WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d materials science

  1. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use. PMID:27184494

  2. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  3. 3D imaging by serial block face scanning electron microscopy for materials science using ultramicrotomy.

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Thompson, George E; Zhou, Xiaorong; Withers, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) has emerged as a means of obtaining three dimensional (3D) electron images over volumes much larger than possible by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning and at higher spatial resolution than achievable with conventional X-ray computed tomography (CT). Such high resolution 3D electron images can be employed for precisely determining the shape, volume fraction, distribution and connectivity of important microstructural features. While soft (fixed or frozen) biological samples are particularly well suited for nanoscale sectioning using an ultramicrotome, the technique can also produce excellent 3D images at electron microscope resolution in a time and resource-efficient manner for engineering materials. Currently, a lack of appreciation of the capabilities of ultramicrotomy and the operational challenges associated with minimising artefacts for different materials is limiting its wider application to engineering materials. Consequently, this paper outlines the current state of the art for SBFSEM examining in detail how damage is introduced during slicing and highlighting strategies for minimising such damage. A particular focus of the study is the acquisition of 3D images for a variety of metallic and coated systems. PMID:26855205

  4. New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre lengthscale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging

    Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Reischig, P.;

    2009-01-01

    Non-destructive, three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the grain structure in mono-phase polycrystalline materials is an open challenge in material science. Recent advances in synchrotron based X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer interesting possibilities for mapping 3D grain shapes...... and crystallographic orientations for certain categories of polycrystalline materials. Direct visualisation of the three-dimensional grain boundary network or of two-phase (duplex) grain structures by means of absorption and/or phase contrast techniques may be possible, but is restricted to specific...... material systems. A recent extension of this methodology, termed X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT), combines the principles of X-ray diffraction imaging, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (3DXRD) and image reconstruction from projections. DCT provides simultaneous access to 3D grain...

  5. New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre lengthscale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging

    Non-destructive, three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the grain structure in mono-phase polycrystalline materials is an open challenge in material science. Recent advances in synchrotron based X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer interesting possibilities for mapping 3D grain shapes and crystallographic orientations for certain categories of polycrystalline materials. Direct visualisation of the three-dimensional grain boundary network or of two-phase (duplex) grain structures by means of absorption and/or phase contrast techniques may be possible, but is restricted to specific material systems. A recent extension of this methodology, termed X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT), combines the principles of X-ray diffraction imaging, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (3DXRD) and image reconstruction from projections. DCT provides simultaneous access to 3D grain shape, crystallographic orientation and local attenuation coefficient distribution. The technique applies to the larger range of plastically undeformed, polycrystalline mono-phase materials, provided some conditions on grain size and texture are fulfilled. The straightforward combination with high-resolution microtomography opens interesting new possibilities for the observation of microstructure related damage and deformation mechanisms in these materials.

  6. Bringing 3D Printing to Geophysical Science Education

    Boghosian, A.; Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    3D printing technology has been embraced by many technical fields, and is rapidly making its way into peoples' homes and schools. While there is a growing educational and hobbyist community engaged in the STEM focused technical and intellectual challenges associated with 3D printing, there is unrealized potential for the earth science community to use 3D printing to communicate scientific research to the public. Moreover, 3D printing offers scientists the opportunity to connect students and the public with novel visualizations of real data. As opposed to introducing terrestrial measurements through the use of colormaps and gradients, scientists can represent 3D concepts with 3D models, offering a more intuitive education tool. Furthermore, the tactile aspect of models make geophysical concepts accessible to a wide range of learning styles like kinesthetic or tactile, and learners including both visually impaired and color-blind students.We present a workflow whereby scientists, students, and the general public will be able to 3D print their own versions of geophysical datasets, even adding time through layering to include a 4th dimension, for a "4D" print. This will enable scientists with unique and expert insights into the data to easily create the tools they need to communicate their research. It will allow educators to quickly produce teaching aids for their students. Most importantly, it will enable the students themselves to translate the 2D representation of geophysical data into a 3D representation of that same data, reinforcing spatial reasoning.

  7. Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials

    Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect

  8. Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials

    Salehi, M. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, S.A., E-mail: jafari@physics.sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Complex Systems and Condensed Matter (CSCM), Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 1458889694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect.

  9. Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials

    Salehi, M.; Jafari, S. A.

    2015-08-01

    Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect.

  10. Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing of composite materials

    Kokkinis, Dimitri; Schaffner, Manuel; Studart, André R.

    2015-10-01

    3D printing has become commonplace for the manufacturing of objects with unusual geometries. Recent developments that enabled printing of multiple materials indicate that the technology can potentially offer a much wider design space beyond unusual shaping. Here we show that a new dimension in this design space can be exploited through the control of the orientation of anisotropic particles used as building blocks during a direct ink-writing process. Particle orientation control is demonstrated by applying low magnetic fields on deposited inks pre-loaded with magnetized stiff platelets. Multimaterial dispensers and a two-component mixing unit provide additional control over the local composition of the printed material. The five-dimensional design space covered by the proposed multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing platform (MM-3D printing) opens the way towards the manufacturing of functional heterogeneous materials with exquisite microstructural features thus far only accessible by biological materials grown in nature.

  11. Applied 3D printing for microscopy in health science research

    Brideau, Craig; Zareinia, Kourosh; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The rapid prototyping capability offered by 3D printing is considered advantageous for commercial applications. However, the ability to quickly produce precision custom devices is highly beneficial in the research laboratory setting as well. Biological laboratories require the manipulation and analysis of delicate living samples, thus the ability to create custom holders, support equipment, and adapters allow the extension of existing laboratory machines. Applications include camera adapters and stage sample holders for microscopes, surgical guides for tissue preparation, and small precision tools customized to unique specifications. Where high precision is needed, especially the reproduction of fine features, a printer with a high resolution is needed. However, the introduction of cheaper, lower resolution commercial printers have been shown to be more than adequate for less demanding projects. For direct manipulation of delicate samples, biocompatible raw materials are often required, complicating the printing process. This paper will examine some examples of 3D-printed objects for laboratory use, and provide an overview of the requirements for 3D printing for this application. Materials, printing resolution, production, and ease of use will all be reviewed with an eye to producing better printers and techniques for laboratory applications. Specific case studies will highlight applications for 3D-printed devices in live animal imaging for both microscopy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  12. 3D MULTI-SCALE SEGMENTATION OF GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Vincent Tariel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On a microscopic scale, a pyrotechnic material is made of a polymer matrix containing grains with different sizes and shapes. Its physical behaviour can be predicted by homogenization. Information about the morphology of the grains can be obtained by different ways. One of these ways is 3D image processing. This has been made easier by the use of a new imaging technique, the microtomography, allowing fast threedimensional reconstruction and processing. In this paper images of two granular materials are segmented by means of 3D mathematicalmorphology algorithms, based on a multi-scale extraction of markers for watershed segmentation.

  13. The science case for the EISCAT_3D radar

    McCrea, Ian; Aikio, Anita; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Belova, Evgenia; Buchert, Stephan; Clilverd, Mark; Engler, Norbert; Gustavsson, Björn; Heinselman, Craig; Kero, Johan; Kosch, Mike; Lamy, Hervé; Leyser, Thomas; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Pitout, Frederic; Rapp, Markus; Stanislawska, Iwona; Vierinen, Juha

    2015-12-01

    The EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATer) Scientific Association has provided versatile incoherent scatter (IS) radar facilities on the mainland of northern Scandinavia (the EISCAT UHF and VHF radar systems) and on Svalbard (the electronically scanning radar ESR (EISCAT Svalbard Radar) for studies of the high-latitude ionised upper atmosphere (the ionosphere). The mainland radars were constructed about 30 years ago, based on technological solutions of that time. The science drivers of today, however, require a more flexible instrument, which allows measurements to be made from the troposphere to the topside ionosphere and gives the measured parameters in three dimensions, not just along a single radar beam. The possibility for continuous operation is also an essential feature. To facilitatefuture science work with a world-leading IS radar facility, planning of a new radar system started first with an EU-funded Design Study (2005-2009) and has continued with a follow-up EU FP7 EISCAT_3D Preparatory Phase project (2010-2014). The radar facility will be realised by using phased arrays, and a key aspect is the use of advanced software and data processing techniques. This type of software radar will act as a pathfinder for other facilities worldwide. The new radar facility will enable the EISCAT_3D science community to address new, significant science questions as well as to serve society, which is increasingly dependent on space-based technology and issues related to space weather. The location of the radar within the auroral oval and at the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex is also ideal for studies of the long-term variability in the atmosphere and global change. This paper is a summary of the EISCAT_3D science case, which was prepared as part of the EU-funded Preparatory Phase project for the new facility. Three science working groups, drawn from the EISCAT user community, participated in preparing this document. In addition to these working group members, who

  14. 3D printing of natural organic materials by photochemistry

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Joyce Laura; Valandro, Silvano Rodrigo; Wu, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Mettra, Bastien; Monnereau, Cyrille; Schmitt Cavalheiro, Carla Cristina; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Focsan, Monica; Lin, Chih-Lang; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2016-03-01

    In previous works, we have used two-photon induced photochemistry to fabricate 3D microstructures based on proteins, anti-bodies, and enzymes for different types of bio-applications. Among them, we can cite collagen lines to guide the movement of living cells, peptide modified GFP biosensing pads to detect Gram positive bacteria, anti-body pads to determine the type of red blood cells, and trypsin columns in a microfluidic channel to obtain a real time biochemical micro-reactor. In this paper, we report for the first time on two-photon 3D microfabrication of DNA material. We also present our preliminary results on using a commercial 3D printer based on a video projector to polymerize slicing layers of gelatine-objects.

  15. Materials Manufactured from 3D Printed Synthetic Biology Arrays

    Gentry, Diana; Micks, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Many complex, biologically-derived materials have extremely useful properties (think wood or silk), but are unsuitable for space-related applications due to production, manufacturing, or processing limitations. Large-scale ecosystem-based production, such as raising and harvesting trees for wood, is impractical in a self-contained habitat such as a space station or potential Mars colony. Manufacturing requirements, such as the specialized equipment needed to harvest and process cotton, add too much upmass for current launch technology. Cells in nature are already highly specialized for making complex biological materials on a micro scale. We envision combining these strengths with the recently emergent technologies of synthetic biology and 3D printing to create 3D-structured arrays of cells that are bioengineered to secrete different materials in a specified three-dimensional pattern.

  16. Touring Mars Online, Real-time, in 3D for Math and Science Educators and Students

    Jones, Greg; Kalinowski, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a project that placed over 97% of Mars' topography made available from NASA into an interactive 3D multi-user online learning environment beginning in 2003. In 2005 curriculum materials that were created to support middle school math and science education were developed. Research conducted at the University of North Texas…

  17. Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing of composite materials

    Kokkinis, Dimitri; Schaffner, Manuel; Studart, André R.

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has become commonplace for the manufacturing of objects with unusual geometries. Recent developments that enabled printing of multiple materials indicate that the technology can potentially offer a much wider design space beyond unusual shaping. Here we show that a new dimension in this design space can be exploited through the control of the orientation of anisotropic particles used as building blocks during a direct ink-writing process. Particle orientation control is demonstrat...

  18. 3D multi-scale segmentation of granular materials:

    Contesse, Gérald; Fanget, Alain; Jeulin, Dominique; Tariel, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    On a microscopic scale, a pyrotechnic material is made of a polymer matrix containing grains with different sizes and shapes. Its physical behaviour can be predicted by homogenization. Information about the morphology of the grainscan be obtained by different ways. One of these ways is 3D image processing. This has been made easier by the use of a new imaging technique, the microtomography, allowing fast threedimensional reconstruction and processing. In this paper images of two granular mate...

  19. 3D Multi-Scale Segmentation Of Granular Materials

    Vincent Tariel; Dominique Jeulin; Alain Fanget; Gérald Contesse

    2008-01-01

    On a microscopic scale, a pyrotechnic material is made of a po lymer matrix containing grains with different sizes and shapes. Its physical behaviour can be predicted by homogenization. Information about the morphology of the grains can be obtained by different ways. O ne of these ways is 3D image processing. This has been made easier by the use of a new imaging technique , the microtomography, allowing fast three- dimensional reconstruction and processing. In this paper i mages of two granul...

  20. Towards manipulating relativistic laser pulses with 3D printed materials

    Ji, L. L.; Snyder, J.; Pukhov, A.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K. U.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient coupling of intense laser pulses to solid-density matter is critical to many applications including ion acceleration for cancer therapy. At relativistic intensities, the focus has been mainly on investigating various laser beams irradiating initially flat interfaces with little or no control over the interaction. Here, we propose a novel approach that leverages recent advancements in 3D direct laser writing (DLW) of materials and high contrast lasers to manipulate the laser-matter i...

  1. Towards manipulating relativistic laser pulses with 3D printed materials

    Ji, L L; Pukhov, A; Freeman, R R; Akli, K U

    2015-01-01

    Efficient coupling of intense laser pulses to solid-density matter is critical to many applications including ion acceleration for cancer therapy. At relativistic intensities, the focus has been mainly on investigating various laser beams irradiating initially flat interfaces with little or no control over the interaction. Here, we propose a novel approach that leverages recent advancements in 3D direct laser writing (DLW) of materials and high contrast lasers to manipulate the laser-matter interactions on the micro-scales. We demonstrate, via simulations, that usable intensities >10^23Wcm^(-2) could be achieved with current tabletop lasers coupled to 3D printed plasma lenses. We show that these plasma optical elements act not only as a lens to focus laser light, but also as an electromagnetic guide for secondary particle beams. These results open new paths to engineering light-matter interactions at ultra-relativistic intensities.

  2. Quantifying Interparticle Forces and Heterogeneity in 3D Granular Materials.

    Hurley, R C; Hall, S A; Andrade, J E; Wright, J

    2016-08-26

    Interparticle forces in granular materials are intimately linked to mechanical properties and are known to self-organize into heterogeneous structures, or force chains, under external load. Despite progress in understanding the statistics and spatial distribution of interparticle forces in recent decades, a systematic method for measuring forces in opaque, three-dimensional (3D), frictional, stiff granular media has yet to emerge. In this Letter, we present results from an experiment that combines 3D x-ray diffraction, x-ray tomography, and a numerical force inference technique to quantify interparticle forces and their heterogeneity in an assembly of quartz grains undergoing a one-dimensional compression cycle. Forces exhibit an exponential decay above the mean and partition into strong and weak networks. We find a surprising inverse relationship between macroscopic load and the heterogeneity of interparticle forces, despite the clear emergence of two force chains that span the system. PMID:27610890

  3. Radiation Transport in 3D Heterogeneous Materials: DNS

    In order to develop a phenomenological approach to transport in 3D heterogeneous media, we have performed direct numerical simulation studies. Using an algorithm based on the lattice random walk to generate random media, we have performed radiographic shots of the sample and digitized both the chord length and optical depth distributions. The optical depth distribution is then used to compute an effective mean free path. As theory predicts, the atomically averaged mean free path is always a minimum value. We have also demonstrated a dependency of mean free path on the distribution of random material

  4. 3D deformation field throughout the interior of materials.

    Jin, Huiqing; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2013-09-01

    This report contains the one-year feasibility study for our three-year LDRD proposal that is aimed to develop an experimental technique to measure the 3D deformation fields inside a material body. In this feasibility study, we first apply Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) algorithm to pre-existing in-situ Xray Computed Tomography (XCT) image sets with pure rigid body translation. The calculated displacement field has very large random errors and low precision that are unacceptable. Then we enhance these tomography images by setting threshold of the intensity of each slice. DVC algorithm is able to obtain accurate deformation fields from these enhanced image sets and the deformation fields are consistent with the global mechanical loading that is applied to the specimen. Through this study, we prove that the internal markers inside the pre-existing tomography images of aluminum alloy can be enhanced and are suitable for DVC to calculate the deformation field throughout the material body.

  5. Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis by 3D Integrated Micro-solution Plasma in a 3D Printed Artificial Porous Dielectric Material

    Sotoda, Naoya; Tanaka, Kenji; Shirafuji, Tatsuru

    2015-09-01

    Plasma in contact with HAuCl4 aqueous solution can promote the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. To scale up this process, we have developed 3D integrated micro-solution plasma (3D IMSP). It can generate a large number of argon microplasmas in contact with the aqueous solution flowing in a porous dielectric material. The porous dielectric material in our prototype 3D IMSP reactor, however, consists of non-regularly arranged random-sized pores. These pore parameters may be the parameters for controlling the size and dispersion of synthesized gold nanoparticles. We have hence fabricated a 3D IMSP reactor with an artificial porous dielectric material that has regularly arranged same-sized pores by using a 3D printer. We have applied the reactor to the gold- nanoparticle synthesis. We have confirmed the synthesis of gold nanoparticles through the observation of a plasmon resonance absorption peak at 550 nm in the HAuCl4 aqueous solution treated with 3D IMSP. The size and distribution of the synthesized gold nanoparticles are under investigation. We expect that these characteristics of the gold nanoparticles can be manipulated by changing pore size and their distribution in the porous dielectric material.

  6. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. PMID:27305061

  7. 3D morphological and micromechanical modeling of cementitious materials

    The goal of this thesis is to develop morphological models of cementitious materials and use these models to study their local and effective response. To this aim, 3D images of cementitious materials (mortar and concrete), obtained by micro-tomography, are studied. First, the mortar image is segmented in order to obtain an image of a real microstructure, to be used for linear elasticity computations. The image of concrete is used, after being processed, to determine various morphological characteristics of the material. A random model of concrete is then developed and validated by means of morphological data. This model is made up of three phases, corresponding to the matrix, aggregates and voids. The aggregates phase is modelled by implantation of Poisson polyhedra without overlap. For this purpose, an algorithm suited to the vector generation of Poisson polyhedra is introduced and validated with morphological measurements. Finally, the effective linear elastic properties of the mortar and other simulated microstructures are estimated with the FFT (Fast-Fourier Transform) method, for various contrasts between the aggregates and matrix' Young moduli. To complete this work, focused on effective properties, an analysis of the local elastic response in the matrix phase is undertaken, in order to determine the spatial arrangement between stress concentration zones in the matrix and the phases of the microstructure (aggregates and voids). Moreover, a statistical fields characterization, in the matrix, is achieved, including the determination of the Representative Volume Element (RVE) size. Furthermore, a comparison between effective and local elastic properties obtained from microstructures containing polyhedra and spheres is carried out. (author)

  8. Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM): 3D MAT Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 3D MAT Project seeks to design and develop a game changing Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) technology tailored to meet the needs of the Orion...

  9. Materials Science

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  10. Nested structures approach for bulk 3D negative index materials

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generic conceptual idea to obtain bulk 3D negative index metamaterials, which exhibit isotropic properties. The design is based on the nested structures approach, when one element providing magnetic response is inserted into another design with negative dielectric constant. Both...

  11. 3D Corporate Tourism in the Marine Sciences: Application-Oriented Problem Solving in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

    Gebeshuber, Ille Christine; Esichaikul, Ranee; Macqueen, Mark; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2010-01-01

    3D corporate tourism in the marine sciences is a solution-based approach to innovation in science, engineering and design. Corporate international scientists, engineers and designers work with local experts in Malaysian marine and coastal environments: they jointly discover, develop and design complex materials and designs inspired by nature directly on site (e.g. at the UKM Marine Ecosystem Research Centre EKOMAR and Malaysian Marine Parks) and construct initial biomimetic prototypes and novel designs. Thereby, new links, networks and collaborations are established between communities of thinkers in different countries. 3D tourism aims at mapping new frontiers in emerging engineering and design fields. This provides a novel way to foster and promote innovative thinking in the sciences, and considers the need for synergy and collaboration between marine sciences, engineering and design rather than segmentation and isolation. With the concept of 3D corporate tourism the potential of Malaysian marine ecosystems...

  12. Impact of the 3-D model strategy on science learning of the solar system

    Alharbi, Mohammed

    The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3-D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.

  13. Database Description - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available Oct 3. Pubmed ID: 18835852 Original website information Database maintenance site The Database Center for L...ife Science URL of the original website http://lifesciencedb.jp/bp3d/ Operation s...s http://lifesciencedb.jp/bp3d/info_en/webapi/ Need for user registration - Jooml

  14. 3D Corporate Tourism in the Marine Sciences: Application-Oriented Problem Solving in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

    Gebeshuber, Ille Christine; Matin, Tina Rezaie; Esichaikul, Ranee; Macqueen, Mark; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2010-01-01

    3D corporate tourism in the marine sciences is a solution-based approach to innovation in science, engineering and design. Corporate international scientists, engineers and designers work with local experts in Malaysian marine and coastal environments: they jointly discover, develop and design complex materials and designs inspired by nature directly on site (e.g. at the UKM Marine Ecosystem Research Centre EKOMAR and Malaysian Marine Parks) and construct initial biomimetic prototypes and nov...

  15. Att producera tredimensionellt WebM-material för Nvidia 3D Vision

    Biström, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Nvidia 3D Vision och Nvidia 3D Vision 2 är produktpaket som gör det möjligt att se på 3D material på datorer. Detta arbete baserar sig på dessa produktpaket. Möjligheten att se på 3D-video på nätet kom år 2011, men stödet för produktpaketen är fortfarande dåligt och informationen om hur man skapar 3D webbmaterial är svår att hitta. Syftet är att utreda hur man kan producera 3D material som går att se på webben, och målet är att skapa en webbsida med några 3D testklipp. Arbetet skall hjälpa po...

  16. A model of 3D shape memory alloy materials

    Aiki, Toyohiko

    2005-01-01

    It is a crucial step how to describe the relationship between the strain, the stress and the temperature field, when we consider the mathematical modelling for shape memory alloy materials. From the experimental results we know that the relationship can be described by the hysteresis operators. In this paper we propose a new system consisting of differential equations as a mathematical model for shape memory alloy materials occupying the three dimensional domain. The key of the modelling is t...

  17. 3D manufacturing of micro and nano-architected materials

    Valdevit, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Reducing mass without sacrificing mechanical integrity and performance is a critical goal in a vast range of applications. Introducing a controlled amount of porosity in a strong and dense material (hence fabricating a cellular solid) is an obvious avenue to weight reduction. The mechanical effectiveness of this strategy, though, depends strongly on the architecture of the resulting cellular material (i.e., the topology of the introduced porosity). Recent progress in additive manufacturing enables fabrication of macro-scale cellular materials (both single-phase and hybrid) with unprecedented dimensional control on the unit-cell and sub-unit-cell features, potentially producing architectures with structural hierarchy from the nano to the macro-scale. As mechanical properties of materials often exhibit beneficial size effects at the nano-scale (e.g., strengthening of metals and toughening of ceramics), these novel manufacturing approaches provide a unique opportunity to translate these beneficial effects to the macro-scale, further improving the mechanical performance of architected materials. The enormous design space for architected materials, and the strong relationship between the topological features of the architecture and the effective physical and mechanical properties of the material at the macro-scale, present both a huge opportunity and an urgent need for the development of suitable optimal design strategies. Here we present a number of strategies for the advanced manufacturing, characterization and optimal design of a variety of lightweight architected materials with unique combinations of mechanical properties (stiffness, strength, damping coefficient…). The urgent need to form strong synergies among the fields of additive manufacturing, topology optimization and architectureproperties relations is emphasized throughout.

  18. Dynamic triangulations for efficient 3D simulation of granular materials

    Ferrez, Jean-Albert; Liebling, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    Granular materials are omnipresent in many fields ranging from civil engineering to food, mining and pharmaceutical industries. Often considered a fourth state of matter, they exhibit specific phenomena such as segregation, arching effects, pattern formation, etc. Due to its potential capability of realistically rendering these behaviors, the Distinct Element Method (DEM) is a very enticing simulation technique. Indeed it makes it possible to analyze and observe phenomena that are barely if a...

  19. 3-D behaviour of photopolymers as holographic recording material

    Gallego Rico, Sergi; Ortuño Sánchez, Manuel; Neipp López, Cristian; Márquez Ruiz, Andrés; Kelly, John V.; Sheridan, John T.; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada

    2005-01-01

    Research dealing with models to predict and understand the behaviour of photopolymers have generated many interesting studies considering a 2-dimensional geometry. These models suppose that the photopolymer layer is homogeneous in depth. Using this approximation good results can be obtained if the thickness of photopolymers is less than 200 μm. However, it is well known that Lambert-Beer's law predicts an exponential decay of the light inside the material. In recent years intensive efforts ha...

  20. 3D Magnetic Induction Maps of Nanoscale Materials Revealed by Electron Holographic Tomography

    Wolf, Daniel; RODRIGUEZ, Luis A; Béché, Armand; Javon, Elsa; Serrano, Luis; Magen, Cesar; GATEL, Christophe; Lubk, Axel; Lichte, Hannes; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Fernández-Pacheco, Amalio; De Teresa, José M.; Snoeck, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of three-dimensional (3D) ferromagnetic nanoscale materials constitutes one of the key research areas of the current magnetism roadmap and carries great potential to impact areas such as data storage, sensing, and biomagnetism. The properties of such nanostructures are closely connected with their 3D magnetic nanostructure, making their determination highly valuable. Up to now, quantitative 3D maps providing both the internal magnetic and electric configuration of the same s...

  1. 3D magnetic induction maps of nanoscale materials revealed by electron holographic tomography

    Wolf, Daniel; RODRIGUEZ, Luis A; Béché, Armand; Bals, Sara; Tendeloo, van, G.; et al, ...

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The investigation of three-dimensional (3D) ferromagnetic nanoscale materials constitutes one of the key research areas of the current magnetism roadmap and carries great potential to impact areas such as data storage, sensing, and biomagnetism. The properties of such nanostructures are closely connected with their 3D magnetic nanostructure, making their determination highly valuable. Up to now, quantitative 3D maps providing both the internal magnetic and electric configuration of ...

  2. Effects of 3D Virtual Reality of Plate Tectonics on Fifth Grade Students' Achievement and Attitude toward Science

    Kim, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of a teaching method using 3D virtual reality simulations on achievement and attitude toward science. An experiment was conducted with fifth-grade students (N = 41) to examine the effects of 3D simulations, designed to support inquiry-based science curriculum. An ANOVA analysis revealed that the 3D group scored…

  3. MultiFab: a machine vision assisted platform for multi-material 3D printing

    Sitthi-Amorn, Pitchaya; Ramos, Javier E.; Wangy, Yuwang; KWAN, JOYCE; Lan, Justin; Wang, Wenshou; Matusik, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multi-material 3D printing platform that is high-resolution, low-cost, and extensible. The key part of our platform is an integrated machine vision system. This system allows for self-calibration of printheads, 3D scanning, and a closed-feedback loop to enable print corrections. The integration of machine vision with 3D printing simplifies the overall platform design and enables new applications such as 3D printing over auxiliary parts. Furthermore, our platform dramatical...

  4. Use of 3D printed models in medical education: A randomized control trial comparing 3D prints versus cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy.

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J; Adams, Justin W; McMenamin, Paul G

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on undergraduate medical students without prior formal cardiac anatomy teaching. Following a pre-test examining baseline external cardiac anatomy knowledge, participants were randomly assigned to three groups who underwent self-directed learning sessions using either cadaveric materials, 3D prints, or a combination of cadaveric materials/3D prints (combined materials). Participants were then subjected to a post-test written by a third party. Fifty-two participants completed the trial; 18 using cadaveric materials, 16 using 3D models, and 18 using combined materials. Age and time since completion of high school were equally distributed between groups. Pre-test scores were not significantly different (P = 0.231), however, post-test scores were significantly higher for 3D prints group compared to the cadaveric materials or combined materials groups (mean of 60.83% vs. 44.81% and 44.62%, P = 0.010, adjusted P = 0.012). A significant improvement in test scores was detected for the 3D prints group (P = 0.003) but not for the other two groups. The finding of this pilot study suggests that use of 3D prints do not disadvantage students relative to cadaveric materials; maximally, results suggest that 3D may confer certain benefits to anatomy learning and supports their use and ongoing evaluation as supplements to cadaver-based curriculums. Anat Sci Educ 9: 213-221. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26468636

  5. Use of 3D Printed Models in Medical Education: A Randomized Control Trial Comparing 3D Prints versus Cadaveric Materials for Learning External Cardiac Anatomy

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J.; Adams, Justin W.; McMenamin, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized…

  6. 3D graphene-based hybrid materials: synthesis and applications in energy storage and conversion.

    Shi, Qiurong; Cha, Younghwan; Song, Yang; Lee, Jung-In; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, Xiaoyu; Song, Min-Kyu; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-08-25

    Porous 3D graphene-based hybrid materials (3D GBHMs) are currently attractive nanomaterials employed in the field of energy. Heteroatom-doped 3D graphene and metal, metal oxide, and polymer-decorated 3D graphene with modified electronic and atomic structures provide promising performance as electrode materials in energy storage and conversion. Numerous synthesis methods such as self-assembly, templating, electrochemical deposition, and supercritical CO2, pave the way to mass production of 3D GBHMs in the commercialization of energy devices. This review summarizes recent advances in the fabrication of 3D GBHMs with well-defined architectures such as finely controlled pore sizes, heteroatom doping types and levels. Moreover, current progress toward applications in fuel cells, supercapacitors and batteries employing 3D GBHMs is also highlighted, along with the detailed mechanisms of the enhanced electrochemical performance. Furthermore, current critical issues, challenges and future prospects with respect to applications of 3D GBHMs in practical devices are discussed at the end of this review. PMID:27531643

  7. Defeating anisotropy in material extrusion 3D printing via materials development

    Torrado Perez, Angel Ramon

    Additive Manufacturing technologies has been in continuous development for more than 35 years. Specifically, the later denominated Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing (MEAM), was first developed by S. Scott Crump around 1988 and trademarked later as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Although all of these technologies have been around for a while, it was not until recently that they have been more accessible to everyone. Today, the market of 3D printers covers all ranges of price, from very specialized, heavy and expensive machines, to desktop printers of only a few cubic inches in volume. Until recently, FDM technology had remained somewhat stagnant in terms of developments; however, with the new market boom, scholars and hobbyists have opened new doors for investigation in this area. The technology is now better understood from a software, mechanical, electrical and not less important, materials point of view. The current availability of materials for MEAM is very broad: PLA (Polylactic Acid), ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), PC (Polycarbonate), PEEK (Polyether Ether Ketone), nylon, polyurethanes, and many others. Even so, these are all materials that were used before for other technologies, adapted but not specifically developed for MEAM. The processes that take place during the production of a part are currently not very well understood, and the final properties exhibited are long ways away from reaching the potential of more traditional manufacturing techniques. Due to the nature of the process, all the material properties always display a certain level of anisotropy. The research covered in these pages aims to shed some light on understanding the different mechanics taking place during the extrusion process of additive manufacturing. The development of new materials for MEAM has been explored. Several blends and composites have been developed, and their tensile properties and fracture mechanics evaluated. The blending of different combinations of

  8. Cookoff response of PBXN-109: material characterization and ALE3D model

    McClelland, M A; Tran, T D; Cunningham, B J; Weese, R K; Maienschein, J L

    2000-10-24

    Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and an initial ALE3D model for cookoff is discussed. A significant effort is underway in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the U.S. Navy to validate DOE materials models and computer codes. The ALE3D computer code can model the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of heating and ignition in cookoff tests. In order to provide a predictive capability, materials characterization measurements are being performed to specify parameters in these models. We report on progress in the development of these ALE3D materials models and present measurements as a function of temperature for thermal expansion, heat capacity, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX).

  9. 3D Visualization Types in Multimedia Applications for Science Learning: A Case Study for 8th Grade Students in Greece

    Korakakis, G.; Pavlatou, E. A.; Palyvos, J. A.; Spyrellis, N.

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to determine whether the use of specific types of visualization (3D illustration, 3D animation, and interactive 3D animation) combined with narration and text, contributes to the learning process of 13- and 14- years-old students in science courses. The study was carried out with 212 8th grade students in Greece. This…

  10. 3D Materials & Prototypes: A practice based researcher experience in education

    Taylor, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The main intention of the Textiles Surface Futures 3D Digital Lecture is to: • To communicate and encourage ideas/thinking on and around Textiles & Surface design learner’s reflective practice focusing in particular on learning 3D technologies in Textiles and Surface design. The context of my Lecture and the presentation is a University of Huddersfield funded teaching and learning project. The research data / materials presented in the lecture focus on the tacit and iterative learning...

  11. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS FOR 3D-PRINTING

    Є.О. Бовсуновський; Зінченко, Р. О.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the main materials used for 3D-printing. Particular attention is paid to the study of ecological and technological analysis of the effects of the most widely used material: Polylactic Acid and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, as well as their professional series and Nylon, Polyethylene Terephthalate, TPE on the environment. The article deals with the characteristic features of the physical properties of materials (material) for their intended purpose, according sharing al...

  12. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Leigh, Simon J; Bradley, Robert J; Purssell, Christopher P; Billson, Duncan R; Hutchins, David A

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping') before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:23185319

  13. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Simon J Leigh

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping' before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  14. Two-Photon Absorbing Molecules as Potential Materials for 3D Optical Memory

    Kazuya Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent advances in two-photon absorbing photochromic molecules, as potential materials for 3D optical memory, are presented. The investigations introduced in this review indicate that 3D data storage processing at the molecular level is possible. As 3D memory using two-photon absorption allows advantages over existing systems, the use of two-photon absorbing photochromic molecules is preferable. Although there are some photochromic molecules with good properties for memory, in most cases, the two-photon absorption efficiency is not high. Photochromic molecules with high two-photon absorption efficiency are desired. Recently, molecules having much larger two-photon absorption cross sections over 10,000 GM (GM= 10−50 cm4 s molecule−1 photon−1 have been discovered and are expected to open the way to realize two-photon absorption 3D data storage.

  15. 3D Printed Reversible Shape Changing Components with Stimuli Responsive Materials

    Mao, Yiqi; Ding, Zhen; Yuan, Chao; Ai, Shigang; Isakov, Michael; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2016-04-01

    The creation of reversibly-actuating components that alter their shapes in a controllable manner in response to environmental stimuli is a grand challenge in active materials, structures, and robotics. Here we demonstrate a new reversible shape-changing component design concept enabled by 3D printing two stimuli responsive polymers—shape memory polymers and hydrogels—in prescribed 3D architectures. This approach uses the swelling of a hydrogel as the driving force for the shape change, and the temperature-dependent modulus of a shape memory polymer to regulate the time of such shape change. Controlling the temperature and aqueous environment allows switching between two stable configurations – the structures are relatively stiff and can carry load in each – without any mechanical loading and unloading. Specific shape changing scenarios, e.g., based on bending, or twisting in prescribed directions, are enabled via the controlled interplay between the active materials and the 3D printed architectures. The physical phenomena are complex and nonintuitive, and so to help understand the interplay of geometric, material, and environmental stimuli parameters we develop 3D nonlinear finite element models. Finally, we create several 2D and 3D shape changing components that demonstrate the role of key parameters and illustrate the broad application potential of the proposed approach.

  16. 3D Printed Reversible Shape Changing Components with Stimuli Responsive Materials.

    Mao, Yiqi; Ding, Zhen; Yuan, Chao; Ai, Shigang; Isakov, Michael; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L; Qi, H Jerry

    2016-01-01

    The creation of reversibly-actuating components that alter their shapes in a controllable manner in response to environmental stimuli is a grand challenge in active materials, structures, and robotics. Here we demonstrate a new reversible shape-changing component design concept enabled by 3D printing two stimuli responsive polymers-shape memory polymers and hydrogels-in prescribed 3D architectures. This approach uses the swelling of a hydrogel as the driving force for the shape change, and the temperature-dependent modulus of a shape memory polymer to regulate the time of such shape change. Controlling the temperature and aqueous environment allows switching between two stable configurations - the structures are relatively stiff and can carry load in each - without any mechanical loading and unloading. Specific shape changing scenarios, e.g., based on bending, or twisting in prescribed directions, are enabled via the controlled interplay between the active materials and the 3D printed architectures. The physical phenomena are complex and nonintuitive, and so to help understand the interplay of geometric, material, and environmental stimuli parameters we develop 3D nonlinear finite element models. Finally, we create several 2D and 3D shape changing components that demonstrate the role of key parameters and illustrate the broad application potential of the proposed approach. PMID:27109063

  17. 3D Printed Reversible Shape Changing Components with Stimuli Responsive Materials

    Mao, Yiqi; Ding, Zhen; Yuan, Chao; Ai, Shigang; Isakov, Michael; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2016-01-01

    The creation of reversibly-actuating components that alter their shapes in a controllable manner in response to environmental stimuli is a grand challenge in active materials, structures, and robotics. Here we demonstrate a new reversible shape-changing component design concept enabled by 3D printing two stimuli responsive polymers—shape memory polymers and hydrogels—in prescribed 3D architectures. This approach uses the swelling of a hydrogel as the driving force for the shape change, and the temperature-dependent modulus of a shape memory polymer to regulate the time of such shape change. Controlling the temperature and aqueous environment allows switching between two stable configurations – the structures are relatively stiff and can carry load in each – without any mechanical loading and unloading. Specific shape changing scenarios, e.g., based on bending, or twisting in prescribed directions, are enabled via the controlled interplay between the active materials and the 3D printed architectures. The physical phenomena are complex and nonintuitive, and so to help understand the interplay of geometric, material, and environmental stimuli parameters we develop 3D nonlinear finite element models. Finally, we create several 2D and 3D shape changing components that demonstrate the role of key parameters and illustrate the broad application potential of the proposed approach. PMID:27109063

  18. Modeling heterogeneous materials failure: 3D meso-scale models with embedded discontinuities

    Benkemoun, Nathan; Hautefeuille, Martin; Colliat, Jean-Baptiste; Ibrahimbegovic, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    We present a meso-scale model for failure of heterogeneous quasi-brittle materials. The model problem of heterogeneous materials that is addressed in detail is based on two-phase 3D representation of reinforced heterogeneous materials, such as concrete, where the inclusions are melt within the matrix. The quasi-brittle failure mechanisms are described by the spatial truss representation, which is defined by the chosen Voronoi mesh. In order to explicitly incorporate heterogeneities with no ne...

  19. A Study on the Exploration of Electrostatic Powder Coating Materials Suitable for 3D Scanning

    Maeng Hee-young

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many difficulty in collecting data from a diffused reflection surface using an optical 3D scanning device. A spray-type developer and silicon molds are used for solving this problem. However, using developer can cause chemical reactions between objects and developer particles and uneven surfaces of the object. To overcome these problems, it is suggested an electrostatic powder coating method for even coating of particles onto surfaces for collecting 3D shape data. We have developed an automatic, electrostatic powder coating machine. The present study is aimed to explore powder materials suitable for electrostatic powder coating in terms of the easiness of coating work considering the characteristics of object surface. It was also conducted to verify materials that are smoothly coated well under various coating conditions and are advantageous in collecting 3D shape data.

  20. A 3D domain decomposition approach for the identification of spatially varying elastic material parameters

    Moussawi, Ali

    2015-02-24

    Summary: The post-treatment of (3D) displacement fields for the identification of spatially varying elastic material parameters is a large inverse problem that remains out of reach for massive 3D structures. We explore here the potential of the constitutive compatibility method for tackling such an inverse problem, provided an appropriate domain decomposition technique is introduced. In the method described here, the statically admissible stress field that can be related through the known constitutive symmetry to the kinematic observations is sought through minimization of an objective function, which measures the violation of constitutive compatibility. After this stress reconstruction, the local material parameters are identified with the given kinematic observations using the constitutive equation. Here, we first adapt this method to solve 3D identification problems and then implement it within a domain decomposition framework which allows for reduced computational load when handling larger problems.

  1. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  2. Micro 3D printing using a digital projector and its application in the study of soft materials mechanics.

    Lee, Howon; Fang, Nicholas X

    2012-01-01

    Buckling is a classical topic in mechanics. While buckling has long been studied as one of the major structural failure modes(1), it has recently drawn new attention as a unique mechanism for pattern transformation. Nature is full of such examples where a wealth of exotic patterns are formed through mechanical instability(2-5). Inspired by this elegant mechanism, many studies have demonstrated creation and transformation of patterns using soft materials such as elastomers and hydrogels(6-11). Swelling gels are of particular interest because they can spontaneously trigger mechanical instability to create various patterns without the need of external force(6-10). Recently, we have reported demonstration of full control over buckling pattern of micro-scaled tubular gels using projection micro-stereolithography (PμSL), a three-dimensional (3D) manufacturing technology capable of rapidly converting computer generated 3D models into physical objects at high resolution(12,13). Here we present a simple method to build up a simplified PμSL system using a commercially available digital data projector to study swelling-induced buckling instability for controlled pattern transformation. A simple desktop 3D printer is built using an off-the-shelf digital data projector and simple optical components such as a convex lens and a mirror(14). Cross-sectional images extracted from a 3D solid model is projected on the photosensitive resin surface in sequence, polymerizing liquid resin into a desired 3D solid structure in a layer-by-layer fashion. Even with this simple configuration and easy process, arbitrary 3D objects can be readily fabricated with sub-100 μm resolution. This desktop 3D printer holds potential in the study of soft material mechanics by offering a great opportunity to explore various 3D geometries. We use this system to fabricate tubular shaped hydrogel structure with different dimensions. Fixed on the bottom to the substrate, the tubular gel develops

  3. Implementation of a Stress-dependent Strength Material Model in PLAXIS 3D

    Knudsen, Bjørn S.; Østergaard, Martin Underlin; Clausen, Johan

    , and in the region of small stresses, a non-linear behaviour is observed - unlike the linear behaviour normally assumed in Mohr-Coulomb. To better model this non-linearity, a stress-dependent model for the strength of the soil material is sought to be implemented in PLAXIS 3D through FORTRAN to improve...

  4. A 3D Osteoblast In Vitro Model for the Evaluation of Biomedical Materials

    Luciana Restle; Daniela Costa-Silva; Emanuelle Stellet Lourenço; Rober Freitas Bachinski; Ana Carolina Batista; Adriana Brandão Ribeiro Linhares; Gutemberg Gomes Alves

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical materials for bone therapy are usually assessed for their biocompatibility and safety employing animal models or in vitro monolayer cell culture assays. However, alternative in vitro models may offer controlled conditions closer to physiological responses and reduce animal testing. In this work, we developed a 3D spheroidal cell culture with potential to evaluate simultaneously material-cell and cell-cell interactions. Different cell densities of murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts or h...

  5. Separating the Representation from the Science: Training Students in Comprehending 3D Diagrams

    Bemis, K. G.; Silver, D.; Chiang, J.; Halpern, D.; Oh, K.; Tremaine, M.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of students taking first year geology and earth science courses at universities find that a remarkable number of them are confused by the three-dimensional representations used to explain the science [1]. Comprehension of these 3D representations has been found to be related to an individual's spatial ability [2]. A variety of interactive programs and animations have been created to help explain the diagrams to beginning students [3, 4]. This work has demonstrated comprehension improvement and removed a gender gap between male (high spatial) and female (low spatial) students [5]. However, not much research has examined what makes the 3D diagrams so hard to understand or attempted to build a theory for creating training designed to remove these difficulties. Our work has separated the science labeling and comprehension of the diagrams from the visualizations to examine how individuals mentally see the visualizations alone. In particular, we asked subjects to create a cross-sectional drawing of the internal structure of various 3D diagrams. We found that viewing planes (the coordinate system the designer applies to the diagram), cutting planes (the planes formed by the requested cross sections) and visual property planes (the planes formed by the prominent features of the diagram, e.g., a layer at an angle of 30 degrees to the top surface of the diagram) that deviated from a Cartesian coordinate system imposed by the viewer caused significant problems for subjects, in part because these deviations forced them to mentally re-orient their viewing perspective. Problems with deviations in all three types of plane were significantly harder than those deviating on one or two planes. Our results suggest training that does not focus on showing how the components of various 3D geologic formations are put together but rather training that guides students in re-orienting themselves to deviations that differ from their right-angle view of the world, e.g., by showing how

  6. Preliminary Study for Dosimetric Characteristics of 3D-printed Materials with Megavoltage Photons

    Jeong, Seonghoon; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    In these days, 3D-printer is on the rise in various fields including radiation therapy. This preliminary study aimed to estimate the dose characteristics of the 3D-printer materials which could be used as the compensator or immobilizer in radiation treatment. The cubes which have 5cm length and different densities as 50%, 75% and 100% were printed by 3D-printer. A planning CT scans for cubes were performed using a CT simulator (Brilliance CT, Philips Medical System, Netherlands). Dose distributions behind the cube were calculated when 6MV photon beam passed through cube. The dose response for 3D-printed cube, air and water were measured by using EBT3 film and 2D array detector. When results of air case were normalized to 100, dose calculated by TPS and measured dose of 50% and 75% cube were 96~99. Measured and calculated doses of water and 100% cube were 82~84. HU values of 50%, 75% and 100% were -910, -860 and -10, respectively. From these results, 3D-printer in radiotherapy could be used for medical purpose...

  7. Micromechanical devices with controllable stiffness fabricated from regular 3D porous materials

    Hierarchical pore structures can dramatically change the mechanical properties of materials, but current methods for creating porous materials make the mechanical properties difficult to engineer. Here we present template based techniques for making three-dimensional (3D) regular macroporous microcantilevers with Young’s moduli that can vary from 2.0 to 44.3 GPa. The Young’s moduli can be tuned by controlling the porosity and the deformation mode, which is dependent on the pore structure. The template technique allows 3D spatial control of the ordered porous structure and the ability to use a broad set of materials, demonstrated with nickel and alumina microcantilevers. (paper)

  8. A stabilized complementarity formulation for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, H. W.; Wu, J.; Yan, B.

    2015-10-01

    Bi-modulus materials with different mechanical responses in tension and compression are often found in civil, composite, and biological engineering. Numerical analysis of bimodular materials is strongly nonlinear and convergence is usually a problem for traditional iterative schemes. This paper aims to develop a stabilized computational method for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials. Based on the parametric variational principle, a unified constitutive equation of 3D bimodular materials is proposed, which allows the eight principal stress states to be indicated by three parametric variables introduced in the principal stress directions. The original problem is transformed into a standard linear complementarity problem (LCP) by the parametric virtual work principle and a quadratic programming algorithm is developed by solving the LCP with the classic Lemke's algorithm. Update of elasticity and stiffness matrices is avoided and, thus, the proposed algorithm shows an excellent convergence behavior compared with traditional iterative schemes. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is valid and can accurately analyze mechanical responses of 3D bimodular materials. Also, stability of the algorithm is greatly improved.

  9. Cookoff Response of PBXN-109: Material Characterization and ALE3D Thermal Predictions

    McClelland, M A; Tran, T D; Cunningham, B J; Weese, R K; Maienschein, J L

    2001-05-29

    Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and initial ALE3D model predictions are given for the cookoff temperature in a U.S. Navy test. This work is part of an effort in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the U.S. Navy to validate DOE materials models and computer codes. The ALE3D computer code can model the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of heating, ignition, and explosion in cookoff tests. In our application, a standard three-step step model is selected for the chemical kinetics. The strength behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the Equation Of State (EOS) for the solid and gas species, respectively. Materials characterization measurements are given for thermal expansion, heat capacity, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX). These measurements and those of the other project participants are used to determine parameters in the ALE3D chemical, mechanical, and thermal models. Time-dependent, two-dimensional results are given for the temperature and material expansion. The results show predicted cookoff temperatures slightly higher than the measured values.

  10. Cookoff Response of PBXN-109: Material Characterization and ALE3D Thermal Predictions

    McClelland, M A; Tran, T D; Cunningham, B J; Weese, R K; Maienschein, J L

    2001-08-21

    Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and initial ALE3D model predictions are given for the cookoff temperature in a U.S. Navy test. This work is part of an effort in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the U.S. Navy to validate DOE materials models and computer codes. The ALE3D computer code can model the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of heating, ignition, and explosion in cookoff tests. In our application, a standard three-step step model is selected for the chemical kinetics. The strength behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the Equation Of State (EOS) for the solid and gas species, respectively. Materials characterization measurements are given for thermal expansion, heat capacity, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX). These measurements and those of the other project participants are used to determine parameters in the ALE3D chemical, mechanical, and thermal models. Time-dependent, two-dimensional results are given for the temperature and material expansion. The results show predicted cookoff temperatures slightly higher than the measured values.

  11. A stabilized complementarity formulation for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, H. W.; Wu, J.; Yan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Bi-modulus materials with different mechanical responses in tension and compression are often found in civil, composite, and biological engineering. Numerical analysis of bimodular materials is strongly nonlinear and convergence is usually a problem for traditional iterative schemes. This paper aims to develop a stabilized computational method for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials. Based on the parametric variational principle, a unified constitutive equation of 3D bimodular materials is proposed, which allows the eight principal stress states to be indicated by three parametric variables introduced in the principal stress directions. The original problem is transformed into a standard linear complementarity problem (LCP) by the parametric virtual work principle and a quadratic programming algorithm is developed by solving the LCP with the classic Lemke's algorithm. Update of elasticity and stiffness matrices is avoided and, thus, the proposed algorithm shows an excellent convergence behavior compared with traditional iterative schemes. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is valid and can accurately analyze mechanical responses of 3D bimodular materials. Also, stability of the algorithm is greatly improved.

  12. Emissions of Nanoparticles and Gaseous Material from 3D Printer Operation.

    Kim, Yuna; Yoon, Chungsik; Ham, Seunghon; Park, Jihoon; Kim, Songha; Kwon, Ohhun; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2015-10-20

    This study evaluated the emissions characteristics of hazardous material during fused deposition modeling type 3D printing. Particulate and gaseous materials were measured before, during, and after 3D printing in an exposure chamber. One ABS and two PLA (PLA1 and PLA2) cartridges were tested three times. For online monitoring, a scanning mobility particle sizer, light scattering instrument, and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) monitor were employed and a polycarbonate filter and various adsorbent tubes were used for offline sampling. The particle concentration of 3D printing using ABS material was 33-38 times higher than when PLA materials were used. Most particles were nanosize (<100 nm) during ABS (96%) and PLA1 (98%) use, but only 12% were nanosize for PLA2. The emissions rates were 1.61 × 10(10) ea/min and 1.67 × 10(11) ea/g cartridge with the ABS cartridge and 4.27-4.89 × 10(8) ea/min and 3.77-3.91 × 10(9) ea/g cartridge with the PLA cartridge. TVOCs were also emitted when the ABS was used (GM; 155 ppb, GSD; 3.4), but not when the PLA cartridges were used. Our results suggest that more research and sophisticated control methods, including the use of less harmful materials, blocking emitted containments, and using filters or adsorbents, should be implemented. PMID:26402038

  13. SU-E-T-455: Characterization of 3D Printed Materials for Proton Beam Therapy

    Zou, W; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); McDonough, J; Yin, L; Teo, B [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Fisher, T [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The widespread availability of low cost 3D printing technologies provides an alternative fabrication method for customized proton range modifying accessories such as compensators and boluses. However the material properties of the printed object are dependent on the printing technology used. In order to facilitate the application of 3D printing in proton therapy, this study investigated the stopping power of several printed materials using both proton pencil beam measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Five 3–4 cm cubes fabricated using three 3D printing technologies (selective laser sintering, fused-deposition modeling and stereolithography) from five printers were investigated. The cubes were scanned on a CT scanner and the depth dose curves for a mono-energetic pencil beam passing through the material were measured using a large parallel plate ion chamber in a water tank. Each cube was measured from two directions (perpendicular and parallel to printing plane) to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic material layout. The results were compared with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation using the manufacturer specified material density and chemical composition data. Results: Compared with water, the differences from the range pull back by the printed blocks varied and corresponded well with the material CT Hounsfield unit. The measurement results were in agreement with Monte Carlo simulation. However, depending on the technology, inhomogeneity existed in the printed cubes evidenced from CT images. The effect of such inhomogeneity on the proton beam is to be investigated. Conclusion: Printed blocks by three different 3D printing technologies were characterized for proton beam with measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of the printing technologies in proton range and stopping power were studied. The derived results can be applied when specific devices are used in proton radiotherapy.

  14. SU-E-T-455: Characterization of 3D Printed Materials for Proton Beam Therapy

    Purpose: The widespread availability of low cost 3D printing technologies provides an alternative fabrication method for customized proton range modifying accessories such as compensators and boluses. However the material properties of the printed object are dependent on the printing technology used. In order to facilitate the application of 3D printing in proton therapy, this study investigated the stopping power of several printed materials using both proton pencil beam measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Five 3–4 cm cubes fabricated using three 3D printing technologies (selective laser sintering, fused-deposition modeling and stereolithography) from five printers were investigated. The cubes were scanned on a CT scanner and the depth dose curves for a mono-energetic pencil beam passing through the material were measured using a large parallel plate ion chamber in a water tank. Each cube was measured from two directions (perpendicular and parallel to printing plane) to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic material layout. The results were compared with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation using the manufacturer specified material density and chemical composition data. Results: Compared with water, the differences from the range pull back by the printed blocks varied and corresponded well with the material CT Hounsfield unit. The measurement results were in agreement with Monte Carlo simulation. However, depending on the technology, inhomogeneity existed in the printed cubes evidenced from CT images. The effect of such inhomogeneity on the proton beam is to be investigated. Conclusion: Printed blocks by three different 3D printing technologies were characterized for proton beam with measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of the printing technologies in proton range and stopping power were studied. The derived results can be applied when specific devices are used in proton radiotherapy

  15. Polymer Crosslinked 3-D Assemblies of Nanoparticles: Mechanically Strong Lightweight Porous Materials

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    In analogy to supramolecular assemblies, which are pursued because of properties above and beyond those of the individual molecules, self-standing monolithic three-dimensional assemblies of nanoparticles also have unique properties attributed to their structure. For example, ultra low-density 3-D assemblies of silica nanoparticles, known as silica aerogels, are characterized by large internal void space, high surface area and very low thermal conductivity. Aerogels, however, are also extremely fragile materials, limiting their application to a few specialized environments, e.g., in nuclear reactors as Cerenkov radiation detectors, in space (refer to NASA's Stardust Program) and aboard certain planetary vehicles (thermal insulators on Mars Rovers in 1997 and 2004). The fragility problem is traced to well-defined weak points in the aerogel skeletal framework, the interparticle necks. Using the surface functionality of the nanoparticle building blocks as a focal point, we have directed attachment of a conformal polymer coating over the entire framework, rendering all necks wider. Thus, although the bulk density may increase only by 3x, the mesoporosity (pores in the range 2-50 nm) remains unchanged, while the strength of the material increases by up to 300... Having addressed the fragility problem, aerogels are now robust materials, and a variety of applications, ranging from thermal/acoustic insulators to catalyst supports, to platform for sensors, and dielectrics are all within reach. Our approach employs molecular science to manipulate nanoscopic matter for achieving useful macroscopic properties, and in our view it resides at the core of what defines nanotechnology. In that spirit, this technology is expandable in three directions. Thus, we have already crosslinked successfully amine-modified silica, and we anticipate that more rich chemistry will be realized by been creative with the nanoparticle surface modifiers. On the other hand, although we do not expect

  16. 3D Visualisation and Artistic Imagery to Enhance Interest in "Hidden Environments"--New Approaches to Soil Science

    Gilford, J.; Falconer, R. E.; Wade, R.; Scott-Brown, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to increase student interest in soil science. Accordingly a bespoke "soil atlas" was created using Java3D as an interactive 3D VE, to show soil information in the context of (and as affected by) the over-lying landscape. To display the below-ground soil characteristics, four sets…

  17. Estimation of the thermal conductivity of hemp based insulation material from 3D tomographic images

    El-Sawalhi, R.; Lux, J.; Salagnac, P.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we are interested in the structural and thermal characterization of natural fiber insulation materials. The thermal performance of these materials depends on the arrangement of fibers, which is the consequence of the manufacturing process. In order to optimize these materials, thermal conductivity models can be used to correlate some relevant structural parameters with the effective thermal conductivity. However, only a few models are able to take into account the anisotropy of such material related to the fibers orientation, and these models still need realistic input data (fiber orientation distribution, porosity, etc.). The structural characteristics are here directly measured on a 3D tomographic image using advanced image analysis techniques. Critical structural parameters like porosity, pore and fiber size distribution as well as local fiber orientation distribution are measured. The results of the tested conductivity models are then compared with the conductivity tensor obtained by numerical simulation on the discretized 3D microstructure, as well as available experimental measurements. We show that 1D analytical models are generally not suitable for assessing the thermal conductivity of such anisotropic media. Yet, a few anisotropic models can still be of interest to relate some structural parameters, like the fiber orientation distribution, to the thermal properties. Finally, our results emphasize that numerical simulations on 3D realistic microstructure is a very interesting alternative to experimental measurements.

  18. 3D reconstruction of grains in polycrystalline materials using a tessellation model with curved grain boundaries

    Šedivý, Ondřej; Brereton, Tim; Westhoff, Daniel; Polívka, Leoš; Beneš, Viktor; Schmidt, Volker; Jäger, Aleš

    2016-06-01

    A compact and tractable representation of the grain structure of a material is an extremely valuable tool when carrying out an empirical analysis of the material's microstructure. Tessellations have proven to be very good choices for such representations. Most widely used tessellation models have convex cells with planar boundaries. Recently, however, a new tessellation model - called the generalised balanced power diagram (GBPD) - has been developed that is very flexible and can incorporate features such as curved boundaries and non-convexity of cells. In order to use a GBPD to describe the grain structure observed in empirical image data, the parameters of the model must be chosen appropriately. This typically involves solving a difficult optimisation problem. In this paper, we describe a method for fitting GBPDs to tomographic image data. This method uses simulated annealing to solve a suitably chosen optimisation problem. We then apply this method to both artificial data and experimental 3D electron backscatter diffraction (3D EBSD) data obtained in order to study the properties of fine-grained materials with superplastic behaviour. The 3D EBSD data required new alignment and segmentation procedures, which we also briefly describe. Our numerical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the simulated annealing approach (compared to heuristic fitting methods) and show that GBPDs are able to describe the structures of polycrystalline materials very well.

  19. Science version 2: the most recent capabilities of the Framatome 3-D nuclear code package

    The Framatome nuclear code package SCIENCE developed in the 1990's has been fully operational for nuclear design since 1997. Results obtained using the package demonstrate the high accuracy of its physical models. Nevertheless, since the first release of the SCIENCE package, continuous improvement work has been carried out at Framatome, which leads today to Version 2 of the package. The intensive use of the package by Framatome teams, for example, while performing reload calculations and the associated core follow, is a permanent opportunity to point out any trend or scattering in the results, even the smaller they are. Thus the main objective of improvements was to take advantage of the progress in computer performances in using more sophisticated calculation schemes conducting to more accurate results. Besides the implementation of more accurate physical models, SCIENCE Version 2 also exploits developments conducted in other fields, mainly for transient calculations using 3-D kinetics or coupling with open-channel core thermal-hydraulics and the plant simulator. These developments allow Framatome to perform accident analyses with advanced methodologies using the SCIENCE package. (author)

  20. NDE of spacecraft materials using 3D Compton backscatter x-ray imaging

    Burke, E. R.; Grubsky, V.; Romanov, V.; Shoemaker, K.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of testing of the NDE performance of a Compton Imaging Tomography (CIT) system for single-sided, penetrating 3D inspection. The system was recently developed by Physical Optics Corporation (POC) and delivered to NASA for testing and evaluation. The CIT technology is based on 3D structure mapping by collecting the information on density profiles in multiple object cross sections through hard x-ray Compton backscatter imaging. The individual cross sections are processed and fused together in software, generating a 3D map of the density profile of the object which can then be analyzed slice-by-slice in x, y, or z directions. The developed CIT scanner is based on a 200-kV x-ray source, flat-panel x-ray detector (FPD), and apodized x-ray imaging optics. The CIT technology is particularly well suited to the NDE of lightweight aerospace materials, such as the thermal protection system (TPS) ceramic and composite materials, micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shielding, spacecraft pressure walls, inflatable habitat structures, composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), and aluminum honeycomb materials. The current system provides 3D localization of defects and features with field of view 20x12x8 cm3 and spatial resolution ˜2 mm. In this paper, we review several aerospace NDE applications of the CIT technology, with particular emphasis on TPS. Based on the analysis of the testing results, we provide recommendations for continued development on TPS applications that can benefit the most from the unique capabilities of this new NDE technology.

  1. Designing with 3D Printed Textiles: A case study of Material Driven Design

    Lussenburg, K.; Van der Velden, N.M.; Doubrovski, E.L.; Geraedts, J.M.P.; Karana, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the findings and results of a design project with the goal to design a wearable garment using 3D Printed textiles, which not only has functional or environmental superiorities, but also experiential ones. The approach that was adopted for this project is a recently developed method on Material Driven Design (MDD), which suggests a number of steps to design meaningful products when a chosen material is the point of departure. As this method has not yet been applied on a pr...

  2. Micromechanical analysis of nanocomposites using 3D voxel based material model

    Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2012-01-01

    A computational study on the effect of nanocomposite structures on the elastic properties is carried out with the use of the 3D voxel based model of materials and the combined Voigt–Reuss method. A hierarchical voxel based model of a material reinforced by an array of exfoliated and intercalated ...... probability of glass fibers in hybrid (hierarchical) composites, using the micromechanical voxel-based model of nanocomposites, it was observed that the nanoreinforcement in the matrix leads to slightly lower fiber failure probability....

  3. Combination of SANS and 3D stochastic reconstruction techniques for the study of nanostructured materials

    Kikkinides, E S; Steriotis, T A; Kanellopoulos, N K; Mitropoulos, A C; Treimer, W

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic nanostructured materials have recently received scientific and industrial interest due to their unique properties. A series of such nanoporous structures were characterised by SANS techniques. The resulting scattering curves were analysed to obtain basic structural information regarding the pore size distribution and autocorrelation function of each material. Furthermore, stochastic reconstruction models were employed to generate 3D images with the same basic structural characteristics obtained from SANS. Finally, simulation results of permeation on the reconstructed images provide very good agreement with experimental data. (orig.)

  4. 3D optical printing of piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials.

    Kim, Kanguk; Zhu, Wei; Qu, Xin; Aaronson, Chase; McCall, William R; Chen, Shaochen; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    Here we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be optically printed into three-dimensional (3D) microstructures using digital projection printing. Piezoelectric polymers were fabricated by incorporating barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO) nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate and exposing to digital optical masks that could be dynamically altered to generate user-defined 3D microstructures. To enhance the mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the composites, the BTO nanoparticles were chemically modified with acrylate surface groups, which formed direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. The composites with a 10% mass loading of the chemically modified BTO nanoparticles showed piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)) of ∼ 40 pC/N, which were over 10 times larger than composites synthesized with unmodified BTO nanoparticles and over 2 times larger than composites containing unmodified BTO nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes to boost mechanical stress transfer efficiencies. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but lay the groundwork for creating highly efficient piezoelectric polymer materials via nanointerfacial tuning. PMID:25046646

  5. Zinc oxide grown by atomic layer deposition - a material for novel 3D electronics

    Guziewicz, Elzbieta; Krajewski, Tomasz A.; Wachnicki, Lukasz; Luka, Grzegorz; Domagala, Jaroslaw Z.; Paszkowicz, Wojciech; Kowalski, Bogdan J.; Witkowski, Bartlomiej S.; Suchocki, Andrzej [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Godlewski, Marek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Warsaw (Poland); Duzynska, Anna [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    Last years we observe a booming interest in materials which can be successfully grown at low temperature limits showing good structural and electrical characteristics. This trend is closely related to the novel three-dimensional (3D) architecture which seems to be a prospective solution for miniaturization of electronic devices after the 22 nm node. We demonstrate that electrical parameters of ZnO grown by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method at low temperature limit (100-200 C) fulfil requirements for 3D electronic devices, because electron carrier mobility is above 10 cm{sup 2}/Vs and n concentration at the level of 1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Reactive Oxygen-Doped 3D Interdigital Carbonaceous Materials for Li and Na Ion Batteries.

    Fan, Ling; Lu, Bingan

    2016-05-01

    Carbonaceous materials as anodes usually exhibit low capacity for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium ion batteries (SIBs). Oxygen-doped carbonaceous materials have the potential of high capacity and super rate performance. However, up to now, the reported oxygen-doped carbonaceous materials usually exhibit inferior electrochemical performance. To overcome this problem, a high reactive oxygen-doped 3D interdigital porous carbonaceous material is designed and synthesized through epitaxial growth method and used as anodes for LIBs and SIBs. It delivers high reversible capacity, super rate performance, and long cycling stability (473 mA h g(-1) after 500 cycles for LIBs and 223 mA h g(-1) after 1200 cycles for SIBs, respectively, at the current density of 1000 mA g(-1) ), with a capacity decay of 0.0214% per cycle for LIBs and 0.0155% per cycle for SIBs. The results demonstrate that constructing 3D interdigital porous structure with reactive oxygen functional groups can significantly enhance the electrochemical performance of oxygen-doped carbonaceous material. PMID:27061155

  7. Materials science symposium 'materials science using accelerators'

    The facility of the JAERI-Tokai tandem accelerator and its booster has been contributing to advancing heavy-ion sciences in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, atomic and solid-state physics and materials science, taking advantage of its prominent performance of heavy-ion acceleration. This facility was recently upgraded by changing the acceleration tubes and installing an ECR ion-source at the terminal. The radioactive nuclear beam facility (Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex, TRIAC) was also installed by the JAERI-KEK joint project. On this occasion, this meeting was held in order to provide a new step for the advancement of heavy-ion science, and to exchange information on recent activities and future plans using the tandem facility as well as on promising new experimental techniques. This meeting was held at Tokai site of JAERI on January 6th and 7th in 2005, having 24 oral presentations, and was successfully carried out with as many as 90 participants and lively discussions among scientists from all the fields of heavy-ion science, including solid-sate physics, nuclear physics and chemistry, and accelerator physics. This summary is the proceedings of this meeting. We would like to thank all the staffs of the accelerators section, participants and office workers in the Department of Materials Science for their support. The 24 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Laser processes and analytics for high power 3D battery materials

    Pfleging, W.; Zheng, Y.; Mangang, M.; Bruns, M.; Smyrek, P.

    2016-03-01

    Laser processes for cutting, modification and structuring of energy storage materials such as electrodes, separator materials and current collectors have a great potential in order to minimize the fabrication costs and to increase the performance and operational lifetime of high power lithium-ion-batteries applicable for stand-alone electric energy storage devices and electric vehicles. Laser direct patterning of battery materials enable a rather new technical approach in order to adjust 3D surface architectures and porosity of composite electrode materials such as LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, Li(NiMnCo)O2, and Silicon. The architecture design, the increase of active surface area, and the porosity of electrodes or separator layers can be controlled by laser processes and it was shown that a huge impact on electrolyte wetting, lithium-ion diffusion kinetics, cell life-time and cycling stability can be achieved. In general, the ultrafast laser processing can be used for precise surface texturing of battery materials. Nevertheless, regarding cost-efficient production also nanosecond laser material processing can be successfully applied for selected types of energy storage materials. A new concept for an advanced battery manufacturing including laser materials processing is presented. For developing an optimized 3D architecture for high power composite thick film electrodes electrochemical analytics and post mortem analytics using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy were performed. Based on mapping of lithium in composite electrodes, an analytical approach for studying chemical degradation in structured and unstructured lithium-ion batteries will be presented.

  9. Simulation domain size requirements for elastic response of 3D polycrystalline materials

    Ozturk, Tugce; Stein, Clayton; Pokharel, Reeju; Hefferan, Christopher; Tucker, Harris; Jha, Sushant; John, Reji; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Kenesei, Peter; Suter, Robert M.; Rollett, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based spectral algorithm is used to compute the full field mechanical response of polycrystalline microstructures. The field distributions in a specific region are used to determine the sensitivity of the method to the number of surrounding grains through quantification of the divergence of the field values from the largest simulation domain, as successively smaller surrounding volumes are included in the simulation. The analysis considers a mapped 3D structure where the location of interest is taken to be a particular pair of surface grains that enclose a small fatigue crack, and synthetically created statistically representative microstructures to further investigate the effect of anisotropy, loading condition, loading direction, and texture. The synthetic structures are generated via DREAM3D and the measured material is a cyclically loaded, Ni-based, low solvus high refractory (LSHR) superalloy that was characterized via 3D high energy x-ray diffraction microscopy (HEDM). Point-wise comparison of distributions in the grain pairs shows that, in order to obtain a Pearson correlation coefficient larger than 99%, the domain must extend to at least the third nearest neighbor. For an elastic FFT calculation, the stress-strain distributions are not sensitive to the shape of the domain. The main result is that convergence can be specified in terms of the number of grains surrounding a region of interest.

  10. Micro-structured materials and mechanical cues in 3D collagen gels.

    Phillips, James B; Brown, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Collagen gels provide a versatile and widely used substrate for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture. Here we describe how cell-seeded Type-I collagen gels can be adapted to provide powerful 3D models to support a wide range of research applications where cell/substrate alignment, density, stiffness/compliance, and strain are critical factors. In their fully hydrated form, rectangular collagen gels can be tethered such that endogenous forces generated as resident cells attach to and remodel the fibrillar collagen network can align the substrate in a controllable, predictable, and quantifiable manner. By removing water from collagen gels (plastic compression), their density increases towards that of body tissues, facilitating the engineering of a range of biomimetic constructs with controllable mechanical properties. This dense collagen can be used in combination with other components to achieve a range of functional properties from controlled perfusion, or tensile/compressive strength to new micro-structures. Detailed methodology is provided for the assembly of a range of 3D collagen materials including tethered aligned hydrogels and plastic compressed constructs. A range of techniques for analysing cell behaviour within these models, including microscopy and molecular analyses are described. These systems therefore provide a highly controllable mechanical and chemical micro-environment for investigating a wide range of cellular responses. PMID:21042973

  11. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available BodyParts3D Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) Data detail Data name Table of 3D organ model... IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) Description of data contents List of downloadable 3D organ models in a... tab-delimited text file format, describing the correspondence between 3D organ model...e Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  12. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available BodyParts3D Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) Data detail Data name Table of 3D organ model... IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) Description of data contents List of downloadable 3D organ model...s in a tab-delimited text file format, describing the correspondence between 3D organ model...ntact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Learning to Provide 3D Virtual Reference: A Library Science Assignment

    Johnson, Megan; Purpur, Geraldine; Abbott, Lisa T.

    2009-01-01

    In spring semester 2009, two of the authors taught LIB 5020--Information Sources & Services to graduate library science students at Appalachian State University. The course covers information seeking patterns and provides an overview of reference services. The course is also designed to examine and evaluate library reference materials and other…

  14. 液晶材料与3D显示%Liquid Crystal Materials and 3D Display

    张兴; 郑成武; 李宁; 周兴丹; 李正强; 华瑞茂

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the basic principles of the 3D display, highlights the current mainstream 3D display types, including glasses 3D technology and naked eye 3D technology. Glasses 3D technology contains anaglyphic 3D, polarized 3D and active shutter 3D; naked eye 3D technology contains parallax barrier 3D, lenticular lens 3D, directional backlight 3D and multi-layer display 3D. The realization methods of 3D images and applications of the different 3D technologies mentioned above are described. Advantages and disadvantages of the 3D technologies concerning liquid crystal display are discussed in details. According to the characteristics of liquid crystal materials and 3D liquid crystal display, rapid response property of liquid crystal materials used in 3D display panels are concluded. Also requirements of the optical anisotropy parameters of liquid crystal materials are summarized.%介绍了3D显示的基本原理,重点介绍了目前3D显示的主流技术类型,包含了眼镜式3D技术以及裸眼式3D技术,其中眼镜式3D技术包含色差式3D技术、偏光式3D技术和主动快门式3D技术;裸眼式3D技术包含视差屏障式3D技术、柱状透镜式3D技术、指向光源式3D技术和多层显示式3D技术.阐述了各种3D显示技术的基本实现原理和应用领域、并对涉及液晶显示的几种3D技术的优缺点进行了对比.结合液晶材料的特点与3D液晶显示的实际要求,阐述了3D液晶面板对液晶材料快速响应方面的要求,以及液晶透镜对液晶材料光学各向异性参数的要求.

  15. GEM printer: 3D gel printer for free shaping of functional gel engineering materials

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Muroi, Hisato; Yamamoto, Kouki; Serizawa, Ryo; Gong, Jin

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. The gels have both low surface friction and well permeability due to a large amount of water absorbed in the gels, which are superiority of the gels compering to the polyester fibers. It is, however, difficult for gels to be forked structure or cavity structure by using cutting or mold. Consequently, it is necessary to develop the additive manufacturing device to synthesize and mode freely gels at the same time. Here we try to develop an optical 3D gel printer that enables gels to be shaped precisely and freely. For the free forming of high-strength gels, the 1st gels are ground to particles and mixed with 2nd pregel solution, and the mixed solution is gelled by the irradiation of UV laser beam through an optical fiber. The use of the optical fiber makes one-point UV irradiation possible. Since the optical fiber is controlled by 3D-CAD, the precise and free molding in XYZ directions is easily realized. We successfully synthesized tough gels using the gel printer.

  16. Effect of sterilization on structural and material properties of 3-D silk fibroin scaffolds.

    Hofmann, Sandra; Stok, Kathryn S; Kohler, Thomas; Meinel, Anne J; Müller, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The development of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications requires the careful choice of properties, as these influence cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Sterilization of scaffolds is a prerequisite for in vitro culture as well as for subsequent in vivo implantation. The variety of methods used to provide sterility is as diverse as the possible effects they can have on the structural and material properties of the three-dimensional (3-D) porous structure, especially in polymeric or proteinous scaffold materials. Silk fibroin (SF) has previously been demonstrated to offer exceptional benefits over conventional synthetic and natural biomaterials in generating scaffolds for tissue replacements. This study sought to determine the effect of sterilization methods, such as autoclaving, heat-, ethylene oxide-, ethanol- or antibiotic-antimycotic treatment, on porous 3-D SF scaffolds. In terms of scaffold morphology, topography, crystallinity and short-term cell viability, the different sterilization methods showed only few effects. Nevertheless, mechanical properties were significantly decreased by a factor of two by all methods except for dry autoclaving, which seemed not to affect mechanical properties compared to the native control group. These data suggest that SF scaffolds are in general highly resistant to various sterilization treatments. Nevertheless, care should be taken if initial mechanical properties are of interest. PMID:24013025

  17. Rudiments of materials science

    Pillai, SO

    2007-01-01

    Writing a comprehensive book on Materials Science for the benefit of undergraduate courses in Science and Engineering was a day dream of the first author, Dr. S.O. Pillai for a long period. However, the dream became true after a lapse of couple of years. Lucid and logical exposition of the subject matter is the special feature of this book.

  18. Materials Sciences Programs

    A compilation and index of the ERDA materials sciences program is presented. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs

  19. Materials Sciences Programs

    1977-01-01

    A compilation and index of the ERDA materials sciences program is presented. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs. (GHT)

  20. Hubble 3D: A Science and Hollywood Collaboration Made (Nearly) in Heaven

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-04-01

    Just 2 days after the 2010 Academy Awards® ceremony in early March bestowed Oscars® for motion picture achievements, NASA deputy administrator Lori Garver touted a new film about the Hubble Space Telescope, Hubble 3D, for best drama, special effects, screenplay, actors and actress, and director and producer. The 43-minute IMAX and Warner Brothers Pictures production, which opened in theaters on 19 March, is an example of the ability of Hollywood and the science community to partner in providing a dynamic educational and entertaining product, according to a number of people associated with the film. Sharing the red carpet at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D. C., with astronauts and others to mark the world premiere, Garver said the film shows the drama of the astronauts’ efforts to repair the telescope while traveling 17,000 miles per hour and performing grueling space walks (see Figure 1). “We have literally opened our eyes on the universe through this telescope,” she said. “This is a taxpayer-funded agency, and we are giving back to the public the very story that they paid for.”

  1. Art-Science-Technology collaboration through immersive, interactive 3D visualization

    Kellogg, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    At the W. M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES), a group of geoscientists and computer scientists collaborate to develop and use of interactive, immersive, 3D visualization technology to view, manipulate, and interpret data for scientific research. The visual impact of immersion in a CAVE environment can be extremely compelling, and from the outset KeckCAVES scientists have collaborated with artists to bring this technology to creative works, including theater and dance performance, installations, and gamification. The first full-fledged collaboration designed and produced a performance called "Collapse: Suddenly falling down", choreographed by Della Davidson, which investigated the human and cultural response to natural and man-made disasters. Scientific data (lidar scans of disaster sites, such as landslides and mine collapses) were fully integrated into the performance by the Sideshow Physical Theatre. This presentation will discuss both the technological and creative characteristics of, and lessons learned from the collaboration. Many parallels between the artistic and scientific process emerged. We observed that both artists and scientists set out to investigate a topic, solve a problem, or answer a question. Refining that question or problem is an essential part of both the creative and scientific workflow. Both artists and scientists seek understanding (in this case understanding of natural disasters). Differences also emerged; the group noted that the scientists sought clarity (including but not limited to quantitative measurements) as a means to understanding, while the artists embraced ambiguity, also as a means to understanding. Subsequent art-science-technology collaborations have responded to evolving technology for visualization and include gamification as a means to explore data, and use of augmented reality for informal learning in museum settings.

  2. A NURBS-based generalized finite element scheme for 3D simulation of heterogeneous materials

    Safdari, Masoud; Najafi, Ahmad R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Geubelle, Philippe H.

    2016-08-01

    A 3D NURBS-based interface-enriched generalized finite element method (NIGFEM) is introduced to solve problems with complex discontinuous gradient fields observed in the analysis of heterogeneous materials. The method utilizes simple structured meshes of hexahedral elements that do not necessarily conform to the material interfaces in heterogeneous materials. By avoiding the creation of conforming meshes used in conventional FEM, the NIGFEM leads to significant simplification of the mesh generation process. To achieve an accurate solution in elements that are crossed by material interfaces, the NIGFEM utilizes Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to enrich the solution field locally. The accuracy and convergence of the NIGFEM are tested by solving a benchmark problem. We observe that the NIGFEM preserves an optimal rate of convergence, and provides additional advantages including the accurate capture of the solution fields in the vicinity of material interfaces and the built-in capability for hierarchical mesh refinement. Finally, the use of the NIGFEM in the computational analysis of heterogeneous materials is discussed.

  3. ALE3D Model Predictions and Materials Characterization for the Cookoff Response of PBXN-109

    McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Nichols, A L; Wardell, J F; Atwood, A I; Curran, P O

    2002-03-19

    ALE3D simulations are presented for the thermal explosion of PBXN-109 (RDX, AI, HTPB, DOA) in support of an effort by the U. S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) to validate computational models. The U.S. Navy is performing benchmark tests for the slow cookoff of PBXN-109 in a sealed tube. Candidate models are being tested using the ALE3D code, which can simulate the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior during heating, ignition, and explosion. The strength behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the Equation Of State (EOS) for the solid and gas species, respectively. A void model is employed to represent the air in gaps. ALE3D model 'parameters are specified using measurements of thermal and mechanical properties including thermal expansion, heat capacity, shear modulus, and bulk modulus. A standard three-step chemical kinetics model is used during the thermal ramp, and a pressure-dependent burn front model is employed during the rapid expansion. Parameters for the three-step kinetics model are specified using measurements of the One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX), while measurements for burn rate of pristine and thermally damaged material are employed to determine parameters in the burn front model. Results are given for calculations in which heating, ignition, and explosion are modeled in a single simulation. We compare model results to measurements for the cookoff temperature and tube wall strain.

  4. Interactive 3D Visualization of the Great Lakes of the World (GLOW) as a Tool to Facilitate Informal Science Education

    Yikilmaz, M.; Harwood, C. L.; Hsi, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; McDermott, J.; Pellett, B.; Schladow, G.; Segale, H. M.; Yalowitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization is a powerful research tool that has been used to investigate complex scientific problems in various fields. It allows researchers to explore and understand processes and features that are not directly observable and help with building of new models. It has been shown that 3D visualization creates a more engaging environment for public audiences. Interactive 3D visualization can allow individuals to explore scientific concepts on their own. We present an NSF funded project developed in collaboration with UC Davis KeckCAVES, UC Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center, ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center, and Lawrence Hall of Science. The Great Lakes of the World (GLOW) project aims to build interactive 3D visualization of some of the major lakes and reservoirs of the world to enhance public awareness and increase understanding and stewardship of freshwater lake ecosystems, habitats, and earth science processes. The project includes a collection of publicly available satellite imagery and digital elevation models at various resolutions for the 20 major lakes of the world as well as the bathymetry data for the 12 lakes. It also includes the vector based 'Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD)' by the World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) and the Center for Environmental System Research University of Kassel, Germany and the CIA World DataBank II data sets to show wetlands and water reservoirs at global scale. We use a custom virtual globe (Crusta) developed at the UC Davis KeckCAVES. Crusta is designed to specifically allow for visualization and mapping of features in very high spatial resolution (learn about the lake and watershed processes as well as geologic processes (e.g. faulting, landslide, glacial, volcanic) that have shaped these lakes. With the advances in 3D imaging technology, the hardware is becoming more affordable and accessible. Affordable 3D projectors, monitors and TVs will allow schools and informal science centers

  5. Research into 3D Printed Materials & Methods: An exploratory practice based approach into the application of 3D technologies for textile & surface design

    Taylor, Andrew; Lewis, Linda; Ward, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Virtual fabrics may not be material, but they are real nonetheless. As textiles surfaces find new expressions in engineering, science, computer technology and other disciplines, a new textiles culture is emerging (Quinn, 2010). This emergence is being generated by experimental approaches and creative art, design & science collaborations through digital communication technologies and tools, which is positioning pattern making within wider systems of reference. The focus of the presentatio...

  6. Materials science and engineering

    Holden, T.M.

    1995-10-01

    The science-based stockpile stewardship program emphasizes a better understanding of how complex components function through advanced computer calculations. Many of the problem areas are in the behavior of materials making up the equipment. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) can contribute to solving these problems by providing diagnostic tools to examine parts noninvasively and by providing the experimental tools to understand material behavior in terms of both the atomic structure and the microstructure. Advanced computer codes need experimental information on material behavior in response to stress, temperature, and pressure as input, and they need benchmarking experiments to test the model predictions for the finished part.

  7. A 3D Osteoblast In Vitro Model for the Evaluation of Biomedical Materials

    Luciana Restle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical materials for bone therapy are usually assessed for their biocompatibility and safety employing animal models or in vitro monolayer cell culture assays. However, alternative in vitro models may offer controlled conditions closer to physiological responses and reduce animal testing. In this work, we developed a 3D spheroidal cell culture with potential to evaluate simultaneously material-cell and cell-cell interactions. Different cell densities of murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts or human primary osteoblasts (HOb were used to determine the ideal procedure of spheroidal cultures and their adequacy to material testing. Cells were seeded on 96-well plates coated with agar and incubated in agitation from 1 to 7 days. Aggregate morphology was qualitatively evaluated considering the shape, size, repeatability, handling, and stability of spheroids. Higher cell densities induced more stable spheroids, and handling was considered appropriate starting from 2 × 104 cells. Confocal microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy indicate that most cells within the aggregate core are viable. Exposure to positive controls has shown a dose dependent cell death as measured by XTT assay. Aggregates were stable and presented good viability when employed on standardized testing of metallic and polymer-based biomaterials. Therefore, osteoblast spheroids may provide a promising tool for material screening and biocompatibility testing.

  8. Bending response of 3-D woven and braided preform composite materials

    Pochiraju, K.; Parvizi-Majidi, A.; Chou, T.W. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shah, B. [Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company, Marietta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Three dimensional textile carbon-epoxy composites exhibit general anisotropy. Further, these materials may possess different modulus in uniaxial tension than that in compression. In an earlier material characterization effort, the tension, compression, and shear properties of these composites were determined. In this paper, theoretical modeling of flexure of the textile composites and experimental correlation are presented. Four point bending tests were conducted according to STM D709 standards to determine the load to mid-span deflection relationships for typical textile composites. The results of experimental analysis are compared with classical beam theory, theory of elasticity solutions considering material orthotropy and shear deflection, and finite element analysis considering material orthotropy and finite deformation/rotations. The derivation of a harmonic function, required for the theory of elasticity solution, is described in the paper. Homogeneous orthotropic elastic properties are assumed for the 3-D textile composites, which is a reasonable approximation for specimens considerably larger than the repeated geometric unit of the fiber preform. The so called ``flex modulus`` is determined from the experimental data.

  9. 3D Printing Meets Astrophysics: A New Way to Visualize and Communicate Science

    Madura, Thomas Ignatius; Steffen, Wolfgang; Clementel, Nicola; Gull, Theodore R.

    2015-08-01

    3D printing has the potential to improve the astronomy community’s ability to visualize, understand, interpret, and communicate important scientific results. I summarize recent efforts to use 3D printing to understand in detail the 3D structure of a complex astrophysical system, the supermassive binary star Eta Carinae and its surrounding bipolar ‘Homunculus’ nebula. Using mapping observations of molecular hydrogen line emission obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope, we obtained a full 3D model of the Homunculus, allowing us to 3D print, for the first time, a detailed replica of a nebula (Steffen et al. 2014, MNRAS, 442, 3316). I also present 3D prints of output from supercomputer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in the highly eccentric binary located near the center of the Homunculus (Madura et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.00716). These 3D prints, the first of their kind, reveal previously unknown ‘finger-like’ structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (when the two stars are closest to each other) that protrude outward from the spiral wind-wind collision region. The results of both efforts have received significant media attention in recent months, including two NASA press releases (http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/astronomers-bring-the-third-dimension-to-a-doomed-stars-outburst/ and http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-observatories-take-an-unprecedented-look-into-superstar-eta-carinae/), demonstrating the potential of using 3D printing for astronomy outreach and education. Perhaps more importantly, 3D printing makes it possible to bring the wonders of astronomy to new, often neglected, audiences, i.e. the blind and visually impaired.

  10. Materials Science Programs

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the Department of Energy in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research. The Director of this office is appointed by the President with Senate consent. The Director advises the Secretary on the physical research program; monitors the Department's R ampersand D programs; advises the Secretary on management of the laboratories under the jurisdiction of the Department, excluding those that constitute part of the nuclear weapon complex; and advises the Secretary on basic and applied research activities of the Department. The research covers a spectrum of scientific and engineering areas of interest to the Department of Energy and is conducted generally by personnel trained in the disciplines of Solid State Physics, Metallurgy, Ceramics, Chemistry, Polymers and Materials Science. The Materials Sciences Division supports basic research on materials properties and phenomena important to all energy systems. The aim is to provide the necessary base of materials knowledge required to advance the nation's energy programs. This report contains a listing of research underway in FY 1989 together with a convenient index to the Division's programs

  11. Volume 2: Materials Science

    Richter, Silvia; EMC 2008 14th European Microscopy Congress

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of the14th European Microscopy Congress, held in Aachen, Germany, 1-5 September 2008. Jointly organised by the European Microscopy Society (EMS), the German Society for Electron Microscopy (DGE) and the local microscopists from RWTH Aachen University and the Research Centre Jülich, the congress brings together scientists from Europe and from all over the world. The scientific programme covers all recent developments in the three major areas of instrumentation and methods, materials science and life science.

  12. PAF-derived nitrogen-doped 3D Carbon Materials for Efficient Energy Conversion and Storage

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Wang, Dan; Xue, Yuhua; Dai, Liming; Chen, Jian-Feng; Cao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the shortage of the traditional fossil fuels caused by fast consumption, it is an urgent task to develop the renewable and clean energy sources. Thus, advanced technologies for both energy conversion (e.g., solar cells and fuel cells) and storage (e.g., supercapacitors and batteries) are being studied extensively. In this work, we use porous aromatic framework (PAF) as precursor to produce nitrogen-doped 3D carbon materials, i.e., N-PAF-Carbon, by exposing NH3 media. The “graphitic” and “pyridinic” N species, large surface area, and similar pore size as electrolyte ions endow the nitrogen-doped PAF-Carbon with outstanding electronic performance. Our results suggest the N-doping enhance not only the ORR electronic catalysis but also the supercapacitive performance. Actually, the N-PAF-Carbon obtains ~70 mV half-wave potential enhancement and 80% increase as to the limiting current after N doping. Moreover, the N-PAF-Carbon displays free from the CO and methanol crossover effect and better long-term durability compared with the commercial Pt/C benchmark. Moreover, N-PAF-Carbon also possesses large capacitance (385 F g−1) and excellent performance stability without any loss in capacitance after 9000 charge–discharge cycles. These results clearly suggest that PAF-derived N-doped carbon material is promising metal-free ORR catalyst for fuel cells and capacitor electrode materials. PMID:26045229

  13. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26970098

  14. Experimental Investigation of Material Flows Within FSWs Using 3D Tomography

    Charles R. Tolle; Timothy A. White; Karen S. Miller; Denis E. Clark; Herschel B. Smartt

    2008-06-01

    There exists significant prior work using tracers or pre-placed hardened markers within friction stir welding (FSWing) to experimentally explore material flow within the FSW process. Our experiments replaced markers with a thin sheet of copper foil placed between the 6061 aluminum lap and butt joints that were then welded. The absorption characteristics of x-rays for copper and aluminum are significantly different allowing for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods such as x-ray computed tomography (CT) to be used to demonstrate the material movement within the weldment on a much larger scale than previously shown. 3D CT reconstruction of the copper components of the weldment allows for a unique view into the final turbulent state of the welding process as process parameters are varied. The x-ray CT data of a section of the weld region was collected using a cone-beam x-ray imaging system developed at the INL. Six-hundred projections were collected over 360-degrees using a 160-kVp Bremsstrahlung x-ray generator (25-micrometer focal spot) and amorphoussilicon x-ray detector. The region of the object that was imaged was about 3cm tall and 1.5cm x 1cm in cross section, and was imaged at a magnification of about 3.6x. The data were reconstructed on a 0.5x0.5x0.5 mm3 voxel grid. After reconstruction, the aluminum and copper could be easily discriminated using a gray level threshold allowing visualization of the copper components. Fractal analysis of the tomographic reconstructed material topology is investigated as a means to quantify macro level material flow based on process parameters. The results of multi-pass FSWs show increased refinement of the copper trace material. Implications of these techniques for quantifying process flow are discussed.

  15. Combining 3D printed forms with textile structures - mechanical and geometrical properties of multi-material systems

    Sabantina, L.; Kinzel, F.; Ehrmann, A.; Finsterbusch, K.

    2015-07-01

    The 3D printing belongs to the rapidly emerging technologies which have the chance to revolutionize the way products are created. In the textile industry, several designers have already presented creations of shoes, dresses or other garments which could not be produced with common techniques. 3D printing, however, is still far away from being a usual process in textile and clothing production. The main challenge results from the insufficient mechanical properties, especially the low tensile strength, of pure 3D printed products, prohibiting them from replacing common technologies such as weaving or knitting. Thus, one way to the application of 3D printed forms in garments is combining them with textile fabrics, the latter ensuring the necessary tensile strength. This article reports about different approaches to combine 3D printed polymers with different textile materials and fabrics, showing chances and limits of this technique.

  16. Multi-contrast 3D X-ray imaging of porous and composite materials

    Grating-based X-ray computed tomography allows for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the full X-ray complex index of refraction and the scattering coefficient distribution inside an object in three dimensions. Its multi-contrast capabilities combined with a high resolution of a few micrometers make it a suitable tool for assessing multiple phases inside porous and composite materials such as concrete. Here, we present quantitative results of a proof-of-principle experiment performed on a concrete sample. Thanks to the complementarity of the contrast channels, more concrete phases could be distinguished than in conventional attenuation-based imaging. The phase-contrast reconstruction shows high contrast between the hardened cement paste and the aggregates and thus allows easy 3D segmentation. Thanks to the dark-field image, micro-cracks inside the coarse aggregates are visible. We believe that these results are extremely interesting in the field of porous and composite materials studies because of unique information provided by grating interferometry in a non-destructive way

  17. Characterization of fatigue resistance in photochromic composite materials for 3D rewritable optical memory applications

    Samoylova, Elena, E-mail: Elena.Samoylova@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Dallari, William; Allione, Marco; Pignatelli, Francesca; Marini, Lara; Cingolani, Roberto; Diaspro, Alberto [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Athanassiou, Athanassia, E-mail: athanassia.athanassiou@iit.it [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies-Unile, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Barsanti, 73010 Arnesano, Lecce (Italy)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: • Fatigue resistance of diarylethene–polymer composites was tested with optical absorption and fluorescence methods upon repetitive UV–VIS irradiation. • Significant differences in fatigue were found in different polymeric matrices and in one-photon and two-photon excitation experiments. • Several explanations for fatigue resistance of the composites are proposed based on the physico-chemical properties of the diarylethenes and polymeric matrices. -- Abstract: Fatigue resistance of the photochromic diarylethene molecules 1,2-bis[2-methylbenzo[b]thyophen-3-yl] -3,3,4,4,5,5-hexafluoro-1-cyclopentene embedded in three different acrylic polymers is studied upon multiple coloration–decoloration cycles. The resistance to photofatigue is found to be different in the three polymeric materials when one-photon excitation was used for the reversible photoconversion experiment. In particular, the photochromic molecules lose their photoisomerization ability faster if they are embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with respect to poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-methyl acrylate) (PEMMA) and poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA). We propose several explanations based on the physico-chemical properties of the matrix and of the photochromic molecules. In the case of two-photon excitation, which is necessary for 3D optical writing, the fatigue resistance is found to be poorer than in the one-photon case. The accelerated photodegradation can be assigned to the non-linear nature of interaction between the polymeric composite material and light.

  18. Characterization of fatigue resistance in photochromic composite materials for 3D rewritable optical memory applications

    Highlights: • Fatigue resistance of diarylethene–polymer composites was tested with optical absorption and fluorescence methods upon repetitive UV–VIS irradiation. • Significant differences in fatigue were found in different polymeric matrices and in one-photon and two-photon excitation experiments. • Several explanations for fatigue resistance of the composites are proposed based on the physico-chemical properties of the diarylethenes and polymeric matrices. -- Abstract: Fatigue resistance of the photochromic diarylethene molecules 1,2-bis[2-methylbenzo[b]thyophen-3-yl] -3,3,4,4,5,5-hexafluoro-1-cyclopentene embedded in three different acrylic polymers is studied upon multiple coloration–decoloration cycles. The resistance to photofatigue is found to be different in the three polymeric materials when one-photon excitation was used for the reversible photoconversion experiment. In particular, the photochromic molecules lose their photoisomerization ability faster if they are embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with respect to poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-methyl acrylate) (PEMMA) and poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA). We propose several explanations based on the physico-chemical properties of the matrix and of the photochromic molecules. In the case of two-photon excitation, which is necessary for 3D optical writing, the fatigue resistance is found to be poorer than in the one-photon case. The accelerated photodegradation can be assigned to the non-linear nature of interaction between the polymeric composite material and light

  19. Recipe for High Moment Materials with Rare-earth and 3d Transition Metal Composites

    Autieri, Carmine; Kumar, P. Anil; Walecki, Dirk; Webers, Samira; Gubbins, Mark A.; Wende, Heiko; Sanyal, Biplab

    2016-01-01

    Materials with high volume magnetization are perpetually needed for the generation of sufficiently large magnetic fields by writer pole of magnetic hard disks, especially for achieving increased areal density in storage media. In search of suitable materials combinations for this purpose, we have employed density functional theory to predict the magnetic coupling between iron and gadolinium layers separated by one to several monolayers of 3d transition metals (Sc-Zn). We demonstrate that it is possible to find ferromagnetic coupling for many of them and in particular for the early transition metals giving rise to high moment. Cr and Mn are the only elements able to produce a significant ferromagnetic coupling for thicker spacer layers. We also present experimental results on two trilayer systems Fe/Sc/Gd and Fe/Mn/Gd. From the experiments, we confirm a ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Gd across a 3 monolayers Sc spacer or a Mn spacer thicker than 1 monolayer. In addition, we observe a peculiar dependence of Fe/Gd magnetic coupling on the Mn spacer thickness. PMID:27381456

  20. Multi-contrast 3D X-ray imaging of porous and composite materials

    Sarapata, Adrian; Herzen, Julia [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ruiz-Yaniz, Maite [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38000 Grenoble (France); Zanette, Irene [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38000 Grenoble (France); Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany)

    2015-04-13

    Grating-based X-ray computed tomography allows for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the full X-ray complex index of refraction and the scattering coefficient distribution inside an object in three dimensions. Its multi-contrast capabilities combined with a high resolution of a few micrometers make it a suitable tool for assessing multiple phases inside porous and composite materials such as concrete. Here, we present quantitative results of a proof-of-principle experiment performed on a concrete sample. Thanks to the complementarity of the contrast channels, more concrete phases could be distinguished than in conventional attenuation-based imaging. The phase-contrast reconstruction shows high contrast between the hardened cement paste and the aggregates and thus allows easy 3D segmentation. Thanks to the dark-field image, micro-cracks inside the coarse aggregates are visible. We believe that these results are extremely interesting in the field of porous and composite materials studies because of unique information provided by grating interferometry in a non-destructive way.

  1. Design and fabrication activity towards 3D negative refraction index materials in the IR region

    Malureanu, Radu; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a new 3D isotropic structure that allows obtaining negative refraction index in the telecom wavelength as well as first fabrication efforts towards obtaining such structures.......In this paper we present a new 3D isotropic structure that allows obtaining negative refraction index in the telecom wavelength as well as first fabrication efforts towards obtaining such structures....

  2. High Torque Density Transverse Flux Machine without the Need to Use SMC Material for 3D Flux Paths

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new transverse flux permanent magnet machine. In a normal transverse flux machine, complicated 3-D flux paths often exist. Such 3-D flux paths would require the use of soft magnetic composites material instead of laminations for construction of the machine stator. In the new...... machine topology proposed in this paper, by advantageously utilizing the magnetic flux path provided by an additional rotor, use of laminations that allow 2-D flux paths only will be sufficient to accomplish the required 3-D flux paths. The machine also has a high torque density and is therefore an...

  3. Fabrication, Characterization, And Deformation of 3D Structural Meta-Materials

    Montemayor, Lauren C.

    Current technological advances in fabrication methods have provided pathways to creating architected structural meta-materials similar to those found in natural organisms that are structurally robust and lightweight, such as diatoms. Structural meta-materials are materials with mechanical properties that are determined by material properties at various length scales, which range from the material microstructure (nm) to the macro-scale architecture (mum -- mm). It is now possible to exploit material size effect, which emerge at the nanometer length scale, as well as structural effects to tune the material properties and failure mechanisms of small-scale cellular solids, such as nanolattices. This work demonstrates the fabrication and mechanical properties of 3-dimensional hollow nanolattices in both tension and compression. Hollow gold nanolattices loaded in uniaxial compression demonstrate that strength and stiffness vary as a function of geometry and tube wall thickness. Structural effects were explored by increasing the unit cell angle from 30° to 60° while keeping all other parameters constant; material size effects were probed by varying the tube wall thickness, t, from 200nm to 635nm, at a constant relative density and grain size. In-situ uniaxial compression experiments reveal an order-of-magnitude increase in yield stress and modulus in nanolattices with greater lattice angles, and a 150% increase in the yield strength without a concomitant change in modulus in thicker-walled nanolattices for fixed lattice angles. These results imply that independent control of structural and material size effects enables tunability of mechanical properties of 3-dimensional architected meta-materials and highlight the importance of material, geometric, and microstructural effects in small-scale mechanics. This work also explores the flaw tolerance of 3D hollow-tube alumina kagome nanolattices with and without pre-fabricated notches, both in experiment and simulation

  4. Handbook of 3D integration

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  5. Calcium phosphate/microgel composites for 3D powderbed printing of ceramic materials.

    Birkholz, Mandy-Nicole; Agrawal, Garima; Bergmann, Christian; Schröder, Ricarda; Lechner, Sebastian J; Pich, Andrij; Fischer, Horst

    2016-06-01

    Composites of microgels and calcium phosphates are promising as drug delivery systems and basic components for bone substitute implants. In this study, we synthesized novel composite materials consisting of pure β-tricalcium phosphate and stimuli-responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate-co-vinylimidazole) microgels. The chemical composition, thermal properties and morphology for obtained composites were extensively characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, IGAsorp moisture sorption analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis, granulometric analysis, ESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and TEM. Mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by ball-on-three-balls test to determine the biaxial strength. Furthermore, initial 3D powderbed-based printing tests were conducted with spray-dried composites and diluted 2-propanol as a binder to evaluate a new binding concept for β-tricalcium phosphate-based granulates. The printed ceramic bodies were characterized before and after a sintering step by ESEM. The hypothesis that the microgels act as polymer adhesive agents by efficient chemical interactions with the β-tricalcium phosphate particles was confirmed. The obtained composites can be used for the development of new scaffolds. PMID:25870955

  6. Lasers in materials science

    Ossi, Paolo; Zhigilei, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems.  The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications.  Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers...

  7. 3D Hollow Sn@Carbon-Graphene Hybrid Material as Promising Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Xiaoyu Zheng; Wei Lv; Yan-Bing He; Chen Zhang; Wei Wei; Ying Tao; Baohua Li; Quan-Hong Yang

    2014-01-01

    A 3D hollow Sn@C-graphene hybrid material (HSCG) with high capacity and excellent cyclic and rate performance is fabricated by a one-pot assembly method. Due to the fast electron and ion transfer as well as the efficient carbon buffer structure, the hybrid material is promising in high-performance lithium-ion battery.

  8. Calibration of 3D Woven Preform Design Code for CMC Materials Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mechanical and thermal performance of CMC components benefit from low part count, integrally fabricated designs of 3D woven reinforcement. The advantages of these...

  9. Calculation of Effective Material Strengths for 3D Woven Hybrid Preforms and Composites Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design concepts being considered for Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) rely on the use of 3D woven carbon fiber preforms. Therefore,...

  10. Download - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us BodyParts3D Down...load First of all, please read the license of this database. Data names and data descriptions are about the down... 2.0 , 1.0 , and 0.1 can be also downloaded.) # Data name File Simple search and download 1 README README_e....n names (IS-A Tree) isa_parts_list_e.txt (126 KB) Simple search and download 4 Ta...ble of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) partof_parts_list_e.txt (58 KB) Simple search and down

  11. 3D printing of textile-based structures by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) with different polymer materials

    Melnikova, R.; Ehrmann, A.; Finsterbusch, K.

    2014-08-01

    3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing, i.e. creating objects by sequential layering, for pre-production or production. After creating a 3D model with a CAD program, a printable file is used to create a layer design which is printed afterwards. While often more expensive than traditional techniques like injection moulding, 3D printing can significantly enhance production times of small parts produced in small numbers, additionally allowing for large flexibility and the possibility to create parts that would be impossible to produce with conventional techniques. The Fused Deposition Modelling technique uses a plastic filament which is pushed through a heated extrusion nozzle melting the material. Depending on the material, different challenges occur in the production process, and the produced part shows different mechanical properties. The article describes some standard and novel materials and their influence on the resulting parts.

  12. Transitioning from 2-D Radiation Therapy to 3-D Conformal Radiation Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Training Material

    The technology of radiation oncology has advanced very rapidly in recent years. However, the sophistication of technology available in individual radiation therapy centres varies dramatically throughout the world. Treatment capabilities with planar imaging and limited cross-sectional imaging support have been labelled as two dimensional radiation therapy (2-D RT). With increased use of more advanced cross-sectional imaging, the introduction of more complex dose calculation capabilities for treatment planning and more sophisticated treatment delivery procedures, three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT) can be provided. Further sophistication in treatment planning and treatment delivery capabilities enables intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Recognizing that huge disparities exist across the world, and in an attempt to aid in advancing institutional capabilities, the IAEA published ‘Transition from 2-D Radiotherapy to 3-D Conformal and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy’ (IAEA-TECDOC-1588) in May 2008. Divided into two parts — on CRT and on IMRT — the publication provides guidelines on the transition from 2-D RT through 3-D CRT to IMRT. It is recognized that 3-D CRT is the standard of care in most radiation treatment processes and that IMRT technologies are still evolving. The publication provides clear guidelines and highlights the milestones to be achieved when transitioning from 2-D RT to 3-D CRT and IMRT. While IAEA-TECDOC-1588 provides comprehensive guidelines and milestones, the present publication provides training materials to aid professionals in the continuing education required for the implementation of more advanced treatment capabilities, especially 3-D CRT. These materials are based on the results of two consultants meetings organized by the IAEA in 2009 and 2010, primarily focused on providing guidance on what training materials were available or needed to be developed, with a special emphasis on transitioning from 2-D

  13. 3-D Multiphase Segmentation of X-Ray Micro Computed Tomography Data of Geologic Materials

    Tuller, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Fink, W.

    2011-12-01

    Advancements of noninvasive imaging methods such as X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) led to a recent surge of applications in Geoscience. While substantial efforts and resources have been devoted to advance CT technology and micro-scale analysis, the development of a stable 3-D multiphase image segmentation method applicable to large datasets is lacking. To eliminate the need for wet/dry or dual energy scans, image alignment, and subtraction analysis, commonly applied in synchrotron X-Ray micro CT, a segmentation method based on a Bayesian Markov Random Field (MRF) framework amenable to true 3-D multiphase processing was developed and evaluated. Furthermore, several heuristic and deterministic combinatorial optimization schemes required to solve the labeling problem of the MRF image model were implemented and tested for computational efficiency and their impact on segmentation results. Test results for natural and artificial porous media datasets demonstrate great potential of the MRF image model for 3-D multiphase segmentation.

  14. Co-Chairs’ Summary of Technical Session 3D. Nuclear Forensic Science: Radiochronometry

    This session focused on the outcomes of recent investigations at institutes specialized in the nuclear forensic age dating of nuclear material and other radioactive material. These innovative findings underscore the importance placed on the accurate measurements of the age of nuclear material and other radioactive material — the time of last radiochemical purification — as a critical tool for understanding material origin and history

  15. A Simple, Low-Cost Conductive Composite Material for 3D Printing of Electronic Sensors

    Leigh, Simon J.; Bradley, Robert J.; Purssell, Christopher P.; Billson, Duncan R.; Hutchins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes (‘rapid prototyping’) before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop man...

  16. Automated materials discrimination using 3D dual energy X ray images

    The ability of a human observer to identify an explosive device concealed in complex arrangements of objects routinely encountered in the 2D x-ray screening of passenger baggage at airports is often problematic. Standard dual-energy x-ray techniques enable colour encoding of the resultant images in terms of organic, inorganic and metal substances. This transmission imaging technique produces colour information computed from a high-energy x-ray signal and a low energy x-ray signal (80keVeff ≤ 13) to be automatically discriminated from many layers of overlapping substances. This is achieved by applying a basis materials subtraction technique to the data provided by a wavelet image segmentation algorithm. This imaging technique is reliant upon the image data for the masking substances to be discriminated independently of the target material. Further work investigated the extraction of depth data from stereoscopic images to estimate the mass density of the target material. A binocular stereoscopic dual-energy x-ray machine previously developed by the Vision Systems Group at The Nottingham Trent University in collaboration with The Home Office Science and Technology Group provided the image data for the empirical investigation. This machine utilises a novel linear castellated dual-energy x-ray detector recently developed by the Vision Systems Group. This detector array employs half the number of scintillator-photodiode sensors in comparison to a conventional linear dual-energy sensor. The castellated sensor required the development of an image enhancement algorithm to remove the spatial interlace effect in the resultant images prior to the calibration of the system for materials discrimination. To automate the basis materials subtraction technique a wavelet image segmentation and classification algorithm was developed. This enabled overlapping image structures in the x-rayed baggage to be partitioned. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the

  17. Non Invasive 3D Characterization of Materials at Multi scale Resolution in Correlative and 4D microscopy

    We describe a suite of novel lab-based X-ray computed tomography (CT) systems for high contrast 3D characterization of hard to soft materials with resolution across length scales. The system has similar resolution and contrast range obtained from x-ray micro and nano tomography systems in synchrotron radiation facilities, except it makes use of conventional lab sources. Samples with dimensions from several cm to several microns may be imaged non invasively at varying resolution from tens of microns to 20 nm voxel. The novel multi scale CT helps bridge the resolution, scaling and 3D visualization gap in the traditional destructive 2D imaging modalities such as optical microscopes, AFM, SEM, SEM-FIB and TEM. It provides a direct non-invasive volumetric imaging technique at the macro to nano scale, making it ideal for accurate prediction and modeling of whole systems and components. For example, using 3D visualization, segmentation and computational analysis tools, pore networks, FEA, fluid, thermal and ionic transport in various systems and materials from ceramics, geo materials, composites, metals, and coatings may be characterized and modeled. The high resolution and unique phase contrast features of the novel CTs also lend themselves very well to characterize inherently low contrast soft materials such as polymers; membranes and biological tissue or to differentiate small differences in material and mineral phases in geo material and composites. Tomography of samples may be acquired at different volume vs resolution using local tomography technique, often without sample destruction. In the emerging field of 3D correlative microscopy, these larger CT volumetric data sets can be correlated at the different length scales with conventional 2D imaging modalities. For example, after a CT scan, specimen may undergo destructive sample sectioning at specific region of interest, to obtain the corresponding 2D slices with SEM and TEM or with X-ray microanalysis derive its

  18. Stereoscopic 3D Projections with MITAKA An Important Tool to Get People Interested in Astronomy and Space Science in Peru

    Shiomi, Nemoto; Shoichi, Itoh; Hidehiko, Agata; Mario, Zegarra; Jose, Ishitsuka; Edwin, Choque; Adita, Quispe; Tsunehiko, Kato

    2014-02-01

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan has developed space simulation software "Mitaka". By using Mitaka on two PCs and two projectors with polarizing filter, and look through polarized glasses, we can enjoy space travel in three dimensions. Any one can download Mitaka from anywhere in the world by Internet. But, it has been prepared only Japanese and English versions now. We improved a Mitaka Spanish version, and now we are making projections for local people. The experience of the universe in three dimensions is a very memorable for people, and it has become an opportunity to get interested in astronomy and space sciences. A 40 people capacity room, next o to our Planetarium, has been conditioned for 3D projections; also a portable system is available. Due to success of this new outreach system more 3D show rooms will be implemented within the country.

  19. Panel 3 - material science

    Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yip, Sidney [MIT

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, NNSA's national security challenge has evolved, and the role of simulation and computation has grown dramatically. The process of certifying nuclear weapons performance has changed from one based on integrated tests to science-based certification in which underground nuclear tests have been replaced by large-scale simulations, appropriately validated with fundamental experimental data. Further, the breadth of national security challenges has expanded beyond stewardship of a nuclear deterrent to a broad range of global and asymmetric threats. Materials challenges are central to the full suite of these national security challenges. Mission requirements demand that materials perform predictably in extreme environments -- high pressure, high strain rate, and hostile irradiation and chemical conditions. Considerable advances have been made in incorporating fundamental materials physics into integrated codes used for component certification. On the other hand, significant uncertainties still remain, and materials properties, especially at the mesoscale, are key to understanding uncertainties that remain in integrated weapons performance codes and that at present are treated as empirical knobs. Further, additional national security mission challenges could be addressed more robustly with new and higher performing materials.

  20. Measurement of material uniformity using 3-D position sensitive CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers

    He, Z; Knoll, G F; Wehe, D K; Stahle, C M

    2000-01-01

    We present results from two 1 cm sup 3 CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers with full 3-D position sensitivity. To our knowledge, these are the first reported semiconductor spectrometers that provide independent spectral data for each of over 2000 volume elements. Energy resolutions of 1.5-1.6% FWHM and position resolutions of 0.7x0.7x0.5 mm were obtained at 662 keV gamma-ray energy from the central region of both detectors for single-pixel events. With the 3-D position sensing capability, variations in spectral response over the detector volume were recorded using a sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source. These measurements allow a study of full-energy peak efficiency, mean ionization energy and electron trapping as a function of 3-D position. The effects of material non-uniformity on detector spectroscopic performance are discussed.

  1. 3D RECONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE FRAGMENTED GRAINS IN A COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Luc Gillibert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available X-ray microtomography from solid propellant allows studying the microstructure of fragmented grains in damaged samples. A new reconstruction algorithm of fragmented grains for 3D images is introduced. Based on a watershed transform of a morphological closing of the input image, the algorithm can be used  with different sets of markers. Two of them are compared. After the grain reconstruction, a multiscale segmentation  algorithm is used to extract each fragment of the damaged grains. This allows an original quantitative study of the  fragmentation of each grain in 3D. Experimental results on X-ray microtomographic images of a solid propellant fragmented under compression are presented and validated.

  2. Stress analysis of different prosthesis materials in implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis using 3D finite element method

    Pedram Iranmanesh; Alireza Abedian; Naeimeh Nasri; Ehsan Ghasemi; Saber Khazaei

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, the finite element method (FEM) was used to investigate the effects of prosthesis material types on stress distribution of the bone surrounding implants and to evaluate stress distribution in three-unit implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional (3D) finite element FDP model of the maxillary second premolar to the second molar was designed. Three load conditions were statically applied on the functional cusps...

  3. 3D network-like mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanostructures as advanced electrode material for supercapacitors

    Highlights: • 3D network-like mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanostructures were fabricated via a solvothermal route. • The obtained NiCo2O4 shows good electrochemical performances, especially rate capability. • Large BET surface area and abundant mesoporosity give excellent electrochemical performances. • This solvothermal method can be extended to prepare other binary or even ternary 3D metal oxides. - Abstract: 3D network-like mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanostructures have been successfully fabricated through a solvothermal route coupled with a post annealing treatment. Benefiting from its advantages of the unique 3D network-like structures with large specific surface area (170.6 m2 g−1), abundant mesoporosity (5–10 nm) and high electronic conductivity, the as-obtained NiCo2O4 manifests high specific capacitance of 931 F g−1 at 3 A g−1, remarkable capacity retention rate of 85.2 and 72.5% at 20 and 50 A g−1 compared with 2 A g−1 and superior cycling stability of 125.2% of initial capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 3 A g−1. The excellent electrochemical performances coupled with its facile and cost-effective way will render the 3D network-like mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanostructures as attractive electrode materials for promising application in supercapacitors

  4. License - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available this database. The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2..., © The Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution-Share Alik...e 2.1 Japan. The summary of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With rega

  5. Animation 3D du Globe de la Science et de l'Innovation

    Albert Soubeyran

    2009-01-01

    Le Globe de la Science et de l'Innovation, dans toutes ses dimensions, survol extérieur et accès à la salle de conférence. On doit la Création architecturale à l'architecte Hervé Dessimoz et à l'ingénieur Thomas Büchi. Modélisation et Animation de Albert Soubeyran

  6. Novel 3D bio-macromolecular bilinear descriptors for protein science: Predicting protein structural classes.

    Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Contreras-Torres, Ernesto; García-Jacas, César R; Barigye, Stephen J; Cubillán, Néstor; Alvarado, Ysaías J

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we introduce novel 3D protein descriptors based on the bilinear algebraic form in the ℝ(n) space on the coulombic matrix. For the calculation of these descriptors, macromolecular vectors belonging to ℝ(n) space, whose components represent certain amino acid side-chain properties, were used as weighting schemes. Generalization approaches for the calculation of inter-amino acidic residue spatial distances based on Minkowski metrics are proposed. The simple- and double-stochastic schemes were defined as approaches to normalize the coulombic matrix. The local-fragment indices for both amino acid-types and amino acid-groups are presented in order to permit characterizing fragments of interest in proteins. On the other hand, with the objective of taking into account specific interactions among amino acids in global or local indices, geometric and topological cut-offs are defined. To assess the utility of global and local indices a classification model for the prediction of the major four protein structural classes, was built with the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) technique. The developed LDA-model correctly classifies the 92.6% and 92.7% of the proteins on the training and test sets, respectively. The obtained model showed high values of the generalized square correlation coefficient (GC(2)) on both the training and test series. The statistical parameters derived from the internal and external validation procedures demonstrate the robustness, stability and the high predictive power of the proposed model. The performance of the LDA-model demonstrates the capability of the proposed indices not only to codify relevant biochemical information related to the structural classes of proteins, but also to yield suitable interpretability. It is anticipated that the current method will benefit the prediction of other protein attributes or functions. PMID:25843214

  7. 3D analysis of functionally graded material plates with complex shapes and various holes

    Zhi-yuan CAO; Shou-gao TANG; Guo-hua CHENG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the basic formulae for the semi-analytical graded FEM on FGM members are derived. Since FGM parameters vary along three space coordinates, the parameters can be integrated in mechanical equations. Therefore with the parameters of a given FGM plate, problems of FGM plate under various conditions can be solved. The approach uses 1D discretization to obtain 3D solutions, which is proven to be an effective numerical method for the mechanical analyses of FGM structures. Examples of FGM plates with complex shapes and various holes are presented.

  8. The advanced 3D method for activation analysis of fusion reactor materials

    The method allows analyzing the complex objects activated by neutrons (e.g. fusion reactors) combining advantages of the 3D radiation transport by MCNP program with calculations of multiple activation and radioactive decay chains by FISPACT program. The problem of preparing the gamma-ray sources in cells of 3D geometry was solved by creation of an interface between the MCNP and FISPACT programs. The interface allows optimizing the process of activation analysis by revealing dominant sources of radiation. The developed interface essentially reduces the time needed for calculations. The main advantage of the method is realization of so-called 'multibox' procedure for decay gamma source sampling during decay gamma transport in very large and complex fusion reactor models. Shutdown dose rate calculations are faster (up to 600 times in ITER cryostat) in comparison with applied MCNP standard source definition by using an external user-supplied source subroutine of the 'multibox' procedure. The offered method is intended for solution of the activation tasks with deep penetration of radiation. The method was used in the engineering design of ITER-FEAT and RF DEMO-S

  9. Computation of thermal properties via 3D homogenization of multiphase materials using FFT-based accelerated scheme

    Lemaitre, Sophie; Choi, Daniel; Karamian, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the thermal effective behaviour for 3D multiphase composite material consisting of three isotropic phases which are the matrix, the inclusions and the coating media. For this purpose we use an accelerated FFT-based scheme initially proposed in Eyre and Milton (1999) to evaluate the thermal conductivity tensor. Matrix and spherical inclusions media are polymers with similar properties whereas the coating medium is metallic hence better conducting. Thus, the contrast between the coating and the others media is very large. For our study, we use RVEs (Representative volume elements) generated by RSA (Random Sequential Adsorption) method developed in our previous works, then, we compute effective thermal properties using an FFT-based homogenization technique validated by comparison with the direct finite elements method. We study the thermal behaviour of the 3D-multiphase composite material and we show what features should be taken into account to make the computational approach efficient.

  10. Light Curing 3 D Printing Materials%光固化3D打印高分子材料

    谢彪; 王小腾; 邱俊峰; 林润雄

    2014-01-01

    快速成型(RP)技术是近几十年发展起来的一项新兴技术,3D打印就是其中一种非常有前途的,被誉为推动了第三次工业革命快速发展的快速成型技术。本文就3D打印之一的光固化3D打印进行简单介绍,对光固化3D打印材料的组分、特点进行较详细的阐述,并对光固化3D打印高分子材料未来予以展望。%Rapid prototyping(RP)technology is a new technology developed in recent decades,3D printing,one kind of these rapid prototyping technology,is very promising and known as the promoted the rapid development of the third industrial revolution. This paper gave a briefintroduction to the light curing 3D printing,the light curing composition, characteristics of 3D printing materials were described in detail,and gave the expectation of 3D printing light curing polymer.

  11. 3D highly oriented nanoparticulate and microparticulate array of metal oxide materials

    Advanced nano and micro particulate thin films of 3d transition and post-transition metal oxides consisting of nanorods and microrods with parallel and perpendicular orientation with respect to the substrate normal, have been successfully grown onto various substrates by heteronucleation, without template and/or surfactant, from the aqueous condensation of solution of metal salts or metal complexes (aqueous chemical growth). Three-dimensional arrays of iron oxide nanorods and zinc oxide nanorods with parallel and perpendicular orientation are presented as well as the oxygen K-edge polarization dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study of anisotropic perpendicularly oriented microrod array of ZnO performed at synchrotron radiation source facility

  12. A 3-D Interpretation of Changes Induced by the Creation of Instructional Materials: The Development Process.

    Silver, Paula F.

    The central thesis of the paper is that there are beneficial outcomes derived from engagement in the process of creating instructional materials, quite apart from the benefits to those who use the materials later. Of the three stages in materials production--design, development, and dissemination--this paper highlights the development stage by…

  13. Study of materials and machines for 3D printed large-scale, flexible electronic structures using fused deposition modeling

    Hwang, Seyeon

    The 3 dimensional printing (3DP), called to additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), is emerged to revolutionize manufacturing and completely transform how products are designed and fabricated. A great deal of research activities have been carried out to apply this new technology to a variety of fields. In spite of many endeavors, much more research is still required to perfect the processes of the 3D printing techniques especially in the area of the large-scale additive manufacturing and flexible printed electronics. The principles of various 3D printing processes are briefly outlined in the Introduction Section. New types of thermoplastic polymer composites aiming to specified functional applications are also introduced in this section. Chapter 2 shows studies about the metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Various metal particles, copper and iron particles, are added into thermoplastics polymer matrices as the reinforcement filler. The thermo-mechanical properties, such as thermal conductivity, hardness, tensile strength, and fracture mechanism, of composites are tested to figure out the effects of metal fillers on 3D printed composite structures for the large-scale printing process. In Chapter 3, carbon/polymer composite filaments are developed by a simple mechanical blending process with an aim of fabricating the flexible 3D printed electronics as a single structure. Various types of carbon particles consisting of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), conductive carbon black (CCB), and graphite are used as the conductive fillers to provide the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with improved electrical conductivity. The mechanical behavior and conduction mechanisms of the developed composite materials are observed in terms of the loading amount of carbon fillers in this section. Finally, the prototype flexible electronics are modeled and manufactured by the FDM process using Carbon/TPU composite filaments and

  14. 3D visualisation and artistic imagery to enhance interest in `hidden environments' - new approaches to soil science

    Gilford, J.; Falconer, R. E.; Wade, R.; Scott-Brown, K. C.

    2014-09-01

    Interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to increase student interest in soil science. Accordingly a bespoke 'soil atlas' was created using Java3D as an interactive 3D VE, to show soil information in the context of (and as affected by) the over-lying landscape. To display the below-ground soil characteristics, four sets of artistic illustrations were produced, each set showing the effects of soil organic-matter density and water content on fungal density, to determine potential for visualisations and interactivity in stimulating interest in soil and soil illustrations, interest being an important factor in facilitating learning. The illustrations were created using 3D modelling packages, and a wide range of styles were produced. This allowed a preliminary study of the relative merits of different artistic styles, scientific-credibility, scale, abstraction and 'realism' (e.g. photo-realism or realism of forms), and any relationship between these and the level of interest indicated by the study participants in the soil visualisations and VE. The study found significant differences in mean interest ratings for different soil illustration styles, as well as in the perception of scientific-credibility of these styles, albeit for both measures there was considerable difference of attitude between participants about particular styles. There was also found to be a highly significant positive correlation between participants rating styles highly for interest and highly for scientific-credibility. There was furthermore a particularly high interest rating among participants for seeing temporal soil processes illustrated/animated, suggesting this as a particularly promising method for further stimulating interest in soil illustrations and soil itself.

  15. 3D-Simulation of Topology-Induced Changes of Effective Permeability and Permittivity in Composite Materials

    B. Hallouet

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed 3D simulations of complex effective permittivity and permeability for random binary mixtures of cubic particles below the percolation threshold. We compare two topological classes that correspond to different spatial particle arrangements: cermet topology and aggregate topology. At a low filling factor of f=10%, where most particles are surrounded by matrix material, the respective effective material parameters are indistinguishable. At higher concentrations, a systematic difference emerges: cermet topology is characterized by lower effective permittivity and permeability values. A distinction between topological classes might thus be a useful concept for the analysis of real systems, especially in cases where no exact effective-medium model is available.

  16. 3D nano-architecture in glass materials with a femtosecond laser

    The nonlinear interaction between glasses of transparent materials and a femtosecond laser called non-linear multiphoton effect was studied. The various nano- or microstructure changes caused by this effect have provided the internal modification inside glass materials, such as densification, valence reduction of active ions, new crystal precipitation, atom diffusion and so on. Such an ultrashort pulse laser effect of transparent materials was useful for fabrication of photonic devices such as optical waveguides and so on. In view of our findings, the advantage of a femtosecond laser combined with liquid crystal modulator was also introduced to make three-dimensional nano-architecture in materials. (author)

  17. Materials ``alchemy'': Shape-preserving chemical transformation of micro-to-macroscopic 3-D structures

    Sandhage, Kenneth H.

    2010-06-01

    The scalable fabrication of nano-structured materials with complex morphologies and tailorable chemistries remains a significant challenge. One strategy for such synthesis consists of the generation of a solid structure with a desired morphology (a “preform”), followed by reactive conversion of the preform into a new chemistry. Several gas/solid and liquid/solid reaction processes that are capable of such chemical conversion into new micro-to-nano-structured materials, while preserving the macroscopic-to-microscopic preform morphologies, are described in this overview. Such shape-preserving chemical transformation of one material into another could be considered a modern type of materials “alchemy.”

  18. Teaching materials science and engineering

    Bernhard Ilschner

    2003-06-01

    This paper is written with the intention of simulating discussion on teaching materials science and engineering in the universities. The article illustrates the tasks, priorities, goals and means lying ahead in the teaching of materials science and engineering for a sustainable future.

  19. Neutron imaging in materials science

    Nikolay Kardjilov; Ingo Manke; André Hilger; Markus Strobl; John Banhart

    2011-01-01

    Neutron imaging is a non-destructive technique that can reveal the interior of many materials and engineering components and also probe magnetic fields. Within the past few years, several new imaging modes have been introduced that extend the scope of neutron imaging beyond conventional neutron attenuation imaging, yielding both 2- and 3D information about properties and phenomena inaccessible until now. We present an overview of the most important advances in the application of neutron imagi...

  20. 3D Effect of Ferromagnetic Materials on Alpha Particle Power Loads on First Wall Structures and Equilibrium on ITER

    Full text: The finite number and limited toroidal extent of the TF coils cause a periodic variation of the toroidal field called the magnetic ripple. This ripple can provide a significant channel for fast particle leakage, leading to very localized fast particle loads on the walls. Ferromagnetic inserts will be embedded in the double wall structure of the vacuum vessel in order to reduce the ripple. In ITER the toroidal field deviations are locally further enhanced by the presence of discrete ferromagnetic structures, e.g. TBM. Thus, there are complex symmetry-breaking effects. It is not yet fully understood how superimposing the periodic ripple and a local perturbation affect the fast ion confinement and concerns have been voiced that the combined effect might lead to significant channelling of the alpha power. In this work, the wall power loads due to fusion-born alpha particles were restudied for a variety of cases addressing issues such as different wall configurations, proper inclusion of the TBM effect on the magnetic background, and the possible corrections to 3D equilibrium introduced by the ferromagnetic materials using the 3D equilibrium code, VMEC, since 3D corrections to the equilibrium might enhance the alpha particle loss. To properly include the TBM effect on the magnetic background, the FEMAG code was used, and the effect was calculated on the total field including the poloidal field by the plasma current as well as the vacuum field. In the VMEC analysis, it was found that the difference between a full 3D equilibrium reconstruction and 'an axisymmetric equilibrium + vacuum fields' was small. Thus, it was concluded that no 3D equilibrium reconstruction was needed and that it was sufficient to add the vacuum field perturbations onto an axisymmetric equilibrium. Under the new boundary condition, the wall load calculation was carried out by using ASCOT, DELTA5D, and F3D OFMC code. Including the plasma current contribution in the magnetic field

  1. Automated materials discrimination using 3D dual energy X ray images

    Wang, T W

    2002-01-01

    The ability of a human observer to identify an explosive device concealed in complex arrangements of objects routinely encountered in the 2D x-ray screening of passenger baggage at airports is often problematic. Standard dual-energy x-ray techniques enable colour encoding of the resultant images in terms of organic, inorganic and metal substances. This transmission imaging technique produces colour information computed from a high-energy x-ray signal and a low energy x-ray signal (80keVmaterials discrimination places plastic explosive in the same organic window as other innocuous organic items. Also, images of a threat substance which has been masked by other materials will result in colour encoding which is proportional to the effective atomic number of the threat material and the masking material. The work presented in this thesis enables the effective atomic number of the target material within a specified window (6.6 <= Z sub e sub f sub f <= 13) to be auto...

  2. Informed Design to Robotic Production Systems; Developing Robotic 3D Printing System for Informed Material Deposition

    Mostafavi, S.; Bier, H.; Bodea, S.; Anton, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an informed Design-to-Robotic-Production (D2RP) system for additive manufacturing to achieve performative porosity in architecture at various scales. An extended series of experiments on materiality, fabrication and robotics were designed and carried out resul

  3. Design Paradigm Utilizing Reversible Diels-Alder Reactions to Enhance the Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Materials.

    Davidson, Joshua R; Appuhamillage, Gayan A; Thompson, Christina M; Voit, Walter; Smaldone, Ronald A

    2016-07-01

    A design paradigm is demonstrated that enables new functional 3D printed materials made by fused filament fabrication (FFF) utilizing a thermally reversible dynamic covalent Diels-Alder reaction to dramatically improve both strength and toughness via self-healing mechanisms. To achieve this, we used as a mending agent a partially cross-linked terpolymer consisting of furan-maleimide Diels-Alder (fmDA) adducts that exhibit reversibility at temperatures typically used for FFF printing. When this mending agent is blended with commercially available polylactic acid (PLA) and printed, the resulting materials demonstrate an increase in the interfilament adhesion strength along the z-axis of up to 130%, with ultimate tensile strength increasing from 10 MPa in neat PLA to 24 MPa in fmDA-enhanced PLA. Toughness in the z-axis aligned prints increases by up to 460% from 0.05 MJ/m(3) for unmodified PLA to 0.28 MJ/m(3) for the remendable PLA. Importantly, it is demonstrated that a thermally reversible cross-linking paradigm based on the furan-maleimide Diels-Alder (fmDA) reaction can be more broadly applied to engineer property enhancements and remending abilities to a host of other 3D printable materials with superior mechanical properties. PMID:27299858

  4. A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.

    English, Shawn Allen

    2014-09-01

    A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.

  5. Calculation of the magnetic susceptibility of the non-ferromagnetic materials from 3D reaction field

    Marcon, P.; Gescheidtová, E.; Bartušek, Karel

    Brno : Brno University of Technology, 2011, s. 207-211. ISBN 978-80-214-4283-2. [RTT - 2011 - International Conference on Research in Telecommunication Technologies /13./. Techov (CZ), 07.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/11/0318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : magnetic susceptibility * NMR * non-ferromagnetic materials * reaction field. Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. Micromechanical properties of biocompatible materials for bone tissue engineering produced by direct 3D printing

    Koudelka_ml., P.; Doktor, T.; Kytýř, Daniel; Fenclová, Nela; Šepitka, J.; Lukeš, J.

    Vol. 662. Durnten: Trans Tech Publications, 2015 - (Kovalčíková, A.; Lofaj, F.), s. 138-141 ISBN 978-3-03835-555-7. ISSN 1013-9826. [Conference on Local Mechanical Properties (LMP 2014) /11./. Stará Lesná (SK), 12.11.2014-14.11.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : bone scaffold * nanoindenation * mechanical properties * additive manufacturing Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials http://www.scientific.net/KEM.662.138

  7. A local quasicontinuum method for 3D multilattice crystalline materials: Application to shape-memory alloys

    The quasicontinuum (QC) method, in its local (continuum) limit, is applied to materials with a multilattice crystal structure. Cauchy–Born (CB) kinematics, which accounts for the shifts of the crystal motif, is used to relate atomic motions to continuum deformation gradients. To avoid failures of CB kinematics, QC is augmented with a phonon stability analysis that detects lattice period extensions and identifies the minimum required periodic cell size. This approach is referred to as Cascading Cauchy–Born kinematics (CCB). In this paper, the method is described and developed. It is then used, along with an effective interaction potential (EIP) model for shape-memory alloys, to simulate the shape-memory effect and pseudoelasticity in a finite specimen. The results of these simulations show that (i) the CCB methodology is an essential tool that is required in order for QC-type simulations to correctly capture the first-order phase transitions responsible for these material behaviors, and (ii) that the EIP model adopted in this work coupled with the QC/CCB methodology is capable of predicting the characteristic behavior found in shape-memory alloys. (paper)

  8. Development and Analysis of New 3D Tactile Materials for the Enhancement of STEM Education for the Blind and Visually Impaired

    Gonzales, Ashleigh

    Blind and visually impaired individuals have historically demonstrated a low participation in the fields of science, engineering, mathematics, and technology (STEM). This low participation is reflected in both their education and career choices. Despite the establishment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), blind and visually impaired (BVI) students continue to academically fall below the level of their sighted peers in the areas of science and math. Although this deficit is created by many factors, this study focuses on the lack of adequate accessible image based materials. Traditional methods for creating accessible image materials for the vision impaired have included detailed verbal descriptions accompanying an image or conversion into a simplified tactile graphic. It is very common that no substitute materials will be provided to students within STEM courses because they are image rich disciplines and often include a large number images, diagrams and charts. Additionally, images that are translated into text or simplified into basic line drawings are frequently inadequate because they rely on the interpretations of resource personnel who do not have expertise in STEM. Within this study, a method to create a new type of tactile 3D image was developed using High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Computer Numeric Control (CNC) milling. These tactile image boards preserve high levels of detail when compared to the original print image. To determine the discernibility and effectiveness of tactile images, these customizable boards were tested in various university classrooms as well as in participation studies which included BVI and sighted students. Results from these studies indicate that tactile images are discernable and were found to improve performance in lab exercises as much as 60% for those with visual impairment. Incorporating tactile HDPE 3D images into a classroom setting was shown to

  9. Multispectral/fluorescence CT using superconducting tunnel junction detector for 3-D material analysis

    We have developed superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) for applications to astrophysics, particle physics, material physics, etc. The spectrum capability of STJs is the wide wavelength/energy range from visible light to X-ray. STJs are applicable to photon detectors with good energy resolution and a high photon-counting rate. STJs also have good efficiency because of their high absorption efficiency below 1 keV photon energy. This is advantageous in low photon emission observation like fluorescence from objects. STJs have potentials to open new windows of the Multispectral/fluorescence computed tomography (CT) below 1 keV photon energy. As first step, we are starting STJ-CT experiments from the high-energy X-ray region (6-20 keV). We report and discuss the CT using STJs

  10. Modelling transient 3D multi-phase criticality in fluidised granular materials - the FETCH code

    The development and application of a generic model for modelling criticality in fluidised granular materials is described within the Finite Element Transient Criticality (FETCH) code - which models criticality transients in spatial and temporal detail from fundamental principles, as far as is currently possible. The neutronics model in FETCH solves the neutron transport in full phase space with a spherical harmonics angle of travel representation, multi-group in neutron energy, Crank Nicholson based in time stepping, and finite elements in space. The fluids representation coupled with the neutronics model is a two-fluid-granular-temperature model, also finite element fased. A separate fluid is used to represent the liquid/vapour gas and the solid fuel particle phases, respectively. Particle-particle, particle-wall interactions are modelled using a kinetic theory approach on an analogy between the motion of gas molecules subject to binary collisions and granular flows. This model has been extensively validated by comparison with fluidised bed experimental results. Gas-fluidised beds involve particles that are often extremely agitated (measured by granular temperature) and can thus be viewed as a particularly demanding application of the two-fluid model. Liquid fluidised systems are of criticality interest, but these can become demanding with the production of gases (e.g. radiolytic and water vapour) and large fluid/particle velocities in energetic transients. We present results from a test transient model in which fissile material (239Pu) is presented as spherical granules subsiding in water, located in a tank initially at constant temperature and at two alternative over-pressures in order to verify the theoretical model implemented in FETCH. (author)

  11. Application of micro- and nanoprobes to the analysis of small-sized 3D materials, nanosystems, and nanoobjects

    Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Ponomarev, A. G.; Shpak, Anatolii P.; Kunitskii, Yu A.

    2012-03-01

    The basic physics behind the interaction of ions with solid-state matter is discussed, with an emphasis on the formation of interaction products between the ions and target atoms. Processes covering modification of high-resistance materials for use in small-sized 3D structure technology are described. Current trends in and problems facing the development of the scanning nuclear microprobe (SNMP) are reviewed. The application of slow positrons to diagnosing materials is examined and the techniques of positron microscopy and microprobing are presented. The potential of near-field microwave microscopy for diagnosing superconducting ceramics and of microwave microscopy for nanotechnology applications are assessed. The examples given include the use of micro- and nanoprobes to analyze nanoobjects (such as green algae cells with 3D-distributed microelements, etc.), to develop the topological aspects of integrated microcircuits in nanoelectronics, and some other applications. The role of iron in pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is highlighted, the latter being the subject of research in neurochemistry.

  12. Application of micro- and nanoprobes to the analysis of small-sized 3D materials, nanosystems, and nanoobjects

    The basic physics behind the interaction of ions with solid-state matter is discussed, with an emphasis on the formation of interaction products between the ions and target atoms. Processes covering modification of high-resistance materials for use in small-sized 3D structure technology are described. Current trends in and problems facing the development of the scanning nuclear microprobe (SNMP) are reviewed. The application of slow positrons to diagnosing materials is examined and the techniques of positron microscopy and microprobing are presented. The potential of near-field microwave microscopy for diagnosing superconducting ceramics and of microwave microscopy for nanotechnology applications are assessed. The examples given include the use of micro- and nanoprobes to analyze nanoobjects (such as green algae cells with 3D-distributed microelements, etc.), to develop the topological aspects of integrated microcircuits in nanoelectronics, and some other applications. The role of iron in pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is highlighted, the latter being the subject of research in neurochemistry. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  13. Moessbauer Spectroscopy in Materials Science

    The publication in electronic form has been set up as proceedings of the conference dealing with applications of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in material science. Twenty-three abstracts and twenty-two presentations are included.

  14. PRODUCTION WITH 3D PRINTERS IN TEXTILES [REVIEW

    KESKIN Reyhan; GOCEK Ikilem

    2015-01-01

    3D printers are gaining more attention, finding different applications and 3D printing is being regarded as a ‘revolution’ of the 2010s for production. 3D printing is a production method that produces 3-dimensional objects by combining very thin layers over and over to form the object using 3D scanners or via softwares either private or open source. 3D printed materials find application in a large range of fields including aerospace, automotive, medicine and material science. There are severa...

  15. Automatic Determination of Fiber-Length Distribution in Composite Material Using 3D CT Data

    Günther Greiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymer components is a crucial step in quality assurance, since fiber length has a strong influence on overall strength, stiffness, and stability of the material. The approximate fiber length distribution is usually determined early in the development process, as conventional methods require a destruction of the sample component. In this paper, a novel, automatic, and nondestructive approach for the determination of fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymers is presented. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography is used as imaging method together with subsequent image analysis for evaluation. The image analysis consists of an iterative process where single fibers are detected automatically in each iteration step after having applied image enhancement algorithms. Subsequently, a model-based approach is used together with a priori information in order to guide a fiber tracing and segmentation process. Thereby, the length of the segmented fibers can be calculated and a length distribution can be deduced. The performance and the robustness of the segmentation method is demonstrated by applying it to artificially generated test data and selected real components.

  16. 3-d Brownian dynamics simulations of the smallest units of an active biological material

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta; Paudyal, Nabina; Adeli Koudehi, Maral

    Motor proteins generate stress in a cytoskeletal network by walking on one strand of the network while being attached to another one. A protein walker in contact with two elements of the network may be considered the smallest unit of an active biological material. In vitro experiments, mathematical modeling and computer simulations have provided important insights into active matter on large and on very small length and time scales. However, it is still difficult to model the effects of local environment and interactions at intermediate scales. Recently, we developed a coarse-grained, three-dimensional model for a motor protein transporting cargo by walking on a substrate. In this work, we simulate a tethered motor protein pulling a substrate with elastic response. As the walker progresses, the retarding force due to the substrate tension increases until contact fails. We present simulation results for the effect of motor-protein activity on the tension in the substrate and the effect of the retarding force on the processivity of the molecular motor.

  17. Removal of phosphate by Fe-coordinated amino-functionalized 3D mesoporous silicates hybrid materials

    Jianda Zhang; Zhemin Shen; Zhijian Mei; Shanping Li; Wenhua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate removal from aqueous waste streams is an important approach to control the eutrophication downstream bodies of water.A Fe(Ⅲ) coordinated amino-functionalized silicate adsorbent for phosphate adsorption was synthesized by a post-grafting and metal cation incorporation process. The surface structure of the adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsoropion/desoprotion technique, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the adsorption equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of the modified silicate material was 51.8 mg/g. The kinetic data from the adsorption of phosphate were fitted to pseudo second-order model. The phosphate adsorption was highly pH dependent and the relatively high removal of phosphate fell within the pH range 3.0-6.0. The coexistence of other anions in soiutions has an adverse effect on phosphate adsorption; a decrease in adsorption capacity followed the order of exogenous anions: F- > SO42- > NO3- > Cl-. In addition, the adsorbed phosphate could be desorbed by NaOH solutions. This silicate adsorbent with a large adsorption capacity and relatively high selectivity could be utilized for the removal of phosphate from aqueous waste streams or in aquatic environment.

  18. Importance of 3D Processes Near the Ocean's Surface for Material Transport

    Ozgokmen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    There are a number of practical problems that demand an accurate knowledge of ocean currents near the surface of the ocean. It is known that oceanic coherent features transport heat and carry out vertical exchange of biogeochemical tracers. Ocean currents can affect biological primary production, air-sea gas exchanges and global tracer budgets. Ocean currents are also important for the dispersion of substances that pose a danger to society, economy and human health. Examples of such events include algal blooms, the Fukushima nuclear plant incident in the Pacific Ocean in 2011, and repeated large oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico, namely the IXTOC in 1978 and the Deepwater Horizon event in 2010. Such incidents demand accurate answers to questions such as ``where will the pollutant go?", ``how fast will it get there?" and ``how much pollutant will arrive there?", and in some instances ``where did the pollutant come from?". The answers to these questions are critical to the allocation of limited response resources, and in determining the overall impact of the events. We will summarize the efforts by the Consortium for Advanced Research on Transport of Hydrocarbon in the Environment (CARTHE). One of the primary objectives of CARTHE is to improve predictive modeling capability for flows near the air-sea interface. In particular, two large experiments, Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD) and Surf-zone and Coastal Oil Pathways Experiment (SCOPE), coordinated with real-time modeling were instructive on processes influencing near-surface material transport. Findings on submesoscale flows as well as model deficiencies to capture processes relevant to transport will be discussed. Insight into future modeling and observational plans will be provided.

  19. 3-D analysis of fatigue crack behaviour in a shot peened steam turbine blade material

    Serial mechanical sectioning and high resolution X-ray tomography have been used to study the three-dimensional morphology of small fatigue cracks growing in a 12 Cr tempered martensitic steam turbine blade material. A range of surface conditions has been studied, namely polished and shot peened (with varying levels of intensity). In the polished (unpeened) condition, inclusions (alumina and manganese sulphide) played an important role in initiating and controlling early fatigue crack behaviour. When fatigue cracks initiated from an alumina stringer, the crack morphology was normally dominated by single stringers, which were always in the centre of the fatigue crack, indicating its primary role in initiation. Manganese sulphide inclusion groups however seemed to dominate and affect the crack path along both the surface and depth crack growth directions. The more intensely shot peened condition did not however evidence inclusion or stringer affected fatigue crack initiation or growth behaviour; sub-surface crack coalescence being clearly observed by both serial sectioning and computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques at a depth of about 150–180 μm. These sub-surface crack coalescences can be linked to both the extent of the compressive residual stress as well as the depth of the plastic deformation arising from the intense shot peening process. Shot peening appears to provide a different defect population that initiates fatigue cracks and competes with the underlying metallurgical defect populations. The most beneficial shot peening process would in this case appear to “deactivate” the original metallurgical defect population and substitute a known defect distribution from the shot peening process from which fatigue cracks grow rather slowly in the strain hardened surface layer which also contains compressive residual stresses. A benefit to fatigue life in bending, even under Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) conditions, has been observed in these tests if a

  20. 3-D analysis of fatigue crack behaviour in a shot peened steam turbine blade material

    He, B.Y., E-mail: Binyan.he@soton.ac.uk [Engineering Materials, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Katsamenis, O.L. [muVIS X-ray Imaging Centre, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Mellor, B.G.; Reed, P.A.S. [Engineering Materials, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-26

    Serial mechanical sectioning and high resolution X-ray tomography have been used to study the three-dimensional morphology of small fatigue cracks growing in a 12 Cr tempered martensitic steam turbine blade material. A range of surface conditions has been studied, namely polished and shot peened (with varying levels of intensity). In the polished (unpeened) condition, inclusions (alumina and manganese sulphide) played an important role in initiating and controlling early fatigue crack behaviour. When fatigue cracks initiated from an alumina stringer, the crack morphology was normally dominated by single stringers, which were always in the centre of the fatigue crack, indicating its primary role in initiation. Manganese sulphide inclusion groups however seemed to dominate and affect the crack path along both the surface and depth crack growth directions. The more intensely shot peened condition did not however evidence inclusion or stringer affected fatigue crack initiation or growth behaviour; sub-surface crack coalescence being clearly observed by both serial sectioning and computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques at a depth of about 150–180 μm. These sub-surface crack coalescences can be linked to both the extent of the compressive residual stress as well as the depth of the plastic deformation arising from the intense shot peening process. Shot peening appears to provide a different defect population that initiates fatigue cracks and competes with the underlying metallurgical defect populations. The most beneficial shot peening process would in this case appear to “deactivate” the original metallurgical defect population and substitute a known defect distribution from the shot peening process from which fatigue cracks grow rather slowly in the strain hardened surface layer which also contains compressive residual stresses. A benefit to fatigue life in bending, even under Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) conditions, has been observed in these tests if a

  1. Electrospinning synthesis of 3D porous NiO nanorods as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Wei Kong Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional NiO nanorods were synthesized as anode material by electrospinning method. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the product sintered at 400 °C had impure metallic nickel phase which, however, became pure NiO phase as the sintering temperature rose. Nevertheless, the nanorods sintered at 400, 500 and 600 °C had similar diameters (∼200 nm.The NiO nanorod material sintered at 500 °C was chip-shaped with a diameter of 200 nm and it exhibited a porous 3D structure. The nanorod sintered at 500 °C had the optimal electrochemical performance. Its discharge specific capacity was 1127 mAh·g−1 initially and remained as high as 400 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 55 mA·g−1 after 50 cycles.

  2. Optimization and Use of 3D sintered porous material in medical field for mixing fibrin glue.

    Delmotte, Y.; Laroumanie, H.; Brossard, G.

    2012-04-01

    In medical field, Mixing of two or more chemical components (liquids and/or gases) is extremely important as improper mixing can affect the physico-chemical properties of the final product. At Baxter Healthcare Corporation, we are using a sintered porous material (PM) as a micro-mixer in medical device for mixing Fibrinogen and Thrombin in order to obtain a homogeneous polymerized Fibrin glue clot used in surgery. First trials were carried out with an interconnected PM from Porvair® (made of PE - porosity: 40% - permeability: 18Darcy). The injection rate is very low, usually about 10mL/min (Re number about 50) which keeps fluids in a laminar flow. Such a low flow rate does not favour mixing of fluids having gradient of viscosity if a mixer is not used. Promising results that were obtained lead the team to understand this ability to mix fluids which will be presented in the poster. Topology of porous media (PM) which associates a solid phase with interconnected (or not) porous structure is known and used in many commodity products. Researches on PM usually focus on flows inside this structure. By opposition to transport and filtration capacity, as well as mechanic and thermic properties, mixing is rarely associated with PM. However over the past few years, we shown that some type of PM have a real capacity to mix certain fluids. Poster will also describe the problematic of mixing complex biological fluids as fibrinogen and Thrombin. They indeed present a large viscosity difference (ratio about 120) limiting the diffusion and the interaction between the two solutions. As those products are expensive, we used Water (1cPo) and Glycerol 87% (120cPo) which are matching the viscosities of Thrombin and Fibrinogen. A parametric investigation of the "porous micro-mixer" as well as a scale up investigation was carried out to examine the influence of both diffusion and advection to successful mix fluids of different viscosity. Experiments were implemented with Planar Laser

  3. Chemistry and Materials Science

    Thrust areas of the weapons-supporting research are growth, structure, and reactivity of surfaces and thin films; uranium research; physics and processing of metals; energetic materials; etc. The laboratory-directed R and D include director's initiatives and individual projects, and transactinium institute studies

  4. Weightless Materials Science

    Curtis, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Gravity affects everything we do. Only in very recent years have we been able to carry out experiments in orbit around the Earth and see for the first time how things behave in its absence. This has allowed us to understand fundamental processes better and to design new materials using this knowledge. (Contains 6 figures.)

  5. Stress analysis of different prosthesis materials in implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis using 3D finite element method

    Pedram Iranmanesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the present study, the finite element method (FEM was used to investigate the effects of prosthesis material types on stress distribution of the bone surrounding implants and to evaluate stress distribution in three-unit implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional (3D finite element FDP model of the maxillary second premolar to the second molar was designed. Three load conditions were statically applied on the functional cusps in horizontal (57.0 N, vertical (200.0 N, and oblique (400.0 N, θ = 120° directions. Four standard framework materials were evaluated: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, base-metal, porcelain fused to metal, andporcelain. Results: The maximum of von Mises stress in the oblique direction was higher than the vertical and horizontal directions in all conditions. In the bone-crestal section, the maximum von Mises stress (53.78 MPa was observed in PMMA within oblique load. In FDPs, the maximum stress was generated at the connector region in all conditions. Conclusion: A noticeable difference was not observed in the bone stress distribution pattern with different prosthetic materials. Although, higher stress value could be seen in polymethyl methacrylate, all types of prosthesis yielded the same stress distribution pattern in FDP. More clinical studies are needed to evaluate the survival rate of these materials.

  6. Neutron imaging in materials science

    Nikolay Kardjilov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutron imaging is a non-destructive technique that can reveal the interior of many materials and engineering components and also probe magnetic fields. Within the past few years, several new imaging modes have been introduced that extend the scope of neutron imaging beyond conventional neutron attenuation imaging, yielding both 2- and 3D information about properties and phenomena inaccessible until now. We present an overview of the most important advances in the application of neutron imaging in materials research with a focus on novel techniques such as energy-selective imaging, interferometric imaging with phase gratings, and polarized-neutron imaging. Examples given include the investigation of fluid dynamics in fuel cells, materials phases and structural heterogeneities, distribution of strains, and magnetic structures or phase transitions.

  7. Update History of This Database - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us BodyParts3D Update Histor...omla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Data...base Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  8. 3D Geospatial Models for Visualization and Analysis of Groundwater Contamination at a Nuclear Materials Processing Facility

    Stirewalt, G. L.; Shepherd, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of hydrostratigraphy and uranium and nitrate contamination in groundwater at a former nuclear materials processing facility in Oklahoma were undertaken employing 3-dimensional (3D) geospatial modeling software. Models constructed played an important role in the regulatory decision process of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because they enabled visualization of temporal variations in contaminant concentrations and plume geometry. Three aquifer systems occur at the site, comprised of water-bearing fractured shales separated by indurated sandstone aquitards. The uppermost terrace groundwater system (TGWS) aquifer is composed of terrace and alluvial deposits and a basal shale. The shallow groundwater system (SGWS) aquifer is made up of three shale units and two sandstones. It is separated from the overlying TGWS and underlying deep groundwater system (DGWS) aquifer by sandstone aquitards. Spills of nitric acid solutions containing uranium and radioactive decay products around the main processing building (MPB), leakage from storage ponds west of the MPB, and leaching of radioactive materials from discarded equipment and waste containers contaminated both the TGWS and SGWS aquifers during facility operation between 1970 and 1993. Constructing 3D geospatial property models for analysis of groundwater contamination at the site involved use of EarthVision (EV), a 3D geospatial modeling software developed by Dynamic Graphics, Inc. of Alameda, CA. A viable 3D geohydrologic framework model was initially constructed so property data could be spatially located relative to subsurface geohydrologic units. The framework model contained three hydrostratigraphic zones equivalent to the TGWS, SGWS, and DGWS aquifers in which groundwater samples were collected, separated by two sandstone aquitards. Groundwater data collected in the three aquifer systems since 1991 indicated high concentrations of uranium (>10,000 micrograms/liter) and nitrate (> 500 milligrams

  9. Setting science free from materialism.

    Sheldrake, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary science is based on the claim that all reality is material or physical. There is no reality but material reality. Consciousness is a by-product of the physical activity of the brain. Matter is unconscious. Evolution is purposeless. This view is now undergoing a credibility crunch. The biggest problem of all for materialism is the existence of consciousness. Panpsychism provides a way forward. So does the recognition that minds are not confined to brains. PMID:23906099

  10. Materials Science in Ancient Rome

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Two books, the "De Architectura" by Vitruvius and the "Naturalis Historia" by Pliny the Elder, give us a portrait of the Materials Science, that is, the knowledge of materials, in Rome at the beginning of the Empire. Here, I am reporting some very attractive contents that we can find in these books. The reader will see the discussion proposed in fours case studies: concretes, coatings, amorphous materials and colloidal crystals, to describe them in modern words.

  11. Neutrons for materials science

    The discussion will be limited to applied materials research performed on a customer/contractor basis. The information obtained using neutrons must therefore compete both scientifically and financially with information obtained using other techniques, particularly electron microscopy, X-ray, NMR, infra-red and Raman spectroscopy. It will be argued that the unique nature of the information gained from neutrons often outweighs the undoubted difficulties of access to neutron beams. Examples are given. Small angle scattering has emerged as the neutron technique of widest application in applied materials research. The penetration of neutron beams through containment vessels, as well as through the sample, allows the measurement of 'in situ' time dependent experiments within a furnace, cryostat, pressure vessel or chemical reactor vessel. High resolution powder diffraction is another technique with wide applications. Structural studies are possible on increasing complex phases. The structure and volume fraction of minority phases can be measured at levels appreciably below that possible by X-ray diffraction. A rapidly growing field at present is the measurement of internal strains through the small shifts in lattice spacing. Inelastic scattering measurements exploit the unique property of neutrons to measure the orientations of vibrating molecules. (author)

  12. Neutrons for materials science

    The discussion will be limited to applied materials research performed on a customer/contractor basis. The information obtained using neutrons must therefore compete both scientifically and financially with information obtained using other techniques, particular electron microscopy, X-ray, NMR, infra-red and Raman spectroscopy. It will be argued that the unique nature of the information gained from neutrons often outweighs the undoubted difficulties of access to neutron beams. Small-angle scattering has emerged as the neutron technique of widest application in applied materials research. The penetration of neutron beams through containment vessels, as well as through the sample, allows the measurement of in situ time-dependent experiments within a furnace, cryostat, pressure vessel or chemical reactor vessel. Examples will be given of small-angle scattering projects from the nuclear metallurgy, coal, oil, cement, detergent and plastics industries. High-resolution powder diffraction is another technique with wide applications. Structural studies are possible on increasingly complex phases. The structure and volume fraction of minority phase can be measured at levels appreciably below that possible by X-ray diffraction. A rapidly growing field at present is the measurement of internal strains through the small shifts in lattice spacing. Neutron diffraction is unique in being able to measure the full strain tensor from a specified volume within a bulk specimen. Inelastic scattering measurements exploit the unique property of neutrons to measure the orientations of vibrating molecules. Examples will be chosen from the field of catalysis where inelastic spectroscopy has revealed the nature of the bonding of hydrocarbon molecules. (author)

  13. Novel Organic Materials for Multi-photon Photopolymerization and Photografting: Powerful Tools for Precise Microfabracation and Functionalization in 3D

    Two-photon excitation provides the possibility of the activation of chemical or physical processes with high spatial resolution in 3D. Such strategy has been widely used in microfabrication of photonic crystals, polymer-based optical waveguides on integrated circuit boards, high-density 3D optical data storage and other industries requiring high precision. Since the photo-activated chemical or physical processes are confined only within the small focal volume, excellent spatial control could be obtained. Moreover, the excitation source with long wavelength offers the advantages of deeper tissue penetration and less photodamage, making 2PA especially suitable for various biological applications, such as bioimaging and in-vivo biofabrications. The development of novel two-photon absorption (2PA) active organic materials is essential to realize the desired functions. The first part of the thesis focuses on the novel 2PA photoinitiators (2PIs) used for two-photon induced photopolymerization (2PP), a versatile technique for precise 3D microfabrications. High initiation efficiency is the most important character for an efficient PI. Based on a potent lead structure 1,5-bis(4-(N,N-dibutylamino) phenyl)penta-1,4-diyn-3-one, several aromatic ketone-based 2PIs containing triple bonds and dialkylamino groups were synthesized via Sonogashira coupling reactions. 2, 7-substituted fluorenone-based PI B3FL, with the largest 2PA cross section of 440 GM at 800 nm, exhibited the broadest processing windows among the investigated PIs. The double bonds conversion of the cross-linking polymeric network and the mechanical properties of the microstructures were also evaluated by FTIR and nanoindentation measurements, respectively. Beside initiation efficiency of PIs, the ease and cost of preparation are also critical factors from practical aspect. To overcome the problem of the reported 2PIs derived from the complicated syntheses and expensive catalysts, a series of linear and cyclic

  14. An Examination of the Effects of Collaborative Scientific Visualization via Model-Based Reasoning on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Learning within an Immersive 3D World

    Soleimani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Immersive 3D worlds can be designed to effectively engage students in peer-to-peer collaborative learning activities, supported by scientific visualization, to help with understanding complex concepts associated with learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Previous research studies have shown STEM learning benefits…

  15. 3D electron microscopy in the physical sciences: the development of Z-contrast and EFTEM tomography

    Midgley, P.A.; Weyland, M

    2003-09-15

    The rapid advances in nanotechnology and the ever decreasing size of features in the microelectronics industry brings with it the need for advanced characterisation with high spatial resolution in two and three dimensions. Stereo microscopy allows some insight into the three-dimensional nature of an object but for true quantitative analysis, one has to turn to tomography as a way to reconstruct a three-dimensional object from a series of two-dimensional projections (images). X-ray tomography allow structures to be imaged at relatively large length scales, atom probe tomography at the atomic level. Electron tomography offers an intermediate resolution (of about 1 nm) with a field of view of hundreds of nm making it ideal for the characterisation of many nanoscale devices. Whilst electron tomography has been used in the biological sciences for more than 30 years, it is only now being applied to the physical sciences. In this paper, we review the status of electron tomography, describe the basis behind the technique and some of the practicalities of recording and analysing data for tomographic reconstruction, particularly in regard to solving three-dimensional problems that are encountered in materials science at the nanometre level. We present examples of how STEM dark-field imaging and energy-filtered TEM can be used successfully to examine nearly all types of specimens likely to be encountered by the physical scientist.

  16. Advanced batteries materials science aspects

    Huggins, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Storage and conversion are critical components of important energy-related technologies. This title employs materials science concepts and tools to describe the features that control the behavior of advanced electrochemical storage systems. It focuses on the basic phenomena that determine the properties of the components.

  17. Materials Science with Ion Beams

    Bernas, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces materials scientists and designers, physicists and chemists to the properties of materials that can be modified by ion irradiation or implantation. These techniques can help design new materials or to test modified properties; novel applications already show that ion-beam techniques are complementary to others, yielding previously unattainable properties. Also, ion-beam interactions modify materials at the nanoscale, avoiding the often detrimental results of lithographic or chemical techniques. Here, the effects are related to better-known quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics, and the consequences to materials are discussed with concepts that are familiar to materials science. Examples addressed concern semiconductor physics, crystal and nanocluster growth, optics, magnetism, and applications to geology and biology.

  18. Full 3D internal strain measurement for device packaging materials using synchrotron laminography and volumetric digital image correlation method

    In order to measure full 3D internal strain field of resin molding compound specimens, synchrotron computed tomography and laminography at SPring-8 were performed. Then the reconstructed images were applied to 3D digital image correlation method to compute internal strain field. The results showed that internal strains in resin molding compound could be visualized in this way. (author)

  19. 3D printing for dummies

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  20. PRODUCTION WITH 3D PRINTERS IN TEXTILES [REVIEW

    KESKIN Reyhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D printers are gaining more attention, finding different applications and 3D printing is being regarded as a ‘revolution’ of the 2010s for production. 3D printing is a production method that produces 3-dimensional objects by combining very thin layers over and over to form the object using 3D scanners or via softwares either private or open source. 3D printed materials find application in a large range of fields including aerospace, automotive, medicine and material science. There are several 3D printing methods such as fused deposition modeling (FDM, stereolithographic apparatus (SLA, selective laser sintering (SLS, inkjet 3D printing and laminated object manufacturing (LOM. 3D printing process involves three steps: production of the 3D model file, conversion of the 3D model file into G-code and printing the object. 3D printing finds a large variety of applications in many fields; however, textile applications of 3D printing remain rare. There are several textile-like 3D printed products mostly for use in fashion design, for research purposes, for technical textile applications and for substituting traditional textiles suchas weft-knitted structures and lace patterns. 3D printed textile-like structures are not strong enough for textile applications as they tend to break easily and although they have the drape of a textile material, they still lack the flexibility of textiles. 3D printing technology has to gain improvement to produce materials that will be an equivalent for textile materials, and has to be a faster method to compete with traditional textile production methods.

  1. Thick fibrous composite reinforcements behave as special second-gradient materials: three-point bending of 3D interlocks

    Madeo, Angela; Ferretti, Manuel; dell'Isola, Francesco; Boisse, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose to use a second gradient, 3D orthotropic model for the characterization of the mechanical behavior of thick woven composite interlocks. Such second-gradient theory is seen to directly account for the out-of-plane bending rigidity of the yarns at the mesoscopic scale which is, in turn, related to the bending stiffness of the fibers composing the yarns themselves. The yarns' bending rigidity evidently affects the macroscopic bending of the material and this fact is revealed by presenting a three-point bending test on specimens of composite interlocks. These specimens differ one from the other for the different relative direction of the yarns with respect to the edges of the sample itself. Both types of specimens are independently seen to take advantage of a second-gradient modeling for the correct description of their macroscopic bending modes. The results presented in this paper are essential for the setting up of a correct continuum framework suitable for the mechanical characterization of composite interlocks. The few second-gradient parameters introduced by the present model are all seen to be associated with peculiar deformation modes of the mesostructure (bending of the yarns) and are determined by inverse approach. Although the presented results undoubtedly represent an important step toward the complete characterization of the mechanical behavior of fibrous composite reinforcements, more complex hyperelastic second-gradient constitutive laws must be conceived in order to account for the description of all possible mesostructure-induced deformation patterns.

  2. "We Put on the Glasses and Moon Comes Closer!" Urban Second Graders Exploring the Earth, the Sun and Moon through 3D Technologies in a Science and Literacy Unit

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Zeynep Inan, Hatice; Nowak, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Beomjin

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes (a) the ways 3D visualization, coupled with other science and literacy experiences, supported young children's first exploration of the Earth-Sun-Moon system and (b) the perspectives of classroom teachers and children on using 3D visualization. We created three interactive 3D software modules that…

  3. Facile Fabrication of 3D SiO2@Graphene Aerogel Composites as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional amorphous SiO2@GA ultralight composite was prepared via a one-pot route. • SiO2@GA exhibited high surface area, large pore volume, and narrow meso-macoporous size distribution. • SiO2@GA electrode exhibited high specific capacity and stable cycling performance. • SiO2@GA electrode displayed excellent rate-capability. - Abstract: A three-dimensional amorphous SiO2@graphene aerogel (SiO2@GA) composites as anode material for lithium ion batteries was successfully synthesized via a one-pot process. The materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Fourier-Transform infrared spectra. The results demonstrate that the SiO2@GA composites are in meso-macoporous structures and present large surface area (SBET = 396.9 m2 g−1) and high pore volume (Vp = 0.67 cm3 g−1). Meanwhile, the incorporation of SiO2 does not make obvious effect at the reduction degree of GO to assemble GA. The results of their electrochemical performance reveal that in contrast with bare SiO2, the SiO2@GA anode exhibit higher reversible capacity (∼300 mAh g−1 at a current density of 500 mA g−1), more stable cycling performance, and excellent rate-capability. The significantly improves electrochemical performance may be ascribed to the 3D aerogel structure and the doping of GA

  4. Re-Dimensional Thinking in Earth Science: From 3-D Virtual Reality Panoramas to 2-D Contour Maps

    Park, John; Carter, Glenda; Butler, Susan; Slykhuis, David; Reid-Griffin, Angelia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of gender and spatial perception on student interactivity with contour maps and non-immersive virtual reality. Eighteen eighth-grade students elected to participate in a six-week activity-based course called "3-D GeoMapping." The course included nine days of activities related to topographic mapping. At the end…

  5. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  6. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals

  7. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  8. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  9. Materials Sciences Division long range plan

    The intent of this document is to provide a framework for programmatic guidance into the future for Materials Sciences. The Materials Sciences program is the basic research program for materials in the Department of Energy. It includes a wide variety of activities associated with the sciences related to materials. It also includes the support for developing, constructing, and operating major facilities which are used extensively but not exclusively by the materials sciences

  10. A General 3-D Methodology for Quasi-Static Simulation of Drainage and Imbibition: Application to Highly Porous Fibrous Materials

    Riasi, S.; Huang, G.; Montemagno, C.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2013-12-01

    Micro-scale modeling of multiphase flow in porous media is critical to characterize porous materials. Several modeling techniques have been implemented to date, but none can be used as a general strategy for all porous media applications due to challenges presented by non-smooth high-curvature solid surfaces, and by a wide range of pore sizes and porosities. Finite approaches like the finite volume method require a high quality, problem-dependent mesh, while particle-based approaches like the lattice Boltzmann require too many particles to achieve a stable meaningful solution. Both come at a large computational cost. Other methods such as pore network modeling (PNM) have been developed to accelerate the solution process by simplifying the solution domain, but so far a unique and straightforward methodology to implement PNM is lacking. We have developed a general, stable and fast methodology to model multi-phase fluid flow in porous materials, irrespective of their porosity and solid phase topology. We have applied this methodology to highly porous fibrous materials in which void spaces are not distinctly separated, and where simplifying the geometry into a network of pore bodies and throats, as in PNM, does not result in a topology-consistent network. To this end, we have reduced the complexity of the 3-D void space geometry by working with its medial surface. We have used a non-iterative fast medial surface finder algorithm to determine a voxel-wide medial surface of the void space, and then solved the quasi-static drainage and imbibition on the resulting domain. The medial surface accurately represents the topology of the porous structure including corners, irregular cross sections, etc. This methodology is capable of capturing corner menisci and the snap-off mechanism numerically. It also allows for calculation of pore size distribution, permeability and capillary pressure-saturation-specific interfacial area surface of the porous structure. To show the

  11. 3D Projection Installations

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  12. 3D Printing Functional Nanocomposites

    Leong, Yew Juan

    2016-01-01

    3D printing presents the ability of rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing. Techniques such as stereolithography (SLA) and fused deposition molding (FDM) have been developed and utilized since the inception of 3D printing. In such techniques, polymers represent the most commonly used material for 3D printing due to material properties such as thermo plasticity as well as its ability to be polymerized from monomers. Polymer nanocomposites are polymers with nanomaterials composited into the ...

  13. 3D hierarchical computational model of wood as a cellular material with fibril reinforced, heterogeneous multiple layers

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2009-01-01

    A 3D hierarchical computational model of deformation and stiffness of wood, which takes into account the structures of wood at several scale levels (cellularity, multilayered nature of cell walls, composite-like structures of the wall layers) is developed. At the mesoscale, the softwood cell is...... presented as a 3D hexagon-shape-tube with multilayered walls. The layers in the softwood cell are considered as considered as composite reinforced by microfibrils (celluloses). The elastic properties of the layers are determined with Halpin–Tsai equations, and introduced into mesoscale finite element...

  14. Nanoscale tomography in materials science

    Günter Möbus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In materials science, various techniques for three-dimensional reconstruction of microstructures have been applied successfully for decades, such as X-ray tomography and mechanical sectioning. However, in the last decade the family tree of methods has grown significantly. This is partly through advances in instrumentation. The introduction of the focused ion beam microscope and the transformation of transmission electron microscopy into a multipurpose analytical and structural tool have made major impacts. The main driving force for progress is perhaps the advent of nanotechnology with the need to achieve nanometer-scale resolution and the desire to get a real three-dimensional view of the nanoscale world.

  15. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  16. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  17. Concepción y diseño conceptual de un sistema de mezcla de material para la alimentación de una impresora 3D

    Wang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    The project develops the design of a pump with a suitable mixer for 3D printers and the manufacture of functional prototype. This mechanism should allow impressions as being made so far but also enable a whole series of materials that were previously not technically possible to print.

  18. Laser printing and femtosecond laser structuring of electrode materials for the manufacturing of 3D lithium-ion micro-batteries

    Smyrek, P.; Kim, H.; Zheng, Y.; Seifert, H. J.; Piqué, A.; Pfleging, W.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, three-dimensional (3D) electrode architectures have attracted great interest for the development of lithium-ion micro-batteries applicable for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), sensors, and hearing aids. Since commercial available micro-batteries are mainly limited in overall cell capacity by their electrode footprint, new processing strategies for increasing both capacity and electrochemical performance have to be developed. In case of such standard microbatteries, two-dimensional (2D) electrode arrangements are applied with thicknesses up to 200 μm. These electrode layers are composed of active material, conductive agent, graphite, and polymeric binder. Nevertheless, with respect to the type of active material, the active material to conductive agent ratio, and the film thickness, such thick-films suffer from low ionic and electronic conductivities, poor electrolyte accessibility, and finally, limited electrochemical performance under challenging conditions. In order to overcome these drawbacks, 3D electrode arrangements are under intense investigation since they allow the reduction of lithium-ion diffusion pathways in between inter-digitated electrodes, even for electrodes with enhanced mass loadings. In this paper, we present how to combine laser-printing and femtosecond laser-structuring for the development of advanced 3D electrodes composed of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC). In a first step, NMC thick-films were laser-printed and calendered to achieve film thicknesses in the range of 50 μm - 80 μm. In a second step, femtosecond laser-structuring was carried out in order to generate 3D architectures directly into thick-films. Finally, electrochemical cycling of laser-processed films was performed in order to evaluate the most promising 3D electrode designs suitable for application in long life-time 3D micro-batteries.

  19. A Comparison of the influence of material on in vitro cartilage tissue engineering with PCL, PGS, and POC 3D scaffold architecture seeded with chondrocytes

    Jeong, Claire G.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine material effects on cartilage regeneration for scaffolds with the same controlled architecture. The 3D polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS), and poly (1,8 octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) scaffolds of the same design were physically characterized and tissue regeneration in terms of cell phenotype, cellular proliferation and differentiation, and matrix production were compared to find which material would be most optimal for cartilage regen...

  20. Photopatterning of Hydrogel Scaffolds Coupled to Filter Materials Using Stereolithography for Perfused 3D Culture of Hepatocytes

    Shepard Neiman, Jaclyn A.; Raman, Ritu; Chan, Vincent; Rhoads, Mary G.; Raredon, Micha Sam B.; Velazquez, Jeremy J.; Dyer, Rachel L.; Bashir, Rashid; Hammond, Paula T.; Griffith, Linda G.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro models that recapitulate the liver’s structural and functional complexity could prolong hepatocellular viability and function to improve platforms for drug toxicity studies and understanding liver pathophysiology. Here, stereolithography (SLA) was employed to fabricate hydrogel scaffolds with open channels designed for post-seeding and perfused culture of primary hepatocytes that form 3D structures in a bioreactor. Photopolymerizable polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels were fabricate...

  1. 3D bioprinting of skin: a state-of-the-art review on modelling, materials, and processes.

    Vijayavenkataraman, S; Lu, W F; Fuh, J Y H

    2016-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body, having a complex multi-layered structure and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments, and internal organs. It serves as the first line of defence to any external stimuli, hence it is the most vulnerable to injury and warrants the need for rapid and reliable regeneration methods. Tissue engineered skin substitutes help overcome the limitations of traditional skin treatment methods, in terms of technology, time, and cost. While there is commendable progress in the treating of superficial wounds and injuries with skin substitutes, treatment of full-thickness injuries, especially with third or fourth degree burns, still looks murkier. Engineering multi-layer skin architecture, conforming to the native skin structure is a tougher goal to achieve with the current tissue engineering methods, if not impossible, restoring all the functions of the native skin. The testing of drugs and cosmetics is another area, where engineered skins are very much needed, with bans being imposed on product testing on animals. Given this greater need, 3D bioprinting is a promising technology that can achieve rapid and reliable production of biomimetic cellular skin substitutes, satisfying both clinical and industrial needs. This paper reviews all aspects related to the 3D bioprinting of skin, right from imaging the injury site, 3D model creation, biomaterials that are used and their suitability, types of cells and their functions, actual bioprinting technologies, along with the challenges and future prospects. PMID:27606434

  2. High density resolution synchrotron radiation based x-ray microtomography (SR μCT) for quantitative 3D-morphometrics in zoological sciences

    Nickel, Michael; Hammel, Jörg U.; Herzen, Julia; Bullinger, Eric; Beckmann, Felix

    2008-08-01

    Zoological sciences widely rely on morphological data to reconstruct and understand body structures of animals. The best suitable methods like tomography allow for a direct representation of 3D-structures. In recent years, synchrotron radiation based x-ray microtomography (SR μCT) placed high resolutions to the disposal of morphologists. With the development of highly brilliant and collimated third generation synchrotron sources, phase contrast SR μCT became widely available. A number of scientific contributions stressed the superiority of phase contrast over absorption contrast. However, here we demonstrate the power of high density resolution methods based on absorption-contrast SRμCT for quantitative 3D-measurements of tissues and other delicate bio-structures in zoological sciences. We used beamline BW2 at DORIS III (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) to perform microtomography on tissue and mineral skeletons of marine sponges (Porifera) which were shock frozen and/or fixed in a glutamate osmium tetroxide solution, followed by critical point drying. High density resolution tomographic reconstructions allowed running quantitative 3D-image analyses in Matlab and ImageJ. By applying contrast and shape rule based algorithms we semi-automatically extracted and measured sponge body structures like mineral spicules, elements of the canal system or tissue structures. This lead to a better understanding of sponge biology: from skeleton functional morphology and internal water flow regimes to body contractility. Our high density resolution based quantitative approach can be applied to a wide variety of biological structures. However, two prerequisites apply: (1) maximum density resolution is necessary; (2) edge effects as seen for example in phase outline contrast SR μCT must not be present. As a consequence, to allow biological sciences to fully exploit the power of SR μCT further increase of density resolution in absorption contrast methods is desirable.

  3. 3D-printing technologies for electrochemical applications.

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-05-21

    Since its conception during the 80s, 3D-printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has been receiving unprecedented levels of attention and interest from industry and research laboratories. This is in addition to end users, who have benefited from the pervasiveness of desktop-size and relatively cheap printing machines available. 3D-printing enables almost infinite possibilities for rapid prototyping. Therefore, it has been considered for applications in numerous research fields, ranging from mechanical engineering, medicine, and materials science to chemistry. Electrochemistry is another branch of science that can certainly benefit from 3D-printing technologies, paving the way for the design and fabrication of cheaper, higher performing, and ubiquitously available electrochemical devices. Here, we aim to provide a general overview of the most commonly available 3D-printing methods along with a review of recent electrochemistry related studies adopting 3D-printing as a possible rapid prototyping fabrication tool. PMID:27048921

  4. Research trends in biomimetic medical materials for tissue engineering: 3D bioprinting, surface modification, nano/micro-technology and clinical aspects in tissue engineering of cartilage and bone.

    Chen, Cen; Bang, Sumi; Cho, Younghak; Lee, Sahnghoon; Lee, Inseop; Zhang, ShengMin; Noh, Insup

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses about biomimetic medical materials for tissue engineering of bone and cartilage, after previous scientific commentary of the invitation-based, Korea-China joint symposium on biomimetic medical materials, which was held in Seoul, Korea, from October 22 to 26, 2015. The contents of this review were evolved from the presentations of that symposium. Four topics of biomimetic medical materials were discussed from different research groups here: 1) 3D bioprinting medical materials, 2) nano/micro-technology, 3) surface modification of biomaterials for their interactions with cells and 4) clinical aspects of biomaterials for cartilage focusing on cells, scaffolds and cytokines. PMID:27148455

  5. Hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-V2O5 (vanadium pentoxide) spheres as cathode materials for high-energy and high-power lithium ion-batteries

    We facilely fabricate hierarchical 3D microspheres consisting of 2D V2O5 (vanadium pentoxide) nanosheets by a low temperature hydrothermal method and use it to structure hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-LIBs (lithium ion batteries) cathode. This is a template-free and facile method easy for scale-up production of hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-structured V2O5 spheres beneficial for high performance LIBs applications. Such a facile method resulted hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-V2O5 possess many unique features good for LIBs: (1) 2D V2O5 nanosheets facilitate the Li+ diffusions and electron transports; (2) hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-cathode structure built up by V2O5 nanosheet spheres will lead to the close and sufficient contact between electrolytes and activate materials and at the same time will create buffer volume to accommodate the volume change during discharging/charging process; and (3) micro-scale V2O5 spheres are easy to result in high cell packing density beneficial for high power battery. As revealed by the experimental results, the micro-/nano-V2O5 electrode demonstrates high initial discharge and charge capacities with no irreversible loss, high rate capacities at different currents and long-lasting lifespan. The high-energy and high-power performances of the micro-/nano-V2O5 electrode is ascribed to the unique hierarchical micro-/nano-structure merits of V2O5 spheres as abovementioned. In view of the advantages of facile fabrication method and unique features of 3D micro-/nano-V2O5 spheres for high power and high energy LIB battery, it is of great significance to beneficially broaden the applications of high-energy and high-power LIBs with creating novel hierarchical micro-/nano-structured V2O5 cathode materials. - Highlights: • Hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-V2O5 spheres were facile fabricated by a template free hydrothermal method for LIBs cathode. • High energy and high power LIBs were resulted from many unique features. • Unique hierarchical 3D micro

  6. Materials science research at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Kvick, A

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Beamline ID11 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France is dedicated to research in materials science notably employing diffraction and scattering techniques. Either an in-vacuum undulator with a minimum gap of 5 mm or a 10 kW wiggler giving high-flux monochromatic X-rays generates the synchrotron radiation in the energy range 5-100 keV. The dominant research is in the area of time-resolved diffraction, powder diffraction, stress/strain studies of bulk material, 3D mapping of grains and grain interfaces with a measuring gauge down approx 5x5x50 mu m, and microcrystal diffraction. A variety of CCD detectors are used to give time-resolution down to the millisecond time regime.

  7. Materials sciences programs, Fiscal year 1997

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in materials science topics important to the mission of the Department of Energy. The programmatic divisions under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geosciences, and Energy Biosciences. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship among synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences subfields include: physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 517 research programs including 255 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 262 research grants (233 of which are at universities), and 29 Small Business Innovation Research Grants. Five cross-cutting indices located at the rear of this book identify all 517 programs according to principal investigator(s), materials, techniques, phenomena, and environment.

  8. Recent Advances in Electron Tomography: TEM and HAADF-STEM Tomography for Materials Science and IC Applications

    Kubel, C; Voigt, A; Schoenmakers, R; Otten, M; Su, D; Lee, T; Carlsson, A; Engelmann, H; Bradley, J

    2005-11-09

    Electron tomograph tomography is a well y well-established technique for three-dimensional structure determination of (almost) amorphous specimens in life science applications. With the recent advances in nanotechnology and the semiconductor industry, there is also an increasing need for high-resolution 3D structural information in physical sciences. In this paper, we evaluate the capabilities and limitations of TEM and HAADF-STEM tomography for the 3D structural characterization of partially crystalline to highly crystalline materials. Our analysis of catalysts, a hydrogen storage material, and different semiconductor devices shows that features with a diameter as small as 1-2 nm can be resolved in 3D by electron tomography. For partially crystalline materials with small single crystalline domains, TEM tomography provides reliable 3D structural information. HAADF-STEM tomography is more versatile and can also be used for high-resolution 3D imaging of highly crystalline materials such as semiconductor devices.

  9. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    Vitzthum, L; Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Reynolds, T; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.

  10. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology

  11. Photopolymers in 3D printing applications

    Pandey, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    3D printing is an emerging technology with applications in several areas. The flexibility of the 3D printing system to use variety of materials and create any object makes it an attractive technology. Photopolymers are one of the materials used in 3D printing with potential to make products with better properties. Due to numerous applications of photopolymers and 3D printing technologies, this thesis is written to provide information about the various 3D printing technologies with particul...

  12. 3D video

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  13. 3D Animation Essentials

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  14. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable

  15. Synthesis of SiO2/3D porous carbon composite as anode material with enhanced lithium storage performance

    Yuan, Zhinan; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; He, Fang

    2016-05-01

    A SiO2/porous carbon nanocomposite was synthesized by a facile combined heat and acid treatments method. The nanocomposite featured a 3D porous carbon structure with amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles embedded in the wall of the pores. The microstructure improved the electrical conductivity, shortened the diffusion distance of lithium ions, and alleviated the volume expansion of SiO2 during Li intercalation. Accordingly, the SiO2/porous carbon nanocomposite displayed excellent cyclic performance with a high reversible capacity of 434 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 A g-1 and rate capability delivering a capacity of 187.4 mAh g-1 even at 5 A g-1.

  16. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  17. Comparison of focused ion beam versus nano-scale X-ray computed tomography for resolving 3-D microstructures of porous fuel cell materials

    Wargo, E. A.; Kotaka, T.; Tabuchi, Y.; Kumbur, E. C.

    2013-11-01

    Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) have emerged as two popular nanotomography techniques for quantifying the 3-D microstructure of porous materials. The objective of this study is to assess the unique features and limitations of FIB-SEM and nano-CT in capturing the 3-D microstructure and structure-related transport properties of porous fuel cell materials. As a test case, a sample of a micro-porous layer used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells is analyzed to obtain 3-D microstructure datasets using these two nanotomography techniques. For quantitative comparison purposes, several key transport properties are determined for these two datasets, including the porosity, pore connectivity, tortuosity, structural diffusivity coefficient, and chord length (i.e., void size) distributions. The results obtained for both datasets are evaluated against each other and experimental data when available. Additionally, these two techniques are compared qualitatively in terms of the acquired images, image segmentation, and general systems operation. The particular advantages and disadvantages of both techniques are highlighted, along with suggestions for best practice.

  18. Materials sciences programs, fiscal year 1994

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects.

  19. Materials sciences programs, fiscal year 1994

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects

  20. 3D simulation of the leaching of cement-based materials in order to compare different leaching tests

    Aouad, G.; De Windt, Laurent; Damidot, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Leaching of cement-based materials is a complex process that depends on both the material intrinsic properties and the leaching test. The microstructure and cement-type of the material are typical examples of the former whereas the later consist of solution pH and composition, solution renewal rate and the liquid/solid volume ratio. As most of the tests are not normalized, this leads to a diversity of results in terms of alteration layer thicknesses and leaching kinetics. As a consequence, it...

  1. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-05-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  2. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  3. Critical factors affecting the 3D microstructural formation in hybrid conductive adhesive materials studied by X-ray nano-tomography

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen Karen; Figueroa-Santos, Miriam Aileen; Petrash, Stanislas; Garcia-Miralles, Jose; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Conductive adhesives are found favorable in a wide range of applications including a lead-free solder in micro-chips, flexible and printable electronics and enhancing the performance of energy storage devices. Composite materials comprised of metallic fillers and a polymer matrix are of great interest to be implemented as hybrid conductive adhesives. Here we investigated a cost-effective conductive adhesive material consisting of silver-coated copper as micro-fillers using synchrotron-based three-dimensional (3D) X-ray nano-tomography. The key factors affecting the quality and performance of the material were quantitatively studied in 3D on the nanometer scale for the first time. A critical characteristic parameter, defined as a shape-factor, was determined to yield a high-quality silver coating, leading to satisfactory performance. A `stack-and-screen' mechanism was proposed to elaborate such a phenomenon. The findings and the technique developed in this work will facilitate the future advancement of conductive adhesives to have a great impact in micro-electronics and other applications.Conductive adhesives are found favorable in a wide range of applications including a lead-free solder in micro-chips, flexible and printable electronics and enhancing the performance of energy storage devices. Composite materials comprised of metallic fillers and a polymer matrix are of great interest to be implemented as hybrid conductive adhesives. Here we investigated a cost-effective conductive adhesive material consisting of silver-coated copper as micro-fillers using synchrotron-based three-dimensional (3D) X-ray nano-tomography. The key factors affecting the quality and performance of the material were quantitatively studied in 3D on the nanometer scale for the first time. A critical characteristic parameter, defined as a shape-factor, was determined to yield a high-quality silver coating, leading to satisfactory performance. A `stack-and-screen' mechanism was proposed to

  4. On the Mechanical Modeling, Visco-Elasticity and Application of Aerographite, a 3D Carbon Nano-Material

    Schuchardt, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    A three dimensional carbon network material of seamless interconnected and hollow tubes, featuring a graphitic structure and an extremely low density has been designed and fabricated in cm3 volumes. The synthesis of this foam like material, named Aerographite, is based on highly-porous three dimensional networks from zinc oxide (ZnO) which are utilized as sacrifcial templates in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Such type of ZnO templates are produced by the flame transport synthesis...

  5. Three-diemensional materials science: An intersection of three-dimensional reconstructions and simulations

    Thornton, Katsuyo; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2008-01-01

    The recent development of experimental techniques that rapidly reconstruct the three-dimensional microstructures of solids has given rise to new possibilities for developing a deeper understanding of the evolution of microstructures and the effects of microstructures on materials properties. Comb...... overview of this emerging field of materials science, as well as brief descriptions of selected methods and their applicability........ Combined with three-dimensional (3D) simulations and analyses that are capable of handling the complexity of these microstructures, 3D reconstruction, or tomography, has become a powerful tool that provides clear insights into materials processing and properties. This introductory article provides an...

  6. 桌面3D打印机工作台贴面材料分析%Analysis of the Cover Material of the Desktop 3D Printer

    关雷; 史子木; 武坤

    2016-01-01

    3D printing technology, also known as rapid prototyping, is an emerging technology. The desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology is increasingly used. In order to firmly coat printing consumables on workbench, some materials adhered easily are used for the workbench surface of 3D printer. According to the different printing consumables, different covering materials should be used. In this article, the performance, method of use and range of application, etc. of cover materials were analyzed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the cover materials were also analyzed, with printing PLA as an example.%3D打印技术也称为快速成型,是一门新兴的技术。其中基于融熔沉积技术的桌面3D打印机应用日益广泛。为了使打印材料牢固的涂覆在打印机工作台表面,需要将一些利于粘附的材料贴附到3D打印机工作台表面。根据不同的打印耗材,应使用不同的贴面材料。文章分析了几种贴面材料的性能,使用方法,适用范围。并以使用PLA (聚乳酸)线材进行3D打印为例,分析了几种工作台贴面材料的优缺点。

  7. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  8. The idea of material science virtual laboratory

    L.A. Dobrzański; R. Honysz

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article was written to describe the Material Science Virtual Laboratory. Presented laboratory is an open scientific, investigative, simulating and didactic medium helpful in the realisation of the scientific and didactic tasks in the field of material Science. This laboratory is implemented in the Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials of Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland.Design/methodology/approach: The laboratory is an aggregate of testers and t...

  9. Thermomechanical behaviour of two heterogeneous tungsten materials via 2D and 3D image-based FEM

    An advanced numerical procedure based on imaging of the material microstructure (Image- Based Finite Element Method or Image-Based FEM) was extended and applied to model the thermomechanical behaviour of novel materials for fusion applications. Two tungsten based heterogeneous materials with different random morphologies have been chosen as challenging case studies: (1) a two-phase mixed ductile-brittle W/CuCr1Zr composite and (2) vacuum plasma-sprayed tungsten (VPS-W 75 vol.%), a porous coating system with complex dual-scale microstructure. Both materials are designed for the future fusion reactor DEMO: W/CuCr1Zr as main constituent of a layered functionally graded joint between plasma-facing armor and heat sink whereas VPS-W for covering the first wall of the reactor vessel in direct contact with the plasma. The primary focus of this work was to investigate the mesoscopic material behaviour and the linkage to the macroscopic response in modeling failure and heat-transfer. Particular care was taken in validating and integrating simulation findings with experimental inputs. The solution of the local thermomechanical behaviour directly on the real material microstructure enabled meaningful insights into the complex failure mechanism of both materials. For W/CuCr1Zr full macroscopic stress-strain curves including the softening and failure part could be simulated and compared with experimental ones at different temperatures, finding an overall good agreement. The comparison of simulated and experimental macroscopic behaviour of plastic deformation and rupture also showed the possibility to indirectly estimate micro- and mesoscale material parameters. Both heat conduction and elastic behaviour of VPS-W have been extensively investigated. New capabilities of the Image-Based FEM could be shown: decomposition of the heat transfer reduction as due to the individual morphological phases and back-fitting of the reduced stiffness at interlamellar boundaries. The

  10. Solid works 3D

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.