3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.
1998-12-01
We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code, studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented: high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code; ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code; studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code; and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs
3D MHD Simulations of Spheromak Compression
Stuber, James E.; Woodruff, Simon; O'Bryan, John; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Darpa Spheromak Team
2015-11-01
The adiabatic compression of compact tori could lead to a compact and hence low cost fusion energy system. The critical scientific issues in spheromak compression relate both to confinement properties and to the stability of the configuration undergoing compression. We present results from the NIMROD code modified with the addition of magnetic field coils that allow us to examine the role of rotation on the stability and confinement of the spheromak (extending prior work for the FRC). We present results from a scan in initial rotation, from 0 to 100km/s. We show that strong rotational shear (10km/s over 1cm) occurs. We compare the simulation results with analytic scaling relations for adiabatic compression. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.
3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations of Extragalactic Jets
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.
1997-12-01
We present the numerical simulations of relativistic jets propagating initially oblique to the field lines of a magnetized ambient medium. Our simulations incorporate relativistic MHD in a four-dimensional spacetime and clearly show that (a) relatively weak, oblique fields (at 1/16 of the equipartition value) have only a negligible influence on the propagating jet and they are passively pushed away by the relativistically moving head; (b) oblique fields in equipartition with the ambient plasma provide more resistance and cause bending at the jet head, but the magnitude of this deflection and the associated backflow are small compared to those identified by previous studies with a 2-D slab model. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently during the simulations. The effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. Applied to relativistic extragalactic jets from blazars, the new results are encouraging since superluminal outflows exhibit bending near their sources and their environments are profoundly magnetized---but observations do not provide support for irregular kinematics such as large-scale vortical motions and pronounced reverse flows near the points of origin.
3D MHD simulation of polarized emission in SN 1006
Schneiter, E M; Reynoso, E M; Esquivel, A; De Colle, F
2015-01-01
We use three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to model the supernova remnant SN 1006. From our numerical results, we have carried out a polarization study, obtaining synthetic maps of the polarized intensity, the Stokes parameter $Q$, and the polar-referenced angle, which can be compared with observational results. Synthetic maps were computed considering two possible particle acceleration mechanisms: quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular. The comparison of synthetic maps of the Stokes parameter $Q$ maps with observations proves to be a valuable tool to discern unambiguously which mechanism is taking place in the remnant of SN 1006, giving strong support to the quasi-parallel model.
3-D MHD Numerical Simulations of Cloud-Wind Interactions
Gregori, G.; Miniati, Francesco; Ryu, Dongsu; Jones, T. W.
2000-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations investigating the magnetohydrodynamics of cloud-wind interactions. The initial cloud is spherical while the magnetic field is uniform and transverse to the cloud motion. A simplified analytical model that describes the magnetic energy evolution in front of the cloud is developed and compared with simulation results. In addition, it is found the interaction of the cloud with a magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) results in ...
3-D MHD Numerical Simulations of Cloud-Wind Interactions
Gregori, G; Ryu, D; Jones, T W; Miniati, Francesco; Ryu, Dongsu
2000-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations investigating the magnetohydrodynamics of cloud-wind interactions. The initial cloud is spherical while the magnetic field is uniform and transverse to the cloud motion. A simplified analytical model that describes the magnetic energy evolution in front of the cloud is developed and compared with simulation results. In addition, it is found the interaction of the cloud with a magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) results in the formation of a highly structured magnetotail. The magnetic flux in the wake of the cloud organizes into flux ropes and a reconnection, current sheet is developed, as field lines of opposite polarity are brought close together near the symmetry axis. At the same time, magnetic pressure is strongly enhanced at the leading edge of the cloud from the stretching of the field lines that occurs there. This has an important dynamical effect on the subsequent evolution of the cloud, since some unstable modes tend to be strongl...
3D MHD simulations of pellet injection and disruptions in tokamak plasmas
Nonlinear MHD simulation results of pellet injection show that MHD forces can accelerate large pellets, injected on the high field side of a tokamak, to the plasma center. Magnetic reconnection can produce a reverse shear q profile. Ballooning instability caused by pellets is also reduced by high field side injection. Studies are also reported of the current quench phase of disruptions, which can cause 3D halo currents and runaway electrons. (author)
3D hybrid and MHD/particle simulations of field-reversed configurations
A nonlinear 3D code in cylindrical geometry is being developed for the stability studies of FRC. Two numerical schemes have been implemented: a hybrid scheme with particle ions and fluid electrons, and MHD/particle scheme in which the background plasma is described by MHD equations. And energetic ions are treated via particle simulations. The MHD equations are advanced on a finite-difference mesh in a cylindrical coordinate system, while particle pushing is done on 3D Cartesian grids. Full ion dynamics is retained in order to include large-orbit effects (with s∼1), which are important for the tilt mode stabilization in FRC. Also, in contrast to the previous work, δf method is utilized to reduce numerical noise in the simulations. The code has been benchmarked against previous MHD simulation of tilting instability in FRC. It was found that rigid rotation reduces the growth rate, but does not stabilize the mode even for rotation rates equal to the Alfven time. Sheared rotation is found to be destabilizing for the velocity profile considered. Simulations with a fast ion beam with 1 % of the bulk ion density and s∼3 did not show a reduction in growth rate of the tilting instability. (author)
3D Simulations of MHD Jet Propagation Through Uniform and Stratified External Environments
O'Neill, S. M.; Tregillis, I. L.; Jones, T. W.; Ryu, Dongsu
2005-01-01
We present a set of high-resolution 3D MHD simulations of steady light, supersonic jets, exploring the influence of jet Mach number and the ambient medium on jet propagation and energy deposition over long distances. The results are compared to simple self-similar scaling relations for the morphological evolution of jet-driven structures and to previously published 2D simulations. For this study we simulated the propagation of light jets with internal Mach numbers 3 and 12 to lengths exceedin...
3D MHD free surface fluid flow simulation based on magnetic-field induction equations
The purpose of this paper is to present our recent efforts on 3D MHD model development and our results based on the technique derived from induced-magnetic-field equations. Two important features are utilized in our numerical method to obtain convergent solutions. First, a penalty factor is introduced in order to force the local divergence free condition of the magnetic fields. The second is that we extend the insulating wall thickness to ensure that the induced magnetic field at its boundaries is null. These simulation results for lithium film free surface flows under NSTX outboard mid-plane magnetic field configurations have shown that 3D MHD effects from a surface normal field gradient cause return currents to interact with surface normal fields and produce unfavorable MHD forces. This leads to a substantial change in flow pattern and a reduction in flow velocity, with most of the flow spilling over one side of the chute. These critical phenomena can not be revealed by 2D models. Additionally, a design which overcomes these undesired flow characteristics is obtained
Hayek, W; Carlsson, M; Trampedach, R; Collet, R; Gudiksen, B V; Hansteen, V H; Leenaarts, J
2010-01-01
We present the implementation of a radiative transfer solver with coherent scattering in the new BIFROST code for radiative magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of stellar surface convection. The code is fully parallelized using MPI domain decomposition, which allows for large grid sizes and improved resolution of hydrodynamical structures. We apply the code to simulate the surface granulation in a solar-type star, ignoring magnetic fields, and investigate the importance of coherent scattering for the atmospheric structure. A scattering term is added to the radiative transfer equation, requiring an iterative computation of the radiation field. We use a short-characteristics-based Gauss-Seidel acceleration scheme to compute radiative flux divergences for the energy equation. The effects of coherent scattering are tested by comparing the temperature stratification of three 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical atmosphere models of a solar-type star: without scattering, with continuum scattering only, and with bo...
Radiative 3D MHD simulations of the spontaneous small-scale eruptions in the solar atmosphere
Kitiashvili, Irina N.
2015-08-01
Studying non-linear turbulent dynamics of the solar atmosphere is important for understanding mechanism of the solar and stellar brightness variations. High-resolution observations of the quiet Sun reveal ubiquitous distributions of high-speed jets, which are transport mass and energy into the solar corona and feeding the solar wind. However, the origin of these eruption events is still unknown. Using 3D realistic MHD numerical simulations we find that small-scale eruptions are produced by ubiquitous magnetized vortex tubes generated by the Sun's turbulent convection in subsurface layers. The swirling vortex tubes (resembling tornadoes) penetrate into the solar atmosphere, capture and stretch background magnetic field, and push the surrounding material up, generating shocks. Our simulations reveal complicated high-speed flow patterns and thermodynamic and magnetic structure in the erupting vortex tubes and shows that the eruptions are initiated in the subsurface layers and are driven by high-pressure gradients in the subphotosphere and photosphere and by the Lorentz force in the higher atmosphere layers. I will discuss about properties of these eruptions, their effects on brightness and spectral variations and comparison with observations.
3D-MHD simulations of an accretion disk with star-disk boundary layer
Steinacker, A; Steinacker, Adriane; Papaloizou, John C.B.
2002-01-01
We present global 3D MHD simulations of geometrically thin but unstratified accretion disks in which a near Keplerian disk rotates between two bounding regions with initial rotation profiles that are stable to the MRI. The inner region models the boundary layer between the disk and an assumed more slowly rotating central, non magnetic star. We investigate the dynamical evolution of this system in response to initial vertical and toroidal fields imposed in a variety of domains contained within the near Keplerian disk. Cases with both non zero and zero net magnetic flux are considered and sustained dynamo activity found in runs for up to fifty orbital periods at the outer boundary of the near Keplerian disk. Simulations starting from fields with small radial scale and with zero net flux lead to the lowest levels of turbulence and smoothest variation of disk mean state variables. For our computational set up, average values of the Shakura & Sunyaev (1973) $\\alpha$ parameter in the Keplerian disk are typicall...
Trapping Solids at the Inner Edge of the Dead Zone: 3-D Global MHD Simulations
Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas
2010-01-01
The poorly-ionized interior of the protoplanetary disk is the location where dust coagulation processes may be most efficient. However even here, planetesimal formation may be limited by the loss of solid material through radial drift, and by collisional fragmentation of the particles. Our aim is to investigate the possibility that solid particles are trapped at local pressure maxima in the dynamically evolving disk. We perform the first 3-D global non-ideal MHD calculations of the disk treat...
Turbulence and Steady Flows in 3D Global Stratified MHD Simulations of Accretion Disks
Flock, M; Klahr, H; Turner, N J; Henning, Th
2011-01-01
We present full 2 Pi global 3-D stratified MHD simulations of accretion disks. We interpret our results in the context of proto-planetary disks. We investigate the turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) using the PLUTO Godunov code in spherical coordinates with the accurate and robust HLLD Riemann solver. We follow the turbulence for more than 1500 orbits at the innermost radius of the domain to measure the overall strength of turbulent motions and the detailed accretion flow pattern. We find that regions within two scale heights of the midplane have a turbulent Mach number of about 0.1 and a magnetic pressure two to three orders of magnitude less than the gas pressure, while outside three scale heights the magnetic pressure equals or exceeds the gas pressure and the turbulence is transonic, leading to large density fluctuations. The strongest large-scale density disturbances are spiral density waves, and the strongest of these waves has m=5. No clear meridional circulation appears in t...
3D MHD Simulations of Planet Migration in Turbulent Stratified Disks
Uribe, Ana; Flock, Mario; Henning, Thomas
2011-01-01
We performed 3D MHD simulations of planet migration in stratified disks using the Godunov code PLUTO, where the disk is turbulent due to the magnetorotational instability. We study the migration for planets with different planet-star mass ratios $q=M_{p}/M_{s}$. In agreement with previous studies, for the low-mass planet cases ($q=5\\times10^{-6}$ and $10^{-5}$), migration is dominated by random fluctuations in the torque. For a Jupiter-mass planet $(q=M_{p}/M_{s}=10^{-3}$ for $M_{s}=1M_{\\odot})$, we find a reduction of the magnetic stress inside the orbit of the planet and around the gap region. After an initial stage where the torque on the planet is positive, it reverses and we recover migration rates similar to those found in disks where the turbulent viscosity is modelled by an $\\alpha$ viscosity. For the intermediate-mass planets ($q=5\\times10^{-5}, 10^{-4}$ and $2\\times10^{-4}$) we find a new and so far unexpected behavior. In some cases they experience sustained and systematic outwards migration for th...
Trapping Solids at the Inner Edge of the Dead Zone: 3-D Global MHD Simulations
Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Turner, Neal J; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas
2010-01-01
The poorly-ionized interior of the protoplanetary disk is the location where dust coagulation processes may be most efficient. However even here, planetesimal formation may be limited by the loss of solid material through radial drift, and by collisional fragmentation of the particles. Our aim is to investigate the possibility that solid particles are trapped at local pressure maxima in the dynamically evolving disk. We perform the first 3-D global non-ideal MHD calculations of the disk treating the turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability. The domain contains an inner MRI-active region near the young star and an outer midplane dead zone, with the transition between the two modeled by a sharp increase in the magnetic diffusivity. The azimuthal magnetic fields generated in the active zone oscillate over time, changing sign about every 150 years. We thus observe the radial structure of the `butterfly pattern' seen previously in local shearing-box simulations. The mean magnetic field diffuses from...
Trapping solids at the inner edge of the dead zone: 3-D global MHD simulations
Dzyurkevich, N.; Flock, M.; Turner, N. J.; Klahr, H.; Henning, Th.
2010-06-01
Context. The poorly-ionized interior of the protoplanetary disk or “dead zone” is the location where dust coagulation processes may be most efficient. However even here, planetesimal formation may be limited by the loss of solid material through radial drift, and by collisional fragmentation of the particles. Both depend on the turbulent properties of the gas. Aims: Our aim here is to investigate the possibility that solid particles are trapped at local pressure maxima in the dynamically evolving disk. We perform the first 3-D global non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) calculations of a section of the disk treating the turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI). Methods: We use the ZeusMP code with a fixed Ohmic resistivity distribution. The domain contains an inner MRI-active region near the young star and an outer midplane dead zone, with the transition between the two modeled by a sharp increase in the magnetic diffusivity. Results: The azimuthal magnetic fields generated in the active zone oscillate over time, changing sign about every 150 years. We thus observe the radial structure of the “butterfly pattern” seen previously in local shearing-box simulations. The mean magnetic field diffuses from the active zone into the dead zone, where the Reynolds stress nevertheless dominates, giving a residual α between 10-4 and 10-3. The greater total accretion stress in the active zone leads to a net reduction in the surface density, so that after 800 years an approximate steady state is reached in which a local radial maximum in the midplane pressure lies near the transition radius. We also observe the formation of density ridges within the active zone. Conclusions: The dead zone in our models possesses a mean magnetic field, significant Reynolds stresses and a steady local pressure maximum at the inner edge, where the outward migration of planetary embryos and the efficient trapping of solid material are possible.
Virial theorem analysis of 3D numerical simulations of MHD self-gravitating turbulence
Shadmehri, Mohsen; Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier
2001-01-01
We discuss the virial balance of all members of a cloud ensemble in numerical simulations of self-gravitating MHD turbulence. We first discuss the choice of reference frame for evaluating the terms entering the virial theorem (VT), concluding that the balance of each cloud should be measured in its own reference frame. We then report preliminary results suggesting that a) the clouds are far from virial equilibrium, with the ``geometric'' (time derivative) terms dominating the VT. b) The surfa...
A comparative study on 3-D solar wind structure observed by Ulysses and MHD simulation
FENG Xueshang; XIANG Changqing; ZHONG Dingkun; FAN Quanlin
2005-01-01
During Ulysses' first rapid pole-to-pole transit from September 1994 to June 1995, its observations showed that middle- or high-speed solar winds covered all latitudes except those between -20° and +20° near the ecliptic plane,where the velocity was 300-450 km/s. At poleward 40°,however, only fast solar winds at the speed of 700-870 km/s were observed. In addition, the transitions from low-speed wind to high-speed wind or vice versa were abrupt. In this paper, the large-scale structure of solar wind observed by Ulysses near solar minimum is simulated by using the three-dimensional numerical MHD model. The model combines TVD Lax-Friedrich scheme and MacCormack Ⅱ scheme and decomposes the calculation region into two regions: one from 1 to 22 Rs and the other from 18 Rs to 1 AU.Based on the observations of the solar photospheric magnetic field and an addition of the volumetric heating to MHD equations, the large-scale solar wind structure mentioned above is reproduced by using the three-dimensional MHD model and the numerical results are roughly consistent with Ulysses' observations. Our simulation shows that the initial magnetic field topology and the addition of volume heating may govern the bimodal structure of solar wind observed by Ulysses and also demonstrates that the three-dimensional MHD numerical model used here is efficient in modeling the large-scale solar wind structure.
Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Mueller, Wolf-Christian [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)
2013-09-01
Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ({zeta}{sub p}) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of {zeta}{sub p} against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase.
Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents (ζp) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of ζp against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase
ZHANG XianGuo; PU ZuYin; MA ZhiWei; ZHOU XuZhi
2008-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) Hall MHD simulation is carried out to study the roles of initial current carrier in the topology of magnetic field,the generation and distribuering the contribution of ions to the initial current,the topology of the obtained magnetic field turns to be more complex. In some cases,it is found that not only the traditional By quadrupole structure but also a reversal By quadrupole structure appears in the simulation box. This can explain the observational features near the diffusion region,which are inconsistent with the Hall MHD theory with the total initial current carried by electrons. Several other interesting features are also emerged. First,motions of electrons and ions are decoupled from each other in the small plasma region (Hall effect region) with a scale less than or comparable with the ion inertial length or ion skin depth di=c/ωp. In the non-Hall effect region,the global magnetic structure is shifted in +y direction under the influence of ions with initial y directional motion. However,in the Hall effect region,magnetic field lines are bent in -y direction,mainly controlled by the motion of electrons,then By is generated. Second,FACs emerge as a result of the appearance of By. Compared with the prior Hall MHD simulation results,the generated FACs shift in +y direction,
3D Multifluid MHD simulation for Uranus and Neptune: the seasonal variations of their magnetosphere
Cao, X.; Paty, C. S.
2015-12-01
The interaction between Uranus' intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind is quite different from the magnetospheric interactions of other planets. Uranus' large obliquity, coupled with the fact that its dipole moment is off-centered and highly tilted relative to the rotation axis, leads to unique and seasonally dependent interaction geometries with the solar wind. We present results from adapting a multifluid MHD simulation to examine these seasonally dependent geometries in terms of the global magnetospheric structure, magnetopause and bow shock location, and magnetotail configuration. The Voyager 2 spacecraft encountered Uranus near solstice, and was able to observe the magnetic field structure and plasma characteristics of a twisted magnetotail [Behannon et al., 1987]. We use such magnetometer and plasma observations as a basis for benchmarking our simulations for the solstice scenario. Auroral observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope during equinox [Lamy et al.,2012] give some indication of the magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind. We also demonstrate the structural difference of the magnetosphere between solstice and equinox seasons. The magnetosphere at equinox is quite distinct due to the orientation and rotation of the magnetic axis relative to the solar wind direction.
2008-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) Hall MHD simulation is carried out to study the roles of initial current carrier in the topology of magnetic field, the generation and distribu- tion of field aligned currents (FACs), and the appearance of Alfvén waves. Consid- ering the contribution of ions to the initial current, the topology of the obtained magnetic field turns to be more complex. In some cases, it is found that not only the traditional By quadrupole structure but also a reversal By quadrupole structure appears in the simulation box. This can explain the observational features near the diffusion region, which are inconsistent with the Hall MHD theory with the total ini- tial current carried by electrons. Several other interesting features are also emerged. First, motions of electrons and ions are decoupled from each other in the small plasma region (Hall effect region) with a scale less than or comparable with the ion inertial length or ion skin depth di=c/ωp. In the non-Hall effect region, the global magnetic structure is shifted in +y direction under the influence of ions with initial y directional motion. However, in the Hall effect region, magnetic field lines are bent in ?y direction, mainly controlled by the motion of electrons, then By is generated. Second, FACs emerge as a result of the appearance of By. Compared with the prior Hall MHD simulation results, the generated FACs shift in +y direction, and hence the dawn-dusk symmetry is broken. Third, the Walén relation in our simulations is consistent with the Walén relation in Hall plasma, thus the presence of Alfvén wave is confirmed.
Relativistic MHD simulations of core-collapse GRB jets: 3D instabilities and magnetic dissipation
Bromberg, Omer
2015-01-01
Relativistic jets naturally occur in astrophysical systems that involve accretion onto compact objects, such as core collapse of massive stars in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and accretion onto supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN). It is generally accepted that these jets are powered electromagnetically, by the magnetised rotation of a central compact object. However, how they produce the observed emission and survive the propagation for many orders of magnitude in distance without being disrupted by current-driven non-axisymmetric instabilities is the subject of active debate. We carry out time-dependent 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic, Poynting flux dominated jets. The jets are launched self-consistently by the rotation of a strongly magnetised central compact object. This determines the natural degree of azimuthal magnetic field winding, a crucial factor that controls jet stability. We find that the jets are susceptible to two types of instability: (i) a globa...
3D Dynamics of Magnetopause Reconnection Using Hall-MHD Global Simulations
Maynard, K.; Germaschewski, K.; Raeder, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2011-12-01
Magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause and in the magnetotail is of crucial importance for the dynamics of the global magnetosphere and space weather. Even though the plasma conditions in the magnetosphere are largely in the collisionless regime, most of the existing research using global computational models employ single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with artificial resistivity. Studies of reconnection in simplified, two-dimensional geometries have established that two-fluid and kinetic effects can dramatically alter dynamics and reconnection rates when compared with single-fluid models. These enhanced models also introduce particular signatures, for example a quadrupolar out-of-plane magnetic field component that has already been observed in space by satellite measurements. However, results from simplified geometries cannot be translated directly to the dynamics of three-dimensional magnetospheric reconnection. For instance, magnetic flux originating from the solar wind and arriving at the magnetopause can either reconnect or be advected around the magnetosphere. In this study, we use a new version of the OpenGGCM code that incorporates the Hall term in a Generalized Ohm's Law to study magnetopause reconnection under synthetic solar wind conditions and investigate how reconnection rates and dynamics of flux transfer events depend on the strength of the Hall term. The OpenGGCM, a global model of Earth's magnetosphere, has recently been ported to exploit modern computing architectures like the Cell processor and SIMD capabilities of conventional processors using an automatic code generator. These enhancements provide us with the performance needed to include the computationally expensive Hall physics.
Haberreiter, M; McIntosh, S; Wedemeyer-Boehm, S
2010-01-01
From the analysis of Dopplergrams in the K I 7699 A and Na I 5890 A spectral lines observed with the Magneto-Optical filter at Two Heights (MOTH) experiment during the austral summer in 2002-03 we find upward traveling waves in magnetic regions. Our analysis shows that the dispersion relation of these waves strongly depends on whether the wave is detected in the low-beta or high-beta regime. Moreover, the observed dispersion relation does not show the expected decrease of the acoustic cut-off frequency for the field guided slow magnetic wave. Instead, we detected an increase of the travel times below the acoustic cut-off frequency and at the same time a decrease of the travel time above it. To study the formation height of the spectral lines employed by MOTH in greater detail we are currently in the process of employing 3D MHD simulations carried out with CO5BOLD to perform NLTE spectral synthesis.
Flock, M; Klahr, H; Mignone, A
2009-01-01
We employ the PLUTO code for computational astrophysics to assess and compare the validity of different numerical algorithms on simulations of the magneto-rotational instability in 3D accretion disks. In particular we stress on the importance of using a consistent upwind reconstruction of the electro-motive force (EMF) when using the constrained transport (CT) method to avoid the onset of numerical instabilities. We show that the electro-motive force (EMF) reconstruction in the classical constrained transport (CT) method for Godunov schemes drives a numerical instability. The well-studied linear growth of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is used as a benchmark for an inter-code comparison of PLUTO and ZeusMP. We reproduce the analytical results for linear MRI growth in 3D global MHD simulations and present a robust and accurate Godunov code which can be used for 3D accretion disk simulations in curvilinear coordinate systems.
Flock, M.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Klahr, H.; Mignone, A.
2010-06-01
We assess the suitability of various numerical MHD algorithms for astrophysical accretion disk simulations with the PLUTO code. The well-studied linear growth of the magneto-rotational instability is used as the benchmark test for a comparison between the implementations within PLUTO and against the ZeusMP code. The results demonstrate the importance of using an upwind reconstruction of the electro-motive force (EMF) in the context of a constrained transport scheme, which is consistent with plane-parallel, grid-aligned flows. In contrast, constructing the EMF from the simple average of the Godunov fluxes leads to a numerical instability and the unphysical growth of the magnetic energy. We compare the results from 3D global calculations using different MHD methods against the analytical solution for the linear growth of the MRI, and discuss the effect of numerical dissipation. The comparison identifies a robust and accurate code configuration that is vital for realistic modeling of accretion disk processes.
Signatures of small-scale heating events in EUV spectral lines as modeled from 3D MHD simulations
Guerreiro, Nuno; Haberreiter, Margit; Hansteen, Viggo; Curdt, Werner; Schmutz, Werner
2014-05-01
We aim at understanding the implications of small scale heating events in the solar atmosphere for the variations of the solar spectral irradiance. We present a technique for identification and characterization of these events in 3D simulations of the solar atmosphere. An accurate property determination of these events in time and space will help us to understand how spectral lines, in particular in the EUV, respond to them and which kind of spectral signatures one would expect to find in observations as from SOHO/SUMER and eventually from future space missions, as for example observations by SPICE on board Solar Orbiter.
ud-Doula, Asif; Owocki, Stanley P; Petit, Veronique; Townsend, Richard H D
2012-01-01
We present the first fully 3D MHD simulation for magnetic channeling and confinement of a radiatively driven, massive-star wind. The specific parameters are chosen to represent the prototypical slowly rotating magnetic O star \\theta^1 Ori C, for which centrifugal and other dynamical effects of rotation are negligible. The computed global structure in latitude and radius resembles that found in previous 2D simulations, with unimpeded outflow along open field lines near the magnetic poles, and a complex equatorial belt of inner wind trapping by closed loops near the stellar surface, giving way to outflow above the Alfv\\'{e}n radius. In contrast to this previous 2D work, the 3D simulation described here now also shows how this complex structure fragments in azimuth, forming distinct clumps of closed loop infall within the Alfv\\'{e}n radius, transitioning in the outer wind to radial spokes of enhanced density with characteristic azimuthal separation of $15-20 \\degr$. Applying these results in a 3D code for line r...
Haberreiter, M.; Guerreiro, N.; Hansteen, V. H.; Schmutz, W. K.
2015-12-01
The physical mechanism that heats the solar corona is one of the still open science questions in solar physics. One of the proposed mechanism for coronal heating are nanoflares. To investigate their role in coronal heating we study the properties of the small-scale heating events in the solar atmosphere using 3D MHD simulations. We present a method to identify and track these heating events in time which allows us to study their life time, energy, and spectral signatures. These spectal signatures will be compared with available spectrosopic observations obtained with IRIS and SUMER. Ultimately, these results will be important for the coordinated scientific exploitation of SPICE and EUI along with other instruments onboard Solar Orbiter to address the coronal heating problem.
Testing Observational Techniques with 3D MHD Jets in Clusters
Mendygral, Peter J; Jones, Tom W
2009-01-01
Observations of X-ray cavities formed by powerful jets from AGN in galaxy cluster cores are commonly used to estimate the mechanical luminosity of these sources. We test the reliability of observationally measuring this power with synthetic X-ray observations of 3-D MHD simulations of jets in a galaxy cluster environment. We address the role that factors such as jet intermittency and orientation of the jets on the sky have on the reliability of observational measurements of cavity enthalpy and age. An estimate of the errors in these quantities can be made by directly comparing ``observationally'' derived values with values from the simulations. In our tests, cavity enthalpy, age and mechanical luminosity derived from observations are within a factor of two of the simulation values.
HST-Scale 3D simulations of MHD disc winds : A rotating two-component jet structure
Staff, Jan; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid; Thompson, Adam; Pudritz, Ralph
2014-01-01
We present the results of large scale, three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamics simulations of disc-winds for different initial magnetic field configurations. The jets are followed from the source to 90 AU scale, which covers several pixels of HST images of nearby protostellar jets. Our simulations show that jets are heated along their length by many shocks. We compute the emission lines that are produced, and find excellent agreement with observations. The jet width is found to be between 20 ...
3D MHD Flux emergence experiments
Hood, A.W.; Archontis, V.; Mactaggart, David
2012-01-01
This paper reviews some of the many 3D numerical experiments of the emergence of magnetic fields from the solar interior and the subsequent interaction with the pre-existing coronal magnetic field. The models described here are idealised, in the sense that the internal energy equation only involv...
HST-Scale 3D simulations of MHD disc winds : A rotating two-component jet structure
Staff, Jan; Ouyed, Rachid; Thompson, Adam; Pudritz, Ralph
2014-01-01
We present the results of large scale, three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamics simulations of disc-winds for different initial magnetic field configurations. The jets are followed from the source to 90 AU scale, which covers several pixels of HST images of nearby protostellar jets. Our simulations show that jets are heated along their length by many shocks. We compute the emission lines that are produced, and find excellent agreement with observations. The jet width is found to be between 20 and 30 AU while the maximum velocities perpendicular to the jet is found to be up to above 100 km/s. The initially less open magnetic field configuration simulations results in a wider, two-component jet; a cylindrically shaped outer jet surrounding a narrow and much faster, inner jet. These simulations preserve the underlying Keplerian rotation profile of the inner jet to large distances from the source. However, for the initially most open magnetic field configuration the kink mode creates a narrow corkscrew-like jet wi...
E. Adamson
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We present results from mesoscale simulations of the magnetospheric cusp region for both strongly northward and strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. Simulation results indicate an extended region of depressed magnetic field and strongly enhanced plasma β which exhibits a strong dependence on IMF orientation. These structures correspond to the Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities (CDC's. The typical features of these CDC's are generally well reproduced by the simulation. The inner boundaries between the CDC and the magnetosphere are gradual transitions which form a clear funnel shape, regardless of IMF orientation. The outer CDC/magnetosheath boundary exhibits a clear indentation in both the x-z and y-z planes for southward IMF, while it is only indented in the x-z plane for northward, with a convex geometry in the y-z plane. The outer boundary represents an Alfvénic transition, mostly consistent with a slow-shock, indicating that reconnection plays an important role in structuring the high-altitude cusp region.
Suppression of Magnetic Flux Diffusion in Reduced 3D MHD
Bayliss, A.; Ware, A. S.; Diamond, P. H.; Kim, E.-J.
1999-11-01
The important impact of small scale magnetic fields on self-organization (i.e., dynamo) in MHD turbulence was originally pin-pointed by the observation that magnetic flux diffusion (anomalous resistivity) is drastically reduced in 2D MHD turbulence. This reduction is a consequence of mean square magnetic potential in two dimensions. It is natural, then, to investigate magnetic flux diffusion in 3D reduced MHD; since in that system conservation is broken only by linear field line bending (symptomatic of Alfvén wave propagation along B_z), and resistive dissipation. In particular, the Ohm's Law nonlinearity conserves . Not surprisingly, it is possible to derive an exact constraint upon the spatial flux of magnetic potential from the condition of balance. This expression may then be used to simplify the calculation of the turbulent resistivity, which is found to be suppressed, as in 2D MHD, up to corrections resulting from hat z-direction Alfvén wave propagation effects. These corrections vanish in the limit of unity magnetic Prandtl number. Work on understanding the self-consistent alpha effect in reduced MHD is ongoing and will be discussed.
Study of magnetic island using a 3D MHD equilibrium calculation code
Coupling the magnetic diagnostics and a 3D MHD equilibrium calculation code, the magnetic island is studied in the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiment. In an experiment, the collapse in the plasma core was observed in a configuration, which has large magnetic island produced by external perturbation coils. At the collapse, the temperature profile was flattened. This suggests the magnetic island evolved. The magnetic island was observed by the magnetic diagnostics. The magnetic diagnostics also suggests evolving the magnetic island. A 3D MHD equilibrium is calculated by the 3D MHD equilibrium code then signals of the magnetic diagnostics are simulated. Since the comparison of observed and calculated signals is comparable, the magnetic island in calculated equilibrium is similar to one of the experiment. (author)
Recent 3D hybrid simulation of a plasma current-carrying column revealed two regimes of sausage and kink instability development. In the first regime, with small Hall parameter, development of instabilities leads to appearance of large-scale axial perturbations and eventually to the bending of the plasma column. In the second regime, with five times larger Hall parameter, small-scale perturbations dominated and no bending of the plasma column was observed. Simulation results are compared to recent experimental data, including laser probing, x-ray spectroscopy and time-gated x-ray imaging during wire array implosions at NTF
PIXIE3D: An efficient, fully implicit, parallel, 3D extended MHD code for fusion plasma modeling
PIXIE3D is a modern, parallel, state-of-the-art extended MHD code that employs fully implicit methods for efficiency and accuracy. It features a general geometry formulation, and is therefore suitable for the study of many magnetic fusion configurations of interest. PIXIE3D advances the state of the art in extended MHD modeling in two fundamental ways. Firstly, it employs a novel conservative finite volume scheme which is remarkably robust and stable, and demands very small physical and/or numerical dissipation. This is a fundamental requirement when one wants to study fusion plasmas with realistic conductivities. Secondly, PIXIE3D features fully-implicit time stepping, employing Newton-Krylov methods for inverting the associated nonlinear systems. These methods have been shown to be scalable and efficient when preconditioned properly. Novel preconditioned ideas (so-called physics based), which were prototypes in the context of reduced MHD, have been adapted for 3D primitive-variable resistive MHD in PIXIE3D, and are currently being extended to Hall MHD. PIXIE3D is fully parallel, employing PETSc for parallelism. PIXIE3D has been thoroughly benchmarked against linear theory and against other available extended MHD codes on nonlinear test problems (such as the GEM reconnection challenge). We are currently in the process of extending such comparisons to fusion-relevant problems in realistic geometries. In this talk, we will describe both the spatial discretization approach and the preconditioning strategy employed for extended MHD in PIXIE3D. We will report on recent benchmarking studies between PIXIE3D and other 3D extended MHD codes, and will demonstrate its usefulness in a variety of fusion-relevant configurations such as Tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches. (Author)
3D MHD Jet in a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field
Huang Hulin; Han Dong
2005-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present a two-phase 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow model that combines the volume of fluid (VOF) method with the technique derived from induced-magnetic-field equations for liquid metal free surface MHD-jet-flow. Analogy between the induced-magnetic-filed equation and the conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) equation is made, so that the equation can be conveniently accounted for by CFD. A penalty factor numerical method is introduced in order to force the local divergence-free condition of the magnetic fields and an extension of the void insulating calculation domain is applied to ensure that the induced-magnetic field at its boundaries is null. These simulation results for lithium liquid metal jets under magnetic field configurations of Magnetic Torus (Mtor) and National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) outboard divertor have shown that three dimensional jet can not be annihilated by magnetic braking and its cross-section will deform in such a way that the momentum flux of the jet is conserved. 3D MHD effects from a magnetic field gradient cause return currents to interact with applied magnetic fields and produce unfavorable Lorentz forces.Under 3D applied non-uniform magnetic fields of the divertor, unfavorable Lorentz forces lead to a substantial change in flow pattern and a reduction in flow velocity, with the jet cross-section moving to one side of the jet space. These critical phenomena can not be revealed by 2D models.
M. Schüssler
Full Text Available Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse' are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 10^{5} G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.
Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies.
FARGO3D: A new GPU-oriented MHD code
Benítez-Llambay, Pablo
2016-01-01
We present the FARGO3D code, recently publicly released. It is a magnetohydrodynamics code developed with special emphasis on protoplanetary disks physics and planet-disk interactions, and parallelized with MPI. The hydrodynamics algorithms are based on finite difference upwind, dimensionally split methods. The magnetohydrodynamics algorithms consist of the constrained transport method to preserve the divergence-free property of the magnetic field to machine accuracy, coupled to a method of characteristics for the evaluation of electromotive forces and Lorentz forces. Orbital advection is implemented, and an N-body solver is included to simulate planets or stars interacting with the gas. We present our implementation in detail and present a number of widely known tests for comparison purposes. One strength of FARGO3D is that it can run on both "Graphical Processing Units" (GPUs) or "Central Processing unit" (CPUs), achieving large speed up with respect to CPU cores. We describe our implementation choices, whi...
Effect of magnetic perturbations on the 3D MHD self-organization of shaped tokamak plasmas
Bonfiglio, D; Veranda, M; Chacón, L; Escande, D F
2016-01-01
The effect of magnetic perturbations (MPs) on the helical self-organization of shaped tokamak plasmas is discussed in the framework of the nonlinear 3D MHD model. Numerical simulations performed in toroidal geometry with the \\textsc{pixie3d} code [L. Chac\\'on, Phys. Plasmas {\\bf 15}, 056103 (2008)] show that $n=1$ MPs significantly affect the spontaneous quasi-periodic sawtoothing activity of such plasmas. In particular, the mitigation of sawtooth oscillations is induced by $m/n=1/1$ and $2/1$ MPs. These numerical findings provide a confirmation of previous circular tokamak simulations, and are in agreement with tokamak experiments in the RFX-mod and DIII-D devices. Sawtooth mitigation via MPs has also been observed in reversed-field pinch simulations and experiments. The effect of MPs on the stochastization of the edge magnetic field is also discussed.
FARGO3D: A New GPU-oriented MHD Code
Benítez-Llambay, Pablo; Masset, Frédéric S.
2016-03-01
We present the FARGO3D code, recently publicly released. It is a magnetohydrodynamics code developed with special emphasis on the physics of protoplanetary disks and planet-disk interactions, and parallelized with MPI. The hydrodynamics algorithms are based on finite-difference upwind, dimensionally split methods. The magnetohydrodynamics algorithms consist of the constrained transport method to preserve the divergence-free property of the magnetic field to machine accuracy, coupled to a method of characteristics for the evaluation of electromotive forces and Lorentz forces. Orbital advection is implemented, and an N-body solver is included to simulate planets or stars interacting with the gas. We present our implementation in detail and present a number of widely known tests for comparison purposes. One strength of FARGO3D is that it can run on either graphical processing units (GPUs) or central processing units (CPUs), achieving large speed-up with respect to CPU cores. We describe our implementation choices, which allow a user with no prior knowledge of GPU programming to develop new routines for CPUs, and have them translated automatically for GPUs.
Capabilities of a Global 3D MHD Model for Monitoring Extremely Fast CMEs
Wu, C. C.; Plunkett, S. P.; Liou, K.; Socker, D. G.; Wu, S. T.; Wang, Y. M.
2015-12-01
Since the start of the space era, spacecraft have recorded many extremely fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which have resulted in severe geomagnetic storms. Accurate and timely forecasting of the space weather effects of these events is important for protecting expensive space assets and astronauts and avoiding communications interruptions. Here, we will introduce a newly developed global, three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model (G3DMHD). The model takes the solar magnetic field maps at 2.5 solar radii (Rs) and intepolates the solar wind plasma and field out to 18 Rs using the algorithm of Wang and Sheeley (1990, JGR). The output is used as the inner boundary condition for a 3D MHD model. The G3DMHD model is capable of simulating (i) extremely fast CME events with propagation speeds faster than 2500 km/s; and (ii) multiple CME events in sequence or simultaneously. We will demonstrate the simulation results (and comparison with in-situ observation) for the fastest CME in record on 23 July 2012, the shortest transit time in March 1976, and the well-known historic Carrington 1859 event.
G.Y. Fu
2007-01-01
@@ Ⅲ.4.1Introduction Understanding MHD instability dynamics is a key issue for burning plasmas. Important MHD modes ranging from the plasma center to the edge include sawtooth oscillations and fishbone (center), ballooning modes and neoclassical tearing modes (core), external kink-ballooning modes (core/edge), and peeling-ballooning modes or edge localized modes (edge). In particular, sawtooth oscillations affect the central plasma profiles and can seed neoclassical tearing modes. Neoclassical tearing modes, ideal ballooning modes and kink modes all set a limit to the plasma beta, above which the plasma is vulnerable to disruptions. ELM dynamics determines the H-mode pedestal's height and width, which in turn determines the core plasma confinement.
3D MHD modeling of twisted coronal loops
Reale, F; Guarrasi, M; Mignone, A; Peres, G; Hood, A W; Priest, E R
2016-01-01
We perform MHD modeling of a single bright coronal loop to include the interaction with a non-uniform magnetic field. The field is stressed by random footpoint rotation in the central region and its energy is dissipated into heating by growing currents through anomalous magnetic diffusivity that switches on in the corona above a current density threshold. We model an entire single magnetic flux tube, in the solar atmosphere extending from the high-beta chromosphere to the low-beta corona through the steep transition region. The magnetic field expands from the chromosphere to the corona. The maximum resolution is ~30 km. We obtain an overall evolution typical of loop models and realistic loop emission in the EUV and X-ray bands. The plasma confined in the flux tube is heated to active region temperatures (~3 MK) after ~2/3 hr. Upflows from the chromosphere up to ~100 km/s fill the core of the flux tube to densities above 10^9 cm^-3. More heating is released in the low corona than the high corona and is finely ...
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D
A novel code for numerical 3-D MHD studies of CME expansion
J. Kleimann
2009-03-01
Full Text Available A recent third-order, essentially non-oscillatory central scheme to advance the equations of single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD in time has been implemented into a new numerical code. This code operates on a 3-D Cartesian, non-staggered grid, and is able to handle shock-like gradients without producing spurious oscillations.
To demonstrate the suitability of our code for the simulation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs and similar heliospheric transients, we present selected results from test cases and perform studies of the solar wind expansion during phases of minimum solar activity. We can demonstrate convergence of the system into a stable Parker-like steady state for both hydrodynamic and MHD winds. The model is subsequently applied to expansion studies of CME-like plasma bubbles, and their evolution is monitored until a stationary state similar to the initial one is achieved. In spite of the model's (current simplicity, we can confirm the CME's nearly self-similar evolution close to the Sun, thus highlighting the importance of detailed modelling especially at small heliospheric radii.
Additionally, alternative methods to implement boundary conditions at the coronal base, as well as strategies to ensure a solenoidal magnetic field, are discussed and evaluated.
3D Neutronic Analysis in MHD Calculations at ARIES-ST Fusion Reactors Systems
Hançerliogulları, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut
2013-10-01
In this study, we developed new models for liquid wall (FW) state at ARIES-ST fusion reactor systems. ARIES-ST is a 1,000 MWe fusion reactor system based on a low aspect ratio ST plasma. In this article, we analyzed the characteristic properties of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and heat transfer conditions by using Monte-Carlo simulation methods (ARIES Team et al. in Fusion Eng Des 49-50:689-695, 2000; Tillack et al. in Fusion Eng Des 65:215-261, 2003) . In fusion applications, liquid metals are traditionally considered to be the best working fluids. The working liquid must be a lithium-containing medium in order to provide adequate tritium that the plasma is self-sustained and that the fusion is a renewable energy source. As for Flibe free surface flows, the MHD effects caused by interaction with the mean flow is negligible, while a fairly uniform flow of thick can be maintained throughout the reactor based on 3-D MHD calculations. In this study, neutronic parameters, that is to say, energy multiplication factor radiation, heat flux and fissile fuel breeding were researched for fusion reactor with various thorium and uranium molten salts. Sufficient tritium amount is needed for the reactor to work itself. In the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1.05 ARIES-ST fusion model TBR is >1.1 so that tritium self-sufficiency is maintained for DT fusion systems (Starke et al. in Fusion Energ Des 84:1794-1798, 2009; Najmabadi et al. in Fusion Energ Des 80:3-23, 2006).
MHD simulation of Columbia HBT
The plasma of Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT) is studied numerically by using the two dimensional resistive MHD model. The main object of this work is to understand the high beta formation process of HBT plasma and to compare the simulation with the experiments. 21 refs., 48 figs., 2 tabs
Scaling laws of coronal loops compared to a 3D MHD model of an Active Region
Bourdin, Philippe-A; Peter, Hardi
2016-01-01
Context. The structure and heating of coronal loops are investigated since decades. Established scaling laws relate fundamental quantities like the loop apex temperature, pressure, length, and the coronal heating. Aims. We test such scaling laws against a large-scale 3D MHD model of the Solar corona, which became feasible with nowadays high-performance computing. Methods. We drive an active region simulation a with photospheric observations and found strong similarities to the observed coronal loops in X-rays and EUV wavelength. A 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic observations showed that our model loops have a realistic spatial structure. We compare scaling laws to our model data extracted along an ensemble of field lines. Finally, we fit a new scaling law that represents well hot loops and also cooler structures, which was not possible before only based on observations. Results. Our model data gives some support for scaling laws that were established for hot and EUV-emissive coronal loops. For the RTV scali...
Coronal energy input and dissipation in a solar active region 3D MHD model
Bourdin, Philippe-A; Peter, Hardi
2015-01-01
Context. We have conducted a 3D MHD simulation of the solar corona above an active region in full scale and high resolution, which shows coronal loops, and plasma flows within them, similar to observations. Aims. We want to find the connection between the photospheric energy input by field-line braiding with the coronal energy conversion by Ohmic dissipation of induced currents. Methods. To this end we compare the coronal energy input and dissipation within our simulation domain above different fields of view, e.g. for a small loops system in the active region (AR) core. We also choose an ensemble of field lines to compare, e.g., the magnetic energy input to the heating per particle along these field lines. Results. We find an enhanced Ohmic dissipation of currents in the corona above areas that also have enhanced upwards-directed Poynting flux. These regions coincide with the regions where hot coronal loops within the AR core are observed. The coronal density plays a role in estimating the coronal temperatur...
Implementation of a 3-D nonlinear MHD [magnetohydrodynamics] calculation on the Intel hypercube
The optimization of numerical schemes and increasing computer capabilities in the last ten years have improved the efficiency of 3-D nonlinear resistive MHD calculations by about two to three orders of magnitude. However, we are still very limited in performing these types of calculations. Hypercubes have a large number of processors with only local memory and bidirectional links among neighbors. The Intel Hypercube at Oak Ridge has 64 processors with 0.5 megabytes of memory per processor. The multiplicity of processors opens new possibilities for the treatment of such computations. The constraint on time and resources favored the approach of using the existing RSF code which solves as an initial value problem the reduced set of MHD equations for a periodic cylindrical geometry. This code includes minimal physics and geometry, but contains the basic three dimensionality and nonlinear structure of the equations. The code solves the reduced set of MHD equations by Fourier expansion in two angular coordinates and finite differences in the radial one. Due to the continuing interest in these calculations and the likelihood that future supercomputers will take greater advantage of parallelism, the present study was initiated by the ORNL Exploratory Studies Committee and funded entirely by Laboratory Discretionary Funds. The objectives of the study were: to ascertain the suitability of MHD calculation for parallel computation, to design and implement a parallel algorithm to perform the computations, and to evaluate the hypercube, and in particular, ORNL's Intel iPSC, for use in MHD computations
INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA
Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith
2011-07-01
Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically
3D Molecular dynamics simulations using spheropolytopes
Galindo-Torres, Sergio-Andres; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Wang, Yucang
2008-01-01
We present a simple and efficient method to simulate three-dimensional, complex-shaped, interacting bodies. The particle shape is represented by Minkowski operators. A time-continuous interaction between these bodies is derived using simple concepts of computational geometry. The model (particles + interactions) is efficient, accurate and easy to implement, and it complies with the conservation laws of physics. 3D simulations of hopper flow shows that the non-convexity of the particles strong...
3D FDTD simulations of photonic devices
Full text: In our contribution we will present the recent results on 3D simulations of photonic devices. Particularly, quantum well infrared photodetectors with embedded photonic crystal are optimized to achieve optimal light coupling and quantum efficiency. Furthermore, we study schemes of light coupling into SOI waveguides. Both optical fibre-SOI waveguide and laser-SOI waveguide coupling schemes are investigated. The results of investigations regarding the influence of disorder on the reflection peak in opal 3D photonic crystal will be also presented. This work was supported by the Austrian Nanoinitiative RPC PLATON. (author)
Simulating coronal condensation dynamics in 3D
Moschou, S P; Xia, C; Fang, X
2015-01-01
We present numerical simulations in 3D settings where coronal rain phenomena take place in a magnetic configuration of a quadrupolar arcade system. Our simulation is a magnetohydrodynamic simulation including anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parametrised heating as main thermodynamical features to construct a realistic arcade configuration from chromospheric to coronal heights. The plasma evaporation from chromospheric and transition region heights eventually causes localised runaway condensation events and we witness the formation of plasma blobs due to thermal instability, that evolve dynamically in the heated arcade part and move gradually downwards due to interchange type dynamics. Unlike earlier 2.5D simulations, in this case there is no large scale prominence formation observed, but a continuous coronal rain develops which shows clear indications of Rayleigh-Taylor or interchange instability, that causes the denser plasma located above the transition region to fall do...
Nanoflare statistics in an active region 3D MHD coronal model
Bingert, Sven
2012-01-01
Context. We investigate the statistics of the spatial and temporal distribution of the coronal heating in a three-dimensional magneto- hydrodynamical (3D MHD) model. The model describes the temporal evolution of the corona above an observed active region. The model is driven by photospheric granular motions which braid the magnetic field lines. This induces currents and their dissipation heats the plasma. We evaluate the transient heating as subsequent heating events and analyze their statistics. The results are then interpreted in the context of observed flare statistics and coronal heating mechanisms. Methods. To conduct the numerical experiment we use a high order finite difference code which solves the partial differential equations for the conservation of mass, the momentum and energy balance, and the induction equation. The energy balance includes the Spitzer heat conduction and the optical thin radiative loss in the corona. Results. The temporal and spatial distribution of the Ohmic heating in the 3D M...
3-D NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF FLOW LOSS IN HELICAL CHANNEL
ZHAO Ling-zhi; PENG Yan; LU Fang; LI Jian; LI Ran; LIU Bao-lin
2012-01-01
The flow loss of a helical channel Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thruster without MHD effect was numerically studied with 3-D simulations,and a flow loss coefficient ξ was defined to quantify the flow loss and its influencing factors were studied.The results show that ξ decreases in a first-order exponential manner with the pitch of a helical wall and the Reynolds number,and it declines slowly when t / T ＞ 0.2 and Re ＞ 105,a flow guide makes the flow more smooth and uniform,especially in the flow guide and helical wall sub-regions and thus reduces the flow loss greatly,by about 30％ with the averaged value of ξ from 0.0385to 0.027,a rectifier weakens the helical flow and strengthens the axial one in the rectifier and outlet sub-regions,thus reduces the rotational kinetic pressure with the averaged value of ξ declining about 4％ from 0.0385 to 0.037,and ξ decreases with a rectifier's axial length when Re ＞ 105.
Radiative Transfer in 3D Numerical Simulations
Stein, R; Stein, Robert; Nordlund, Aake
2002-01-01
We simulate convection near the solar surface, where the continuum optical depth is of order unity. Hence, to determine the radiative heating and cooling in the energy conservation equation, we must solve the radiative transfer equation (instead of using the diffusion or optically thin cooling approximations). A method efficient enough to calculate the radiation for thousands of time steps is needed. We assume LTE and a non-gray opacity grouped into 4 bins according to strength. We perform a formal solution of the Feautrier equation along a vertical and four straight, slanted, rays (at four azimuthal angles which are rotated 15 deg. every time step). We present details of our method. We also give some results: comparing simulated and observed line profiles for the Sun, showing the importance of 3D transfer for the structure of the mean atmosphere and the eigenfrequencies of p-modes, illustrating Stokes profiles for micropores, and analyzing the effect of radiation on p-mode asymmetries.
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
We describe work on a full MHD code using an unstructured mesh. MH3D++ is an extension of the PPPL MH3D resistive full MHD code. MH3D++ replaces the structured mesh and finite difference / fourier discretization of MH3D with an unstructured mesh and finite element / fourier discretization. Low level routines which perform differential operations, solution of PDEs such as Poisson's equation, and graphics, are encapsulated in C++ objects to isolate the finite element operations from the higher level code. The high level code is the same, whether it is run in structured or unstructured mesh versions. This allows the unstructured mesh version to be benchmarked against the structured mesh version. As a preliminary example, disruptions in DIIID reverse shear equilibria are studied numerically with the MH3D++ code. Numerical equilibria were first produced starting with an EQDSK file containing equilibrium data of a DIII-D L-mode negative central shear discharge. Using these equilibria, the linearized equations are time advanced to get the toroidal mode number n = 1 linear growth rate and eigenmode, which is resistively unstable. The equilibrium and linear mode are used to initialize 3D nonlinear runs. An example shows poloidal slices of 3D pressure surfaces: initially, on the left, and at an intermediate time, on the right
A Novel High-Order, Entropy Stable, 3D AMR MHD Solver with Guaranteed Positive Pressure
Derigs, Dominik; Gassner, Gregor J; Walch, Stefanie
2016-01-01
We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code $\\texttt{FLASH}$ (http://flash.uchicago.edu). The accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency is demonstrated with a number of tests, including comparisons to available MHD implementations in $\\texttt{FLASH}$.
3D electrohydrodynamic simulation of electrowetting displays
The fluid dynamic behavior within a pixel of an electrowetting display (EWD) is thoroughly investigated through a 3D simulation. By coupling the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) force deduced from the Maxwell stress tensor with the laminar phase field of the oil–water dual phase, the complete switch processes of an EWD, including the break-up and the electrowetting stages in the switch-on process (with voltage) and the oil spreading in the switch-off process (without voltage), are successfully simulated. By considering the factor of the change in the apparent contact angle at the contact line, the electro–optic performance obtained from the simulation is found to agree well with its corresponding experiment. The proposed model is used to parametrically predict the effect of interfacial (e.g. contact angle of grid) and geometric (e.g. oil thickness and pixel size) properties on the defects of an EWD, such as oil dewetting patterns, oil overflow, and oil non-recovery. With the help of the defect analysis, a highly stable EWD is both experimentally realized and numerically analyzed. (paper)
Quasi 3D ECE imaging system for study of MHD instabilities in KSTAR.
Yun, G S; Lee, W; Choi, M J; Lee, J; Kim, M; Leem, J; Nam, Y; Choe, G H; Park, H K; Park, H; Woo, D S; Kim, K W; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Ito, N; Mase, A; Lee, S G
2014-11-01
A second electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been installed on the KSTAR tokamak, toroidally separated by 1/16th of the torus from the first ECEI system. For the first time, the dynamical evolutions of MHD instabilities from the plasma core to the edge have been visualized in quasi-3D for a wide range of the KSTAR operation (B0 = 1.7∼3.5 T). This flexible diagnostic capability has been realized by substantial improvements in large-aperture quasi-optical microwave components including the development of broad-band polarization rotators for imaging of the fundamental ordinary ECE as well as the usual 2nd harmonic extraordinary ECE. PMID:25430233
Quasi 3D ECE imaging system for study of MHD instabilities in KSTAR
Yun, G. S., E-mail: gunsu@postech.ac.kr; Choi, M. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Leem, J.; Nam, Y.; Choe, G. H. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.; Park, H. K. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H.; Woo, D. S.; Kim, K. W. [School of Electrical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Ito, N. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Mase, A. [Ube National College of Technology, Ube-shi, Yamaguchi 755-8555 (Japan); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-11-15
A second electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been installed on the KSTAR tokamak, toroidally separated by 1/16th of the torus from the first ECEI system. For the first time, the dynamical evolutions of MHD instabilities from the plasma core to the edge have been visualized in quasi-3D for a wide range of the KSTAR operation (B{sub 0} = 1.7∼3.5 T). This flexible diagnostic capability has been realized by substantial improvements in large-aperture quasi-optical microwave components including the development of broad-band polarization rotators for imaging of the fundamental ordinary ECE as well as the usual 2nd harmonic extraordinary ECE.
MHD and deep mixing in evolved stars. 1. 2D and 3D analytical models for the AGB
Nucci, M C
2014-01-01
The advection of thermonuclear ashes by magnetized domains emerging from near the H-shell was suggested to explain AGB star abundances. Here we verify this idea quantitatively through exact MHD models. Starting with a simple 2D geometry and in an inertia frame, we study plasma equilibria avoiding the complications of numerical simulations. We show that, below the convective envelope of an AGB star, variable magnetic fields induce a natural expansion, permitted by the almost ideal MHD conditions, in which the radial velocity grows as the second power of the radius. We then study the convective envelope, where the complexity of macro-turbulence allows only for a schematic analytical treatment. Here the radial velocity depends on the square root of the radius. We then verify the robustness of our results with 3D calculations for the velocity, showing that, for both the studied regions, the solution previously found can be seen as a planar section of a more complex behavior, in which anyway the average radial vel...
Historical perspective on astrophysical MHD simulations
Norman, Michael L
2010-01-01
This contribution contains the introductory remarks that I presented at IAU Symposium 270 on ``Computational Star Formation" held in Barcelona, Spain, May 31 -- June 4, 2010. I discuss the historical development of numerical MHD methods in astrophysics from a personal perspective. The recent advent of robust, higher order-accurate MHD algorithms and adaptive mesh refinement numerical simulations promises to greatly improve our understanding of the role of magnetic fields in star formation.
Planning for brachytherapy using a 3D-simulation model
A 3D-simulation model made with a milling system was applied to HDR-brachytherapy. The 3D-simulation model is used to simulate the 3D-structure of the lesion and the surrounding organs before the actual catheterization for brachytherapy. The first case was recurrent prostatic cancer in a 61-year-old man. The other case was lymph node recurrence of a 71-year-old woman's upper gum cancer. In both cases, the 3D-simulation model was very useful to simulate the 3D-conformation, to plan the treatment process and to avoid the risk accompanying treatment. (author)
Simulation of wave interactions with MHD
The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are twofold: (1) improve our understanding of interactions that both radio frequency (RF) wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (2) develop an integrated computational system for treating multiphysics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project. The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) has been implemented. Presented here are initial physics results on RF effects on MHD instabilities in tokamaks as well as simulation results for tokamak discharge evolution using the IPS.
Simulated annealing for three-dimensional low-beta reduced MHD equilibria in cylindrical geometry
Furukawa, M
2016-01-01
Simulated annealing (SA) is applied for three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium calculation of ideal, low-beta reduced MHD in cylindrical geometry. The SA is based on the theory of Hamiltonian mechanics. The dynamical equation of the original system, low-beta reduced MHD in this study, is modified so that the energy changes monotonically while preserving the Casimir invariants in the artificial dynamics. An equilibrium of the system is given by an extremum of the energy, therefore SA can be used as a method for calculating ideal MHD equilibrium. Previous studies demonstrated that the SA succeeds to lead to various MHD equilibria in two dimensional rectangular domain. In this paper, the theory is applied to 3D equilibrium of ideal, low-beta reduced MHD. An example of equilibrium with magnetic islands, obtained as a lower energy state, is shown. Several versions of the artificial dynamics are developed that can effect smoothing.
Simulations of drift waves in 3D magnetic configurations
Drift waves are commonly held responsible for anomalous transport in tokamak configurations and in particular for the anomalously high heat loss. The next generation of stellarators on the other hand are hoped to be characterized by a much smaller neo-classical transport and by particle confinement close to that of tokamaks. There is nevertheless a strong interest in the stellarator community to study the properties of drift waves in 3D magnetic configurations. To serve this interest we have developed the first global gyrokinetic code, EUTERPE, aimed at the investigation of linear drift wave stability in general toroidal geometry. The physical model assumes electrostatic waves and adiabatic electrons. EUTERPE is a particle-in-cell (PIC) code in which the gyrokinetic Poisson equation is discretized with the finite element method defined in the PEST -1 system of magnetic coordinates. The magnetic geometry is provided by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium code VMEC. The complete 3D model has been successfully validated in toroidal axisymmetric and straight helical geometries and has permitted the first simulation of unstable global ITG driven modes in non-axisymmetric toroidal configurations. As a first application, two configurations have been studied, the Quasi-Axially symmetric Stellarator with three fields periods (QAS3) currently one system under consideration at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Helically Symmetric experiment (HSX) which has recently started operation at the University of Wisconsin. QAS3 is characterized by a tokamak-Iike field in the outer part of the torus. In this structure the drift waves are mainly affected by the magnetic shear and barely by the shape of the plasma. Also, the results are very close to those obtained for a tokamak. On the other hand, results for the HSX configuration, which is characterized by a dominant helical magnetic field, show a clear 3D effect, namely a strong toroidal variation of the drift wave
Skála, J.; Baruffa, F.; Büchner, J.; Rampp, M.
2015-08-01
Context. The numerical simulation of turbulence and flows in almost ideal astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers motivates the implementation of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) computer codes with low resistivity. They need to be computationally efficient and scale well with large numbers of CPU cores, allow obtaining a high grid resolution over large simulation domains, and be easily and modularly extensible, for instance, to new initial and boundary conditions. Aims: Our aims are the implementation, optimization, and verification of a computationally efficient, highly scalable, and easily extensible low-dissipative MHD simulation code for the numerical investigation of the dynamics of astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers in three dimensions (3D). Methods: The new GOEMHD3 code discretizes the ideal part of the MHD equations using a fast and efficient leap-frog scheme that is second-order accurate in space and time and whose initial and boundary conditions can easily be modified. For the investigation of diffusive and dissipative processes the corresponding terms are discretized by a DuFort-Frankel scheme. To always fulfill the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability criterion, the time step of the code is adapted dynamically. Numerically induced local oscillations are suppressed by explicit, externally controlled diffusion terms. Non-equidistant grids are implemented, which enhance the spatial resolution, where needed. GOEMHD3 is parallelized based on the hybrid MPI-OpenMP programing paradigm, adopting a standard two-dimensional domain-decomposition approach. Results: The ideal part of the equation solver is verified by performing numerical tests of the evolution of the well-understood Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and of Orszag-Tang vortices. The accuracy of solving the (resistive) induction equation is tested by simulating the decay of a cylindrical current column. Furthermore, we show that the computational performance of the code scales very
Linearly perturbed MHD equilibria and 3D eddy current coupling via the control surface method
Portone, A.; Villone, F.; Liu, Y.; Albanese, R.; Rubinacci, G.
2008-08-01
In this paper, a coupling strategy based on the control surface concept is used to self-consistently couple linear MHD solvers to 3D codes for the eddy current computation of eddy currents in the metallic structures surrounding the plasma. The coupling is performed by assuming that the plasma inertia (and, with it, all Alfven wave-like phenomena) can be neglected on the time scale of interest, which is dictated by the relevant electromagnetic time of the metallic structures. As is shown, plasma coupling with the metallic structures results in perturbations to the inductance matrix operator. In particular, by adopting the Fourier decomposition in poloidal and toroidal modes, it turns out that each toroidal mode can be associated with a matrix (additively) perturbing the inductance matrix that commonly describes the magnetic coupling of currents in vacuum. In this way, the treatment of resistive wall modes instabilities of various toroidal mode numbers and their possible cross-talk through the currents induced in the metallic structures can be easily studied.
3D Tomography of MHD Fluctuations in the H-1NF Heliac
Haskey, S R; Seiwald, B; Howard, J
2014-01-01
A 3D tomographic reconstruction technique which does not rely on a set of radial basis functions is described for inversion of a set of limited-angle high-resolution 2D visible light emission projections (extended in the vertical and toroidal directions) of global MHD eigenmodes in the H-1NF heliac. This paper deals with some of the features and challenges that will arise in the application of tomographic imaging systems to fusion reactors, especially the strong shaping of optimised stellarator/heliotron configurations, and limited access in all types. The fluctuations are represented as a finite sum of Fourier modes characterised by toroidal and poloidal mode numbers having fixed amplitude and phase in a set of nested cylindrical flux volumes in Boozer space. The amplitudes and phases are calculated using iterative tomographic inversion techniques such as ART, SIRT and standard linear least-squares methods. The tomography is applied to synchronous camera images of singly charged carbon impurity ion emission ...
A novel high-order, entropy stable, 3D AMR MHD solver with guaranteed positive pressure
Derigs, Dominik; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie
2016-07-01
We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code FLASH (http://flash.uchicago.edu)
A novel high-order, entropy stable, 3D AMR MHD solver with guaranteed positive pressure
Derigs, Dominik; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie
2016-07-01
We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code FLASH (http://flash.uchicago.edu).
A global simulation of ICRF heating in a 3D magnetic configuration
A global simulation code for the ICRF heating analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic configuration is developed combining two global simulation codes; a drift kinetic equation solver, GNET, and a wave field solver, TASK/WM. Both codes take into account 3D geometry using the numerically obtained 3D MHD equilibrium. The developed simulation code is applied to the LHD configuration as an example. Characteristics of energetic ion distributions in the phase space are clarified in LHD. The simulation results are also compared with experimental results by evaluating the count number of the neutral particle analyzer using the obtained energetic ion distribution, and a relatively good agreement is obtained. (author)
Numerical simulation of 3D breaking waves
Fraunie, Philippe; Golay, Frederic
2015-04-01
Numerical methods dealing with two phase flows basically can be classified in two ways : the "interface tracking" methods when the two phases are resolved separately including boundary conditions fixed at the interface and the "interface capturing" methods when a single flow is considered with variable density. Physical and numerical properties of the two approaches are discussed, based on some numerical experiments performed concerning 3D breaking waves. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the Modtercom program of Region PACA.
Pseudo-reconnection in MHD numerical simulation
无
2000-01-01
A class of pseudo-reconnections caused by a shifted mesh in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations is reported. In terms of this mesh system, some non-physical results may be obtained in certain circumstances, e.g. magnetic reconnection occurs without resistivity. After comparison, another kind of mesh is strongly recommended.
3D Magnetron simulation with CST STUDIO SUITE
The modeling of magnetrons compared to other tubes is more difficult since it requires 3D modeling rather than a 2D investigation. This is not only due to the geometry which can include complicated details to be modeled in 3D but also due to the interaction process itself. The electric field, magnetic field and particle movement span a 3D space. In this paper 3D simulations of a strapped magnetron with CSTSTUDIO SUITETM are presented. (author)
Charge collection characterization of a 3D silicon radiation detector by using 3D simulations
Kalliopuska, J; Orava, R
2007-01-01
In 3D detectors, the electrodes are processed within the bulk of the sensor material. Therefore, the signal charge is collected independently of the wafer thickness and the collection process is faster due to shorter distances between the charge collection electrodes as compared to a planar detector structure. In this paper, 3D simulations are used to assess the performance of a 3D detector structure in terms of charge sharing, efficiency and speed of charge collection, surface charge, location of the primary interaction and the bias voltage. The measured current pulse is proposed to be delayed due to the resistance–capacitance (RC) product induced by the variation of the serial resistance of the pixel electrode depending on the depth of the primary interaction. Extensive simulations are carried out to characterize the 3D detector structures and to verify the proposed explanation for the delay of the current pulse. A method for testing the hypothesis experimentally is suggested.
3D HYDRA Simulations of NIF Targets
Marinak, M M; Kerbel, G D; Gentile, N A; Jones, O; Pollaine, S; Dittrich, T R; Haan, S W
2000-10-20
The performance of NIF target designs is simulated in three dimensions using the HYDRA multiphysics radiation hydrodynamics code. In simulations of a cylindrical NIF hohlraum that include an imploding capsule, the motion of the wall material inside the hohlraum shows a high degree of axisymmetry. Laser radiation is able to propagate through the entrance hole for the required duration of the pulse. Gross hohlraum energetics in the simulation mirror the results from an axisymmetric simulation. A simulation of a copper-doped beryllium ablator NIF capsule carried out over large solid angle resolved the full spectrum of the most dangerous modes that grow from surface roughness. Hydrodynamic instabilities evolve into the weakly nonlinear regime. There is no evidence of low mode jetting driven by nonlinear mode coupling.
3D HYDRA simulations of NIF targets
Marinak, M M; Kerbel, G D; Gentile, N A; Jones, O; Munro, D; Pollaine, S; Dittrich, T R; Haan, S W
2000-10-30
The performance of NIF target designs is simulated in three dimensions using the HYDRA multiphysics radiation hydrodynamics code. In simulations of a cylindrical NIF hohlraum that include an imploding capsule, all relevant hohlraum features and the detailed laser illumination pattern, the motion of the wall material inside the hohlraum shows a high degree of axisymmetry. Laser light is able to propagate through the entrance hole for the required duration of the pulse. Gross hohlraum energetics mirror the results from an axisymmetric simulation. A NIF capsule simulation resolved the full spectrum of the most dangerous modes that grow from surface roughness. Hydrodynamic instabilities evolve into the weakly nonlinear regime. There is no evidence of anomalous low mode growth driven by nonlinear mode coupling.
3D visualization of port simulation.
Horsthemke, W. H.; Macal, C. M.; Nevins, M. R.
1999-06-14
Affordable and realistic three dimensional visualization technology can be applied to large scale constructive simulations such as the port simulation model, PORTSIM. These visualization tools enhance the experienced planner's ability to form mental models of how seaport operations will unfold when the simulation model is implemented and executed. They also offer unique opportunities to train new planners not only in the use of the simulation model but on the layout and design of seaports. Simulation visualization capabilities are enhanced by borrowing from work on interface design, camera control, and data presentation. Using selective fidelity, the designers of these visualization systems can reduce their time and efforts by concentrating on those features which yield the most value for their simulation. Offering the user various observational tools allows the freedom to simply watch or engage in the simulation without getting lost. Identifying the underlying infrastructure or cargo items with labels can provide useful information at the risk of some visual clutter. The PortVis visualization expands the PORTSIM user base which can benefit from the results provided by this capability, especially in strategic planning, mission rehearsal, and training. Strategic planners will immediately reap the benefits of seeing the impact of increased throughput visually without keeping track of statistical data. Mission rehearsal and training users will have an effective training tool to supplement their operational training exercises which are limited in number because of their high costs. Having another effective training modality in this visualization system allows more training to take place and more personnel to gain an understanding of seaport operations. This simulation and visualization training can be accomplished at lower cost than would be possible for the operational training exercises alone. The application of PORTSIM and PortVis will lead to more efficient
Simulation of bootstrap current in 2D and 3D ideal magnetic fields in tokamaks
Raghunathan, M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Pedro, M.; Sauter, O.
2016-09-01
We aim to simulate the bootstrap current for a MAST-like spherical tokamak using two approaches for magnetic equilibria including externally caused 3D effects such as resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), the effect of toroidal ripple, and intrinsic 3D effects such as non-resonant internal kink modes. The first approach relies on known neoclassical coefficients in ideal MHD equilibria, using the Sauter (Sauter et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2834) expression valid for all collisionalities in axisymmetry, and the second approach being the quasi-analytic Shaing–Callen (Shaing and Callen 1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3315) model in the collisionless regime for 3D. Using the ideal free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic code VMEC, we compute the flux-surface averaged bootstrap current density, with the Sauter and Shaing–Callen expressions for 2D and 3D ideal MHD equilibria including an edge pressure barrier with the application of resonant magnetic perturbations, and equilibria possessing a saturated non-resonant 1/1 internal kink mode with a weak internal pressure barrier. We compare the applicability of the self-consistent iterative model on the 3D applications and discuss the limitations and advantages of each bootstrap current model for each type of equilibrium.
3D relaxation MHD modeling with FOI-PERFECT code for electromagnetically driven HED systems
Wang, Ganghua; Duan, Shuchao; Xie, Weiping; Kan, Mingxian; Institute of Fluid Physics Collaboration
2015-11-01
One of the challenges in numerical simulations of electromagnetically driven high energy density (HED) systems is the existence of vacuum region. The electromagnetic part of the conventional model adopts the magnetic diffusion approximation (magnetic induction model). The vacuum region is approximated by artificially increasing the resistivity. On one hand the phase/group velocity is superluminal and hence non-physical in the vacuum region, on the other hand a diffusion equation with large diffusion coefficient can only be solved by implicit scheme. Implicit method is usually difficult to parallelize and converge. A better alternative is to solve the full electromagnetic equations for the electromagnetic part. Maxwell's equations coupled with the constitutive equation, generalized Ohm's law, constitute a relaxation model. The dispersion relation is given to show its transition from electromagnetic propagation in vacuum to resistive MHD in plasma in a natural way. The phase and group velocities are finite for this system. A better time stepping is adopted to give a 3rd full order convergence in time domain without the stiff relaxation term restriction. Therefore it is convenient for explicit & parallel computations. Some numerical results of FOI-PERFECT code are also given. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11172277,11205145).
The M3D-C1 Approach to Simulating 3D 2-fluid Magnetohydrodynamics in Magnetic Fusion Experiments
A new approach for solving the 3D MHD equations in a strongly magnetized toroidal plasma is presented which uses high-order 2D finite elements with C1 continuity. The vector fields use a physics-based decomposition. An efficient implicit time advance separates the velocity and field advance. ITAPS (SCOREC) adaptivity software and TOPS solvers are used
3-D resistive MHD calculations for tokamak plasmas: beyond the simple reduced set of equations
Numerical studies of the resistive stability of tokamak plasmas in cylindrical geometry have been performed using: (1) the full set of resistive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and (2) an extended version of the reduced set of resistive MHD equations including diamagnetic and electron temperature effects. In particular, the nonlinear interaction of tearing modes of many helicities has been investigated. The numerical results confirm many of the features uncovered previously using the simple reduced equations. (author)
Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations
Vanhamäki, H.
2011-01-01
We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances) and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field). The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km-1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current) in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981).
Parallel Simulations in Turbulent MHD
The large-scale dynamics of plasma flows can often be described within a fluidistic approximation known as one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. Complex flows such as those corresponding to turbulent regimes are ubiquitous in laboratory plasmas and in astrophysics, because of their typically very large Reynolds numbers. Numerical simulations have become a powerful tool for the study of complex plasma flows in recent years. The aim of the present paper is to introduce the reader to some of the standard numerical approximations used for the integration of the magnetohydrodynamic equations. In particular, we focus on pseudo-spectral methods and on how to develop parallel codes to speed up large Reynolds number simulations. We show the results arising from numerical simulations of astrophysical interest such as the development of turbulent flows in reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the generation of magnetic fields by dynamo mechanisms in three dimensional magnetohydrodynamics
Parallel Simulations in Turbulent MHD
Gomez, Daniel O. [C. Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. of Physics, Pabellon I; Mininni, Pablo D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Advanced Study Program; Dmitruk, Pablo [Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States). Bartol Research Inst.
2005-04-01
The large-scale dynamics of plasma flows can often be described within a fluidistic approximation known as one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. Complex flows such as those corresponding to turbulent regimes are ubiquitous in laboratory plasmas and in astrophysics, because of their typically very large Reynolds numbers. Numerical simulations have become a powerful tool for the study of complex plasma flows in recent years. The aim of the present paper is to introduce the reader to some of the standard numerical approximations used for the integration of the magnetohydrodynamic equations. In particular, we focus on pseudo-spectral methods and on how to develop parallel codes to speed up large Reynolds number simulations. We show the results arising from numerical simulations of astrophysical interest such as the development of turbulent flows in reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the generation of magnetic fields by dynamo mechanisms in three dimensional magnetohydrodynamics.
3D MHD simulations of subsurface convection in OB stars
Cantiello, Matteo; Brandenburg, Axel; Del Sordo, Fabio; Käpylä, Petri; Langer, Norbert
2010-01-01
During their main sequence evolution, massive stars can develop convective regions very close to their surface. These regions are caused by an opacity peak associated with iron ionization. Cantiello et al. (2009) found a possible connection between the presence of sub-photospheric convective motions and small scale stochastic velocities in the photosphere of early-type stars. This supports a physical mechanism where microturbulence is caused by waves that are triggered by subsurface convection zones. They further suggest that clumping in the inner parts of the winds of OB stars could be related to subsurface convection, and that the convective layers may also be responsible for stochastic excitation of non-radial pulsations. Furthermore, magnetic fields produced in the iron convection zone could appear at the surface of such massive stars. Therefore subsurface convection could be responsible for the occurrence of observable phenomena such as line profile variability and discrete absorption components. These p...
3-D template simulation system in Total Hip Arthroplasty
In Total Hip Arthroplastry, 2D template on Plain X-ray is usually used for preoperative planning. But deformity and contracture can cause malposition and measurement error. To reduce those problems, a 3D preoperative simulation system was developed. Three methods were compared in this study. One is to create very accurate AP and ML images which can use for standard 2D template. One is fully 3D preoperative template system using computer graphics. Last one is substantial simulation using stereo-lithography model. 3D geometry data of the bone was made from Helical 3-D CT data. AP and ML surface cutting 3D images of the femur were created using workstation (Advantage Workstation; GE Medical Systems). The extracted 3D geometry was displayed on personal computer using Magics (STL data visualization software), then 3D geometry of the stem was superimposed in it. The full 3D simulation system made it possible to observe the bone and stem geometry from any direction and by any section view. Stereo-lithography model was useful for detailed observation of the femur anatomy. (author)
Willensdorfer, M; Strumberger, E; Suttrop, W; Vanovac, B; Brida, D; Cavedon, M; Classen, I; Dunne, M; Fietz, S; Fischer, R; Kirk, A; Laggner, F M; Liu, Y Q; Odstrcil, T; Ryan, D A; Viezzer, E; Zohm, H; Luhmann, I C
2016-01-01
The plasma response from an external n = 2 magnetic perturbation field in ASDEX Upgrade has been measured using mainly electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics and a rigid rotating field. To interpret ECE and ECE-imaging (ECE-I) measurements accurately, forward modeling of the radiation transport has been combined with ray tracing. The measured data is compared to synthetic ECE data generated from a 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium calculated by VMEC. The measured amplitudes of the helical displacement in the midplane are in reasonable agreement with the one from the synthetic VMEC diagnostics. Both exceed the vacuum field calculations and indicate the presence of an amplified kink response at the edge. Although the calculated magnetic structure of this edge kink peaks at poloidal mode numbers larger than the resonant components |m| > |nq|, the displacement measured by ECE-I is almost resonant |m| ~ |nq|. This is expected from ideal MHD in the proximity of rational surfaces. VMEC and MARS-...
Numerical Relativity Towards Simulations of 3D Black Hole Coalescence
Seidel, E
1998-01-01
I review recent developments in numerical relativity, focussing on progress made in 3D black hole evolution. Progress in development of black hole initial data, apparent horizon boundary conditions, adaptive mesh refinement, and characteristic evolution is highlighted, as well as full 3D simulations of colliding and distorted black holes. For true 3D distorted holes, with Cauchy evolution techniques, it is now possible to extract highly accurate, nonaxisymmetric waveforms from fully nonlinear simulations, which are verified by comparison to pertubration theory, and with characteristic techniques extremely long term evolutions of 3D black holes are now possible. I also discuss a new code designed for 3D numerical relativity, called Cactus, that will be made public.
Simulations on 3D shape tracking with fibre Bragg gratings
Hooft 't, G.W.; Tirard-Gâtel, A.
2010-01-01
This report deals with the development of a reconstruction algorithm of 3D optical shape sensing. The theoretical frame work is established and simulations are performed for a multicore fiber system without torque.
Simulation study of MHD dynamo
Numerical simulations on the thermal convection of a neutral fluid (without the magnetic field) in a rotating spherical shell have been carried out. The results indicate that if the rotation is sufficiently rapid, the fluid results in a strong differential rotation where an equatorial acceleration is remarkable. The formation dynamics of convection columns aligned to the rotation axis is studied extensively. A new model of generation mechanism of the differential rotation is then proposed which concludes that the fluid motion generates an equatorial acceleration by selectively exciting the cyclonic columns in the spherical shell. (author)
Web 3D technology for virtual simulation for radiotherapy
Virtual Simulation of patient set-up for radiotherapy using Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs) is becoming popular because of the advantages of higher precision and flexibility in planning at a lower cost. This technology is based on 2D concepts, as the DRR is a 2D image on which beam portals are planned. Web 3D technology is an emerging concept based on true 3D objects
Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators
Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M
2003-01-01
A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.
Čillo, Vladimír
2015-01-01
Tato bakalářská práce se zabýva návrhem a implementací simulátoru 3D tiskárny v jazyce C++ s využitím knihovny Qt. Simulátor předpokládá tiskárnu založenou na nejrozšířenější metodě 3D tisku - Fused Deposition Modeling. Vstupem simulátoru je 3D model ve formátu STL. Pro daný 3D model simulátor poskytuje odhad celkové doby tisku. Součástí simulace je také vizualizace procesu 3D tisku. Výsledkem práce je přenositelný program testovaný pod operačními systémy Linux a Windows. Funkčnost simulátoru...
An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Discretization of MHD on 3D Unstructured Grids
Rieben, R N; White, D A; Wallin, B K; Solberg, J M
2006-06-12
We present an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) discretization of the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on unstructured hexahedral grids. The method is formulated using an operator-split approach with three distinct phases: electromagnetic diffusion, Lagrangian motion, and Eulerian advection. The resistive magnetic dynamo equation is discretized using a compatible mixed finite element method with a 2nd order accurate implicit time differencing scheme which preserves the divergence-free nature of the magnetic field. At each discrete time step, electromagnetic force and heat terms are calculated and coupled to the hydrodynamic equations to compute the Lagrangian motion of the conducting materials. By virtue of the compatible discretization method used, the invariants of Lagrangian MHD motion are preserved in a discrete sense. When the Lagrangian motion of the mesh causes significant distortion, that distortion is corrected with a relaxation of the mesh, followed by a 2nd order monotonic remap of the electromagnetic state variables. The remap is equivalent to Eulerian advection of the magnetic flux density with a fictitious mesh relaxation velocity. The magnetic advection is performed using a novel variant of constrained transport (CT) that is valid for unstructured hexahedral grids with arbitrary mesh velocities. The advection method maintains the divergence free nature of the magnetic field and is second order accurate in regions where the solution is sufficiently smooth. For regions in which the magnetic field is discontinuous (e.g. MHD shocks) the method is limited using a novel variant of algebraic flux correction (AFC) which is local extremum diminishing (LED) and divergence preserving. Finally, we verify each stage of the discretization via a set of numerical experiments.
3D Simulations of line emission from ICF capsules
Line emission from ICF implosions can be used to diagnose the temperature of the DT fuel and provides an indication of the distortion in the fuel-pusher interface. 2D simulations have provided valuable insights into the usefulness of argon and titanium dopants as diagnostics of instabilities. Characterizing the effects of drive asymmetries requires 3D modeling with large demands for computer time and memory, necessitating the use of parallel computers. We present the results of some 3D simulations achieved with a code utilizing both shared memory and distributed parallelism. We discuss the code structure and related performance issues
3D Fiber Orientation Simulation for Plastic Injection Molding
Lin, Baojiu; Jin, Xiaoshi; Zheng, Rong; Costa, Franco S.; Fan, Zhiliang
2004-06-01
Glass fiber reinforced polymer is widely used in the products made using injection molding processing. The distribution of fiber orientation inside plastic parts has direct effects on quality of molded parts. Using computer simulation to predict fiber orientation distribution is one of most efficient ways to assist engineers to do warpage analysis and to find a good design solution to produce high quality plastic parts. Fiber orientation simulation software based on 2-1/2D (midplane /Dual domain mesh) techniques has been used in industry for a decade. However, the 2-1/2D technique is based on the planar Hele-Shaw approximation and it is not suitable when the geometry has complex three-dimensional features which cannot be well approximated by 2D shells. Recently, a full 3D simulation software for fiber orientation has been developed and integrated into Moldflow Plastics Insight 3D simulation software. The theory for this new 3D fiber orientation calculation module is described in this paper. Several examples are also presented to show the benefit in using 3D fiber orientation simulation.
MHD Simulation of the Inner-Heliospheric Magnetic Field
Wiengarten, T; Fichtner, H; Cameron, R; Jiang, J; Kissmann, R; Scherer, K; 10.1029/2012JA018089
2013-01-01
Maps of the radial magnetic field at a heliocentric distance of ten solar radii are used as boundary conditions in the MHD code CRONOS to simulate a 3D inner-heliospheric solar wind emanating from the rotating Sun out to 1 AU. The input data for the magnetic field are the result of solar surface flux transport modelling using observational data of sunspot groups coupled with a current sheet source surface model. Amongst several advancements, this allows for higher angular resolution than that of comparable observational data from synoptic magnetograms. The required initial conditions for the other MHD quantities are obtained following an empirical approach using an inverse relation between flux tube expansion and radial solar wind speed. The computations are performed for representative solar minimum and maximum conditions, and the corresponding state of the solar wind up to the Earths orbit is obtained. After a successful comparison of the latter with observational data, they can be used to drive outer-helio...
Sunspot Modeling: From Simplified Models to Radiative MHD Simulations
Rolf Schlichenmaier
2011-09-01
Full Text Available We review our current understanding of sunspots from the scales of their fine structure to their large scale (global structure including the processes of their formation and decay. Recently, sunspot models have undergone a dramatic change. In the past, several aspects of sunspot structure have been addressed by static MHD models with parametrized energy transport. Models of sunspot fine structure have been relying heavily on strong assumptions about flow and field geometry (e.g., flux-tubes, "gaps", convective rolls, which were motivated in part by the observed filamentary structure of penumbrae or the necessity of explaining the substantial energy transport required to maintain the penumbral brightness. However, none of these models could self-consistently explain all aspects of penumbral structure (energy transport, filamentation, Evershed flow. In recent years, 3D radiative MHD simulations have been advanced dramatically to the point at which models of complete sunspots with sufficient resolution to capture sunspot fine structure are feasible. Here overturning convection is the central element responsible for energy transport, filamentation leading to fine-structure and the driving of strong outflows. On the larger scale these models are also in the progress of addressing the subsurface structure of sunspots as well as sunspot formation. With this shift in modeling capabilities and the recent advances in high resolution observations, the future research will be guided by comparing observation and theory.
Magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations
Bertrang, Gesa H -M; Wolf, Sebastian
2016-01-01
Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary disks, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to ALMA observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disk regions.
Comparison of solar photospheric bright points between SUNRISE observations and MHD simulations
Riethmüller, T L; Berdyugina, S V; Schüssler, M; Pillet, V Mart\\'\\inez; Feller, A; Gandorfer, A; Hirzberger, J
2014-01-01
Bright points (BPs) in the solar photosphere are radiative signatures of magnetic elements described by slender flux tubes located in the darker intergranular lanes. They contribute to the ultraviolet (UV) flux variations over the solar cycle and hence may influence the Earth's climate. Here we combine high-resolution UV and spectro-polarimetric observations of BPs by the SUNRISE observatory with 3D radiation MHD simulations. Full spectral line syntheses are performed with the MHD data and a careful degradation is applied to take into account all relevant instrumental effects of the observations. It is demonstrated that the MHD simulations reproduce the measured distributions of intensity at multiple wavelengths, line-of-sight velocity, spectral line width, and polarization degree rather well. Furthermore, the properties of observed BPs are compared with synthetic ones. These match also relatively well, except that the observations display a tail of large and strongly polarized BPs not found in the simulation...
MHD simulations for investigating interaction processes between a CME and ambient solar wind
An, Junmo; Magara, Tetsuya
2016-05-01
The interaction between coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and ambient solar winds is one of the important issues of space weather because it affects the trajectory of a flying CME, which determines whether the CME hits the Earth and produces geomagnetic disturbances or not. In this study, two-step 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations including a spheromak-type CME and an ambient solar wind are performed to investigate their interaction processes such as deflection and rotation of a CME. We perform the 1st-step MHD simulation using averaged surface magnetic field data to construct a steady state with an ambient solar wind. A spheromak-type CME is then injected through the solar surface, and subsequent evolution is reproduced by performing the 2nd-step MHD simulation. We discuss key parameters that characterize interaction processes between a CME and ambient solar wind.
3D Visualization and Simulation of the Human Navigation System
Hjelle, Henrik
2015-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to investigate how 3D visualizations and virtual reality can be used to make the human navigation system understandable for the general public. To do this, a 3D visualization of the human navigation systems components in the brain was created using Second Life. In addition, a simulation of how the cells in this system works was created with the same platform. These two types of visualization were used to see if they gave any learning outcome in relation to the ...
3D Simulation of Nano-Imprint Lithography
Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole
2010-01-01
A proof of concept study of the feasibility of fully three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent simulation of nano-imprint lithography of polymer melt, where the polymer is treated as a structured liquid, has been presented. Considering the flow physics of the polymer as a structured liquid, we have...... followed the line initiated by de Gennes, using a Molecular Stress Function model of the Doi and Edwards type. We have used a 3D Lagrangian Galerkin finite element methods implemented on a parallel computer architecture. In a Lagrangian techniques, the node point follows the particle movement, allowing...
Non-twist map bifurcation of drift-lines and drift-island formation in saturated 3D MHD equilibria
Pfefferle, David; Cooper, Wilfred A.; Graves, Jonathan P.
2015-11-01
Based on non-canonical perturbation theory, guiding-centre drift equations are identified as perturbed magnetic field-line equations. The topology of passing-particle orbits, called drift-lines, is completely determined by the magnetic configuration. In axisymmetric tokamak fields, drift-lines lie on shifted flux-surfaces, called drift-surfaces. Field-lines and drift-lines are subject to island structures at rational surfaces only when a non-axisymmetric component is added. The picture is different in the case of 3D saturated MHD equilibrium like the helical core associated with a non-resonant internal kink mode. In assuming nested flux-surfaces, these bifurcated states, expected for a reversed q-profile with qmin close yet above unity and conveniently obtained in VMEC, feature integrable field-lines. The helical drift-lines however become resonant with the axisymmetric component in the region of qmin and spontaneously generate drift-islands. Due to the locally reversed sheared q-profile, the drift-island structure follows the bifurcation/reconnection mechanism of non-twist maps. This result provides a theoretical interpretation of NBI fast ion helical hot-spots in Long-Lived Modes as well as snake-like impurity density accumulation in internal MHD activity.
Direct numerical simulation of 3D transitional fluid flows
Full text: For the numerical simulation of the 2D-3D transitional homogeneous and stratified incompressible viscous fluid flows, characterizing by the full Navier-Stokes equations, the splitting on physical factors method is used. The explicit hybrid finite difference scheme of the method has the following behaviors: the second order of accuracy in space, minimum scheme viscosity and dispersion, workable in wide range of Reynolds and Froude numbers and monotonicity. The efficiency of the developed numerical method and the advanced performance of the supercomputers allowed simulating 2D-3D transitional uncompressible viscous fluid flows around the bluff bodies in particular around a cylinder. By the numerical simulation of the fluid flows around 3D circular cylinder it was found that the transition to 3D regime arrives at Re>200. At 200< Re<300 the mode A with wavelength 3.5 d<λ<4.0 d (where d is the diameter of the cylinder) for 3D structures along the axis of a cylinder was observed. At 300< Re<400 the mode B with wavelength 0.8 d<λ<0.9 d was observed. At Re=300 the both modes A and B were observed simultaneously. The regime with large dislocations previously discovered experimentally was first obtained numerically at 210< Re<260. This regime is characterized by flow phase dislocation along the axis of the cylinder and as the effect by the amplitude fall of the lift force coefficient and the variations in the drag coefficient. There was simulated numerically the initiation of the attached internal waves behind the circular cylinder and upstream disturbance area at low Froude and moderate Reynolds numbers. (author)
APROS 3-D core models for simulators and plant analyzers
The 3-D core models of APROS simulation environment can be used in simulator and plant analyzer applications, as well as in safety analysis. The key feature of APROS models is that the same physical models can be used in all applications. For three-dimensional reactor cores the APROS models cover both quadratic BWR and PWR cores and the hexagonal lattice VVER-type cores. In APROS environment the user can select the number of flow channels in the core and either five- or six-equation thermal hydraulic model for these channels. The thermal hydraulic model and the channel description have a decisive effect on the calculation time of the 3-D core model and thus just these selection make at present the major difference between a safety analysis model and a training simulator model. The paper presents examples of various types of 3-D LWR-type core descriptions for simulator and plant analyzer use and discusses the differences of calculation speed and physical results between a typical safety analysis model description and a real-time simulator model description in transients. (author)
3D simulation of CANDU reactor regulating system
Present paper shows the evaluation of the performance of the 3-D modal synthesis based reactor kinetic model in a closed-loop environment in a MATLAB/SIMULINK based Reactor Regulating System (RRS) simulation platform. A notable advantage of the 3-D model is the level of details that it can reveal as compared to the coupled point kinetic model. Using the developed RRS simulation platform, the reactor internal behaviours can be revealed during load-following tests. The test results are also benchmarked against measurements from an existing (CANDU) power plant. It can be concluded that the 3-D reactor model produces more realistic view of the core neutron flux distribution, which is closer to the real plant measurements than that from a coupled point kinetic model. It is also shown that, through a vectorization process, the computational load of the 3-D model is comparable with that of the 14-zone coupled point kinetic model. Furthermore, the developed Graphical User Interface (GUI) software package for RRS implementation represents a user friendly and independent application environment for education training and industrial utilizations. (authors)
3D simulation of coaxial carbon nanotube field effect transistor
We provide a model of coaxial CNTFET geometry. Coaxial devices are of special interest because their geometry allows for better electrostatics. We explore the possibilities of using non-equilibrium Green's function method to get I-V characteristics for CNTFETs. This simulator also includes a graphic user interface (GUI) of Matlab. We review the capabilities of the simulator, and give examples of typical CNTFET's 3D simulations (current-voltage characteristics are a function of parameters such as the length of CNTFET, gate thickness and temperature). The obtained I-V characteristics of the CNTFET are also presented by analytical equations.
Fast 3D stereo flood simulations in urban areas
Hoes, O.; de Haan, G.; Stelling, G.; van Leeuwen, E.; van Dam, A.; Pleumeekers, O.; Schuurmans, W.
2012-04-01
Flood propagation models are essential to study floods as it is problematic to collect data during actual floods. Moreover, models are needed to explore the consequences of additional scenarios above the actual flood itself. The results of these model studies are generally graphs with water levels over time for certain locations or maps with the flood extent in an area for different return periods. A main difficulty with these depictions of flood information is that they do not reflect the seriousness of flood impacts well in terms of life-like human experience. Typically, one needs a (near) flood before measures are implemented. Apparently, a graph or map is not the proper material to convince politicians and policy makers, even if they live in the threatened area. The recent introduction of commercially available 3D stereo projectors and high resolution elevation data make it possible to build life-like visualizations of simulations. In our research we explored using 3D stereo, the recently collected elevation data of the Netherlands (20 laser points per m2!) in combination with aerial photographs, and a new fast 2D flood propagation calculation scheme. This scheme (under construction) is able to simulate floods using such high amounts of data points. The model simulates flood propagation on an irregular grid; at locations with large elevation differences (e.g. in urban areas) and fast flowing water, smaller cells are used compared to flat surfaces where the water is not or hardly flowing. The result of our combination is a very detailed flood simulation model that can be used to simulate floods within a fraction of the current calculation time. The opportunities of models and their results increase enormously with fast calculations and visualizations combined. For example, the model allows on the spot exploration of measures during a flood, with the 3D visualization ensuring that flood impacts become clear for decision makers. We will show the preliminary
A FLOSS Visual EM Simulator for 3D Antennas
Koutsos, Christos A; Zimourtopoulos, Petros E
2010-01-01
This paper introduces the FLOSS Free Libre Open Source Software [VEMSA3D], a contraction of "Visual Electromagnetic Simulator for 3D Antennas", which are geometrically modeled, either exactly or approximately, as thin wire polygonal structures; presents its GUI Graphical User Interface capabilities, in interactive mode and/or in handling suitable formed antenna data files; demonstrates the effectiveness of its use in a number of practical antenna applications, with direct comparison to experimental measurements and other freeware results; and provides the inexperienced user with a specific list of instructions to successfully build the given source code by using only freely available IDE Integrated Development Environment tools-including a cross-platform one. The unrestricted access to source code, beyond the ability for immediate software improvement, offers to independent users and volunteer groups an expandable, in any way, visual antenna simulator, for a genuine research and development work in the field ...
Comparative visual analysis of 3D urban wind simulations
Röber, Niklas; Salim, Mohamed; Grawe, David; Leitl, Bernd; Böttinger, Michael; Schlünzen, Heinke
2016-04-01
Climate simulations are conducted in large quantity for a variety of different applications. Many of these simulations focus on global developments and study the Earth's climate system using a coupled atmosphere ocean model. Other simulations are performed on much smaller regional scales, to study very small fine grained climatic effects. These microscale climate simulations pose similar, yet also different, challenges for the visualization and the analysis of the simulation data. Modern interactive visualization and data analysis techniques are very powerful tools to assist the researcher in answering and communicating complex research questions. This presentation discusses comparative visualization for several different wind simulations, which were created using the microscale climate model MITRAS. The simulations differ in wind direction and speed, but are all centered on the same simulation domain: An area of Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg that hosted the IGA/IBA exhibition in 2013. The experiments contain a scenario case to analyze the effects of single buildings, as well as examine the impact of the Coriolis force within the simulation. The scenario case is additionally compared with real measurements from a wind tunnel experiment to ascertain the accuracy of the simulation and the model itself. We also compare different approaches for tree modeling and evaluate the stability of the model. In this presentation, we describe not only our workflow to efficiently and effectively visualize microscale climate simulation data using common 3D visualization and data analysis techniques, but also discuss how to compare variations of a simulation and how to highlight the subtle differences in between them. For the visualizations we use a range of different 3D tools that feature techniques for statistical data analysis, data selection, as well as linking and brushing.
NECTAR: Simulation and Visualization in a 3D Collaborative Environment
Law, Y.W.; Chan, K. Y.
2002-01-01
For simulation and visualization in a 3D collaborative environment, an architecture called the Nanyang Experimental CollaboraTive ARchitecture (NECTAR) has been developed. The objective is to support multi-user collaboration in a virtual environment with an emphasis on cost-effectiveness and interoperability. The architecture is based on the modular decomposition of a virtual environment system into three basic components: the graphics engine, the user interaction engine, and the networking e...
Behaviour of magnetic islands in 3D MHD equilibria of helical devices
Magnetic island formation in 3D finite-β equilibria in the H-1 Heliac is studied by using the HINT code. It is found that the size of a dangerous island should increase with β but that destruction of the equilibrium at low β is avoided because the rotational transform evolves to exclude the rational surface concerned. At higher β there is evidence of near-resonant flux surface deformations which may lead to an equilibrium limit. A reconnected equilibrium at still higher β exhibits a double island structure which is similar to homoclinic phase portraits which have been observed after separatrix reconnection in Hamiltonian systems. The physical mechanisms of island formation in finite-β helical equilibria have been investigated. The HINT code predicts that the global effect to the Pfirsch-Schlueter currents can lead to self-healing of magnetic islands independent of whether or not the plasma is stable to resistive interchange modes. This result has been compared with the predictions of a boundary-layer analysis which has been extended to consider configurations with islands in the vacuum magnetic field. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig
3D simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation model
Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing
2014-12-01
We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) model with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed dynamically in the form of a three-dimensional (3D) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded dynamically. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.
Applications of Wavelets in 3-D Audio Simulation
无
2000-01-01
Wavelet has been used as a powerful tool in the signal processing and function approx imation recently. This paper presents the application of wavelets for solving two key problems in 3-1 audio simulation. First, we employ discrete wavelet transform (DWT) combined with vector quantisation (VQ) to compress audio data in order to reduce tremendous redundant data storage and transmission times. Secondly, we use wavelets as the activation functions in neural networks called feed-forward wavelet networks to approach auditory localisation information cues (head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are used here). The experimental results demonstrate that the applica tion of wavelets is more efficientand useful in 3-D audio simulation.
The flare position obtained from MHD simulation and comparison with X-ray observations
Podgorny, Alexander; Podgorny, Igor
It was for the first time shown that the position of the current sheet, obtained by numerical MHD simulation, coincides with the position of the thermal X-ray source. In our 3D MHD simulation we do not use any hypotheses about the flare mechanism. Several mechanisms of solar flare production are considered by different authors. Usually the initial conditions at numerical simulation are artificially set such a way that it is required for development of the proposed mechanism. In this approach, the unstable configuration of the magnetic field is set as the initial conditions, and the possibility of forming such an unstable system at the real evolution of the active region before the flare is not considered. Here the flare mechanism is obtained from the numerical MHD simulations in which all the conditions are taken from observations in the active region. It is shown that flare energy accumulation occurs in the current sheet magnetic field created by disturbances focusing in the vicinity of an X-type singular line. According to the developed solar flare electrodynamical model the thermal X-ray emission source appears in a current sheet, where plasma is heated due to magnetic field dissipation. Using 3D MHD numerical simulation the position of source of thermal X-ray emission are found for the flare occurred May 27, 2003 at 02:53. To find positions of sources of thermal X-ray radiation in the corona from MHD simulation results the graphical system is developed. The comparison with RHESSI X-ray observations show the coincidence of current sheet and observed the thermal X-ray emission source.
无
2011-01-01
Direct simulation of 3-D MHD(magnetohydrodynamics) flows in liquid metal fusion blanket with flow channel insert(FCI) has been conducted.Two kinds of pressure equilibrium slot (PES) in FCI,which are used to balance the pressure difference between the inside and outside of FCI,are considered with a slot in Hartmann wall or a slot in side wall,respectively.The velocity and pressure distribution of FCI made of SiC/SiC_f are numerically studied to illustrate the 3-D MHD flow effects,which clearly show that t...
Gyro-particle, gyro-reduced-MHD, and hybrid simulation of internal kink modes
The collision less reconnection process in Tokamaks due to the nonlinear development of m=1 (poloidal mode number) and n=1 (toroidal mode number) kinetic internal kink mode is simulated by the gyro-particle code (GYR3D), the gyro-reduced MHD code (GRM3D-2F), and the particle-fluid hybrid code (Hybrid3D). These codes are based on the nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson-Ampere system and have exact energy invariance. GYR3D is a three-dimensional gyrokinetic magneto-inductive particle code with δf method. GRM3D-2F is a two-field and two-fluid model including the effects of electron inertia and the perturbed electron pressure gradients along the magnetic field. In Hybrid3D, electrons are treated as fluid, while ions are treated as particles. The results of these three codes agreed very well. We believe that the better understanding of the physics associated with the kinetic MHD phenomena in Tokamaks will be achieved by executing simultaneously these codes. (author)
3D simulation of plant and living tissue superficial lesions
Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Sindyaeva, Alexandra R.; Zakharov, Valery P.
2008-06-01
The analytic schemes of calculated absorbed and scattered radiation spatial distribution in multilayer plant and living tissues and diagnostic of their physical state are presented. The correct realization of these tasks was obtained with 3D Monte Carlo simulation of optical radiation propagation through multiple scattering medium in TracePro environment. Analysis of simulation data was made by differential backscattering method, which allows to investigate general backscattered radiation dependences on optical and geometrical parameters of living tissue. It was shown that obtained results formed the basis for developing an algorithm of optical superficial inhomogeneous registration and spatial localization. Such diagnosis can be executed in tissues of any arbitrary surface structure. Designed scheme is intended to utilize in contactless macro diagnostics device. The same approach was used for simulation of optical spectra of healthy and diseased virtual leaves for plant tissue pathological changes revealing.
Simulation of current generation in a 3-D plasma model
Two wires carrying current in the same direction will attract each other, and two wires carrying current in the opposite direction will repel each other. Now, consider a test charge in a plasma. If the test charge carries current parallel to the plasma, then it will be pulled toward the plasma core, and if the test charge carries current anti-parallel to the plasma, then it will be pushed to the edge. The electromagnetic coupling between the plasma and a test charge (i.e., the Aparallel circ vparallel term in the test charge's Hamiltonian) breaks the symmetry in the parallel direction, and gives rise to a diffusion coefficient which is dependent on the particle's parallel velocity. This is the basis for the open-quotes preferential lossclose quotes mechanism described in the work by Nunan et al. In our previous 2+1/2 D work, in both cylindrical and toroidal geometries, showed that if the plasma column is centrally fueled, then an initial current increases steadily. The results in straight, cylindrical plasmas showed that self generated parallel current arises without trapped particle or neoclassical diffusion, as assumed by the bootstrap theory. It suggests that the fundamental mechanism seems to be the conservation of particles canonical momenta in the direction of the ignorable coordinate. We have extended the simulation to 3D to verify the model put forth. A scalable 3D EM-PIC code, with a localized field-solver, has been implemented to run on a large class of parallel computers. On the 512-node SP2 at Cornell Theory Center, we have benchmarked the 2+1/2 D calculations using 32 grids in the previously ignored direction, and a 100-fold increase in the number of particles. Our preliminary results show good agreements between the 2+1/2 D and the 3D calculations. We will present our 3D results at the meeting
Cooper, W. A.; Graves, J. P.; Duval, B. P.; Porte, L.; Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Tran, T.-M.
2015-12-01
> Novel free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three-dimensional (3-D) deformations of the plasma-vacuum interface are computed. The structures obtained look like saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. Large edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number distortions when the edge bootstrap current is large and higher corrugations when this current is small. Linear ideal MHD stability analyses confirm the nonlinear saturated ideal kink equilibrium states produced and we can identify the Pfirsch-Schlüter current as the main linear instability driving mechanism when the edge pressure gradient is large. The dominant non-axisymmetric component of this Pfirsch-Schlüter current drives a near resonant helical parallel current density ribbon that aligns with the near vanishing magnetic shear region caused by the edge bootstrap current. This current ribbon is a manifestation of the outer mode previously found on JET (Solano 2010). We claim that the equilibrium corrugations describe structures that are commonly observed in quiescent H-mode tokamak discharges.
3D TCAD Simulation for Semiconductor Processes, Devices and Optoelectronics
Li, Simon
2012-01-01
Technology computer-aided design, or TCAD, is critical to today’s semiconductor technology and anybody working in this industry needs to know something about TCAD. This book is about how to use computer software to manufacture and test virtually semiconductor devices in 3D. It brings to life the topic of semiconductor device physics, with a hands-on, tutorial approach that de-emphasizes abstract physics and equations and emphasizes real practice and extensive illustrations. Coverage includes a comprehensive library of devices, representing the state of the art technology, such as SuperJunction LDMOS, GaN LED devices, etc. Provides a vivid, internal view of semiconductor devices, through 3D TCAD simulation; Includes comprehensive coverage of TCAD simulations for both optic and electronic devices, from nano-scale to high-voltage high-power devices; Presents material in a hands-on, tutorial fashion so that industry practitioners will find maximum utility; Includes a comprehensive library of devices, re...
Simulations of Gyrosynchrotron Microwave Emission from an Oscillating 3D Magnetic Loop
Kuznetsov, Alexey; Reznikova, Veronika
2015-01-01
Radio observations of solar flares often reveal various periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations. Most likely, these oscillations are caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations of flaring loops which modulate the emission. Interpretation of the observations requires comparing them with simulations. We simulate the gyrosynchrotron radio emission from a semi-circular (toroidal-shaped) magnetic loop containing sausage-mode MHD oscillations. The aim is to detect the observable signatures specific to the considered MHD mode and to study their dependence on the various source parameters. The MHD waves are simulated using a linear three-dimensional model of a magnetized plasma cylinder; both standing and propagating waves are considered. The curved loop is formed by replicating the MHD solutions along the plasma cylinder and bending the cylinder; this model allows us to study the effect of varying the viewing angle along the loop. The radio emission is simulated using a three-dimensional model and its spatial a...
3D numerical simulation and analysis of railgun gouging mechanism
Jin-guo Wu
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A gouging phenomenon with a hypervelocity sliding electrical contact in railgun not only shortens the rail lifetime but also affects the interior ballistic performance. In this paper, a 3-D numerical model was introduced to simulate and analyze the generation mechanism and evolution of the rail gouging phenomenon. The results show that a rail surface bulge is an important factor to induce gouging. High density and high pressure material flow on the contact surface, obliquely extruded into the rail when accelerating the armature to a high velocity, can produce gouging. Both controlling the bulge size to a certain range and selecting suitable materials for rail surface coating will suppress the formation of gouging. The numerical simulation had a good agreement with experiments, which validated the computing model and methodology are reliable.
Coniferous Canopy BRF Simulation Based on 3-D Realistic Scene
Wang, Xin-yun; Guo, Zhi-feng; Qin, Wen-han; Sun, Guo-qing
2011-01-01
It is difficulties for the computer simulation method to study radiation regime at large-scale. Simplified coniferous model was investigate d in the present study. It makes the computer simulation methods such as L-systems and radiosity-graphics combined method (RGM) more powerf ul in remote sensing of heterogeneous coniferous forests over a large -scale region. L-systems is applied to render 3-D coniferous forest scenarios: and RGM model was used to calculate BRF (bidirectional refle ctance factor) in visible and near-infrared regions. Results in this study show that in most cases both agreed well. Meanwhiie at a tree and forest level. the results are also good.
Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation
Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.
1998-06-01
Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to
Simulated Photoevaporative Mass Loss from Hot Jupiters in 3D
Tripathi, Anjali; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Krumholz, Mark R.
2015-08-01
Ionizing stellar photons heat the upper regions of planetary atmospheres, driving atmospheric mass loss. Gas escaping from several hot, hydrogen-rich planets has been detected using UV and X-ray transmission spectroscopy. Because these planets are tidally locked, and thus asymmetrically irradiated, escaping gas is unlikely to be spherically symmetric. In this paper, we focus on the effects of asymmetric heating on local outflow structure. We use the Athena code for hydrodynamics to produce 3D simulations of hot Jupiter mass loss that jointly model wind launching and stellar heating via photoionization. Our fiducial planet is an inflated, hot Jupiter with radius {R}{{p}}=2.14{R}{Jup} and mass {M}{{p}}=0.53{M}{Jup}. We irradiate the initially neutral, atomic hydrogen atmosphere with 13.6 eV photons and compute the outflow’s ionization structure. There are clear asymmetries in the atmospheric outflow, including a neutral shadow on the planet’s nightside. Given an incident ionizing UV flux comparable to that of the Sun, we find a steady-state mass loss rate of ˜ 2× {10}10 g s-1. The total mass loss rate and the outflow substructure along the substellar ray show good agreement with earlier 1D models, for two different fluxes. Our 3D data cube can be used to generate the outflow’s extinction spectrum during transit. As a proof of concept, we find absorption of stellar Lyα at Doppler-shifted velocities of up to ±50 km s-1. Our work provides a starting point for further 3D models that can be used to predict observable signatures of hot Jupiter mass loss.
Study, simulation and design of a 3D clinostat
Pavone, Valentina; Guarnieri, Vincenzo; Lobascio, Cesare; Soma, Aurelio; Bosso, Nicola; Lamantea, Matteo Maria
High cost and limited number of physically executable experiments in space have introduced the need for ground simulation systems that enable preparing experiments to be carried out on board, identifying phenomena associated with the altered gravity conditions, and taking advantage of these conditions, as in Biotechnology. Among systems developed to simulate microgravity, especially for life sciences experiments, different types of clinostats were realized. This work deals with mechanical design of a three-dimensional clinostat and simulation of the dynamic behavior of the system by varying the operating parameters. The design and simulation phase was preceded by a careful analysis of the state of art and by the review of the most recent results, in particular from the major investigators of Life Sciences in Space. The mechanical design is quite innovative by adoption of a structure entirely in aluminum, which allows robustness while reducing the overall weight. The transmission system of motion has been optimized by means of brushless DC micro motors, light and compact, which helped to reduce weight, dimensions, power consumption and increase the reliability and durability of the system. The study of the dynamic behavior using SIMPACK, a multibody simulation software, led to results in line with those found in the most important and recent scientific publications. This model was also appropriately configured to represent any desired operating condition, and for eventual system scalability. It would be interesting to generate simulated hypogravity - e.g.: 0.38-g (Mars) or 0.17-g (Moon). This would allow to investigate how terrestrial life forms can grow in other planetary habitats, or to determine the gravity threshold response of different organisms. At the moment, such a system can only be achieved by centrifuges in real microgravity. We are confident that simulation and associated tests with our 3D clinostat can help adjusting the parameters allowing variable g
Parallel FEM simulation of 3-D crack propagation
Full text: Crack propagation simulation is an important topic in many fields, e.g., aeronautical engineering, material sciences, and geophysics. This type of simulation requires a high computational power, mainly at three-dimensional mesh generation and structural analysis steps. These steps usually spend a large amount of computing time and machine resources. The main objective of this work is to provide a fast and accurate system for crack growth simulation in three-dimensional models. The main idea of the methodology presented is to parallelize mesh generation and structural analysis procedures, and to integrate these procedures into a computational environment able to perform automatic arbitrary crack propagation. A parallel mesh generation algorithm has been developed. This algorithm is capable of generating three-dimensional meshes of tetrahedral elements in arbitrary domains with one or multiple embedded cracks. A finite element method program called FEMOOP has been adapted to implement the parallel features. The parallel strategy to solve the set of linear equations is based on an element-by-element scheme in conjunction with a gradient iterative solution. A program called FRANC3D, which is completely integrated with other components of the system, performs crack propagation and geometry updates. The entire system is described in details and a set of parallel simulations of crack propagation are presented to show the reliability of the system. Refs. 4 (author)
3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.
Ning Dai
Full Text Available Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.
Linking 1D Stellar Evolution to 3D Hydrodynamical Simulations
Cristini, Andrea; Georgy, Cyril; Meakin, Casey; Arnett, David; Viallet, Maxime
2014-01-01
In this contribution we present initial results of a study on convective boundary mixing (CBM) in massive stellar models using the GENEVA stellar evolution code. Before undertaking costly 3D hydrodynamic simulations, it is important to study the general properties of convective boundaries, such as the: composition jump; pressure gradient; and `stiffness'. Models for a 15Mo star were computed. We found that for convective shells above the core, the lower (in radius or mass) boundaries are `stiffer' according to the bulk Richardson number than the relative upper (Schwarzschild) boundaries. Thus, we expect reduced CBM at the lower boundaries in comparison to the upper. This has implications on flame front propagation and the onset of novae.
Global and Kinetic MHD Simulation by the Gpic-MHD Code
In order to implement large-scale and high-beta tokamak simulation, a new algorithm of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic PIC (particle-in-cell) code was proposed and installed on the Gpic-MHD code [Gyrokinetic PIC code for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation]. In the new algorithm, the vorticity equation and the generalized Ohm's law along the magnetic field are derived from the basic equations of the gyrokinetic Vlasov, Poisson, and Ampere system and are used to describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the field quantities of the electrostatic potential φ and the longitudinal component of the vector potential Az. The basic algorithm is equivalent to solving the reduced-MHD-type equations with kinetic corrections, in which MHD physics related to Alfven modes are well described. The estimation of perturbed electron pressure from particle dynamics is dominant, while the effects of other moments are negligible. Another advantage of the algorithm is that the longitudinal induced electric field, ETz = -∂Az/∂t, is explicitly estimated by the generalized Ohm's law and used in the equations of motion. Furthermore, the particle velocities along the magnetic field are used (vz-formulation) instead of generalized momentums (pz-formulation), hence there is no problem of ‘cancellation', which would otherwise appear when Az is estimated from the Ampere's law in the pz-formulation. The successful simulation of the collisionless internal kink mode by the new Gpic-MHD with realistic values of the large-scale and high-beta tokamaks revealed the usefulness of the new algorithm.
Extended Scaling Laws in Numerical Simulations of MHD Turbulence
Mason, Joanne; Cattaneo, Fausto; Boldyrev, Stanislav
2011-01-01
Magnetised turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical systems, where it notoriously spans a broad range of spatial scales. Phenomenological theories of MHD turbulence describe the self-similar dynamics of turbulent fluctuations in the inertial range of scales. Numerical simulations serve to guide and test these theories. However, the computational power that is currently available restricts the simulations to Reynolds numbers that are significantly smaller than those in astrophysical settings. In order to increase computational efficiency and, therefore, probe a larger range of scales, one often takes into account the fundamental anisotropy of field-guided MHD turbulence, with gradients being much slower in the field-parallel direction. The simulations are then optimised by employing the reduced MHD equations and relaxing the field-parallel numerical resolution. In this work we explore a different possibility. We propose that there exist certain quantities that are remarkably stable with respect to the Reynold...
MHD Simulations of Thermal Plasma Jets in Coaxial Plasma Accelerators
Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan
2015-09-01
The development of a magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) numerical tool to study high energy density thermal plasma in coaxial plasma accelerators is presented. The coaxial plasma accelerator is a device used simulate the conditions created at the confining wall of a thermonuclear fusion reactor during an edge localized mode (ELM) disruption event. This is achieved by creating magnetized thermal plasma in a coaxial volume which is then accelerated by the Lorentz force to form a high velocity plasma jet. The simulation tool developed solves the resistive MHD equation using a finite volume method (FVM) framework. The acceleration and subsequent demagnetization of the plasma as it travels down the length of the accelerator is simulated and shows good agreement with experiments. Additionally, a model to study the thermalization of the plasma at the inlet is being developed in order to give self-consistent initial conditions to the MHD solver.
3D Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)
Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke
2016-04-01
A 3D dynamic earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few 3D dynamic earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a 3D dynamic earthquake fracture model with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test model, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene triangulation technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM3D, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain 3D dynamic earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also
MHD simulations of three-dimensional Resistive Reconnection in a cylindrical plasma column
Striani, Edoardo; Vaidya, Bhargav; Bodo, Gianluigi; Ferrari, Attilio
2016-01-01
Magnetic reconnection is a plasma phenomenon where a topological rearrangement of magnetic field lines with opposite polarity results in dissipation of magnetic energy into heat, kinetic energy and particle acceleration. Such a phenomenon is considered as an efficient mechanism for energy release in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. An important question is how to make the process fast enough to account for observed explosive energy releases. The classical model for steady state magnetic reconnection predicts reconnection times scaling as $S^{1/2}$ (where $S$ is the Lundquist number) and yields times scales several order of magnitude larger than the observed ones. Earlier two-dimensional MHD simulations showed that for large Lundquist number the reconnection time becomes independent of $S$ ("fast reconnection" regime) due to the presence of the secondary tearing instability that takes place for $S \\gtrsim 1 \\times 10^4$. We report on our 3D MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection in a magnetically confin...
Advances in Simulation of Wave Interaction with Extended MHD Phenomena
The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: (1) recent improvements to the IPS, (2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, (3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamk discharges using IPS facilities, and (4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.
3D mapping and simulation of Geneva Lake environmental data
Villard, Roch; Maignan, Michel; Kanevski, Mikhail; Rapin, Francois; Klein, Audrey
2010-05-01
The Geneva Lake is the biggest alpine and subalpine lake in central Europe. The depth of this lake is 309 meters and its total volume of water is 89 billions m3. It takes, on average, around twelve years so that waters of the lake are completely brewed. Furthermore the Geneva lake waters are rich in dissolved substances as carbonate, sulfate. The quantity of particles in suspension in the lake, which mainly arrived from the Rhône, is nowadays around height million of tones. The International Commission for the Leman Lake (CIPEL) works about the improvement of the quality of this lake since 1962. In the present study three dimensional environmental data (temperature, oxygen and nitrate) which cover the period from 1954 to 2008, for a total of 27'500 cases are investigated. We are interested to study the evolution of the temperature of the lake because there is an impact on the reproduction of fishes and also because the winter brewing of the water makes the re-oxygenation of deep-water. In order that biological balance is maintained in a lake, there must be enough oxygen in the water. Moreover, we work on nitrate distribution and evolution because contributions in fertilizers cause eutrophication of lake. The data are very numerous when we consider the time series, some of them with more than 300 occurrences, but there are between 2 and 15 data available for spatial cartography. The basic methodology used for the analysis, mapping and simulations of 3D patterns of environmental data is based on geostatistical predictions (family of kriging models) and conditional stochastic simulations. Spatial and temporal variability, 3D monitoring networks changing over time, make this study challenging. An important problem is also to make interpolation/simulations over a long period of time, like ten years. One way used to overcome this problem, consists in using a weighted average of ten variograms during this period. 3D mapping was carried out using environment data for
Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation
Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott
1992-06-01
Recent developments in virtual 3D audio and synthetic aural environments have produced a complex acoustical room simulation. The acoustical simulation models a room with walls, ceiling, and floor of selected sound reflecting/absorbing characteristics and unlimited independent localizable sound sources. This non-visual acoustic simulation, implemented with 4 audio ConvolvotronsTM by Crystal River Engineering and coupled to the listener with a Poihemus IsotrakTM, tracking the listener's head position and orientation, and stereo headphones returning binaural sound, is quite compelling to most listeners with eyes closed. This immersive effect should be reinforced when properly integrated into a full, multi-sensory virtual environment presentation. This paper discusses the design of an interactive, visual virtual environment, complementing the acoustic model and specified to: 1) allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; 2) reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence into the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; 3) enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and 4) serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations. The installed system implements a head-coupled, wide-angle, stereo-optic tracker/viewer and multi-computer simulation control. The portable demonstration system implements a head-mounted wide-angle, stereo-optic display, separate head and pointer electro-magnetic position trackers, a heterogeneous parallel graphics processing system, and object oriented C++ program code.
Plasma environment of Titan: a 3-D hybrid simulation study
S. Simon
2006-05-01
Full Text Available Titan possesses a dense atmosphere, consisting mainly of molecular nitrogen. Titan's orbit is located within the Saturnian magnetosphere most of the time, where the corotating plasma flow is super-Alfvénic, yet subsonic and submagnetosonic. Since Titan does not possess a significant intrinsic magnetic field, the incident plasma interacts directly with the atmosphere and ionosphere. Due to the characteristic length scales of the interaction region being comparable to the ion gyroradii in the vicinity of Titan, magnetohydrodynamic models can only offer a rough description of Titan's interaction with the corotating magnetospheric plasma flow. For this reason, Titan's plasma environment has been studied by using a 3-D hybrid simulation code, treating the electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas a completely kinetic approach is used to cover ion dynamics. The calculations are performed on a curvilinear simulation grid which is adapted to the spherical geometry of the obstacle. In the model, Titan's dayside ionosphere is mainly generated by solar UV radiation; hence, the local ion production rate depends on the solar zenith angle. Because the Titan interaction features the possibility of having the densest ionosphere located on a face not aligned with the ram flow of the magnetospheric plasma, a variety of different scenarios can be studied. The simulations show the formation of a strong magnetic draping pattern and an extended pick-up region, being highly asymmetric with respect to the direction of the convective electric field. In general, the mechanism giving rise to these structures exhibits similarities to the interaction of the ionospheres of Mars and Venus with the supersonic solar wind. The simulation results are in agreement with data from recent Cassini flybys.
Yan, X.; Cai, D.; Nishikawa, K.; Lembege, B.
2004-12-01
We made our efforts to parallelize the global 3D HPF Electromagnetic particle model (EMPM) for several years and have also reported our meaningful simulation results that revealed the essential physics involved in interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere using this EMPM (Nishikawa et al., 1995; Nishikawa, 1997, 1998a, b, 2001, 2002) in our PC cluster and supercomputer(D.S. Cai et al., 2001, 2003). Sash patterns and related phenomena have been observed and reported in some satellite observations (Fujumoto et al. 1997; Maynard, 2001), and have motivated 3D MHD simulations (White and al., 1998). We also investigated it with our global 3D parallelized HPF EMPM with dawnward IMF By (K.-I. Nishikawa, 1998) and recently new simulation with dusk-ward IMF By was accomplished in the new VPP5000 supercomputer. In the new simulations performed on the new VPP5000 supercomputer of Tsukuba University, we used larger domain size, 305×205×205, smaller grid size (Δ ), 0.5R E(the radium of the Earth), more total particle number, 220,000,000 (about 8 pairs per cell). At first, we run this code until we get the so-called quasi-stationary status; After the quasi-stationary status was established, we applied a northward IMF (B z=0.2), and then wait until the IMF arrives around the magnetopuase. After the arrival of IMF, we begin to change the IMF from northward to duskward (IMF B y=-0.2). The results revealed that the groove structure at the day-side magnetopause, that causes particle entry into inner magnetosphere and the cross structure or S-structure at near magneto-tail are formed. Moreover, in contrast with MHD simulations, kinetic characteristic of this event is also analyzed self-consistently with this simulation. The new simulation provides new and more detailed insights for the observed sash event.
Simulations of soluble surfactants in 3D multiphase flow
Muradoglu, Metin; Tryggvason, Gretar
2014-10-01
A finite-difference/front-tracking method is developed for simulations of soluble surfactants in 3D multiphase flows. The interfacial and bulk surfactant concentration evolution equations are solved fully coupled with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A non-linear equation of state is used to relate interfacial surface tension to surfactant concentration at the interface. Simple test cases are designed to validate different parts of the numerical algorithm and the computational results are found to be in a good agreement with the analytical solutions. The numerical algorithm is parallelized using a domain-decomposition method. It is then applied to study the effects of soluble surfactants on the motion of buoyancy-driven bubbles in a straight square channel in nearly undeformable (spherical) and deformable (ellipsoidal) regimes. Finally the method is used to examine the effects of soluble surfactants on the lateral migration of bubbles in a pressure-driven channel flow. It is found that surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses counteract the shear-induced lift force and can reverse the lateral bubble migration completely, i.e., the contaminated bubble drifts away from the channel wall and stabilizes at the center of the channel when the surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses are sufficiently large.
Simulated Photoevaporative Mass Loss from Hot Jupiters in 3D
Tripathi, Anjali; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Krumholz, Mark R
2015-01-01
Ionizing stellar photons heat the upper regions of planetary atmospheres, driving atmospheric mass loss. Gas escaping from several hot, hydrogen-rich planets has been detected using UV and X-ray transmission spectroscopy. Because these planets are tidally locked, and thus asymmetrically irradiated, escaping gas is unlikely to be spherically symmetric. In this paper, we focus on the effects of asymmetric heating on local outflow structure. We use the Athena code for hydrodynamics to produce 3D simulations of hot Jupiter mass loss that jointly model wind launching and stellar heating via photoionization. Our fiducial planet is an inflated, hot Jupiter with radius $R_p=2.14 R_{\\rm Jup}$ and mass $M_p = 0.53 M_{\\rm Jup}$. We irradiate the initially neutral, atomic hydrogen atmosphere with 13.6 eV photons and compute the outflow's ionization structure. There are clear asymmetries in the atmospheric outflow, including a neutral shadow on the planet's nightside. Given an incident ionizing UV flux comparable to that ...
3-D simulation of posterior fossa reduction in Chiari I
Yvens Barbosa Fernandes
2016-05-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT We proposed a 3D model to evaluate the role of platybasia and clivus length in the development of Chiari I (CI. Using a computer aided design software, two DICOM files of a normal CT scan and MR were used to simulate different clivus lengths (CL and also different basal angles (BA. The final posterior fossa volume (PFV was obtained for each variation and the percentage of the volumetric change was acquired with the same method. The initial normal values of CL and BA were 35.65 mm and 112.66º respectively, with a total PFV of 209 ml. Ranging the CL from 34.65 to 29.65 – 24.65 – 19.65, there was a PFV decrease of 0.47% – 1.12% – 1.69%, respectively. Ranging the BA from 122.66º to 127.66º – 142.66º, the PFV decreased 0.69% – 3.23%, respectively. Our model highlights the importance of the basal angle and clivus length to the development of CI.
3-D simulation of posterior fossa reduction in Chiari I.
Fernandes, Yvens Barbosa; Perestrelo, Pedro Fábio Mendonça; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Mathias, Roger Neves; Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes da; Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes
2016-05-01
We proposed a 3D model to evaluate the role of platybasia and clivus length in the development of Chiari I (CI). Using a computer aided design software, two DICOM files of a normal CT scan and MR were used to simulate different clivus lengths (CL) and also different basal angles (BA). The final posterior fossa volume (PFV) was obtained for each variation and the percentage of the volumetric change was acquired with the same method. The initial normal values of CL and BA were 35.65 mm and 112.66º respectively, with a total PFV of 209 ml. Ranging the CL from 34.65 to 29.65 - 24.65 - 19.65, there was a PFV decrease of 0.47% - 1.12% - 1.69%, respectively. Ranging the BA from 122.66º to 127.66º - 142.66º, the PFV decreased 0.69% - 3.23%, respectively. Our model highlights the importance of the basal angle and clivus length to the development of CI. PMID:27191237
Transient simulations in WWER-1000-comparison between DYN3D-ATHLET and DYN3D-RELAP5
Simulations of a real transient of an operating WWER-1000 power plant have been performed using DYN3D-ATHLET (Gru95) and DYN3D-RELAP5 (Koy01) code systems in the frame of activities aimed at a validation of the neutronic / thermal-hydraulic coupled codes. The transient initiated by a main coolant pump switching off, when three of the four main coolant pumps of the plant are in operation (scenario of the VALCO project) is chosen for the simulation. The same models of the plant (except the core nodalization) but two different libraries of macroscopic cross-sections have been used in compared calculations. Additionally, the compared code systems are based on the different / external and internal / coupling techniques. This paper contains a brief description of the coupled codes and the plant model as well as a comparison between the results from simulations (Authors)
Lattice Boltzmann Large Eddy Simulation Model of MHD
Flint, Christopher
2016-01-01
The work of Ansumali \\textit{et al.}\\cite{Ansumali} is extended to Two Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in which energy is cascaded to small spatial scales and thus requires subgrid modeling. Applying large eddy simulation (LES) modeling of the macroscopic fluid equations results in the need to apply ad-hoc closure schemes. LES is applied to a suitable mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann representation from which one can recover the MHD equations in the long wavelength, long time scale Chapman-Enskog limit (i.e., the Knudsen limit). Thus on first performing filter width expansions on the lattice Boltzmann equations followed by the standard small Knudsen expansion on the filtered lattice Boltzmann system results in a closed set of MHD turbulence equations provided we enforce the physical constraint that the subgrid effects first enter the dynamics at the transport time scales. In particular, a multi-time relaxation collision operator is considered for the density distribution function and a single rel...
Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S T; Hu, Qiang
2012-01-01
We apply a data-driven MHD model to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field of NOAA active region (AR) 11117 around the time of a C-class confined flare occurred on 2010 October 25. The MHD model, based on the spacetime conservation-element and solution-element (CESE) scheme, is designed to focus on the magnetic-field evolution and to consider a simplified solar atomsphere with finite plasma $\\beta$. Magnetic vector-field data derived from the observations at the photoshpere is inputted directly to constrain the model. Assuming that the dynamic evolution of the coronal magnetic field can be approximated by successive equilibria, we solve a time sequence of MHD equilibria basing on a set of vector magnetograms for AR 11117 taken by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the {\\it Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO)} around the time of flare. The model qualitatively reproduces the basic structures of the 3D magnetic field, as supported by the visual similarity between the field lines and t...
HPC parallel programming model for gyrokinetic MHD simulation
The 3-dimensional gyrokinetic PIC (particle-in-cell) code for MHD simulation, Gpic-MHD, was installed on SR16000 (“Plasma Simulator”), which is a scalar cluster system consisting of 8,192 logical cores. The Gpic-MHD code advances particle and field quantities in time. In order to distribute calculations over large number of logical cores, the total simulation domain in cylindrical geometry was broken up into NDD-r × NDD-z (number of radial decomposition times number of axial decomposition) small domains including approximately the same number of particles. The axial direction was uniformly decomposed, while the radial direction was non-uniformly decomposed. NRP replicas (copies) of each decomposed domain were used (“particle decomposition”). The hybrid parallelization model of multi-threads and multi-processes was employed: threads were parallelized by the auto-parallelization and NDD-r × NDD-z × NRP processes were parallelized by MPI (message-passing interface). The parallelization performance of Gpic-MHD was investigated for the medium size system of Nr × Nθ × Nz = 1025 × 128 × 128 mesh with 4.196 or 8.192 billion particles. The highest speed for the fixed number of logical cores was obtained for two threads, the maximum number of NDD-z, and optimum combination of NDD-r and NRP. The observed optimum speeds demonstrated good scaling up to 8,192 logical cores. (author)
Interdisciplinary Collaboration through Designing 3D Simulation Case Studies
Bai, Xin; 10.5121/ijma.2011.3109
2011-01-01
Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for the advance of research. As domain subjects become more and more specialized, researchers need to cross disciplines for insights from peers in other areas to have a broader and deeper understand of a topic at micro- and macro-levels. We developed a 3D virtual learning environment that served as a platform for faculty to plan curriculum, share educational beliefs, and conduct cross-discipline research for effective learning. Based upon the scripts designed by faculty from five disciplines, virtual doctors, nurses, or patients interact in a 3D virtual hospital. The teaching vignettes were then converted to video clips, allowing users to view, pause, replay, or comment on the videos individually or in groups. Unlike many existing platforms, we anticipated a value-added by adding a social networking capacity to this virtual environment. The focus of this paper is on the cost-efficiency and system design of the virtual learning environment.
Interdisciplinary Collaboration through Designing 3D Simulation Case Studies
Xin Bai
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for the advance of research. As domain subjects become more and more specialized, researchers need to cross disciplines for insights from peers in other areas to have a broader and deeper understand of a topic at micro- and macro-levels. We developed a 3D virtual learning environment that served as a platform for faculty to plan curriculum, share educational beliefs, and conduct cross-discipline research for effective learning. Based upon the scripts designed by faculty from five disciplines, virtual doctors, nurses, or patients interact in a 3D virtual hospital. The teaching vignettes were then converted to video clips, allowing users to view, pause, replay, or comment on the videos individually or in groups. Unlike many existing platforms, we anticipated a value-added by adding a social networking capacity to this virtual environment. The focus of this paper is on the cost-efficiency and system design of the virtual learning environment.
Interdisciplinary Collaboration through Designing 3D Simulation Case Studies
Xin Bai
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for the advance of research. As domain subjects become more and more specialized, researchers need to cross disciplines for insights from peers in other areas to have a broader and deeper understand of a topic at micro- and macro-levels. We developed a 3D virtual learning environment that served as a platform for faculty to plan curriculum, share educational beliefs,and conduct cross-discipline research for effective learning. Based upon the scripts designed by facultyfrom five disciplines, virtual doctors, nurses, or patients interact in a 3D virtual hospital. The teaching vignettes were then converted to video clips, allowing users to view, pause, replay, or comment on the videos individually or in groups. Unlike many existing platforms, we anticipated a value-added by adding a social networking capacity to this virtual environment. The focus of this paper is on the cost-efficiency and system design of the virtual learning environment.
Towards the 3D Web with Open Simulator
Oliver, Iain Angus; Miller, Alan Henry David; Allison, Colin; Kennedy, Sarah Elizabeth; Dow, Lisa; Campbell, Anne; Davies, Christopher John; McCaffery, John Philip
2013-01-01
Continuing advances and reduced costs in computational power, graphics processors and network bandwidth have led to 3D immersive multi-user virtual worlds becoming increasingly accessible while offering an improved and engaging Quality of Experience. At the same time the functionality of the World Wide Web continues to expand alongside the computing infrastructure it runs on and pages can now routinely accommodate many forms of interactive multimedia components as standard features - streamin...
3D interactive visualization of crowd simulations at urban scale
Fanini, Bruno; Calori, Luigi
2014-01-01
Digital representations of the urban environment have constantly increased their complexity: starting from fixed chunks of 2D segment depicting the building base to complex data-sets comprising several layer of information such as multi-resolution GIS data combined with on field 3D data acquisition. Cities in particular and urban development in general emerge from the bottom up, so crowd is an essential part of the city environment but it is often absent from most of the intera...
DREAM3D simulations of inner-belt dynamics
Cunningham, Gregory Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-05-26
A 1973 paper by Lyons and Thorne explains the two-belt structure for electrons in the inner magnetosphere as a balance between inward radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere, where the loss to the atmosphere is enabled by pitch-angle scattering from Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. In the 1973 paper, equilibrium solutions to a decoupled set of 1D radial diffusion equations, one for each value of the first invariant of motion, μ, were computed to produce the equilibrium two-belt structure. Each 1D radial diffusion equation incorporated an L-and μ-dependent `lifetime' due to the Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. This decoupling of the problem is appropriate under the assumption that radial diffusion is slow in comparison to pitch-angle scattering. However, for some values of μ and L the lifetime associated with pitch-angle scattering is comparable to the timescale associated with radial diffusion, suggesting that the true equilibrium solutions might reflect `coupled modes' involving pitch-angle scattering and radial diffusion and thus requiring a 3D diffusion model. In the work we show here, we have computed the equilibrium solutions using our 3D diffusion model, DREAM3D, that allows for such coupling. We find that the 3D equilibrium solutions are quite similar to the solutions shown in the 1973 paper when we use the same physical models for radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering from hiss. However, we show that the equilibrium solutions are quite sensitive to various aspects of the physics model employed in the 1973 paper that can be improved, suggesting that additional work needs to be done to understand the two-belt structure.
Using 3-D Numerical Weather Data in Piloted Simulations
Daniels, Taumi S.
2016-01-01
This report describes the process of acquiring and using 3-D numerical model weather data sets in NASA Langley's Research Flight Deck (RFD). A set of software tools implement the process and can be used for other purposes as well. Given time and location information of a weather phenomenon of interest, the user can download associated numerical weather model data. These data are created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model, and are then processed using a set of Mathworks' Matlab(TradeMark) scripts to create the usable 3-D weather data sets. Each data set includes radar re ectivity, water vapor, component winds, temperature, supercooled liquid water, turbulence, pressure, altitude, land elevation, relative humidity, and water phases. An open-source data processing program, wgrib2, is available from NOAA online, and is used along with Matlab scripts. These scripts are described with sucient detail to make future modi cations. These software tools have been used to generate 3-D weather data for various RFD experiments.
One year in the Earth's magnetosphere: A global MHD simulation and spacecraft measurements
Facsko, G; Zivkovic, T; Palin, L; Kallio, E; Agren, K; Opgenoorth, H; Tanskanen, E I; Milan, S E
2016-01-01
The response of the Earth's magnetosphere to changing solar wind conditions are studied with a 3D Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. One full year (155 Cluster orbits) of the Earth's magnetosphere is simulated using Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling simulation (GUMICS-4) magnetohydrodynamic code. Real solar wind measurements are given to the code as input to create the longest lasting global magnetohydrodynamics simulation to date. The applicability of the results of the simulation depends critically on the input parameters used in the model. Therefore, the validity and the variance of the OMNIWeb data is first investigated thoroughly using Cluster measurement close to the bow shock. The OMNIWeb and the Cluster data were found to correlate very well before the bow shock. The solar wind magnetic field and plasma parameters are not changed significantly from the $L_1$ Lagrange point to the foreshock, therefore the OMNIWeb data is appropriate input to the GUMICS-4. The Cluster SC3 footprints are dete...
Evidence of active MHD instability in EULAG-MHD simulations of solar convection
Lawson, N; Charbonneau, P
2015-01-01
We investigate the possible development of magnetohydrodynamical instabilities in the EULAG-MHD "millenium simulation" of Passos & Charbonneau (2014). This simulation sustains a large-scale magnetic cycle characterized by solar-like polarity reversals taking place on a regular multidecadal cadence, and in which zonally-oriented bands of strong magnetic field accumulate below the convective layers, in response to turbulent pumping from above in successive magnetic half-cycles. Key aspects of this simulation include low numerical dissipation and a strongly subadiabatic fluid layer underlying the convectively unstable layers corresponding to the modeled solar convection zone. These properties are conducive to the growth and development of two-dimensional instabilities otherwise suppressed by stronger dissipation. We find evidence for the action of a non-axisymmetric magnetoshear instability operating in the upper portions of the stably stratified fluid layers. We also investigate the possibility that the Tay...
无
2009-01-01
An asynchronous and parallel time-marching method for three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is used for large-scale solar wind simulation. It uses different local time steps in the corona and the heliosphere according to the local Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL) conditions. The solar wind background with observed solar photospheric magnetic field as input is first presented. The simulation time for the background solar wind by using the asynchronous method is <1/6 of that by using the normal synchronous time-marching method with the same computation precision. Then, we choose the coronal mass ejection (CME) event of 13 November, 2003 as a test case. The time-dependent variations of the pressure and the velocity configured from a CME model at the inner boundary are applied to generate transient structures in order to study the dynamical interaction of a CME with the background solar wind flow between 1 and 230 Rs. This time-marching method is very effective in terms of computation time for large-scale 3D time-dependent numerical MHD problem. In this validation study, we find that this 3D MHD model, with the asynchronous and parallel time-marching method, provides a relatively satisfactory comparison with the ACE spacecraft obser- vations at L1 point.
Simulations of MHD flows with moving interfaces
We report on the numerical simulation of a two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics problem arising in the industrial production of aluminium. The motion of the two non-miscible fluids is modeled through the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Maxwell equations. Stabilized finite elements techniques and an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (for the motion of the interface separating the two fluids) are used in the numerical simulation. With a view to justifying our strategy, details on the numerical analysis of the problem, with a special emphasis on conservation and stability properties and on the surface tension discretization, as well as results on tests cases are provided. Examples of numerical simulations of the industrial case are eventually presented
3d particle simulations on ultra short laser interaction
Nishihara, Katsunobu; Okamoto, Takashi; Yasui, Hidekazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering
1998-03-01
Two topics related to ultra short laser interaction with matter, linear and nonlinear high frequency conductivity of a solid density hydrogen plasma and anisotropic self-focusing of an intense laser in an overdense plasma, have been investigated with the use of 3-d particle codes. Frequency dependence of linear conductivity in a dense plasma is obtained, which shows anomalous conductivity near plasma frequency. Since nonlinear conductivity decreases with v{sub o}{sup -3}, where v{sub o} is a quivering velocity, an optimum amplitude exists leading to a maximum electron heating. Anisotropic self-focusing of a linear polarized intense laser is observed in an overdense plasma. (author)
Mesh Resolution Effect on 3D RANS Turbomachinery Flow Simulations
Yershov, Sergiy
2016-01-01
The paper presents the study of the effect of a mesh refinement on numerical results of 3D RANS computations of turbomachinery flows. The CFD solver F, which based on the second-order accurate ENO scheme, is used in this study. The simplified multigrid algorithm and local time stepping permit decreasing computational time. The flow computations are performed for a number of turbine and compressor cascades and stages. In all flow cases, the successively refined meshes of H-type with an approximate orthogonalization near the solid walls were generated. The results obtained are compared in order to estimate their both mesh convergence and ability to resolve the transonic flow pattern. It is concluded that for thorough studying the fine phenomena of the 3D turbomachinery flows, it makes sense to use the computational meshes with the number of cells from several millions up to several hundred millions per a single turbomachinery blade channel, while for industrial computations, a mesh of about or less than one mil...
3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of Relativistic Extragalactic Jets
Hughes, P A; Duncan, G C; Hughes, Philip A.; Miller, Mark A.
2002-01-01
We describe a new numerical 3D relativistic hydrodynamical code, the results of validation tests, and a comparison with earlier, 2D studies. The 3D code has been used to study the deflection and precession of relativistic flows. We find that even quite fast jets (gamma~10) can be significantly influenced by impinging on an oblique density gradient, exhibiting a rotation of the Mach disk in the jet's head. The flow is bent via a potentially strong, oblique internal shock that arises due to asymmetric perturbation of the flow by its cocoon. In extreme cases this cocoon can form a marginally relativistic flow orthogonal to the jet, leading to large scale dynamics quite unlike that normally associated with astrophysical jets. Exploration of a gamma=5 flow subject to a large amplitude precession (semi-angle 11.25dg) shows that it retains its integrity, with modest reduction in Lorentz factor and momentum flux, for almost 50 jet-radii, but thereafter, the collimated flow is disrupted. The flow is approximately ball...
3D Numerical Simulation of Projectile Penetration into Concrete Target
无
2008-01-01
Basing on the explicit instantaneous dynamics software MSC-Dytran and the general coupling arithmetic, the process of the projectile penetration into concrete target was simulated with the point-line-surface-body modeling method. Simulation results are in agreement with experimental results. The simulated data could provide design reference for the defense engineering construction and penetrator design.
Divergence-free MHD Simulations with the HERACLES Code
Vides J.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD equations have played a significant role in plasma research over the years. The need of obtaining physical and stable solutions to these equations has led to the development of several schemes, all requiring to satisfy and preserve the divergence constraint of the magnetic field numerically. In this paper, we aim to show the importance of maintaining this constraint numerically. We investigate in particular the hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique applied to the ideal MHD equations on a collocated grid and compare it to the constrained transport technique that uses a staggered grid to maintain the property. The methods are implemented in the software HERACLES and several numerical tests are presented, where the robustness and accuracy of the different schemes can be directly compared.
Parallel Simulation of 3-D Turbulent Flow Through Hydraulic Machinery
徐宇; 吴玉林
2003-01-01
Parallel calculational methods were used to analyze incompressible turbulent flow through hydraulic machinery. Two parallel methods were used to simulate the complex flow field. The space decomposition method divides the computational domain into several sub-ranges. Parallel discrete event simulation divides the whole task into several parts according to their functions. The simulation results were compared with the serial simulation results and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The results give the distribution and configuration of the complex vortices and illustrate the effectiveness of the parallel algorithms for numerical simulation of turbulent flows.
Ju, Wenhua; Zhu, Zhaohuan
2016-01-01
We present results from the first global 3D MHD simulations of accretion disks in Cataclysmic Variable (CV) systems in order to investigate the relative importance of angular momentum transport via turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) compared to that driven by spiral shock waves. Remarkably, we find that even with vigorous MRI turbulence, spiral shocks are an important component to the overall angular momentum budget, at least when temperatures in the disk are high (so that Mach numbers are low). In order to understand the excitation, propagation, and damping of spiral density waves in our simulations more carefully, we perform a series of 2D global hydrodynamical simulations with various equation of states and both with and without mass inflow via the Lagrangian point (L1). Compared with previous similar studies, we find the following new results. 1) Linear wave dispersion relation fits the pitch angles of spiral density waves very well. 2) We demonstrate explicitly that mass accreti...
Single-sided sheet-to-tube spot welding investigated by 3D numerical simulations
Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Chergui, Azeddine; Zhang, Wenqi
The single-sided resistance spot welding process is analyzed by a 3D numerical study of sheet-to-tube joining. Finite element simulations are carried out in SORPAS® 3D. Two levels of electrode force and five levels of welding current are simulated. The overall effects of changing current and forc...
Simulations of RUTA-70 reactor with CERMET fuel using DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 coupled codes
RUTA-70 model for simulations with the internally coupled codes DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 was developed. A 3-D power distribution in the core is calculated by DYN3D with thermal-hydraulic feedback from the system codes. A steady-state corresponding to the full reactor power and an accident scenario initiated by failure of all primary coolant pumps were simulated with the DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 coupled code systems to verify these codes. The compared coupled codes give close predictions for the initial and final states of the simulated accident but not for the transition between them. The observed deviations are explained by differences in the subcooled boiling models of the employed versions of ATHLET and RELAP5. Nevertheless, both simulations confirm a high level of the reactor inherent safety. The allowed safety margins were not reached. (orig.)
Simulations of RUTA-70 reactor with CERMET fuel using DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 coupled codes
Kozmenkov, Y.; Rohde, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany); Baranaev, Y.; Glebov, A. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation). Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering
2012-08-15
RUTA-70 model for simulations with the internally coupled codes DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 was developed. A 3-D power distribution in the core is calculated by DYN3D with thermal-hydraulic feedback from the system codes. A steady-state corresponding to the full reactor power and an accident scenario initiated by failure of all primary coolant pumps were simulated with the DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5 coupled code systems to verify these codes. The compared coupled codes give close predictions for the initial and final states of the simulated accident but not for the transition between them. The observed deviations are explained by differences in the subcooled boiling models of the employed versions of ATHLET and RELAP5. Nevertheless, both simulations confirm a high level of the reactor inherent safety. The allowed safety margins were not reached. (orig.)
High resolution simulations of nonhelical MHD turbulence
Haugen, N E L; Dobler, W; Haugen, Nils Erland L.; Brandenburg, Axel; Dobler, Wolfgang
2003-01-01
According to the kinematic theory of nonhelical dynamo action the magnetic energy spectrum increases with wavenumber and peaks at the resistive cutoff wavenumber. It has previously been argued that even in the dynamical case the magnetic energy peaks at the resistive scale. Using high resolution simulations (up to 1024^3 meshpoints) with no large scale imposed field we show that the magnetic energy peaks at a wavenumber that is independent of the magnetic Reynolds number and about 5 times larger than the forcing wavenumber. Throughout the inertial range the spectral magnetic energy exceeds the kinetic energy by a factor of 2 to 3. Both spectra are approximately parallel. The total energy spectrum seems to be close to k^{-3/2}, but there is a strong bottleneck effect and it is suggested that the asymptotic spectrum is instead k^{-5/3}. This is supported by the value of the second order structure function exponent that is found to be zeta_2=0.70, suggesting a k^{-1.70} spectrum. The third order structure functi...
Fault interpretation strategy for 3D model simulation
Mendoza, P.; Floricich, M. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA EPM, Caracas (Venezuela)
2002-07-01
A 3-dimensional cellular model and visualization software was developed to help characterize the spatial geometry of a petroleum reservoir in order to determine the distribution of the petrophysical properties in a coherent manner. The 3-D analysis requires the same input data as traditional 2-dimensional methods so it is not more expensive, but it improves the integrity of geologic interpretations. The model makes it possible to generate fault planes which contribute to the understanding of the structural configuration of a petroleum deposit. Visualization tools provide quality control and are used to verify grid geometry in faulted structures and fault planes. The authors present experiences gained in building the geologic model for the LL-03 reservoir in Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo region which forms part of the Bolivar Coastal Field. The reservoir has more than 2,000 well that penetrate its vertical section, of which 1051 have been completed and which make up 30 per cent of the total production of the La Rosa Medium segregation of the Maracaibo District. 5 refs., 17 figs.
3D measurements of buildings and environment for harbor simulators
Börlin, Niclas; Igasto, Christina
2009-01-01
Oryx Simulations develops and manufactures real-time physics simulators for training of harbor crane operator in several of the world’s major harbors. Currently, the modelling process is labor-intensive and a faster solution that can produce accurate, textured models of harbor scenes is desired. The accuracy requirements vary across the scene, and in some areas accuracy can be traded for speed. Due to the heavy equipment involved, reliable error estimates are important throughout the scene. T...
One year in the Earth's magnetosphere: A global MHD simulation and spacecraft measurements
Facskó, G.; Honkonen, I.; Živković, T.; Palin, L.; Kallio, E.; Ã gren, K.; Opgenoorth, H.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Milan, S.
2016-05-01
The response of the Earth's magnetosphere to changing solar wind conditions is studied with a 3-D Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. One full year (155 Cluster orbits) of the Earth's magnetosphere is simulated using Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling simulation (GUMICS-4) magnetohydrodynamic code. Real solar wind measurements are given to the code as input to create the longest lasting global magnetohydrodynamics simulation to date. The applicability of the results of the simulation depends critically on the input parameters used in the model. Therefore, the validity and the variance of the OMNIWeb data are first investigated thoroughly using Cluster measurement close to the bow shock. The OMNIWeb and the Cluster data were found to correlate very well before the bow shock. The solar wind magnetic field and plasma parameters are not changed significantly from the L1 Lagrange point to the foreshock; therefore, the OMNIWeb data are appropriate input to the GUMICS-4. The Cluster SC3 footprints are determined by magnetic field mapping from the simulation results and the Tsyganenko (T96) model in order to compare two methods. The determined footprints are in rather good agreement with the T96. However, it was found that the footprints agree better in the Northern Hemisphere than the Southern one during quiet conditions. If the By is not zero, the agreement of the GUMICS-4 and T96 footprint is worse in longitude in the Southern Hemisphere. Overall, the study implies that a 3-D MHD model can increase our insight of the response of the magnetosphere to solar wind conditions.
The advanced simulation of fatigue crack growth in complex 3D structures
Kolk, Karsten; Kuhn, Guenther [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Erlangen (Germany)
2006-12-15
An advanced incremental crack growth algorithm for the three-dimensional (3D) simulation of fatigue crack growth in complex 3D structures with linear elastic material behavior is presented. To perform the crack growth simulation as effectively as possible an accurate stress analysis is done by the boundary-element method (BEM) in terms of the 3D dual BEM. The question concerning a reliable 3D crack growth criterion is answered based on experimental observations. All criteria under consideration are numerically realized by a predictor-corrector procedure. The agreement between numerically determined and experimentally observed crack fronts will be shown on both fracture specimens and an industrial application. (orig.)
Fokker-Planck-MHD simulation study of Alfven eigenmodes
Nonlinear evolution of fast ions and Alfven eigenmodes, especially the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs), is investigated with two types of Fokker-Planck-MHD simulations. In the first type of simulation, the fast-ion evolution is described by a 4-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation which takes fast-ion source and slowing down into account. The background plasma is described by the nonlinear full MHD equations. A bursting behavior of multiple TAEs, which takes place in neutral beam injection experiments, is reproduced when the slowing-down time is much longer than the mode damping time and the fast-ion pressure is sufficiently high. In the second type of simulation, 5-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation is solved with a linear TAE. In addition to the particle source and slowing down, the pitch-angle scattering is taken into account. The simulation code is benchmarked with the linear behavior of the alpha-particle-driven n=4 TAE in the TFTR D-T plasma. With a realistic pitch-angle-scattering rate and a chosen damping rate, the relaxation time to a steady saturation state is found to be too long to explain the experiment. (author)
3D Simulations of methane convective storms on Titan's atmosphere
Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.
2005-08-01
The arrival of the Cassini/Huygens mission to Titan has opened an unprecedented opportunity to study the atmosphere of this satellite. Under the pressure-temperature conditions on Titan, methane, a large atmospheric component amounting perhaps to a 3-5% of the atmosphere, is close to its triple point, potentially playing a similar role as water on Earth. The Huygens probe has shown a terrain shaped by erosion of probably liquid origin, suggestive of past rain. On the other hand, Voyager IRIS spectroscopic observations of Titan imply a saturated atmosphere of methane (amounting perhaps to 150 covered by methane clouds, if we think on Earth meteorology. However, observations from Earth and Cassini have shown that clouds are localized, transient and fast evolving, in particular in the South Pole (currently in its summer season). This might imply a lack of widespread presence on Titan of nuclei where methane could initiate condensation and particle growth with subsequent precipitation. We investigate different scenarios of moist convective storms on Titan using a complete 3D atmospheric model that incorporates a full microphysics treatment required to study cloud formation processes under a saturated atmosphere with low concentration of condensation nuclei. We study local convective development under a variety of atmospheric conditions: sub-saturation, super-saturation, abundances of condensation nuclei fall, condensation nuclei lifted from the ground or gently falling from the stratosphere. We show that under the appropriate circumstances, precipitation rates comparable to typical tropical storms on Earth can be found. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.
SIERRA - A 3-D device simulator for reliability modeling
Chern, Jue-Hsien; Arledge, Lawrence A., Jr.; Yang, Ping; Maeda, John T.
1989-05-01
SIERRA is a three-dimensional general-purpose semiconductor-device simulation program which serves as a foundation for investigating integrated-circuit (IC) device and reliability issues. This program solves the Poisson and continuity equations in silicon under dc, transient, and small-signal conditions. Executing on a vector/parallel minisupercomputer, SIERRA utilizes a matrix solver which uses an incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioned conjugate gradient square (CGS, BCG) method. The ILU-CGS method provides a good compromise between memory size and convergence rate. The authors have observed a 5x to 7x speedup over standard direct methods in simulations of transient problems containing highly coupled Poisson and continuity equations such as those found in reliability-oriented simulations. The application of SIERRA to parasitic CMOS latchup and dynamic random-access memory single-event-upset studies is described.
Humanoid Robot 3 -D Motion Simulation for Hardware Realization
CAO Xi; ZHAO Qun-fei; MA Pei-sun
2007-01-01
In this paper, three dimensions kinematics andkinetics simulation arc discussed for hardware realization ofa physical biped walking-chair robot. The direct and inverseclose-form kinematics solution of the biped walking-chairis deduced. Several gaits are realized with thekinematics solution, including walking straight on levelfloor, going up stair, squatting down and standing up. ZeroMoment Point(ZMP) equation is analyzed considering themovement of the crew. The simulated biped walking-chairrobot is used for mechanical design, gaits development andvalidation before they are tested on real robot.
Coupled cavity 3-D codes for linac tolerance simulations
Three developing codes, based on previous work at Los Alamos (1) are now being used in the Fermilab Linac Upgrade project, to survey system tolerance requirements. Both linear and non-linear beam dynamics of a pi-mode side coupled 805 MHz linac are simulated. Particular attention to the z-plane synchronism has been integrated into the code group, so that klystron drive boundaries can be monitored in the dynamics. All system length errors that contribute to desynchronization, and other data set failures are recognized by the particle PIC code (CAVDYN) to enhance design coherence. Some current results of the CAVDYN code simulations will be discussed
Hierarchical approach to 'atomistic' 3-D MOSFET simulation
Asenov, A.; Brown, A. R.; J. H. Davies; S Saini
1999-01-01
We present a hierarchical approach to the 'atomistic' simulation of aggressively scaled sub-0.1-Î¼m MOSFETs. These devices are so small that their characteristics depend on the precise location of dopant atoms within them, not just on their average density. A full-scale three-dimensional drift-diffusion atomistic simulation approach is first described and used to verify more economical, but restricted, options. To reduce processor time and memory requirements at high drain voltage, we have de...
Simulation of 3D-CRT treatment for lung cancer
In radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, occurs doses deposition in healthy organs. During the treatment planning are calculated some doses due to photons. This dose deposition in healthy organs could induce to the appearance of new cancers foci. The aim of this study was to analyze the equivalent doses in healthy organs of a patient treated by radiotherapy for lung cancer. In order to calculate the doses, was done a computer simulation of radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, adopting database of the treatment performed by INCA. To perform the simulation was used several tools, among them, the radiation transport code MCNPX, in which was shaped the radiotherapy room and the head from the linear accelerator Varian 2300 C / D, the patient was simulated by Voxel male phantom in Rex,and the treatment protocol adopted considers a beam with energy of 6 MV focusing on three gantry tilt angles (0 deg, 180 deg and 45 deg). In addition, there was variation in the opening of the radiation field according to the angle of inclination. The results of this study point to the organs close to the irradiated area are predominantly affected by the dose due to photons, affecting organs from different body systems, such as esophagus, heart, thymus, spine and lymph nodes. The calculated values demonstrating that the angle of 0 deg was the most responsible for the deposit of unwanted dose. The results showed that the simulations in this paper is developed in accordance with the planning data described in different studies and literature. (author)
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery: 3D Simulation with Gravity Effects
Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Jessen, K.; Shapiro, Alexander;
2010-01-01
Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) utilizes the activity of microorganisms, where microorganisms simultaneously grow in a reservoir and convert substrate into recovery enhancing products (usually, surfactants). In order to predict the performance of a MEOR process, a simulation tool is requir...
Vectors in Use in a 3D Juggling Game Simulation
Kynigos, Chronis; Latsi, Maria
2006-01-01
The new representations enabled by the educational computer game the "Juggler" can place vectors in a central role both for controlling and measuring the behaviours of objects in a virtual environment simulating motion in three-dimensional spaces. The mathematical meanings constructed by 13 year-old students in relation to vectors as objects, as a…
Simulation of 3D-CRT treatment for lung cancer
Thalhofer, Jardel L.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Junior, Juraci R.P., E-mail: jardellt@yahoo.com.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rebello, Wilson F., E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: samandacristine@uezo.rj.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Edmilson M., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Centro Universitario da Zona Oeste (UEZO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Colegiado de Comutacao e Matematica; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: delano@inca.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2013-07-01
In radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, occurs doses deposition in healthy organs. During the treatment planning are calculated some doses due to photons. This dose deposition in healthy organs could induce to the appearance of new cancers foci. The aim of this study was to analyze the equivalent doses in healthy organs of a patient treated by radiotherapy for lung cancer. In order to calculate the doses, was done a computer simulation of radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, adopting database of the treatment performed by INCA. To perform the simulation was used several tools, among them, the radiation transport code MCNPX, in which was shaped the radiotherapy room and the head from the linear accelerator Varian 2300 C / D, the patient was simulated by Voxel male phantom in Rex,and the treatment protocol adopted considers a beam with energy of 6 MV focusing on three gantry tilt angles (0 deg, 180 deg and 45 deg). In addition, there was variation in the opening of the radiation field according to the angle of inclination. The results of this study point to the organs close to the irradiated area are predominantly affected by the dose due to photons, affecting organs from different body systems, such as esophagus, heart, thymus, spine and lymph nodes. The calculated values demonstrating that the angle of 0 deg was the most responsible for the deposit of unwanted dose. The results showed that the simulations in this paper is developed in accordance with the planning data described in different studies and literature. (author)
Thermal performance analysis of an MHD simulation test facility
To evaluate the performance of the downstream components of a coal-fired, baseline, open cycle MHD power plant, Mississippi State University has set up a simulation test facility. Reduced thermal data from this test stand for steady-state operating conditions are presented in the paper. A thermal model to predict the variation of important thermal parameters in the test stand is shown. Results from the reduced experimental data and the predictive thermal model are compared. In addition, results for calibration runs and from recent secondary combustion tests are discussed. 7 refs
3D simulation of superconducting microwave devices with an electromagnetic-field simulator
Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Yuki; Saito, Y; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2009-01-01
High-frequency microwave applications, such as filters, delay lines, and resonators, are quite important for superconducting electronic devices. In order to design the superconducting microwave devices, circuit parameters should be precisely extracted from the physical structure of the devices. A 3-dimentional electromagnetic-field simulators is very useful for designing microwave devices. However, designing of superconducting microwave devices using a conventional 3D electromagnetic-field si...
Advanced 3D Photocathode Modeling and Simulations Final Report
High brightness electron beams required by the proposed Next Linear Collider demand strong advances in photocathode electron gun performance. Significant improvement in the production of such beams with rf photocathode electron guns is hampered by the lack high-fidelity simulations. The critical missing piece in existing gun codes is a physics-based, detailed treatment of the very complex and highly nonlinear photoemission process
Dynamic triangulations for efficient 3D simulation of granular materials
Ferrez, Jean-Albert; Liebling, Thomas M.
2007-01-01
Granular materials are omnipresent in many fields ranging from civil engineering to food, mining and pharmaceutical industries. Often considered a fourth state of matter, they exhibit specific phenomena such as segregation, arching effects, pattern formation, etc. Due to its potential capability of realistically rendering these behaviors, the Distinct Element Method (DEM) is a very enticing simulation technique. Indeed it makes it possible to analyze and observe phenomena that are barely if a...
Kolk, K.
2005-07-15
This is an important contribution to reliable simulation of stable fatigue crack growth in real 3D problems under complex loads. The nonlinear crack propagation process requires an incremental solution algorithm. Each increment starts with a load analysis of the current crack configuration using the fast dual boundary element method. The potential of this method is more fully utilized with a fast boundary element formulation. Afater this, a real 3D crack propagation criterion is evaluated which is based on experimental findings and is realized within a preditor-corrector method. Finally, the numeric model is generated for the next increment. This generation is made automatically using a local renetworking algorithm. With the crack propagation module thus developed, complex components, e.g. motor car components, can be analyzed fracture-mechanically on a standard PC. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit leistet einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur zuverlaessigen Simulation des stabilen Ermuedungsrisswachstums in realen 3D-Problemen unter komplexen Belastungen. Der nichtlineare Vorgang des Risswachstums erfordert einen inkrementellen Loesungsalgorithmus. In jedem Inkrement wird zunaechst eine Beanspruchungsanalyse der aktuellen Risskonfiguration mit der leistungsstarken dualen Randelementmethode durchgefuehrt. Das Potenzial dieser Methode wird mit einer schnellen Randelementformulierung weiter ausgeschoepft. Anschliessend wird ein echtes 3D-Rissfortschrittskriterium ausgewertet, welches auf experimentellen Erkenntnissen beruht und innerhalb eines Praediktor-Korrektor-Verfahrens realisiert ist. Abschliessend wird das numerische Modell fuer das naechste Inkrement generiert. Diese Generierung erfolgt automatisch mit einem lokalen Neuvernetzungsalgorithmus. Mit dem entwickelten Rissfortschrittsmodul koennen komplexe Bauteile, z.B. aus dem Automobilbau, erfolgreich auf einem Standard-PC bruchmechanisch analysiert werden.
Plasma boundaries at Mars: a 3-D simulation study
A. Bößwetter
2004-12-01
Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere of planet Mars is studied using a three-dimensional hybrid model. Mars has only a weak intrinsic magnetic field, and consequently its ionosphere is directly affected by the solar wind. The gyroradii of the solar wind protons are in the range of several hundred kilometers and therefore comparable with the characteristic scales of the interaction region. Different boundaries emerge from the interaction of the solar wind with the continuously produced ionospheric heavy-ion plasma, which could be identified as a bow shock (BS, ion composition boundary (ICB and magnetic pile up boundary (MPB, where the latter both turn out to coincide. The simulation results regarding the shape and position of these boundaries are in good agreement with the measurements made by Phobos-2 and MGS spacecraft. It is shown that the positions of these boundaries depend essentially on the ionospheric production rate, the solar wind ram pressure, and the often unconsidered electron temperature of the ionospheric heavy ion plasma. Other consequences are rays of planetary plasma in the tail and heavy ion plasma clouds, which are stripped off from the dayside ICB region by some instability.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (solar wind interactions with unmagnetized bodies – Space plasma physics (discontinuities; numerical simulation studies
3D Computational Simulation of Calcium Leaching in Cement Matrices
Gaitero, J. J.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Calcium leaching is a degradation process consisting in progressive dissolution of the cement paste by migration of calcium atoms to the aggressive solution. It is therefore, a complex phenomenon involving several phases and dissolution and diffusion processes simultaneously. Along this work, a new computational scheme for the simulation of the degradation process in three dimensions was developed and tested. The toolkit was used to simulate accelerated calcium leaching by a 6M ammonium nitrate solution in cement matrices. The obtained outputs were the three dimensional representation of the matrix and the physicochemical properties of individual phases as a consequence of the degradation process. This not only makes it possible to study the evolution of such properties as a function of time but also as a function of the position within the matrix. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental values of the elastic modulus in degraded and undegraded samples.El lixiviado de calcio es un proceso de degradación consistente en la disolución progresiva de la pasta de cemento por la migración de los átomos de calcio a la disolución agresiva. Se trata por tanto de un fenómeno complejo que involucra simultáneamente diferentes fases y procesos de disolución y difusión. En este trabajo se desarrolló y probó una nueva herramienta computacional para la simulación del proceso de degradación en tres dimensiones. Para ello se simuló el lixiviado de calcio acelerado provocado por una disolución de nitrato amónico 6M en matrices de cemento. Como resultado se obtuvieron la representación tridimensional de la matriz y las propiedades físico-químicas sus fases a lo largo del tiempo. Esto permitió estudiar la evolución de dichas propiedades a lo largo del proceso de degradación así como en función de su posición dentro de la matriz. Los resultados obtenidos coinciden con los valores experimentales del módulo elástico tanto
Simulation of Fully Nonlinear 3-D Numerical Wave Tank
张晓兔; 滕斌; 宁德志
2004-01-01
A fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT) has been simulated by use of a three-dimensional higher order boundary element method (HOBEM) in the time domain. Within the frame of potential flow and the adoption of simply Rankine source, the resulting boundary integral equation is repeatedly solved at each time step and the fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are integrated with time to update its position and boundary values. A smooth technique is also adopted in order to eliminate the possible saw-tooth numerical instabilities. The incident wave at the uptank is given as theoretical wave in this paper. The outgoing waves are absorbed inside a damping zone by spatially varying artificial damping on the free surface at the wave tank end. The numerical results show that the NWT developed by these approaches has a high accuracy and good numerical stability.
MHD Simulations of Global Accretion Disks with Vertical Magnetic Fields
Suzuki, Takeru K
2013-01-01
(Abridged) We report results of three dimensional MHD simulations of global accretion disks threaded with weak vertical magnetic fields. We perform the simulations in the spherical coordinates with different temperature profiles and accordingly different rotation profiles. In the cases with a spatially constant temperature, because the rotation frequency is vertically constant in the equilibrium condition, general properties of the turbulence are quantitatively similar to those obtained in local shearing box simulations. On the other hand, in the cases with a radially variable temperature profile, the vertical differential rotation, which is inevitable in the equilibrium condition, winds up the magnetic field lines, in addition to the usual radial differential rotation. As a result, the coherent wound magnetic fields contribute to the Maxwell stress in the surface regions. We obtain nondimensional density and velocity fluctuations ~0.1-0.2 at the midplane. The azimuthal power spectra of the magnetic fields sh...
3-D Coldtest Simulations of W-Band Devices
Petillo, John J.
1998-04-01
Recent advances in the simulation and modeling of vacuum electronic devices has opened up the door for the much-anticipated ``first-pass design success" of these devices by computational means. For W-band, this is an exciting prospect since many current designs begin with scaling from lower-frequency devices. The next step is trial and error by fabrication and experimental testing, which demands high precision machining practices as well as reproducible assembly procedures. This can be a very time-consuming, expensive, and error-prone undertaking. Aside from the unit-to-unit variances in dimensions between prototypes, the repeatability of material properties (e.g., dielectric constant and resistivity) in this frequency band is difficult to measure, predict, and ensure. Computers have no such repeatability problems, and run-to-run differences can be predefined, and subsequently analyzed. The computational limitations include setup difficulty, computer time, computer power, and fidelity of the calculation. For W-band devices with 1% or lower bandwidth, fidelity of the numerical solution is critical in the search for ``first-pass design success" capability. The codes have to not only be up to the task, but the appropriate application of these codes becomes an essential ingredient to predicting the accuracy of the results. These issues as well as cross validation between computational models will be discussed. Several recent simulation results of W-band devices will be presented, along with comparisons with data. These will include the NRL/Litton/CPI gyroklystron input coupler and several CPI Coupled Cavity Tube designs.
Fajardo, Kristel C Meza; Chaillat, Stéphanie; Lenti, Luca
2016-01-01
In this work, we study seismic wave amplification in alluvial basins having 3D standard geometries through the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method in the frequency domain. We investigate how much 3D amplification differs from the 1D (horizontal layering) case. Considering incident fields of plane harmonic waves, we examine the relationships between the amplification level and the most relevant physical parameters of the problem (impedance contrast, 3D aspect ratio, vertical and oblique incidence of plane waves). The FMBEM results show that the most important parameters for wave amplification are the impedance contrast and the so-called equivalent shape ratio. Using these two parameters, we derive simple rules to compute the fundamental frequency for various 3D basin shapes and the corresponding 3D/1D amplification factor for 5% damping. Effects on amplification due to 3D basin asymmetry are also studied and incorporated in the derived rules.
Nonlinear MHD simulation of DC helicity injection in the Pegasus spherical tokamak
Bayliss, Adam; Sovinec, Carl
2006-10-01
DC helicity injection has been successfully employed in spherical tokamaks (ST's) to produce a tokamak-like plasma with either a poloidal-gap voltage known as coaxial helicity injection [HIT-II, NSTX] or a biased cathode gun configuration [CDX, PEGASUS]. In PEGASUS, the tokamak-like plasma which is subsequently ohmically driven is the product of a reversal of vacuum poloidal flux and a merger of gun-injected current filaments. A 3D nonlinear MHD computation using the NIMROD code [Sovinec et al. JCP 195, 355 (2004)] simulates the formation, merger, and relaxation of the gun-injected current filaments to the tokamak-like plasma. The reversal of poloidal flux due to the field induced by the helicity drive is reproduced and the MHD processes leading to the merger and relaxation of the current filaments are described. Over the lifetime of a helically-driven experimental shot (approximately 10ms), the extent to which the merged plasma exhibits amplication of poloidal flux and the injected current in the relaxed state, reported in PEGASUS, is explored. The results are compared with simulations of current drive in NSTX via coaxial helicity injection which exhibit an n=1 open field-line kink [Tang and Boozer, Phys. Plasmas 11, 2679 (2004)].
On the characterization of magnetic reconnection in global MHD simulations
T. V. Laitinen
2006-11-01
Full Text Available The conventional definition of reconnection rate as the electric field parallel to an x-line is problematic in global MHD simulations for several reasons: the x-line itself may be hard to find in a non-trivial geometry such as at the magnetopause, and the lack of realistic resistivity modelling leaves us without reliable non-convective electric field. In this article we describe reconnection characterization methods that avoid those problems and are practical to apply in global MHD simulations. We propose that the reconnection separator line can be identified as the region where magnetic field lines of different topological properties meet, rather than by local considerations. The global convection associated with reconnection is then quantified by calculating the transfer of mass, energy or magnetic field across the boundary of closed and open field line regions. The extent of the diffusion region is determined from the destruction of electromagnetic energy, given by the divergence of the Poynting vector. Integrals of this energy conversion provide a way to estimate the total reconnection efficiency.
Self-organisation in protoplanetary disks: global, non-stratified Hall-MHD simulations
Béthune, William; Ferreira, Jonathan
2016-01-01
Recent observations revealed organised structures in protoplanetary disks, such as axisymmetric rings or horseshoe concen- trations evocative of large-scale vortices. These structures are often interpreted as the result of planet-disc interactions. However, these disks are also known to be unstable to the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) which is believed to be one of the dominant angular momentum transport mechanism in these objects. It is therefore natural to ask if the MRI itself could produce these structures without invoking planets. The nonlinear evolution of the MRI is strongly affected by the low ionisation fraction in protoplanetary disks. The Hall effect in particular, which is dominant in dense and weakly ionised parts of these objects, has been shown to spontaneously drive self- organising flows in shearing box simulations. Here, we investigate the behaviour of global MRI-unstable disc models dominated by the Hall effect and characterise their dynamics. We perform 3D unstratified Hall-MHD simu...
Three-dimensional MHD Simulations of Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows
Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, Igor V.; Narayan, Ramesh; Abramowicz, Marek A.
2003-01-01
We present three-dimensional MHD simulations of rotating radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. In the simulations, we continuously inject magnetized matter into the computational domain near the outer boundary, and we run the calculations long enough for the resulting accretion flow to reach a quasi-steady state. We have studied two limiting cases for the geometry of the injected magnetic field: pure toroidal field and pure poloidal field. In the case of toroidal field injection, the accreting matter forms a nearly axisymmetric, geometrically-thick, turbulent accretion disk. The disk resembles in many respects the convection-dominated accretion flows found in previous numerical and analytical investigations of viscous hydrodynamic flows. Models with poloidal field injection evolve through two distinct phases. In an initial transient phase, the flow forms a relatively flattened, quasi-Keplerian disk with a hot corona and a bipolar outflow. However, when the flow later achieves steady state,...
Developing Diagnostics of Molecular Clouds Using Numerical MHD Simulations
Ostriker, E C
2003-01-01
An important aspect of astrophysical MHD turbulence research is developing diagnostics to connect simulations with the observable universe. Turbulent systems are by definition structurally complex in all fluid variables (density, velocity, and magnetic field), such that they must be described statistically. By developing and applying diagnostic tools to simulation data, it is possible to interpret empirical laws for the statistical properties of observed systems in terms of fundamental dynamical processes, and to identify and calibrate robust probes of physical parameters that cannot be measured directly. Using several different examples, I describe how structural diagnostic analyses have already yielded significant insights into the nature of turbulent molecular clouds. I review results from several different groups, and discuss directions for future diagnostics to enhance our understanding of cloud structure and constrain models of the evolutionary course that governs star formation.
MHD Simulations of Core Collapse Supernovae with Cosmos++
Akiyama, Shizuka
2010-01-01
We performed 2D, axisymmetric, MHD simulations with Cosmos++ in order to examine the growth of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in core--collapse supernovae. We have initialized a non--rotating 15 solar mass progenitor, infused with differential rotation and poloidal magnetic fields. The collapse of the iron core is simulated with the Shen EOS, and the parametric Ye and entropy evolution. The wavelength of the unstable mode in the post--collapse environment is expected to be only ~ 200 m. In order to achieve the fine spatial resolution requirement, we employed remapping technique after the iron core has collapsed and bounced. The MRI unstable region appears near the equator and angular momentum and entropy are transported outward. Higher resolution remap run display more vigorous overturns and stronger transport of angular momentum and entropy. Our results are in agreement with the earlier work by Akiyama et al. (2003) and Obergaulinger et al. (2009).
Product management: visualization technology and 3D simulator of Aker Solutions
Tongpradith, Thanaruch
2014-01-01
This Thesis has focused on Visualization and Simulation Technology in oil and gas industry. It contains the common usages and the implementation process of this new advance technology. 3D Visualization Technology has just been introduced since last decades in Exploration & Production of oilfield development. Aker Solutions has introduced the new innovation technology product solutions, which is 3D simulator software for training, planning and testing purposes in relation to operational projec...
3D plasma fluid simulations in divertor tokamaks. Final technical report, 1993--1995
The main accomplishment of this grant was the development of a finite element time dependent magnetofluid code, FEMHD. The code is nonlinear and three dimensional. In the poloidal plane, the elemental cells of the mesh are triangles, which offer both simplicity and adaptability. In the third, toroidal, direction, there is an option of a standard staggered finite difference mesh, or Fourier transforms. The FEMHD code runs on several platforms, including Crays, UNIX workstations, and a parallel version runs on an IBM SP1. Several problems have been considered with the unstructured mesh FEMHD code. They are (1) MHD simulations in divertor tokamaks; (2) simulations of ELM-like ballooning modes in divertor tokamaks; and (3) reconnection and singular MHD equilibria
Numerical simulation of 3D backward facing step flows at various Reynolds numbers
Louda Petr
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The work deals with the numerical simulation of 3D turbulent flow over backward facing step in a narrow channel. The mathematical model is based on the RANS equations with an explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM. The numerical method uses implicit finite volume upwind discretization. While the eddy viscosity models fail in predicting complex 3D flows, the EARSM model is shown to provide results which agree well with experimental PIV data. The reference experimental data provide the 3D flow field. The simulations are compared with experiment for 3 values of Reynolds number.
The "ideal" tearing mode: theory and resistive MHD simulations
Del Zanna, L; Papini, E; Pucci, F; Velli, M
2016-01-01
Classical MHD reconnection theories, both the stationary Sweet-Parker model and the tearing instability, are known to provide rates which are too slow to explain the observations. However, a recent analysis has shown that there exists a critical threshold on current sheet's thickness, namely a/L~S^(-1/3), beyond which the tearing modes evolve on fast macroscopic Alfvenic timescales, provided the Lunquist number S is high enough, as invariably found in solar and astrophysical plasmas. Therefore, the classical Sweet-Parker scenario, for which the diffusive region scales as a/L~S^(-1/2) and thus can be up to ~100 times thinner than the critical value, is likely to be never realized in nature, as the current sheet itself disrupts in the elongation process. We present here two-dimensional, compressible, resistive MHD simulations, with S ranging from 10^5 to 10^7, that fully confirm the linear analysis. Moreover, we show that a secondary plasmoid instability always occurs when the same critical scaling is reached o...
The Role of Helicity in Magnetic Reconnection: 3D Numerical Simulations
Antiochos, Spiro K.; DeVore, C. Richard
1999-01-01
We demonstrate that conservation of global helicity plays only a minor role in determining the nature and consequences of magnetic reconnection in the solar atmosphere. First, we show that observations of the solar coronal magnetic field are in direct conflict with Taylor's theory. Next, we present results from three-dimensional MHD simulations of the shearing of bipolar and multi-polar coronal magnetic fields by photospheric footpoint motions, and discuss the implications of these results fo...
Simulação 3D de movimento ortodôntico 3D simulation of orthodontic tooth movement
Norman Duque Penedo
2010-10-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: desenvolver e validar, através do Método dos Elementos Finitos (MEF, um modelo numérico tridimensional (3D de um incisivo central superior para simular o movimento dentário. MÉTODOS: esse modelo contempla a unidade dentária, o osso alveolar e o ligamento periodontal. Permite a simulação dos diferentes movimentos dentários e a determinação dos centros de rotação e de resistência. Limita o movimento ao espaço periodontal, registrando a direção, quantificando o deslocamento dentário e as tensões iniciais no ligamento periodontal. RESULTADOS: a análise dos deslocamentos dentários e das áreas que recebem tensões iniciais possibilita determinar os tipos de movimentos dentários. Com base nas forças ortodônticas, é possível quantificar a intensidade das tensões em cada região do dente, do ligamento periodontal ou do osso alveolar. Com base nas tensões axiais ao longo do ligamento periodontal e da tensão capilar, é possível predizer, teoricamente, as regiões em que deve ocorrer a remodelação óssea. CONCLUSÃO: o modelo foi validado pela determinação do módulo de elasticidade do ligamento periodontal de forma compatível com dados experimentais existentes na literatura. Os métodos utilizados na construção do modelo permitiram a criação de um modelo completo para uma arcada dentária, o qual possibilita realizar variadas simulações que envolvem a mecânica ortodôntica.OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D numerical model of a maxillary central incisor to simulate tooth movement using the Finite Element Method (FEM. METHODS: This model encompasses the tooth, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. It allows the simulation of different tooth movements and the establishment of centers of rotation and resistance. It limits the movement into the periodontal space, recording the direction, quantifying tooth displacement and initial stress in the periodontal ligament. RESULTS: By
The Effects of 3D Computer Simulation on Biology Students' Achievement and Memory Retention
Elangovan, Tavasuria; Ismail, Zurida
2014-01-01
A quasi experimental study was conducted for six weeks to determine the effectiveness of two different 3D computer simulation based teaching methods, that is, realistic simulation and non-realistic simulation on Form Four Biology students' achievement and memory retention in Perak, Malaysia. A sample of 136 Form Four Biology students in Perak,…
3D multiple-point statistics simulation using 2D training images
Comunian, A.; Renard, P.; Straubhaar, J.
2012-03-01
One of the main issues in the application of multiple-point statistics (MPS) to the simulation of three-dimensional (3D) blocks is the lack of a suitable 3D training image. In this work, we compare three methods of overcoming this issue using information coming from bidimensional (2D) training images. One approach is based on the aggregation of probabilities. The other approaches are novel. One relies on merging the lists obtained using the impala algorithm from diverse 2D training images, creating a list of compatible data events that is then used for the MPS simulation. The other (s2Dcd) is based on sequential simulations of 2D slices constrained by the conditioning data computed at the previous simulation steps. These three methods are tested on the reproduction of two 3D images that are used as references, and on a real case study where two training images of sedimentary structures are considered. The tests show that it is possible to obtain 3D MPS simulations with at least two 2D training images. The simulations obtained, in particular those obtained with the s2Dcd method, are close to the references, according to a number of comparison criteria. The CPU time required to simulate with the method s2Dcd is from two to four orders of magnitude smaller than the one required by a MPS simulation performed using a 3D training image, while the results obtained are comparable. This computational efficiency and the possibility of using MPS for 3D simulation without the need for a 3D training image facilitates the inclusion of MPS in Monte Carlo, uncertainty evaluation, and stochastic inverse problems frameworks.
Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro
2011-10-01
The dynamics of structures of magnetic field, current density, and plasma flow generated during multi-pulsed coaxial helicity injection in spherical torus is investigated by 3-D nonlinear MHD simulations. During the driven phase, the flux and current amplifications occur due to the merging and magnetic reconnection between the preexisting plasma in the confinement region and the ejected plasma from the gun region involving the n = 1 helical kink distortion of the central open flux column (COFC). Interestingly, the diamagnetic poloidal flow which tends toward the gun region is then observed due to the steep pressure gradients of the COFC generated by ohmic heating through an injection current winding around the inboard field lines, resulting in the formation of the strong poloidal flow shear at the interface between the COFC and the core region. This result is consistent with the flow shear observed in the HIST. During the decay phase, the configuration approaches the axisymmetric MHD equilibrium state without flow because of the dissipation of magnetic fluctuation energy to increase the closed flux surfaces, suggesting the generation of ordered magnetic field structure. The parallel current density λ concentrated in the COFC then diffuses to the core region so as to reduce the gradient in λ, relaxing in the direction of the Taylor state.
Reiman, Allan H.
2016-07-01
In toroidal, magnetically confined plasmas, the heat and particle transport is strongly anisotropic, with transport along the field lines sufficiently strong relative to cross-field transport that the equilibrium pressure can generally be regarded as constant on the flux surfaces in much of the plasma. The regions near small magnetic islands, and those near the X-lines of larger islands, are exceptions, having a significant variation of the pressure within the flux surfaces. It is shown here that the variation of the equilibrium pressure within the flux surfaces in those regions has significant consequences for the pressure driven currents. It is further shown that the consequences are strongly affected by the symmetry of the magnetic field if the field is invariant under combined reflection in the poloidal and toroidal angles. (This symmetry property is called "stellarator symmetry.") In non-stellarator-symmetric equilibria, the pressure-driven currents have logarithmic singularities at the X-lines. In stellarator-symmetric MHD equilibria, the singular components of the pressure-driven currents vanish. These equilibria are to be contrasted with equilibria having B ṡ∇p =0 , where the singular components of the pressure-driven currents vanish regardless of the symmetry. They are also to be contrasted with 3D MHD equilibrium solutions that are constrained to have simply nested flux surfaces, where the pressure-driven current goes like 1 /x near rational surfaces, where x is the distance from the rational surface, except in the case of quasi-symmetric flux surfaces. For the purpose of calculating the pressure-driven currents near magnetic islands, we work with a closed subset of the MHD equilibrium equations that involves only perpendicular force balance, and is decoupled from parallel force balance. It is not correct to use the parallel component of the conventional MHD force balance equation, B ṡ∇p =0 , near magnetic islands. Small but nonzero values of B
Ju, Wenhua; Stone, James M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan
2016-06-01
We present results from the first global 3D MHD simulations of accretion disks in cataclysmic variable (CV) systems in order to investigate the relative importance of angular momentum transport via turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) compared with that driven by spiral shock waves. Remarkably, we find that even with vigorous MRI turbulence, spiral shocks are an important component of the overall angular momentum budget, at least when temperatures in the disk are high (so that Mach numbers are low). In order to understand the excitation, propagation, and damping of spiral density waves in our simulations more carefully, we perform a series of 2D global hydrodynamical simulations with various equation of states, both with and without mass inflow via the Lagrangian point (L1). Compared with previous similar studies, we find the following new results. (1) The linear wave dispersion relation fits the pitch angles of spiral density waves very well. (2) We demonstrate explicitly that mass accretion is driven by the deposition of negative angular momentum carried by the waves when they dissipate in shocks. (3) Using Reynolds stress scaled by gas pressure to represent the effective angular momentum transport rate {α }{eff} is not accurate when mass accretion is driven by non-axisymmetric shocks. (4) Using the mass accretion rate measured in our simulations to directly measure α defined in standard thin-disk theory, we find 0.02≲ {α }{eff}≲ 0.05 for CV disks, consistent with observed values in quiescent states of dwarf novae. In this regime, the disk may be too cool and neutral for the MRI to operate and spiral shocks are a possible accretion mechanism. However, we caution that our simulations use unrealistically low Mach numbers in this regime and, therefore, future models with more realistic thermodynamics and non-ideal MHD are warranted.
Fire simulation for a 3D character with particles and motion capture data in Blender
Hoikkala, Ville
2016-01-01
The object of this thesis was to study particle based simulations in 3D and how they can be applied to motion capture data. The theoretical part examines the history of 3D and computer graphics concisely and finally particles and simulations. The practical part consists of the case-work involving a fire emitting particle simulation. The study examines two methods of creating a fire simulation in Blender and how they influence the outlook of the particles. It was found that the fire si...
NVision: A 3D Visualization Environment for N-Body Simulations
Markiel, J. A.
2000-05-01
NVision: A 3D Visualization Environment for N-Body Simulations We are developing a set of packages for 3D visualization and analysis of our numerical N-body simulations. These tools are intended to be generalizable to a wide range of related problems including cosmological, planetary dynamics, and molecular dynamics simulations. The applications and source code will be fully available to the community. To prototype this project we have adopted the Java platform with the newly released Java3D extension to take advantage of its portability, object-oriented environment, and availability of extensive documentation and class libraries. We will describe the goals and design principles of the project and demo the currently implemented features, including visualization of cosmological simulations and the simulated collision of two rubble-pile asteroids. This research is supported by NSF grants AST99-73209 and AST99-79891.
MHD-Vlasov simulation of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode
A new simulation method has been developed to investigate the excitation and saturation processes of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE modes). The background plasma is described by a full-MHD fluid model, while the kinetic evolution of energetic alpha particles is followed by the drift kinetic equation. The magnetic fluctuation of n = 2 mode develops and saturates at the level of 1.8x10-3 of the equilibrium field when the initial beta of alpha particles is 2% at the magnetic axis. After saturation, the TAE mode amplitude shows an oscillatory behavior with a frequency corresponding to the bounce frequency of the alpha particles trapped by the TEA mode. The decrease of the power transfer rate from the alpha particles to the TAE mode, which is due to the trapped particle effect of a finite-amplitude wave, causes the saturation. From the linear growth rate the saturation level can be estimated. (author)
Completion of PCFLOW3D Model for Simulation of Flow and Dispersion of Pollutants
Kovšca, Jasna
2007-01-01
An upgrade of the three-dimensional baroclinic mathematical model PCFLOW3D with a new turbulence model Smagorinsky-vertical is presented. Several test cases were made to compare this new turbulence model with other turbulence models already built in the PCFLOW3D model. Additional verifications of the test results were performed using the commercial software CORMIX of which main purpose is to simulate the near field areas of pollution inflows. CORMIX is restricted to steady flow...
3D-Simulation und Planung von Anlagen der Hütten- und Walzwerkstechnik
Oppermann, Ingo
2009-01-01
In der Präsentation werden typische Engineeringaufgaben präsentiert, die mit modernen IT-Werkzeugen erledigt werden. Es wird auf die Einführung und die Durchgängigkeit eines 3D-CAD-Systems eingegangen und gezeigt, wie mit diesem System Simulations- und Prozesskettenthemen in der Praxis bei der SMS Siemag AG behandelt werden. Ebenfalls anhand von Beispielen wird die Thematik der großen Baugruppen und der Anlagenplanung im 3D-Engineering dargestellt.
Efficient use of 3d environment models for mobile robot simulation and localization
Corominas Murtra, Andreu; Trulls, Eduard; Mirats-Tur, Josep M.; Sanfeliu, Alberto
2010-01-01
This paper provides a detailed description of a set of algorithms to efficiently manipulate 3D geometric models to compute physical constraints and range observation models, data that is usually required in real-time mobile robotics or simulation. Our approach uses a standard file format to describe the environment and processes the model using the openGL library, a widely-used programming interface for 3D scene manipulation. The paper also presents results on a test model for benchmarking, a...
Web-Based 3D and Haptic Interactive Environments for e-Learning, Simulation, and Training
Hamza-Lup, Felix G.; Sopin, Ivan
Knowledge creation occurs in the process of social interaction. As our service-based society is evolving into a knowledge-based society, there is an acute need for more effective collaboration and knowledge-sharing systems to be used by geographically scattered people. We present the use of 3D components and standards, such as Web3D, in combination with the haptic paradigm, for e-Learning and simulation.
Simulations of Coulomb systems with slab geometry using an efficient 3D Ewald summation method
dos Santos, Alexandre P.; Girotto, Matheus; Levin, Yan
2016-04-01
We present a new approach to efficiently simulate electrolytes confined between infinite charged walls using a 3d Ewald summation method. The optimal performance is achieved by separating the electrostatic potential produced by the charged walls from the electrostatic potential of electrolyte. The electric field produced by the 3d periodic images of the walls is constant inside the simulation cell, with the field produced by the transverse images of the charged plates canceling out. The non-neutral confined electrolyte in an external potential can be simulated using 3d Ewald summation with a suitable renormalization of the electrostatic energy, to remove a divergence, and a correction that accounts for the conditional convergence of the resulting lattice sum. The new algorithm is at least an order of magnitude more rapid than the usual simulation methods for the slab geometry and can be further sped up by adopting a particle-particle particle-mesh approach.
3D Simulation of External Flooding Events for the RISMC Pathway
Incorporating 3D simulations as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMIC) Toolkit allows analysts to obtain a more complete picture of complex system behavior for events including external plant hazards. External events such as flooding have become more important recently – however these can be analyzed with existing and validated simulated physics toolkits. In this report, we describe these approaches specific to flooding-based analysis using an approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The theory, validation, and example applications of the 3D flooding simulation are described. Integrating these 3D simulation methods into computational risk analysis provides a spatial/visual aspect to the design, improves the realism of results, and can prove visual understanding to validate the analysis of flooding.
3D Simulation of External Flooding Events for the RISMC Pathway
Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sampath, Ramprasad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lin, Linyu [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-09-01
Incorporating 3D simulations as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMIC) Toolkit allows analysts to obtain a more complete picture of complex system behavior for events including external plant hazards. External events such as flooding have become more important recently – however these can be analyzed with existing and validated simulated physics toolkits. In this report, we describe these approaches specific to flooding-based analysis using an approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The theory, validation, and example applications of the 3D flooding simulation are described. Integrating these 3D simulation methods into computational risk analysis provides a spatial/visual aspect to the design, improves the realism of results, and can prove visual understanding to validate the analysis of flooding.
Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Tony Koonce
2014-09-01
Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a prototype for using 3D modeling and simulation engine to improve risk analysis and evaluate reactor structures and components for a given scenario. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.
Application of 3-D numerical simulation software SRIFCAST to produce ductile iron castings
无
2005-01-01
Based on a method using numerical simulation equations and their solution schemes for liquid metal flows and heat transfer during mold filling and the solidification process of casting, 3-D numerical simulation software SRIFCAST was created. This includes enmeshment of casting; velocity and temperature fields calculation; displaying iso-temperature lines;velocity vectors and 3-D temperature fields on a Windows 9x operating system. SRIFCAST was applied to produce sound castings of automobile and diesel engines, and also to connect with microstructure simulation for ductile iron castings.
Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jie; Hess, Phillip; Wang, Yuming; Feng, Xueshang; Cheng, Hongze; Yang, Yi
2015-01-01
The dynamic process of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the heliosphere provides us the key information for evaluating CMEs' geo-effectiveness and improving the accurate prediction of CME induced Shock Arrival Time (SAT) at the Earth. We present a data constrained three dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the evolution of the CME in a realistic ambient solar wind for the July 12-16, 2012 event by using the 3D COIN-TVD MHD code. A detailed comparison of the kinematic evolution of the CME between the observations and the simulation is carried out, including the usage of the time-elongation maps from the perspectives of both Stereo A and Stereo B. In this case study, we find that our 3D COIN-TVD MHD model, with the magnetized plasma blob as the driver, is able to re-produce relatively well the real 3D nature of the CME in morphology and their evolution from the Sun to Earth. The simulation also provides a relatively satisfactory comparison with the in-situ plasma data from the Wind spacecraf...
This paper deals with 3D MHD modelling of the behaviour of a tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma arc in a batch reactor under peculiar conditions of low current (0.35 A) and very high pressure (50 atm). The first part of the manuscript presents results for a horizontal configuration of the reactor, as is undertaken experimentally. The model has led to the understanding of the instabilities observed experimentally for such unusual operating conditions. The curved shape of the arc and the sliding of the anodic arc root along the electrode have been revealed to be the source of the experimental instabilities. The latter part of the manuscript investigates the effect of two vertical configurations of the reactor; with a cathode at the top and cathode at the bottom to overcome the instabilities. In these reactor configurations, the arc is much more stable and stays centred in the middle of the electrodes. These configurations are more suitable for the stability of the arc discharge, but have to be verified experimentally. (paper)
Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D. S.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C. S.; Intriligator, J.
2012-01-01
We describe our 3-D, time ]dependent, MHD solar wind model that we recently modified to include the physics of pickup protons from interstellar neutral hydrogen. The model has a time-dependent lower boundary condition, at 0.1 AU, that is driven by source surface map files through an empirical interface module. We describe the empirical interface and its parameter tuning to maximize model agreement with background (quiet) solar wind observations at ACE. We then give results of a simulation study of the famous Halloween 2003 series of solar events. We began with shock inputs from the Fearless Forecast real ]time shock arrival prediction study, and then we iteratively adjusted input shock speeds to obtain agreement between observed and simulated shock arrival times at ACE. We then extended the model grid to 5.5 AU and compared those simulation results with Ulysses observations at 5.2 AU. Next we undertook the more difficult tuning of shock speeds and locations to get matching shock arrival times at both ACE and Ulysses. Then we ran this last case again with neutral hydrogen density set to zero, to identify the effect of pickup ions. We show that the speed of interplanetary shocks propagating from the Sun to Ulysses is reduced by the effects of pickup protons. We plan to make further improvements to the model as we continue our benchmarking process to 10 AU, comparing our results with Cassini observations, and eventually on to 100 AU, comparing our results with Voyager 1 and 2 observations.
Calculation of residual stresses by means of a 3D numerical weld simulation
Nicak, Tomas; Huemmer, Matthias [AREVA NP GmbH, Postfach 1109 (Germany)
2008-07-01
The numerical weld simulation has developed very fast in recent years. The problem complexity has increased from simple 2D models to full 3D models, which can describe the entire welding process more realistically. As recent research projects indicate, a quantitative assessment of the residual stresses by means of a 3D analysis is possible. The structure integrity can be assessed based on the weld simulation results superimposed with the operating load. Moreover, to support the qualification of welded components parametric studies for optimization of the residual stress distribution in the weld region can be performed. In this paper a full 3D numerical weld simulation for a man-hole drainage nozzle in a steam generator will be presented. The residual stresses are calculated by means of an uncoupled transient thermal and mechanical FE analysis. The paper will present a robust procedure allowing reasonable predictions of the residual stresses for complex structures in industrial practice. (authors)
Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E
2011-01-01
We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645
Simulating binocular vision for no-reference 3D visual quality measurement.
Zhou, Wu-Jie; Yu, Lu; Wu, Ming-Wei
2015-09-01
Perceptual quality measurement of three-dimensional (3D) visual signals has become a fundamental challenge in 3D imaging fields. This paper proposes a novel no-reference (NR) 3D visual quality measurement (VQM) metric that uses simulations of the primary visual cortex (V1) of binocular vision. As the major technical contribution of this study, perceptual properties of simple and complex cells are considered for NR 3D-VQM. More specifically, the metric simulates the receptive fields of simple cells (one class of V1 neurons) using Gaussian derivative functions, and the receptive fields of complex cells (the other class of V1 neurons) using disparity energy responses and binocular rivalry responses. Subsequently, various quality-aware features are extracted from the primary visual cortex; these will change in the presence of distortions. Finally, those features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted 3D visual signal by using support vector regression (SVR). Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of our proposed metric, compared to the relevant full-reference (FR) and NR metrics. PMID:26368467
Madura, Thomas; Gull, Theodore R.; Clementel, Nicola; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Kruip, Chael; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Teodoro, Mairan
2015-01-01
We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (>120 MSun), highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9) binary Eta Carinae. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of Eta Carinae's inner (r ~110 AU) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. These 3D prints reveal important, previously unknown 'finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ~1.045) that protrude radially outward from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively-cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the hot, adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unknown physical features highlight the important role 3D printing can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.
Ku, H. C.; Sibeck, D. G.; Wing, S.
2001-12-01
An accurate knowledge of the magnetosheath is essential for studies of the bow shock, magnetopause, and solar input into the magnetosphere. Gasdynamic models may not give sufficient accuracy whereas the cost/time constraints preclude running the 3-D MHD global simulations for numerous solar wind conditions. A 3-D magnetosheath MHD model is needed and presented as a viable alternative. The inner boundary of the model is the magnetopause, which has been previously determined from the pressure balance and exhibits a small indentation near the cusp regions. The initial position of the bow shock is taken from a gasdynamic model and subsequently adjusted when the magnetic field is included. The results of the gasdynamic and MHD models are compared with the following input parameters: the heat capacity ration γ = 2, the solar wind sonic Mach number, M∞ = 7, 9.81 (solar wind velocity v = 400 ; km ; s-1), temperature T = 105, 1.96 x 105 K, n = 10 ; cm-3, Bx = 10 \\cos θ \\cos φ ; nT, By = 10 \\cos θ sin φ ; nT, and Bz = 10 sin θ ; nT. There is a pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetry for both Mack numbers, and the presence of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field results in an equatorial belt of depressed depletion layer densities and plasma pressures between the cusp. The missing pressure is supplied by an equatorial band of enhanced magnetic field strengths. Near the subsolar point MHD densities fall to values 60% and 45 % of those in the gasdynamic models for M∞ = 9.81 and 7, resepctively. However, the standoff distance of bow shock increases significantly with stronger southward field component for low Mack numbers. By contrast, a standing shock wave attached to the the cusp becomes particularly noticeable for a strong dawn-dusk IMF orientation and high Mach numbers (M∞ = 9.81).
Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface thermal behavior with 3D dynamic gap element
Most of the fuel performance codes that are able to simulate a multidimensional analysis are used to calculate the radial temperature distribution and perform a multidimensional mechanical analysis based on a one-dimensional (1D) temperature result. The FRAPCON-FRAPTRAN code system incorporates a 1D thermal module and two-dimensional (2D) mechanical module when FEM option is activated. In this method, the multidimensional gap conductance model is not required because one-dimensional thermal analysis is carried out. On the other hand, a gap conductance model for a multi-dimension should be developed in the code to perform a multidimensional thermal analysis. ALCYONE developed by CEA introduces an equivalent heat convection coefficient that represents the multidimensional gap conductance. However, the code does not employ dynamic gap conductance which is a function of gap thickness and gap characteristics in direct. The BISON code, which has been developed by INL (Idaho National Laboratory), employed a thermo-mechanical contact method that is specifically designed for tightly-coupled implicit solutions that employ Jacobian-free solution methods. Owing to tightly-coupled implicit solutions, the BISON code solves gap conductance and gap thickness simultaneously with given boundary conditions. In this paper, 3D dynamic gap element has been proposed to resolve convergence issue and nonlinear characteristic of multidimensional gap conductance. To evaluate 3D dynamic gap element module, 3D thermomechanical module using FORTRAN77 has been implemented incorporating 3D dynamic gap element. To demonstrate effect of 3D dynamic gap element, thermal behavior of missing pellet surface (MPS) has been simulated by the developed module. LWR fuel performance codes should incorporate thermo-mechanical loop to solve gap conductance problem, iteratively. However, gap conductance in multidimensional model is difficult issue owing to its nonlinearity and convergence characteristics. In
Study of 3-D Numerical Simulation for Gas Transfer in the Goaf of the Coal Mining
WU Zheng-yan; JIANG Shu-guang; HE Xin-jian; WANG Lan-yun; LIN Bai-quan
2007-01-01
In order to simulate field distribution rules, mathematical models for 3-D air flows and gas transfer in the goaf of the coal mining are established, based on theories of permeability and dynamic dispersion through porous media. A gas dispersion equation in a 3-D field is calculated by use of numerical method on a weighted upstream multi-element balance. Based on data of an example with a U type ventilation mode, surface charts of air pressure distribution and gas concentration are drawn by Graphtool software. Finally, a comparison between actually measured results in the model test and the numerical simulation results is made to proves the numerical implementation feasible.
3-D NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW THROUGH AN ORIFICE SPILL-WAY TUNNEL
无
2002-01-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approachbased on the weakly compressible hydrodynamic equation with a single-plase fluid model for the cavitation flow has been de-veloped and employed in simulating 3-D unsteady viscous flowthrough an orifice type spillwy tunnel. The finite volume ap-proach in space and the predictor-corrector method in timehave been used to the numerical discretization, and the "Lawof wall" is applied at the solid boundary. The velocity, pres-sure fields and the cavitation phenomenon are obtained, thecomputational results show that 3-D LES approach can givemore realistic flow field prediction of the orifice type spillwaytunnel.