seized", exploitable as well from a cultural and tourist point of view as by scientists and in archaeological researches. The team of the ICube/INSA lab had in responsibility the realization of this model, the acquisition of the data until the delivery of the virtual model, thanks to 3D TLS and topographic surveying methods. It was also planned to integrate into this 3D model, data of 2D archives, stemming from series of former excavations. The objectives of this project were the following ones: • Acquisition of 3D digital data of the site and 3D modelling • Digitization of the 2D archaeological data and integration in the 3D model • Implementation of a database connected to the 3D model • Virtual Visit of the site The obtained results allowed us to visualize every 3D object individually, under several forms (point clouds, 3D meshed objects and models, etc.) and at several levels of detail
Computational Modelling of Piston Ring Dynamics in 3D
Dlugoš Jozef
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Advanced computational models of a piston assembly based on the level of virtual prototypes require a detailed description of piston ring behaviour. Considering these requirements, the piston rings operate in regimes that cannot, in general, be simplified into an axisymmetric model. The piston and the cylinder liner do not have a perfect round shape, mainly due to machining tolerances and external thermo-mechanical loads. If the ring cannot follow the liner deformations, a local loss of contact occurs resulting in blow-by and increased consumption of lubricant oil in the engine. Current computational models are unable to implement such effects. The paper focuses on the development of a flexible 3D piston ring model based on the Timoshenko beam theory using the multibody system (MBS. The MBS model is compared to the finite element method (FEM solution.
Full Text Available BodyParts3D Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) Data detail Data name Table of 3D organ model... IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) Description of data contents List of downloadable 3D organ models in a... tab-delimited text file format, describing the correspondence between 3D organ model...e Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...
Full Text Available BodyParts3D Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) Data detail Data name Table of 3D organ model... IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) Description of data contents List of downloadable 3D organ model...s in a tab-delimited text file format, describing the correspondence between 3D organ model...ntact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...
3-D numerical modeling of methane hydrate deposits
Pinero, Elena; W. Rottke; Fuchs, T.; Hensen, Christian; Haeckel, Matthias; Wallmann, Klaus
2011-01-01
Within the German gas hydrate initiative SUGAR, we have developed a new tool for predicting the formation of sub-seafloor gas hydrate deposits. For this purpose, a new 2D/3D module simulating the biogenic generation of methane from organic material and the formation of gas hydrates has been added to the petroleum systems modeling software package PetroMod®. T ypically, PetroMod® simulates the thermogenic generation of multiple hydrocarbon components including oil and gas, their migration t...
3D simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation model
Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing
2014-12-01
We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) model with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed dynamically in the form of a three-dimensional (3D) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded dynamically. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.
Tracking topological entity changes in 3D collaborative modeling systems
ChengYuan; He Fazhi; HuangZhiyong; Cai Xiantao; and Zhang Dejun
2012-01-01
One of the key problems in collaborative geometric modeling systems is topological entity correspondence when topolog- ical structure of geometry models on collaborative sites changes, ha this article, we propose a solution for tracking topological entity alterations in 3D collaborative modeling environment. We firstly make a thorough analysis and detailed categorization on the altera- tion properties and causations for each type of topological entity, namely topological face and topological edge. Based on collabora- tive topological entity naming mechanism, a data structure called TEST （Topological Entity Structure Tree） is introduced to track the changing history and current state of each topological entity, to embody the relationship among topological entities. Rules and algo- rithms are presented for identification of topological entities referenced by operations for correct execution and model consistency. The algorithm has been verified within the prototype we have implemented with ACIS.
Quasi-3D navier-stokes model for rotating airfoil
Wen Zhong Shen; Noerkaer Soerensen, J.
1999-02-01
A quasi-3D model of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations in a rotating frame of reference has been developed. The equations governing the flow past a rotating blade are approximated using an order of magnitude analysis on the spanwise derivatives. The model takes into account rotational effects and spanwise outflow at computing expenses in the order of what is typical for similar 2D calculations. Results are presented for both laminar and turbulent flows past blades in pure rotation. In the turbulent case the influence of small-scale turbulence is modelled by the one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model. The computations demonstrate that the main influence of rotation is to increase the maximum lift. (au) 18 refs.
3D Massive MIMO Systems: Modeling and Performance Analysis
Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain
2015-07-30
Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems of current LTE releases are capable of adaptation in the azimuth only. Recently, the trend is to enhance system performance by exploiting the channel’s degrees of freedom in the elevation, which necessitates the characterization of 3D channels. We present an information-theoretic channel model for MIMO systems that supports the elevation dimension. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy, which enables us to determine the distribution of the channel matrix consistent with the prior information on the angles. Based on this model, we provide analytical expression for the cumulative density function (CDF) of the mutual information (MI) for systems with a single receive and finite number of transmit antennas in the general signalto- interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) regime. The result is extended to systems with finite receive antennas in the low SINR regime. A Gaussian approximation to the asymptotic behavior of MI distribution is derived for the large number of transmit antennas and paths regime. We corroborate our analysis with simulations that study the performance gains realizable through meticulous selection of the transmit antenna downtilt angles, confirming the potential of elevation beamforming to enhance system performance. The results are directly applicable to the analysis of 5G 3D-Massive MIMO-systems.
3D MODELING OF THE ARCHAIC AMPHORAS OF IONIA
A. Denker
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Few other regions offer such a rich collection of amphoras than the cities of Ionia. Throughout history amphoras of these cities had been spread all over the Mediterranean. Despite their common characteristics, amphora manufacturing cities of Ionia had their own distinctive styles that can be identified. They differed in details of shape and decoration. Each city produced an authentic type of amphora which served as a trademark of itself and enabled its attribution to where it originated from. That’s why, amphoras provide important insight into commerce of old ages and yield evidence into ancient sailing routes. Owing to this our knowledge of the ancient trade is profoundly enriched. The following is based on the finds of amphoras which originated from the Ionian cities of Chios, Clazomenai, Lesbos, Miletus, and Samos. Starting from city-specific forms which offer interpretative advantages in provenancing, this article surveys the salient features of the regional forms and styles of the those Ionian cities. 3D modeling is utilized with the aim of bringing fresh glimpses of the investigated amphoras by showing how they originally looked. Due to their virtual indestructibility these models offer interpretative advantages by enabling experimental testing of hypotheses upon the finds without risking them. The 3D models in the following sections were reconstructed from numerous fragments of necks, handles, body sherds and bases. They convey in color- unlike the monochrome drawings which we were accustomed to-the texture, decoration, tint and the vitality of the amphoras of Ionia.
Canada in 3D - Toward a Sustainable 3D Model for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources
Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.
2015-12-01
Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological model that would serve as a framework. However, such a model is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in 3D" (C3D) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C3D is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, 3D and 2D geological models, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the modeling process, are imported into the C3D database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant model is managed in the database, contains full modeling provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C3D will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.
Comparative 3-D Modeling of tmRNA
Wower Iwona
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trans-translation releases stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs and tags defective proteins for proteolytic degradation using transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA. This small stable RNA represents a hybrid of tRNA- and mRNA-like domains connected by a variable number of pseudoknots. Comparative sequence analysis of tmRNAs found in bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria provides considerable insights into their secondary structures. Progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of template switching, which constitutes an essential step in trans-translation, is hampered by our limited knowledge about the three-dimensional folding of tmRNA. Results To facilitate experimental testing of the molecular intricacies of trans-translation, which often require appropriately modified tmRNA derivatives, we developed a procedure for building three-dimensional models of tmRNA. Using comparative sequence analysis, phylogenetically-supported 2-D structures were obtained to serve as input for the program ERNA-3D. Motifs containing loops and turns were extracted from the known structures of other RNAs and used to improve the tmRNA models. Biologically feasible 3-D models for the entire tmRNA molecule could be obtained. The models were characterized by a functionally significant close proximity between the tRNA-like domain and the resume codon. Potential conformational changes which might lead to a more open structure of tmRNA upon binding to the ribosome are discussed. The method, described in detail for the tmRNAs of Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, and Caulobacter crescentus, is applicable to every tmRNA. Conclusion Improved molecular models of biological significance were obtained. These models will guide in the design of experiments and provide a better understanding of trans-translation. The comparative procedure described here for tmRNA is easily adopted for the modeling the members of other RNA families.
Coupling of the advanced thermohydraulic code ATHLET with the 3D-core model DYN3D
Two strategies of coupling are described: (i) the use of only the neutron kinetic part of DYN3D integrated into the heat transfer and heat conduction model of ATHLET; (ii) complete modeling of the core by DYN3D. Implementation of the coupling is described and the advantages and disadvantages of the two ways of coupling are discussed. Test calculations were carried out for both versions of the coupled codes and compared with pure ATHLET calculations. After validation the code complex will be a powerful instrument for safety analyses of WWER type reactors. (J.B.) 2 figs., 6 refs
Focus for 3D city models should be on interoperability
Bodum, Lars; Kjems, Erik; Jaegly, Marie Michele Helena;
2006-01-01
development of a system called GRIFINOR, that can handle multidimensional geographic objects as Java-objects. GRIFINOR is a new platform for 3D geovisualization. The purpose of the GRIFINOR platform is to provide researchers and developers with an open source platform, a counterpart to proprietary......-specific purposes. The trend until now has shown that municipalities and developers in most cases have given high priority to the visual impact of these models. It has been more important for the cities to obtain a model that gave a high degree of verisimilarity in contrast to a model that had a high degree of...... developments in Geographical Exploration Systems. Centralized and proprietary Geographical Exploration Systems only give us their own perspective on the world. On the contrary, GRIFINOR is decentralized and available for everyone to use, empowering people to promote their own world vision....
3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes
Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.
2008-12-01
DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.
Modeling Tree Crown Dynamics with 3D Partial Differential Equations
Robert eBeyer
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth towards light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications.
3D density model of the Central Andes
Prezzi, Claudia B.; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine
2009-12-01
We developed a 3D density model of the continental crust, the subducted plate and the upper mantle of the Central Andes between 20-29°S and 74-61°W through the forward modelling of Bouguer anomaly. The goal of this contribution is to gain insight on the lithospheric structure integrating the available information (geophysical, geologic, petrologic, and geochemical) in a single model. The geometry of our model is defined and constrained by hypocentre location, reflection and refraction on and offshore seismic lines, travel time and attenuation tomography, receiver function analysis, magnetotelluric studies, thermal models and balanced structural cross-sections. The densities allocated to the different bodies are calculated considering petrologic and geochemical data and pressure and temperature conditions. The model consists of 31 parallel E-W vertical planes, where the continental crust comprises distinct bodies, which represent the different morphotectonic units of the Central Andes. We include a partial melting zone at midcrustal depths under the Altiplano-Puna (low-velocity zone) and consider the presence of a rheologically strong block beneath the Salar de Atacama basin, according to recent seismic studies. Contour maps of the depth of the continental Moho, the thickness of the lower crust and the depth to the bottom of the lithosphere below South America are produced. The possible percentage of partial melt in the Central Andes low-velocity zone is estimated. The residual anomaly is calculated by subtracting from the Bouguer anomaly the gravimetric effect of the modelled subducted slab and of the modelled Moho. Isostatic anomalies are calculated from regional and local isostatic Mohos calculated with and without internal loads, derived from our gravity model, which are then compared to the modelled continental Moho. This study contributes to a more detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure of this region of the Andes and provides an integrated 3D
Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim
2014-05-01
The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web
Uznir, U.; Anton, François; Suhaibah, A.;
2013-01-01
The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using...
A 3D Bubble Merger Model for RTI Mixing
Cheng, Baolian
2015-11-01
In this work we present a model for the merger processes of bubbles at the edge of an unstable acceleration driven mixing layer. Steady acceleration defines a self-similar mixing process, with a time-dependent inverse cascade of structures of increasing size. The time evolution is itself a renormalization group evolution. The model predicts the growth rate of a Rayleigh-Taylor chaotic fluid-mixing layer. The 3-D model differs from the 2-D merger model in several important ways. Beyond the extension of the model to three dimensions, the model contains one phenomenological parameter, the variance of the bubble radii at fixed time. The model also predicts several experimental numbers: the bubble mixing rate, the mean bubble radius, and the bubble height separation at the time of merger. From these we also obtain the bubble height to the radius aspect ratio, which is in good agreement with experiments. Applications to recent NIF and Omega experiments will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.
3D model generation using an airborne swarm
Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Macdonald, M.; Bolton, G.
2015-03-01
Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm's computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.
3D model generation using an airborne swarm
Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm’s computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced
3D model generation using an airborne swarm
Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Macdonald, M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G. [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Bolton, G. [National Nuclear Laboratory Limited, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom)
2015-03-31
Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm’s computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.
The Use of Satellite Data in the Operational 3D Coupled Ecosystem Model of the Baltic Sea (3D Cembs
Nowicki Artur
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present an automatic monitoring system for the 3D CEMBS model in the operational version. This predictive, eco hydrodynamic model is used as a tool to control the conditions and bio productivity of the Baltic sea environment and to forecast physical and ecological changes in the studied basin. Satellite-measured data assimilation is used to constrain the model and achieve higher accuracy of its results.
Barker, Howard W.; Kato, Serji; Wehr, T.
2012-01-01
The main point of this study was to use realistic representations of cloudy atmospheres to assess errors in solar flux estimates associated with 1D radiative transfer models. A scene construction algorithm, developed for the EarthCARE satellite mission, was applied to CloudSat, CALIPSO, and MODIS satellite data thus producing 3D cloudy atmospheres measuring 60 km wide by 13,000 km long at 1 km grid-spacing. Broadband solar fluxes and radiances for each (1 km)2 column where then produced by a Monte Carlo photon transfer model run in both full 3D and independent column approximation mode (i.e., a 1D model).
Coupling of the 3D neutron kinetic core model DYN3D with the CFD software ANSYS-CFX
Highlights: • Improved thermal hydraulic description of nuclear reactor cores. • Possibility of three-dimensional flow phenomena in the core, such as cross flow, flow reversal, flow around obstacles. • Simulation at higher spatial resolution as compared to system codes. - Abstract: This article presents the implementation of a coupling between the 3D neutron kinetic core model DYN3D and the commercial, general purpose computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-CFX. In the coupling approach, parts of the thermal hydraulic calculation are transferred to CFX for its better ability to simulate the three-dimensional coolant redistribution in the reactor core region. The calculation of the heat transfer from the fuel into the coolant remains with DYN3D, which incorporates well tested and validated heat transfer models for rod-type fuel elements. On the CFX side, the core region is modeled based on the porous body approach. The implementation of the code coupling is verified by comparing test case results with reference solutions of the DYN3D standalone version. Test cases cover mini and full core geometries, control rod movement and partial overcooling transients
3D reconstruction of porous electrodes and microstructure modelling
Joos, Jochen; Rueger, Bernd; Weber, Andre; Ivers-Tiffee, Ellen [Karlsruher Institute fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik (IWE); Carraro, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Mathematik
2010-07-01
The performance of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is limited by electrode polarisation processes, depending both on material composition and microstructure characteristics. To understand and improve electrode performance, a detailed knowledge of the electrode microstructure is essential. Recent developments in 3D image reconstruction combined with Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques proved a way to achieve highly detailed microstructural data. From this data the determination of valuable microstructural parameters is possible. The microstructure is commonly described by parameters as volume/porosity fraction, tortuosity of pores/materal (or: tortuosity of electronic and ionic transport in 2-phase materials), three-phase boundary length (electronic conducting electrodes) or electrode surface area (mixed conducting electrodes). Based on these parameters and with the help of adequate models, the electrode performance can be estimated. It is obvious that the accurateness of the model prediction depends on the quality of the parameters. Different groups reported first trials in the reconstruction of SOFC electrodes by FIB/SEM methods. They all used the reconstruction to calculate microstructural parameters. But nevertheless a lot of questions remain, primarily questions concerning the accuracy of the reconstruction or the minimum size of the volume that has to be reconstructed to obtain meaningful results. In this contribution, a ZEISS 1540XB CrossBeam {sup registered} was used to provide over 700 consecutive images of a porous LSCF (La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}CO{sub 0.2.}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}})-cathode. The calculation of the key microstructural parameters (i) volume/porosity fraction (ii) electrode surface area and (iii) tortuosity of pores and material from 3D FIB/SEM-data will be presented. Additionally the influence of the reconstruction-volume on the calculated parameters will be discussed. Also the presented technique is
3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups
Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.
2014-01-01
Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…
Beyond Virtual Replicas: 3D Modeling and Maltese Prehistoric Architecture
Filippo Stanco
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the past decade, computer graphics have become strategic for the development of projects aimed at the interpretation of archaeological evidence and the dissemination of scientific results to the public. Among all the solutions available, the use of 3D models is particularly relevant for the reconstruction of poorly preserved sites and monuments destroyed by natural causes or human actions. These digital replicas are, at the same time, a virtual environment that can be used as a tool for the interpretative hypotheses of archaeologists and as an effective medium for a visual description of the cultural heritage. In this paper, the innovative methodology and aims and outcomes of a virtual reconstruction of the Borg in-Nadur megalithic temple, carried out by Archeomatica Project of the University of Catania, are offered as a case study for a virtual archaeology of prehistoric Malta.
Massive fermion model in 3d and higher spin currents
Bonora, L; Prester, P Dominis; de Souza, B Lima; Smolic, I
2016-01-01
We analyze the 3d free massive fermion theory coupled to external sources. The presence of a mass explicitly breaks parity invariance. We calculate two- and three-point functions of a gauge current and the energy momentum tensor and, for instance, obtain the well-known result that in the IR limit (but also in the UV one) we reconstruct the relevant CS action. We then couple the model to higher spin currents and explicitly work out the spin 3 case. In the UV limit we obtain an effective action which was proposed many years ago as a possible generalization of spin 3 CS action. In the IR limit we derive a different higher spin action. This analysis can evidently be generalized to higher spins. We also discuss the conservation and properties of the correlators we obtain in the intermediate steps of our derivation.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Puria, Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)
2015-12-31
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles
2015-12-01
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations
F. Meier
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This research quantifies and discusses atmospheric effects that alter the radiance observed by a ground-based thermal-infrared (TIR camera mounted on top of a high-rise building in the city of Berlin, Germany. The study shows that atmospheric correction of ground-based TIR imagery of the three-dimensional (3-D urban environment acquired in oblique viewing geometry has to account for spatial variability of line-of-sight (LOS geometry. We present an atmospheric correction procedure that uses these spatially distributed LOS geometry parameters, the radiative transfer model MODTRAN 5.2 and atmospheric profile data derived from meteorological measurements in the field of view (FOV of the TIR camera. The magnitude of atmospheric effects varies during the analysed 24-hourly period (8 August 2009 and is particularly notable for surfaces showing a strong surface-to-air temperature difference. The differences between uncorrected and corrected TIR imagery reach up to 7.7 K at 12:00. Atmospheric effects are biased up to 4.3 K at 12:00 and up to 0.6 K at 24:00, if non-spatially distributed LOS parameters are used.
3D RECORDING FOR 2D DELIVERING – THE EMPLOYMENT OF 3D MODELS FOR STUDIES AND ANALYSES –
A. Rizzi
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d’Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino. APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying
3-D Eutrophication Modeling for Lake Simcoe, Canada
Lu, Q.; Duckett, F.; Nairn, R.; Brunton, A.
2006-12-01
The Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) and the Province of Ontario are undertaking a series of studies to facilitate management of the pressures of population growth in the Lake Simcoe watershed. With rapid population growth and urban development comes additional land clearing, storm water runoff and the discharge of treated sewage, all of which are sources of increased phosphorus loading to Lake Simcoe. Depressed oxygen levels were linked to phosphorous enrichment of the lake, with the resultant stimulation of algal growth in the sunlit upper waters of the lake, and its subsequent senescence and settling into the hypolimnion where bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen from the stratified waters. This poster describes a 3-D hydrodynamic, thermal and water quality model of Lake Simcoe developed using the Danish Hydraulics Institute (DHI) MIKE3 model. The hydrodynamic module includes wind-driven circulation, temperature variation, development of the thermocline and thermal stratification, and hydraulic forcing from inflowing tributaries. This is linked to the water quality module which simulates the eutrophication processes in the response of the lake to loadings of phosphorus, such as algal growth, the growth of aquatic plants and subsequent oxygen consumption. The model has been calibrated against Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocity data, plus measured temperature and water quality data at MOE stations in the lake and water intakes. The model is an important assessment tool for the management of the lake and its watersheds, allowing assessment of the impacts of the urban growth and land use change on the water quality in Lake Simcoe.
Indoor Modelling Benchmark for 3D Geometry Extraction
Thomson, C.; Boehm, J.
2014-06-01
A combination of faster, cheaper and more accurate hardware, more sophisticated software, and greater industry acceptance have all laid the foundations for an increased desire for accurate 3D parametric models of buildings. Pointclouds are the data source of choice currently with static terrestrial laser scanning the predominant tool for large, dense volume measurement. The current importance of pointclouds as the primary source of real world representation is endorsed by CAD software vendor acquisitions of pointcloud engines in 2011. Both the capture and modelling of indoor environments require great effort in time by the operator (and therefore cost). Automation is seen as a way to aid this by reducing the workload of the user and some commercial packages have appeared that provide automation to some degree. In the data capture phase, advances in indoor mobile mapping systems are speeding up the process, albeit currently with a reduction in accuracy. As a result this paper presents freely accessible pointcloud datasets of two typical areas of a building each captured with two different capture methods and each with an accurate wholly manually created model. These datasets are provided as a benchmark for the research community to gauge the performance and improvements of various techniques for indoor geometry extraction. With this in mind, non-proprietary, interoperable formats are provided such as E57 for the scans and IFC for the reference model. The datasets can be found at: http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench.
Reynolds-stress model prediction of 3-D duct flows
Gerolymos, G A
2014-01-01
The paper examines the impact of different modelling choices in second-moment closures by assessing model performance in predicting 3-D duct flows. The test-cases (developing flow in a square duct [Gessner F.B., Emery A.F.: {\\em ASME J. Fluids Eng.} {\\bf 103} (1981) 445--455], circular-to-rectangular transition-duct [Davis D.O., Gessner F.B.: {\\em AIAA J.} {\\bf 30} (1992) 367--375], and \\tsn{S}-duct with large separation [Wellborn S.R., Reichert B.A., Okiishi T.H.: {\\em J. Prop. Power} {\\bf 10} (1994) 668--675]) include progressively more complex strains. Comparison of experimental data with selected 7-equation models (6 Reynolds-stress-transport and 1 scale-determining equations), which differ in the closure of the velocity/pressure-gradient tensor $\\Pi_{ij}$, suggests that rapid redistribution controls separation and secondary-flow prediction, whereas, inclusion of pressure-diffusion modelling improves reattachment and relaxation behaviour.
3D numerical modeling of India-Asia-like collision
-Erika Püsök, Adina; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton
2013-04-01
above a strong mantle lithosphere - the jelly sandwich model (Burov and Watts, 2006). 3D models are thus needed to investigate these hypotheses. However, fully 3D models of the dynamics of continent collision zones have only been developed very recently, and presently most research groups have relied on certain explicit assumptions for their codes. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We here report on first lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is indented into Asia. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on JUQUEEN of the Jülich high-performance computing center. • Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R.A., Nguyen, M.H., Medvedev, S.E., 2004. Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical models with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B06406. • Burov, E. & Watts, W.S., 2006. The long-term strength of continental lithosphere: "jelly sandwich" or "crème brûlée"?. GSA Today, 16, doi: 10.1130/1052-5173(2006)10161132.1130.CO;1132. • England P., Houseman, G., 1986. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation. 2. Comparison with the India-Asia collision zone. J. Geophys. Res.- Solid Earth and Planets 91 (B3), 3664-3676. • Jackson, J., 2002. Strength of the continental lithosphere: time to abandon the jelly sandwich?. GSA Today, September, 4-10. • Lechmann, S.M., May, D.A., Kaus, B.J.P., Schmalholz, S.M., 2011. Comparing thin-sheet models with 3D multilayer models for continental collision. Geophy. Int. J. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05164.x • Royden, L.H., Burchfiel, B.C., King, R
3D Printing of Molecular Potential Energy Surface Models
Lolur, Phalgun; Dawes, Richard
2014-01-01
Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, is gaining popularity in a variety of applications and has recently become routinely available. Today, 3D printing services are not only found in engineering design labs and through online companies, but also in university libraries offering student access. In addition, affordable options for…
3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models
Papritz, Andreas
2016-04-01
In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to
3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models
Papritz, Andreas
2016-04-01
In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to
A Unified Building Model for 3D Urban GIS
Ihab Hijazi
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Several tasks in urban and architectural design are today undertaken in a geospatial context. Building Information Models (BIM and geospatial technologies offer 3D data models that provide information about buildings and the surrounding environment. The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC and CityGML are today the two most prominent semantic models for representation of BIM and geospatial models respectively. CityGML has emerged as a standard for modeling city models while IFC has been developed as a reference model for building objects and sites. Current CAD and geospatial software provide tools that allow the conversion of information from one format to the other. These tools are however fairly limited in their capabilities, often resulting in data and information losses in the transformations. This paper describes a new approach for data integration based on a unified building model (UBM which encapsulates both the CityGML and IFC models, thus avoiding translations between the models and loss of information. To build the UBM, all classes and related concepts were initially collected from both models, overlapping concepts were merged, new objects were created to ensure the capturing of both indoor and outdoor objects, and finally, spatial relationships between the objects were redefined. Unified Modeling Language (UML notations were used for representing its objects and relationships between them. There are two use-case scenarios, both set in a hospital: “evacuation” and “allocating spaces for patient wards” were developed to validate and test the proposed UBM data model. Based on these two scenarios, four validation queries were defined in order to validate the appropriateness of the proposed unified building model. It has been validated, through the case scenarios and four queries, that the UBM being developed is able to integrate CityGML data as well as IFC data in an apparently seamless way. Constraints and enrichment functions are
3D Finite Difference Modelling of Basaltic Region
Engell-Sørensen, L.
2003-04-01
The main purpose of the work was to generate realistic data to be applied for testing of processing and migration tools for basaltic regions. The project is based on the three - dimensional finite difference code (FD), TIGER, made by Sintef. The FD code was optimized (parallelized) by the author, to run on parallel computers. The parallel code enables us to model large-scale realistic geological models and to apply traditional seismic and micro seismic sources. The parallel code uses multiple processors in order to manipulate subsets of large amounts of data simultaneously. The general anisotropic code uses 21 elastic coefficients. Eight independent coefficients are needed as input parameters for the general TI medium. In the FD code, the elastic wave field computation is implemented by a higher order FD solution to the elastic wave equation and the wave fields are computed on a staggered grid, shifted half a node in one or two directions. The geological model is a gridded basalt model, which covers from 24 km to 37 km of a real shot line in horizontal direction and from the water surface to the depth of 3.5 km. The 2frac {1}{2}D model has been constructed using the compound modeling software from Norsk Hydro. The vertical parameter distribution is obtained from observations in two wells. At The depth of between 1100 m to 1500 m, a basalt horizon covers the whole sub surface layers. We have shown that it is possible to simulate a line survey in realistic (3D) geological models in reasonable time by using high performance computers. The author would like to thank Norsk Hydro, Statoil, GEUS, and SINTEF for very helpful discussions and Parallab for being helpful with the new IBM, p690 Regatta system.
Predicted 3D Model of the Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Trimer
Fernando, Bastida-González; Yersin, Celaya-Trejo; José, Correa-Basurto; Paola, Zárate-Segura
2016-01-01
The RABVG ectodomain is a homotrimer, and trimers are often called spikes. They are responsible for the attachment of the virus through the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). This makes them relevant in viral pathogenesis. The antigenic structure differs significantly between the trimers and monomers. Surfaces rich in hydrophobic amino acids are important for trimer stabilization in which the C-terminal of the ectodomain plays an important role; to understand these interactions between the G proteins, a mechanistic study of their functions was performed with a molecular model of G protein in its trimeric form. This verified its 3D conformation. The molecular modeling of G protein was performed by a I-TASSER server and was evaluated via a Rachamandran plot and ERRAT program obtained 84.64% and 89.9% of the residues in the favorable regions and overall quality factor, respectively. The molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on RABVG trimer at 310 K. From these theoretical studies, we retrieved the RMSD values from Cα atoms to assess stability. Preliminary model of G protein of rabies virus stable at 12 ns with molecular dynamics was obtained. PMID:27294109
Fault interpretation strategy for 3D model simulation
Mendoza, P.; Floricich, M. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA EPM, Caracas (Venezuela)
2002-07-01
A 3-dimensional cellular model and visualization software was developed to help characterize the spatial geometry of a petroleum reservoir in order to determine the distribution of the petrophysical properties in a coherent manner. The 3-D analysis requires the same input data as traditional 2-dimensional methods so it is not more expensive, but it improves the integrity of geologic interpretations. The model makes it possible to generate fault planes which contribute to the understanding of the structural configuration of a petroleum deposit. Visualization tools provide quality control and are used to verify grid geometry in faulted structures and fault planes. The authors present experiences gained in building the geologic model for the LL-03 reservoir in Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo region which forms part of the Bolivar Coastal Field. The reservoir has more than 2,000 well that penetrate its vertical section, of which 1051 have been completed and which make up 30 per cent of the total production of the La Rosa Medium segregation of the Maracaibo District. 5 refs., 17 figs.
POWER AWARE PHYSICAL MODEL FOR 3D IC’S
Yasmeen Hasan
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In this work we have proposed a geometric model that is employed to devise a scheme for identifying thehotspots and zones in a chip. These spots or zone need to be guarded thermally to ensure performance andreliability of the chip. The model namely continuous unit sphere model has been presented taking intoaccount that the 3D region of the chip is uniform, thereby reflecting on the possible locations of heatsources and the target observation points. The experimental results for the – continuous domain establishthat a region which does not contain any heat sources may become hotter than the regions containing thethermal sources. Thus a hotspot may appear away from the active sources, and placing heat sinks on theactive thermal sources alone may not suffice to tackle thermal imbalance. Power management techniquesaid in obtaining a uniform power profile throughout the chip, but we propose an algorithm using minimumbipartite matching where we try to move the sources minimally (with minimum perturbation in the chipfloor plan near cooler points (blocks to obtain a uniform power profile due to diffusion of heat fromhotter point to cooler ones.
Tegtmeier, W.; Zlatanova, S.; van Oosterom, P. J. M.; Hack, H. R. G. K.
2014-03-01
In infrastructural projects, communication as well as information exchange and (re-)use in and between involved parties is difficult. Mainly this is caused by a lack of information harmonisation. Various specialists are working together on the development of an infrastructural project and all use their own specific software and definitions for various information types. In addition, the lack of and/or differences in the use and definition of thematic semantic information regarding the various information types adds to the problem. Realistic 3D models describing and integrating parts of the earth already exist, but are generally neglecting the subsurface, and especially the aspects of geology and geo-technology. This paper summarises the research towards the extension of an existing integrated semantic information model to include surface as well as subsurface objects and in particular, subsurface geological and geotechnical objects. The major contributions of this research are the definition of geotechnical objects and the mechanism to link them with CityGML, GeoSciML and O&M standard models. The model is called 3D-GEM, short for 3D Geotechnical Extension Model.
The computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX has been coupled with the neutron-kinetic core model DYN3D. ANSYS CFX calculates the fluid dynamics and related transport phenomena in the reactors coolant and provides the corresponding data to DYN3D. In the fluid flow simulation of the coolant, the core itself is modeled within the porous body approach. DYN3D calculates the neutron kinetics and the fuel behavior including the heat transfer to the coolant. The physical data interface between the codes is the volumetric heat release rate into the coolant. In the prototype that is currently available, the coupling is restricted to single-phase flow problems. In the time domain an explicit coupling of the codes has been implemented so far. Steady-state and transient verification calculations for two small-size test problems confirm the correctness of the implementation of the prototype coupling. The first test problem was a mini-core consisting of nine real-size fuel assemblies with quadratic cross section. Comparison was performed with the DYN3D stand-alone code. In the steady state, the effective multiplication factor obtained by the DYN3D/ANSYS CFX codes hows a deviation of 9.8 pcm from the DYN3D stand-alone solution. This difference can be attributed to the use of different water property packages in the two codes. The transient test case simulated the withdrawal of the control rod from the central fuel assembly at hot zero power in the same mini-core. Power increase during the introduction of positive reactivity and power reduction due to fuel temperature increase are calculated in the same manner by the coupled and the stand-alone codes. The maximum values reached during the power rise differ by about 1 MW at a power level of 50 MW. Beside the different water property packages, these differences are caused by the use of different flow solvers. The same calculations were carried for a mini-core with seven real-size fuel assemblies with hexagonal cross section in
Radiative 3D MHD simulations of the spontaneous small-scale eruptions in the solar atmosphere
Kitiashvili, Irina N.
2015-08-01
Studying non-linear turbulent dynamics of the solar atmosphere is important for understanding mechanism of the solar and stellar brightness variations. High-resolution observations of the quiet Sun reveal ubiquitous distributions of high-speed jets, which are transport mass and energy into the solar corona and feeding the solar wind. However, the origin of these eruption events is still unknown. Using 3D realistic MHD numerical simulations we find that small-scale eruptions are produced by ubiquitous magnetized vortex tubes generated by the Sun's turbulent convection in subsurface layers. The swirling vortex tubes (resembling tornadoes) penetrate into the solar atmosphere, capture and stretch background magnetic field, and push the surrounding material up, generating shocks. Our simulations reveal complicated high-speed flow patterns and thermodynamic and magnetic structure in the erupting vortex tubes and shows that the eruptions are initiated in the subsurface layers and are driven by high-pressure gradients in the subphotosphere and photosphere and by the Lorentz force in the higher atmosphere layers. I will discuss about properties of these eruptions, their effects on brightness and spectral variations and comparison with observations.
Three-dimensional aramid woven fabrics were treated with atmospheric pressure plasmas, on one side or both sides to determine the plasma penetration depth in the 3D fabrics and the influences on final composite mechanical properties. The properties of the fibers from different layers of the single side treated fabrics, including surface morphology, chemical composition, wettability and adhesion properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurement and microbond tests. Meanwhile, flexural properties of the composites reinforced with the fabrics untreated and treated on both sides were compared using three-point bending tests. The results showed that the fibers from the outer most surface layer of the fabric had a significant improvement in their surface roughness, chemical bonding, wettability and adhesion properties after plasma treatment; the treatment effect gradually diminished for the fibers in the inner layers. In the third layer, the fiber properties remained approximately the same to those of the control. In addition, three-point bending tests indicated that the 3D aramid composite had an increase of 11% in flexural strength and 12% in flexural modulus after the plasma treatment. These results indicate that composite mechanical properties can be improved by the direct fabric treatment instead of fiber treatment with plasmas if the fabric is less than four layers thick
Object-oriented urban 3D spatial data model organization method
Li, Jing-wen; Li, Wen-qing; Lv, Nan; Su, Tao
2015-12-01
This paper combined the 3d data model with object-oriented organization method, put forward the model of 3d data based on object-oriented method, implemented the city 3d model to quickly build logical semantic expression and model, solved the city 3d spatial information representation problem of the same location with multiple property and the same property with multiple locations, designed the space object structure of point, line, polygon, body for city of 3d spatial database, and provided a new thought and method for the city 3d GIS model and organization management.
A novel mechanotactic 3D modeling of cell morphology
Cell morphology plays a critical role in many biological processes, such as cell migration, tissue development, wound healing and tumor growth. Recent investigations demonstrate that, among other stimuli, cells adapt their shapes according to their substrate stiffness. Until now, the development of this process has not been clear. Therefore, in this work, a new three-dimensional (3D) computational model for cell morphology has been developed. This model is based on a previous cell migration model presented by the same authors. The new model considers that during cell–substrate interaction, cell shape is governed by internal cell deformation, which leads to an accurate prediction of the cell shape according to the mechanical characteristic of its surrounding micro-environment. To study this phenomenon, the model has been applied to different numerical cases. The obtained results, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental works, indicate that cell morphology not only depends on substrate stiffness but also on the substrate boundary conditions. A cell located within an unconstrained soft substrate (several kPa) with uniform stiffness is unable to adhere to its substrate or to send out pseudopodia. When the substrate stiffness increases to tens of kPa (intermediate and rigid substrates), the cell can adequately adhere to its substrate. Subsequently, as the traction forces exerted by the cell increase, the cell elongates and its shape changes. Within very stiff (hard) substrates, the cell cannot penetrate into its substrate or send out pseudopodia. On the other hand, a cell is found to be more elongated within substrates with a constrained surface. However, this elongation decreases when the cell approaches it. It can be concluded that the higher the net traction force, the greater the cell elongation, the larger the cell membrane area, and the less random the cell alignment. (paper)
3D morphological and micromechanical modeling of cementitious materials
The goal of this thesis is to develop morphological models of cementitious materials and use these models to study their local and effective response. To this aim, 3D images of cementitious materials (mortar and concrete), obtained by micro-tomography, are studied. First, the mortar image is segmented in order to obtain an image of a real microstructure, to be used for linear elasticity computations. The image of concrete is used, after being processed, to determine various morphological characteristics of the material. A random model of concrete is then developed and validated by means of morphological data. This model is made up of three phases, corresponding to the matrix, aggregates and voids. The aggregates phase is modelled by implantation of Poisson polyhedra without overlap. For this purpose, an algorithm suited to the vector generation of Poisson polyhedra is introduced and validated with morphological measurements. Finally, the effective linear elastic properties of the mortar and other simulated microstructures are estimated with the FFT (Fast-Fourier Transform) method, for various contrasts between the aggregates and matrix' Young moduli. To complete this work, focused on effective properties, an analysis of the local elastic response in the matrix phase is undertaken, in order to determine the spatial arrangement between stress concentration zones in the matrix and the phases of the microstructure (aggregates and voids). Moreover, a statistical fields characterization, in the matrix, is achieved, including the determination of the Representative Volume Element (RVE) size. Furthermore, a comparison between effective and local elastic properties obtained from microstructures containing polyhedra and spheres is carried out. (author)
Späth, Florian; Behrendt, Andreas; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea; Wulfmeyer, Volker
2016-04-01
High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) water vapor data of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are required to improve our understanding of land-atmosphere exchange processes. For this purpose, the scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) was developed as well as new analysis tools and visualization methods. The instrument determines 3-D fields of the atmospheric water vapor number density with a temporal resolution of a few seconds and a spatial resolution of up to a few tens of meters. We present three case studies from two field campaigns. In spring 2013, the UHOH DIAL was operated within the scope of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in western Germany. HD(CP)2 stands for High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction and is a German research initiative. Range-height indicator (RHI) scans of the UHOH DIAL show the water vapor heterogeneity within a range of a few kilometers up to an altitude of 2 km and its impact on the formation of clouds at the top of the ABL. The uncertainty of the measured data was assessed for the first time by extending a technique to scanning data, which was formerly applied to vertical time series. Typically, the accuracy of the DIAL measurements is between 0.5 and 0.8 g m-3 (or < 6 %) within the ABL even during daytime. This allows for performing a RHI scan from the surface to an elevation angle of 90° within 10 min. In summer 2014, the UHOH DIAL participated in the Surface Atmosphere Boundary Layer Exchange (SABLE) campaign in southwestern Germany. Conical volume scans were made which reveal multiple water vapor layers in three dimensions. Differences in their heights in different directions can be attributed to different surface elevation. With low-elevation scans in the surface layer, the humidity profiles and gradients can be related to different land cover such as maize, grassland, and forest as well as different surface layer
Schulte, Claudia; Coors, Volker; Eicker, Ursula [Hochschule fuer Technik (HFT), Stuttgart (Germany)
2012-07-01
The biggest potential for heat consumption reduction and CO2 emission reduction in Germany is in older buildings. By applying innovative modernization concepts, primary energy consumption could be reduced by 80 percent. Planning of modernisation and energy concepts requires data on the current status. HFT Stuttgart developed a promising method for assessing heat consumption according to DIN 18599 of urban districts on the basis of 3D models of buildings (CityGML). The method is presented and explained here.
Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A
2013-01-01
Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of 3D city models hav...
Methods for Geometric Data Validation of 3d City Models
Wagner, D.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.
2015-12-01
Geometric quality of 3D city models is crucial for data analysis and simulation tasks, which are part of modern applications of the data (e.g. potential heating energy consumption of city quarters, solar potential, etc.). Geometric quality in these contexts is however a different concept as it is for 2D maps. In the latter case, aspects such as positional or temporal accuracy and correctness represent typical quality metrics of the data. They are defined in ISO 19157 and should be mentioned as part of the metadata. 3D data has a far wider range of aspects which influence their quality, plus the idea of quality itself is application dependent. Thus, concepts for definition of quality are needed, including methods to validate these definitions. Quality on this sense means internal validation and detection of inconsistent or wrong geometry according to a predefined set of rules. A useful starting point would be to have correct geometry in accordance with ISO 19107. A valid solid should consist of planar faces which touch their neighbours exclusively in defined corner points and edges. No gaps between them are allowed, and the whole feature must be 2-manifold. In this paper, we present methods to validate common geometric requirements for building geometry. Different checks based on several algorithms have been implemented to validate a set of rules derived from the solid definition mentioned above (e.g. water tightness of the solid or planarity of its polygons), as they were developed for the software tool CityDoctor. The method of each check is specified, with a special focus on the discussion of tolerance values where they are necessary. The checks include polygon level checks to validate the correctness of each polygon, i.e. closeness of the bounding linear ring and planarity. On the solid level, which is only validated if the polygons have passed validation, correct polygon orientation is checked, after self-intersections outside of defined corner points and edges
GammaModeler 3-D gamma-ray imaging technology
The 3-D GammaModelertrademark system was used to survey a portion of the facility and provide 3-D visual and radiation representation of contaminated equipment located within the facility. The 3-D GammaModelertrademark system software was used to deconvolve extended sources into a series of point sources, locate the positions of these sources in space and calculate the 30 cm. dose rates for each of these sources. Localization of the sources in three dimensions provides information on source locations interior to the visual objects and provides a better estimate of the source intensities. The three dimensional representation of the objects can be made transparent in order to visualize sources located within the objects. Positional knowledge of all the sources can be used to calculate a map of the radiation in the canyon. The use of 3-D visual and gamma ray information supports improved planning decision-making, and aids in communications with regulators and stakeholders
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN IN URBAN ARHITECTURE 3D MODELING
Nicolae Radu MARSANU; Silvia Mihaela RUSU
2010-01-01
The gap from the PC made sketches with the help of the china ink pen and ruler to the digitised drawing boards, high diagonal monitors and 3D projecting is truly spectacular. The increasingly efficient and more specialized programs allow the architects a whole range of facilities providing drawing commands and changes very easy to use, automatic rating, operating simultaneously in multiple windows, building sections and extracts of the plan, 3D views design and even projecting in virtual real...
3D Modelling of the impact of outflow channel events on Late Hesperian Mars climate.
Turbet, M.; Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.; Head, J. W.
2015-10-01
During late Hesperian, large outflow channels observed in the Chryse Planitia area [1] are thought to have been carved by catastrophic and sudden water floods [2,3]. It has been speculated that such events may have modified the climate, at least locally and episodically, and could have induced precipitations and even rain [4] that could explain the formation of Late Hesperian valley networks under a cold contemporaneous climate. We present below 3D modeling of a sudden and extreme release of warm liquid water in the Chryse Planitia area on ancient Mars, assuming a faint young Sun and CO2 -dominated atmospheres thicker than today. 3D climate modeling under these conditions [5,6], and performed with a water cycle taking into account water vapor and clouds, have not been able yet to produce liquid water or at least significant precipitations by climatic processes anywhere on the planet, even when maximizing the greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds.
3D Modeling and Stress Analysis of Flare Piping
Navath Ravikiran
2014-10-01
Full Text Available For transportation of fluid, steam or air piping system is widely used. For installing the piping system pipes, flanges, piping supports, valves, piping fittings etc. are used, which are piping elements. They are manufactured as per Codes and standards. Equipment and piping layout design as per process requirement and available space. Above layout made out by the help of General arrangement drawing, plant layout and P & ID. Then after flexibility providing to piping system, for compensate the different loads by the engineer. Stresses in pipe or piping systems are generated due to loads like expansion & contraction due to thermal load, seismic load, wind load, sustained load, reaction load etc. the stress analysis is done by help of software like CAESAR II. In this paper, a Flare pipe line is designed and 3D modeling is prepared in PDMS software. Attention is focused for stress analysis by Caesar-II software. So that various stress values, forces and deflections are analyzed at each node to make the design at safe operating conditions
3D numerical modeling of YSO accretion shocks
Matsakos T.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of YSO accretion shocks is determined by radiative processes as well as the strength and structure of the magnetic field. A quasi-periodic emission signature is theoretically expected to be observed, but observations do not confirm any such pattern. In this work, we assume a uniform background field, in the regime of optically thin energy losses, and we study the multi-dimensional shock evolution in the presence of perturbations, i.e. clumps in the stream and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We perform 3D MHD simulations using the PLUTO code, modelling locally the impact of the infalling gas onto the chromosphere. We find that the structure and dynamics of the post-shock region is strongly dependent on the plasma-beta (thermal over magnetic pressure, different values of which may give distinguishable emission signatures, relevant for observations. In particular, a strong magnetic field effectively confines the plasma inside its flux tubes and leads to the formation of quasi-independent fibrils. The fibrils may oscillate out of phase and hence the sum of their contributions in the emission results in a smooth overall profile. On the contrary, a weak magnetic field is not found to have any significant effect on the shocked plasma and the turbulent hot slab that forms is found to retain its periodic signature.
3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.
Ning Dai
Full Text Available Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.
Creating a 3D printer and testing mechanical properties of printed models
Ceglar, Luka
2015-01-01
3D printing is experiencing rapid development in recent years. Due to the favorable price and fast and precise manufacturing, 3D printing is increasingly replacing the production models of the conventional methods. This thesis presents the history of 3D printing and some common technologies used in 3D printing. There are presented characteristics, weaknesses, as well as a general method of operation. In this thesis I present building and use of 3D printer. I made pressure, tension and bend...
3D modeling of carbonates petro-acoustic heterogeneities
Baden, Dawin; Guglielmi, Yves; Saracco, Ginette; Marié, Lionel; Viseur, Sophie
2015-04-01
Characterizing carbonate reservoirs heterogeneity is a challenging issue for Oil & Gas Industry, CO2 sequestration and all kinds of fluid manipulations in natural reservoirs, due to the significant impact of heterogeneities on fluid flow and storage within the reservoir. Although large scale (> meter) heterogeneities such as layers petrophysical contrasts are well addressed by computing facies-based models, low scale (meter) heterogeneities are often poorly constrained because of the complexity in predicting their spatial arrangement. In this study, we conducted petro-acoustic measurements on cores of different size and diameter (Ø = 1", 1.5" and 5") in order to evaluate anisotropy or heterogeneity in carbonates at different laboratory scales. Different types of heterogeneities which generally occur in carbonate reservoir units (e.g. petrographic, diagenetic, and tectonic related) were sampled. Dry / wet samples were investigated with different ultrasonic apparatus and using different sensors allowing acoustic characterization through a bandwidth varying from 50 to 500 kHz. Comprehensive measurements realized on each samples allowed statistical analyses of petro-acoustic properties such as attenuation, shear and longitudinal wave velocity. The cores properties (geological and acoustic facies) were modeled in 3D using photogrammetry and GOCAD geo-modeler. This method successfully allowed detecting and imaging in three dimensions differential diagenesis effects characterized by the occurrence of decimeter-scale diagenetic horizons in samples assumed to be homogeneous and/or different diagenetic sequences between shells filling and the packing matrix. We then discuss how small interfaces such as cracks, stylolithes and laminations which are also imaged may have guided these differential effects, considering that understanding the processes may be taken as an analogue to actual fluid drainage complexity in deep carbonate reservoir.
Clarke, R.
1997-10-27
Reflection tomography can determine velocity models containing lateral velocity variations and reflectors of arbitrary shapes; in order to access the kinematic data, a 3D zero offset approach to the SMART (Sequential Migration Aided Reflection Tomography) method, an original method of migration velocity analysis, is adopted. The approach involves interpreting kinematic data in the post-stack depth migrated cube and then de-migrating the horizons by two-point ray-tracing. A fast and robust two-point ray-tracer is developed, which can recover multi-valued kinematic data from complex geological structures. An original formulation for 3D reflection tomography is proposed, which can reliably take into account multivalued travel times
Guse, Guenter; Klotzbuecher, Michael; Mohr, Friedrich [AREVA NDE Solutions / intelligeNDT Systems and Services GmbH (Germany)
2011-07-01
The reactor safety depends on reliable nondestructive testing of reactor components. For 100% detection probability of flaws and the determination of their size using ultrasonic methods the ultrasonic waves have to hit the flaws within a specific incidence and squint angle. For complex test geometries like testing of nozzle welds from the outside of the component these angular ranges can only be determined using elaborate mathematical calculations. The authors developed a 3D modeling and visualization software tool that allows to integrate and present ultrasonic measuring data into the 3D geometry. The software package was verified using 1:1 test samples (example: testing of the nozzle edge of the feedwater nozzle of a steam generator from the outside; testing of the reactor pressure vessel nozzle edge from the inside).
Radon transport modelling: User's guide to RnMod3d
RnMod3d is a numerical computer model of soil-gas and radon transport in porous media. It can be used, for example, to study radon entry from soil into houses in response to indoor-outdoor pressure differences or changes in atmospheric pressure. It can also be used for flux calculations of radon from the soil surface or to model radon exhalation from building materials such as concrete. The finite-volume model is a technical research tool, and it cannot be used meaningfully without good understanding of the involved physical equations. Some understanding of numerical mathematics and the programming language Pascal is also required. Originally, the code was developed for internal use at Risoe only. With this guide, however, it should be possible for others to use the model. Three-dimensional steady-state or transient problems with Darcy flow of soil gas and combined generation, radioactive decay, diffusion and advection of radon can be solved. Moisture is included in the model, and partitioning of radon between air, water and soil grains (adsorption) is taken into account. Most parameters can change in time and space, and transport parameters (diffusivity and permeability) may be anisotropic. This guide includes benchmark tests based on simple problems with known solutions. RnMod3d has also been part of an international model intercomparison exercise based on more complicated problems without known solutions. All tests show that RnMod3d gives results of good quality. (au)
Radon transport modelling: User's guide to RnMod3d
Andersen, C.E
2000-08-01
RnMod3d is a numerical computer model of soil-gas and radon transport in porous media. It can be used, for example, to study radon entry from soil into houses in response to indoor-outdoor pressure differences or changes in atmospheric pressure. It can also be used for flux calculations of radon from the soil surface or to model radon exhalation from building materials such as concrete. The finite-volume model is a technical research tool, and it cannot be used meaningfully without good understanding of the involved physical equations. Some understanding of numerical mathematics and the programming language Pascal is also required. Originally, the code was developed for internal use at Risoe only. With this guide, however, it should be possible for others to use the model. Three-dimensional steady-state or transient problems with Darcy flow of soil gas and combined generation, radioactive decay, diffusion and advection of radon can be solved. Moisture is included in the model, and partitioning of radon between air, water and soil grains (adsorption) is taken into account. Most parameters can change in time and space, and transport parameters (diffusivity and permeability) may be anisotropic. This guide includes benchmark tests based on simple problems with known solutions. RnMod3d has also been part of an international model intercomparison exercise based on more complicated problems without known solutions. All tests show that RnMod3d gives results of good quality. (au)
On the numerical modfeling of 3D-atmospheric boundary layer flow
Beneš, Luděk; Sládek, Ivo; Jaňour, Zbyněk
Karlsruhe : Forshungszentrum Karrlsruhe GmbH, 2004 - (Suppan, P.), s. 340-344 ISBN 3-923704-44-5. [Harmonisation within atmospheric Dispersion modeling for regulatory purposes. Garmisch-Partenkirchen (DE), 01.06.2004-04.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 715.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : atmosphere * pollution * numerical simulation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
The Surface of Stellar Models - Now with more 3D simulations!
Trampedach Regner
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We have constructed a grid of 3D hydrodynamic simulations of deep convective and line-blanketed atmospheres. We have developed a new consistent method for computing and employing T(τ relations from these simulations, as surface boundary conditions for 1D stellar structure models. These 1D models have, in turn, had their mixing-length, α, calibrated against the averaged structure of each of the simulations. Both α and T(τ vary significantly with Teff and log g.
Investigating the Paleoproterozoic glaciations with 3-D climate modeling
Teitler, Yoram; Le Hir, Guillaume; Fluteau, Frédéric; Philippot, Pascal; Donnadieu, Yannick
2014-06-01
It is generally assumed that the Earth's surface was warm during most of its early history but that significant cooling occurred between 2.45 and 2.22 Ga leading to the first global and cyclical glacial epoch. This onset of snowball Earth conditions was coeval with a large pulse of oxygenation that permanently oxygenated the atmosphere and shallow oceans (Great Oxygenation Event, GOE), though it is not known whether one influenced the other or if they were independent events. Hereafter we used a General Circulation climate Model (GCM) to estimate the partial pressures of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 (pCH4) required to account for the onset of snowball Earth conditions during the Paleoproterozoic. We show that Earth's surface can be maintained in an ice-free state under atmospheric CO2 concentrations lower than 2.6×10-2 bar without invoking the need of high CH4 concentrations. Assuming that the cooling of the Earth's surface is related to the collapse of atmospheric greenhouse gases, we tested the relevance of different scenarios including (i) the collapse of pCH4 in response to the GOE and (ii) the drawdown of pCO2 due to both a decrease in volcanic outgassing rate and an increase in global weathering efficiency. We show that the cyclical character of Paleoproterozoic glaciations is best explained by a long-lasted decrease of pCO2. To support this scenario, we examine how the long-term carbon cycle and the equilibrium pCO2 respond to the emplacement of large subaerial basaltic provinces (LIPs) and to a temporary shutdown of volcanism as supported by geologic data. We show that the sink of pCO2 through silicate weathering is limited by the absence of terrestrial higher plants. In such conditions, the equilibrium pCO2 remains high enough to preclude the onset of snowball conditions regardless the intensity of the pCH4 collapse. The combination of an increase in weathering efficiency and a decrease in volcanic outgassing rate can significantly reduce the
3D Geological Model of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic Modeling
Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua
2016-04-01
We present a case study on using integrated geologic model in mineral exploration at depth. Nihe ore deposit in Anhui Province, is deep hidden ore deposit which was discovered in recent years, this finding is the major driving force of deep mineral exploration work in Luzong. Building 3D elaborate geological model has the important significance for prospecting to deep or surround in this area, and can help us better understand the metallogenic law and ore-controlling regularity. A 3D geological model, extending a depth from +200m to -1500m in Nihe ore deposit, has been compiled from surface geological map, cross-section, borehole logs and amounts of geological inference. And then the 3D geological models have been given physical property parameter for calculating the potential field. Modelling the potential response is proposed as means of evaluating the viability of the 3D geological models, and the evidence of making small changes to the uncertain parts of the original 3D geological models. It is expected that the final models not only reproduce supplied prior geological knowledge, but also explain the observed geophysical data. The workflow used to develop the 3D geologic model in this study includes the three major steps, as follows: (1) Determine the basic information of Model: Defining the 3D limits of the model area, the basic geological and structural unit, and the tectonic contact relations and the sedimentary sequences between these units. (2) 3D model construction: Firstly, a series of 2D geological cross sections over the model area are built by using all kinds of prior information, including surface geology, borehole data, seismic sections, and local geologists' knowledge and intuition. Lastly, we put these sections into a 3D environment according to their profile locations to build a 3D model by using geostatistics method. (3) 3D gravity and magnetic modeling: we calculate the potential field responses of the 3D model, and compare the predicted and
Towards an Anisotropic Whole Mantle 3D Elastic Velocity Model
Panning, M. P.; Romanowicz, B.; Gung, Y.
2001-12-01
Many studies have documented the existence of anisotropy in the earth's upper mantle, concentrated in the top 200 km. This evidence comes from the study of surface waves as well as shear wave splitting. There is also evidence for shear wave splitting in D", at least in well sampled regions. There are some hints of anisotropy at the base of the transition zone. Tomographic models of the upper mantle have been developed with simplifying assumptions about the nature of the anisotropy, in order to minimize the number of free parameters in the inversions. Some assume transverse isotropy (e.g Ekström and Dziewonski, 1997), others include additional degrees of freedom with some realistic constraints on mineralogy (e.g. Montagner and Tanimoto, 1991). Our goal is to investigate anisotropy in the whole mantle, using the framework of waveform inversion, and the nonlinear asymptotic mode coupling theory (NACT), previously developed and applied to the construction of whole-mantle SH velocity models (Li and Romanowicz, 1996; Mégnin and Romanowicz, 2000). For this we require a 3 component dataset, and we have extended our automatic transverse (T) component wavepicking procedures to the vertical (Z) and longitudinal (L) component - a non-trivial task given the large number of phases present in the coupled P-SV system. A useful initial assumption, for which the theory has been readily adapted, is that of transverse isotropy. As a first step towards this, we have been investigating inversions using T component and Z,L component data separately. In particular, this allows us to explore the sampling that can be achieved with Z,L component data alone in the deepest part of the mantle. Indeed, D" is in general much better sampled in SH than in SV, owing to the availability of SHdiff at large distances, while SVdiff decays more rapidly due to mantle-core coupling. We present the results of our resolution experiments and discuss the differences between the 3D SV model obtained in well
Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation
Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr
2014-05-01
For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity
SHADOW EFFECT ON PHOTOVOLTAIC POTENTIALITY ANALYSIS USING 3D CITY MODELS
N. Alam
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Due to global warming, green-house effect and various other drawbacks of existing energy sources, renewable energy like Photovoltaic system is being popular for energy production. The result of photovoltaic potentiality analysis depends on data quality and parameters. Shadow rapidly decreases performance of the Photovoltaic system and it always changes due to the movement of the sun. Solar radiation incident on earth's atmosphere is relatively constant but the radiation at earth's surface varies due to absorption, scattering, reflection, change in spectral content, diffuse component, water vapor, clouds and pollution etc. In this research, it is being investigated that how efficiently real-time shadow can be detected for both direct and diffuse radiation considering reflection and other factors in contrast with the existing shadow detection methods using latest technologies and what is the minimum quality of data required for this purpose. Of course, geometric details of the building geometry and surroundings directly affect the calculation of shadows. In principle, 3D city models or point clouds, which contain roof structure, vegetation, thematically differentiated surface and texture, are suitable to simulate exact real-time shadow. This research would develop an automated procedure to measure exact shadow effect from the 3D city models and a long-term simulation model to determine the produced energy from the photovoltaic system. In this paper, a developed method for detecting shadow for direct radiation has been discussed with its result using a 3D city model to perform a solar energy potentiality analysis.
Capturing atmospheric effects on 3D millimeter wave radar propagation patterns
Cook, Richard D.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Keefer, Kevin J.; Stringer, Jeremy
2016-05-01
Traditional radar propagation modeling is done using a path transmittance with little to no input for weather and atmospheric conditions. As radar advances into the millimeter wave (MMW) regime, atmospheric effects such as attenuation and refraction become more pronounced than at traditional radar wavelengths. The DoD High Energy Laser Joint Technology Offices High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) in combination with the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) code have shown great promise simulating atmospheric effects on laser propagation. Indeed, the LEEDR radiative transfer code has been validated in the UV through RF. Our research attempts to apply these models to characterize the far field radar pattern in three dimensions as a signal propagates from an antenna towards a point in space. Furthermore, we do so using realistic three dimensional atmospheric profiles. The results from these simulations are compared to those from traditional radar propagation software packages. In summary, a fast running method has been investigated which can be incorporated into computational models to enhance understanding and prediction of MMW propagation through various atmospheric and weather conditions.
Research on urban rapid 3D modeling and application based on CGA rule
Li, Jing-wen; Jiang, Jian-wu; Zhou, Song; Yin, Shou-qiang
2015-12-01
Use CityEngine as the 3D modeling platform, research on urban rapid 3D modeling technology based on the CGA(Computer Generated Architectur) rule , solved the problem of the rapid creation of urban 3D model in large scenes , and research on building texture processing and 3D model optimization techniques based on CGA rule , using component modeling method , solved the problem of texture distortion and model redundancy in the traditional fast modeling 3D model , and development of a three-dimensional view and analysis system based on ArcGIS Engine , realization of 3D model query , distance measurement , specific path flight , 3D marking , Scene export,etc.
F. Meier; D. Scherer; Richters, J.; A. Christen
2010-01-01
This research quantifies and discusses atmospheric effects that alter the radiance observed by a ground-based thermal-infrared (TIR) camera mounted on top of a high-rise building in the city of Berlin, Germany. The study shows that atmospheric correction of ground-based TIR imagery of the three-dimensional (3-D) urban environment acquired in oblique viewing geometry has to account for spatial variability of line-of-sight (LOS) geometry. We present an atmospheric correction procedure t...
Biological modelling of fuzzy target volumes in 3D radiotherapy
Purpose/Objective: The outcome of each radiotherapy depends critically on the optimal choice of the target volume. The goal of the radiotherapist is to include all tumor spread at the same time as saving as much healthy tissue as possible. Even when the information of all imaging modalities is combined, the diagnostic techniques are not sensitive and specific enough to visualize all microscopic tumor cell spread. Due to this lack of information there is room for different interpretations concerning the extend of the target volume, leading to a fuzzy target volume. The aim of this work is to develop a model to score different target volume boundaries within the region of diagnostic uncertainty in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Materials and Methods: In order to assess the region of diagnostic uncertainty, the radiotherapist defines interactively a minimal planning target volume that absolutely must be irradiated according to the diagnostic information available and a maximal planning target volume outside which no tumor cell spread is expected. For the NTCP calculation we use the Lyman 4 parameter model to estimate the response of an organ at risk to a uniform partial volume irradiation. The TCP calculation is based on the Poisson model of cell killing. The TCP estimation depends not only on volume, dose, clonogenic cell density and the α parameter of the linear quadratic model but also on the probability to find clonogenic cells in the considered volume. Inside the minimal PTV this probability is 1, outside the maximal PTV it is 0. Therefore all voxels inside the minimal PTV are assigned the value of 1 with respect to the target volume, all voxels outside the maximal PTV the value of 0. For voxels in the region of uncertainty in between, a 3D linear interpolation is performed. Here we assume the probability to follow the interpolated values. Starting with the minimal PTV, the expected gain in TCP and
Numerical modeling of wave processes in 3D fractured media
Golubev V.; Petrov I.
2014-01-01
Seismic response from the cluster of vertical oriented cracks is simulated using grid-characteristic method on parallelepiped structured meshes. Synthetic seismograms and wave fields are calculated. The structure of the response including dependency on type of saturator (gas, fluid) is analyzed. Numerical experiments showed the effect of high-frequency daisy-chain wave’s generation from 3D periodic structures.
Using 3D Geometric Models to Teach Spatial Geometry Concepts.
Bertoline, Gary R.
1991-01-01
An explanation of 3-D Computer Aided Design (CAD) usage to teach spatial geometry concepts using nontraditional techniques is presented. The software packages CADKEY and AutoCAD are described as well as their usefulness in solving space geometry problems. (KR)
Registration of 3D Face Scans with Average Face Models
Salah, A.A.; Alyuz, N.; Akarun, L.
2008-01-01
The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all faces in the g
Framework system and research flow of uncertainty in 3D geological structure models
无
2010-01-01
Uncertainty in 3D geological structure models has become a bottleneck that restricts the development and application of 3D geological modeling.In order to solve this problem during periods of accuracy assessment,error detection and dynamic correction in 3D geological structure models,we have reviewed the current situation and development trends in 3D geological modeling.The main context of uncertainty in 3D geological structure models is discussed.Major research issues and a general framework system of unce...
The Traveling Optical Scanner – Case Study on 3D Shape Models of Ancient Brazilian Skulls
Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Gregersen, Kristian Murphy;
2016-01-01
, inoffensive and inexpensive 3D scanning modality based on structured light, suitable for capturing the morphology and the appearance of specimens. Benefits of having 3D models are manifold. The 3D models are easy to share among researchers and can be made available to the general public. Advanced...
Zalucha, Angela; Michaels, Timothy
2012-01-01
We present a 3D general circulation model of Pluto and Triton's atmospheres, which uses radiative-conductive-convective forcing. In both the Pluto and Triton models, an easterly (prograde) jet is present at the equator with a maximum magnitude of 10-12 m/s and 4 m/s, respectively. Neither atmosphere shows any significant overturning circulation in the meridional and vertical directions. Rather, it is horizontal motions (mean circulation and transient waves) that transport heat meridionally at...
3D MHD modeling of twisted coronal loops
Reale, F; Guarrasi, M; Mignone, A; Peres, G; Hood, A W; Priest, E R
2016-01-01
We perform MHD modeling of a single bright coronal loop to include the interaction with a non-uniform magnetic field. The field is stressed by random footpoint rotation in the central region and its energy is dissipated into heating by growing currents through anomalous magnetic diffusivity that switches on in the corona above a current density threshold. We model an entire single magnetic flux tube, in the solar atmosphere extending from the high-beta chromosphere to the low-beta corona through the steep transition region. The magnetic field expands from the chromosphere to the corona. The maximum resolution is ~30 km. We obtain an overall evolution typical of loop models and realistic loop emission in the EUV and X-ray bands. The plasma confined in the flux tube is heated to active region temperatures (~3 MK) after ~2/3 hr. Upflows from the chromosphere up to ~100 km/s fill the core of the flux tube to densities above 10^9 cm^-3. More heating is released in the low corona than the high corona and is finely ...
The Martian Water Cycle Based on 3-D Modeling
Houben, H.; Haberle, R. M.; Joshi, M. M.
1999-01-01
Understanding the distribution of Martian water is a major goal of the Mars Surveyor program. However, until the bulk of the data from the nominal missions of TES, PMIRR, GRS, MVACS, and the DS2 probes are available, we are bound to be in a state where much of our knowledge of the seasonal behavior of water is based on theoretical modeling. We therefore summarize the results of this modeling at the present time. The most complete calculations come from a somewhat simplified treatment of the Martian climate system which is capable of simulating many decades of weather. More elaborate meteorological models are now being applied to study of the problem. The results show a high degree of consistency with observations of aspects of the Martian water cycle made by Viking MAWD, a large number of ground-based measurements of atmospheric column water vapor, studies of Martian frosts, and the widespread occurrence of water ice clouds. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Transforming 2d Cadastral Data Into a Dynamic Smart 3d Model
Tsiliakou, E.; Labropoulos, T.; Dimopoulou, E.
2013-08-01
3D property registration has become an imperative need in order to optimally reflect all complex cases of the multilayer reality of property rights and restrictions, revealing their vertical component. This paper refers to the potentials and multiple applications of 3D cadastral systems and explores the current state-of-the art, especially the available software with which 3D visualization can be achieved. Within this context, the Hellenic Cadastre's current state is investigated, in particular its data modeling frame. Presenting the methodologies and specifications addressing the registration of 3D properties, the operating cadastral system's shortcomings and merits are pointed out. Nonetheless, current technological advances as well as the availability of sophisticated software packages (proprietary or open source) call for 3D modeling. In order to register and visualize the complex reality in 3D, Esri's CityEngine modeling software has been used, which is specialized in the generation of 3D urban environments, transforming 2D GIS Data into Smart 3D City Models. The application of the 3D model concerns the Campus of the National Technical University of Athens, in which a complex ownership status is established along with approved special zoning regulations. The 3D model was built using different parameters based on input data, derived from cadastral and urban planning datasets, as well as legal documents and architectural plans. The process resulted in a final 3D model, optimally describing the cadastral situation and built environment and proved to be a good practice example of 3D visualization.
AUTOMATIC TEXTURE RECONSTRUCTION OF 3D CITY MODEL FROM OBLIQUE IMAGES
Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; LI, XINWEI; WAN, FANG
2016-01-01
In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency....
Multi Sensor Data Integration for AN Accurate 3d Model Generation
Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.
2015-05-01
The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel technique of data integration between two different data sets, i.e. laser scanned RGB point cloud and oblique imageries derived 3D model, to create a 3D model with more details and better accuracy. In general, aerial imageries are used to create a 3D city model. Aerial imageries produce an overall decent 3D city models and generally suit to generate 3D model of building roof and some non-complex terrain. However, the automatically generated 3D model, from aerial imageries, generally suffers from the lack of accuracy in deriving the 3D model of road under the bridges, details under tree canopy, isolated trees, etc. Moreover, the automatically generated 3D model from aerial imageries also suffers from undulated road surfaces, non-conforming building shapes, loss of minute details like street furniture, etc. in many cases. On the other hand, laser scanned data and images taken from mobile vehicle platform can produce more detailed 3D road model, street furniture model, 3D model of details under bridge, etc. However, laser scanned data and images from mobile vehicle are not suitable to acquire detailed 3D model of tall buildings, roof tops, and so forth. Our proposed approach to integrate multi sensor data compensated each other's weakness and helped to create a very detailed 3D model with better accuracy. Moreover, the additional details like isolated trees, street furniture, etc. which were missing in the original 3D model derived from aerial imageries could also be integrated in the final model automatically. During the process, the noise in the laser scanned data for example people, vehicles etc. on the road were also automatically removed. Hence, even though the two dataset were acquired in different time period the integrated data set or the final 3D model was generally noise free and without unnecessary details.
Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling
Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod
2013-04-01
For a long time as a most convenient had been the model of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation models are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical model. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are modeling distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3D- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in
Teo, B G; Sarinder, K K S; Lim, L H S
2010-08-01
Three-dimensional (3D) models of the marginal hooks, dorsal and ventral anchors, bars and haptoral reservoirs of a parasite, Sundatrema langkawiense Lim & Gibson, 2009 (Monogenea) were developed using the polygonal modelling method in Autodesk 3ds Max (Version 9) based on two-dimensional (2D) illustrations. Maxscripts were written to rotate the modelled 3D structures. Appropriately orientated 3D haptoral hard-parts were then selected and positioned within the transparent 3D outline of the haptor and grouped together to form a complete 3D haptoral entity. This technique is an inexpensive tool for constructing 3D models from 2D illustrations for 3D visualisation of the spatial relationships between the different structural parts within organisms. PMID:20962723
A Survey of Recent View-based 3D Model Retrieval Methods
Liu, Qiong
2012-01-01
Extensive research efforts have been dedicated to 3D model retrieval in recent decades. Recently, view-based methods have attracted much research attention due to the high discriminative property of multi-views for 3D object representation. In this report, we summarize the view-based 3D model methods and provide the further research trends. This paper focuses on the scheme for matching between multiple views of 3D models and the application of bag-of-visual-words method in 3D model retrieval....
3D modelling of edge parallel flow asymmetries
The issue of parallel flows asymmetries in the edge plasma is tackled with a new first principle transport and turbulence code. TOKAM-3D is a 3D full-torus fluid code that can be used both in diffusive and turbulent regimes and covers either exclusively closed flux surfaces or both open and closed field lines in limiter geometry. Two independent mechanisms susceptible to lead to large amplitude asymmetric parallel flows are evidenced. Global ExB drifts coupled with the presence of the limiter break the poloidal symmetry and can generate large amplitude parallel flows even with poloidally uniform transport coefficients. On the other hand, turbulent transport in the edge exhibits a strong ballooning of the radial particle flux generating an up-down m = 1, n = 0 structure on the parallel velocity. The combination of both mechanisms in complete simulations leads to a poloidal and radial distribution of the parallel velocity comparable to experimental results.
Karlshøj, Jan; Bennetsen, Jens Chr.; Kjems, Erik;
Denne håndbog er udviklet i forbindelse med overgangen til nye digitale 3D-metoder, -værktøjer og -procedurer. Håndbogen gennemgår baggrundsmateriale, teknologi og metoder, der kan bruges til skabe alternative løsninger, kvalificere beslutninger, klæde bygherren bedre på og i det hele taget få mere...
Mixed Structural Models for 3D Audio in Virtual Environments
Geronazzo, Michele
2014-01-01
In the world of ICT, strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusi...
Modelling 3D product visualization on the online retailer
Algharabat, R.; Dennis, C
2009-01-01
-Purpose: An emerging body of research has investigated telepresence and presence notions in online retailers’ websites during the past two decades. Since that time considerable research has been published in different fields to explain the meanings and applications of these notions. This study aims to investigate the antecedents and consequences of 3D product simulation telepresence and the effects of the consequences on consumers’ behavioural intentions on the online retailer Website. -D...
Virtual and Printed 3D Models for Teaching Crystal Symmetry and Point Groups
Casas, Lluís; Estop, Euge`nia
2015-01-01
Both, virtual and printed 3D crystal models can help students and teachers deal with chemical education topics such as symmetry and point groups. In the present paper, two freely downloadable tools (interactive PDF files and a mobile app) are presented as examples of the application of 3D design to study point-symmetry. The use of 3D printing to…
Toward the Automatic Generation of a Semantic VRML Model from Unorganized 3D Point Clouds
Ben Hmida, Helmi; Cruz, Christophe; Nicolle, Christophe; Boochs, Frank
2011-01-01
International audience This paper presents our experience regarding the creation of 3D semantic facility model out of unorganized 3D point clouds. Thus, a knowledge-based detection approach of objects using the OWL ontology language is presented. This knowledge is used to define SWRL detection rules. In addition, the combination of 3D processing built-ins and topological Built-Ins in SWRL rules aims at combining geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds and specialist's knowledge. This combi...
Numerical modelling of gravel unconstrained flow experiments with the DAN3D and RASH3D codes
Sauthier, Claire; Pirulli, Marina; Pisani, Gabriele; Scavia, Claudio; Labiouse, Vincent
2015-12-01
Landslide continuum dynamic models have improved considerably in the last years, but a consensus on the best method of calibrating the input resistance parameter values for predictive analyses has not yet emerged. In the present paper, numerical simulations of a series of laboratory experiments performed at the Laboratory for Rock Mechanics of the EPF Lausanne were undertaken with the RASH3D and DAN3D numerical codes. They aimed at analysing the possibility to use calibrated ranges of parameters (1) in a code different from that they were obtained from and (2) to simulate potential-events made of a material with the same characteristics as back-analysed past-events, but involving a different volume and propagation path. For this purpose, one of the four benchmark laboratory tests was used as past-event to calibrate the dynamic basal friction angle assuming a Coulomb-type behaviour of the sliding mass, and this back-analysed value was then used to simulate the three other experiments, assumed as potential-events. The computational findings show good correspondence with experimental results in terms of characteristics of the final deposits (i.e., runout, length and width). Furthermore, the obtained best fit values of the dynamic basal friction angle for the two codes turn out to be close to each other and within the range of values measured with pseudo-dynamic tilting tests.
A comparison of 3-D model predictions of Mars' oxygen corona with early MAVEN IUVS observations
Lee, Yuni; Combi, Michael R.; Tenishev, Valeriy; Bougher, Stephen W.; Deighan, Justin; Schneider, Nicholas M.; McClintock, William E.; Jakosky, Bruce M.
2015-11-01
We have compared our 3-D hot O corona model predictions with the OI 130.4 nm emission detected by Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph/Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (IUVS/MAVEN) based completely on our best pre-MAVEN understanding of the 3-D structure of the thermosphere and ionosphere. The model was simulated appropriately for the observational conditions. In addition to dissociative recombination (DR) of O2+, DR of CO2+ is also considered as an important hot O source. The model predictions showed excellent agreement with the transition altitude, the observed altitude variation of density, and the spatial variation of the corona with respect to the Mars-Sun geometry. While previous models predicted escape rates covering a range of nearly 100, the brightness of the modeled hot O densities is a factor of ~1.5 lower than the observations. We discuss possible changes to the model that could come from further analysis of MAVEN measurements and that might close the gap between the modeled and observed brightness.
3D MODELLING FROM UN CALIBRATED IMAGES – A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Limi V L
2014-03-01
Full Text Available 3D modeling is a demanding area of research. Creating a 3D world from sequence of images captured using different mobile cameras pose additional challenge in this field. We plan to explore this area of computer vision to model a 3D world of Indian heritage sites for virtual tourism. In this paper a comparative study of the existing methods used for 3D reconstruction of un-calibrated image sequences was done. The study shows different scenario of modeling 3D objects from un-calibrated images which include community photo collection, images taken from unknown camera, 3D modeling using two un-calibrated images, etc. Hence the different methods available were studied and an overall view of the techniques used in each step of 3D reconstruction was explored. The merits and demerits of each method were also compared.
Genetic Fuzzy Modelling of User Perception of 3D Shapes
Achiche, Sofiane; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema
2011-01-01
Defining the aesthetic and emotional value of a product is an important consideration for its design. Furthermore, if several designers are faced with the task of creating an object that describe a certain emotion/perception (aggressive, soft, heavy, etc.), each is most likely to interpret the...... emotion/perception with different shapes composed of a set of different geometric features. In this paper, the authors propose an automatic approach to formalize the relationships between geometric information of 3D objects and the intended emotional content using fuzzy logic. In addition, the...
A deep learning approach to the classification of 3D CAD models
Fei-wei QIN; Lu-ye LI; Shu-ming GAO; Xiao-ling YANG; Xiang CHEN
2014-01-01
Model classification is essential to the management and reuse of 3D CAD models. Manual model classification is laborious and error prone. At the same time, the automatic classification methods are scarce due to the intrinsic complexity of 3D CAD models. In this paper, we propose an automatic 3D CAD model classification approach based on deep neural networks. According to prior knowledge of the CAD domain, features are selected and extracted from 3D CAD models first, and then pre-processed as high dimensional input vectors for category recognition. By analogy with the thinking process of engineers, a deep neural network classifier for 3D CAD models is constructed with the aid of deep learning techniques. To obtain an optimal solution, multiple strategies are appropriately chosen and applied in the training phase, which makes our classifier achieve better per-formance. We demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach through experiments on 3D CAD model datasets.
Face Recognition and Growth Prediction using a 3D Morphable Face Model
Scherbaum, Kristina
2007-01-01
We present two different techniques and applications that are based on the 3D Morphable Face Model. In the first part of this thesis, we develop a new top-down approach to 3D data analysis by fitting a 3D Morphable Face Model to 3D scans of faces. The algorithm is specifically designed for scans which were recorded in a perspective projection. In an analysis-by-synthesis approach, shape, texture, pose and illumination are optimized simultaneously. Starting from raw 3D s...
Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)
Zeng, Xubin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Troch, Peter [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Pelletier, Jon [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Niu, Guo-Yue [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Gochis, David [NCAR Research Applications (RAL), Boulder, CO (United States)
2015-11-15
This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM). We have made substantial progress in model development and evaluation, computational efficiencies and software engineering, and data development and evaluation, as discussed in Sections 2-4. Section 5 presents our success in data dissemination, while Section 6 discusses the scientific impacts of our work. Section 7 discusses education and mentoring success of our project, while Section 8 lists our relevant DOE services. All peer-reviewed papers that acknowledged this project are listed in Section 9. Highlights of our achievements include: • We have finished 20 papers (most published already) on model development and evaluation, computational efficiencies and software engineering, and data development and evaluation • The global datasets developed under this project have been permanently archived and publicly available • Some of our research results have already been implemented in WRF and CLM • Patrick Broxton and Michael Brunke have received their Ph.D. • PI Zeng has served on DOE proposal review panels and DOE lab scientific focus area (SFA) review panels
Davis, A. B.; Cahalan, R. F.
2001-05-01
The Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC) is an on-going initiative involving an international group of over 30 researchers engaged in the numerical modeling of three-dimensional radiative transfer as applied to clouds. Because of their strong variability and extreme opacity, clouds are indeed a major source of uncertainty in the Earth's local radiation budget (at GCM grid scales). Also 3D effects (at satellite pixel scales) invalidate the standard plane-parallel assumption made in the routine of cloud-property remote sensing at NASA and NOAA. Accordingly, the test-cases used in I3RC are based on inputs and outputs which relate to cloud effects in atmospheric heating rates and in real-world remote sensing geometries. The main objectives of I3RC are to (1) enable participants to improve their models, (2) publish results as a community, (3) archive source code, and (4) educate. We will survey the status of I3RC and its plans for the near future with a special emphasis on the mathematical models and computational approaches. We will also describe some of the prime applications of I3RC's efforts in climate models, cloud-resolving models, and remote-sensing observations of clouds, or that of the surface in their presence. In all these application areas, computational efficiency is the main concern and not accuracy. One of I3RC's main goals is to document the performance of as wide a variety as possible of three-dimensional radiative transfer models for a small but representative number of ``cases.'' However, it is dominated by modelers working at the level of linear transport theory (i.e., they solve the radiative transfer equation) and an overwhelming majority of these participants use slow-but-robust Monte Carlo techniques. This means that only a small portion of the efficiency vs. accuracy vs. flexibility domain is currently populated by I3RC participants. To balance this natural clustering the present authors have organized a systematic outreach towards
A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry
S. P. Singh; K. Jain; V. R. Mandla
2014-01-01
3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it’s related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based m...
Radon transport modelling: User's guide to RnMod3d
Andersen, Claus Erik
2000-01-01
RnMod3d is a numerical computer model of soil-gas and radon transport in porous media. It can be used, for example, to study radon entry from soil into houses in response to indoor-outdoor pressure differences or changes in atmospheric pressure. It canalso be used for flux calculations of radon...... from the soil surface or to model radon exhalation from building materials such as concrete. The finite-volume model is a technical research tool, and it cannot be used meaningfully without good understandingof the involved physical equations. Some understanding of numerical mathematics and the...... programming language Pascal is also required. Originally, the code was developed for internal use at Risø only. With this guide, however, it should be possible forothers to use the model. Three-dimensional steady-state or transient problems with Darcy flow of soil gas and combined generation, radioactive...
3-D Reconstruction of Medical Image Using Wavelet Transform and Snake Model
Jinyong Cheng
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an important step in 3-D reconstruction, and 3-D reconstruction from medical images is an important application of computer graphics and biomedicine image processing. An improved image segmentation method which is suitable for 3-D reconstruction is presented in this paper. A 3-D reconstruction algorithm is used to reconstruct the 3-D model from medical images. Rough edge is obtained by multi-scale wavelet transform at first. With the rough edge, improved gradient vector flow snake model is used and the object contour in the image is found. In the experiments, we reconstruct 3-D models of kidney, liver and brain putamen. The performances of the experiments indicate that the new algorithm can produce accurate 3-D reconstruction.
Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.
2015-11-01
Most of the current atmospheric chemistry models for planets (e.g., Krasnopolsky & Parshev 1981; Yung & Demore 1982; Yung, Allen & Pinto 1984; Lavvas et al. 2008; Zhang et al. 2012) and exoplanets (e.g., Line, Liang & Yung 2010; Moses et al. 2011; Hu & Seager 2014) adopt a one-dimensional (1D) chemical-diffusion approach in the vertical coordinate. Although only a crude approximation, these 1D models have succeeded in explaining the global-averaged vertical profiles of many chemical species in observations. One of the important assumptions of these models is that all chemical species are transported via the same eddy diffusion profile--that is, the assumption is made that the eddy diffusivity is a fundamental property of the dynamics alone, and does not depend on the chemistry. Here we show that, as also noticed in the Earth community (e.g., Holton 1986), this “homogenous eddy diffusion” assumption generally breaks down. We first show analytically why the 1D eddy diffusivity must generally depend both on the horizontal eddy mixing and the chemical lifetime of the species. This implies that the long-lived species and short-lived chemical species will generally exhibit different eddy diffusion profiles, even in a given atmosphere with identical dynamics. Next, we present tracer-transport simulations in a 2D chemical-diffusion-advection model (Shia et al. 1989; Zhang, Shia & Yung 2013) and a 3D general circulation model (MITgcm, e.g., Liu & Showman 2013), for both rapid-rotating planets and tidally-locked exoplanets, to further explore the effect of chemical timescales on the eddy diffusivity. From the 2D and 3D simulation outputs, we derive effective 1D eddy diffusivity profiles for chemical tracers exhibiting a range of chemical timescales. We show that the derived eddy diffusivity can depend strongly on the horizontal eddy mixing and chemistry, although the dependences are more complex than the analytic model predicts. Overall, these results suggest that
3D building modeling,organization and application in digital city system
无
2010-01-01
The real world is a three-dimensional(3D)space requiring that 3D geospatial information applications be developed in alignment with the observer’s visual and perceptive habits.Particularly,3D building model data are required in a wide range of areas such as urban planning,environmental protection,real estate management and emergency response.At the same time,the development of Web service[LU1]technologies allows the possibility of the widely distributed 3D geospatial data on the web.3D city building model with its related information is an important part in the construction of a digital city system,and has become a staple resource on the web nowadays.In view of the hierarchical representation of a 3D building model,an abstract of a 3D building model based on structure details is studied,and a novel representation approach named 3D transparent building hierarchical model is presented in this paper.This approach fully uses both the existing 3D modeling technologies and CAD constructing mapping data.By the spatial relationship description,structural components inside a building can be represented and integrated as hierarchical models in a unified 3D space.In addition,based on the characteristics of the 3D building model data,a service-oriented architecture and Web service technologies for 3D city building models are discussed.The aim of the approach is that 3D city building models can be used as a kind of data resource service on the web,and can also exist independently in various different web applications.
Brasebin, M.; Perret, J.; Mustière, S.; Weber, C.
2012-10-01
The increased availability of 3D urban data reflects a growing interest in 3D spatial analysis. As 3D spatial analysis often uses complex 3D data, studies of the potential gains of using more detailed 3D urban databases for specific uses is an important issue. First, more complex data implies an increase in time and memory usage for the analysis (and calls for more research on the efficiency of the algorithms used). Second, detailed 3D urban data are complex to produce, expensive and it is important to be well informed in order to decide whether of not to invest in such data. Currently, many studies have been led about the fitness for use of 2D data but they are very scarce concerning 3D data. This article presents a method to determine the influence of 3D modeling on the results of 3D analysis by isolating the potential sources of errors (such as roof modeling and geometric accuracy). This method is applied on two 3D datasets (LOD1 and LOD2) and a 3D indicator (the sky view factor or SVF). The results show that the significant influence of roof modeling is globally compensated by the difference in geometric modeling but that important local variations are noticed. Nevertheless, for 75% of the SVF processed the difference between the results using these two databases is lower than 2%.
Alizadeh, Mohamad Mahdi; Schuh, Harald; Schmidt, Michael
2015-06-01
For space geodetic techniques, operating in microwave band, ionosphere is a dispersive medium; thus, signals traveling through this medium are in the first approximation, affected proportional to the inverse of the square of their frequencies. This effect allows gaining information about the parameters of the ionosphere in terms of total electron content (TEC) or the electron density (Ne). Making use of this phenomenon, space geodetic techniques have turned into a capable tool for studying the ionosphere in the last decades. Up to now, two-dimensional (2-D) models of Vertical TEC (VTEC) have been widely developed and used by different communities; however, due to the fact that these models provide information about the integral of the whole electron content along the vertical or slant raypath, these maps are not useful when information about the ionosphere at different altitude is required. This paper presents a recent study which aims at developing a global 3-D model of the electron density, using measurements from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and by applying the ray tracing technique to the upper atmosphere. The developed modeling approach represents the horizontal variations of the electron density, with two sets of spherical harmonic expansions of degree and order 15. The height dependency of the electron density is represented by a multilayered Chapman profile function for the bottomside and topside ionosphere, and an appropriate model for the plasmasphere. In addition to the geodetic applications of the developed models, within this study, the 3-D models of electron density can include geophysical parameters like maximum electron density and its corresponding height. High-resolution modeling of these parameters allows an improved geophysical interpretation, which is essential in all studies of the upper atmosphere, space weather, and for the solar-terrestrial environment.
A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.
Bee Guan Teo
Full Text Available In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation.
Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion
Foged, N.; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Christiansen, A. V.;
2014-01-01
We present an automatic method for parameterization of a 3-D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models through an inverse optimization, with the objective of further detailing of geological models, or as direct input into groundwater models...... and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey in the...
A Log-Based 3D Model Retrieval Relevance Feedback Scheme Using Biased SVMs
Zhiyong Zhang; Bailin Yang; Xun Wang
2010-01-01
Retrieval relevance feedback is an iterative search technique to bridge the semantic gap between the high level user intention and low level data representation. This technique interactively determines a user's desired output or query concept by asking the user whether certain proposed 3D models are relevant or not. In the past, most research efforts in 3D model retrieval field have focused on designing algorithms for traditional relevance feedback. Given a 3D model retrieval system, it can c...
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data
Rijs, Carlos; Przybylski, Damien; Moradi, Hamed; Cally, Paul S; Shelyag, Sergiy
2015-01-01
The well-observed acoustic halo is an enhancement in time-averaged Doppler velocity and intensity power with respect to quiet-sun values which is prominent for weak and highly inclined field around the penumbra of sunspots and active regions. We perform 3D linear wave modelling with realistic distributed acoustic sources in a MHS sunspot atmosphere and compare the resultant simulation enhancements with multi-height SDO observations of the phenomenon. We find that simulated halos are in good qualitative agreement with observations. We also provide further proof that the underlying process responsible for the halo is the refraction and return of fast magnetic waves which have undergone mode conversion at the critical $a=c$ atmospheric layer. In addition, we also find strong evidence that fast-Alfv\\'en mode conversion plays a significant role in the structure of the halo, taking energy away from photospheric and chromospheric heights in the form of field-aligned Alfv\\'en waves. This conversion process may explai...
A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry
Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.
2014-05-01
3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country
Detection of Disease Symptoms on Hyperspectral 3d Plant Models
Roscher, Ribana; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Dupuis, Jan; Kuhlmann, Heiner; Plümer, Lutz
2016-06-01
We analyze the benefit of combining hyperspectral images information with 3D geometry information for the detection of Cercospora leaf spot disease symptoms on sugar beet plants. Besides commonly used one-class Support Vector Machines, we utilize an unsupervised sparse representation-based approach with group sparsity prior. Geometry information is incorporated by representing each sample of interest with an inclination-sorted dictionary, which can be seen as an 1D topographic dictionary. We compare this approach with a sparse representation based approach without geometry information and One-Class Support Vector Machines. One-Class Support Vector Machines are applied to hyperspectral data without geometry information as well as to hyperspectral images with additional pixelwise inclination information. Our results show a gain in accuracy when using geometry information beside spectral information regardless of the used approach. However, both methods have different demands on the data when applied to new test data sets. One-Class Support Vector Machines require full inclination information on test and training data whereas the topographic dictionary approach only need spectral information for reconstruction of test data once the dictionary is build by spectra with inclination.
3D product authenticity model for online retail: An invariance analysis
Algharabat, R; Dennis, C.
2009-01-01
This study investigates the effects of different levels of invariance analysis on three dimensional (3D) product authenticity model (3DPAM) constructs in the e- retailing context. A hypothetical retailer Web site presents a variety of laptops using 3D product visualisations. The proposed conceptual model achieves acceptable fit and the hypothesised paths are all valid. We empirically investigate the invariance across the subgroups to validate the results of our 3DPAM. We concluded that the 3D...
Corradini, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Merucci, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Folch, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia
2011-01-01
The moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a multispectral satellite instrument operating from the visible to thermal infrared spectral range. FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic particles. In this letter, quantitative comparison between the volcanic cloud ash mass and optical depth retrieved by MODIS and modeled by FALL3D has been performed. Three MODIS images collected on October 28, 29, and 30 on Mt. Etna volcano duri...
Ash3d: A finite-volume, conservative numerical model for ash transport and tephra deposition
Schwaiger, Hans F.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Mastin, Larry G.
2012-01-01
We develop a transient, 3-D Eulerian model (Ash3d) to predict airborne volcanic ash concentration and tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. This model simulates downwind advection, turbulent diffusion, and settling of ash injected into the atmosphere by a volcanic eruption column. Ash advection is calculated using time-varying pre-existing wind data and a robust, high-order, finite-volume method. Our routine is mass-conservative and uses the coordinate system of the wind data, either a Cartesian system local to the volcano or a global spherical system for the Earth. Volcanic ash is specified with an arbitrary number of grain sizes, which affects the fall velocity, distribution and duration of transport. Above the source volcano, the vertical mass distribution with elevation is calculated using a Suzuki distribution for a given plume height, eruptive volume, and eruption duration. Multiple eruptions separated in time may be included in a single simulation. We test the model using analytical solutions for transport. Comparisons of the predicted and observed ash distributions for the 18 August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr in Alaska demonstrate to the efficacy and efficiency of the routine.
Processing of 3D Weather Radar Data with Application for Assimilation in the NWP Model
Ośródka Katarzyna
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the processing of 3D weather radar data to minimize the impact of a number of errors from different sources, both meteorological and non-meteorological. The data is also quantitatively characterized in terms of its quality. A set of dedicated algorithms based on analysis of the reflectivity field pattern is described. All the developed algorithms were tested on data from the Polish radar network POLRAD. Quality control plays a key role in avoiding the introduction of incorrect information into applications using radar data. One of the quality control methods is radar data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models to estimate initial conditions of the atmosphere. The study shows an experiment with quality controlled radar data assimilation in the COAMPS model using the ensemble Kalman filter technique. The analysis proved the potential of radar data for such applications; however, further investigations will be indispensable.
Content-based similarity for 3D model retrieval and classification
Ke Lü; Ning He; Jian Xue
2009-01-01
With the rapid development of 3D digital shape information,content-based 3D model retrieval and classification has become an important research area.This paper presents a novel 3D model retrieval and classification algorithm.For feature representation,a method combining a distance histogram and moment invariants is proposed to improve the retrieval performance.The major advantage of using a distance histogram is its invariance to the transforms of scaling,translation and rotation.Based on the premise that two similar objects should have high mutual information,the querying of 3D data should convey a great deal of information on the shape of the two objects,and so we propose a mutual information distance measurement to perform the similarity comparison of 3D objects.The proposed algorithm is tested with a 3D model retrieval and classification prototype,and the experimental evaluation demonstrates satisfactory retrieval results and classification accuracy.
The efficiency of pesticide application to agricultural fields and the resulting environmental contamination highly depend on atmospheric airflow. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of airflow within plant canopies using 3D canopy architecture was developed to understand the effect of the canopy to airflow. The model average air velocity was validated using experimental results in a wind tunnel with two artificial model trees of 24 cm height. Mean air velocities and their root mean square (RMS) values were measured on a vertical plane upstream and downstream sides of the trees in the tunnel using 2D hotwire anemometer after imposing a uniform air velocity of 10 m s-1 at the inlet. 3D virtual canopy geometries of the artificial trees were modelled and introduced into a computational fluid domain whereby airflow through the trees was simulated using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and k-ε turbulence model. There was good agreement of the average longitudinal velocity, U between the measurements and the simulation results with relative errors less than 2% for upstream and 8% for downstream sides of the trees. The accuracy of the model prediction for turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence intensity I was acceptable within the tree height when using a roughness length (y0 = 0.02 mm) for the surface roughness of the tree branches and by applying a source model in a porous sub-domain created around the trees. The approach was applied for full scale orchard trees in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and was compared with previous approaches and works. The simulation in the ABL was made using two groups of full scale orchard trees; short (h = 3 m) with wider branching and long (h = 4 m) with narrow branching. This comparison showed good qualitative agreements on the vertical profiles of U with small local differences as expected due to the spatial disparities in tree architecture. This work was able to show airflow within and above the
The paper describes a novel experiment characterized by the development of a confocal geometry in an external Micro-PIXE set-up. The position of X-ray optics in front of the X-ray detector and its proper alignment with respect to the proton micro-beam focus provided the possibility of carrying out 3D Micro-PIXE analysis. As a first application, depth intensity profiles of the major elements that compose the patina layer of a quaternary bronze alloy were measured. A simulation approach of the 3D Micro-PIXE data deduced elemental concentration profiles in rather good agreement with corresponding results obtained by electron probe micro-analysis from a cross-sectioned patina sample. With its non-destructive and depth-resolving properties, as well as its feasibility in atmospheric pressure, 3D Micro-PIXE seems especially suited for investigations in the field of cultural heritage
Smith, N; Auton, C.; Kearsey, T.; Finlayson, A; Callaghan, E.
2010-01-01
The report encompasses four pieces of work undertaken on behalf of LLWR Ltd during 2010: 1) A description of the interpretation of geophysical profiles obtained from the Drigg Spit area were revised in a 3D environment in order to address inconsistencies along the profiles where they intersected. Profile interpretations were revised using GSI3D software, by examining both the original geophysical profile, the existing interpretation and geological information from boreholes ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A very high resolution model of the International Space Station in many parts. The download includes an image of the final configuration. This model is provided in...
Koehl, M.; Brigand, N.
2012-08-01
The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc.), digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.). The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic photographic image
M. Koehl
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS. With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc., digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.. The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic
Towards Precise Metadata-set for Discovering 3D Geospatial Models in Geo-portals
Zamyadi, A.; Pouliot, J.; Bédard, Y.
2013-09-01
Accessing 3D geospatial models, eventually at no cost and for unrestricted use, is certainly an important issue as they become popular among participatory communities, consultants, and officials. Various geo-portals, mainly established for 2D resources, have tried to provide access to existing 3D resources such as digital elevation model, LIDAR or classic topographic data. Describing the content of data, metadata is a key component of data discovery in geo-portals. An inventory of seven online geo-portals and commercial catalogues shows that the metadata referring to 3D information is very different from one geo-portal to another as well as for similar 3D resources in the same geo-portal. The inventory considered 971 data resources affiliated with elevation. 51% of them were from three geo-portals running at Canadian federal and municipal levels whose metadata resources did not consider 3D model by any definition. Regarding the remaining 49% which refer to 3D models, different definition of terms and metadata were found, resulting in confusion and misinterpretation. The overall assessment of these geo-portals clearly shows that the provided metadata do not integrate specific and common information about 3D geospatial models. Accordingly, the main objective of this research is to improve 3D geospatial model discovery in geo-portals by adding a specific metadata-set. Based on the knowledge and current practices on 3D modeling, and 3D data acquisition and management, a set of metadata is proposed to increase its suitability for 3D geospatial models. This metadata-set enables the definition of genuine classes, fields, and code-lists for a 3D metadata profile. The main structure of the proposal contains 21 metadata classes. These classes are classified in three packages as General and Complementary on contextual and structural information, and Availability on the transition from storage to delivery format. The proposed metadata set is compared with Canadian Geospatial
Mapping Infrared Data on Terrestrial Laser Scanning 3D Models of Buildings
Mattia Previtali; Elisabetta Rosina; Marco Scaioni; Luigi Barazzetti; Mario Ivan Alba
2011-01-01
A new 3D acquisition and processing procedure to map RGB, thermal IR and near infrared images (NIR) on a detailed 3D model of a building is presented. The combination and fusion of different data sources allows the generation of 3D thermal data useful for different purposes such as localization, visualization, and analysis of anomalies in contemporary architecture. The classic approach, which is currently used to map IR images on 3D models, is based on the direct registration of each single i...
Automatic extraction of soft tissues from 3D MRI head images using model driven analysis
This paper presents an automatic extraction system (called TOPS-3D : Top Down Parallel Pattern Recognition System for 3D Images) of soft tissues from 3D MRI head images by using model driven analysis algorithm. As the construction of system TOPS we developed, two concepts have been considered in the design of system TOPS-3D. One is the system having a hierarchical structure of reasoning using model information in higher level, and the other is a parallel image processing structure used to extract plural candidate regions for a destination entity. The new points of system TOPS-3D are as follows. (1) The TOPS-3D is a three-dimensional image analysis system including 3D model construction and 3D image processing techniques. (2) A technique is proposed to increase connectivity between knowledge processing in higher level and image processing in lower level. The technique is realized by applying opening operation of mathematical morphology, in which a structural model function defined in higher level by knowledge representation is immediately used to the filter function of opening operation as image processing in lower level. The system TOPS-3D applied to 3D MRI head images consists of three levels. First and second levels are reasoning part, and third level is image processing part. In experiments, we applied 5 samples of 3D MRI head images with size 128 x 128 x 128 pixels to the system TOPS-3D to extract the regions of soft tissues such as cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. From the experimental results, the system is robust for variation of input data by using model information, and the position and shape of soft tissues are extracted corresponding to anatomical structure. (author)
Integration of 3D photogrammetric outcrop models in the reservoir modelling workflow
Deschamps, Remy; Joseph, Philippe; Lerat, Olivier; Schmitz, Julien; Doligez, Brigitte; Jardin, Anne
2014-05-01
3D technologies are now widely used in geosciences to reconstruct outcrops in 3D. The technology used for the 3D reconstruction is usually based on Lidar, which provides very precise models. Such datasets offer the possibility to build well-constrained outcrop analogue models for reservoir study purposes. The photogrammetry is an alternate methodology which principles are based in determining the geometric properties of an object from photographic pictures taken from different angles. Outcrop data acquisition is easy, and this methodology allows constructing 3D outcrop models with many advantages such as: - light and fast acquisition, - moderate processing time (depending on the size of the area of interest), - integration of field data and 3D outcrops into the reservoir modelling tools. Whatever the method, the advantages of digital outcrop model are numerous as already highlighted by Hodgetts (2013), McCaffrey et al. (2005) and Pringle et al. (2006): collection of data from otherwise inaccessible areas, access to different angles of view, increase of the possible measurements, attributes analysis, fast rate of data collection, and of course training and communication. This paper proposes a workflow where 3D geocellular models are built by integrating all sources of information from outcrops (surface picking, sedimentological sections, structural and sedimentary dips…). The 3D geomodels that are reconstructed can be used at the reservoir scale, in order to compare the outcrop information with subsurface models: the detailed facies models of the outcrops are transferred into petrophysical and acoustic models, which are used to test different scenarios of seismic and fluid flow modelling. The detailed 3D models are also used to test new techniques of static reservoir modelling, based either on geostatistical approaches or on deterministic (process-based) simulation techniques. A modelling workflow has been designed to model reservoir geometries and properties from
Mumford, S J; Erdélyi, R
2013-01-01
Aims. Recent ground- and space-based observations reveal the presence of small-scale motions between convection cells in the solar photosphere. In these regions small-scale magnetic flux tubes are generated due to the interaction of granulation motion and background magnetic field. This paper aims to study the effects of these motions, in regions of enhanced magnetic field, on magnetohydrodynamic wave excitation, propagation and energy flux from the solar photosphere up towards the solar corona. Methods. Numerical experiments of magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation in a realistic gravitationally stratified solar atmosphere from five different modelled photospheric drivers are performed. Horizontal and vertical drivers to mimic granular buffeting and solar global oscillations, a uniform torsional driver, an Archimedean spiral and a logarithmic spiral to mimic observed torsional motions in the solar photosphere are investigated. The numerical results are analysed using a novel method for extracting the parallel...
Rethinking Design Process: Using 3D Digital Models as an Interface in Collaborative Session
Ding, Suining
2008-01-01
This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital models. The collaborative session took place in a 3D AutoCAD class for a real world project. The 3D models served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…
Consistent plane stress-3D conversion of hardening models and yield criteria
Riel, van M.; Boogaard, van den A.H.
2007-01-01
Material models in FE-simulations are used both in 3D and plane stress situations. In this paper it is shown that for models that include kinematic hardening, the conversion from a 3D to a plane stress algorithm needs more adaptations than only eliminating the thickness components. An example and a
3D Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand
Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.
2015-08-01
In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on 3D modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a 3D laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the 3D scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the 3D models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for 3D modeling. In our experiments, 3D models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of 3D models will be represented by using standard formats of 3D point clouds and triangulated surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient 3D models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed 3D models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate 3D models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.
An Approach to Computer Modeling of Geological Faults in 3D and an Application
ZHU Liang-feng; HE Zheng; PAN Xin; WU Xin-cai
2006-01-01
3D geological modeling, one of the most important applications in geosciences of 3D GIS, forms the basis and is a prerequisite for visualized representation and analysis of 3D geological data. Computer modeling of geological faults in 3D is currently a topical research area. Structural modeling techniques of complex geological entities containing reverse faults are discussed and a series of approaches are proposed. The geological concepts involved in computer modeling and visualization of geological fault in 3D are explained, the type of data of geological faults based on geological exploration is analyzed, and a normative database format for geological faults is designed. Two kinds of modeling approaches for faults are compared: a modeling technique of faults based on stratum recovery and a modeling technique of faults based on interpolation in subareas. A novel approach, called the Unified Modeling Technique for stratum and fault, is presented to solve the puzzling problems of reverse faults, syn-sedimentary faults and faults terminated within geological models. A case study of a fault model of bed rock in the Beijing Olympic Green District is presented in order to show the practical result of this method. The principle and the process of computer modeling of geological faults in 3D are discussed and a series of applied technical proposals established. It strengthens our profound comprehension of geological phenomena and the modeling approach, and establishes the basic techniques of 3D geological modeling for practical applications in the field of geosciences.
Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J.; Adams, Justin W.; McMenamin, Paul G.
2016-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized…
A model of 3D shape memory alloy materials
Aiki, Toyohiko
2005-01-01
It is a crucial step how to describe the relationship between the strain, the stress and the temperature field, when we consider the mathematical modelling for shape memory alloy materials. From the experimental results we know that the relationship can be described by the hysteresis operators. In this paper we propose a new system consisting of differential equations as a mathematical model for shape memory alloy materials occupying the three dimensional domain. The key of the modelling is t...
Reconstructing 3D building models from laser scanning to calculate the heat demand
Neidhart, Hauke; Sester, Monika
2008-09-15
The objective of the project is to determine the heat demand of settlement areas using geospatial data, especially airborne laser scanning data. With airborne laser scanning it possible to record detailed 3D data for great areas. With this 3D data it is possible to reconstruct 3D building models. The geometry then can be used to derive information for the calculation of the heat demand
Services Oriented Smart City Platform Based On 3d City Model Visualization
Prandi, F.; Soave, M.; Devigili, F.; Andreolli, M.; De Amicis, R.
2014-04-01
The rapid technological evolution, which is characterizing all the disciplines involved within the wide concept of smart cities, is becoming a key factor to trigger true user-driven innovation. However to fully develop the Smart City concept to a wide geographical target, it is required an infrastructure that allows the integration of heterogeneous geographical information and sensor networks into a common technological ground. In this context 3D city models will play an increasingly important role in our daily lives and become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure). The work presented in this paper describes an innovative Services Oriented Architecture software platform aimed at providing smartcities services on top of 3D urban models. 3D city models are the basis of many applications and can became the platform for integrating city information within the Smart-Cites context. In particular the paper will investigate how the efficient visualisation of 3D city models using different levels of detail (LODs) is one of the pivotal technological challenge to support Smart-Cities applications. The goal is to provide to the final user realistic and abstract 3D representations of the urban environment and the possibility to interact with a massive amounts of semantic information contained into the geospatial 3D city model. The proposed solution, using OCG standards and a custom service to provide 3D city models, lets the users to consume the services and interact with the 3D model via Web in a more effective way.
A Gaussian Mixture Model-Based Continuous Boundary Detection for 3D Sensor Networks
Mitsuji Matsumoto
2010-08-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a high precision Gaussian Mixture Model-based novel Boundary Detection 3D (BD3D scheme with reasonable implementation cost for 3D cases by selecting a minimum number of Boundary sensor Nodes (BNs in continuous moving objects. It shows apparent advantages in that two classes of boundary and non-boundary sensor nodes can be efficiently classified using the model selection techniques for finite mixture models; furthermore, the set of sensor readings within each sensor node’s spatial neighbors is formulated using a Gaussian Mixture Model; different from DECOMO [1] and COBOM [2], we also formatted a BN Array with an additional own sensor reading to benefit selecting Event BNs (EBNs and non-EBNs from the observations of BNs. In particular, we propose a Thick Section Model (TSM to solve the problem of transition between 2D and 3D. It is verified by simulations that the BD3D 2D model outperforms DECOMO and COBOM in terms of average residual energy and the number of BNs selected, while the BD3D 3D model demonstrates sound performance even for sensor networks with low densities especially when the value of the sensor transmission range (r is larger than the value of Section Thickness (d in TSM. We have also rigorously proved its correctness for continuous geometric domains and full robustness for sensor networks over 3D terrains.
An object-oriented 3D integral data model for digital city and digital mine
Wu, Lixin; Wang, Yanbing; Che, Defu; Xu, Lei; Chen, Xuexi; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Wenzhong
2005-10-01
With the rapid development of urban, city space extended from surface to subsurface. As the important data source for the representation of city spatial information, 3D city spatial data have the characteristics of multi-object, heterogeneity and multi-structure. It could be classified referring to the geo-surface into three kinds: above-surface data, surface data and subsurface data. The current research on 3D city spatial information system is divided naturally into two different branch, 3D City GIS (3D CGIS) and 3D Geological Modeling (3DGM). The former emphasizes on the 3D visualization of buildings and the terrain of city, while the latter emphasizes on the visualization of geological bodies and structures. Although, it is extremely important for city planning and construction to integrate all the city spatial information including above-surface, surface and subsurface objects to conduct integral analysis and spatial manipulation. However, either 3D CGIS or 3DGM is currently difficult to realize the information integration, integral analysis and spatial manipulation. Considering 3D spatial modeling theory and methodologies, an object-oriented 3D integral spatial data model (OO3D-ISDM) is presented and software realized. The model integrates geographical objects, surface buildings and geological objects together seamlessly with TIN being its coupling interface. This paper introduced the conceptual model of OO3D-ISDM, which is comprised of 4 spatial elements, i.e. point, line, face and body, and 4 geometric primitives, i.e. vertex, segment, triangle and generalized tri-prism (GTP). The spatial model represents the geometry of surface buildings and geographical objects with triangles, and geological objects with GTP. Any of the represented objects, no mater surface buildings, terrain or subsurface objects, could be described with the basic geometry element, i.e. triangle. So the 3D spatial objects, surface buildings, terrain and geological objects can be
3-D microphysical model studies of Arctic denitrification: comparison with observations
S. Davies
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Simulations of Arctic denitrification using a 3-D chemistry-microphysics transport model are compared with observations for the winters 1994/1995, 1996/1997 and 1999/2000. The model of Denitrification by Lagrangian Particle Sedimentation (DLAPSE couples the full chemical scheme of the 3-D chemical transport model, SLIMCAT, with a nitric acid trihydrate (NAT growth and sedimentation scheme. We use observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and Improved Limb Atmospheric Sounder (ILAS satellite instruments, the balloon-borne Michelsen Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B, and the in situ NO_{y} instrument on-board the ER-2. As well as directly comparing model results with observations, we also assess the extent to which these observations are able to validate the modelling approach taken. For instance, in 1999/2000 the model captures the temporal development of denitrification observed by the ER-2 from late January into March. However, in this winter the vortex was already highly denitrified by late January so the observations do not provide a strong constraint on the modelled rate of denitrification. The model also reproduces the MLS observations of denitrification in early February 2000. In 1996/1997 the model captures the timing and magnitude of denitrification as observed by ILAS, although the lack of observations north of ~67° N make it difficult to constrain the actual timing of onset. The comparison for this winter does not support previous conclusions that denitrification must be caused by an ice-mediated process. In 1994/1995 the model notably underestimates the magnitude of denitrification observed during a single balloon flight of the MIPAS-B instrument. Agreement between model and MLS HNO_{3} at 68 hPa in mid-February 1995 was significantly better. Sensitivity tests show that a 1.5 K overall decrease in vortex temperatures or a factor 4 increase in assumed NAT nucleation rates produce the best
3D Fluid-Structure Modeling of a Monofin
Monier, L.; Razafimahery, F.; Rakotomanana, L.
2010-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a numerical modelisation for the behaviour of a monofin. We have developped a fluid struture model simulating the movement of a fin in a swimming pool. We first present the geometry and the equations and then proceed to different numerical experiments in order to validate the model.
Computational 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System
We are developing a comprehensive, morphologically-realistic computational model of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while being adaptable for age, race, gender, and health/disease status. The model ...
Assessing a 3D smoothed seismicity model of induced earthquakes
Zechar, Jeremy; Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan
2016-04-01
As more energy exploration and extraction efforts cause earthquakes, it becomes increasingly important to control induced seismicity. Risk management schemes must be improved and should ultimately be based on near-real-time forecasting systems. With this goal in mind, we propose a test bench to evaluate models of induced seismicity based on metrics developed by the CSEP community. To illustrate the test bench, we consider a model based on the so-called seismogenic index and a rate decay; to produce three-dimensional forecasts, we smooth past earthquakes in space and time. We explore four variants of this model using the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 datasets to make short-term forecasts, test their consistency, and rank the model variants. Our results suggest that such a smoothed seismicity model is useful for forecasting induced seismicity within three days, and giving more weight to recent events improves forecast performance. Moreover, the location of the largest induced earthquake is forecast well by this model. Despite the good spatial performance, the model does not estimate the seismicity rate well: it frequently overestimates during stimulation and during the early post-stimulation period, and it systematically underestimates around shut-in. In this presentation, we also describe a robust estimate of information gain, a modification that can also benefit forecast experiments involving tectonic earthquakes.
Plane extraction and error modeling of 3D data
Viejo Hernando, Diego; Cazorla Quevedo, Miguel Ángel
2006-01-01
We are interested in using natural landmarks obtained by a stereo system not only in SLAM-like algorithms but also feature extraction, map building, and so on. Using a stereo camera we can extract planes and geometrical primitives like that. In order to use these primitives a perceptual model of landmarks is needed, due to error model can improve the results. In this paper we present a method to get the perceptual model of the plane extraction process. We will show that the use of this ...
3D City Models with Different Temporal Characteristica
Bodum, Lars
2005-01-01
-built dynamic or a model suitable for visualization in realtime, it is required that modelling is done with level-of-detail and simplification of both the aesthetics and the geometry. If a temporal characteristic is combined with a visual characteristic, the situation can easily be seen as a t/v matrix where t...... variation in time is non-synchronous with real-time, usually more effort can be put on the fi delity in relation to the aesthetic and geometric representation. This means that the models are more realistic or contain another level of detail. However, if one looks at virtual environments with an in...
Application of Novel Rotation Angular Model for 3D Mouse System Based on MEMS Accelerometers
QIAN Li; CHEN Wen-yuan; XU Guo-ping
2009-01-01
A new scheme is proposed to model 3D angular motion of a revolving regular object with miniature, low-cost micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers (instead of gyroscope), which is employed in 3D mouse system. To sense 3D angular motion, the static property of MEMS accelerometer, sensitive to gravity acceleration, is exploited. With the three outputs of configured accelerometers, the proposed model is implemented to get the rotary motion of the rigid object. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model, an input device is developed with the configuration of the scheme. Experimental results show that a simulated 3D cube can accurately track the rotation of the input device. The result indicates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model in the 3D mouse system.
A 3D Lagrangian particle model for direct plume gamma dose rate calculations
A fully 3D Lagrangian particle model has been presented for calculating the direct gamma dose rates due to a radionuclide plume in the atmosphere. A continuous release of radionuclides into the atmosphere was simulated by liberating a series of puffs (each containing 100 Lagrangian particles). These puffs were released with a constant time lag between the successive puffs. The Lagrangian particle trajectories were tracked for about 25 h in a turbulent atmosphere, with a specified wind field. The atmosphere turbulent/stability characteristics like wind velocity fluctuations, eddy lifetime, etc, were obtained from the reported data in the published literature. For calculating the direct plume gamma dose rates, a point isotropic source formula has been used with appropriate attenuation and build-up factors for the air medium. Each Lagrangian particle represented a point source whose radioactive strength was calculated from the known release rate. The dose rates at ground due to the radionuclide plume were calculated by adding the contribution from each Lagrangian particle in the domain. The numerically calculated dose rates were compared with the numerical results reported in the literature. An excellent comparison was observed for downwind distances up to about 20 km. However, for distances exceeding 20 km, the numerical data were below the reported results for the Gaussian plume model. This discrepancy was due to the vertical wind shear. It is concluded that a Gaussian plume model can be used for the concentration calculations provided the lateral dispersion parameter, σy, includes the effect of wind shear, for distances exceeding 20 km. (author)
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code, studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented: high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code; ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code; studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code; and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs
Albedo and heat transport in 3-D model simulations of the early Archean climate
H. Kienert
2013-08-01
Full Text Available At the beginning of the Archean eon (ca. 3.8 billion years ago, the Earth's climate state was significantly different from today due to the lower solar luminosity, smaller continental fraction, higher rotation rate and, presumably, significantly larger greenhouse gas concentrations. All these aspects play a role in solutions to the "faint young Sun paradox" which must explain why the ocean surface was not fully frozen at that time. Here, we present 3-D model simulations of climate states that are consistent with early Archean boundary conditions and have different CO2 concentrations, aiming at an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of the early Archean climate system. In order to do so, we have appropriately modified an intermediate complexity climate model that couples a statistical-dynamical atmosphere model (involving parameterizations of the dynamics to an ocean general circulation model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea-ice model. We focus on three states: one of them is ice-free, one has the same mean surface air temperature of 288 K as today's Earth and the third one is the coldest stable state in which there is still an area with liquid surface water (i.e. the critical state at the transition to a "snowball Earth". We find a reduction in meridional heat transport compared to today, which leads to a steeper latitudinal temperature profile and has atmospheric as well as oceanic contributions. Ocean surface velocities are largely zonal, and the strength of the atmospheric meridional circulation is significantly reduced in all three states. These aspects contribute to the observed relation between global mean temperature and albedo, which we suggest as a parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback for 1-D model simulations of the early Archean and thus the faint young Sun problem.
F. Meier; D. Scherer; Richters, J.; A. Christen
2011-01-01
This research quantifies and discusses atmospheric effects, which alter the radiance observed by a ground-based thermal-infrared (TIR) camera. The TIR camera is mounted on a boom at a height of 125 m above ground on top of a high-rise building in the city of Berlin, Germany (52.4556° N, 13.3200° E) and observes the Earth's surface. The study shows that atmospheric correction of TIR imagery of the three-dimensional (3-D) urban environment acquired in oblique viewing geometry has to account for...
Congruence of 3-D Whole Mantle Models of Shear Velocity
Dziewonski, A. M.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.
2012-12-01
The range of shear velocity anomalies in published whole mantle models is considerable. This impedes drawing conclusions of importance for geodynamic modeling and for interpretation of mineral physics results. However, if one considers only the models that were built using data that are sensitive to mantle structure at all depths, these models show robust features in their power spectra as a function of depth. On this basis we propose that there are five depth intervals with distinct spectral characteristics. 1. Heterosphere (Moho - 300 km) is characterized by strong power spectrum relatively flat up to degree 6. With lateral shear wavespeed variations as large as 15%, this zone accounts for more than 50% of the entire heterogeneity in the mantle. Differences among models for different tectonic regions decrease rapidly below 300 km depth. 2. Upper mantle buffer zone (300- 500 km) has a flat spectrum and the overall power of heterogeneity drops by an order of magnitude compared to the region above. There may be still weak difference between continents and oceans, but the oceanic regions lose their age dependence. The spectral characteristics do not change across the 410 km discontinuity. 3. Transition zone (500 - 650 km) The degree 2 anomaly becomes dominant. There are long wavelength anomalies in regions of the fastest plate subduction during the last 15-20 Ma, suggesting slab ponding above the 650 km discontinuity. Several slower-than-average anomalies of unknown origin are present in this depth range. 4. Lower mantle buffer zone (650 - 2300 km) has a weak, flat spectrum without long wavelength velocity anomalies that could be interpreted as unfragmented subducted slabs. However, there are three relatively narrow and short high velocity anomalies under Peru, Tonga and Indonesia that may indicate limited slab penetration. 5 Abyssal layer (2300 - CMB) Strong spectrum dominated by degrees 2 and 3. The amplitude is the largest at the CMB and decreases rapidly up to
Atmospheric nonequilibrium mini-plasma jet created by a 3D printer
Takamatsu, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihiro@plasma.es.titech.ac.jp [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Sciences, J2-32, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8502 (Japan); Kawano, Hiroaki; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Okino, Akitoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Sciences, J2-32, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8502 (Japan); Azuma, Takeshi [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017 (Japan)
2015-07-15
In this study, a small-sized plasma jet source with a 3.7 mm head diameter was created via a 3D printer. The jet’s emission properties and OH radical concentrations (generated by argon, helium, and nitrogen plasmas) were investigated using optical emission spectrometry (OES) and electron spin resonance (ESR). As such, for OES, each individual gas plasma propagates emission lines that derive from gases and ambient air inserted into the measurement system. For the case of ESR, a spin adduct of the OH radical is typically observed for all gas plasma treatment scenarios with a 10 s treatment by helium plasma generating the largest amount of OH radicals at 110 μM. Therefore, it was confirmed that a plasma jet source made by a 3D printer can generate stable plasmas using each of the aforementioned three gases.
Atmospheric nonequilibrium mini-plasma jet created by a 3D printer
Toshihiro Takamatsu
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, a small-sized plasma jet source with a 3.7 mm head diameter was created via a 3D printer. The jet’s emission properties and OH radical concentrations (generated by argon, helium, and nitrogen plasmas were investigated using optical emission spectrometry (OES and electron spin resonance (ESR. As such, for OES, each individual gas plasma propagates emission lines that derive from gases and ambient air inserted into the measurement system. For the case of ESR, a spin adduct of the OH radical is typically observed for all gas plasma treatment scenarios with a 10 s treatment by helium plasma generating the largest amount of OH radicals at 110 μM. Therefore, it was confirmed that a plasma jet source made by a 3D printer can generate stable plasmas using each of the aforementioned three gases.
Atmospheric nonequilibrium mini-plasma jet created by a 3D printer
In this study, a small-sized plasma jet source with a 3.7 mm head diameter was created via a 3D printer. The jet’s emission properties and OH radical concentrations (generated by argon, helium, and nitrogen plasmas) were investigated using optical emission spectrometry (OES) and electron spin resonance (ESR). As such, for OES, each individual gas plasma propagates emission lines that derive from gases and ambient air inserted into the measurement system. For the case of ESR, a spin adduct of the OH radical is typically observed for all gas plasma treatment scenarios with a 10 s treatment by helium plasma generating the largest amount of OH radicals at 110 μM. Therefore, it was confirmed that a plasma jet source made by a 3D printer can generate stable plasmas using each of the aforementioned three gases
Possibility of reconstruction of dental plaster cast from 3D digital study models
Kasparova, Magdalena; Grafova, Lucie; Dvorak, Petr; Dostalova, Tatjana; Prochazka, Ales; Eliasova, Hana; Prusa, Josef; Kakawand, Soroush
2013-01-01
Objectives To compare traditional plaster casts, digital models and 3D printed copies of dental plaster casts based on various criteria. To determine whether 3D printed copies obtained using open source system RepRap can replace traditional plaster casts in dental practice. To compare and contrast the qualities of two possible 3D printing options – open source system RepRap and commercially available 3D printing. Design and settings A method comparison study on 10 dental plaster casts from th...
Engineered Polymeric Hydrogels for 3D Tissue Models
Sujin Park
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Polymeric biomaterials are widely used in a wide range of biomedical applications due to their unique properties, such as biocompatibility, multi-tunability and easy fabrication. Specifically, polymeric hydrogel materials are extensively utilized as therapeutic implants and therapeutic vehicles for tissue regeneration and drug delivery systems. Recently, hydrogels have been developed as artificial cellular microenvironments because of the structural and physiological similarity to native extracellular matrices. With recent advances in hydrogel materials, many researchers are creating three-dimensional tissue models using engineered hydrogels and various cell sources, which is a promising platform for tissue regeneration, drug discovery, alternatives to animal models and the study of basic cell biology. In this review, we discuss how polymeric hydrogels are used to create engineered tissue constructs. Specifically, we focus on emerging technologies to generate advanced tissue models that precisely recapitulate complex native tissues in vivo.
Methodology of High Accuracy and Resolution 3D Geological Model Generation and Application
吴键; 曹代勇; 邓爱居; 李东津; 蒋涛; 翟光华
2004-01-01
By generating a high accuracy and high resolution geological model in Liuchu oil field, the technique of geological modeling is expanded and involved in primary geological study, making the sand bodies and reservoir be easily described in detail. The 3D visualization and 3D interactive editing of geological structure model are the key for modeling procedure. And a high accuracy and resolution geological model has been well applied in optimizing the production scheme.
Integration of time-dependent features within 3D city model
Fan, Hongchao
2010-01-01
This thesis presents an object-oriented event-state spatiotemporal data model for storage and management of both semantic and geometric changes of 3D building objects in a city. The data model is mainly composed of two parts: an event model that describes events happened to building objects; and a hierarchical spatial data model that describes 3D geometries and semantics of building objects including their valid time span. In this way, histories of building objects are modeled.
Completion of PCFLOW3D Model for Simulation of Flow and Dispersion of Pollutants
Kovšca, Jasna
2007-01-01
An upgrade of the three-dimensional baroclinic mathematical model PCFLOW3D with a new turbulence model Smagorinsky-vertical is presented. Several test cases were made to compare this new turbulence model with other turbulence models already built in the PCFLOW3D model. Additional verifications of the test results were performed using the commercial software CORMIX of which main purpose is to simulate the near field areas of pollution inflows. CORMIX is restricted to steady flow...
Parallel processing for efficient 3D slope stability modelling
Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Metz, Markus; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto
2014-05-01
We test the performance of the GIS-based, three-dimensional slope stability model r.slope.stability. The model was developed as a C- and python-based raster module of the GRASS GIS software. It considers the three-dimensional geometry of the sliding surface, adopting a modification of the model proposed by Hovland (1977), and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers (2006). Given a terrain elevation map and a set of relevant thematic layers, the model evaluates the stability of slopes for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal or truncated in shape. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a value of the factor of safety, FS. For each pixel, the minimum value of FS and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information is used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable slopes in the study area. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy, an area known to be susceptible to landslides of different type and size. Availability of a comprehensive and detailed landslide inventory map allowed for a critical evaluation of the model results. The r.slope.stability code automatically splits the study area into a defined number of tiles, with proper overlap in order to provide the same statistical significance for the entire study area. The tiles are then processed in parallel by a given number of processors, exploiting a multi-purpose computing environment at CNR IRPI, Perugia. The map of the FS is obtained collecting the individual results, taking the minimum values on the overlapping cells. This procedure significantly reduces the processing time. We show how the gain in terms of processing time depends on the tile dimensions and on the number of cores.
3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth
Perfahl, H.
2012-11-01
We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.
3-D rheologic model of earthquake preparation (Ⅲ): Precursor field
无
2006-01-01
On the basis of the theory of viscoelastic displacement and strain field for the three-dimensional rheologic model of earthquake preparation, this paper mainly studies the theoretical solution of precursor field for the three-dimensional rheologic model of earthquake preparation. We derive the viscoelastic analytical expressions of the ground tilt, underground water level, earth resistivity at an arbitrary point (x, y, z) in the rheologic medium, and analyzed the earth resistivity preliminarily, providing a certain theoretical basis for the precursor analysis of seismogenic process.
SUSY 3D Georgi-Glashow model at finite temperature
D. AntonovINFN, Pisa & Pisa U.; Kovner, A.
2003-01-01
We study the finite-temperature properties of the supersymmetric version of (2+1)D Georgi-Glashow model. As opposed to its nonsupersymmetric counterpart, the parity symmetry in this theory at zero temperature is spontaneously broken by the bilinear photino condensate. We find that as the temperature is raised, the deconfinement and the parity restoration occur in this model at the same point $T_c=g^2/8\\pi$. The transition is continuous, but is not of the Ising type as in non...
The modeling of portable 3D vision coordinate measuring system
Liu, Shugui; Huang, Fengshan; Peng, Kai
2005-02-01
The portable three-dimensional vision coordinate measuring system, which consists of a light pen, a CCD camera and a laptop computer, can be widely applied in most coordinate measuring fields especially on the industrial spots. On the light pen there are at least three point-shaped light sources (LEDs) acting as the measured control characteristic points and a touch trigger probe with a spherical stylus which is used to contact the point to be measured. The most important character of this system is that three light sources and the probe stylus are aligned in one line with known positions. In building and studying this measuring system, how to construct the system"s mathematical model is the most key problem called perspective of three-collinear-points problem, which is a particular case of perspective of three-points problem (P3P). On the basis of P3P and spatial analytical geometry theory, the system"s mathematical model is established in this paper. What"s more, it is verified that perspective of three-collinear-points problem has a unique solution. And the analytical equations of the measured point"s coordinates are derived by using the system"s mathematical model and the restrict condition that three light sources and the probe stylus are aligned in one line. Finally, the effectiveness of the mathematical model is confirmed by experiments.
Solar Burst Analysis with 3D Loop Models
Costa, Joaquim E R; Pinto, Tereza S N; Melnikov, Victor F
2013-01-01
A sample of Nobeyama flares was selected and analyzed using loop model for important flare parameters. The model for the flaring region consists of a three dimensional dipolar magnetic field, and spatial distributions of non-thermal electrons. We constructed a database by calculating the flare microwave emission for a wide range of these parameters. Out of this database with more than 5,000 cases we extracted general flare properties by comparing the observed and calculated microwave spectra. The analysis of NoRP data was mostly based in the center-to-limb variation of the flare properties with looptop and footpoint electron distributions and for NoRH maps on the resultant distribution of emission. One important aspect of this work is the comparison of the analysis of a flare using an inhomogeneous source model and a simplistic homogeneous source model. Our results show clearly that the homogeneous source hypothesis is not appropriate to describe the possible flare geometry and its use can easily produce misl...
3D-modelling of the stellar auroral radio emission
Leto, P; Buemi, C S; Umana, G; Ingallinera, A; Cerrigone, L
2016-01-01
The electron cyclotron maser is the coherent emission process that gives rise to the radio lighthouse effect observed in the hot magnetic chemically peculiar star CU Virginis. It has also been proposed to explain the highly circularly polarized radio pulses observed on some ultra cool dwarfs, with spectral type earlier than M7. Such kind of coherent events resemble the auroral radio emission from the magnetized planets of the solar system. In this paper, we present a tridimensional model able to simulate the timing and profile of the pulses emitted by those stars characterized by a dipolar magnetic field by following the hypothesis of the laminar source model, used to explain the beaming of the terrestrial auroral kilometric radiation. This model proves to be a powerful tool to understand the auroral radio-emission phenomenon, allowing us to derive some general conclusions about the effects of the model's free parameters on the features of the coherent pulses, and to learn more about the detectability of such...
3D modelling of stellar auroral radio emission
Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Buemi, C. S.; Umana, G.; Ingallinera, A.; Cerrigone, L.
2016-06-01
The electron cyclotron maser is the coherent emission process that gives rise to the radio lighthouse effect observed in the hot magnetic chemically peculiar star CU Virginis. It has also been proposed to explain the highly circularly polarized radio pulses observed in some ultracool dwarfs with spectral type earlier than M7. Coherent events of this kind resemble auroral radio emission from the magnetized planets of the Solar system. In this article, we present a three-dimensional model able to simulate the timing and profile of the pulses emitted by those stars characterized by a dipolar magnetic field by following the hypothesis of the laminar source model, used to explain the beaming of terrestrial auroral kilometric radiation. This model proves to be a powerful tool with which to understand the auroral radio emission phenomenon, allowing us to derive some general conclusions about the effects of the model's free parameters on the features of coherent pulses and to learn more about the detectability of such pulsed radio emission.
Impact of the 3-D model strategy on science learning of the solar system
Alharbi, Mohammed
The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3-D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.
Introducing a new 3D dynamical model for barred galaxies
Jung, Christof
2015-01-01
The regular or chaotic dynamics of an analytical realistic three dimensional model composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar and a flat disk is investigated. For describing the properties of the bar we introduce a new simple dynamical model and we explore the influence on the character of orbits of all the involved parameters of it, such as the mass and the scale length of the bar, the major semi-axis and the angular velocity of the bar as well as the energy. Regions of phase space with ordered and chaotic motion are identified in dependence on these parameters and for breaking the rotational symmetry. First we study in detail the dynamics in the invariant plane $z = p_z = 0$ using the Poincar\\'e map as a basic tool and then we study the full 3 dimensional case using the SALI method as principal tool for distinguishing between order and chaos. We also present strong evidence obtained through the numerical simulations that our new bar model can realistically describe the formation and the evol...
Modelling circumstellar discs with 3D radiation hydrodynamics
Acreman, David M; Rundle, David A
2009-01-01
We present results from combining a grid-based radiative transfer code with a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code to produce a flexible system for modelling radiation hydrodynamics. We use a benchmark model of a circumstellar disc to determine a robust method for constructing a gridded density distribution from SPH particles. The benchmark disc is then used to determine the accuracy of the radiative transfer results. We find that the SED and the temperature distribution within the disc are sensitive to the representation of the disc inner edge, which depends critically on both the grid and SPH resolution. The code is then used to model a circumstellar disc around a T-Tauri star. As the disc adjusts towards equilibrium vertical motions in the disc are induced resulting in scale height enhancements which intercept radiation from the central star. Vertical transport of radiation enables these perturbations to influence the mid-plane temperature of the disc. The vertical motions decay over time and the disc ulti...
Approximate analytic solutions to 3D unconfined groundwater flow within regional 2D models
Luther, K.; Haitjema, H. M.
2000-04-01
We present methods for finding approximate analytic solutions to three-dimensional (3D) unconfined steady state groundwater flow near partially penetrating and horizontal wells, and for combining those solutions with regional two-dimensional (2D) models. The 3D solutions use distributed singularities (analytic elements) to enforce boundary conditions on the phreatic surface and seepage faces at vertical wells, and to maintain fixed-head boundary conditions, obtained from the 2D model, at the perimeter of the 3D model. The approximate 3D solutions are analytic (continuous and differentiable) everywhere, including on the phreatic surface itself. While continuity of flow is satisfied exactly in the infinite 3D flow domain, water balance errors can occur across the phreatic surface.
GTP-based Integral Real-3D Spatial Model for Engineering Excavation GIS
WU Lixin; SHI Wenzhong
2004-01-01
Engineering excavation GIS (E2GIS) is a real-3D GIS serving for geosciences related to geo-engineering, civil engineering and mining engineering based on generalized tri-prism (GTP) model. As two instances of GTP model, G-GTP is used for the real-3D modeling of subsurface geological bodies, and E-GTP is used for the real-3D modeling of subsurface engineering excavations.In the light of the discussions on the features and functions of E2GIS, the modeling principles of G-GTP and E-GTP are introduced. The two models couple together seamlessly to form an integral model for subsurface spatial objects including both geological bodies and excavations. An object-oriented integral real-3D data model and integral spatial topological relations are discussed.
Temporal-spatial modeling of fast-moving and deforming 3D objects
Wu, Xiaoliang; Wei, Youzhi
1998-09-01
This paper gives a brief description of the method and techniques developed for the modeling and reconstruction of fast moving and deforming 3D objects. A new approach using close-range digital terrestrial photogrammetry in conjunction with high speed photography and videography is proposed. A sequential image matching method (SIM) has been developed to automatically process pairs of images taken continuously of any fast moving and deforming 3D objects. Using the SIM technique a temporal-spatial model (TSM) of any fast moving and deforming 3D objects can be developed. The TSM would include a series of reconstructed surface models of the fast moving and deforming 3D object in the form of 3D images. The TSM allows the 3D objects to be visualized and analyzed in sequence. The SIM method, specifically the left-right matching and forward-back matching techniques are presented in the paper. An example is given which deals with the monitoring of a typical blast rock bench in a major open pit mine in Australia. With the SIM approach and the TSM model it is possible to automatically and efficiently reconstruct the 3D images of the blasting process. This reconstruction would otherwise be impossible to achieve using a labor intensive manual processing approach based on 2D images taken from conventional high speed cameras. The case study demonstrates the potential of the SIM approach and the TSM for the automatic identification, tracking and reconstruction of any fast moving and deforming 3D targets.
3D modelling of near-surface, environmental effects on AEM data
Beamish, David
2004-01-01
This study considers the three-dimensional (3D) modelling of compact, at-surface conductive bodies on frequency domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey data. The context is the use of AEM data for environmental and land quality applications. The 3D structures encountered are typically conductive, of limited thickness (
3D modeling of dual wind-up extensional rheometers
Yu, Kaijia; Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole
Fully three-dimensional numerical simulations of a dual wind-up drum rheometer of the Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER; Sentmanat, 2004 [1]) or the Extensional Viscosity Fixture (EVF; Garritano and Berting, 2006 [2]) type have been performed. In the SER and EVF a strip of rectangular shape is...... attached onto two drums, followed by a rotation of both drums in opposite direction. The numerical modeling is based on integral constitutive equations of the K-BKZ type. Generally, to ensure a proper uni-axial extensional deformation in dual wind-up drum rheometers the simulations show that a very small...
Modeling the diffusion of phosphorus in silicon in 3-D
Baker, K.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
1994-12-31
The use of matrix preconditioning in semiconductor process simulation is examined. The simplified nonlinear single-species model for the diffusion of phosphorus into silicon is considered. The experimental three-dimensional simulator, PEPPER3, which uses finite differences and the numerical method of lines to implement the reaction-diffusion equation is modified to allow NSPCG to be called to solve the linear system in the inner Newton loop. Use of NSPCG allowed various accelerators such as Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) to be used in conjunction with preconditioners such as Richardson, Jacobi, and Incomplete Cholesky.
3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy
Campbell, C. Louise; Christison, Craig; Brown, C. Tom A.; Wood, Kenneth; Valentine, Ronan M.; Moseley, Harry
2015-06-01
The effects of ageing and skin type on Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for different treatment methods have been theoretically investigated. A multilayered Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer model is presented where both daylight activated PDT and conventional PDT are compared. It was found that light penetrates deeper through older skin with a lighter complexion, which translates into a deeper effective treatment depth. The effect of ageing was found to be larger for darker skin types. The investigation further strengthens the usage of daylight as a potential light source for PDT where effective treatment depths of about 2 mm can be achieved.
Farhat, Aseel; Titi, Edriss S
2016-01-01
Analyzing the validity and success of a data assimilation algorithm when some state variable observations are not available is an important problem in meteorology and engineering. We present an improved data assimilation algorithm for recovering the exact full reference solution (i.e. the velocity and temperature) of the 3D Planetary Geostrophic model, at an exponential rate in time, by employing coarse spatial mesh observations of the temperature alone. This provides, in the case of this paradigm, a rigorous justification to an earlier conjecture of Charney which states that temperature history of the atmosphere, for certain simple atmospheric models, determines all other state variables.
Generation of a tumor spheroid in a microgravity environment as a 3D model of melanoma
Marrero, Bernadette; Messina, Jane L.; Heller, Richard
2009-01-01
An in vitro 3D model was developed utilizing a synthetic microgravity environment to facilitate studying the cell interactions. 2D monolayer cell culture models have been successfully used to understand various cellular reactions that occur in vivo. There are some limitations to the 2D model that are apparent when compared to cells grown in a 3D matrix. For example, some proteins that are not expressed in a 2D model are found up-regulated in the 3D matrix. In this paper, we discuss techniques...
Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling
Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Newbery, J.D.H. [Conoco, UK Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)] [and others
1997-08-01
Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.
Lightning Modelling: From 3D to Circuit Approach
Moussa, H.; Abdi, M.; Issac, F.; Prost, D.
2012-05-01
The topic of this study is electromagnetic environment and electromagnetic interferences (EMI) effects, specifically the modelling of lightning indirect effects [1] on aircraft electrical systems present on deported and highly exposed equipments, such as nose landing gear (NLG) and nacelle, through a circuit approach. The main goal of the presented work, funded by a French national project: PREFACE, is to propose a simple equivalent electrical circuit to represent a geometrical structure, taking into account mutual, self inductances, and resistances, which play a fundamental role in the lightning current distribution. Then this model is intended to be coupled to a functional one, describing a power train chain composed of: a converter, a shielded power harness and a motor or a set of resistors used as a load for the converter. The novelty here, is to provide a pre-sizing qualitative approach allowing playing on integration in pre-design phases. This tool intends to offer a user-friendly way for replying rapidly to calls for tender, taking into account the lightning constraints. Two cases are analysed: first, a NLG that is composed of tubular pieces that can be easily approximated by equivalent cylindrical straight conductors. Therefore, passive R, L, M elements of the structure can be extracted through analytical engineer formulas such as those implemented in the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) [2] technique. Second, the same approach is intended to be applied on an electrical de-icing nacelle sub-system.
Scaling of coercivity in a 3d random anisotropy model
The random-anisotropy Heisenberg model is numerically studied on lattices containing over ten million spins. The study is focused on hysteresis and metastability due to topological defects, and is relevant to magnetic properties of amorphous and sintered magnets. We are interested in the limit when ferromagnetic correlations extend beyond the size of the grain inside which the magnetic anisotropy axes are correlated. In that limit the coercive field computed numerically roughly scales as the fourth power of the random anisotropy strength and as the sixth power of the grain size. Theoretical arguments are presented that provide an explanation of numerical results. Our findings should be helpful for designing amorphous and nanosintered materials with desired magnetic properties. - Highlights: • We study the random-anisotropy model on lattices containing up to ten million spins. • Irreversible behavior due to topological defects (hedgehogs) is elucidated. • Hysteresis loop area scales as the fourth power of the random anisotropy strength. • In nanosintered magnets the coercivity scales as the six power of the grain size
Efficient use of 3d environment models for mobile robot simulation and localization
Corominas Murtra, Andreu; Trulls, Eduard; Mirats-Tur, Josep M.; Sanfeliu, Alberto
2010-01-01
This paper provides a detailed description of a set of algorithms to efficiently manipulate 3D geometric models to compute physical constraints and range observation models, data that is usually required in real-time mobile robotics or simulation. Our approach uses a standard file format to describe the environment and processes the model using the openGL library, a widely-used programming interface for 3D scene manipulation. The paper also presents results on a test model for benchmarking, a...
Axel Newe
Full Text Available The usefulness of the 3D Portable Document Format (PDF for clinical, educational, and research purposes has recently been shown. However, the lack of a simple tool for converting biomedical data into the model data in the necessary Universal 3D (U3D file format is a drawback for the broad acceptance of this new technology. A new module for the image processing and rapid prototyping framework MeVisLab does not only provide a platform-independent possibility to create surface meshes out of biomedical/DICOM and other data and to export them into U3D--it also lets the user add meta data to these meshes to predefine colors and names that can be processed by a PDF authoring software while generating 3D PDF files. Furthermore, the source code of the respective module is available and well documented so that it can easily be modified for own purposes.
Modelling the Corona of HD 189733 in 3D
Strugarek, Antoine; Matt, Sean P; Réville, Victor; Donati, Jean-François; Moutou, Claire; Fares, Rim
2014-01-01
The braking of main sequence stars originates mainly from their stellar wind. The efficiency of this angular momentum extraction depends on the rotation rate of the star, the acceleration profile of the wind and the coronal magnetic field. The derivation of scaling laws parametrizing the stellar wind torque is important for our understanding of gyro-chronology and the evolution of the rotation rates of stars. In order to understand the impact of complex magnetic topologies on the stellar wind torque, we present three- dimensional, dynamical simulations of the corona of HD 189733. Using the observed complex topology of the magnetic field, we estimate how the torque associated with the wind scales with model parameters and compare those trends to previously published scaling laws.
3D downscaling model for radar-based precipitation fields
Llort, X.; Berenguer, M.; Franco, M.; Sanchez-Diezma, R.; Sempere-Torres, D. [Grup de Recerca Aplicada en Hidrometeorologia, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)
2006-10-15
The generating of rainfall fields with a higher resolution than so far observed and with realistic features is a challenge with multiple applications. In particular it could be useful to quantify the uncertainty introduced by the different sources of error affecting radar measurements, in a controlled simulation framework. This paper proposes a method to generate three-dimensional high-resolution rainfall fields based on downscaling meteorological radar data. The technique performs a scale analysis of the first radar tilt field combining a wavelet model with Fourier analysis. In order to downscale the upper radar elevations and with the aim of preserving the vertical structure, a homotopy of the observed vertical profiles of reflectivity is performed. Preliminary evaluation of the technique shows that it is able to generate realistic extreme values and, at the same time, partially reproduce the structure of small scales. (orig.)
From 3D TQFTs to 4D models with defects
Delcamp, Clement
2016-01-01
(2+1) dimensional topological quantum field theories with defect excitations are by now quite well understood, while many questions are still open for (3+1) dimensional TQFTs. Here we propose a strategy to lift states and operators of a (2+1) dimensional TQFT to states and operators of a (3+1) dimensional theory with defects. The main technical tool are Heegard splittings, which allow to encode the topology of a three--dimensional manifold with line defects into a two--dimensional Heegard surface. We apply this idea to the example of BF theory which describes locally flat connections. This shows in particular how the curvature excitation generating surface operators of the (3+1) dimensional theory can be obtained from closed ribbon operators of the (2+1) dimensional BF theory. We hope that this technique allows the construction and study of more general models based on unitary fusion categories.
A Log-Based 3D Model Retrieval Relevance Feedback Scheme Using Biased SVMs
Zhiyong Zhang
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Retrieval relevance feedback is an iterative search technique to bridge the semantic gap between the high level user intention and low level data representation. This technique interactively determines a user's desired output or query concept by asking the user whether certain proposed 3D models are relevant or not. In the past, most research efforts in 3D model retrieval field have focused on designing algorithms for traditional relevance feedback. Given a 3D model retrieval system, it can collect and store users’ relevance feedback information in a history log, 3D model retrieval system can take advantage of the log data of users’ feedback to enhance its retrieval performance. In this paper, we propose a unified 3D model retrieval relevance feedback framework that integrates the log data into the traditional relevance feedback schemes to learn effectively the correlation between low-level 3D model features and high-level concepts. In this 3D model retrieval relevance feedback scheme, we use a learning technique for relevance feedback, named biased support vector machine based relevance feedback. Experimental results show that this log-based scheme can achieves higher search accuracy than traditional query refinement schemes.
On Fundamental Evaluation Using Uav Imagery and 3d Modeling Software
Nakano, K.; Suzuki, H.; Tamino, T.; Chikatsu, H.
2016-06-01
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which have been widely used in recent years, can acquire high-resolution images with resolutions in millimeters; such images cannot be acquired with manned aircrafts. Moreover, it has become possible to obtain a surface reconstruction of a realistic 3D model using high-overlap images and 3D modeling software such as Context capture, Pix4Dmapper, Photoscan based on computer vision technology such as structure from motion and multi-view stereo. 3D modeling software has many applications. However, most of them seem to not have obtained appropriate accuracy control in accordance with the knowledge of photogrammetry and/or computer vision. Therefore, we performed flight tests in a test field using an UAV equipped with a gimbal stabilizer and consumer grade digital camera. Our UAV is a hexacopter and can fly according to the waypoints for autonomous flight and can record flight logs. We acquired images from different altitudes such as 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m. We obtained 3D reconstruction results of orthoimages, point clouds, and textured TIN models for accuracy evaluation in some cases with different image scale conditions using 3D modeling software. Moreover, the accuracy aspect was evaluated for different units of input image—course unit and flight unit. This paper describes the fundamental accuracy evaluation for 3D modeling using UAV imagery and 3D modeling software from the viewpoint of close-range photogrammetry.
TLS for generating multi-LOD of 3D building model
The popularity of Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) to capture three dimensional (3D) objects has been used widely for various applications. Development in 3D models has also led people to visualize the environment in 3D. Visualization of objects in a city environment in 3D can be useful for many applications. However, different applications require different kind of 3D models. Since a building is an important object, CityGML has defined a standard for 3D building models at four different levels of detail (LOD). In this research, the advantages of TLS for capturing buildings and the modelling process of the point cloud can be explored. TLS will be used to capture all the building details to generate multi-LOD. This task, in previous works, involves usually the integration of several sensors. However, in this research, point cloud from TLS will be processed to generate the LOD3 model. LOD2 and LOD1 will then be generalized from the resulting LOD3 model. Result from this research is a guiding process to generate the multi-LOD of 3D building starting from LOD3 using TLS. Lastly, the visualization for multi-LOD model will also be shown
Towards the development of a 3D full cell and external busbars thermo-electric model
Taking advantage of the increasing power of computers, it is now practical to consider building a 3D full cell and external busbars thermo-electric model. In the present study, a 3D full cell quarter thermo-electric model and a 3D cathode half plus liquid zone and busbars thermo-electric model have been developed and solved using a PIll 800 MHz computer. Developing a 3D full cell and external busbars thermo-electric model will constitute a step further towards the development of a fully 'multi-physic' unified aluminium reduction cell model. Already, a full cell thermo-electric model will be able to interact with a MHD model by providing it with accurate liquid zone current density and potshell temperature data and by receiving from it local liquid/ledge interface heat transfer coefficients. (author)
Modeling of SFR cores with Serpent–DYN3D codes sequence
Highlights: ► Serpent–DYN3D sequence was used for the analysis of an SFR core. ► Homogenized cross sections were generated using Monte-Carlo code Serpent. ► The full core analysis was performed with the nodal diffusion code DYN3D. ► The DYN3D results were compared with those of ERANOS and full core Monte-Carlo solution. - Abstract: DYN3D reactor dynamics nodal diffusion code was originally developed for the analysis of Light Water Reactors. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using DYN3D for modeling of fast spectrum reactors. A homogenized cross sections data library was generated using continuous energy Monte-Carlo code Serpent which provides significant modeling flexibility compared with traditional deterministic lattice transport codes and tolerable execution time. A representative sodium cooled fast reactor core was modeled with the Serpent–DYN3D code sequence and the results were compared with those produced by ERANOS code and with a 3D full core Monte-Carlo solution. Very good agreement between the codes was observed for the core integral parameters and power distribution suggesting that the DYN3D code with cross section library generated using Serpent can be reliably used for the analysis of fast reactors
Use of MCAM in creating 3D neutronics model for ITER building
Highlights: ► We created a 3D neutronics model of the ITER building. ► The model was produced from the engineering CAD model by MCAM software. ► The neutron flux map in the ITER building was calculated. - Abstract: The three dimensional (3D) neutronics reference model of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) only defines the tokamak machine and extends to the bio-shield. In order to meet further 3D neutronics analysis needs, it is necessary to create a 3D reference model of the ITER building. Monte Carlo Automatic Modeling Program for Radiation Transport Simulation (MCAM) was developed as a computer aided design (CAD) based bi-directional interface program between general CAD systems and Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation codes. With the help of MCAM version 4.8, the 3D neutronics model of ITER building was created based on the engineering CAD model. The calculation of the neutron flux map in ITER building during operation showed the correctness and usability of the model. This model is the first detailed ITER building 3D neutronics model and it will be made available to all international organization collaborators as a reference model.
Tracing terrestrial DOC in the Baltic Sea—A 3-D model study
Fransner, Filippa; Nycander, Jonas; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Humborg, Christoph; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hordoir, Robinson; Gustafsson, Erik; Deutsch, Barbara
2016-02-01
The fate of terrestrial organic matter brought to the coastal seas by rivers and its role in the global carbon cycle are still not very well known. Here the degradation rate of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOCter) is studied in the Baltic Sea, a subarctic semienclosed sea, by releasing it as a tracer in a 3-D circulation model and applying linear decay constants. A good agreement with available observational data is obtained by parameterizing the degradation in two rather different ways: one by applying a decay time on the order of 10 years to the whole pool of DOCter and one by dividing the DOCter into one refractory pool and one pool subject to a decay time on the order of 1 year. The choice of parameterization has a significant effect on where in the Baltic Sea the removal takes place, which can be of importance when modeling the full carbon cycle and the CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In both cases the biogeochemical decay operates on time scales less than the water residence time. Therefore, only a minor fraction of the DOCter reaches the North Sea, whereas approximately 80% is removed by internal sinks within the Baltic Sea. This further implies that DOCter mineralization is an important link in land-sea-atmosphere cycling of carbon in coastal and shelf seas that are heavily influenced by riverine DOC.
3D, 9-C anisotropic seismic modeling and inversion
Rusmanugroho, Herurisa
The most complete representation of an elastic medium consists of an elastic tensor with 21 independent moduli. All 21 can be estimated from compressional and shear wave polarization and slowness vectors corresponding to wide apertures of polar and azimuth angles. In isotropic media, when seismic source and receiver components have the same orientation (such as XX and YY), the reflection amplitude contours align approximately perpendicular to the particle motions. The mixed components (such as XY and YX) have amplitude patterns that are in symmetrical pairs of either the same, or of opposite, polarity on either side of the diagonal of the 9-C response matrix. In anisotropic media, amplitude variations with azimuth show the same basic patterns and symmetries as for isotropic, but with a superimposed tendency for alignment parallel to the strike of the vertical cracks. Solutions for elastic tensor elements from synthetic slowness and polarization data calculated directly from the Christoffel equation are more sensitive to the polar angle aperture than to the azimuth aperture. Nine-component synthetic elastic vertical seismic profile data for a model with triclinic symmetry calculated by finite-differencing allows estimation of the elastic 21 tensor elements in the vicinity of a three-component borehole receiver. Wide polar angle and azimuth apertures are needed for accurately estimating the elastic tensor elements. The tensor elements become less independent as the data apertures decrease. Results obtained by extracting slowness and polarization data from the corresponding synthetic seismograms show similar results. The inversion algorithm has produced good results from field vertical seismic profile data set from the Weyburn Field in Southern Saskatchewan in Canada. Synthetic nine-component seismograms calculated from the extracted tensor are able to explain most of the significant features in the field data. The inverted stiffness elastic tensor shows orthorhombic
A 3-D model for the Antarctic ice sheet: a sensitivity study on the glacial-interglacial contrast
Huybrechts, Philippe
1990-01-01
On the longer climatic time scales, changes in the elevation and extent of the Antarctic ice sheet have an important role in modulating global atmospheric andoceanographic processes, and contribute significantly to world-wide sea levels. In this paper, a 3-D time-dependent thermomechanical model for the entire icesheet is presented that is subsequently used to examine the effects of glacial-interglacial shifts in environmental boundary conditions on its geometry. Themodel takes into account a...
A Spatial Reference Grid for Real-Time Autonomous Underwater Modeling using 3-D Sonar
Auran, P.G.
1996-12-31
The offshore industry has recognized the need for intelligent underwater robotic vehicles. This doctoral thesis deals with autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and concentrates on a data representation for real-time image formation and analysis. Its main objective is to develop a 3-D image representation suitable for autonomous perception objectives underwater, assuming active sonar as the main sensor for perception. The main contributions are: (1) A dynamical image representation for 3-D range data, (2) A basic electronic circuit and software system for 3-D sonar sampling and amplitude thresholding, (3) A model for target reliability, (4) An efficient connected components algorithm for 3-D segmentation, (5) A method for extracting general 3-D geometrical representations from segmented echo clusters, (6) Experimental results of planar and curved target modeling. 142 refs., 120 figs., 10 tabs.
Applications of 3D City Models: State of the Art Review
Filip Biljecki
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In the last decades, 3D city models appear to have been predominantly used for visualisation; however, today they are being increasingly employed in a number of domains and for a large range of tasks beyond visualisation. In this paper, we seek to understand and document the state of the art regarding the utilisation of 3D city models across multiple domains based on a comprehensive literature study including hundreds of research papers, technical reports and online resources. A challenge in a study such as ours is that the ways in which 3D city models are used cannot be readily listed due to fuzziness, terminological ambiguity, unclear added-value of 3D geoinformation in some instances, and absence of technical information. To address this challenge, we delineate a hierarchical terminology (spatial operations, use cases, applications, and develop a theoretical reasoning to segment and categorise the diverse uses of 3D city models. Following this framework, we provide a list of identified use cases of 3D city models (with a description of each, and their applications. Our study demonstrates that 3D city models are employed in at least 29 use cases that are a part of more than 100 applications. The classified inventory could be useful for scientists as well as stakeholders in the geospatial industry, such as companies and national mapping agencies, as it may serve as a reference document to better position their operations, design product portfolios, and to better understand the market.
A Shell/3D Modeling Technique for the Analysis of Delaminated Composite Laminates
Krueger, Ronald; OBrien, T. Kevin
2000-01-01
A shell/3D modeling technique was developed for which a local solid finite element model is used only in the immediate vicinity of the delamination front. The goal was to combine the accuracy of the full three-dimensional solution with the computational efficiency of a shell finite element model. Multi-point constraints provided a kinematically compatible interface between the local 3D model and the global structural model which has been meshed with shell finite elements. Double Cantilever Beam, End Notched Flexure, and Single Leg Bending specimens were analyzed first using full 3D finite element models to obtain reference solutions. Mixed mode strain energy release rate distributions were computed using the virtual crack closure technique. The analyses were repeated using the shell/3D technique to study the feasibility for pure mode I, mode II and mixed mode I/II cases. Specimens with a unidirectional layup and with a multidirectional layup were simulated. For a local 3D model, extending to a minimum of about three specimen thicknesses on either side of the delamination front, the results were in good agreement with mixed mode strain energy release rates obtained from computations where the entire specimen had been modeled with solid elements. For large built-up composite structures the shell/3D modeling technique offers a great potential for reducing the model size, since only a relatively small section in the vicinity of the delamination front needs to be modeled with solid elements.
Späth, F.; A. Behrendt; Muppa, S. K.; S. Metzendorf; A. Riede; V. Wulfmeyer
2016-01-01
The scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) determines fields of the atmospheric water vapor number density with a temporal resolution of a few seconds and spatial resolution of up to a few tens of meters. We present three case studies which show that this high resolution combined with 2- and 3-dimensional scans allows for new insights in the 3-dimensional structure of the water vapor field in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In spring 2013, th...
In vitro three-dimensional (3D) models in cancer research: an update.
Kimlin, Lauren C; Casagrande, Giovanna; Virador, Victoria M
2013-03-01
Tissues are three-dimensional (3D) entities as is the tumor that arises within them. Though disaggregated cancerous tissues have produced numerous cell lines for basic and applied research, it is generally agreed that these lines are poor models of in vivo phenomena. In this review we focus on in vitro 3D models used in cancer research, particularly their contribution to molecular studies of the early stages of metastasis, angiogenesis, the tumor microenvironment, and cancer stem cells. We present a summary of the various formats used in the field of tissue bioengineering as they apply to mechanistic modeling of cancer stages or processes. In addition we list studies that model specific types of malignancies, highlight drastic differences in results between 3D in vitro models and classical monolayer culturing techniques, and establish the need for standardization of 3D models for meaningful preclinical and therapeutic testing. PMID:22162252
The ModFOLD4 server for the quality assessment of 3D protein models
McGuffin, Liam J; Buenavista, Maria T.; Roche, Daniel B.
2013-01-01
Once you have generated a 3D model of a protein, how do you know whether it bears any resemblance to the actual structure? To determine the usefulness of 3D models of proteins, they must be assessed in terms of their quality by methods that predict their similarity to the native structure. The ModFOLD4 server is the latest version of our leading independent server for the estimation of both the global and local (per-residue) quality of 3D protein models. The server produces both machine reada...
CASE OF SUCCESSFUL APPLICATION OF METHOD FOR 3D VISUALIZATION AND MODELING IN THORACIC ONCOLOGY
S. V. Shchadenko
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Aim. The application of method of 3D-visualization and modeling in thoracic oncology is described.Materials and methods. The block diagram of system of 3D-visualization and modeling consisting of six stages is shown. The reconstructions of anatomic computer 3D-models of rib cage and tumor were performed for the patient with cancer (plasma cell myeloma. The tumor size and its topographic anatomy relatively to neighboring organs, bones and soft tissues were identified. Results.The obtained data had been used to plan surgical intervention, which was successfully conducted at Thoracic surgery department ofTomskRegionalClinicalHospital.
3D segmented model of head for modelling electrical activity of brain
Egill A. Friðgeirsson
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Computer simulation and modelling of the human body and its behaviour are very useful tools in situations where it is either too risky to perform an invasive procedure or too costly for in vivo experiments or simply impossible for ethical reasons. In this paper we describe a method to model the electrical behaviour of human brain from segmented MR images. The aim of the work is to use these models to predict the electrical activity of human brain under normal and pathological conditions. The image processing software package MIMICS is used for 3D volume segmentation of MR images. These models have detailed 3D representation of major tissue surfaces within the head, with over 12 different tissues segmented. In addition, computational tools in Matlab were developed for calculating normal vectors on the brain surface and for associating this information to the equivalent electrical dipole sources as an input into the model.
KENO3D Visualization Tool for KENO V.a and KENO-VI Geometry Models
Criticality safety analyses often require detailed modeling of complex geometries. Effective visualization tools can enhance checking the accuracy of these models. This report describes the KENO3D visualization tool developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide visualization of KENO V.a and KENO-VI criticality safety models. The development of KENO3D is part of the current efforts to enhance the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluations) computer software system
DART : a 3D model for remote sensing images and radiative budget of earth surfaces
Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Grau, E.; Lauret, N.
2012-01-01
Modeling the radiative behavior and the energy budget of land surfaces is relevant for many scientific domains such as the study of vegetation functioning with remotely acquired information. DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) is developed since 1992. It is one of the most complete 3D models in this domain. It simulates radiative transfer (R.T.) in the optical domain: 3D radiative budget and remote sensing images (i.e., radiance, reflectance, brightness temperature) of vegeta...
3D Multiscale Integrated Modeling Approach of Complex Rock Mass Structures
Mingchao Li; Yanqing Han; Gang Wang; Fugen Yan
2014-01-01
Based on abundant geological data of different regions and different scales in hydraulic engineering, a new approach of 3D engineering-scale and statistical-scale integrated modeling was put forward, considering the complex relationships among geological structures and discontinuities and hydraulic structures. For engineering-scale geological structures, the 3D rock mass model of the study region was built by the exact match modeling method and the reliability analysis technique. For statisti...
AUTOMATIC MODEL SELECTION FOR 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS FROM SATELLITE IMAGARY
T. Partovi; H. Arefi; T. Krauß; P. Reinartz
2013-01-01
Through the improvements of satellite sensor and matching technology, the derivation of 3D models from space borne stereo data obtained a lot of interest for various applications such as mobile navigation, urban planning, telecommunication, and tourism. The automatic reconstruction of 3D building models from space borne point cloud data is still an active research topic. The challenging problem in this field is the relatively low quality of the Digital Surface Model (DSM) generated by stereo ...
AUTOMATIC MODEL SELECTION FOR 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS FROM SATELLITE IMAGARY
T. Partovi; H. Arefi; T. Krauß; P. Reinartz
2013-01-01
Through the improvements of satellite sensor and matching technology, the derivation of 3D models from space borne stereo data obtained a lot of interest for various applications such as mobile navigation, urban planning, telecommunication, and tourism. The automatic reconstruction of 3D building models from space borne point cloud data is still an active research topic. The challenging problem in this field is the relatively low quality of the Digital Surface Model (DSM) generated by st...
Der Semantic Building Modeler - Ein System zur prozeduralen Erzeugung von 3D-Gebäudemodellen
Gunia, Patrick
2013-01-01
Computer generated 3d-models of buildings, cities and whole landscapes are constantly gaining importance throughout different fields of application. Starting with obvious domains like computer games or movies there are also lots of other areas, e.g. reconstructions of historic cities both for educational reasons and further research. The most widely used method for producing city models is the „manual“ creation. A 3d artist uses modeling software to design every single component by hand. ...
KENO3D Visualization Tool for KENO V.a and KENO-VI Geometry Models
Horwedel, J.E.; Bowman, S.M.
2000-06-01
Criticality safety analyses often require detailed modeling of complex geometries. Effective visualization tools can enhance checking the accuracy of these models. This report describes the KENO3D visualization tool developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide visualization of KENO V.a and KENO-VI criticality safety models. The development of KENO3D is part of the current efforts to enhance the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluations) computer software system.
Optimisation of Ionic Models to Fit Tissue Action Potentials: Application to 3D Atrial Modelling
Amr Al Abed
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A 3D model of atrial electrical activity has been developed with spatially heterogeneous electrophysiological properties. The atrial geometry, reconstructed from the male Visible Human dataset, included gross anatomical features such as the central and peripheral sinoatrial node (SAN, intra-atrial connections, pulmonary veins, inferior and superior vena cava, and the coronary sinus. Membrane potentials of myocytes from spontaneously active or electrically paced in vitro rabbit cardiac tissue preparations were recorded using intracellular glass microelectrodes. Action potentials of central and peripheral SAN, right and left atrial, and pulmonary vein myocytes were each fitted using a generic ionic model having three phenomenological ionic current components: one time-dependent inward, one time-dependent outward, and one leakage current. To bridge the gap between the single-cell ionic models and the gross electrical behaviour of the 3D whole-atrial model, a simplified 2D tissue disc with heterogeneous regions was optimised to arrive at parameters for each cell type under electrotonic load. Parameters were then incorporated into the 3D atrial model, which as a result exhibited a spontaneously active SAN able to rhythmically excite the atria. The tissue-based optimisation of ionic models and the modelling process outlined are generic and applicable to image-based computer reconstruction and simulation of excitable tissue.