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Sample records for 3d kinematic study

  1. Kinematic synthesis of a new 3D printing solution

    Giberti Hermes

    2016-01-01

    The object of this article is the kinematic synthesis of a 5Dofs robot, based on two PKM machines, for additive manufacturing in order to compliant with the requirements of this new technology. Robot kinematics have been optimized by genetic algorithm in order to cover the required workspace and the design of the robot and outline of the control system are also given.

  2. Modelling and inversion of 3D complex kinematic data; Modelisation et inversion de donnees cinematiques complexes en 3D

    Clarke, R.

    1997-10-27

    Reflection tomography can determine velocity models containing lateral velocity variations and reflectors of arbitrary shapes; in order to access the kinematic data, a 3D zero offset approach to the SMART (Sequential Migration Aided Reflection Tomography) method, an original method of migration velocity analysis, is adopted. The approach involves interpreting kinematic data in the post-stack depth migrated cube and then de-migrating the horizons by two-point ray-tracing. A fast and robust two-point ray-tracer is developed, which can recover multi-valued kinematic data from complex geological structures. An original formulation for 3D reflection tomography is proposed, which can reliably take into account multivalued travel times

  3. The valuable use of Microsoft Kinect™ sensor 3D kinematic in the rehabilitation process in basketball

    Braidot, Ariel; Favaretto, Guillermo; Frisoli, Melisa; Gemignani, Diego; Gumpel, Gustavo; Massuh, Roberto; Rayan, Josefina; Turin, Matías

    2016-04-01

    Subjects who practice sports either as professionals or amateurs, have a high incidence of knee injuries. There are a few publications that show studies from a kinematic point of view of lateral-structure-knee injuries, including meniscal (meniscal tears or chondral injury), without anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The use of standard motion capture systems for measuring outdoors sport is hard to implement due to many operative reasons. Recently released, the Microsoft Kinect™ is a sensor that was developed to track movements for gaming purposes and has seen an increased use in clinical applications. The fact that this device is a simple and portable tool allows the acquisition of data of sport common movements in the field. The development and testing of a set of protocols for 3D kinematic measurement using the Microsoft Kinect™ system is presented in this paper. The 3D kinematic evaluation algorithms were developed from information available and with the use of Microsoft’s Software Development Kit 1.8 (SDK). Along with this, an algorithm for calculating the lower limb joints angles was implemented. Thirty healthy adult volunteers were measured, using five different recording protocols for sport characteristic gestures which involve high knee injury risk in athletes.

  4. Outcome evaluation in shoulder surgery using 3D kinematics sensors

    Coley, B.; Jolles, B.; Farron, A.; Bourgeois, A; Nussbaumer, F.; Pichonnaz, C.; Aminian, K.

    2007-01-01

    A new method of scoring systems for the functional assessment of the shoulder is presented. 3D accelerometers and gyroscopes attached on the humerus were used to differentiate a healthy from a painful shoulder. The method was first tested on 10 healthy volunteer subjects without any shoulder pathologies. Then, the system was tested on 10 patients with unilateral shoulder pathology (rotator cuff disease, osteoarthritis) before and after surgery (3, 6 months). To evalua...

  5. Reproducibility of 3D kinematics and surface electromyography measurements of mastication.

    Remijn, Lianne; Groen, Brenda E; Speyer, Renée; van Limbeek, Jacques; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the measurement reproducibility for a procedure evaluating the mastication process and to estimate the smallest detectable differences of 3D kinematic and surface electromyography (sEMG) variables. Kinematics of mandible movements and sEMG activity of the masticatory muscles were obtained over two sessions with four conditions: two food textures (biscuit and bread) of two sizes (small and large). Twelve healthy adults (mean age 29.1 years) completed the study. The second to the fifth chewing cycle of 5 bites were used for analyses. The reproducibility per outcome variable was calculated with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a Bland-Altman analysis was applied to determine the standard error of measurement relative error of measurement and smallest detectable differences of all variables. ICCs ranged from 0.71 to 0.98 for all outcome variables. The outcome variables consisted of four bite and fourteen chewing cycle variables. The relative standard error of measurement of the bite variables was up to 17.3% for 'time-to-swallow', 'time-to-transport' and 'number of chewing cycles', but ranged from 31.5% to 57.0% for 'change of chewing side'. The relative standard error of measurement ranged from 4.1% to 24.7% for chewing cycle variables and was smaller for kinematic variables than sEMG variables. In general, measurements obtained with 3D kinematics and sEMG are reproducible techniques to assess the mastication process. The duration of the chewing cycle and frequency of chewing were the best reproducible measurements. Change of chewing side could not be reproduced. The published measurement error and smallest detectable differences will aid the interpretation of the results of future clinical studies using the same study variables. PMID:26617403

  6. Direct assessment of 3D foot bone kinematics using biplanar X-ray fluoroscopy and an automatic model registration method

    Ito, Kohta; Hosoda, Koh; Shimizu, Masahiro; Ikemoto, Shuhei; Kume, Shinnosuke; Nagura, Takeo; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantifying detailed 3-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the foot in contact with the ground during locomotion is crucial for understanding the biomechanical functions of the complex musculoskeletal structure of the foot. Biplanar X-ray fluoroscopic systems and model-based registration techniques have recently been employed to capture and visualise 3D foot bone movements in vivo, but such techniques have generally been performed manually. In the present study, we developed an automati...

  7. A customized model for 3D human segmental kinematic coupling analysis by optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry

    2010-01-01

    The study of three-dimensional human kinematics has significant impacts on medical and healthcare technology innovations. As a non-invasive technology, optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry is widely used for in-vivo locomotor evaluations. However, relatively high testing difficulties, poor testing accuracies, and high analysis complexities prohibit its further employment. The objective of this study is to explore an improved modeling technique for quantitative measurement and analysis of human locomotion. Firstly, a 3D whole body model of 17 rigid segments was developed to describe human locomotion. Subsequently, a novel infrared reflective marker cluster for 17 body segments was constructed to calibrate and record the 3D segmental position and orientation of each functional body region simultaneously with high spatial accuracy. In addition, the novel calibration procedure and the conception of kinematic coupling of human locomotion were proposed to investigate the segmental functional characteristics of human motion. Eight healthy male subjects were evaluated with walking and running experiments using the Qualisys motion capture system. The experimental results demonstrated the followings: (i) The kinematic coupling of the upper limbs and the lower limbs both showed the significant characteristics of joint motion, while the torso motion of human possessed remarkable features of segmental motion; (ii) flexion/extension was the main motion feature in sagittal plane, while the lateral bending in coronal plane and the axial rotation in transverse plane were subsidiary motions during an entire walking cycle regarding to all the segments of the human body; (iii) compared with conventional methods, the improved techniques have a competitive advantage in the convenient measurement and accurate analysis of the segmental dynamic functional characteristics during human locomotion. The modeling technique proposed in this paper has great potentials in rehabilitation engineering

  8. pynoddy 1.0: an experimental platform for automated 3-D kinematic and potential field modelling

    J. F. Wellmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel methodology for performing experiments with subsurface structural models using a set of flexible and extensible Python modules. We utilise the ability of kinematic modelling techniques to describe major deformational, tectonic, and magmatic events at low computational cost to develop experiments testing the interactions between multiple kinematic events, effect of uncertainty regarding event timing, and kinematic properties. These tests are simple to implement and perform, as they are automated within the Python scripting language, allowing the encapsulation of entire kinematic experiments within high-level class definitions and fully reproducible results. In addition, we provide a~link to geophysical potential-field simulations to evaluate the effect of parameter uncertainties on maps of gravity and magnetics. We provide relevant fundamental information on kinematic modelling and our implementation, and showcase the application of our novel methods to investigate the interaction of multiple tectonic events on a pre-defined stratigraphy, the effect of changing kinematic parameters on simulated geophysical potential-fields, and the distribution of uncertain areas in a full 3-D kinematic model, based on estimated uncertainties in kinematic input parameters. Additional possibilities for linking kinematic modelling to subsequent process simulations are discussed, as well as additional aspects of future research. Our modules are freely available on github, including documentation and tutorial examples, and we encourage the contribution to this project.

  9. pynoddy 1.0: an experimental platform for automated 3-D kinematic and potential field modelling

    Florian Wellmann, J.; Thiele, Sam T.; Lindsay, Mark D.; Jessell, Mark W.

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel methodology for performing experiments with subsurface structural models using a set of flexible and extensible Python modules. We utilize the ability of kinematic modelling techniques to describe major deformational, tectonic, and magmatic events at low computational cost to develop experiments testing the interactions between multiple kinematic events, effect of uncertainty regarding event timing, and kinematic properties. These tests are simple to implement and perform, as they are automated within the Python scripting language, allowing the encapsulation of entire kinematic experiments within high-level class definitions and fully reproducible results. In addition, we provide a link to geophysical potential-field simulations to evaluate the effect of parameter uncertainties on maps of gravity and magnetics. We provide relevant fundamental information on kinematic modelling and our implementation, and showcase the application of our novel methods to investigate the interaction of multiple tectonic events on a pre-defined stratigraphy, the effect of changing kinematic parameters on simulated geophysical potential fields, and the distribution of uncertain areas in a full 3-D kinematic model, based on estimated uncertainties in kinematic input parameters. Additional possibilities for linking kinematic modelling to subsequent process simulations are discussed, as well as additional aspects of future research. Our modules are freely available on github, including documentation and tutorial examples, and we encourage the contribution to this project.

  10. 3D kinematic and dynamic analysis of the front crawl tumble turn in elite male swimmers.

    Puel, F; Morlier, J; Avalos, M; Mesnard, M; Cid, M; Hellard, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify kinematic and dynamic variables related to the best tumble turn times (3mRTT, the turn time from 3-m in to 3-m out, independent variable) in ten elite male swimmers using a three-dimensional (3D) underwater analysis protocol and the Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) as statistical method. For each swimmer, the best-time turn was analyzed with five stationary and synchronized underwater cameras. The 3D reconstruction was performed using the Direct Linear Transformation algorithm. An underwater piezoelectric 3D force platform completed the set-up to compute dynamic variables. Data were smoothed by the Savitzky-Golay filtering method. Three variables were considered relevant in the best Lasso model (3mRTT=2.58-0.425 RD+0.204 VPe+0.0046 TD): the head-wall distance where rotation starts (RD), the horizontal speed at the force peak (VPe), and the 3D length of the path covered during the turn (TD). Furthermore, bivariate analysis showed that upper body (CUBei) and lower limb extension indexes at first contact (CLLei) were also linked to the turn time (r=-0.65 and pvariables). Thus the best turn times were associated with a long RD, slower VPe and reduced TD. By an early transverse rotation, male elite swimmers reach the wall with a slightly flexed posture that results in fast extension. These swimmers opt for a movement that is oriented forward and they focus on reducing the distance covered. PMID:22176710

  11. A 3D kinematics measurement of knee joint using X-ray projection images

    Most of previous studies about joint kinematic analysis using X-ray image needed totally clear outline bones. However, to obtain the clear outline is not easy in clinical because X-ray image of knee often overlaps with bones. In this study, the method of kinetic analysis that uses the outline, which was not totally clear, was proposed. In order to achieve the aim, P type Fourier Descriptor that can be used in an open curve was applied. And, the library database was preliminary selected using feature vectors which were based on shape feature, initial point and terminal point of the outline. After an outline of the object was divided in three parts, template pattern matching was performed. In results, the standard deviation of errors of patella were θx=1.00±0.84 deg, θy=0.55±0.65 deg and θz=0.62±0.12 deg. As to femur, tibia and patella, a part of divided outlines influenced the accuracy of our proposal method. This result shows that, even if all outline of bone is not clear on X-ray image, 3D kinematic analysis can be carried out. (author)

  12. Reconstruction Error of Calibration Volume’s Coordinates for 3D Swimming Kinematics

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Machado, Leandro; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reliability of above and underwater 3D reconstruction of three calibration volumes with different control points disposal (#1 - on vertical and horizontal rods; #2 - on vertical and horizontal rods and facets; #3 - on crossed horizontal rods). Each calibration volume (3 × 2 × 3 m) was positioned in a 25 m swimming pool (half above and half below the water surface) and recorded with four underwater and two above water synchronised cameras (50 Hz). Reconstruction accuracy was determined calculating the RMS error of twelve validation points. The standard deviation across all digitisation of the same marker was used for assessing the reliability estimation. Comparison among different number of control points showed that the set of 24 points produced the most accurate results. The volume #2 presented higher accuracy (RMS errors: 5.86 and 3.59 mm for x axis, 3.45 and 3.11 mm for y axis and 4.38 and 4.00 mm for z axis, considering under and above water, respectively) and reliability (SD: underwater cameras ± [0.2; 0.6] mm; above water cameras ± [0.2; 0.3] mm) that may be considered suitable for 3D swimming kinematic analysis. Results revealed that RMS error was greater during underwater analysis, possibly due to refraction. PMID:23486761

  13. A 3D view of the Hydra I galaxy cluster core - I. Kinematic substructures

    Hilker, Michael; Richtler, Tom; Coccato, Lodovico; Arnaboldi, Magda; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-01-01

    We used FORS2 in MXU mode to mimic a coarse 'IFU' in order to measure the 3D large-scale kinematics around the central Hydra I cluster galaxy NGC 3311. Our data show that the velocity dispersion field varies as a function of radius and azimuthal angle and violates point symmetry. Also, the velocity field shows similar dependence, hence the stellar halo of NGC 3311 is a dynamically young structure. The kinematic irregularities coincide in position with a displaced diffuse halo North-East of NGC 3311 and with tidal features of a group of disrupting dwarf galaxies. This suggests that the superposition of different velocity components is responsible for the kinematic substructure in the Hydra I cluster core.

  14. GalPak3D: A Bayesian parametric tool for extracting morpho-kinematics of galaxies from 3D data

    Bouché, N; Schroetter, I; Michel-Dansac, L; Contini, T

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to constrain galaxy parameters directly from 3-dimensional data-cubes. The algorithm compares directly the data-cube with a parametric model mapped in $x,y,\\lambda$ coordinates. It uses the spectral Line Spread Function (LSF) and the spatial Point Spread Function (PSF) to generate a 3-dimensional kernel whose characteristics are instrument-specific or user-generated. The algorithm returns the intrinsic modeled properties along with both an `intrinsic' model data-cube and the modeled galaxy convolved with the 3D-kernel. The algorithm uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach with a non-traditional proposal distribution in order to efficiently probe the parameter space. We demonstrate the robustness of the algorithm using 1728 mock galaxies and galaxies generated from hydrodynamical simulations in various seeing conditions from 0.6" to 1.2". We find that the algorithm can recover the morphological parameters (inclination, position angle) to within 10% and the kinematic parameters (maxi...

  15. A Kinematic Model for 3-D Head-Free Gaze-Shifts

    Mehdi eDaemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotations of the line of sight are mainly implemented by coordinated motion of the eyes and head. Here, we propose a model for the kinematics of three-dimensional (3-D head-unrestrained gaze-shifts. The model was designed to account for major principles in the known behavior, such as gaze accuracy, spatiotemporal coordination of saccades with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, relative eye and head contributions, the non-commutativity of rotations, and Listing’s and Fick constraints for the eyes and head respectively. The internal design of the model was inspired by known and hypothesized elements of gaze control physiology. Inputs included retinocentric location of the visual target and internal representations of initial 3-D eye and head orientation, whereas outputs were 3-D displacements of eye relative to the head and head relative to shoulder. Internal transformations decomposed the 2-D gaze command into 3-D eye and head commands with the use of three coordinated circuits: 1 a saccade generator, 2 a head rotation generator, 3 a VOR predictor. Simulations illustrate that the model can implement: 1 the correct 3-D reference frame transformations to generate accurate gaze shifts (despite variability in other parameters, 2 the experimentally verified constraints on static eye and head orientations during fixation, and 3 the experimentally observed 3-D trajectories of eye and head motion during gaze-shifts. We then use this model to simulate how 2-D eye-head coordination strategies interact with 3-D constraints to influence 3-D orientations of the eye-in-space, and the implications of this for spatial vision.

  16. Internal Kinematics of Galaxies: 3D Spectroscopy on Russian 6m Telescope

    Moiseev, A V

    2006-01-01

    We have considered some results concerning gas and stars kinematics of nearby galaxies recently obtained on the SAO RAS 6m telescope using the panoramic spectroscopy methods. The circumnuclear regions of the galaxies were observed with integral-field spectrograph MPFS. The large-scale ionized gas kinematics was studied with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) in the multi-mode focal reducer SCORPIO. The main attention is given for kinematically decoupled regions in the galaxies: bars, spirals, polar disks and rings.

  17. Access to the kinematic information for the velocity model determination by 3-D reflexion tomography; Acces a l'information cinematique pour la determination du modele de vitesse par tomographie de reflexion 3D

    Broto, K.

    1999-04-01

    The access to a reliable image of the subsurface requires a kinematically correct velocity depth model.Reflection tomography allows to meet this requirement if a complete and coherent pre-stack kinematic database can be provided. However, in case of complex sub-surfaces, wave propagation may lead to hardly interpretable seismic events in the time data. The SMART method is a sequential method that relies on reflection tomography for updating the velocity model and on the pre-stack depth migrated domain for extracting kinematic information that is not readily accessible in the time domain. For determining 3-D subsurface velocity models in case of complex structures, we propose the seriated SMART 2-D method as an alternative to the currently inconceivable SMART 3-D method. In order to extract kinematic information from a 3-D pre-stack data set, we combine detours through the 2-D pre-stack depth domain for a number of selected lines of the studied 3-D survey and 3-D reflection tomography for updating the velocity model. The travel-times from the SMART method being independent of the velocity model used for passing through the pre-stack depth migrated domain, the access to 3-D travel-times is ensured, even if they have been obtained via a 2-D domain. Besides, we propose to build a kinematical guide for ensuring the coherency of the seriated 2-D pre-stack depth interpretations and the access to a complete 3-D pre-stack kinematic database when dealing with structures associated with 3-D wave propagation. We opt for a blocky representation of the velocity model in order to be able to cope with complex structures. This representation leads us to define specific methodological rules for carrying out the different steps of the seriated SMART 2-D method. We also define strategies, built from the analysis of first inversion results, for an efficient application of reflection tomography. Besides, we discuss the problem of uncertainties to be assigned to travel-times obtained

  18. Markerless motion capture can provide reliable 3D gait kinematics in the sagittal and frontal plane

    Sandau, Martin; Koblauch, Henrik; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Aanæs, Henrik; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose of the pr...

  19. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  20. Gender effect on the scapular 3D posture and kinematic in healthy subjects.

    Schwartz, C; Croisier, J L; Rigaux, E; Brüls, O; Denoël, V; Forthomme, B

    2016-05-01

    Populations considered for shoulder analysis are often composed of various ratios of men and women. It is consequently hypothesized that gender has no significant effect on the joint kinematic. However, the literature reports, for the shoulder, differences in the range of motion between genders. The specific influence of gender on the scapulo-thoracic kinematics has not been studied yet. The dominant shoulder of two populations of men and women composed of 11 subjects each were evaluated in three dimensions for three distinct motions: flexion in the sagittal plane, abduction in the frontal plane and gleno-humeral internal/external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. Posture, kinematics and range of motion were studied separately. For flexion and abduction and with regard to the scapular kinematic, external rotation was significantly larger for women than men. The differences were of at least 5° at 120° of humeral elevation. Upward rotations were identical. Women also showed larger average active humero-thoracic range of motion. The mean differences were of 13°, 7°, 12° and 5° for abduction, flexion, internal rotation and external rotation, respectively. No difference was observed between the scapular resting positions of both populations. The observed differences concerning both the scapular and humeral patterns would indicate that the shoulder behaviour of men and women should not be expected to be similar. PMID:25382377

  1. Discrete kinematic modeling of the 3-D deformation of sedimentary basins; Modelisation cinematique discrete de la deformation 3D des bassins sedimentaires

    Cornu, T.

    2001-01-01

    The present work deals with three-dimensional deformation of sedimentary basins. The main goal of the work was to propose new ways to study tectonic deformation and to insert it into basin-modeling environment for hydrocarbon migration applications. To handle the complexity of the deformation, the model uses kinematic laws, a discrete approach, and the construction of a code that allows the greatest diversity in the deformation mechanisms we can take into account. The 3-D-volume deformation is obtained through the calculation of the behavior of the neutral surface of each basin layer. The main idea is to deform the neutral surface of each layer with the help of geometrical laws and to use the result to rebuild the volume deformation of the basin. The constitutive algorithm includes three characteristic features. The first one deals with the mathematical operator we use to describe the flexural-slip mechanism which is a combination of the translation of the neutral surface nodes and the rotation of the vertical edges attached to these nodes. This performs the reversibility that was required for the basin modeling. The second one is about. the use of a discrete approach, which gives a better description of the global deformation and offers to locally control volume evolutions. The knowledge of volume variations can become a powerful tool in structural geology analysis and the perfect complement for a field study. The last one concerns the modularity of the developed code. Indeed, the proposed model uses three main mechanisms of deformation. But the architecture of the code allows the insertion of new mechanisms or a better interaction between them. The model has been validated first with 2-D cases, then with 3-D natural cases. They give good results from a qualitative point of view. They also show the capacity of the model to provide a deformation path that is geologically acceptable, and its ability to control the volume variations of the basin through the

  2. Computer-assisted 3D kinematic analysis of all leg joints in walking insects.

    John A Bender

    Full Text Available High-speed video can provide fine-scaled analysis of animal behavior. However, extracting behavioral data from video sequences is a time-consuming, tedious, subjective task. These issues are exacerbated where accurate behavioral descriptions require analysis of multiple points in three dimensions. We describe a new computer program written to assist a user in simultaneously extracting three-dimensional kinematics of multiple points on each of an insect's six legs. Digital video of a walking cockroach was collected in grayscale at 500 fps from two synchronized, calibrated cameras. We improved the legs' visibility by painting white dots on the joints, similar to techniques used for digitizing human motion. Compared to manual digitization of 26 points on the legs over a single, 8-second bout of walking (or 106,496 individual 3D points, our software achieved approximately 90% of the accuracy with 10% of the labor. Our experimental design reduced the complexity of the tracking problem by tethering the insect and allowing it to walk in place on a lightly oiled glass surface, but in principle, the algorithms implemented are extensible to free walking. Our software is free and open-source, written in the free language Python and including a graphical user interface for configuration and control. We encourage collaborative enhancements to make this tool both better and widely utilized.

  3. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    Jaehoon Jung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM. The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy.

  4. A Comparison of a Multi-body Model and 3D Kinematics and EMG ofDouble-leg Circle on Pommel Horse

    Qian, Jing-guang; Su, Yang; Song, Ya-wei; Qiang, Ye; Zhang, Songning

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a multi-segment dynamic model in the LifeMOD to examine kinematics of the center of mass and foot, and muscle forces of selected upper extremity muslces during a double-leg circle (DLC) movement on pommel horse in gymnastics and compared with three-dimensional kinematics of the movement and surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the muscles. The DLC movement of one elite male gymnast was collected. The three-dimensional (3D) data was imported i...

  5. A volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method for measuring kinematics of natural knees with single-plane fluoroscopy

    Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Lu, Tung-Wu; Chen, Chung-Ming; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China) and Department of Physical Therapy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan (China)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) rigid body and surface kinematics of the natural human knee is essential for many clinical applications. Existing techniques are limited either in their accuracy or lack more realistic experimental evaluation of the measurement errors. The purposes of the study were to develop a volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method, called the weighted edge-matching score (WEMS) method, for measuring natural knee kinematics with single-plane fluoroscopy to determine experimentally the measurement errors and to compare its performance with that of pattern intensity (PI) and gradient difference (GD) methods. Methods: The WEMS method gives higher priority to matching of longer edges of the digitally reconstructed radiograph and fluoroscopic images. The measurement errors of the methods were evaluated based on a human cadaveric knee at 11 flexion positions. Results: The accuracy of the WEMS method was determined experimentally to be less than 0.77 mm for the in-plane translations, 3.06 mm for out-of-plane translation, and 1.13 deg. for all rotations, which is better than that of the PI and GD methods. Conclusions: A new volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method has been developed for measuring 3D in vivo kinematics of natural knee joints with single-plane fluoroscopy. With the equipment used in the current study, the accuracy of the WEMS method is considered acceptable for the measurement of the 3D kinematics of the natural knee in clinical applications.

  6. A volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method for measuring kinematics of natural knees with single-plane fluoroscopy

    Purpose: Accurate measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) rigid body and surface kinematics of the natural human knee is essential for many clinical applications. Existing techniques are limited either in their accuracy or lack more realistic experimental evaluation of the measurement errors. The purposes of the study were to develop a volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method, called the weighted edge-matching score (WEMS) method, for measuring natural knee kinematics with single-plane fluoroscopy to determine experimentally the measurement errors and to compare its performance with that of pattern intensity (PI) and gradient difference (GD) methods. Methods: The WEMS method gives higher priority to matching of longer edges of the digitally reconstructed radiograph and fluoroscopic images. The measurement errors of the methods were evaluated based on a human cadaveric knee at 11 flexion positions. Results: The accuracy of the WEMS method was determined experimentally to be less than 0.77 mm for the in-plane translations, 3.06 mm for out-of-plane translation, and 1.13 deg. for all rotations, which is better than that of the PI and GD methods. Conclusions: A new volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method has been developed for measuring 3D in vivo kinematics of natural knee joints with single-plane fluoroscopy. With the equipment used in the current study, the accuracy of the WEMS method is considered acceptable for the measurement of the 3D kinematics of the natural knee in clinical applications.

  7. Real-Time Motion Capture Toolbox (RTMocap): an open-source code for recording 3-D motion kinematics to study action-effect anticipations during motor and social interactions.

    Lewkowicz, Daniel; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2016-03-01

    We present here a toolbox for the real-time motion capture of biological movements that runs in the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). It provides instantaneous processing of the 3-D movement coordinates of up to 20 markers at a single instant. Available functions include (1) the setting of reference positions, areas, and trajectories of interest; (2) recording of the 3-D coordinates for each marker over the trial duration; and (3) the detection of events to use as triggers for external reinforcers (e.g., lights, sounds, or odors). Through fast online communication between the hardware controller and RTMocap, automatic trial selection is possible by means of either a preset or an adaptive criterion. Rapid preprocessing of signals is also provided, which includes artifact rejection, filtering, spline interpolation, and averaging. A key example is detailed, and three typical variations are developed (1) to provide a clear understanding of the importance of real-time control for 3-D motion in cognitive sciences and (2) to present users with simple lines of code that can be used as starting points for customizing experiments using the simple MATLAB syntax. RTMocap is freely available ( http://sites.google.com/site/RTMocap/ ) under the GNU public license for noncommercial use and open-source development, together with sample data and extensive documentation. PMID:25805426

  8. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  9. Understanding patellofemoral pain with maltracking in the presence of joint laxity: complete 3D in vivo patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics.

    Sheehan, Frances T; Derasari, Aditya; Brindle, Timothy J; Alter, Katharine E

    2009-05-01

    Patellofemoral pain is widely accepted as one of the most common pathologies involving the knee, yet the etiology of this pain is still an open debate. Generalized joint laxity has been associated with patellofemoral pain, but is not often discussed as a potential source of patellar maltracking. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the complete 6 degree of freedom patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics from a group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome and maltracking to those from an asymptomatic population. The following null hypotheses were tested: kinematic alterations in patellofemoral maltracking are limited to the axial plane; knee joint kinematics are the same in maltrackers with and without generalized joint laxity (defined by a clinical diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos Syndrome); and no correlations exist between tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics or within patellofemoral kinematics. This study demonstrated that alterations in patellofemoral kinematics, associated with patellofemoral pain, are not limited to the axial plane, minimal correlations exist between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics, and distinct subgroups likely exist within the general population of maltrackers. Being able to identify subgroups correctly within the omnibus diagnosis of patellar maltracking is a crucial step in correctly defining the pathophysiology and the eventual treatment of these patients. PMID:19009601

  10. 3D Spectroscopy of Local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: Kinematics of NGC 7673

    Pérez-Gallego, J; Castillo-Morales, A; Castander, F J; Gallego, J; Garland, C A; Gruel, N; Pisano, D J; Sánchez, S F; Zamorano, J

    2009-01-01

    The kinematic properties of the ionized gas of local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxy (LCBG) NGC 7673 are presented using three dimensional data taken with the PPAK integral field unit at the 3.5-m telescope in the Centro Astron\\'omico Hispano Alem\\'an. Our data reveal an asymmetric rotating velocity field with a peak to peak difference of 60 km s$^{-1}$. The kinematic centre is found to be at the position of a central velocity width maximum ($\\sigma=54\\pm1$ km s$^{-1}$), which is consistent with the position of the luminosity-weighted centroid of the entire galaxy. The position angle of the minor rotation axis is 168$^{\\circ}$ as measured from the orientation of the velocity field contours. At least two decoupled kinematic components are found. The first one is compact and coincides with the position of the second most active star formation region (clump B). The second one is extended and does not have a clear optical counterpart. No evidence of active galactic nuclei activity or supernovae galactic winds poweri...

  11. Polyphase tertiary fold-and-thrust tectonics in the Belluno Dolomites: new mapping, kinematic analysis, and 3D modelling

    Chistolini, Filippo; Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Consonni, Davide; Cortinovis, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The Belluno Dolomites are comprised in the eastern sector of the Southern Alps, which corresponds to the fold-and-thrust belt at the retro-wedge of the Alpine collisional orogen. They are characterized by a complex and polyphase fold-and-thrust tectonics, highlighted by multiple thrust sheets and thrust-related folding. We have studied this tectonics in the Vajont area where a sequence of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary units have been involved in multiple deformations. The onset of contractional tectonics in this part of the Alps is constrained to be Tertiary (likely Post-Eocene) by structural relationships with the Erto Flysch, whilst in the Mesozoic tectonics was extensional. We have recognized two contractional deformation phases (D1 and D2 in the following), of which only the second was mentioned in previous studies of the area and attributed to the Miocene Neoalpine event. D1 and D2 are characterized by roughly top-to-WSW (possibly Dinaric) and top-to-S (Alpine) transport directions respectively, implying a 90° rotation of the regional-scale shortening axis, and resulting in complex thrust and fold interference and reactivation patterns. Geological mapping and detailed outcrop-scale kinematic analysis allowed us to characterize the kinematics and chronology of deformations. Particularly, relative chronology was unravelled thanks to (1) diagnostic fold interference patterns and (2) crosscutting relationships between thrust faults and thrust-related folds. A km-scale D1 syncline, filled with the Eocene Erto Flysch and "decapitated" by a D2 thrust fault, provides the best map-scale example of crosscutting relationships allowing to reconstruct the faulting history. Due to the strong competence contrast between Jurassic carbonates and Tertiary flysch, in this syncline spectacular duplexes were also developed during D2. In order to quantitatively characterize the complex interference pattern resulting from two orthogonal thrusting and folding events, we

  12. 3D Geometry and Kinematics of the Taiwan Arc-continent Collision

    Carena, S.; Suppe, J.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    In Taiwan two subduction zones (Manila trench and Ryukyu trench) come together in a quasi-orthogonal, kinematically stable configuration. Subduction is ongoing in both trenches, even though the tectonic setting in the Manila trench is that of an arc-continent collision. The upper crust of Eurasia (EU) is decoupled from the rest of the lithosphere by a detachment horizon, which is the main subduction interface between EU and Philippine Sea plate (PSP). The interface is visible in both seismicity and crustal tomography at shallow depths, and it can be followed into the mantle to 450-500 km depth with global tomography. Shortening across the plate boundary is accomplished by a combination of subduction of EU lithosphere, folding and thrusting in the Eurasian upper crust, and a secondary subduction zone within the PSP. We hypothesize that: (1) once arc-continent collision occurs, subduction of Eurasian continental lower crust and upper mantle can continue by lithospheric delamination and by continuity with the much larger Eurasian slab to the south; (2) the upper crust of EU deforms by faulting and folding; (3) the present convergence rate of about 90 mm/yr is limited at most to the last 2 Ma, whereas the long-term rate is about 30 mm/yr and in Taiwan the difference is being taken up by secondary subduction within the PSP margin; (4) a margin-parallel STEP (Subduction-Transform-Edge-Propagator) fault forms the northern limit of Eurasian subduction, which allows the whole system to propagate self-similarly southwestward. No slab breakoff is required for the kinematics of the margin, and none is observed in geophysical or geological data either. This kinematics is consistent with geologic observations: from timing of opening of the southern Okinawa trough, to geometry of geologic boundaries within the Taiwan mountain belt, to geographic distribution, geochemical character, and timing of Quaternary volcanism in the northern Taiwan volcanic zone. We constrained the long

  13. IN VIVO KINEMATICS OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT DEFICIENT KNEE DURING WIDE-BASED SQUAT USING A 2D/3D REGISTRATION TECHNIQUE

    Takeshi Miyaji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL deficiency increases the risk of early osteoarthritis (OA. Studies of ACL deficient knee kinematics would be important to reveal the disease process and therefore to find mechanisms which would potentially slow OA progression. The purpose of this study was to determine if in vivo kinematics of the anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD knee during a wide-based squat activity differ from kinematics of the contralateral intact knee. Thirty-three patients with a unilateral ACLD knee consented to participate in this institutional review board approved study with the contralateral intact knee serving as the control. In vivo knee kinematics during the wide-based squat were analyzed using a 2D/3D registration technique utilizing CT-based bone models and lateral fluoroscopy. Comparisons were performed using values between 0 and 100° flexion both in flexion and extension phases of the squat activity. Both the ACLD and intact knees demonstrated increasing tibial internal rotation with knee flexion, and no difference was observed in tibial rotation between the groups. The tibia in the ACLD knee was more anterior than that of the contralateral knees at 0 and 5° flexion in both phases (p < 0.05. Tibiofemoral medial contact points of the ACLD knees were more posterior than that of the contralateral knees at 5, 10 and 15° of knee flexion in the extension phase of the squat activity (p < 0.05. Tibiofemoral lateral contact points of the ACLD knees were more posterior than that of the contralateral knees at 0° flexion in the both phases (p < 0.05. The kinematics of the ACLD and contralateral intact knees were similar during the wide-based squat except at the low flexion angles. Therefore, we conclude the wide-based squat may be recommended for the ACLD knee by avoiding terminal extension

  14. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  15. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  16. A Comparison of a Multi-body Model and 3D Kinematics and EMG ofDouble-leg Circle on Pommel Horse.

    Qian, Jing-Guang; Su, Yang; Song, Ya-Wei; Qiang, Ye; Zhang, Songning

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a multi-segment dynamic model in the LifeMOD to examine kinematics of the center of mass and foot, and muscle forces of selected upper extremity muslces during a double-leg circle (DLC) movement on pommel horse in gymnastics and compared with three-dimensional kinematics of the movement and surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the muscles. The DLC movement of one elite male gymnast was collected. The three-dimensional (3D) data was imported in the Lifemod to create a full-body human model. A 16-Channel surface electromyography system was used to collect sEMG signals of middle deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, latissimusdorsi, and pectoralis major. The 3D center of mass and foot displacement showed a good match with the computer simulated results. The muscle force estimations from the model during the four DLC phases were also generally supported by the integrated sEMG results, suggesting that the model was valid. A potential application of this model is to help identify shortcomings of athletes and help establish appropriate training plans errors in the DLC technique during training. PMID:23487347

  17. True 3D kinematic analysis for slope instability assessment in the Siq of Petra (Jordan), from high resolution TLS

    Gigli, Giovanni; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Ruther, Heinz; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    released, stratigraphic setting and tectonic activity can be recognized. As a consequence, rock-falls have been occurring, even recently, with unstable rock mass volumes ranging from 0.1 m3 up to over some hundreds m3. Slope instability, acceleration of crack deformation and consequent increasing of rock-fall hazard conditions, could threaten the safety of tourist as well as the integrity of the heritage. 3D surface model coming from Terrestrial Laser Scanner acquisitions was developed almost all over the site of Petra, including the Siq. Comprehensively, a point cloud of five billion points was generated making the site of Petra likely the largest scanned archaeological site in the word. As far as the Siq, the scanner was positioned on the path floor at intervals of not more than 10 meters from each station. The total number of scans in the Siq was 220 with an average point cloud interval of approximately 3 cm. Subsequently, for the definition of the main rockfall source areas, a spatial kinematic analysis for the whole Siq has been performed, by using discontinuity orientation data extracted from the point cloud by means of the software Diana. Orientation, number of sets, spacing/frequency, persistence, block size and scale dependent roughness was obtained combining fieldwork and automatic analysis. This kind of analysis is able to establish where a particular instability mechanism is kinematically feasible, given the geometry of the slope, the orientation of discontinuities and shear strength of the rock. The final outcome of this project was a detail landslide kinematic index map, reporting main potential instability mechanisms for a given area. The kinematic index was finally calibrated for each instability mechanism (plane failure; wedge failure; block toppling; flexural toppling) surveyed in the site. The latter is including the collapse occurred in May 2015, likely not producing any victim, in a sector clearly identified by the susceptibility maps produced by the

  18. 3D CAD for concept design - a case study

    Mandal, S. K.; P.K. Maji; Karmakar, S

    2013-01-01

    Generally for any new design initially a concept layout in 2D CAD is generated. But sometimes if the geometry of product becomes complicated, then 3D CAD model is preferred. Because 3D CAD model can give us a complete all side view at a time like a real product, but in a virtual world. The present case study will show the utilization of 3D CAD at the concept design stage of a complicated shaped product for a new system. This will also give an idea about cost and time comparison. Thus this pap...

  19. GestAction3D: A Platform for Studying Displacements and Deformations of 3D Objects Using Hands

    Lingrand, Diane; Renevier, Philippe; Pinna-Déry, Anne-Marie; Cremaschi, Xavier; Lion, Stevens; Rouel, Jean-Guilhem; Jeanne, David; Cuisinaud, Philippe; Soula*, Julien

    We present a low-cost hand-based device coupled with a 3D motion recovery engine and 3D visualization. This platform aims at studying ergonomic 3D interactions in order to manipulate and deform 3D models by interacting with hands on 3D meshes. Deformations are done using different modes of interaction that we will detail in the paper. Finger extremities are attached to vertices, edges or facets. Switching from one mode to another or changing the point of view is done using gestures. The determination of the more adequate gestures is part of the work

  20. 3D Spectroscopy of Local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: Kinematic Maps of a Sample of 22 Objects

    Pérez-Gallego, J; Castillo-Morales, A; Gallego, J; Castander, F J; Garland, C A; Gruel, N; Pisano, D J; Zamorano, J

    2011-01-01

    We use three dimensional optical spectroscopy observations of a sample of 22 local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) to create kinematic maps. By means of these, we classify the kinematics of these galaxies into three different classes: rotating disk (RD), perturbed rotation (PR), and complex kinematics (CK). We find 48% are RDs, 28% are PRs, and 24% are CKs. RDs show rotational velocities that range between $\\sim50$ and $\\sim200 km s^{-1}$, and dynamical masses that range between $\\sim1\\times10^{9}$ and $\\sim3\\times10^{10} M_{\\odot}$. We also address the following two fundamental questions through the study of the kinematic maps: \\emph{(i) What processes are triggering the current starbust in LCBGs?} We search our maps of the galaxy velocity fields for signatures of recent interactions and close companions that may be responsible for the enhanced star formation in our sample. We find 5% of objects show evidence of a recent major merger, 10% of a minor merger, and 45% of a companion. This argues in favor...

  1. THE KMOS3D SURVEY: DESIGN, FIRST RESULTS, AND THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXY KINEMATICS FROM 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 2.7

    We present the KMOS3D survey, a new integral field survey of over 600 galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7 using KMOS at the Very Large Telescope. The KMOS3D survey utilizes synergies with multi-wavelength ground- and space-based surveys to trace the evolution of spatially resolved kinematics and star formation from a homogeneous sample over 5 Gyr of cosmic history. Targets, drawn from a mass-selected parent sample from the 3D-HST survey, cover the star formation-stellar mass (M *) and rest-frame (U – V) – M * planes uniformly. We describe the selection of targets, the observations, and the data reduction. In the first-year of data we detect Hα emission in 191 M * = 3 × 109-7 × 1011 M ☉ galaxies at z = 0.7-1.1 and z = 1.9-2.7. In the current sample 83% of the resolved galaxies are rotation dominated, determined from a continuous velocity gradient and v rot/σ0 > 1, implying that the star-forming ''main sequence'' is primarily composed of rotating galaxies at both redshift regimes. When considering additional stricter criteria, the Hα kinematic maps indicate that at least ∼70% of the resolved galaxies are disk-like systems. Our high-quality KMOS data confirm the elevated velocity dispersions reported in previous integral field spectroscopy studies at z ≳ 0.7. For rotation-dominated disks, the average intrinsic velocity dispersion decreases by a factor of two from 50 km s–1at z ∼ 2.3 to 25 km s–1at z ∼ 0.9. Combined with existing results spanning z ∼ 0-3, we show that disk velocity dispersions follow an evolution that is consistent with the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas fractions predicted by marginally stable disk theory

  2. Development, Calibration and Evaluation of a Portable and Direct Georeferenced Laser Scanning System for Kinematic 3D Mapping

    Heinz, Erik; Eling, Christian; Wieland, Markus; Klingbeil, Lasse; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, kinematic laser scanning has become increasingly popular because it offers many benefits compared to static laser scanning. The advantages include both saving of time in the georeferencing and a more favorable scanning geometry. Often mobile laser scanning systems are installed on wheeled platforms, which may not reach all parts of the object. Hence, there is an interest in the development of portable systems, which remain operational even in inaccessible areas. The development of such a portable laser scanning system is presented in this paper. It consists of a lightweight direct georeferencing unit for the position and attitude determination and a small low-cost 2D laser scanner. This setup provides advantages over existing portable systems that employ heavy and expensive 3D laser scanners in a profiling mode. A special emphasis is placed on the system calibration, i. e. the determination of the transformation between the coordinate frames of the direct georeferencing unit and the 2D laser scanner. To this end, a calibration field is used, which consists of differently orientated georeferenced planar surfaces, leading to estimates for the lever arms and boresight angles with an accuracy of mm and one-tenth of a degree. Finally, point clouds of the mobile laser scanning system are compared with georeferenced point clouds of a high-precision 3D laser scanner. Accordingly, the accuracy of the system is in the order of cm to dm. This is in good agreement with the expected accuracy, which has been derived from the error propagation of previously estimated variance components.

  3. 3D musculo-skeletal finite element analysis of the foot kinematics under muscle activation with and without ankle arthrodesis

    Perrier, Antoine; Bucki, Marek; Luboz, Vincent; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Payan, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    The choice between arthrodesis and arthroplasty in the context of advanced ankle arthrosis remains a highly disputed topic in the field of foot and ankle surgery. Arthrodesis, however, represents the most popular option. Biomechanical modeling has been widely used to investigate static loading of cadaveric feet as well as consequences of arthrodesis on bony structures. Although foot kinematics has been studied using motion analysis, this approach lacks accuracy in capturing internal joints mo...

  4. Isotropic at the Break? 3D Kinematics of Milky Way Halo Stars in the Foreground of M31

    Cunningham, Emily C; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M; van der Marel, Roeland P; Toloba, Elisa; Gilbert, Karoline M; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Dorman, Claire E

    2016-01-01

    We present the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities for 13 distant main sequence Milky Way halo stars with published proper motions. The proper motions were measured using long baseline (5-7 years) multi-epoch HST/ACS photometry, and the LOS velocities were extracted from deep (5-6 hour integrations) Keck II/DEIMOS spectra. We estimate the parameters of the velocity ellipsoid of the stellar halo using a Markov chain Monte Carlo ensembler sampler method. The velocity second moments in the directions of the Galactic $(l,b,$ LOS) coordinate system are $\\langle v^2_l \\rangle^{1/2} = 138^{+43}_{-26}$ km/s, $\\langle v^2_b \\rangle^{1/2} = 88^{+28}_{-17}$ km/s, and $\\langle v^2_{\\rm{LOS}} \\rangle^{1/2} = 91^{+27}_{-14}$ km/s. We use these ellipsoid parameters to constrain the velocity anisotropy of the stellar halo. Ours is the first measurement of the anisotropy parameter $\\beta$ using 3D kinematics outside of the solar neighborhood. We find $\\beta=-0.3^{+0.4}_{-0.9}$, consistent with isotropy and lower than solar neighbo...

  5. Data Extraction from Computer Acquired Images of a Given 3D Environment for Enhanced Computer Vision and its Applications in Kinematic Design of Robos

    K. Selvaraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Literature review was mainly aiming at recognition of objects by the computer and to make explicit the information that is implicit in the attributes of 3D objects and their relative positioning in the 3D Environment (3DE as seen in the 2D images. However quantitative estimate of position of objects in the 3DE in terms of their x, y and z co-ordinates was not touched upon. This issue assumes important dimension in areas like Kinematic Design of Robos (KDR, while the Robo is negotiating with z field or Depth Field (DF. Approach: The existing methods such as pattern matching used by Robos for Depth Visualization (DV using a set of external commands, were reviewed in detail. A methodology was developed in this study to enable the Robo to quantify the depth by itself, instead of looking for external commands. Results: The Results are presented and discussed. The Results are presented and discussed. The major conclusions drawn based on the results were listed. Conclusion: The major contribution of the present study consists of computing the Depth (D1 corresponding to the depth (d measured from the photographic image of a 3DE. It had been concluded that, there exists an excellent agreement between the computed depth D1 and the corresponding actual Depth (D. The percent deviation of D1 from D (DP lies between ±2 over the entire region of the (DF. Through suitable interfacing of the developed equation with the kinematic design of Robos, the Robo can generate its own commands for DF negotiations.

  6. Construction of semi-dynamic model of subduction zone with given plate kinematics in 3D sphere

    Morishige, M.; Honda, S.; Tackley, P. J.

    2010-09-01

    We present a semi-dynamic subduction zone model in a three-dimensional spherical shell. In this model, velocity is imposed on the top surface and in a small three-dimensional region around the shallow plate boundary while below this region, the slab is able to subduct under its own weight. Surface plate velocities are given by Euler's theorem of rigid plate rotation on a sphere. The velocity imposed in the region around the plate boundary is determined so that mass conservation inside the region is satisfied. A kinematic trench migration can be easily incorporated in this model. As an application of this model, mantle flow around slab edges is considered, and we find that the effect of Earth curvature is small by comparing our model with a similar one in a rectangular box, at least for the parameters used in this study. As a second application of the model, mantle flow around a plate junction is studied, and we find the existence of mantle return flow perpendicular to the plate boundary. Since this model can naturally incorporate the spherical geometry and plate movement on the sphere, it is useful for studying a specific subduction zone where the plate kinematics is well constrained.

  7. Studies of the 3D surface roughness height

    Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris [Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Ezermalas str. 6k, Riga (Latvia)

    2013-12-16

    Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings’ surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the height of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness height and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.

  8. THE KMOS{sup 3D} SURVEY: DESIGN, FIRST RESULTS, AND THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXY KINEMATICS FROM 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 2.7

    Wisnioski, E.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Wuyts, S.; Wuyts, E.; Bandara, K.; Genzel, R.; Bender, R.; Davies, R.; Lang, P.; Mendel, J. T.; Beifiori, A.; Chan, J.; Fabricius, M.; Fudamoto, Y.; Kulkarni, S.; Kurk, J.; Lutz, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wilman, D.; Fossati, M. [Universitäts-Sternwarte, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Brammer, G., E-mail: emily@mpe.mpg.de [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present the KMOS{sup 3D} survey, a new integral field survey of over 600 galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7 using KMOS at the Very Large Telescope. The KMOS{sup 3D} survey utilizes synergies with multi-wavelength ground- and space-based surveys to trace the evolution of spatially resolved kinematics and star formation from a homogeneous sample over 5 Gyr of cosmic history. Targets, drawn from a mass-selected parent sample from the 3D-HST survey, cover the star formation-stellar mass (M {sub *}) and rest-frame (U – V) – M {sub *} planes uniformly. We describe the selection of targets, the observations, and the data reduction. In the first-year of data we detect Hα emission in 191 M {sub *} = 3 × 10{sup 9}-7 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} galaxies at z = 0.7-1.1 and z = 1.9-2.7. In the current sample 83% of the resolved galaxies are rotation dominated, determined from a continuous velocity gradient and v {sub rot}/σ{sub 0} > 1, implying that the star-forming ''main sequence'' is primarily composed of rotating galaxies at both redshift regimes. When considering additional stricter criteria, the Hα kinematic maps indicate that at least ∼70% of the resolved galaxies are disk-like systems. Our high-quality KMOS data confirm the elevated velocity dispersions reported in previous integral field spectroscopy studies at z ≳ 0.7. For rotation-dominated disks, the average intrinsic velocity dispersion decreases by a factor of two from 50 km s{sup –1}at z ∼ 2.3 to 25 km s{sup –1}at z ∼ 0.9. Combined with existing results spanning z ∼ 0-3, we show that disk velocity dispersions follow an evolution that is consistent with the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas fractions predicted by marginally stable disk theory.

  9. Study of 3D-modelling software environments

    Егорова, Ирина Николаевна; Гайдамащук, Алиса Владимировна

    2013-01-01

    The study of three-dimensional modeling software packages such as Autodesk Maya, Autodesk 3Ds Studio Max, Lightwave 3D, Maxon Cinema 4D, Blender, ZBrush was conducted in the paper. The analysis of software packages allowed to identify the most effective ones. These were Autodesk Maya, Autodesk 3Ds Studio Max and ZBrush packages. The selected software packages were used for the creation of a computer scene, the main elements of which are interior, character and animation. Practical research al...

  10. Kinematics and 3D Structure of Large-scale Coronal Waves and Shocks observed with STEREO/EUVI and PROBA2/SWAP

    Coronal mass ejections, flares and EUV waves are the most energetic phenomena of the active Sun. Three event studies are presented, primarily based on the unprecedented observations from NASA's STEREO twin spacecraft. Emphasis was put on the kinematics, morphology and perturbation profiles of EUV waves. One major objective was the investigation of their 3D geometry and their interaction with other coronal features using multi-satellite viewpoints. Another aim was the determination of the basic plasma parameters of EUV waves, which provide information on their physical nature. The final purpose was to identify the triggering mechanism, based on detailed comparison of the EUV wave evolution with that of associated phenomena, particularly during the initial phase. The first study focused on the 3D morphology of an EUV wave by comparison of the STEREO-B on-disk signatures with the off-limb features in the lateral STEREO-A view. It was for the first time possible to determine the propagation height (80 - 100 Mm) and de-projected speed (∼265 km/s) of an EUV wave, being consistent with a freely propagating fast-mode MHD wave. The evolution of the plasma parameters of 4 homologous waves occurring within 8 hours was closely examined in the second study. The results revealed a distinct correlation between the magnetosonic Mach numbers and speeds indicative for a nonlinear MHD wave nature of the EUV waves. The third study concentrated on the reflection of 3 homologous waves at the border of a coronal hole. It was found that all waves obey the Huygens-Fresnel-principle, and that the reflected waves propagated in a layer (∼100 Mm above the primary waves. Their behavior can only be explained in the frame of wave theory. All facts gathered in the three studies give clear indications for the fast-mode MHD wave character of these EUV waves. (author)

  11. A study on developing customized bolus using 3D prints

    Jung, Sang Min; Yang, Jin Ho; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jin Uk; Yeom, Du Seok [Dept. of Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    3D Printers are used to create three-dimensional models based on blueprints. Based on this characteristic, it is feasible to develop a bolus that can minimize the air gap between skin and bolus in radiotherapy. This study aims to compare and analyze air gap and target dose at the branded 1 cm bolus with the developed customized bolus using 3D printers. RANDO phantom with a protruded tumor was used to procure images using CT simulator. CT DICOM file was transferred into the STL file, equivalent to 3D printers. Using this, customized bolus molding box (maintaining the 1 cm width) was created by processing 3D printers, and paraffin was melted to develop the customized bolus. The air gap of customized bolus and the branded 1 cm bolus was checked, and the differences in air gap was used to compare D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%} and V{sub 95%} in treatment plan through Eclipse. Customized bolus production period took about 3 days. The total volume of air gap was average 3.9 cm{sup 3} at the customized bolus. And it was average 29.6cm{sup 3} at the branded 1 cm bolus. The customized bolus developed by the 3D printer was more useful in minimizing the air gap than the branded 1 cm bolus. In the 6 MV photon, at the customized bolus, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of GTV were 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4% and the D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of branded 1 cm bolus were 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%, respectively. In the proton, at the customized bolus, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of GTV were 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8% and the D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of branded 1cm bolus were 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%, respectively. Thus, in treatment plan, there was no significant difference between the customized bolus and 1 cm bolus. However, the normal tissue nearby the GTV showed relatively lower radiation dose. The

  12. Several 3D graphics software study based on Linux

    This paper introduces the request of single event display in BES III online data acquisition system and presents OpenGL, ROOT, VRML, Java3D 3D graphics software. After making comparison with these software in effect and performance, finally we choose Java3D technology for developing single event display. (authors)

  13. A lithospheric 3D temperature study from the South Atlantic

    Hirsch, K. K.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Maystrenko, Y.; Sippel, J.

    2009-04-01

    The East African continental margin is a passive volcanic margin that experienced a long post-rifting history after break up in Early Cretaceous times. The break up resulted in the formation of a number of basins along the margin. The by far largest depocentre in the South Atlantic, the Orange Basin, was the location of previously performed studies. These studies of the Orange Basin have been performed to investigate the crustal structure and the temperature evolution of the basin. In this way, they gave way to new insights and to a number of questions. With 3D gravity modelling we found the crust to include high density bodies. Furthermore, a rifting model was developed which explained both the geometry and the thermal constraints of the basin. Now, this study has been extended spatially to cover a larger area and into depth to include the deep lithosphere. The main goal is to combine information on the geometry and properties of the sedimentary part of the system with data on the geometry and physical properties of the deep crust. It was also aimed to integrate both the continental and the oceanic parts of the margin into a consistent 3D structural model on a lithospheric scale. A 3D temperature model was evaluated for the passive continental margin of the South Atlantic including the lithospheric structure of the margin. We evaluate a case study for different scenarios to estimate the influence of sediments and crustal structures on the thermal field. The calculated conductive field is constrained by temperature measurements and 3D gravity modelling. At the Norwegian continental margin it has been found that a differentiation of the physical properties of the lower crust and the mantle is needed between the oceanic and continental domains to explain the observations. We aim to compare the younger setting of the Norwegian continental margin with the old passive margin in the South Atlantic. In particular, the South Atlantic is interesting since the southern half

  14. A 3D CAMPUS INFORMATION SYSTEM – INITIAL STUDIES

    Kahraman, I.; I. R. Karas; Alizadehasharfi, B.; Abdul-Rahman, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the method of developing Campus Information System. The system can handle 3D spatial data within desktop and web environment. The method consists of texturing of building facades for 3D building models and modeling 3D Campus Information System. In this paper, some of these steps are carried out; modelling 3D buildings, toggling these models on the terrain and ortho-photo, integration with a geo-database, transferring to the CityServer3D environment by using CityG...

  15. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: update from a clinical study

    Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Kretzek, E.; Henrich, J.; Tukalo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Kaiser, C.; Knaudt, J.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising new imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis. We developed a 3D USCT system and tested it in a pilot study with encouraging results: 3D USCT was able to depict two carcinomas, which were present in contrast enhanced MRI volumes serving as ground truth. To overcome severe differences in the breast shape, an image registration was applied. We analyzed the correlation between average sound speed in the breast and the breast density estimated from segmented MRIs and found a positive correlation with R=0.70. Based on the results of the pilot study we now carry out a successive clinical study with 200 patients. For this we integrated our reconstruction methods and image post-processing into a comprehensive workflow. It includes a dedicated DICOM viewer for interactive assessment of fused USCT images. A new preview mode now allows intuitive and faster patient positioning. We updated the USCT system to decrease the data acquisition time by approximately factor two and to increase the penetration depth of the breast into the USCT aperture by 1 cm. Furthermore the compute-intensive reflectivity reconstruction was considerably accelerated, now allowing a sub-millimeter volume reconstruction in approximately 16 minutes. The updates made it possible to successfully image first patients in our ongoing clinical study.

  16. 3D modelling of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Spain)

    Fernandez-Merodo, Jose Antonio; Bru, Guadalupe; García-Davalillo, Juan Carlos; Herrera, Gerardo; Fernandez, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Slow landslide deformation evolution is generally cast using 1D or 2D numerical models. This paper aims to explore 3D effects on the kinematic behavior of a real landslide, the Portalet landslide (Central Spanish Pyrenees). This is a very well characterized and documented active paleo-landslide that has been reactivated by the construction of a parking area at the toe of the slope. The proposed 3D model is based on a time dependent hydro-mechanical finite element formulation that takes into account i) groundwater changes due to daily rainfall records and ii) viscous behavior and delayed creep deformation through a viscoplastic constitutive model based on Perzyna's theory. The model reproduces the nearly constant strain rate (secondary creep) and the acceleration/deceleration of the moving mass due to hydrological changes. Furthermore, the model is a able to catch the superficial 3D kinematics revealed by advanced in-situ monitoring like ground based SAR or DInSAR processing of satellite SAR images. References [1] Herrera G, Fernández-Merodo JA, Mulas J, Pastor M, Luzi G, Monserrat O (2009) A landslide forecasting model using ground based SAR data: The Portalet case study. Engineering Geology 105: 220-230 [2] Fernández-Merodo JA, Herrera G, Mira P, Mulas J, Pastor M, Noferini L, Me-catti D and Luzi G (2008). Modelling the Portalet landslide mobility (Formigal, Spain). iEMSs 2008: International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software. Sànchez-Marrè M, Béjar J, Comas J, Rizzoli A and Guariso G (Eds.) International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs) [3] Fernández-Merodo JA, García-Davalillo JC, Herrera G, Mira P, Pastor M (2012). 2D visco-plastic finite element modelling of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Spain). Landslides, DOI: 10.1007/s10346-012-0370-4

  17. Finite Element Modeling of CNS White Matter Kinematics: Use of a 3D-RVE to Determine Material Properties

    AssiminaA.Pelegri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Axonal injury represents a critical target area for the prevention and treatment of traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. Finite element (FE models of the head and/or brain are often used to predict brain injury caused by external mechanical loadings, such as explosive waves and direct impact. The accuracy of these numerical models depends on correctly determining the material properties and on the precise depiction of the tissues’ microstructure (microscopic level. Moreover, since the axonal microstructure for specific regions of the brain white matter is locally oriented, the stress and strain fields are highly anisotropic and axon orientation dependent. Additionally, mechanical strain has been identified as the proximal cause of axonal injury, which further demonstrates the importance of this multi-scale relationship. In this study, our previously developed FE and kinematic axonal models are coupled and applied to a pseudo 3-dimensional representative volume element (RVE of central nervous system white matter to investigate the multi-scale mechanical behavior. An inverse FE procedure was developed to identify material parameters of spinal cord white matter by combining the results of uniaxial testing with FE modeling. A satisfactory balance between simulation and experiment was achieved via optimization by minimizing the squared error between the simulated and experimental force-stretch curve. The combination of experimental testing and FE analysis provides a useful analysis tool for soft biological tissues in general, and specifically enables evaluations of the axonal response to tissue-level loading and subsequent predictions of axonal damage.

  18. The KMOS^3D Survey: design, first results, and the evolution of galaxy kinematics from 0.7

    Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Wuyts, E; Bandara, K; Wilman, D; Genzel, R; Bender, R; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Lang, P; Mendel, J T; Beifiori, A; Brammer, G; Chan, J; Fabricius, M; Fudamoto, Y; Kulkarni, S; Kurk, J; Lutz, D; Nelson, E J; Momcheva, I; Rosario, D; Saglia, R; Seitz, S; Tacconi, L J; van Dokkum, P G

    2014-01-01

    We present the KMOS^3D survey, a new integral field survey of over 600 galaxies at 0.71$, implying that the star-forming 'main sequence' (MS) is primarily composed of rotating galaxies at both redshift regimes. When considering additional stricter criteria, the Halpha kinematic maps indicate at least ~70% of the resolved galaxies are disk-like systems. Our high-quality KMOS data confirm the elevated velocity dispersions reported in previous IFS studies at z>0.7. For rotation-dominated disks, the average intrinsic velocity dispersion decreases by a factor of two from 50 km/s at z~2.3 to 25 km/s at z~0.9 while the rotational velocities at the two redshifts are comparable. Combined with existing results spanning z~0-3, disk velocity dispersions follow an approximate (1+z) evolution that is consistent with the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas fractions predicted by marginally-stable disk theory.

  19. Solute transport benchmark studies for TRACR3D code verification

    A three-dimensional code called TRACR3D, which is applicable to solute transport in both unsaturated and saturated media, is being used to model hypothetical transport of radioactive and nonradioactive constituents from calcined high-level radioactive waste (HLW) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The modeling studies are part of a documentation process which will be required for evaluation of onsite disposal in a near-surface facility as a possible alternative strategy for the long-term management of ICPP HLW. This report discusses the results of a benchmark study for code verification. The problems modeled were: (1) A one-dimensional problem involving the transport of the pertechnetate ion (TcO4-) through a 5-cm diameter by 30-cm-long soil column at ICPP. (2) A one-dimensional problem involving the transport of the iodide ion (I-) through a large caisson (3-m diameter by 6-m depth) at LANL. (3) A three-dimensional problem involving the transport of radioactive ruthenium (Ru-106) from a single-shell tank leak into the vadose zone at the Hanford site. For the three benchmark studies performed, it was concluded that the predicted results from TRACR3D were in agreement with documented and reported solute transport problems, that the input data files were properly configured, and that the code correctly performed the mathematical operations specified in the numerical models. These results will provide a greater degree of confidence in results obtained for planned modeling studies at ICPP. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Evaluation of 3-D graphics software: A case study

    Lores, M. E.; Chasen, S. H.; Garner, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An efficient 3-D geometry graphics software package which is suitable for advanced design studies was developed. The advanced design system is called GRADE--Graphics for Advanced Design. Efficiency and ease of use are gained by sacrificing flexibility in surface representation. The immediate options were either to continue development of GRADE or to acquire a commercially available system which would replace or complement GRADE. Test cases which would reveal the ability of each system to satisfy the requirements were developed. A scoring method which adequately captured the relative capabilities of the three systems was presented. While more complex multi-attribute decision methods could be used, the selected method provides all the needed information without being so complex that it is difficult to understand. If the value factors are modestly perturbed, system Z is a clear winner based on its overall capabilities. System Z is superior in two vital areas: surfacing and ease of interface with application programs.

  1. Kinematic Analysis on the Serve Technique of Elite Tennis Player Grigor•Dimitrov Based on 3D Virtual Reality Technology

    Du Chuan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using three-dimensional video analysis, we made a kinematic analysis on Grigor Dimitrov’s Serve technique, aiming at finding the kinematic characteristics of his serve technique during various stages. The results showed that: (1 During the stage of tossing the ball and lifting the racket, the tossing height of the ball was at minimum appropriately, while the elbow extension of the tossing arm was stright, and the angle of his left knee was 95.4°, which is beneficial to making greater kicking power; (2 At the back-swing stage, Dimitrov’s both feet made a great range of pedal and stretch quickly, and the “scratch-back” posture is obvious, and momentum caused by the kicking and coxae-turning was rather large; (3 When hitting the ball, the contact point was accurate and the speed of the racket head was high, which passed a relatively large initial momentum to the ball; (4 Dimitrov’s entire service action was integral and coordinate, smooth and powerful, which was in accordance relatedly with kinematic characteristics

  2. Kinematic Analysis of Fold-Thrust-Belt Using Integrated Analogue Sandbox Modeling and 3D Palinspatic Reconstructions in Babar-Selaru Area, Banda Sea Region, Indonesia

    Sapiie, Benyamin; Hadiana, Meli; Kurniawan, Ade; Daniel, Dicky; Danio, Harya; Fujimoto, Masamichi; Ohara, Michio; Alam Perdana, Lisnanda; Saputra, Afif

    2016-04-01

    Kinematic analysis of Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt is challenging and often difficult particularly in conducting seismic interpretation due to complex structural geometries. Resolving such as issue, in this study we proposed to use integrated seismic interpretation, analogue sandbox modeling and 3D palinspatic reconstructions. This paper is presented results of detail kinematic analysis for understanding tectonic evolution as well as mechanism of fold-thrust-belt in relation to their hydrocarbon prospect. Babar-Selaru Area is located within the collisional boundary between Australian continental margin and Banda Arc region of Indonesia. The area is characterized by complex deformation zone of fold-thrust-belt, involving Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary sequences of Australian continental margin. The age of deformation is ranging from 8-5 Ma. Seismic interpretations show two styles of faults developed in the area, which are thrust and normal faults system. The last deformation observed in the Babar Selaru area is controlled by south verging imbricated thin-skinned thrust fault system, with the staircase style of fault detachment. Although, both structural styles occurred in separated locations, they are formed not only in the same time but also related in time and space. Total extension is ranging from 1-3 % where average shortening is in the order of 35-38%. Sandbox modeling is an effective way to study and understand the style, pattern and geometry of the deformed sedimentary sequences in the study area. Based on comparison of five settings experiments (mainly different geological boundary condition) with more than 50 different modeling; deformation is particularly controlled by types and thickness of lithology package and detachment geometry. These two parameters were quite sensitive in generating different deformation style and pattern in Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt. Therefore, choosing the right combination of stratigraphy model and material setting are

  3. The ATLAS(3D) project : XVII. Linking photometric and kinematic signatures of stellar discs in early-type galaxies

    Krajnovic, Davor; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the morphological structures in galaxies of the ATLAS(3D) sample by fitting a single Sersic profile and decomposing all non-barred objects (180 of 260 objects) in two components parametrized by an exponential and a general Sersic function. The aim of this analysis is to look for signature

  4. Improved Surgery Planning Using 3-D Printing: a Case Study.

    Singhal, A J; Shetty, V; Bhagavan, K R; Ragothaman, Ananthan; Shetty, V; Koneru, Ganesh; Agarwala, M

    2016-04-01

    The role of 3-D printing is presented for improved patient-specific surgery planning. Key benefits are time saved and surgery outcome. Two hard-tissue surgery models were 3-D printed, for orthopedic, pelvic surgery, and craniofacial surgery. We discuss software data conversion in computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) medical image for 3-D printing. 3-D printed models save time in surgery planning and help visualize complex pre-operative anatomy. Time saved in surgery planning can be as much as two thirds. In addition to improved surgery accuracy, 3-D printing presents opportunity in materials research. Other hard-tissue and soft-tissue cases in maxillofacial, abdominal, thoracic, cardiac, orthodontics, and neurosurgery are considered. We recommend using 3-D printing as standard protocol for surgery planning and for teaching surgery practices. A quick turnaround time of a 3-D printed surgery model, in improved accuracy in surgery planning, is helpful for the surgery team. It is recommended that these costs be within 20 % of the total surgery budget. PMID:27303117

  5. 3D RECORDING FOR 2D DELIVERING – THE EMPLOYMENT OF 3D MODELS FOR STUDIES AND ANALYSES –

    A. Rizzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d’Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino. APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying

  6. The study of the extraction of 3-D informations

    Kim, Min Ki [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jin Hun; Kim, Hui Yung; Lee, Gi Sik; Lee, Yung Shin [Sokyung Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    To extract three dimensional information in 3 dimensional real world two methods are applied (stereo image method, virtual reality environment method). 1. Stereo image method. From the paris of stereo image matching methods are applied to find the corresponding points in the two images. To solve the problem various methods are applied 2. Virtual reality environment method. As an alternate method to extract 3-D information, virtual reality environment is use. It is very useful to fine 6 DOF for a some given target points in 3-D space. We considered the accuracies and reliability of the 3-D informations. 34 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  7. A Mechanistic Study of Wetting Superhydrophobic Porous 3D Meshes

    Yohe, Stefan T.; Freedman, Jonathan D.; Falde, Eric J.; Colson, Yolonda L.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Superhydrophobic, porous, 3D materials composed of poly( ε -caprolactone) (PCL) and the hydrophobic polymer dopant poly(glycerol monostearate-co- ε -caprolactone) (PGC-C18) are fabricated using the electrospinning technique. These 3D materials are distinct from 2D superhydrophobic surfaces, with maintenance of air at the surface as well as within the bulk of the material. These superhydrophobic materials float in water, and when held underwater and pressed, an air bubble is released and will ...

  8. Elemental concentration distribution in human fingernails - A 3D study

    Pineda-Vargas, C.A., E-mail: pineda@tlabs.ac.za [Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D. [Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2012-02-15

    The verification of pathologies has normally been based on analysis of blood (serum and plasma), and physiological tissue. Recently, nails and in particular human fingernails have become an important medium for pathological studies, especially those of environmental origin. The analytical technique of PIXE has been used extensively in the analysis of industrial samples and human tissue specimens. The application of the analytical technique to nails has been mainly to bulk samples. In this study we use micro-PIXE and -RBS, as both complementary and supplementary, to determine the elemental concentration distribution of human fingernails of individuals. We report on the 3D quantitative elemental concentration distributions (QECDs) of various elements that include C, N and O as major elements (10-20%), P, S, Cl, K and Ca as minor elements (1-10%) and Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, Na, Mg, Cu, Ni, Cr, Rb, Br, Sr and Se as trace elements (less than 1%). For PIXE and RBS the specimens were bombarded with a 3 MeV proton beam. To ascertain any correlations in the quantitative elemental concentration distributions, a linear traverse analysis was performed across the width of the nail. Elemental distribution correlations were also obtained.

  9. Elemental concentration distribution in human fingernails - A 3D study

    Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Mars, J. A.; Gihwala, D.

    2012-02-01

    The verification of pathologies has normally been based on analysis of blood (serum and plasma), and physiological tissue. Recently, nails and in particular human fingernails have become an important medium for pathological studies, especially those of environmental origin. The analytical technique of PIXE has been used extensively in the analysis of industrial samples and human tissue specimens. The application of the analytical technique to nails has been mainly to bulk samples. In this study we use micro-PIXE and -RBS, as both complementary and supplementary, to determine the elemental concentration distribution of human fingernails of individuals. We report on the 3D quantitative elemental concentration distributions (QECDs) of various elements that include C, N and O as major elements (10-20%), P, S, Cl, K and Ca as minor elements (1-10%) and Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, Na, Mg, Cu, Ni, Cr, Rb, Br, Sr and Se as trace elements (less than 1%). For PIXE and RBS the specimens were bombarded with a 3 MeV proton beam. To ascertain any correlations in the quantitative elemental concentration distributions, a linear traverse analysis was performed across the width of the nail. Elemental distribution correlations were also obtained.

  10. The ATLA$^{\\rm{3D}}$ project - XXV: Two-dimensional kinematic analysis of simulated galaxies and the cosmological origin of fast and slow rotators

    Naab, T; Emsellem, E; Cappellari, M; Krajnovic, D; McDermid, R M; Alatalo, K; Bayet, E; Blitz, L; Bois, M; Bournaud, F; Bureau, M; Crocker, A; Davies, R L; Davis, T A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, P -A; Hirschmann, M; Johansson, P H; Khochfar, S; Kuntschner, H; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T; Sarzi, M; Scott, N; Serra, P; van de Ven, G; Weijmans, A; Young, L M

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed two-dimensional stellar dynamical analysis of a sample of 44 cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of individual central galaxies and their satellites. Kinematic maps of the stellar line-of-sight velocity, velocity dispersion, and higher-order Gauss-Hermite moments $h_3$ and $h_4$ are constructed for each central galaxy and for the most massive satellites. The amount of rotation is quantified using the $\\lambda_{\\mathrm{R}}$-parameter. The velocity, velocity dispersion, $h_3$, and $h_4$ fields of the simulated galaxies show a diversity similar to observed kinematic maps of early-type galaxies in the ATLAS$^{\\rm{3D}}$ survey. This includes fast (regular), slow, and misaligned rotation, hot spheroids with embedded cold disk components as well as galaxies with counter-rotating cores or central depressions in the velocity dispersion. We link the present day kinematic properties to the individual cosmological formation histories of the galaxies. In general, major galaxy mergers have a signi...

  11. Evolution of large amplitude 3D fold patterns: A FEM study

    Schmid, D. W.; Dabrowski, M.; Krotkiewski, M.

    2008-12-01

    The numerical study of three-dimensional (3D) fold patterns formation in randomly perturbed layers requires large numbers of degrees of freedom (≥100,000,000). We have developed BILAMIN, an unstructured (geometry fitted) mesh implementation of the finite element method for incompressible Stokes flow that is capable of solving such systems. All repetitive and computationally intensive steps are fully parallelized. One of the main components is the iterative solver. We chose the minimum residual method (MINRES) because it allows operating directly on the indefinite systems resulting from the incompressibility condition. We use BILAMIN in a case study of fold pattern evolution. Folds are ubiquitous in nature, and contain both mechanical and kinematic information that can be deciphered with appropriate tools. Our results show that there is a relationship between fold aspect ratio and in-plane loading conditions. We propose that this finding can be used to determine the complete parameter set potentially contained in the geometry of three-dimensional folds: mechanical properties of natural rocks, maximum strain, and relative strength of the in-plane far-field load components. Furthermore, we show how folds in 3D amplify and that there is a second deformation mode, besides continuous amplification, where compression leads to a lateral rearrangement of blocks of folds. Finally, we demonstrate that the textbook prediction of egg carton-shaped dome and basin structures resulting from folding instabilities in constriction is largely oversimplified. The fold patterns resulting in this setting are curved, elongated folds with random orientation.

  12. Application of 3D printing technology in aerodynamic study

    3D printing, as an additive process, offers much more than traditional machining techniques in terms of achievable complexity of a model shape. That fact was a motivation to adapt discussed technology as a method for creating objects purposed for aerodynamic testing. The following paper provides an overview of various 3D printing techniques. Four models of a standard NACA0018 aerofoil were manufactured in different materials and methods: MultiJet Modelling (MJM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Various parameters of the models have been included in the analysis: surface roughness, strength, details quality, surface imperfections and irregularities as well as thermal properties.

  13. Plasma environment of Titan: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    S. Simon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Titan possesses a dense atmosphere, consisting mainly of molecular nitrogen. Titan's orbit is located within the Saturnian magnetosphere most of the time, where the corotating plasma flow is super-Alfvénic, yet subsonic and submagnetosonic. Since Titan does not possess a significant intrinsic magnetic field, the incident plasma interacts directly with the atmosphere and ionosphere. Due to the characteristic length scales of the interaction region being comparable to the ion gyroradii in the vicinity of Titan, magnetohydrodynamic models can only offer a rough description of Titan's interaction with the corotating magnetospheric plasma flow. For this reason, Titan's plasma environment has been studied by using a 3-D hybrid simulation code, treating the electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas a completely kinetic approach is used to cover ion dynamics. The calculations are performed on a curvilinear simulation grid which is adapted to the spherical geometry of the obstacle. In the model, Titan's dayside ionosphere is mainly generated by solar UV radiation; hence, the local ion production rate depends on the solar zenith angle. Because the Titan interaction features the possibility of having the densest ionosphere located on a face not aligned with the ram flow of the magnetospheric plasma, a variety of different scenarios can be studied. The simulations show the formation of a strong magnetic draping pattern and an extended pick-up region, being highly asymmetric with respect to the direction of the convective electric field. In general, the mechanism giving rise to these structures exhibits similarities to the interaction of the ionospheres of Mars and Venus with the supersonic solar wind. The simulation results are in agreement with data from recent Cassini flybys.

  14. 3-D study of vessels in peripheral placenta villi

    Jirkovská, M.; Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří; Kaláb, J.

    Saint-Etienne : International society for stereology, 2007, ---. [International congress for stereology /12./. Saint-Etienne (FR), 03.09.2007-07.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 3-D reconstruction * angiogenesis * placental villi Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  15. 3-D study of vessels in peripheral placental villi

    Jirkovská, M.; Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří; Kaláb, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2007), s. 165-168. ISSN 1580-3139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 3-D reconstruction * angiogenesis * placental villi Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  16. Study, simulation and design of a 3D clinostat

    Pavone, Valentina; Guarnieri, Vincenzo; Lobascio, Cesare; Soma, Aurelio; Bosso, Nicola; Lamantea, Matteo Maria

    High cost and limited number of physically executable experiments in space have introduced the need for ground simulation systems that enable preparing experiments to be carried out on board, identifying phenomena associated with the altered gravity conditions, and taking advantage of these conditions, as in Biotechnology. Among systems developed to simulate microgravity, especially for life sciences experiments, different types of clinostats were realized. This work deals with mechanical design of a three-dimensional clinostat and simulation of the dynamic behavior of the system by varying the operating parameters. The design and simulation phase was preceded by a careful analysis of the state of art and by the review of the most recent results, in particular from the major investigators of Life Sciences in Space. The mechanical design is quite innovative by adoption of a structure entirely in aluminum, which allows robustness while reducing the overall weight. The transmission system of motion has been optimized by means of brushless DC micro motors, light and compact, which helped to reduce weight, dimensions, power consumption and increase the reliability and durability of the system. The study of the dynamic behavior using SIMPACK, a multibody simulation software, led to results in line with those found in the most important and recent scientific publications. This model was also appropriately configured to represent any desired operating condition, and for eventual system scalability. It would be interesting to generate simulated hypogravity - e.g.: 0.38-g (Mars) or 0.17-g (Moon). This would allow to investigate how terrestrial life forms can grow in other planetary habitats, or to determine the gravity threshold response of different organisms. At the moment, such a system can only be achieved by centrifuges in real microgravity. We are confident that simulation and associated tests with our 3D clinostat can help adjusting the parameters allowing variable g

  17. Managing 3D Multi User Learning Environments - A Case Study on Training Disaster Management

    Indika Perera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D Multi User Virtual Environments (3D MUVE, or commonly known as 3D virtual worlds, have shown proven success in enhancing the present teaching and learner support methodologies. Integrated educational environments that are formed using 3D MUVE can be referred as 3D Multi User Learning Environments (3D MULE. The intrinsic rich and dynamic features of 3D virtual worlds can sufficiently increase the student engagement with the learning tasks in 3D MULE. However, with the facilitation for diverse learning activities, 3D MULE can introduce a new set of challenges for the teachers and students; therefore, suitable management strategies for 3D MULE can be essential for success. In this research, we have proposed a framework for managing 3D MULE using policy considerations and a guidance tool to facilitate policy implementations. This paper presents the evaluation of the proposed strategies for making policy considerations to manage 3D MULE and the developed user guidance tool. To increase the accuracy while evaluating for real educational uses, we selected a teaching and training environment in use as the case study. This case study, a 3D MULE supported learning aid for humanitarian disaster management, provided valuable and supportive feedback to validate the completed work while shaping the orientation of the future research on facilitating 3D MULE management.

  18. Interdisciplinary Collaboration through Designing 3D Simulation Case Studies

    Bai, Xin; 10.5121/ijma.2011.3109

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for the advance of research. As domain subjects become more and more specialized, researchers need to cross disciplines for insights from peers in other areas to have a broader and deeper understand of a topic at micro- and macro-levels. We developed a 3D virtual learning environment that served as a platform for faculty to plan curriculum, share educational beliefs, and conduct cross-discipline research for effective learning. Based upon the scripts designed by faculty from five disciplines, virtual doctors, nurses, or patients interact in a 3D virtual hospital. The teaching vignettes were then converted to video clips, allowing users to view, pause, replay, or comment on the videos individually or in groups. Unlike many existing platforms, we anticipated a value-added by adding a social networking capacity to this virtual environment. The focus of this paper is on the cost-efficiency and system design of the virtual learning environment.

  19. Interdisciplinary Collaboration through Designing 3D Simulation Case Studies

    Xin Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for the advance of research. As domain subjects become more and more specialized, researchers need to cross disciplines for insights from peers in other areas to have a broader and deeper understand of a topic at micro- and macro-levels. We developed a 3D virtual learning environment that served as a platform for faculty to plan curriculum, share educational beliefs, and conduct cross-discipline research for effective learning. Based upon the scripts designed by faculty from five disciplines, virtual doctors, nurses, or patients interact in a 3D virtual hospital. The teaching vignettes were then converted to video clips, allowing users to view, pause, replay, or comment on the videos individually or in groups. Unlike many existing platforms, we anticipated a value-added by adding a social networking capacity to this virtual environment. The focus of this paper is on the cost-efficiency and system design of the virtual learning environment.

  20. Interdisciplinary Collaboration through Designing 3D Simulation Case Studies

    Xin Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for the advance of research. As domain subjects become more and more specialized, researchers need to cross disciplines for insights from peers in other areas to have a broader and deeper understand of a topic at micro- and macro-levels. We developed a 3D virtual learning environment that served as a platform for faculty to plan curriculum, share educational beliefs,and conduct cross-discipline research for effective learning. Based upon the scripts designed by facultyfrom five disciplines, virtual doctors, nurses, or patients interact in a 3D virtual hospital. The teaching vignettes were then converted to video clips, allowing users to view, pause, replay, or comment on the videos individually or in groups. Unlike many existing platforms, we anticipated a value-added by adding a social networking capacity to this virtual environment. The focus of this paper is on the cost-efficiency and system design of the virtual learning environment.

  1. A Study and Future of 3D Internet

    Chhaya Mehar

    2014-01-01

    The Internet is a living, dynamic “wizard” who is constantly and rapidly evolving, reshaping and transforming and consequently .The world wide web which has started as a document bank is rapidly transforming to full fledged virtual environment that facilitates services ,interaction, and communication However, Internet was designed and primarily used by scientists for networking research and for exchanging information. Here we going to implement 3D internet against 2D technolog...

  2. On 3D Dimension: Study cases for Archaeological sites

    D'Urso, M. G.; Marino, C. L.; Rotondi, A.

    2014-04-01

    For more than a century the tridimensional vision has been of interest for scientists and users in several fields of application. The mathematical bases have remained substantially unchanged but only the new technologies have allowed us to make the vision really impressive. Photography opens new frontiers and has enriched of physical, mathematical, chemical, informatical and topographic notions by making the images so real to make the observer fully immersed into the represented scene. By means of active googless the 3D digital technique, commonly used for video games, makes possible animations without limitations in the dimension of the images thanks to the improved performances of the graphic processor units and related hardware components. In this paper we illustrate an experience made by the students of the MSc'degree course of Topography, active at the University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, in which the photography has been applied as an innovative technique for the surveying of cultural heritage. The tests foresee the use of traditional techniques of survey with 3D digital images and use of GPS sensors. The ultimate objective of our experience is the insertion in the web, allowing us the visualization of the 3D images equipped with all data. In conclusion these new methods of survey allow for the fusion of extremely different techniques, in such an impressive way to make them inseparable and justifying the origin of the neologism "Geomatics" coined at the Laval University (Canada) during the eighties.

  3. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    William Irvin Sellers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective.

  4. Study on 3D CFBG vibration sensor and its application

    Nan, Qiuming; Li, Sheng

    2016-03-01

    A novel variety of three dimensional (3D) vibration sensor based on chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) is developed to measure 3D vibration in the mechanical equipment field. The sensor is composed of three independent vibration sensing units. Each unit uses double matched chirped gratings as sensing elements, and the sensing signal is processed by the edge filtering demodulation method. The structure and principle of the sensor are theoretically analyzed, and its performances are obtained from some experiments and the results are as follows: operating frequency range of the sensor is 10 Hz‒500 Hz; acceleration measurement range is 2 m·s-2‒30 m·s-2; sensitivity is about 70 mV/m·s-2; crosstalk coefficient is greater than 22 dB; self-compensation for temperature is available. Eventually the sensor is applied to monitor the vibration state of radiation pump. Seen from its experiments and applications, the sensor has good sensing performances, which can meet a certain requirement for some engineering measurement.

  5. Organizational Learning Goes Virtual?: A Study of Employees' Learning Achievement in Stereoscopic 3D Virtual Reality

    Lau, Kung Wong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…

  6. An algorithm for studying rigidity in disordered 3D networks

    Chubynsky, M. V.; Thorpe, M. F.

    2004-03-01

    Some physical systems, such as covalent glasses and proteins, can be modeled as elastic networks, by dividing the interactions between particles into strong and weak, representing the former as constraints and neglecting the latter. For low enough connectivities, motions maintaining the constraints and thus having zero energy cost are possible. The goal of rigidity analysis is finding the number of such zero energy modes, the rigid clusters and flexible joints between them, as well as stressed bonds. For a certain class of networks there is a very fast graph-theoretical algorithm (the Pebble Game) for doing this analysis, but for more general networks, there are known counterexamples. While generalizing the Pebble Game is the ultimate goal, we propose a slower algorithm capable of doing all the same analyses as the Pebble Game but applicable to any networks. We discuss the applications of this algorithm to specific examples of 3D networks, such as diluted central force lattices, colloidal glasses and proteins.

  7. 3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data

  8. 3D MODELLING FROM UN CALIBRATED IMAGES – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Limi V L

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D modeling is a demanding area of research. Creating a 3D world from sequence of images captured using different mobile cameras pose additional challenge in this field. We plan to explore this area of computer vision to model a 3D world of Indian heritage sites for virtual tourism. In this paper a comparative study of the existing methods used for 3D reconstruction of un-calibrated image sequences was done. The study shows different scenario of modeling 3D objects from un-calibrated images which include community photo collection, images taken from unknown camera, 3D modeling using two un-calibrated images, etc. Hence the different methods available were studied and an overall view of the techniques used in each step of 3D reconstruction was explored. The merits and demerits of each method were also compared.

  9. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    Akras, S.; Clyne, N.; Boumis, P.; Monteiro, H.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Redman, M. P.; Williams, S.

    2016-04-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born-again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of ˜19 400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 M⊙ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born-again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] λ5200 and [O I] λ6300 emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme type-I planetary nebulae (PNe). The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/Hα versus [S II]/Hα diagnostic diagram, where shock-excited regions/objects are also placed. The low luminosity of their central stars, in conjunction with the large physical size of the nebulae, result in a very low photoionization rate, which can make any contribution of shock interaction easily perceptible, even for small velocities.

  10. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    Akras, S; Boumis, P; Monteiro, H; Gonçalves, D R; Redman, M P; Williams, S

    2016-01-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of $\\sim$19,400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 $M_{\\odot}$ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] $\\lambda 5200$ and [O I] $\\lambda 6300$ emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme Type-I PNe. The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/H$\\alpha$ vs. [S II]/H$\\alpha$ diagnostic diagram, where sho...

  11. 3-D models and structural analysis of analogue rock avalanche deposits: a kinematic analysis of the propagation mechanism

    Longchamp, C; Abellan, A.; JABOYEDOFF M.; Manzella, I.

    2015-01-01

    Rock avalanches are extremely destructive and uncontrollable events that involve a great volume of material (> 106 m3), several complex processes and they are difficult to witness. For this reason the study of these phenomena using analogue modelling and the accurate analysis of deposit structures and features of laboratory data and historic events become of great importance in the understanding of their behavior. The main objective of this research is to analyze rock ava...

  12. Description of an evaluation system for knee kinematics in ligament lesions, by means of optical tracking and 3D tomography,

    Tiago Lazzaretti Fernandes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To describe and demonstrate the viability of a method for evaluating knee kine matics, by means of a continuous passive motion (CPM machine, before and after anterio cruciate ligament (ACL injury.Methods:This study was conducted on a knee from a cadaver, in a mechanical pivot-shif simulator, with evaluations using optical tracking, and also using computed tomography.Results:This study demonstrated the viability of a protocol for measuring the rotation an translation of the knee, using reproducible and objective tools (error<0.2mm. The mech anized provocation system of the pivot-shift test was independent of the examiner an always allowed the same angular velocity and traction of 20 N throughout the movement.Conclusion:The clinical relevance of this method lies in making inferences about the in viv behavior of a knee with an ACL injury and providing greater methodological quality in futur studies for measuring surgical techniques with grafts in relatively close positions.

  13. The ATLAS3D project - XXV. Two-dimensional kinematic analysis of simulated galaxies and the cosmological origin of fast and slow rotators

    Naab, Thorsten; Oser, L.; Emsellem, E.; Cappellari, Michele; Krajnović, D.; McDermid, R. M.; Alatalo, K.; Bayet, E.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Bureau, M.; Crocker, A.; Davies, R. L.; Davis, T. A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, P.-A.; Hirschmann, M.; Johansson, P. H.; Khochfar, S.; Kuntschner, H.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Ven, G. van de; Weijmans, A.; Young, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    We present a detailed two-dimensional stellar dynamical analysis of a sample of 44 cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of individual central galaxies with stellar masses of 2 × 1010 M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 6 × 1011 M⊙. Kinematic maps of the stellar line-of-sight velocity, velocity dispersion and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments h3 and h4 are constructed for each central galaxy and for the most massive satellites. The amount of rotation is quantified using the λR-parameter. The velocity, velocity dispersion, h3 and h4 fields of the simulated galaxies show a diversity similar to observed kinematic maps of early-type galaxies in the ATLAS3D survey. This includes fast (regular), slow and misaligned rotation, hot spheroids with embedded cold disc components as well as galaxies with counter-rotating cores or central depressions in the velocity dispersion. We link the present-day kinematic properties to the individual cosmological formation histories of the galaxies. In general, major galaxy mergers have a significant influence on the rotation properties resulting in both a spin-down as well as a spin-up of the merger remnant. Lower mass galaxies with significant (≳18 per cent) in situ formation of stars since z ≈ 2, or with additional gas-rich major mergers - resulting in a spin-up - in their formation history, form elongated (ɛ ˜ 0.45) fast rotators (λR ˜ 0.46) with a clear anticorrelation of h3 and v/σ. An additional formation path for fast rotators includes gas-poor major mergers leading to a spin-up of the remnants (λR ˜ 0.43). This formation path does not result in anticorrelated h3 and v/σ. The formation histories of slow rotators can include late major mergers. If the merger is gas rich, the remnant typically is a less flattened slow rotator with a central dip in the velocity dispersion. If the merger is gas poor, the remnant is very elongated (ɛ ˜ 0.43) and slowly rotating (λR ˜ 0.11). The galaxies most consistent with the rare class of non

  14. 3D-CTA与3D-DSA对颅内动脉瘤影像诊断的对照研究%3D-CTA and 3D-DSA in diagnosis of intracranial aneurysm:a comparative study

    徐睿; 朱继; 孙晓川

    2009-01-01

    目的 比较三维-螺旋CT血管造影(3D-CTA)和三维-数字减影血管造影(3D-DSA)在颅内动脉瘤诊断中的应用价值.方法 对2008年9月至2009年3月收治入院的自发性蛛网膜下腔出血(SAH)患者79例,行3D-CTA、3D-DSA检查.研究并比较CTA和DSA影像特点.结果 79例患者,阴性2例,余77例患者共检出83个动脉瘤.3D-DSA与3D-CTA准确性比较,差异无统计学意义.结论 对颅内动脉瘤影像学诊断上,3D-CTA和3D-DSA各有优势.

  15. 3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code, studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data

  16. 3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented: high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code; ω*i stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code; studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code; and unstructured mesh MH3D++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs

  17. DIY 3D printing of custom orthopaedic implants: a proof of concept study.

    Frame, Mark; Leach, William

    2014-03-01

    3D printing is an emerging technology that is primarily used for aiding the design and prototyping of implants. As this technology has evolved it has now become possible to produce functional and definitive implants manufactured using a 3D printing process. This process, however, previously required a large financial investment in complex machinery and professionals skilled in 3D product design. Our pilot study's aim was to design and create a 3D printed custom orthopaedic implant using only freely available consumer hardware and software. PMID:24574013

  18. Possibility of reconstruction of dental plaster cast from 3D digital study models

    Kasparova, Magdalena; Grafova, Lucie; Dvorak, Petr; Dostalova, Tatjana; Prochazka, Ales; Eliasova, Hana; Prusa, Josef; Kakawand, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare traditional plaster casts, digital models and 3D printed copies of dental plaster casts based on various criteria. To determine whether 3D printed copies obtained using open source system RepRap can replace traditional plaster casts in dental practice. To compare and contrast the qualities of two possible 3D printing options – open source system RepRap and commercially available 3D printing. Design and settings A method comparison study on 10 dental plaster casts from th...

  19. A kinematical approach to dark energy studies

    Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.; Amin, Mustafa A.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    We present and employ a new kinematical approach to cosmological `dark energy' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q_0 and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all LCDM models have j(t)=1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the LCDM paradigm. Applying our...

  20. Numerical study of 3-D constraint effects in ferritic steels

    The presentation reviews the results of a numerical investigation, in which single-edge cracked bars in three point bend SE(B) specimens, with different relative crack lengths and thickness, were systematically studied via detailed three-dimensional finite element analyses

  1. Plasma boundaries at Mars: a 3-D simulation study

    A. Bößwetter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere of planet Mars is studied using a three-dimensional hybrid model. Mars has only a weak intrinsic magnetic field, and consequently its ionosphere is directly affected by the solar wind. The gyroradii of the solar wind protons are in the range of several hundred kilometers and therefore comparable with the characteristic scales of the interaction region. Different boundaries emerge from the interaction of the solar wind with the continuously produced ionospheric heavy-ion plasma, which could be identified as a bow shock (BS, ion composition boundary (ICB and magnetic pile up boundary (MPB, where the latter both turn out to coincide. The simulation results regarding the shape and position of these boundaries are in good agreement with the measurements made by Phobos-2 and MGS spacecraft. It is shown that the positions of these boundaries depend essentially on the ionospheric production rate, the solar wind ram pressure, and the often unconsidered electron temperature of the ionospheric heavy ion plasma. Other consequences are rays of planetary plasma in the tail and heavy ion plasma clouds, which are stripped off from the dayside ICB region by some instability.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (solar wind interactions with unmagnetized bodies – Space plasma physics (discontinuities; numerical simulation studies

  2. CFD study of flow accelerated corrosion in 3D elbows

    Highlights: • Calculated the MTC effects under the FAC operating conditions of Indian power plant. • The validation of MTC results with the experimental data of NPP has been carried out. • The vortical flow behavior is captured in terms of vortex corelines. • The close proximity effect is analyzed. • These results will help to developing the targeted inspection plans of failures. - Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine the last step of the mechanistic model of wall thinning degradation mechanism i.e., convective mass transfer in feeder pipes under different environments of nuclear power plants (NPP). In the present study, the flow and mass transfer of demineralised water in carbon steel pipes such as single and double elbow was simulated under Indian NPP feeder water system conditions. The numerical simulations of mass transfer results are compared with the wall thickness measurement data of feeder pipes of Indian and CANDU NPP. The eddy structures and their interactions with the wall and the formation of vortex corelines were examined to analyze the flow changes in double elbow pipe. These vortex corelines appeared at the downstream of the bends. The intensity of these vortex corelines has been calculated by plotting the helicity along the vortex coreline. Due to the formation of vortex corelines and resulting flow changes, the mass transfer coefficient (MTC) varies circumferentially. MTC is the most important parameter to predict the highly susceptible FAC locations. For the MTC analysis, the Chilton–Colburn analogy in terms of wall shear stress was used. From this analogy, the effecting behavior of flow and geometrical parameters such as Reynolds number (Re) and the close proximity of bends, respectively, on MTC are studied. The locations of maximum MTC are calculated for both the single elbow of 73° and 90° and the double elbow of 90° and are shown in terms of contours. The flow singularity exists at the elbows; specifically in the

  3. Understanding Human Perception of Building Categories in Virtual 3d Cities - a User Study

    Tutzauer, P.; Becker, S.; Niese, T.; Deussen, O.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Virtual 3D cities are becoming increasingly important as a means of visually communicating diverse urban-related information. To get a deeper understanding of a human's cognitive experience of virtual 3D cities, this paper presents a user study on the human ability to perceive building categories (e.g. residential home, office building, building with shops etc.) from geometric 3D building representations. The study reveals various dependencies between geometric properties of the 3D representations and the perceptibility of the building categories. Knowledge about which geometries are relevant, helpful or obstructive for perceiving a specific building category is derived. The importance and usability of such knowledge is demonstrated based on a perception-guided 3D building abstraction process.

  4. Investigation of the accuracy of close-range photogrammetry – a 3D printing case study

    Ognjan Lužanin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D scanning of physical objects is one of the frequently used methods for generating input data for 3D printing process. Close-range photogrammetry represents a cost-efficient alternative to conventional 3D scanning. However, one of the basic problems in application of this method is accuracy, especially in the case of small objects with complex geometry. In this case study, a 3D-printed object of small dimensions was used to test the accuracy and precision of close-range photogrammetry. CAD Inspection was used to obtain measurements of the scanned model and compare it with the original CAD model, while the results were statistically analyzed. The results of statistical analysis showed that the scanning accuracy in this experiment did not depend on the particular cross-section of the model, while the precision of 3D scanning depended on the selection of cross-sectional profile curve.

  5. Genre Matters: A Comparative Study on the Entertainment Effects of 3D in Cinematic Contexts

    Ji, Qihao; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-09-01

    Built upon prior comparative studies of 3D and 2D films, the current project investigates the effects of 2D and 3D on viewers' perception of enjoyment, narrative engagement, presence, involvement, and flow across three movie genres (Action/fantasy vs. Drama vs. Documentary). Through a 2 by 3 mixed factorial design, participants (n = 102) were separated into two viewing conditions (2D and 3D) and watched three 15-min film segments. Result suggested both visual production methods are equally efficient in terms of eliciting people's enjoyment, narrative engagement, involvement, flow and presence, no effects of visual production method was found. In addition, through examining the genre effects in both 3D and 2D conditions, we found that 3D works better for action movies than documentaries in terms of eliciting viewers' perception of enjoyment and presence, similarly, it improves views' narrative engagement for documentaries than dramas substantially. Implications and limitations are discussed in detail.

  6. A Kinematical Approach to Dark Energy Studies

    Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.; Amin, Mustafa A.; Blandford, Roger D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-06-06

    We present and employ a new kinematical approach to cosmological ''dark energy'' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all {Lambda}CDM models have j(t) = 1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the {Lambda}CDM paradigm. Applying our model to the three best available sets of redshift-independent distance measurements, from type Ia supernovae and X-ray cluster gas mass fraction measurements, we obtain clear statistical evidence for a late time transition from a decelerating to an accelerating phase. For a flat model with constant jerk, j(t) = j, we measure q{sub 0} = -0.81 {+-} 0.14 and j = 2.16{sub -0.75}{sup +0.81}, results that are consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} confidence level. A standard ''dynamical'' analysis of the same data, employing the Friedmann equations and modeling the dark energy as a fluid with an equation of state parameter, w (constant), gives {Omega}{sub m} = 0.306{sub -0.040}{sup +0.042} and w = -1.15{sub -0.18}{sup +0.14}, also consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} level. In comparison to dynamical analyses, the kinematical approach uses a different model set and employs a minimum of prior information, being independent of any particular gravity theory. The results obtained with this new approach therefore provide important additional information and we argue that both kinematical and dynamical techniques should be employed in future dark energy studies, where possible. Our results provide further interesting support for the concordance {Lambda}CDM paradigm.

  7. 3D contrast-enhanced MR portography and direct X-ray portography: a correlation study

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of 3D contrast-enhanced MR portography (3D CEMRP) by correlating with direct X-ray portography. Methods: Twenty-six patients underwent 3D CEMRP study. The findings of 3D CEMRP including the patency of the portal vein and its intrahepatic left and right branches, as well as collaterals were evaluated and compared with those from direct x-ray portography. Causes of disagreement between the two methods were analyzed. Results: The main portal vein appearance was accordant with 3D CEMRP and direct x-ray portography in all cases. For intrahepatic portal veins, the results agreed in 21 patients but disagreed in 5. In one patient with a huge tumor in right liver, the right posterior portal vein was classified as occluded at 3D CEMRP, but displaced and diffusely narrowed at direct x-ray portography. The findings of left intrahepatic portal vein were discordant in three patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma in the left lobe. 3D CE MRP demonstrated complete occlusion of the left portal veins, whereas direct x-ray portography showed proximal narrowing and distal occlusion. In another patient with hepatocelluar carcinoma, a small non-occlusive thrombus involving the sagittal segment of the left portal vein was seen on MRP but not on direct x-ray portography. With demonstration of portosystemic collaterals, 3D CEMRP showed results similar to those of X-ray portography, except one recanalized para-umbilical vein was excluded from the limited scan coverage. Conclusion: 3D CE MRP correlated well with direct x-ray portography in most cases. Compared with direct portography, 3D CEMRP had limitation in distinguishing narrowing of an intrahepatic portal vein from occlusion. But it showed advantage in demonstrating small thrombus within portal vein. (authors)

  8. Comparison of 2D versus 3D mammography with screening cases: an observer study

    Fernandez, James Reza; Deshpande, Ruchi; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using human studies collected from was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this new 3D mammography technique. A prior study using a mammography phantom revealed no difference in calcification detection, but improved mass detection in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Data for this current study is currently being obtained, and a full report should be available in the next few weeks.

  9. Quantitative Morphological and Biochemical Studies on Human Downy Hairs using 3-D Quantitative Phase Imaging

    Lee, Sangyun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the morphological and biochemical findings on human downy arm hairs using 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D refractive index tomograms and high-resolution 2-D synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the biochemical and morphological parameters of downy hairs were non-invasively quantified inclu...

  10. Implementation and evaluation of a 3D one-step late reconstruction algorithm for 3D positron emission tomography brain studies using median root prior

    A fully three-dimensional (3D) one-step late (OSL), maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction algorithm based on the median root prior (MRP) was implemented and evaluated for the reconstruction of 3D positron emission tomography (PET) studies. The algorithm uses the ordered subsets (OS) scheme for convergence acceleration and data update during iterations. The algorithm was implemented using the software package developed within the EU project PARAPET (www.brunel.ac.uk/ masrppet). The MRP algorithm was evaluated using experimental phantom and real 3D PET brain studies. Various experimental set-ups in terms of activity distribution and counting statistics were considered. The performance of the algorithm was assessed by calculating figures of merit such as: contrast, coefficient of variation, activity ratio between two regions and full width at half of maximum for resolution measurements. The performance of MRP was compared with that of 3D ordered subsets-expectation maximisation (OSEM) and 3D re-projection (3DRP) algorithms. In all the experimental situations considered, MRP showed: (1) convergence to a stable solution, (2) effectiveness in noise reduction, particularly for low statistics data, (3) good preservation of spatial details. Compared with the OSEM and 3DRP algorithms, MRP provides comparable or better results depending on the parameters used for the reconstruction of the images. (orig.)

  11. Why 3D Cameras are Not Popular: A Qualitative User Study on Stereoscopic Photography Acceptance

    Hakala, Jussi; Westman, Stina; Salmimaa, Marja; Pölönen, Monika; Järvenpää, Toni; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2014-03-01

    Digital stereoscopic 3D cameras have entered the consumer market in recent years, but the acceptance of this novel technology has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to identify the benefits and problems that novice users encounter in 3D photography by equipping five users with 3D cameras for a 4-week trial. We gathered data using a weekly questionnaire, an exit interview, and a stereoscopic disparity analysis of the 699 photographs taken during the trial. The results indicate that the participants took photographs at too-close distances, which caused excessive disparities. They learned to avoid the problem to some extent; the number of failed photographs due to excessive stereoscopic disparity decreased 70 % in 4 weeks. The participants also developed a preference for subjects that included clear depth differences and started to avoid photographing people because they looked unnatural in 3D photographs. They also regarded flash-induced shadows and edge violations problematic because of the unnatural effects in the photographs. We propose in-camera assistance tools for 3D cameras to make 3D photography easier.

  12. The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models

    Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.

  13. The application of 3D image processing to studies of the musculoskeletal system

    Hirsch, Bruce Elliot; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Siegler, Sorin; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2009-10-01

    Three dimensional renditions of anatomical structures are commonly used to improve visualization, surgical planning, and patient education. However, such 3D images also contain information which is not readily apparent, and which can be mined to elucidate, for example, such parameters as joint kinematics, spacial relationships, and distortions of those relationships with movement. Here we describe two series of experiments which demonstrate the functional application of 3D imaging. The first concerns the joints of the ankle complex, where the usual description of motions in the talocrural joint is shown to be incomplete, and where the roles of the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments are clarified in ankle sprains. Also, the biomechanical effects of two common surgical procedures for repairing torn ligaments were examined. The second series of experiments explores changes in the anatomical relationships between nerve elements and the cervical vertebrae with changes in neck position. They provide preliminary evidence that morphological differences may exist between asymptomatic subjects and patients with radiculopathy in certain positions, even when conventional imaging shows no difference.

  14. A kinematical approach to dark energy studies

    Rapetti, D; Amin, M A; Blandford, R D; Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.; Amin, Mustafa A.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    We present and employ a new kinematical approach to cosmological `dark energy' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q_0 and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all LCDM models have j(t)=1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the LCDM paradigm. Applying our model to the three best available sets of redshift-independent distance measurements, from type Ia supernovae and X-ray cluster gas mass fraction measurements, we obtain clear statistical evidence for a late time transition from a decelerating to an accelerating phase. For a flat model with constant jerk, j(t)=j, we measure q_0=-0.81+-0.14 and j=2.16+0.81-0.75, results that are consistent with LCDM at about the 1sigma confidence level. A standard `dynamical' analysis of the same data, employing the Friedmann equations an...

  15. The potential of 3D-FISH and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy for studies of 3D nuclear architecture: 3D structured illumination microscopy of defined chromosomal structures visualized by 3D (immuno)-FISH opens new perspectives for studies of nuclear architecture.

    Markaki, Yolanda; Smeets, Daniel; Fiedler, Susanne; Schmid, Volker J; Schermelleh, Lothar; Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) has opened up new possibilities to study nuclear architecture at the ultrastructural level down to the ~100 nm range. We present first results and assess the potential using 3D-SIM in combination with 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) for the topographical analysis of defined nuclear targets. Our study also deals with the concern that artifacts produced by FISH may counteract the gain in resolution. We address the topography of DAPI-stained DNA in nuclei before and after 3D-FISH, nuclear pores and the lamina, chromosome territories, chromatin domains, and individual gene loci. We also look at the replication patterns of chromocenters and the topographical relationship of Xist-RNA within the inactive X-territory. These examples demonstrate that an appropriately adapted 3D-FISH/3D-SIM approach preserves key characteristics of the nuclear ultrastructure and that the gain in information obtained by 3D-SIM yields new insights into the functional nuclear organization. PMID:22508100

  16. Accurate localization of intracavitary brachytherapy applicators from 3D CT imaging studies

    Purpose: To present an accurate method to identify the positions and orientations of intracavitary (ICT) brachytherapy applicators imaged in 3D CT scans, in support of Monte Carlo photon-transport simulations, enabling accurate dose modeling in the presence of applicator shielding and interapplicator attenuation. Materials and methods: The method consists of finding the transformation that maximizes the coincidence between the known 3D shapes of each applicator component (colpostats and tandem) with the volume defined by contours of the corresponding surface on each CT slice. We use this technique to localize Fletcher-Suit CT-compatible applicators for three cervix cancer patients using post-implant CT examinations (3 mm slice thickness and separation). Dose distributions in 1-to-1 registration with the underlying CT anatomy are derived from 3D Monte Carlo photon-transport simulations incorporating each applicator's internal geometry (source encapsulation, high-density shields, and applicator body) oriented in relation to the dose matrix according to the measured localization transformations. The precision and accuracy of our localization method are assessed using CT scans, in which the positions and orientations of dense rods and spheres (in a precision-machined phantom) were measured at various orientations relative to the gantry. Results: Using this method, we register 3D Monte Carlo dose calculations directly onto post insertion patient CT studies. Using CT studies of a precisely machined phantom, the absolute accuracy of the method was found to be ±0.2 mm in plane, and ±0.3 mm in the axial direction while its precision was ±0.2 mm in plane, and ±0.2 mm axially. Conclusion: We have developed a novel, and accurate technique to localize intracavitary brachytherapy applicators in 3D CT imaging studies, which supports 3D dose planning involving detailed 3D Monte Carlo dose calculations, modeling source positions, shielding and interapplicator shielding

  17. 3D printed nanocomposite matrix for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Zhu, Wei; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, in part due to an absence of advanced platforms for cancer culture and study that mimic the bone microenvironment. In the present study, we integrated a novel stereolithography-based 3D printer and a unique 3D printed nano-ink consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspended in hydrogel to create a biomimetic bone-specific environment for evaluating breast cancer bone invasion. Breast cancer cells cultured in a geometrically optimized matrix exhibited spheroid morphology and migratory characteristics. Co-culture of tumor cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells increased the formation of spheroid clusters. The 3D matrix also allowed for higher drug resistance of breast cancer cells than 2D culture. These results validate that our 3D bone matrix can mimic tumor bone microenvironments, suggesting that it can serve as a tool for studying metastasis and assessing drug sensitivity. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer remains a major cause of mortality for patients in the clinical setting. For breast cancer, bone is one of the most common metastatic sites. In this intriguing article, the authors developed a bone-like environment using 3D printing technology to investigate the underlying biology of bone metastasis. Their results would also allow a new model for other researchers who work on cancer to use. PMID:26472048

  18. Virgo cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D - I. On the variety of stellar kinematic and line-strength properties

    Ryś, Agnieszka; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; van de Ven, Glenn

    2013-02-01

    We present the first large-scale stellar kinematic and line-strength maps for dwarf elliptical galaxies (nine in the Virgo cluster and three in the field environment) obtained with the SAURON (Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae) integral-field unit. No two galaxies in our sample are alike: we see that the level of rotation is not tied to flattening (we have, e.g., round rotators and flattened non-rotators); we observe kinematic twists in one Virgo and one field object; we discover large-scale kinematically decoupled components in two field galaxies; we see varying gradients in line-strength maps, from nearly flat to strongly peaked in the centre. The great variety of morphological, kinematic and stellar population parameters seen in our data points to a formation scenario in which properties are shaped stochastically. A combined effect of ram-pressure stripping and galaxy harassment is the most probable explanation. We show the need for a comprehensive analysis of kinematic, dynamical and stellar population properties which will enable us to place dwarf ellipticals and processes that govern their evolution in the wider context of galaxy formation.

  19. Virgo Cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D: I. On the variety of stellar kinematic and line-strength properties

    Ryś, Agnieszka; van de Ven, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    We present the first large-scale stellar kinematic and line-strength maps for dwarf elliptical galaxies (9 in the Virgo Cluster and 3 in the field environment) obtained with the SAURON integral-field unit. No two galaxies in our sample are alike: we see that the level of rotation is not tied to flattening (we have, e.g. round rotators and flattened nonrotators); we observe kinematic twists in 1 Virgo and 1 field object; we discover large-scale kinematically-decoupled components in 2 field galaxies; we see varying gradients in line-strength maps, from nearly flat to strongly peaked in the center. The great variety of morphological, kinematic, and stellar population parameters seen in our data points to a formation scenario in which properties are shaped stochastically. A combined effect of ram-pressure stripping and galaxy harassment is the most probable explanation. We show the need for a comprehensive analysis of kinematic, dynamical, and stellar population properties which will enable us to place dwarf elli...

  20. The Atlas3D project - VII. A new look at the morphology of nearby galaxies: the kinematic morphology-density relation

    Cappellari, Michele; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M; Serra, Paolo; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    We look at the morphology of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies. Edge-on fast rotators are lenticular galaxies. They appear like spiral galaxies with the gas and dust removed, and in some cases are flat ellipticals with disky isophotes. Fast rotators are often barred and span the same full range of bulge fractions as spiral galaxies. The slow rotators are rounder and are generally consistent with being genuine, namely spheroidal-like, elliptical galaxies. We propose a revision to the tuning-fork diagram by Hubble as it gives a misleading description of ETGs. We study for the first time the kinematic morphology-density T-Sigma relation using fast and slow rotators to replace lenticulars and ellipticals. We find that our relation is cleaner than using classic morphology. Slow rotators are nearly absent at the lowest density environments [f(SR)<2%] and generally constitute a small fraction [f(SR)~4%] of the total galaxy population in the environments explored by our survey, with the exception of the de...

  1. Studying primate carpal kinematics in three dimensions using a computed-tomography-based markerless registration method.

    Orr, Caley M; Leventhal, Evan L; Chivers, Spencer F; Marzke, Mary W; Wolfe, Scott W; Crisco, Joseph J

    2010-04-01

    The functional morphology of the wrist pertains to a number of important questions in primate evolutionary biology, including that of hominins. Reconstructing locomotor and manipulative capabilities of the wrist in extinct species requires a detailed understanding of wrist biomechanics in extant primates and the relationship between carpal form and function. The kinematics of carpal movement, and the role individual joints play in providing mobility and stability of the wrist, is central to such efforts. However, there have been few detailed biomechanical studies of the nonhuman primate wrist. This is largely because of the complexity of wrist morphology and the considerable technical challenges involved in tracking the movements of the many small bones that compose the carpus. The purpose of this article is to introduce and outline a method adapted from human clinical studies of three-dimensional (3D) carpal kinematics for use in a comparative context. The method employs computed tomography of primate cadaver forelimbs in increments throughout the wrist's range of motion, coupled with markerless registration of 3D polygon models based on inertial properties of each bone. The 3D kinematic principles involved in extracting motion axis parameters that describe bone movement are reviewed. In addition, a set of anatomically based coordinate systems embedded in the radius, capitate, hamate, lunate, and scaphoid is presented for the benefit of other primate functional morphologists interested in studying carpal kinematics. Finally, a brief demonstration of how the application of these methods can elucidate the mechanics of the wrist in primates illustrates the closer-packing of carpals in chimpanzees than in orangutans, which may help to stabilize the midcarpus and produce a more rigid wrist beneficial for efficient hand posturing during knuckle-walking locomotion. PMID:20235325

  2. Studies of the 3D Structure of the Nucleon at Jlab

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the 3D structure of the nucleon encoded in Transverse Momentum Dependent distribution and fragmentation functions of partons and Generalized Parton Distributions are among the key objectives of the JLab 12 GeV upgrade and the Electron Ion Collider. Main challenges in extracting 3D partonic distributions from precision measurements of hard scattering processes include clear understanding of leading twist QCD fundamentals, higher twist effects, and also correlations of hadron production in target and current fragmentation regions. In this contribution we discuss some ongoing studies and future measurements of spin-orbit correlations at Jefferson Lab.

  3. The Investigation on Using Unity3D Game Engine in Urban Design Study

    Aswin Indraprastha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing a virtual 3D environment by using game engine is a strategy to incorporate various multimedia data into one platform. The characteristic of game engine that is preinstalled with interactive and navigation tools allows users to explore and engage with the game objects. However, most CAD and GIS applications are not equipped with 3D tools and navigation systems intended to the user experience. In particular, 3D game engines provide standard 3D navigation tools as well as any programmable view to create engaging navigation thorough the virtual environment. By using a game engine, it is possible to create other interaction such as object manipulation, non playing character (NPC interaction with player and/or environment. We conducted analysis on previous game engines and experiment on urban design project with Unity3D game engine for visualization and interactivity. At the end, we present the advantages and limitations using game technology as visual representation tool for architecture and urban design studies.

  4. Preliminary Study for Dosimetric Characteristics of 3D-printed Materials with Megavoltage Photons

    Jeong, Seonghoon; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    In these days, 3D-printer is on the rise in various fields including radiation therapy. This preliminary study aimed to estimate the dose characteristics of the 3D-printer materials which could be used as the compensator or immobilizer in radiation treatment. The cubes which have 5cm length and different densities as 50%, 75% and 100% were printed by 3D-printer. A planning CT scans for cubes were performed using a CT simulator (Brilliance CT, Philips Medical System, Netherlands). Dose distributions behind the cube were calculated when 6MV photon beam passed through cube. The dose response for 3D-printed cube, air and water were measured by using EBT3 film and 2D array detector. When results of air case were normalized to 100, dose calculated by TPS and measured dose of 50% and 75% cube were 96~99. Measured and calculated doses of water and 100% cube were 82~84. HU values of 50%, 75% and 100% were -910, -860 and -10, respectively. From these results, 3D-printer in radiotherapy could be used for medical purpose...

  5. PRESAGETM - Development and optimization studies of a 3D radiochromic plastic dosimeter - Part 1

    Adamovics, J.; Jordan, K.; Dietrich, J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper studies the polymerization of six different transparent plastics as potential 3D dosimeter matrices. In addition, six different leuco dyes and sixteen different free radical initiators were evaluated. Finally, the photoreactivity of the dosimeter was studied so that the effect of exposure to UV could be minimized.

  6. A magnetic resonance study of 3d transition metals and thermal donors in silicon

    This thesis describes a study of 3d-transition metal impurities in silicon (titanium and iron in particular) and a study of oxygen-related heat-treatment centers in silicon, both carried out mainly by magnetic resonances techniques like EPR and ENDOR. 119 refs.; 31 figs.; 14 tabs

  7. Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMC) hydrogel-filled 3-D scaffold: Preliminary study through a 3-D antiproliferative activity of Centella asiatica extract

    Aizad, Syazwan; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the effects of using the water extract from Centella asiatica on the mortality of human lung cancer cells (A549) with the use of novel 3-D scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel. A biodegradable polymer, poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was used in this study as 3-D scaffolds, with some modifications made by introducing the gel structure on its pore, which provides a great biomimetic microenvironment for cells to grow apart from increasing the interaction between the cells and cell-bioactive extracts. The CMC showed a good hydrophilic characteristic with mean contact angle of 24.30 ± 22.03°. To ensure the CMC gel had good attachments with the scaffolds, a surface treatment was made before the CMC gel was infused into the scaffolds. The results showed that these modified scaffolds contained 42.41 ± 0.14% w/w of CMC gel, which indicated that the gel had already filled up the entire pore of 3-D scaffolds. Besides, the infused hydrogel scaffolds took only 24 hours to be saturated when absorbing the water. The viability of cancer cells by MTS assay after being treated with Centella asiatica showed that the scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel had the cell viability of 46.89 ± 1.20% followed by porous 3-D model with 57.30 ± 1.60% of cell viability, and the 2-D model with 67.10 ± 1.10% of cell viability. The inhibitory activity in cell viability between 2-D and 3-D models did not differ significantly (p>0.05) due to the limitation of time in incubating the extract with the cell in the 3-D model microenvironment. In conclusion, with the application of 3-D scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel, the extracts of Centella asiatica has been proven to have the ability to kill cancer cells and have a great potential to become one of the alternative methods in treating cancer patients.

  8. A Study on the Exploration of Electrostatic Powder Coating Materials Suitable for 3D Scanning

    Maeng Hee-young

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many difficulty in collecting data from a diffused reflection surface using an optical 3D scanning device. A spray-type developer and silicon molds are used for solving this problem. However, using developer can cause chemical reactions between objects and developer particles and uneven surfaces of the object. To overcome these problems, it is suggested an electrostatic powder coating method for even coating of particles onto surfaces for collecting 3D shape data. We have developed an automatic, electrostatic powder coating machine. The present study is aimed to explore powder materials suitable for electrostatic powder coating in terms of the easiness of coating work considering the characteristics of object surface. It was also conducted to verify materials that are smoothly coated well under various coating conditions and are advantageous in collecting 3D shape data.

  9. Theoretical study for the cubic spin-Hamiltonian parameters of 3d ions

    Lei, Y.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the whole microscopic energy matrix elements of 3d3 and 3d7 within the molecular orbit scheme are obtained. Both the electrostatic parameters, the spin-orbit interaction of the central metal ion and the ligands, the crystal-field potential and the Tress correction, and the spin-spin interaction are considered. By means of the perturbation method, the cubic spin-Hamiltonian parameters g and u are investigated. Results show that the contribution to g due to the spin-spin interaction is negligible. However, the contribution to u due to the spin-spin interaction cannot be neglected. As some illustrations, the 3d7 energy matrix is used to study the cubic electronic paramagnetic resonance experiments of Co in ZnS and ZnSe crystals. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental findings.

  10. Study of magnetic island using a 3D MHD equilibrium calculation code

    Coupling the magnetic diagnostics and a 3D MHD equilibrium calculation code, the magnetic island is studied in the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiment. In an experiment, the collapse in the plasma core was observed in a configuration, which has large magnetic island produced by external perturbation coils. At the collapse, the temperature profile was flattened. This suggests the magnetic island evolved. The magnetic island was observed by the magnetic diagnostics. The magnetic diagnostics also suggests evolving the magnetic island. A 3D MHD equilibrium is calculated by the 3D MHD equilibrium code then signals of the magnetic diagnostics are simulated. Since the comparison of observed and calculated signals is comparable, the magnetic island in calculated equilibrium is similar to one of the experiment. (author)

  11. 3D QSAR Study on Alpha Keto Amide Derivatives as gp120-CD4 Inhibitors

    Vinayak D. More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present communication deals with 3D QDAR analysis on series of Alpha keto amide derivatives some for the designing of new GP120-CD4 inhibitors with anti HIV activity. The four different QSAR models are generated using data set of 32 molecules as gp120-CD4 inhibitors from literature studies. The 3D QSAR result gives insights for understanding of the relationship between structural features of substituted alpha keto amide derivatives and their activities which should be useful to design newer potential anti-HIV agents.

  12. 3D evaluation of palatal rugae for human identification using digital study models

    Taneva, Emilia D.; Johnson, Andrew; Viana, Grace; Evans, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While there is literature suggesting that the palatal rugae could be used for human identification, most of these studies use two-dimensional (2D) approach. Aim: The aims of this study were to evaluate palatal ruga patterns using three-dimensional (3D) digital models; compare the most clinically relevant digital model conversion techniques for identification of the palatal rugae; develop a protocol for overlay registration; determine changes in palatal ruga individual patterns through time; and investigate the efficiency and accuracy of 3D matching processes between different individuals’ patterns. Material and Methods: Five cross sections in the anteroposterior dimension and four cross sections in the transverse dimension were computed which generated 18 2D variables. In addition, 13 3D variables were defined: The posterior point of incisive papilla (IP), and the most medial and lateral end points of the palatal rugae (R1MR, R1ML, R1LR, R1LL, R2MR, R2ML, R2LR, R2LL, R3MR, R3ML, R3LR, and R3LL). The deviation magnitude for each variable was statistically analyzed in this study. Five different data sets with the same 31 landmarks were evaluated in this study. Results: The results demonstrated that 2D images and linear measurements in the anteroposterior and transverse dimensions were not sufficient for comparing different digital model conversion techniques using the palatal rugae. 3D digital models proved to be a highly effective tool in evaluating different palatal ruga patterns. The 3D landmarks showed no statistically significant mean differences over time or as a result of orthodontic treatment. No statistically significant mean differences were found between different digital model conversion techniques, that is, between OrthoCAD™ and Ortho Insight 3D™, and between Ortho Insight 3D™ and the iTero® scans, when using 12 3D palatal rugae landmarks for comparison. Conclusion: Although 12 palatal 3D landmarks could be used for human

  13. Quantitative Morphological and Biochemical Studies on Human Downy Hairs using 3-D Quantitative Phase Imaging

    Lee, SangYun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the morphological and biochemical findings on human downy arm hairs using 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D refractive index tomograms and high-resolution 2-D synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the biochemical and morphological parameters of downy hairs were non-invasively quantified including the mean refractive index, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  14. Towards a Real Estate Registry 3d Model in Portugal: Some Illustrative Case Studies

    de Almeida, J.-P.; Ellul, C.; Rodrigues-de-Carvalho, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    The 3D concept emerged as a key concept within geoinformation science. 3D geoinformation has been proved to be feasible and its added value over 2D geoinformation is widely acknowledged by researchers from various fields. Even so, 3D concept merits still need to be exploited further and more specific applications and associate products are needed - such as within real estate cadastre, our ultimate field of interest. The growing densification of urban land use is consequently increasing situations of vertical stratification of ownership rights. Traditional 2D cadastral models are not able to fully handle spatial information on those rights in the third dimension. Thus, 3D cadastre has been attracting researchers to better register and spatially represent real world overlapping situations. A centralised distributed cadastral management system, implementing a 2D cadastral model, has been conceived by the national cadastral agency in Portugal: the so-called SiNErGIC. The authors seek to show with this paper that there is room though for further investigation on the suitability of a 3D modelling approach instead, which should not be confined only to topologicalgeometric representations but should also be extended in order to be able to incorporate the legal/administrative component. This paper intends to be the first step towards the design of a prototype of a 3D cadastral model capable of handling the overall multipurpose cadastral reality in Portugal; it focuses primarily on the clear identification of some case studies that may illustrate the pertinence of such an approach in the context of this country.

  15. Use of 3D MR reconstructions in the evaluation of glenoid bone loss: a clinical study

    To assess the ability of 3D MR shoulder reconstructions to accurately quantify glenoid bone loss in the clinical setting using findings at the time of arthroscopy as the gold standard. Retrospective review of patients with MR shoulder studies that included 3D MR reconstructions (3D MR) produced using an axial Dixon 3D-T1W-FLASH sequence at our institution was conducted with the following inclusion criteria: history of anterior shoulder dislocation, arthroscopy (OR) performed within 6 months of the MRI, and an estimate of glenoid bone loss made in the OR using the bare-spot method. Two musculoskeletal radiologists produced estimates of bone loss along the glenoid width, measured in mm and %, on 3D MR using the best-fit circle method, which were then compared to the OR measurements. There were a total of 15 patients (13 men, two women; mean age, 28, range, 19-51 years). There was no significant difference, on average, between the MRI (mean 3.4 mm/12.6 %; range, 0-30 %) and OR (mean, 12.7 %; range, 0-30 %) measurements of glenoid bone loss (p = 0.767). A 95 % confidence interval for the mean absolute error extended from 0.45-2.21 %, implying that, when averaged over all patients, the true mean absolute error of the MRI measurements relative to the OR measurements is expected to be less than 2.21 %. Inter-reader agreement between the two readers had an IC of 0.92 and CC of 0.90 in terms of percentage of bone loss. 3D MR reconstructions of the shoulder can be used to accurately measure glenoid bone loss. (orig.)

  16. Use of 3D MR reconstructions in the evaluation of glenoid bone loss: a clinical study

    Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Beltran, Luis S.; Yemin, Avner; Recht, Michael P. [NYU Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Strauss, Eric; Meislin, Robert; Jazrawi, Laith [NYU Langone Medical Center, Center for Musculoskeletal Care, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-02-15

    To assess the ability of 3D MR shoulder reconstructions to accurately quantify glenoid bone loss in the clinical setting using findings at the time of arthroscopy as the gold standard. Retrospective review of patients with MR shoulder studies that included 3D MR reconstructions (3D MR) produced using an axial Dixon 3D-T1W-FLASH sequence at our institution was conducted with the following inclusion criteria: history of anterior shoulder dislocation, arthroscopy (OR) performed within 6 months of the MRI, and an estimate of glenoid bone loss made in the OR using the bare-spot method. Two musculoskeletal radiologists produced estimates of bone loss along the glenoid width, measured in mm and %, on 3D MR using the best-fit circle method, which were then compared to the OR measurements. There were a total of 15 patients (13 men, two women; mean age, 28, range, 19-51 years). There was no significant difference, on average, between the MRI (mean 3.4 mm/12.6 %; range, 0-30 %) and OR (mean, 12.7 %; range, 0-30 %) measurements of glenoid bone loss (p = 0.767). A 95 % confidence interval for the mean absolute error extended from 0.45-2.21 %, implying that, when averaged over all patients, the true mean absolute error of the MRI measurements relative to the OR measurements is expected to be less than 2.21 %. Inter-reader agreement between the two readers had an IC of 0.92 and CC of 0.90 in terms of percentage of bone loss. 3D MR reconstructions of the shoulder can be used to accurately measure glenoid bone loss. (orig.)

  17. Supporting Distributed Team Working in 3D Virtual Worlds: A Case Study in Second Life

    Minocha, Shailey; Morse, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study into how a three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (Second Life) can facilitate socialisation and team working among students working on a team project at a distance. This models the situation in many commercial sectors where work is increasingly being conducted across time zones and between…

  18. 3D Neuro-electronic interface devices for neuromuscular control: Design studies and realisation steps

    Rutten, Wim L.C.; Frieswijk, Theo A.; Smit, Jos P.A.; Rozijn, Tom H.; Meier, Jan H.

    1995-01-01

    In order to design the shape and dimensions of new 3D multi-microelectrode information transducers properly, i. e. adapted to the scale of information delivery to and from peripheral nerve fibres, a number of studies were, and still are, being performed on modelling and simulation of electrical volu

  19. Testing the effectiveness of 3D film for laboratory-based studies of emotion.

    Daniel L Bride

    Full Text Available Research in psychology and affective neuroscience often relies on film as a standardized and reliable method for evoking emotion. However, clip validation is not undertaken regularly. This presents a challenge for research with adolescent and young adult samples who are exposed routinely to high-definition (HD three-dimensional (3D stimuli and may not respond to older, validated film clips. Studies with young people inform understanding of emotional development, dysregulated affect, and psychopathology, making it critical to assess whether technological advances improve the study of emotion. In the present study, we examine whether 3D film is more evocative than 2D using a tightly controlled within-subjects design. Participants (n  =  408 viewed clips during a concurrent psychophysiological assessment. Results indicate that both 2D and 3D technology are highly effective tools for emotion elicitation. However, 3D does not add incremental benefit over 2D, even when individual differences in anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and novelty seeking are considered.

  20. Segmented images and 3D images for studying the anatomical structures in MRIs

    Lee, Yong Sook; Chung, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Hyun

    2004-05-01

    For identifying the pathological findings in MRIs, the anatomical structures in MRIs should be identified in advance. For studying the anatomical structures in MRIs, an education al tool that includes the horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is necessary. Such an educational tool, however, is hard to obtain. Therefore, in this research, such an educational tool which helps medical students and doctors study the anatomical structures in MRIs was made as follows. A healthy, young Korean male adult with standard body shape was selected. Six hundred thirteen horizontal MRIs of the entire body were scanned and inputted to the personal computer. Sixty anatomical structures in the horizontal MRIs were segmented to make horizontal segmented images. Coronal, sagittal MRIs and coronal, sagittal segmented images were made. 3D images of anatomical structures in the segmented images were reconstructed by surface rendering method. Browsing software of the MRIs, segmented images, and 3D images was composed. This educational tool that includes horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is expected to help medical students and doctors study anatomical structures in MRIs.

  1. 3D Visualization Types in Multimedia Applications for Science Learning: A Case Study for 8th Grade Students in Greece

    Korakakis, G.; Pavlatou, E. A.; Palyvos, J. A.; Spyrellis, N.

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to determine whether the use of specific types of visualization (3D illustration, 3D animation, and interactive 3D animation) combined with narration and text, contributes to the learning process of 13- and 14- years-old students in science courses. The study was carried out with 212 8th grade students in Greece. This…

  2. 3D SEM for surface topography quantification – a case study on dental surfaces

    3D analysis of surface topography is becoming a more used tool for industry and research. New ISO standards are being launched to assist in quantifying engineering surfaces. The traditional optical measuring instrumentation used for 3D surface characterization has been optical interferometers and confocal based instrumentation. However, the resolution here is limited in the lateral dimension to the wavelength of visible light to about 500 nm. The great advantage using the SEM for topography measurements is the high flexibility to zoom from low magnifications and locating interesting areas to high magnification of down to nanometer large surface features within seconds. This paper presents surface characterization of dental implant micro topography. 3D topography data was created from SEM images using commercial photogrammetric software. A coherence scanning interferometer was used for reference measurements to compare with the 3D SEM measurements on relocated areas. As a result of this study, measurements emphasizes that the correlation between the accepted CSI measurements and the new technology represented by photogrammetry based on SEM images for many areal characterization parameters are around or less than 20%. The importance of selecting sampling and parameter sensitivity to varying sampling is high-lighted. Future work includes a broader study of limitations of the photogrammetry technique on certified micro-geometries and more application surfaces at different scales

  3. Signal formation and active edge studies of 3D silicon detector technology

    Kok, Angela

    3D detectors and devices with an ‘active edge’ were fabricated at the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility. Characteristics such as time response and edge sensitivity were studied. The induced signals from a 3D detector were studied using a fast, low-noise transimpedance amplifier. The rise time of the output signal obtained for a minimum ionising particle was faster than 4 ns at room temperature and 2 ns at 130K. This is in agreement with earlier calculations of 3D detectors that predicted the charge collection time to be between one to two ns. The first understanding of signal formation in a 3D detector was achieved by comparing measurements with a full system simulation. The differences in collection behaviour between electrons and holes were also understood and verified by measurement. Edge sensitivity was measured at the CERN SPS, using a high energy muon beam and a silicon telescope. The detector was measured to be efficient up to less than 4 μm from its physical edge. This confirmed that active edge ...

  4. Validity Study of Vertebral Rotation Measurement Using 3-D Ultrasound in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Wang, Qian; Li, Meng; Lou, Edmond H M; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Cheng, Jack C Y; Wong, Man-Sang

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity of 3-D ultrasound measurements on the vertebral rotation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) under clinical settings. Thirty curves (mean Cobb angle: 21.7° ± 15.9°) from 16 patients with AIS were recruited. 3-D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at the supine position. Each of the two raters measured the apical vertebral rotation using the center of laminae (COL) method in the 3-D ultrasound images and the Aaro-Dahlborn method in the magnetic resonance images. The intra- and inter-reliability of the COL method was demonstrated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) (both [2, K] >0.9, p correlation was found (r > 0.9, p < 0.05). These results validated the proposed 3-D ultrasound method in the measurements of vertebral rotation in the patients with AIS. PMID:27083978

  5. First principles study of 3d transition metal doped Cu3N

    Interstitially doped Cu3N represents a model system to study “enclosed atoms” in a cuboctahedral environment. Based on density functional theory calculations using the generalized gradient approximation, we report a systematic study of 3d-transition metals (TM), as well as Li-, H-, and Pd-doped Cu3N, whose stabilities and magnetic properties are investigated. The interposition of 3d-TM atoms leads to mechanically stable yet brittle structures, with Sc, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn possessing relatively small positive (endothermic) formation energies (0.12∼0.54eV/TM), suggesting it may be easier to realize them experimentally than other 3d-TM elements. Li-, H-, Pd-doping in Cu3N are exothermic, while Ti, V, Cr, Fe, and Co have higher formation energy (0.93∼1.39 eV/TM) at a doping concentration 3.7 %. The fully 3d-TM doped Cu3N systems exhibit a wide spectrum of magnetic properties, ranging from weak antiferromagnetic (Sc-), antiferromagnetic (Ti-, V-, Cr-) to ferromagnetic (Mn-, Fe-, Co-) and non-magnetic (Ni-, Cu-, Zn-) behaviour. In particular, Ti:Cu3N exhibits weak itinerant magnetic properties with a large positive magnetovolume effect. All the 3d-TM atom intercalations into cubic Cu3N lead to a semiconductor-to-metal transition for both 100% and 3.7% doping, with the exception of Ni:Cu3N exhibiting a weak metallic or narrow semiconducting behaviour depending on the doping concentration.

  6. First principles study of 3d transition metal doped Cu{sub 3}N

    Cui, X.Y., E-mail: carl.cui@sydney.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Soon, A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Phillips, A.E. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Zheng, R.K.; Liu, Z.W. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Delley, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut, WHGA/123 CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ringer, S.P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Stampfl, C. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    Interstitially doped Cu{sub 3}N represents a model system to study 'enclosed atoms' in a cuboctahedral environment. Based on density functional theory calculations using the generalized gradient approximation, we report a systematic study of 3d-transition metals (TM), as well as Li-, H-, and Pd-doped Cu{sub 3}N, whose stabilities and magnetic properties are investigated. The interposition of 3d-TM atoms leads to mechanically stable yet brittle structures, with Sc, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn possessing relatively small positive (endothermic) formation energies (0.12{approx}0.54eV/TM), suggesting it may be easier to realize them experimentally than other 3d-TM elements. Li-, H-, Pd-doping in Cu{sub 3}N are exothermic, while Ti, V, Cr, Fe, and Co have higher formation energy (0.93{approx}1.39 eV/TM) at a doping concentration 3.7 %. The fully 3d-TM doped Cu{sub 3}N systems exhibit a wide spectrum of magnetic properties, ranging from weak antiferromagnetic (Sc-), antiferromagnetic (Ti-, V-, Cr-) to ferromagnetic (Mn-, Fe-, Co-) and non-magnetic (Ni-, Cu-, Zn-) behaviour. In particular, Ti:Cu{sub 3}N exhibits weak itinerant magnetic properties with a large positive magnetovolume effect. All the 3d-TM atom intercalations into cubic Cu{sub 3}N lead to a semiconductor-to-metal transition for both 100% and 3.7% doping, with the exception of Ni:Cu{sub 3}N exhibiting a weak metallic or narrow semiconducting behaviour depending on the doping concentration.

  7. Studying Host-Pathogen Interactions In 3-D: Organotypic Models For Infectious Disease And Drug Development

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Richter, Emily G.; Ott, C. Mark

    2006-01-01

    Representative, reproducible and high-throughput models of human cells and tissues are critical for a meaningful evaluation of host-pathogen interactions and are an essential component of the research developmental pipeline. The most informative infection models - animals, organ explants and human trials - are not suited for extensive evaluation of pathogenesis mechanisms and screening of candidate drugs. At the other extreme, more cost effective and accessible infection models such as conventional cell culture and static co-culture may not capture physiological and three-dimensional aspects of tissue biology that are important in assessing pathogenesis, and effectiveness and cytotoxicity of therapeutics. Our lab has used innovative bioengineering technology to establish biologically meaningful 3-D models of human tissues that recapitulate many aspects of the differentiated structure and function of the parental tissue in vivo, and we have applied these models to study infectious disease. We have established a variety of different 3-D models that are currently being used in infection studies - including small intestine, colon, lung, placenta, bladder, periodontal ligament, and neuronal models. Published work from our lab has shown that our 3-D models respond to infection with bacterial and viral pathogens in ways that reflect the infection process in vivo. By virtue of their physiological relevance, 3-D cell cultures may also hold significant potential as models to provide insight into the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection. Furthermore, the experimental flexibility, reproducibility, cost-efficiency, and high throughput platform afforded by these 3-D models may have important implications for the design and development of drugs with which to effectively treat neurological complications of HIV infection.

  8. A 3D ultrasound study of sinus tract formation in hidradenitis suppurativa

    Wortsman, Ximena; Jemec, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    characterization of the morphological changes in hidradenitis, which include the variable degrees of involvement of the hair follicles and the appearance of fluid collections and sinus tracts. Knowledge of this anatomical information may allow the identification of lesions that can benefit from medical or surgical......Imaging of hidradenitis suppurativa allows the study of both the lesion morphology and evolution. Hidradenitis lesions of different stages were studied using 3D ultrasound in a cross sectional pilot study. A total of 25 HS patients (18 female/ 7 male, aged 18-46 year-old) and 10 healthy controls (5...... female/5 male, aged 21-49 year-old) were studied. All patients were referred by dermatologists. All examinations were performed on the right axilla and compared with both controls and the skin outside the lesional areas. 3D ultrasound images demonstrated enlargement of the deepest portion of the hair...

  9. Integrated endoscope for real-time 3D ultrasound imaging and hyperthermia: feasibility study.

    Pua, Eric C; Qiu, Yupeng; Smith, S W

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research is to determine the feasibility of using a single endoscopic probe for the combined purpose of real-time 3D (RT3D) ultrasound imaging of a target organ and the delivery of ultrasound therapy to facilitate the absorption of compounds for cancer treatment. Recent research in ultrasound therapy has shown that ultrasound-mediated drug delivery improves absorption of treatments for prostate, cervical and esophageal cancer. The ability to combine ultrasound hyperthermia and 3D imaging could improve visualization and targeting of cancerous tissues. In this study, numerical modeling and experimental measurements were developed to determine the feasibility of combined therapy and imaging with a 1 cm diameter endoscopic RT3D probe with 504 transmitters and 252 receive channels. This device operates at 5 MHz and has a 6.3 mm x 6.3 mm aperture to produce real time 3D pyramidal scans of 60-120 degrees incorporating 64 x 64 = 4096 image lines at 30 volumes/sec interleaved with a 3D steerable therapy beam. A finite-element mesh was constructed with over 128,000 elements in LS-DYNA to simulate the induced temperature rise from our transducer with a 3 cm deep focus in tissue. Quarter-symmetry of the transducer was used to reduce mesh size and computation time. Based on intensity values calculated in Field II using the transducer's array geometry, a minimum I(SPTA) of 3.6 W/cm2 is required from our endoscope probe in order to induce a temperature rise of 4 degrees C within five minutes. Experimental measurements of the array's power output capabilities were conducted using a PVDF hydrophone placed 3 cm away from the face of the transducer in a watertank. Using a PDA14 Signatec data acquisition board to capture full volumes of transmitted ultrasound data, it was determined that the probe can presently maintain intensity values up to 2.4 W/cm2 over indefinite times for therapeutic applications combined with intermittent 3D scanning to maintain targeting

  10. D Recording for 2d Delivering - the Employment of 3d Models for Studies and Analyses -

    Rizzi, A.; Baratti, G.; Jiménez, B.; Girardi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d'Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino). APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying and 3D material to

  11. CRUST STUDYING IN THE EASTERN PONTIDES BY 3D GRAVITY ALGORIHM

    Çavşak, Hasan; Elmas, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Structure of crust and moho depth have been determined in the eastern Black Sea region by three-dimensional gravity inversion modeling. First, seven profiles have been determined in the study area. The surfaces of layer were defined to divide by triangle surfaces in three-dimensional study. Three-dimensional gravity inversion was calculated by using a special algorithm for these model geometries by intensity of adoption. Under the seven different profiles in this region by 3D model accounts,...

  12. Challenges in the study of Fe/MgO/Fe interfaces using 3D Atom Probe

    Mazumder, B. [Groupe de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6634, CORIA UMR CNRS 6614, UFR Sciences Site du Madrillet, Avenue de l' Université, B.P. 12 76801, Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Purohit, Viswas, E-mail: vishwas.purohit@gmail.com [Groupe de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6634, CORIA UMR CNRS 6614, UFR Sciences Site du Madrillet, Avenue de l' Université, B.P. 12 76801, Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Department of Plasma Physics, Alliance College of Engineering and Design, Chikkahagade Cross, Chandapura, Anekal Main Road, Anekal, Bangalore 562106, Karnataka (India); Gruber, M.; Vella, A.; Vurpillot, F.; Deconihout, B. [Groupe de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6634, CORIA UMR CNRS 6614, UFR Sciences Site du Madrillet, Avenue de l' Université, B.P. 12 76801, Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France)

    2015-08-31

    Detailed interface studies were conducted on two Fe/MgO/Fe systems having different thicknesses of MgO layers, using a laser assisted 3D atom probe. In conjunction with a detailed 3D reconstruction, the system exhibited an additional oxide formation at the interface between MgO and Fe of the multilayer structure. This oxide formation was found to be independent of the laser wavelength, laser fluence and the thickness of the intermediate layers. By using numerical simulations of field evaporation of two layers having two different evaporation fields, we discuss the possible oxidation mechanisms. - Highlights: • MgO layers (4, 32 nm) between Fe layers were analysed using a laser assisted atom probe. • Varying field evaporation voltages responsible for interfacial oxide layer (bottom) • Numerical simulation used to determine the phenomena taking place at the interfaces • Lasers of wavelengths 515 nm and 343 nm were used for this study.

  13. Sand transverse dune aerodynamics: 3D Coherent Flow Structures from a computational study

    Bruno, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The engineering interest about dune fields is dictated by the their interaction with a number of human infrastructures in arid environments. The aerodynamic behaviour of sand dunes in atmospheric boundary layer belongs to the class of bluff bodies. Because of their simple geometry and their frequent occurrence in desert area, transverse sand dunes are usually adopted in literature as a benchmark to investigate dune aerodynamics by means of both computational or experimental approach, usually in nominally 2D setups. The writers suspect the flow in the wake is characterised by 3D features and affected by wind tunnel setup - e.g. blockage effect, duct side wall boundary layer, incoming velocity profile - when experimental studies are carried out. The present study aims at evaluating the 3D flow features of an idealised transverse dune under different setup conditions by means of computational simulations and to compare the obtained results with experimental measurements.

  14. Interface study of FeMgOFe magnetic tunnel junctions using 3D Atom Probe

    Mazumder, B; Vella, A; Vurpillot, F; Deconihout, B

    2011-01-01

    A detailed interface study was conducted on a Fe/MgO/Fe system using laser assisted 3D atom probe. It exhibits an additional oxide formation at the second interface of the multilayer structure independent of laser wavelength, laser fluence and the thickness of the tunnel barrier. We have shown with the help of simulation that this phenomena is caused by the field evaporation of two layers having two different evaporation

  15. Testing the Effectiveness of 3D Film for Laboratory-Based Studies of Emotion

    Bride, Daniel L.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Brian R Baucom; Kaufman, Erin A.; O'Connor, Caitlin G.; Skidmore, Chloe R.; Yaptangco, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychology and affective neuroscience often relies on film as a standardized and reliable method for evoking emotion. However, clip validation is not undertaken regularly. This presents a challenge for research with adolescent and young adult samples who are exposed routinely to high-definition (HD) three-dimensional (3D) stimuli and may not respond to older, validated film clips. Studies with young people inform understanding of emotional development, dysregulated affect, and psy...

  16. Comment on "Numerical Study on Aging Dynamics in the 3D Ising Spin Glass Model"

    Marinari, Enzo; Parisi, Giorgio; Ruiz-Lorenzo, Juan J.

    1999-01-01

    We show that the dynamical behavior of the 3D Ising spin glass with Gaussian couplings is not compatible with a droplet dynamics. We show that this is implied from the data of reference cond-mat/9904143, that, when analyzed in an accurate way, give multiple evidences of this fact. Our study is based on the analysis of the overlap-overlap correlation function, at different values of the separation r and of the time t.

  17. Two Eyes, 3D: A New Project to Study Stereoscopy in Astronomy Education

    Price, Aaron; SubbaRao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2012-01-01

    "Two Eyes, 3D" is a 3-year NSF funded research project to study the educational impacts of using stereoscopic representations in informal settings. The project funds two experimental studies. The first is focused on how children perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects displayed in static 2D and 3D formats. The second is focused on how adults perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects and processes displayed in 2D and 3D movie formats. As part of the project, two brief high-definition films about variable stars will be developed. Both studies will be mixed-method and look at prior spatial ability and other demographic variables as covariates. The project is run by the American Association of Variable Star Observers, Boston Museum of Science and the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum with consulting from the California Academy of Sciences. Early pilot results will be presented. All films will be released into the public domain, as will the assessment software designed to run on tablet computers (iOS or Android).

  18. The use of a low cost 3D scanning and printing tool in the manufacture of custom-made foot orthoses: a preliminary study

    2014-01-01

    Background Custom foot orthoses are currently recognized as the gold standard for treatment of foot and lower limb pathology. While foam and plaster casting methods are most widely used in clinical practice, technology has emerged, permitting the use of 3D scanning, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) for fabrication of foot molds and custom foot orthotic components. Adoption of 3D printing, as a form of CAM, requires further investigation for use as a clinical tool. This study provides a preliminary description of a new method to manufacture foot orthoses using a novel 3D scanner and printer and compare gait kinematic outputs from shod and traditional plaster casted orthotics. Findings One participant (male, 25 years) was included with no lower extremity injuries. Foot molds were created from both plaster casting and 3D scanning/printing methods. Custom foot orthoses were then fabricated from each mold. Lower body plug-in-gait with the Oxford Foot Model on the right foot was collected for both orthotic and control (shod) conditions. The medial longitudinal arch was measured using arch height index (AHI) where a decrease in AHI represented a drop in arch height. The lowest AHI was 21.2 mm in the running shoes, followed by 21.4 mm wearing the orthoses made using 3D scanning and printing, with the highest AHI of 22.0 mm while the participant wore the plaster casted orthoses. Conclusion This preliminary study demonstrated a small increase in AHI with the 3D printing orthotic compared to the shod condition. A larger sample size may demonstrate significant patterns for the tested conditions. PMID:25015013

  19. A study of the 3D radiative transfer effect in cloudy atmospheres

    Okata, M.; Teruyuki, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of the effect of clouds in the atmosphere is a significant problem in the Earth's radiation budget study with their large uncertainties of microphysics and the optical properties. In this situation, we still need more investigations of 3D cloud radiative transer problems using not only models but also satellite observational data.For this purpose, we have developed a 3D-Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is implemented with various functions compatible with the OpenCLASTR R-Star radiation code for radiance and flux computation, i.e. forward and backward tracing routines, non-linear k-distribution parameterization (Sekiguchi and Nakajima, 2008) for broad band solar flux calculation, and DM-method for flux and TMS-method for upward radiance (Nakajima and Tnaka 1998). We also developed a Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as a method for a construction of 3D cloud field with MODIS/AQUA and CPR/CloudSat data. We then selected a best-matched radar reflectivity factor profile from the library for each of off-nadir pixels of MODIS where CPR profile is not available, by minimizing the deviation between library MODIS parameters and those at the pixel. In this study, we have used three cloud microphysical parameters as key parameters for the MIDPM, i.e. effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and top of cloud temperature, and estimated 3D cloud radiation budget. We examined the discrepancies between satellite observed and mode-simulated radiances and three cloud microphysical parameter's pattern for studying the effects of cloud optical and microphysical properties on the radiation budget of the cloud-laden atmospheres.

  20. Calculating the 3D magnetic field of ITER for European TBM studies

    Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Bergmans, Thijs; Gagliardi, Mario; Galabert, Jose; Hirvijoki, Eero; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Sipilä, Seppo; Snicker, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic perturbation due to the ferromagnetic test blanket modules (TBMs) may deteriorate fast ion confinement in ITER. This effect must be quantified by numerical studies in 3D. We have implemented a combined finite element method (FEM) -- Biot-Savart law integrator method (BSLIM) to calculate the ITER 3D magnetic field and vector potential in detail. Unavoidable geometry simplifications changed the mass of the TBMs and ferritic inserts (FIs) up to 26%. This has been compensated for by modifying the nonlinear ferromagnetic material properties accordingly. Despite the simplifications, the computation geometry and the calculated fields are highly detailed. The combination of careful FEM mesh design and using BSLIM enables the use of the fields unsmoothed for particle orbit-following simulations. The magnetic field was found to agree with earlier calculations and revealed finer details. The vector potential is intended to serve as input for plasma shielding calculations.

  1. Study of heat transfer in 3D fuel rods of the EPRI-9R reactor modified

    This paper aims to conduct a case study of the fuel rods that have the highest and the lowest average power of the EPRI-9R 3D reactor modified , for various positions of the control rods banks. For this, will be addressed the verification of computer code, comparing the results obtained with analytical solutions. This check is important so that, subsequently, it is possible use the program to understand the behavior of the fuel rods and the coolant channel of the EPRI-9R 3D reactor modified. Thus, in view of the scope of this paper, first a brief introducing on the heat transfer is done, including the rod equations and the equation of energy in the channel to allow the analysis of the results

  2. ) A Feasibility Study for High Resolution 3D Seismic In The Deep Offshore Nigeria

    The conventional Exploration 3D seismic in the Deep Offshore Nigeria is typically acquired with 4000m-6000m cable length at 6-8 depth and with flip-flop shooting, providing a shot point interval of 50m. the average resulting frequency content is typically between 10-60hz which is adequate for exploration interpretation. It has become common in the last few years. E.g. in Angola and the Gulf of Mexico, to re-acquire High Resolution 3D seismic, after a discovery, to improve definition of turbidite systems and accuracy of reservoir geometry for optimized delineation drilling. This feasibility study which was carried out in three different steps was due to the question on whether HR-Seismic should be acquired over TotalFinaElf AKPO discovery for optimized delineation drilling

  3. Geochemical study and 3D modelling of the Kazan Dol copper deposit, Republic of Macedonia

    The latest explorations and study of the Kazan Dol locality displayed interesting lithogeochemistry and soil geochemistry results. Very indicative were copper contents of up to 9942 ppm Cu, zinc up to 1235 ppm Zn, lead up to 5501 ppm Pb, molybdenum up to 24 ppm Mo, etc. These anomalous zones were direct product of copper vein mineralizations in oxidation zones, which have been confirmed with later exploration drill holes. In some individual samples, from trenches and drill holes, copper content reached up to 4% Cu while the more common content is around 0.4% Cu. More than 27 drill holes were chosen for the construction of the 3D model of the Kazan Dol mineralized area, Republic of Macedonia. With use of the professional software Arc GIS was prepared 3D model of the deposit, which reflects the mineralization between level 340 and 180. This particular model should improve our understanding of the copper bearing mineralizations in this area. (Author)

  4. Synthesis, antifeedant activity against Coleoptera and 3D QSAR study of alpha-asarone derivatives.

    Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Magdziarz, T; Dubis, A T

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a set of 56 compounds representing structural derivatives of naturally occurring alpha-asarone as an antifeedants against stored product pests Sitophilus granarius L., Trogoderma granarium Ev., and Tribolium confusum Duv., were subjected to the 3D QSAR studies. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) for 56 compounds, including 15 newly synthesized, were performed using comparative molecular field analysis s-CoMFA and SOM-CoMSA techniques. QSAR was conducted based on a combination of biological activity (against Coleoptera larvae and beetles) and various geometrical, topological, quantum-mechanical, electronic, and chromatographic descriptors. The CoMSA formalism coupled with IVE (CoMSA-IVE) allowed us to obtain highly predictive models for Trogoderma granarium Ev. larvae. We have found that this novel method indicates a clear molecular basis for activity and lipophilicity. This investigation will facilitate optimization of the design of new potential antifeedants. PMID:24601760

  5. 3D Geological Modeling and Visualization of Rock Masses Based on Google Earth: A Case Study

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong

    2013-01-01

    Google Earth (GE) has become a powerful tool for geological modeling and visualization. An interesting and useful feature of GE, Google Street View, can allow the GE users to view geological structure such as layers of rock masses at a field site. In this paper, we introduce a practical solution for building 3D geological models for rock masses based on the data acquired by use with GE. A real study case at Haut-Barr, France is presented to demonstrate our solution. We first locate the position of Haut-Barr in GE, and then determine the shape and scale of the rock masses in the study area, and thirdly acquire the layout of layers of rock masses in the Google Street View, and finally create the approximate 3D geological models by extruding and intersecting. The generated 3D geological models can simply reflect the basic structure of the rock masses at Haut-Barr, and can be used for visualizing the rock bodies interactively.

  6. The Local Universe: Galaxies in 3D

    Koribalski, B S

    2016-01-01

    Here I present results from individual galaxy studies and galaxy surveys in the Local Universe with particular emphasis on the spatially resolved properties of neutral hydrogen gas. The 3D nature of the data allows detailed studies of the galaxy morphology and kinematics, their relation to local and global star formation as well as galaxy environments. I use new 3D visualisation tools to present multi-wavelength data, aided by tilted-ring models of the warped galaxy disks. Many of the algorithms and tools currently under development are essential for the exploration of upcoming large survey data, but are also highly beneficial for the analysis of current galaxy surveys.

  7. Quantification of blood perfusion using 3D power Doppler: an in-vitro flow phantom study

    Raine-Fenning, N J [School of Human Development, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ramnarine, K V [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (United Kingdom); Nordin, N M [School of Human Development, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Campbell, B K [School of Human Development, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler data is increasingly used to assess and quantify blood flow and tissue perfusion. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of common 3D power Doppler 'vascularity' indices by quantification in well characterised in-vitro flow models. A computer driven gear pump was used to circulate a steady flow of a blood mimicking fluid through various well characterised flow phantoms to investigate the effect of the number of flow channels, flow rate, depth dependent tissue attenuation, blood mimic scatter particle concentration and ultrasound settings. 3D Power Doppler data were acquired with a Voluson 530D scanner and 7.5 MHz transvaginal transducer (GE Kretz). Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis software (VOCAL) was used to quantify the vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-flow index (VFI). The vascular indices were affected by many factors, some intuitive and some with more complex or unexpected relationships (e.g. VI increased linearly with an increase in flow rate, blood mimic scatter particle concentration and number of flow channels, and had a complex dependence on pulse repetition frequency). Use of standardised settings and appropriate calibration are required in any attempt at relating 'vascularity indices' with flow.

  8. Molecular docking, MM/GBSA and 3D-QSAR studies on EGFR inhibitors

    RAJU BATHINI; SREE KANTH SIVAN; SABIHA FATIMA; VIJJULATHA MANGA

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the first growth factor receptor proposed as a target for cancer therapy. Molecular modeling protocols like molecular docking, molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) calculations and three dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship(3D-QSAR) studies were performed on 45 molecules to understand the structural requirements for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Conformation for all the molecules obtained from molecular docking were used as is for 3D-QSAR analysis. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarityindices analysis (CoMSIA) models were obtained by performing partial least square analysis on 35 training molecules and these models were validated using 10 test moleucles. The models showed good statistical results in terms of r², q² loo and r² pred values. Information rendered from 3D-QSAR model and sitemap analysis was used to optimize lead molecule to design prospective inhibitors. Improvement in EGFR binding affinity can be achieved by substitutional modification on phenyl ring attached to alkynyl group with bulkier hydrogen bond donor and acceptor substituents that can increase favourable interaction with the receptor.

  9. Sensitivity studies for 3-D rod ejection analyses on axial power shape

    Park, Min-Ho; Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Guen-Tae; Ryu, Seok-Hee; Um, Kil-Sup; Lee, Jae-Il [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The current safety analysis methodology using the point kinetics model combined with numerous conservative assumptions result in unrealistic prediction of the transient behavior wasting huge margin for safety analyses while the safety regulation criteria for the reactivity initiated accident are going strict. To deal with this, KNF is developing a 3-D rod ejection analysis methodology using the multi-dimensional code coupling system CHASER. The CHASER system couples three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, sub-channel analysis code THALES, and fuel performance analysis code FROST using message passing interface (MPI). A sensitivity study for 3-D rod ejection analysis on axial power shape (APS) is carried out to survey the tendency of safety parameters by power distributions and to build up a realistic safety analysis methodology while maintaining conservatism. The currently developing 3-D rod ejection analysis methodology using the multi-dimensional core transient analysis code system, CHASER was shown to reasonably reflect the conservative assumptions by tuning up kinetic parameters.

  10. The Art of 3D Sculpted Printing : Royal Coat of Arms Case Study

    Unver, Ertu; Swann, David; Bailey, Rowan; Govindarajan, Iniyanrajan; Dollan, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Design, Development and Prototyping of a Royal Coat of Arms using 3D printing technology: Presented to the HRH the Duke of York, Prince Andrew What and Why? The MA 3D Digital Design team was approached by 3M Buckley Centre to create a 3D printed gift item to then be presented to HRH the Duke of York. Introduction: Digital 3D software and the use of 3D modelling is impacting on the evolution and efficiency of productivity and manufacturing across the design industries. 3D printin...

  11. A 3D high-resolution gamma camera for radiopharmaceutical studies with small animals

    Loudos, G K; Giokaris, N D; Styliaris, E; Archimandritis, S C; Varvarigou, A D; Papanicolas, C N; Majewski, S; Weisenberger, D; Pani, R; Scopinaro, F; Uzunoglu, N K; Maintas, D; Stefanis, K

    2003-01-01

    The results of studies conducted with a small field of view tomographic gamma camera based on a Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube are reported. The system has been used for the evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals in small animals. Phantom studies have shown a spatial resolution of 2 mm in planar and 2-3 mm in tomographic imaging. Imaging studies in mice have been carried out both in 2D and 3D. Conventional radiopharmaceuticals have been used and the results have been compared with images from a clinically used system.

  12. Study on Human Slip and Fall Gaits Based on 3D Gait Analysis System

    Junxia Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Slip and fall is a serious problem which affects the health and safety of people, and it has become a hot topic in the ergonomics and biomedicine fields in recent years. The causes of slip and fall accidents including external causes and internal causes. And it is the body response coordination ability under the condition of instability that is one of the important internal causes and plays a key role in causing slip and fall accidents. On the sports psychology, total time (TT is defined as the sum of reaction time and movement time and it can be used to measure the body response coordination ability. Slip and fall probability (FP is the frequency of occurrence of slip and fall accidents. When external conditions are consistent, to a certain extent, different FP reflects the difference of body response coordination ability. Theoretically, TT and FP should have a certain relationship, but the detail is unknown. With the development of computer technology, the 3D gaits analysis system has appeared and the study of slip and fall accidents was promoted depending on its powerful functions. Based on the 3D gaits analysis system, this paper innovatively listed the topic as study content and got the study result: the relationship between TT and FP is significant correlation under the 0.01 level. By using the datum, images and videos exported from the system, this paper conducted the gait analysis and verified the reliability of the correlation: different TT lead to different foot-ground contact force, thus lead to different body response coordination ability, namely FP. Therefore, it is very effective to use the 3D gait analysis system to study the slip and fall accidents

  13. The Traveling Optical Scanner – Case Study on 3D Shape Models of Ancient Brazilian Skulls

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Gregersen, Kristian Murphy;

    2016-01-01

    , inoffensive and inexpensive 3D scanning modality based on structured light, suitable for capturing the morphology and the appearance of specimens. Benefits of having 3D models are manifold. The 3D models are easy to share among researchers and can be made available to the general public. Advanced...

  14. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  15. Recovering Uniform Coverage in a 3D Survey: Case Study from Onshore Southern India

    K. Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study on 3D seismic acquisition under inaccessible ground conditions and heavy head-loads. The novelty in this case study is designing novel shot recovery strategies. The study area is in a densely populated region in Southern India, where a 3D survey was conducted over an area of 700 km2 to illuminate a target formation at 3000 m depth. The survey was designed in a brick pattern with six shots in a round, a line repeat interval of 2, and offset and skid grid of 300 m × 300 m. Only 40% of full fold could be obtained with conventional shot recovery methods. To increase the survey fold, two new shot recovery strategies were attempted. First, the original offset and skid grid was increased to 1100 m × 1200 m. Second, if the recovery shot did not fall in this grid, it was relocated along the swath from its original location to a distance equal to half the inline offset. The two strategies, employed together, increased the fold to 90% of full fold at the target area maintaining its uniformity. Although the illumination of the target zone was adequate for interpretation in this case, we see a need for adaptation if these strategies are to be applied in other surveys. In general, issues related to offset-limit, shot-density, and grid-spacing are a matter of continual optimization in 3D surveys.

  16. Comparison of User Performance with Interactive and Static 3d Visualization - Pilot Study

    Herman, L.; Stachoň, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Interactive 3D visualizations of spatial data are currently available and popular through various applications such as Google Earth, ArcScene, etc. Several scientific studies have focused on user performance with 3D visualization, but static perspective views are used as stimuli in most of the studies. The main objective of this paper is to try to identify potential differences in user performance with static perspective views and interactive visualizations. This research is an exploratory study. An experiment was designed as a between-subject study and a customized testing tool based on open web technologies was used for the experiment. The testing set consists of an initial questionnaire, a training task and four experimental tasks. Selection of the highest point and determination of visibility from the top of a mountain were used as the experimental tasks. Speed and accuracy of each task performance of participants were recorded. The movement and actions in the virtual environment were also recorded within the interactive variant. The results show that participants deal with the tasks faster when using static visualization. The average error rate was also higher in the static variant. The findings from this pilot study will be used for further testing, especially for formulating of hypotheses and designing of subsequent experiments.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing throws descriptive 3-D genome folding studies for a loop.

    Beagan, Jonathan A; Phillips-Cremins, Jennifer E

    2016-07-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing studies have recently shed new light into the causal link between the linear DNA sequence and 3-D chromatin architecture. Here we describe current models for the folding of genomes into a nested hierarchy of higher-order structures and discuss new insights into the organizing principles governing genome folding at each length scale. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:286-299. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1338 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27265842

  18. Combination of Monte Carlo and transfer matrix methods to study 2D and 3D percolation

    Saleur, H.; Derrida, B.

    1985-07-01

    In this paper we develop a method which combines the transfer matrix and the Monte Carlo methods to study the problem of site percolation in 2 and 3 dimensions. We use this method to calculate the properties of strips (2D) and bars (3D). Using a finite size scaling analysis, we obtain estimates of the threshold and of the exponents wich confirm values already known. We discuss the advantages and the limitations of our method by comparing it with usual Monte Carlo calculations.

  19. Automated 3D ultrasound elastography of the breast: a phantom validation study

    Hendriks, Gijs A. G. M.; Holländer, Branislav; Menssen, Jan; Milkowski, Andy; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.; de Korte, Chris L.

    2016-04-01

    In breast cancer screening, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) was introduced as an alternative for mammography since the latter technique is less suitable for women with dense breasts. Although clinical studies show promising results, clinicians report two disadvantages: long acquisition times (>90 s) introducing breathing artefacts, and high recall rates due to detection of many small lesions of uncertain malignant potential. Technical improvements for faster image acquisition and better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions are thus required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if 3D ultrasound elastography using plane-wave imaging is feasible. Strain images of a breast elastography phantom were acquired by an ABVS-mimicking device that allowed axial and elevational movement of the attached transducer. Pre- and post-deformation volumes were acquired with different constant speeds (between 1.25 and 40.0 mm s-1) and by three protocols: Go-Go (pre- and post-volumes with identical start and end positions), Go-Return (similar to Go-Go with opposite scanning directions) and Control (pre- and post-volumes acquired per position, this protocol can be seen as reference). Afterwards, 2D and 3D cross-correlation and strain algorithms were applied to the acquired volumes and the results were compared. The Go-Go protocol was shown to be superior with better strain image quality (CNRe and SNRe) than Go-Return and to be similar as Control. This can be attributed to applying opposite mechanical forces to the phantom during the Go-Return protocol, leading to out-of-plane motion. This motion was partly compensated by using 3D cross-correlation. However, the quality was still inferior to Go-Go. Since these results were obtained in a phantom study with controlled deformations, the effect of possible uncontrolled in vivo tissue motion artefacts has to be addressed in future studies. In conclusion, it seems feasible to implement 3D ultrasound

  20. Characterization of a novel bioreactor system for 3D cellular mechanobiology studies.

    Cook, Colin A; Huri, Pinar Y; Ginn, Brian P; Gilbert-Honick, Jordana; Somers, Sarah M; Temple, Joshua P; Mao, Hai-Quan; Grayson, Warren L

    2016-08-01

    In vitro engineering systems can be powerful tools for studying tissue development in response to biophysical stimuli as well as for evaluating the functionality of engineered tissue grafts. It has been challenging, however, to develop systems that adequately integrate the application of biomimetic mechanical strain to engineered tissue with the ability to assess functional outcomes in real time. The aim of this study was to design a bioreactor system capable of real-time conditioning (dynamic, uniaxial strain, and electrical stimulation) of centimeter-long 3D tissue engineered constructs simultaneously with the capacity to monitor local strains. The system addresses key limitations of uniform sample loading and real-time imaging capabilities. Our system features an electrospun fibrin scaffold, which exhibits physiologically relevant stiffness and uniaxial alignment that facilitates cell adhesion, alignment, and proliferation. We have demonstrated the capacity for directly incorporating human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells into the fibers during the electrospinning process and subsequent culture of the cell-seeded constructs in the bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitates accurate pre-straining of the 3D constructs as well as the application of dynamic and static uniaxial strains while monitoring bulk construct tensions. The incorporation of fluorescent nanoparticles throughout the scaffolds enables in situ monitoring of local strain fields using fluorescent digital image correlation techniques, since the bioreactor is imaging compatible, and allows the assessment of local sample stiffness and stresses when coupled with force sensor measurements. In addition, the system is capable of measuring the electromechanical coupling of skeletal muscle explants by applying an electrical stimulus and simultaneously measuring the force of contraction. The packaging of these technologies, biomaterials, and analytical methods into a single bioreactor system has produced a

  1. A 3D approach to equilibrium, stability and transport studies in RFX-mod improved regimes

    Terranova, D; Bonfiglio, D; Gobbin, M; Lorenzini, R; Marrelli, L; Martines, E; Momo, B; Predebon, I; Spizzo, G; Agostini, M; Alfier, A; Apolloni, L; Auriemma, F; Baruzzo, M; Bolzonella, T [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Boozer, A H [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Cooper, A W [EPFL, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Lausanne (Switzerland); Hirshman, S P; Sanchez, R [ORNL Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pomphrey, N, E-mail: david.terranova@igi.cnr.i [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The full three-dimensional (3D) approach is now becoming an important issue for all magnetic confinement configurations. It is a necessary condition for the stellarator but also the tokamak and the reversed field pinch (RFP) now cannot be completely described in an axisymmetric framework. For the RFP the observation of self-sustained helical configurations with improved plasma performances require a better description in order to assess a new view on this configuration. In this new framework plasma configuration studies for RFX-mod have been considered both with tools developed for the RFP as well as considering codes originally developed for the stellarator and adapted to the RFP. These helical states are reached through a transition to a very low/reversed shear configuration leading to internal electron transport barriers. These states are interrupted by MHD reconnection events and the large T{sub e} gradients at the barriers indicate that both current and pressure driven modes are to be considered. Furthermore the typically flat T{sub e} profiles in the helical core have raised the issue of the role of electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence in these reduced chaos regions, so that a stability analysis in the correct 3D geometry is required to address an optimization of the plasma setup. In this view the VMEC code proved to be an effective way to obtain helical equilibria to be studied in terms of stability and transport with a suite of well tested codes. In this work, the equilibrium reconstruction technique as well as the experimental evidence of 3D effects and their first interpretation in terms of stability and transport are presented using both RFP and stellarator tools.

  2. The interpretation of magnetic anomalies by 3D inversion: A case study from Central Iran

    Tavakoli, M.; Nejati Kalateh, A.; Ghomi, S.

    2016-03-01

    The thick sedimentary units in Central Iran contain structures that form oil traps and are underlain by a basaltic layer which is amenable for study using its magnetic susceptibility. The study and modeling of such sedimentary structures provide valuable exploratory information. In this study, we locate and interpret an underground magnetic susceptibility interface using 3D non-linear inverse modeling of magnetic data to make a better judgment in the context of hydrocarbon existence. The 3D structure is reconstructed by making it equal to a number of side by side rectangular hexahedrons or prisms and calculating their thicknesses such that the bottoms of the prisms are corresponding to the magnetic susceptibility interface. By one of the most important mathematical tool in computational science, Taylor series, the non-linear problem changes to a linear problem near to initial model. In many inverse problems, we often need to invert large size matrices. To find the inverse of these matrices we use Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method. The algorithm by an iterative method comparing model response with actual data will modify the initial guess of model parameters. The efficiency of the method and subprograms, programmed in MATLAB, has been shown by inverse modeling of free noise and noise-contaminated synthetic data. Finally, we inverted magnetic field data from Garmsar area in Central Iran which the results were acceptable.

  3. A Morpho-kinematic and Spectroscopic study of Bipolar Planetary Nebulae

    Clyne, Niall

    2015-09-01

    In this thesis, studies of the kinematic properties for a sample of Galactic bipolar planetary nebulae, based on optical and infrared observations, were performed using a morpho-kinematic code, optical and NIR diagnostic diagrams, and techniques using data analyses. The mechanisms that form complex bipolar planetary nebulae remain unclear, and their shapes can be generated either as a planetary or symbiotic nebula. The origin of the material ionised by the white dwarf is very different in these two scenarios, and it complicates the understanding of the morphologies of planetary nebulae. The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar nebulae, MyCn 18, M 2-9, Mz 3, Hen 2-104, and Abell 14, are each investigated in detail with the aim of understanding their nature, shaping mechanisms, and evolutionary history. For MyCn 18, VLT infrared images, VLT ISAAC infrared spectra, and long-slit optical echelle spectra are used to investigate the inner and outer regions of the nebula. The morpho-kinematic modelling tool shape was used to firmly constrain the structure and kinematics of the source. A timescale analysis was used to help determine the kinematical age of the nebula and its main components. A spectroscopic study of MyCn 18's central region reveals the detailed make-up of its nebular composition. Molecular hydrogen, atomic helium, and Brackett gamma emission are detected in the central regions. ISAAC spectra from a slit position along the narrow waist of the nebula demonstrate that the ionised gas resides closer to the centre of the nebula than the molecular emission. A final reconstructed 3-D model of MyCn 18 was generated, providing kinematical information on the expansion velocity of its nebular components by means of position-velocity arrays (or observed long-slit spectra). A kinematical age of the nebula and its components were obtained using the position-velocity arrays and timescale analysis. For M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104, long-slit optical

  4. Heritability of face shape in twins: a preliminary study using 3D stereophotogrammetry and geometric morphometrics

    Seth M. Weinberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous research suggests that aspects of facial surface morphology are heritable.  Traditionally, heritability studies have used a limited set of linear distances to quantify facial morphology and often employ statistical methods poorly designed to deal with biological shape.  In this preliminary report, we use a combination of 3D photogrammetry and landmark-based morphometrics to explore which aspects of face shape show the strongest evidence of heritability in a sample of twins. Methods: 3D surface images were obtained from 21 twin pairs (10 monozygotic, 11 same-sex dizygotic.  Thirteen 3D landmarks were collected from each facial surface and their coordinates subjected to geometric morphometric analysis.  This involved superimposing the individual landmark configurations and then subjecting the resulting shape coordinates to a principal components analysis.  The resulting PC scores were then used to calculate rough narrow-sense heritability estimates. Results: Three principal components displayed evidence of moderate to high heritability and were associated with variation in the breadth of orbital and nasal structures, upper lip height and projection, and the vertical and forward projection of the root of the nose due to variation in the position of nasion. Conclusions: Aspects of facial shape, primarily related to variation in length and breadth of central midfacial structures, were shown to demonstrate evidence of strong heritability. An improved understanding of which facial features are under strong genetic control is an important step in the identification of specific genes that underlie normal facial variation.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in pure dysarthria. A 3D-SSP study

    Pure dysarthria from brain infarction is a rare condition, and its pathophysiology remains unclear. To clarify the underlying mechanism of pure dysarthria, we investigated the lesion sites and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with pure dysarthria. We examined 18 consecutive patients with pure dysarthria (9 men and 9 women; mean age, 71 years) who underwent MRI and cerebral blood flow studies. To visualize the regional cerebral blood flow, we generated Z score images using the three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and N-isopropyl-p [123I]iodoamphetamine. Data on the brain surface perfusion extracted by the 3D-SSP analysis were compared between the pure dysarthria (PD) patients and 9 control subjects. MRI revealed multiple lacunar infarctions involving the internal capsule and/or corona radiata in 11 patients, left internal capsule-corona radiata infarction in 4 patients, and pontine infarction in 3 patients. SPECT with 3D-SSP demonstrated bilateral frontal cortical hypoperfusion in all patients, particularly in the anterior opercular region. Based on intergroup comparisons, the PD group exhibited pronounced cortical hypoperfusion in the opercular and medial frontal regions, left more than right. In conclusion, pure dysarthria is considered to originate from frontal cortical hypoperfusion, mainly in the anterior opercular and medial frontal regions, which is probably due to interruption of the corticosubcortical neural networks relevant to speech expression and articulation. In addition, it is suggested that left hemispheric lesions may make a greater contribution to the development of pure dysarthria than do right ones. (author)

  6. 3-D LTCC microfluidic device as a tool for studying nanoprecipitation

    Schianti, J. N.; Cerize, N. P. N.; Oliveira, A. M.; Derenzo, S.; Góngora-Rubio, M. R.

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticles have been used to improve the properties of many cosmetic products, mainly the sunscreens materials using nanoencapsulation or nanosuspensions, improving the contact with active molecules, enhancing the sun protection effect and facilitating formulations in industrial products. Microfluidic devices offer an important possibility in producing nanoparticles in a simple way, in one step bottom up technique, continuum process with low polidispersivity, low consumption of reagents and additives. In this work, we microfabricated a 3-D LTCC microfluidic device to study the nanoprecipitation of Benzophenone-3, used as a sunscreen in pharmaceutical products. It was observed that some parameters influence the particle size related to the total fluid flow on device, the ratio between phases, and the Benzophenone-3 initial concentration. The influence of applied voltages on particle sizes was tested also. For the processing, a high voltage was applied in a Kovar tube inserted in the 3D device. The use of microfluidic device resulted in particles with 100 up to 800 nm of size, with polispersivity index below 0.3 and offering an interesting way to obtain nanoparticles. These studies are still ongoing, but early results indicate the possibility of obtaining B-3 nanostructured material.

  7. Combined 3D-QSAR modeling and molecular docking study on azacycles CCR5 antagonists

    Ji, Yongjun; Shu, Mao; Lin, Yong; Wang, Yuanqiang; Wang, Rui; Hu, Yong; Lin, Zhihua

    2013-08-01

    The beta chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is an attractive target for pharmaceutical industry in the HIV-1, inflammation and cancer therapeutic areas. In this study, we have developed quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models for a series of 41 azacycles CCR5 antagonists using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), and Topomer CoMFA methods. The cross-validated coefficient q2 values of 3D-QASR (CoMFA, CoMSIA, and Topomer CoMFA) methods were 0.630, 0.758, and 0.852, respectively, the non-cross-validated R2 values were 0.979, 0.978, and 0.990, respectively. Docking studies were also employed to determine the most probable binding mode. 3D contour maps and docking results suggested that bulky groups and electron-withdrawing groups on the core part would decrease antiviral activity. Furthermore, docking results indicated that H-bonds and π bonds were favorable for antiviral activities. Finally, a set of novel derivatives with predicted activities were designed.

  8. 3-D LTCC microfluidic device as a tool for studying nanoprecipitation

    Nanoparticles have been used to improve the properties of many cosmetic products, mainly the sunscreens materials using nanoencapsulation or nanosuspensions, improving the contact with active molecules, enhancing the sun protection effect and facilitating formulations in industrial products. Microfluidic devices offer an important possibility in producing nanoparticles in a simple way, in one step bottom up technique, continuum process with low polidispersivity, low consumption of reagents and additives. In this work, we microfabricated a 3-D LTCC microfluidic device to study the nanoprecipitation of Benzophenone-3, used as a sunscreen in pharmaceutical products. It was observed that some parameters influence the particle size related to the total fluid flow on device, the ratio between phases, and the Benzophenone-3 initial concentration. The influence of applied voltages on particle sizes was tested also. For the processing, a high voltage was applied in a Kovar tube inserted in the 3D device. The use of microfluidic device resulted in particles with 100 up to 800 nm of size, with polispersivity index below 0.3 and offering an interesting way to obtain nanoparticles. These studies are still ongoing, but early results indicate the possibility of obtaining B-3 nanostructured material.

  9. Methodology study for documentation and 3D modelling of blast induced fractures

    The purpose of this activity as part of the Zuse project was to test whether it is possible to produce a 3D model of blast induced fractures around a tunnel and also to find a methodology suitable for large scale studies. The purpose of the studies is to increase the understanding of the excavation damage zone (EDZ) and the possibility of an existing continuous EDZ along the tunnel. For the investigation, an old test area in the Q tunnel at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was selected, where slabs were excavated in 2003 to investigate the fracture pattern around the contour holes of a blasted tunnel. The rock walls of the excavated niche were studied and documented in the tunnel, while the excavated rock slabs were documented above ground. The work flow included photo documentation of both sides. The photos taken in the tunnel had to be rectified and then the fractures were vectorized automatically in a vectorization program, generating AutoCad DWG-files as output. The vectorized fractures were then moved to MicroStation/RVS where they were interpreted and connected into continuous line strings. The digitized slab and rock sides were then moved to the correct position in 3D space. Finally, a 3D model was made in RVS where the fracture traces were connected into undulating fracture planes in 3D. The conclusion is that it is possible to build a 3D model; the model is presented in Chapter 3.5. However, the age and condition of the slabs may have influenced the quality of the model in this study. The quality of a model that can be built in a future investigation, should be much better if the surveys are adapted to the investigation at hand and the slabs and rock sides are fresh and in better condition. The validity of a model depends on the density of the investigation data. There is also always a risk of over interpretation; the wish to identify a fracture from one section to the next can lead to an interpretation of the fractures as more persistent than they actually

  10. Methodology study for documentation and 3D modelling of blast induced fractures

    Olsson, Mats (Swebrec - Swedish Blasting Research Centre, Luleaa (Sweden)); Markstroem, Ingemar; Pettersson, Anders (Golder Associates (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this activity as part of the Zuse project was to test whether it is possible to produce a 3D model of blast induced fractures around a tunnel and also to find a methodology suitable for large scale studies. The purpose of the studies is to increase the understanding of the excavation damage zone (EDZ) and the possibility of an existing continuous EDZ along the tunnel. For the investigation, an old test area in the Q tunnel at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was selected, where slabs were excavated in 2003 to investigate the fracture pattern around the contour holes of a blasted tunnel. The rock walls of the excavated niche were studied and documented in the tunnel, while the excavated rock slabs were documented above ground. The work flow included photo documentation of both sides. The photos taken in the tunnel had to be rectified and then the fractures were vectorized automatically in a vectorization program, generating AutoCad DWG-files as output. The vectorized fractures were then moved to MicroStation/RVS where they were interpreted and connected into continuous line strings. The digitized slab and rock sides were then moved to the correct position in 3D space. Finally, a 3D model was made in RVS where the fracture traces were connected into undulating fracture planes in 3D. The conclusion is that it is possible to build a 3D model; the model is presented in Chapter 3.5. However, the age and condition of the slabs may have influenced the quality of the model in this study. The quality of a model that can be built in a future investigation, should be much better if the surveys are adapted to the investigation at hand and the slabs and rock sides are fresh and in better condition. The validity of a model depends on the density of the investigation data. There is also always a risk of over interpretation; the wish to identify a fracture from one section to the next can lead to an interpretation of the fractures as more persistent than they actually

  11. Non-Newtonian Fluids Spreading with Surface Tension Effect: 3D Numerical Analysis Using FEM and Experimental Study

    Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah

    2010-11-01

    Gravity-driven thin film flow down an incline is studied for optimal design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. We develop a 3D FEM model using non-Newtonian mechanics to model the flow of gels in response to gravity, surface tension and shear-thinning. Constant volume setup is applied within the lubrication approximation scope. The lengthwise profiles of the 3D model agree with our previous 2D finite difference model, while the transverse contact line patterns of the 3D model are compared to the experiments. With incorporation of surface tension, capillary ridges are observed at the leading front in both 2D and 3D models. Previously published studies show that capillary ridge can amplify the fingering instabilities in transverse direction. Sensitivity studies (2D & 3D) and experiments are carried out to describe the influence of surface tension and shear-thinning on capillary ridge and fingering instabilities.

  12. Dynamical study of 2D and 3D barred galaxy models

    Manos, T

    2008-01-01

    We study the dynamics of 2D and 3D barred galaxy analytical models, focusing on the distinction between regular and chaotic orbits with the help of the Smaller ALigment Index (SALI), a very powerful tool for this kind of problems. We present briefly the method and we calculate the fraction of chaotic and regular orbits in several cases. In the 2D model, taking initial conditions on a Poincar\\'{e} $(y,p_y)$ surface of section, we determine the fraction of regular and chaotic orbits. In the 3D model, choosing initial conditions on a cartesian grid in a region of the $(x, z, p_y)$ space, which in coordinate space covers the inner disc, we find how the fraction of regular orbits changes as a function of the Jacobi constant. Finally, we outline that regions near the $(x,y)$ plane are populated mainly by regular orbits. The same is true for regions that lie either near to the galactic center, or at larger relatively distances from it.

  13. Availability study of CFD-based Mask3D simulation method for next generation lithography technologies

    Takahashi, M.; Kawabata, Y.; Washitani, T.; Tanaka, S.; Maeda, S.; Mimotogi, S.

    2014-03-01

    In progress of lithography technologies, the importance of Mask3D analysis has been emphasized because the influence of mask topography effects is not avoidable to be increased explosively. An electromagnetic filed simulation method, such as FDTD, RCWA and FEM, is applied to analyze those complicated phenomena. We have investigated Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP) method, which is one of the Method of Characteristics (MoC), for Mask3D analysis in optical lithography. CIP method can reproduce the phase of propagating waves with less numerical error by using high order polynomial function. The restrictions of grid distance are relaxed with spatial grid. Therefore this method reduces the number of grid points in complex structure. In this paper, we study the feasibility of CIP scheme applying a non-uniform and spatial-interpolated grid to practical mask patterns. The number of grid points might be increased in complex layout and topological structure since these structures require a dense grid to remain the fidelity of each design. We propose a spatial interpolation method based on CIP method same as time-domain interpolation to reduce the number of grid points to be computed. The simulation results of two meshing methods with spatial interpolation are shown.

  14. A small animal image guided irradiation system study using 3D dosimeters

    Qian, Xin; Admovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    In a high resolution image-guided small animal irradiation platform, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is integrated with an irradiation unit for precise targeting. Precise quality assurance is essential for both imaging and irradiation components. The conventional commissioning techniques with films face major challenges due to alignment uncertainty and labour intensive film preparation and scanning. In addition, due to the novel design of this platform the mouse stage rotation for CBCT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for irradiation. Because these two rotations are associated with different mechanical systems, discrepancy between rotation isocenters exists. In order to deliver x-ray precisely, it is essential to verify coincidence of the imaging and the irradiation isocenters. A 3D PRESAGE dosimeter can provide an excellent tool for checking dosimetry and verifying coincidence of irradiation and imaging coordinates in one system. Dosimetric measurements were performed to obtain beam profiles and percent depth dose (PDD). Isocentricity and coincidence of the mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated with starshots acquired using PRESAGE dosimeters. A single PRESAGE dosimeter can provide 3 -D information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  15. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    Rimjaem, S.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.

    2014-02-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012©. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.

  16. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    Rimjaem, S., E-mail: sakhorn.rimjaem@cmu.ac.th [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-02-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012{sup ©}. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.

  17. A small animal image guided irradiation system study using 3D dosimeters

    In a high resolution image-guided small animal irradiation platform, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is integrated with an irradiation unit for precise targeting. Precise quality assurance is essential for both imaging and irradiation components. The conventional commissioning techniques with films face major challenges due to alignment uncertainty and labour intensive film preparation and scanning. In addition, due to the novel design of this platform the mouse stage rotation for CBCT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for irradiation. Because these two rotations are associated with different mechanical systems, discrepancy between rotation isocenters exists. In order to deliver x-ray precisely, it is essential to verify coincidence of the imaging and the irradiation isocenters. A 3D PRESAGE dosimeter can provide an excellent tool for checking dosimetry and verifying coincidence of irradiation and imaging coordinates in one system. Dosimetric measurements were performed to obtain beam profiles and percent depth dose (PDD). Isocentricity and coincidence of the mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated with starshots acquired using PRESAGE dosimeters. A single PRESAGE dosimeter can provide 3 -D information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies

  18. Comparison between 3D Supersonic Shear Wave Elastography and Magnetic Resonance Elastography: a preliminary experimental study

    Yue, Jinlong; Tardieu, Marion; Julea, Felicia; Chami, Linda; Lucidarme, Olivier; Maître, Xavier; Pellot-Barakat, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound Supersonic Shear Wave Elastog-raphy (SSWE) as well as Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) allow accessing the mechanical properties of human tissues. SSWE is usually performed using a 2D probe. 3D SSWE is now available but needs to be validated. We compared 3D SSWE with both 2D SSWE and MRE which is inherently 3D on a breast phantom. We found that 3D SSWE is reproducible and provides elasticity estimates comparable to those obtained with the validated 2D SSWE. We also showed that...

  19. Collapse and coalescence of spherical voids subject to intense shearing: studied in full 3D

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Dahl, Jonas; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    the numerical analysis, which is also reflected in published literature. Rather than moving towards very low triaxiality shearing, work has focused on extracting wide-ranging results for moderate stress triaxiality (T ~ 1), in order to achieve sufficient understanding of the influence of initial...... porosity, void shape, void orientation etc. The objective of this work is to expand the range of stress triaxiality usually faced in 3D cell model studies, such that intense shearing is covered, and to bring forward details on the porosity and void shape evolution. The overall material response is......Micro-mechanical 2D cell model studies have revealed ductile failure during intense shearing to be governed by the interaction of neighbouring voids, which collapse to micro-cracks and continuously rotate and elongate until coalescence occurs. For a three-dimensional void structure, this implies...

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Bacterial Colony Growth in 3D

    Shao, Xinxian; Mugler, Andrew; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial cells growing in liquid culture have been well studied and modeled. However, in nature, bacteria often grow as biofilms or colonies in physically structured habitats. A comprehensive model for population growth in such conditions has not yet been developed. Based on the well-established theory for bacterial growth in liquid culture, we develop a model for colony growth in 3D in which a homogeneous colony of cells locally consume a diffusing nutrient. We predict that colony growth is initially exponential, as in liquid culture, but quickly slows to sub-exponential after nutrient is locally depleted. This prediction is consistent with our experiments performed with E. coli in soft agar. Our model provides a baseline to which studies of complex growth process, such as such as spatially and phenotypically heterogeneous colonies, must be compared.

  1. Study of the initiation and the propagation of cracks under 3D thermal cyclic loading

    The incident which has occurred on the Civaux power plant has shown the noxiousness of thermal loading and the difficulty to take it into account at design level. The objective of this report is to study the initiation and the propagation of crack under thermal loading. In this aim the CEA has developed a new experiment named FAT3D. The various experiments carried out showed the harmfulness of a thermal loading, which makes it possible to rapidly initiate a network of cracks and to propagate one (or some) cracks through the totally thickness of the component under certain conditions. These experimental results associated with a mechanical analysis put at fault the usual criteria of damage based on the variations of the equivalent strain. In addition, the study of the propagation stage shows the importance of the plasticity which, in the case of a thermal loading, slows down the propagation of the crack. (author)

  2. PEPT: An invaluable tool for 3-D particle tracking and CFD simulation verification in hydrocyclone studies

    Hoffmann Alex C.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Particle tracks in a hydrocyclone generated both experimentally by positron emission particle tracking (PEPT and numerically with Eulerian-Lagranian CFD have been studied and compared. A hydrocyclone with a cylinder-on-cone design was used in this study, the geometries used in the CFD simulations and in the experiments being identical. It is shown that it is possible to track a fast-moving particle in a hydrocyclone using PEPT with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The numerical 3-D particle trajectories were generated using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES turbulence model for the fluid and Lagrangian particle tracking for the particles. The behaviors of the particles were analyzed in detail and were found to be consistent between experiments and CFD simulations. The tracks of the particles are discussed and related to the fluid flow field visualized in the CFD simulations using the cross-sectional static pressure distribution.

  3. Biological Evaluation and 3D-QSAR Studies of Curcumin Analogues as Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Inhibitors

    Hui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 is reported as a biomarker for identifying some cancer stem cells, and down-regulation or inhibition of the enzyme can be effective in anti-drug resistance and a potent therapeutic for some tumours. In this paper, the inhibitory activity, mechanism mode, molecular docking and 3D-QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship of curcumin analogues (CAs against ALDH1 were studied. Results demonstrated that curcumin and CAs possessed potent inhibitory activity against ALDH1, and the CAs compound with ortho di-hydroxyl groups showed the most potent inhibitory activity. This study indicates that CAs may represent a new class of ALDH1 inhibitor.

  4. Antiproliferative activity of NCI-DTP glutarimide derivatives. An alignment independent 3D QSAR study

    JELENA B. POPOVIĆ-DJORDJEVIĆ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alignment-free, three dimensional structure–activity relationships (3D QSAR of the antiproliferative potency of twenty-two glutarimide-containing compounds, taken from National Cancer Institute Developmental therapeutics Program database, toward eight representative human tumour cell lines are reported. The descriptors used in the QSAR study were derived from GRID molecular interaction fields. The obtained models readily detect structural motifs positively or negatively correlated with the potency of the studied compounds toward each cell line. In this way, the pharmacophoric pattern required for high potency of compounds is reported. This pattern can serve as guidance for the design and syntheses of novel congeners, planned to be tested toward human tumour cell lines.

  5. Comparative study of 3D TOF-SPGR and 3D FASE on the display of the relationship between cranial nerves and peripheral vessels

    Objective: To select a better sequence which can supply reliable radiological information for vessel compression on cranial nerves in patients with facial spasm or trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: 3D TOF-SPGR and 3D FASE were used in 40 patients with facial spasm or trigeminal neuralgia to display the relationship between cranial nerves (facial nerve and trigeminal nerve) and peripheral vessels. Results: 38 patients got surgical results. 33 unilateral vessel compression or contact on facial nerves or trigeminal nerves was found on 3D TOF-SPGR, while no contact was found in 5. 26 unilateral vessel compression or contact on facial nerves or trigeminal nerves was found on 3D FASE, while no contact was found in 12. Significant difference between the two sequences on the display of vessel compression on facial nerves or trigeminal nerves was found by statistical analysis (χ2=5.14, P=0.016). Conclusion: 3D TOF-SPGR is better than 3D FASE on display of the relationship between nerves and peripheral vessels, and it should be the primary MRI sequence for patients with facial spasm or trigeminal neuralgia clinically. (author)

  6. 3D models as a platform for urban analysis and studies on human perception of space

    Fisher-Gewirtzman, D.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an integrated visual analysis and modelling for environmental and urban systems in respect to interior space layout and functionality. This work involves interdisciplinary research efforts that focus primarily on architecture design discipline, yet incorporates experts from other and different disciplines, such as Geoinformatics, computer sciences and environment-behavior studies. This work integrates an advanced Spatial Openness Index (SOI) model within realistic geovisualized Geographical Information System (GIS) environment and assessment using subjective residents' evaluation. The advanced SOI model measures the volume of visible space at any required view point practically, for every room or function. This model enables accurate 3D simulation of the built environment regarding built structure and surrounding vegetation. This paper demonstrates the work on a case study. A 3D model of Neve-Shaanan neighbourhood in Haifa was developed. Students that live in this neighbourhood had participated in this research. Their apartments were modelled in details and inserted into a general model, representing topography and the volumes of buildings. The visual space for each room in every apartment was documented and measured and at the same time the students were asked to answer questions regarding their perception of space and view from their residence. The results of this research work had shown potential contribution to professional users, such as researchers, designers and city planners. This model can be easily used by professionals and by non-professionals such as city dwellers, contractors and developers. This work continues with additional case studies having different building typologies and functions variety, using virtual reality tools.

  7. 3D Surface Realignment Tracking for Medical Imaging: A Phantom Study with PET Motion Correction

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Keller, Sune H.; Sibomana, Merence; Højgaard, Liselotte; Roed, Bjarne; Larsen, Rasmus

    structured light system is equipped with a near infrared diode and uses phase-shift interferometry (PSI) to compute 3D point clouds of the forehead of the patient. These 3D point clouds are progressively aligned to a reference surface, thereby giving the head pose changes. The estimated pose changes are used...

  8. 3D Surface Realignment Tracking for Medical Imaging: A Phantom Study with PET Motion Correction

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Keller, Sune H.; Sibomana, Merence; Højgaard, Liselotte; Roed, Bjarne; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    is equipped with a near infrared diode and uses phase-shift interferometry to compute 3D representations of the forehead of the patient. These 3D point clouds are progressively aligned to a reference surface and thereby giving the head pose changes. The estimated pose changes are used to reposition a...

  9. Experimental study on water seepage constitutive law of fracture in rock under 3D stress

    赵阳升; 杨栋; 郑少河; 胡耀青

    1999-01-01

    The test method and test result of water seepage constitutive law of fracture in rock under 3D stress are introduced. A permeability coefficient formula including the coefficient of fracture connection, normal stiffness, 3D stress, initial width of fracture and Poisson ratio is presented based on the analysis of the test theory and its result.

  10. 3D Surface Realignment Tracking for Medical Imaging: A Phantom Study with PET Motion Correction

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl;

    2013-01-01

    structured light system is equipped with a near infrared diode and uses phase-shift interferometry (PSI) to compute 3D point clouds of the forehead of the patient. These 3D point clouds are progressively aligned to a reference surface, thereby giving the head pose changes. The estimated pose changes are used...

  11. Study of negative hydrogen ion beam optics using the 3D3V PIC model

    Miyamoto, K., E-mail: kmiyamot@naruto-u.ac.jp [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima, 772-8502 (Japan); Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522 (Japan); Hanada, M.; Kojima, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1,Mukoyama, Naka, 319-0913 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    The mechanism of negative ion extraction under real conditions with the complex magnetic field is studied by using the 3D PIC simulation code. The extraction region of the negative ion source for the negative ion based neutral beam injection system in fusion reactors is modelled. It is shown that the E x B drift of electrons is caused by the magnetic filter and the electron suppression magnetic field, and the resultant asymmetry of the plasma meniscus. Furthermore, it is indicated that that the asymmetry of the plasma meniscus results in the asymmetry of negative ion beam profile including the beam halo. It could be demonstrated theoretically that the E x B drift is not significantly weakened by the elastic collisions of the electrons with neutral particles.

  12. Study of negative hydrogen ion beam optics using the 3D3V PIC model

    The mechanism of negative ion extraction under real conditions with the complex magnetic field is studied by using the 3D PIC simulation code. The extraction region of the negative ion source for the negative ion based neutral beam injection system in fusion reactors is modelled. It is shown that the E x B drift of electrons is caused by the magnetic filter and the electron suppression magnetic field, and the resultant asymmetry of the plasma meniscus. Furthermore, it is indicated that that the asymmetry of the plasma meniscus results in the asymmetry of negative ion beam profile including the beam halo. It could be demonstrated theoretically that the E x B drift is not significantly weakened by the elastic collisions of the electrons with neutral particles

  13. 3D-QSAR studies on glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors by flexible comparative molecular field analysis

    2007-01-01

    Canceling grids accommodating probes in comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), the idea of flexibleness is introduced into the CoMFA, and in combination with swarm intelligent algorithm which attempts to optimize distributions of diverse probes around drug molecules, a new 3D-QSAR method is proposed in this context as flexible comparative molecular field analysis (FCoMFA). In preliminary at-tempts to performing QSAR studies on 47 glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors, FCoMFA is employed and confirmed to be potent to exploring ligand-receptor interaction manners at active positions and thus to generating stable and predictable models. Simultaneously by an intuitive graphics regarding probe distribution patterns, impacts of different substituted groups on activities is also given an insight into.

  14. 3D-QSAR study on phenoxy-alkylamine compounds of a 1-adrenoceptor antagonist

    2001-01-01

    The study of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activityrelationship (3D-QSAR) of DDPH and its derivatives that have been known with their activity parameters has been developed using the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) method. Here, (+)-DDPH crystal structure was selected as the active conformation model and comparisons between the influences of different charge calculation methods and grid setup were conducted. The coefficients of cross-validation (q2 ) and regression (r2) are 0.481 and 0.997, respectively. The standard error (SE) is 0.102. The research result suggests that the steric field makes more contributions to the activity than the electrostatic field. This model can help us not only in improving our understanding of the receptor-ligand interactions, but also in predicting the activity of derivatives and designing new compounds with better potency.

  15. An isostatic study of the Karoo basin and underlying lithosphere in 3-D

    Scheiber-Enslin, Stephanie E.; Ebbing, Jörg; Webb, Susan J.

    2016-08-01

    A 3-D density model of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Karoo basin is presented here. The model is constrained using potential field, borehole and seismic data. Uplift of the basin by the end of the Cretaceous has resulted in an unusually high plateau (>1000 m) covering a large portion of South Africa. Isostatic studies show the topography is largely compensated by changes in Moho depths (˜35 km on-craton and >45 km off-craton) and changes in lithospheric mantle densities between the Kaapvaal Craton and surrounding regions (˜50 kg m-3 increase from on- to off-craton). This density contrast is determined by inverted satellite gravity and gravity gradient data. The highest topography along the edge of the plateau (>1200 m) and a strong Bouguer gravity low over Lesotho, however, can only be explained by a buoyant asthenosphere with a density decrease of around 40 kg m-3.

  16. Uncertainty studies of topographical measurements on steel surface corrosion by 3D scanning electron microscopy.

    Kang, K W; Pereda, M D; Canafoglia, M E; Bilmes, P; Llorente, C; Bonetto, R

    2012-02-01

    Pitting corrosion is a damage mechanism quite serious and dangerous in both carbon steel boiler tubes for power plants which are vital to most industries and stainless steels for orthopedic human implants whose demand, due to the increase of life expectation and rate of traffic accidents, has sharply increased. Reliable methods to characterize this kind of damage are becoming increasingly necessary, when trying to evaluate the advance of damage and to establish the best procedures for component inspection in order to determine remaining lives and failure mitigation. A study about the uncertainties on the topographies of corrosion pits from 3D SEM images, obtained at low magnifications (where errors are greater) and different stage tilt angles were carried out using an in-house software previously developed. Additionally, measurements of pit depths on biomaterial surfaces, subjected to two different surface treatments on stainless steels, were carried out. The different depth distributions observed were in agreement with electrochemical measurements. PMID:22051087

  17. Study on 3D printer production of auxiliary device for upper limb for medical imaging test

    Kim, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumsung (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jae Ho [Jukwang Precision Co., Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Dae [Dept. of Mechanical system engineering, Kumoh Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination.

  18. 3-D structure below Aevroe Island from high-resolution reflection seismic studies, southeastern Sweden

    Reflection seismology has served as a useful tool for imaging and mapping of fracture zones in crystalline rock along 2-D lines in nuclear waste disposal studies. Two 1-km-long perpendicular seismic reflection lines were acquired on Aevroe Island, southeast Sweden, in October 1996 in order to (1) test the seismic reflection method for future site investigations, (2) map known fracture zones, and (3) add to the Swedish database of reflection seismic studies of the shallow crystalline crust. An east-west line was shot with 5-m geophone and shot-point spacing, and a north-south line was shot with 10-m geophone and shotpoint spacing. An explosive source with a charge size of 100 g was used along both lines. The data clearly image three major dipping reflectors and one subhorizontal one in the upper 200 ms (600 m). The dipping reflectors (to the south, east, and northwest) intersect or project to the surface at or close to where surface-mapped fracture zones exist. The south-dipping reflector correlates with the top of a heavily fractured interval observed in a borehole (KAV01) at about 400 m. The subhorizontal zone at about 100--200 m correlates with a known fracture zone in the same borehole (KAV01). 3-D effects are apparent in the data, and only where the profiles cross can the true orientation of the reflecting events be determined. To properly orient and locate all events observed on the lines requires acquisition of 3-D data

  19. Adding a radial dimension to the assessment of esophagogastric junction relaxation: validation studies of the 3D-eSleeve

    Nicodème, Frédéric; Pandolfino, John E; Lin, Zhiyue; Xiao, Yinglian; Escobar, Gabriela; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) with esophageal pressure topography (EPT) allowed for the establishment of an objective quantitative measurement of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation, the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). This study assessed whether or not a novel 3D-HRM assembly could improve on this measurement. Twenty-five normal subjects were studied with both a standard HRM assembly and a novel hybrid assembly (3D-HRM), including a 9.0 cm 3D-HRM segment composed of 96 radially...

  20. A novel asymmetric 3D in-vitro assay for the study of tumor cell invasion

    The induction of tumor cell invasion is an important step in tumor progression. Due to the cost and slowness of in-vivo invasion assays, there is need for quantitative in-vitro invasion assays that mimic as closely as possible the tumor environment and in which conditions can be rigorously controlled. We have established a novel asymmetric 3D in-vitro invasion assay by embedding a monolayer of tumor cells between two layers of collagen. The cells were then allowed to invade the upper and lower layers of collagen. To visualize invading cells the gels were sectioned perpendicular to the monolayer so that after seeding the monolayer appears as a thin line precisely defining the origin of invasion. The number of invading tumor cells, their proliferation rate, the distance they traverse and the direction of invasion could then be determined quantitatively. The assay was used to compare the invasive properties of several tumor cell types and the results compare well with those obtained by previously described assays. Lysyl-oxidase like protein-2 (Loxl2) is a potent inducer of invasiveness. Using our assay we show for the first time that inhibition of endogenous Loxl2 expression in several types of tumor cells strongly inhibits their invasiveness. We also took advantage of the asymmetric nature of the assay in order to show that fibronectin enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells more potently than laminin. The asymmetric properties of the assay were also used to demonstrate that soluble factors derived from fibroblasts can preferentially attract invading breast cancer cells. Our assay displays several advantages over previous invasion assays as it is allows the quantitative analysis of directional invasive behavior of tumor cells in a 3D environment mimicking the tumor microenvironment. It should be particularly useful for the study of the effects of components of the tumor microenvironment on tumor cell invasiveness

  1. A systematic study of neutral and charged 3d-metal trioxides and tetraoxides

    Pradhan, Kalpataru; Gutsev, Gennady L.; Weatherford, Charles A.; Jena, Purusottam

    2011-04-01

    Using density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation, we have performed a systematic study of the structure and properties of neutral and charged trioxides (MO3) and tetraoxides (MO4) of the 3d-metal atoms. The results of our calculations revealed a number of interesting features when moving along the 3d-metal series. (1) Geometrical configurations of the lowest total energy states of neutral and charged trioxides and tetraoxides are composed of oxo and/or peroxo groups, except for CuO3- and ZnO3- which possess a superoxo group, CuO4+ and ZnO4+ which possess two superoxo groups, and CuO3+, ZnO3+, and ZnO4- which possess an ozonide group. While peroxo groups are found in the early and late transition metals, all oxygen atoms bind chemically to the metal atom in the middle of the series. (2) Attachment or detachment of an electron to/from an oxide often leads to a change in the geometry. In some cases, two dissociatively attached oxygen atoms combine and form a peroxo group or a peroxo group transforms into a superoxo group and vice versa. (3) The adiabatic electron affinity of as many as two trioxides (VO3 and CoO3) and four tetraoxides (TiO4, CrO4, MnO4, and FeO4) are larger than the electron affinity of halogen atoms. All these oxides are hence superhalogens although only VO3 and MnO4 satisfy the general superhalogen formula.

  2. 3D Inversion of complex resistivity data: Case study on Mineral Exploration Site.

    Son, Jeong-Sul; Kim, Jung-ho; Park, Sam-gyu; Park, My-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Complex resistivity (CR) method is a frequency domain induced polarization (IP) method. It is also known as Spectral IP (SIP) method, if wider frequencies are used in data acquisition and interpretation. Although it takes more times than conventional time domain IP method, its data quality is more stable because its data acquisition which measures amplitude and phase is done when the source current is being injected. Our research group has been studying the modeling and inversion algorithms of complex resistivity (CR) method since several years ago and recently applied developed algorithms to various real field application. Due to tough terrain in our country, Profile survey and 2D interpretation were generally used. But to get more precise interpretation, three dimensional modeling and inversion algorithm is required. We developed three dimensional inversion algorithm for this purpose. In the inversion, we adopt the method of adaptive lagraingian multiplier which is automatically set based on the size of error misfit and model regularization norm. It was applied on the real data acquired for mineral exploration sites. CR data was acquired with the Zeta system, manufactured by Zonge Co. In the inversion, only the lower frequency data is used considering its quality and developed 3D inversion algorithm was applied to the acquired data set. Its results were compared to those of time domain IP data conducted at the same site. Resistivity image sections of CR and conventional resistivity method were almost identical. Phase anomalies were well matched with chargeability anomalies and the mining history of the test site. Each anomalies were well discriminated in 3D interpretation than those of 2D. From those experiments, we know that CR method was very effective for the mineral exploration.

  3. Study of City Landscape Heritage Using Lidar Data and 3d-City Models

    Rubinowicz, P.; Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    In contemporary town planning protection of urban landscape is a significant issue. It regards especially those cities, where urban structures are the result of ages of evolution and layering of historical development process. Specific panoramas and other strategic views with historic city dominants can be an important part of the cultural heritage and genius loci. Other hand, protection of such expositions introduces limitations for future based city development. Digital Earth observation techniques creates new possibilities for more accurate urban studies, monitoring of urbanization processes and measuring of city landscape parameters. The paper examines possibilities of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models for: a) evaluation of strategic city views, b) mapping landscape absorption limits, and c) determination protection zones, where the urbanization and buildings height should be limited. In reference to this goal, the paper introduces a method of computational analysis of the city landscape called Visual Protection Surface (VPS). The method allows to emulate a virtual surface above the city including protection of a selected strategic views. The surface defines maximum height of buildings in such a way, that no new facility can be seen in any of selected views. The research includes also analyses of the quality of simulations according the form and precision of the input data: airborne Lidar / DSM model and more advanced 3D-city models (incl. semantic of the geometry, like in CityGML format). The outcome can be a support for professional planning of tall building development. Application of VPS method have been prepared by a computer program developed by the authors (C++). Simulations were carried out on an example of the city of Dresden.

  4. Distal Insertional Footprint of the Brachialis Muscle: 3D Morphometric Study

    Srinath Kamineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study is to describe the three-dimensional morphometry of the brachialis muscle at its distal attachment to the ulna. Methods. Fifty cadaveric elbows were dissected and the brachialis distal insertion was isolated on the ulna bone and probed with a three-dimensional digitizer, to create a three-dimensional model of the footprint. Measurements and analysis of each footprint shape were recorded and compared based on gender and size. Results. There was significant gender difference in the surface length (P= 0.002 and projected length (P= 0.001 of the brachialis footprint. The shapes of the footprint also differed among the specimens. Conclusion. The shape of the brachialis muscle insertion differed among all the specimens without significant variation in gender or sides. There was also a significant difference in muscle length between males and females with little difference in the width and surface area. Significance. The information obtained from this study is important for kinematic understanding and surgical procedures around the elbow joint as well as the understanding of the natural age related anatomy of the brachialis footprint morphology.

  5. On Prediction of 3d Stress State in Elastic Shell by Higher-order Shell Formulations

    Brank, Boštjan; Ibrahimbegović, Adnan; Bohinc, Uroš

    2008-01-01

    In this work we study the accuracy of modem higher-order shell finite element formulations in computation of 3d stress state in elastic shells. In that sense we compare three higher-order shell models: (i) with seven dislacement-like kinematic parameters, and (ii, iii) with six displacement-like kinematic parameters plus one strain-like kinematic parameter introduced by two different versions of enhanced assumed strain (EAS) concept. The finite element approximations of all shell models are b...

  6. Study on the Construction and Application of 3D Geographic Information Services for the Smart City

    Mao, W.-Q.

    2014-04-01

    Smart City, whose main characteristics are intelligence and interconnection capability, has become an important goal of some cities' development. This paper, based on urban three-dimensional geographic information characteristics, analyses 3D geographic information requirements in the Smart City construction and development process, proposes construction and management methods for 3D geographic information. Furthermore, this paper takes Shanghai Geographic Information Public Service Platform as an example, discusses 3D geographic information application in multiple fields, and proves that it is an effective ways to promote Intelligent City construction.

  7. Studies of spherical tori, stellarators and anisotropic pressure with the M3D code

    The Multi-level 3D (M3D) project simulates plasmas using multiple levels of physics, geometry and grid models in one code package. The M3D code has been extended to fundamentally non-axisymmetric and small aspect ratio, R/a > or ∼ 1, configurations. Applications include the non-linear stability of the NSTX spherical torus and of the spherical pinch, as well as the relaxation of stellarator equilibria. The fluid level physics model has been extended to evolve the anisotropic pressures pjparallel and pjperpendicular for the ion and electron species and has been applied to magnetic island evolution. (author)

  8. Geo-pressure prediction from 3-D seismic data: case studies from the gulf of Mexico

    Kan, T.K.; Kilsdonk, B. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano TX (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We have developed a hypothesis and technique to interpret overpressure in both shales and sandstones by combining 3-D seismic geo-pressure estimates with 3-D interpretation of sandstone horizons. Before we can accept them, these ideas must be tested with measured pressure data from areas with 3-D geo-pressure cubes. Additionally, Our technique depends strongly on interpreting the lateral continuity of permeable units. We hope to improve our pre-drill prediction capability by incorporating both seismic-stratigraphic and impedance based facies interpretation techniques. (author)

  9. From 2D leg kinematics to 3D full-body biomechanics-the past, present and future of scientific analysis of maximal instep kick in soccer

    Shan Gongbing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomechanics investigation on soccer kicking has a relatively long history, yet the body of knowledge is still small. This paper reviews articles published from 1960s to 2011, summarizing relevant findings, research trends and method development. It also discusses challenges faced by the field. The main aim of the paper is to promote soccer kicking studies through discussions on problem solving in the past, method development in the present, and possible research directions for the future.

  10. Gait Strategy in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type: A Kinematic and Kinetic Evaluation Using 3D Gait Analysis

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Castori, Marco; Celletti, Claudia; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the gait patterns of adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT) hypermobility type, using Gait Analysis. We quantified the gait strategy in 12 JHS/EDS-HT adults individuals (age: 43.08 + 6.78 years) compared to 20 healthy controls (age: 37.23 plus or minus 8.91 years), in…

  11. Controlled experimental study depicting moving objects in view-shared time-resolved 3D MRA.

    Mostardi, Petrice M; Haider, Clifton R; Rossman, Phillip J; Borisch, Eric A; Riederer, Stephen J

    2009-07-01

    Various methods have been used for time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA), many involving view sharing. However, the extent to which the resultant image time series represents the actual dynamic behavior of the contrast bolus is not always clear. Although numerical simulations can be used to estimate performance, an experimental study can allow more realistic characterization. The purpose of this work was to use a computer-controlled motion phantom for study of the temporal fidelity of three-dimensional (3D) time-resolved sequences in depicting a contrast bolus. It is hypothesized that the view order of the acquisition and the selection of views in the reconstruction can affect the positional accuracy and sharpness of the leading edge of the bolus and artifactual signal preceding the edge. Phantom studies were performed using dilute gadolinium-filled vials that were moved along tabletop tracks by a computer-controlled motor. Several view orders were tested using view-sharing and Cartesian sampling. Compactness of measuring the k-space center, consistency of view ordering within each reconstruction frame, and sampling the k-space center near the end of the temporal footprint were shown to be important in accurate portrayal of the leading edge of the bolus. A number of findings were confirmed in an in vivo CE-MRA study. PMID:19319897

  12. Controlled Experimental Study Depicting Moving Objects in View-Shared Time-Resolved 3D MRA

    Mostardi, Petrice M.; Haider, Clifton R.; Rossman, Phillip J.; Borisch, Eric A.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Various methods have been used for time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA), many involving view sharing. However, the extent to which the resultant image time series represents the actual dynamic behavior of the contrast bolus is not always clear. Although numerical simulations can be used to estimate performance, an experimental study can allow more realistic characterization. The purpose of this work was to use a computer-controlled motion phantom for study of the temporal fidelity of 3D time-resolved sequences in depicting a contrast bolus. It is hypothesized that the view order of the acquisition and the selection of views in the reconstruction can affect the positional accuracy and sharpness of the leading edge of the bolus and artifactual signal preceding the edge. Phantom studies were performed using dilute gadolinium-filled vials that were moved along tabletop tracks by a computer-controlled motor. Several view orders were tested, which use view-sharing and Cartesian sampling. Compactness of measuring the k-space center, consistency of view ordering within each reconstruction frame, and sampling the k-space center near the end of the temporal footprint were shown to be important in accurate portrayal of the leading edge of the bolus. A number of findings were confirmed in an in vivo CE-MRA study. PMID:19319897

  13. Study of filled dolines by using 3D stereo image processing and electrical resistivity imaging

    Mateja Breg Valjavec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with doline degradation due to uncontrolled waste dumping in the past in the Logatec Polje in Slovenia. It introduces a concept for determining 3D geometric characteristics (shape, depth, radius, area, and volume of formerly concave landforms (i.e., recently filled dolines by using a combination of two methods: (1 photogrammetric stereo processing of archival aerial photographs and (2 electrical resistivity imaging (ERI. To represent, visualize, and study the characteristics of the former surface morphology (i.e., the dolines before they were filled, a digital terrain model (DTM for 1972 (DTM1972 was made using digital photogrammetry processing of five sequential archival aerial photographs (1972, © GURS. DTM1972 was visually and quantitatively compared with the DTM5 of the recent surface morfology (DTM5, © GURS, 2006 in order to define areas of manmade terrain differences. In general, a circular area with a higher terrain difference is an indicator of a filled doline. The calculated terrain differences also indicate the thickness of buried waste material. Three case-study dolines were selected for 3D geometric analysis and tested in the field using ERI. ERI was used to determine the genetic type of the original doline, to confirm that the buried material in the doline is actually waste, and to ascertain opportunities for further study of water pollution due to waste leakage. Based on a comparison among the ERI sections obtained using various electrode arrays, it was concluded that the basins are actually past concave landforms (i.e., dolines filled with mixed waste material having the lowest resistivity value (bellow 100 ohm-m, which differs measurably from the surrounding natural materials. The resistivity of hard stacked limestone is higher (above 1,000 ohm-m than resistivity of cracked carbonate rocks with cracks filled with loamy clay sediments while in loamy alluvial sediment resistivity falls below 150 ohm

  14. Study of Tip-loss Using an Inverse 3D Navier-Stokes Method

    Mikkelsen, Robert; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess

    2003-01-01

    3D Navier-Stokes equations combined with the actuator line technique where blade loading is applied using an inverse method. The numerical simulations shows that the method captures the tip-correction when comparing with the theories of Prandtl and Goldstein, however, the accuracy of the obtained...... results reveal that further refinements still is needed. Keywords: Tip-loss; Actuator line; 3D Navier-Stokes methods....

  15. 3D-QSAR studies on Plasmodium falciparam proteins: a mini-review.

    Divakar, Selva; Hariharan, Sivaram

    2015-01-01

    3D-QSAR has become a very important tool in the field of Drug Discovery, especially in important areas like malarial research. The 3D-QSAR is principally a ligand-based drug design but the bioactive conformation of the ligand can also be taken into account in constructing a 3D-QSAR model. The induction of receptor-based 3D-QSAR has been proven to give more robust statistical models. In this review, we have discussed the various 3D-QSAR works done so far which were aimed at combating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparam. We have also discussed the various enzymes/receptors (targets) in Plasmodium falciparam for which the 3D-QSAR had been generated. The enzymes - wild and mutated dihydrofolate reductase, enoyl acyl protein carrier protein reductase, farnesyltransferase, cytochrome bc1, and falcipains were the major targets for pharmacophore-based drug design. Apart from the above-mentioned targets there were many scaffolds for which the target macromolecule was undefined and could have single/multiple targets. The generated 3D-QSAR model can be used to identify hits by screening the pharmacophore against a chemical library. In this review, the hits identified against various targets of plasmodium falciparam that have been discussed along with their basic scaffold. The various software programs and chemical databases that have been used in the generation of 3D-QSAR and screening were given. From this review, we understand that there is a considerable need to develop novel scaffolds that are different from the existing ligands to overcome cross-resistance. PMID:25543683

  16. Studying upper-limb kinematic using inertial sensors embedded in smartphones

    Cuesta Vargas, Antonio; Roldan Jimenez, Cristina; Bennett, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there have been investigations concerning upper-limbs kinematics by various devices. The latest generation of smartphones often includes inertial sensors with subunits which can detect inertial kinematics. The use of smartphones is presented as a convenient and portable analysis method for studying kinematics in terms of angular mobility and linear acceleration Objective: The aim of this study was to study humerus kinematics through six physical properties that...

  17. A Study of Tropospheric Ozone over China with a 3-D Global CTM Model

    Li Liu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A global 3-D CTM model (OsloCTM2 has been used to study the tropospheric ozone distribution and budget over China. An area covering China and most of East Asia is chosen as the study area. Because of the very nevenly distributed emissions and population in China, the budget study has been done by splitting China into three sub-areas, according to the emission distribution and topography of the country. The model results indicate that in Western China (Area1 dynamic processes are dominating, and the contribution from photochemical ozone production is small. Central and South-East China (Area2 has on average 65% of the photochemical ozone production in China, since more than 80% of the anthropogenic emissions come from this area. Northeast China (Area3 is influenced both by natural and*9nthropogenic emissions. The seasonal variation of ozone budgets was calculated in order to understand how different processes vary with the seasons. The strongest influences of emissions from the continent over the West Pacific region are found in spring, because of the large eastward transport and increased photochemical activities. Most NOx is consumed close to the emission sources; therefore, only 4% of emitted NOx is transported out of China, whereas 70% of the emitted CO is exported. It is calculated that the average net chemical ozone production efficiency by NOx loss is 7.2 in China.

  18. Study of imaging parameters for Gd-DTPA continuous intravenous injection 3D MR angiography, using IR preparation fast SPGR

    In the present study, Gd-DTPA continuous intravenous injection 3D MR angiography using 3D IR preparation Fast SPGR by means of 180deg pulse for pulse preparation, was investigated for optimal imaging parameters. 3D IR preparation Fast SPGR (TR 11 ms, TE 1.9 ms) which was used in the present study was rendered free of recovery time and inhibition by initiating a null point for fat impossible. The present Gd-DTPA continuous intravenous injection 3D MRA cannot maintain intravascular Gd-DTPA in high concentration because of a very short imaging time, but also improve Gd-DTPA-fat contrast by establishing optimal preparation times of 150-200 ms and FA 40deg, and outline clinically superior angiograms with excellent contrast. (author)

  19. Kinematic 3-D Retro-Modeling of an Orogenic Bend in the South Limón Fold-and-Thrust Belt, Eastern Costa Rica: Prediction of the Incremental Internal Strain Distribution

    Brandes, Christian; Tanner, David C.; Winsemann, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    The South Limón fold-and-thrust belt, in the back-arc area of southern Costa Rica, is characterized by a 90° curvature of the strike of the thrust planes and is therefore a natural laboratory for the analysis of curved orogens. The analysis of curved fold-and-thrust belts is a challenge because of the varying structural orientations within the belt. Based on seismic reflection lines, we created a 3-D subsurface model containing three major thrust faults and three stratigraphic horizons. 3-D kinematic retro-deformation modeling was carried out to analyze the spatial evolution of the fold-and-thrust belt. The maximum amount of displacement on each of the faults is (from hinterland to foreland); thrust 1: 800 m; thrust 2: 600 m; thrust 3: 250 m. The model was restored sequentially to its pre-deformational state. The strain history of the stratigraphic horizons in the model was calculated at every step. This shows that the internal strain pattern has an abrupt change at the orogenic bend. Contractional strain occurs in the forelimbs of the hanging-wall anticlines, while a zone of dilative strain spreads from the anticline crests to the backlimbs. The modeling shows that a NNE-directed transport direction best explains the structural evolution of the bend. This would require a left-lateral strike-slip zone in the North to compensate for the movement and thereby decoupling the South Limón fold-and-thrust belt from northern Costa Rica. Therefore, our modeling supports the presence of the Trans-Isthmic fault system, at least during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  20. A Prospective Study of Breast Dynamic Morphological Changes after Dual-plane Augmentation Mammaplasty with 3D Scanning Technique

    Ji, Kai; Luan, Jie; LIU, CHUNJUN; Mu, Dali; Mu, Lanhua; Xin, Minqiang; Sun, Jingjing; Yin, Shilu; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background The dual-plane technique has been widely used in augmentation mammaplasty procedures. However, there are some concerns about aesthetic contour maintenance for long time after muscle releasing. This study aims to track and analyze breast dynamic morphological changes after dual-plane breast augmentation with three-dimensional (3D) scanning technique. Methods Thirteen dual-plane anatomic implant augmentation patients underwent 3D scanning preoperatively (pre-OP) and postoperatively i...

  1. Studi Numerik dan Eksperimental Aliran 3-D pada Kombinasi Airfoil Pelat Datar dengan Variasi Permukaan Bawah dan Pengaruh Celah

    Gunawan Nugroho; Herman Sasongko

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the complexity of 3-D flow around airfoil/flat plate junction at endwall region has attracted many researchers of Aerodynamics. The majority of its experimental and numerical observations are conducted to compressor cascade. Because of that importance, stronger conceptual basis of 3-D flow is required, so the present study has stressed on single body airfoil/flat plate which clearance effect is exist. Variation of angle of attack and geometry on lower surface in this research have b...

  2. A Multifunctional 3D Co-Culture System for Studies of Mammary Tissue Morphogenesis and Stem Cell Biology

    Campbell, Jonathan J.; Davidenko, Natalia; Caffarel, Maria M.; Cameron, Ruth E.; Watson, Christine J

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the stem cell niche and the efficacy of cancer therapeutics require complex multicellular structures and interactions between different cell types and extracellular matrix (ECM) in three dimensional (3D) space. We have engineered a 3D in vitro model of mammary gland that encompasses a defined, porous collagen/hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffold forming a physiologically relevant foundation for epithelial and adipocyte co-culture. Polarized ductal and acinar structures form within this sc...

  3. 3D Digital Volume Correlation of Synchrotron Radiation Laminography images of ductile crack initiation: An initial feasibility study

    Morgeneyer, Thilo F.; Helfen, Lukas; Mubarak, Hazem; Hild, François

    2013-01-01

    A feasibility study of measuring 3D displacement fields in the bulk during ductile crack initiation via combined Synchrotron Radiation Computed Laminography (SRCL) and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) is performed. In contrast to Tomography, SRCL is a technique that is particularly adapted to obtain in 3D reconstructed volumes of objects that are laterally extended (i.e., in 2 directions) and thin in the third direction, i.e. sheet-like objects. In-situ laminography data of an initiating crac...

  4. Use of 3-D magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography in detecting human cerebral stroke: a simulation study*

    Gao, Nuo; Zhu, Shan-an; He, Bin

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a new three dimensional (3-D) conductivity imaging approach and have used it to detect human brain conductivity changes corresponding to acute cerebral stroke. The proposed Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) approach is based on the J-Substitution algorithm and is expanded to imaging 3-D subject conductivity distribution changes. Computer simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the present MREIT imaging approach. Simulations of both types o...

  5. Hybrid 3D pregnant woman and fetus modeling from medical imaging for dosimetry studies

    Numerical simulations studying the interactions between radiations and biological tissues require the use of three-dimensional models of the human anatomy at various ages and in various positions. Several detailed and flexible models exist for adults and children and have been extensively used for dosimetry. On the other hand, progress of simulation studies focusing on pregnant women and the fetus have been limited by the fact that only a small number of models exist with rather coarse anatomical details and a poor representation of the anatomical variability of the fetus shape and its position over the entire gestation. In this paper, we propose a new computational framework to generate 3D hybrid models of pregnant women, composed of fetus shapes segmented from medical images and a generic maternal body envelope representing a synthetic woman scaled to the dimension of the uterus. The computational framework includes the following tasks: image segmentation, contour regularization, mesh-based surface reconstruction, and model integration. A series of models was created to represent pregnant women at different gestational stages and with the fetus in different positions, all including detailed tissues of the fetus and the utero-fetal unit, which play an important role in dosimetry. These models were anatomically validated by clinical obstetricians and radiologists who verified the accuracy and representativeness of the anatomical details, and the positioning of the fetus inside the maternal body. The computational framework enables the creation of detailed, realistic, and representative fetus models from medical images, directly exploitable for dosimetry simulations. (orig.)

  6. Numerical study of elastic turbulence in a 3D curvilinear micro-channel

    Zhang, Hongna; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Li, Fengchen

    2012-11-01

    Elastic turbulence is an intriguing phenomenon of viscoelastic fluid flow, and dominated by the strong nonlinear elasticity due to the existence of flexible microstructures. It implies the possibility to generate a turbulent state (so-called an elastic turbulence) in the micro-scale devices by introducing the viscoelastic fluids, which could significantly enhance the mixing efficiency therein. Several experiments have been carried out to study its characteristics and underlying physics. However, the difficulty in measuring the flow information and behaviors of the microstructures, especially in the cross section normal to the mean flow direction, limits our current understanding and controlling. In the present study, the nondimensionalization method in which the characteristic velocity is defined as the ratio of the solution viscosity to the width of the channel was adopted to simulate the elastic turbulence in the micro-scale devices. And the elastic turbulent flow was obtained numerically in the 3D curvilinear micro-channel. Therein, the characteristics of the velocity field and polymer's behavior are discussed. Moreover, the energy transfer between the kinetic energy and the polymer's elastic energy is also investigated to understand its physical mechanism. Supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science research fellowship and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology via `Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming' of Global Center of Excellence (G-COE) program (J-051).

  7. 3D Printing Surgical Implants at the clinic: A Experimental Study on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Liu, An; Xue, Guang-huai; Sun, Miao; Shao, Hui-feng; Ma, Chi-yuan; Gao, Qing; Gou, Zhong-ru; Yan, Shi-gui; Liu, Yan-ming; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers (D3DPs) have become a popular tool for fabricating personalized consumer products, favored for low cost, easy operation, and other advantageous qualities. This study focused on the potential for using D3DPs to successfully, rapidly, and economically print customized implants at medical clinics. An experiment was conducted on a D3DP-printed anterior cruciate ligament surgical implant using a rabbit model. A well-defined, orthogonal, porous PLA screw-like scaffold was printed, then coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) to improve its osteoconductivity. As an internal fixation as well as an ideal cell delivery system, the osteogenic scaffold loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated through both in vitro and in vivo tests to observe bone-ligament healing via cell therapy. The MSCs suspended in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel on PLA/HA screw-like scaffold showed the highest cell proliferation and osteogenesis in vitro. In vivo assessment of rabbit anterior cruciate ligament models for 4 and 12 weeks showed that the PLA/HA screw-like scaffold loaded with MSCs suspended in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel exhibited significant bone ingrowth and bone-graft interface formation within the bone tunnel. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that fabricating surgical implants at the clinic (fab@clinic) with D3DPs can be feasible, effective, and economical. PMID:26875826

  8. A parametric study of mucociliary transport by numerical simulations of 3D non-homogeneous mucus.

    Chatelin, Robin; Poncet, Philippe

    2016-06-14

    Mucociliary clearance is the natural flow of the mucus which covers and protects the lung from the outer world. Pathologies, like cystic fibrosis, highly change the biological parameters of the mucus flow leading to stagnation situations and pathogens proliferation. As the lung exhibits a complex dyadic structure, in-vivo experimental study of mucociliary clearance is almost impossible and numerical simulations can bring important knowledge about this biological flow. This paper brings a detailed study of the biological parameters influence on the mucociliary clearance, in particular for pathological situations such as cystic fibrosis. Using recent suitable numerical methods, a non-homogeneous mucus flow (including non-linearities) can be simulated efficiently in 3D, allowing the identification of the meaningful parameters involved in this biological flow. Among these parameters, it is shown that the mucus viscosity, the stiffness transition between pericilliary fluid and mucus, the pericilliary fluid height as well as both cilia length and beating frequency have a great influence on the mucociliary transport. PMID:27126985

  9. A novel code for numerical 3-D MHD studies of CME expansion

    J. Kleimann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent third-order, essentially non-oscillatory central scheme to advance the equations of single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD in time has been implemented into a new numerical code. This code operates on a 3-D Cartesian, non-staggered grid, and is able to handle shock-like gradients without producing spurious oscillations.

    To demonstrate the suitability of our code for the simulation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs and similar heliospheric transients, we present selected results from test cases and perform studies of the solar wind expansion during phases of minimum solar activity. We can demonstrate convergence of the system into a stable Parker-like steady state for both hydrodynamic and MHD winds. The model is subsequently applied to expansion studies of CME-like plasma bubbles, and their evolution is monitored until a stationary state similar to the initial one is achieved. In spite of the model's (current simplicity, we can confirm the CME's nearly self-similar evolution close to the Sun, thus highlighting the importance of detailed modelling especially at small heliospheric radii.

    Additionally, alternative methods to implement boundary conditions at the coronal base, as well as strategies to ensure a solenoidal magnetic field, are discussed and evaluated.

  10. Potentiometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of 3d transition metal ions with inositol hexakisphosphate

    Veiga, Nicolás; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos; Torres, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Among myo-inositol phosphates, the most abundant in nature is the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6. Although it is known to be vital to cell functioning, the biochemical research into its metabolism needs chemical and structural analysis of all the protonation, complexation and precipitation processes that it undergoes in the biological media. In view of its high negative charge at physiological level, our group has been leading a thorough research into the InsP6 chemical and structural behavior in the presence of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions essential for life. The aim of this article is to extend these studies, dealing with the chemical and structural features of the InsP6 interaction with biologically relevant 3d transition metal ions (Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)), in a non-interacting medium and under simulated physiological conditions. The metal-complex stability constants were determined by potentiometry, showing under ligand-excess conditions the formation of mononuclear species in different protonation states. Under metal ion excess, polymetallic species were detected for Fe(II), Fe(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II). Additionally, the 31P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic studies provided interesting structural aspects of the strong metal ion-InsP6 interaction.

  11. Virtual reconstruction of old implements by rendering and 3D modeling: Ergonomic study

    Emilio Ramírez-Juidías

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout human history, agricultural machinery has been an inseparable part of their socio-cultural evolution, leading to an interconnection of rural knowledge between different cultures and civilizations. This along with both the particular needs of each settlement as knowledge of technology, led to the development of a variety of agricultural plows, each of which performed, perfectly, the mission for which it had been made. In this study a total of three agricultural plows (seeder, moldboard plow and brush cutter, indispensables for the development of any agricultural community, were analyzed through different chrono-archaeological categories in order to find the relationship between technological development and its ergonomic characteristics. The results show how the first farming implements designed and used by humans keep the same basic design principle in different cultures and civilizations that have existed, although the inclusion of small changes to the original design has evolved slowly, but steadily, over time. The use of 3D design software has been very important for this study.

  12. Study of Electron Acceleration and Multiple Dipolarization Fronts in 3D kinetic models

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Walker, Raymond; El-Alaoui, Mostafa

    2014-05-01

    The THEMIS mission encountered a depolarization front (DF) during a magnetotail crossing in the interval 035600 - 035900 UT on February 15, 2008 [1]. We present the results of an innovative investigative approach: we combine a global MHD model of the full Earth environment with a local PIC simulation. The global MHD view is provided on the UCLA model applied to the conditions for the interval of interest on Feb 15, 2008. At the specific time of 034800UT, a reconnection site first appear at about x=-15RE, y=4RE. We then use this specific MHD state as the initial setup for a fully kinetic PIC simulation, performed with the iPic3D code [2]. We consider a one way coupling where the MHD state is used as initial state and boundary conditions for the kinetic study [3]. In the present case, the time span of the kinetic simulation is short form the perspective of the global MHD simulation and does not require a full coupling where the MHD then process the information received back from the kinetic run [4]. The fields and particles are advanced self-consistently from the MHD state using a completely kinetic treatment. Many features missed by the MHD model emerge. Most notably a fast reconnection pattern develops and an unsteady reconnection process develops. The typical signatures of fast kinetic reconnection (Hall field) are observed and particle acceleration is obtained self consistently in the fields generated by the PIC simulation. The focus of the presentation will be the mechanisms of unsteady reconnection leading to multiple DFs. We observe intense wave activity propagating off the separatrices. We conduct a spectral analysis to isolate the different wave components in the lower hybrid and whistler regime. The unsteady reconnection and multiple DFs are also analysed in their impact on the energy transfer. We track the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy and Poynting flux. The processes observed in the simulation are then compared with in situ THEMIS data

  13. 3D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion: A case study from the Musgrave Region, South Australia

    Cox, L. H.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Sunwall, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysicists know and accept that geology is inherently 3D, and is resultant from complex, overlapping processes related to genesis, metamorphism, deformation, alteration, weathering, and/or hydrogeology. Yet, the geophysics community has long relied on qualitative analysis, conductivity depth imaging (CDIs), 1D inversion, and/or plate modeling. There are many reasons for this deficiency, not the least of which has been the lack of capacity for historic 3D AEM inversion algorithms to invert entire surveys so as to practically affect exploration decisions. Our recent introduction of a moving sensitivity domain (footprint) methodology has been a paradigm shift in AEM interpretation. The basis of this method is that one needs only to calculate the responses and sensitivities for that part of the 3D earth model that is within the AEM system's sensitivity domain (footprint), and then superimpose all sensitivity domains into a single, sparse sensitivity matrix for the entire 3D earth model which is then updated in a regularized inversion scheme. This has made it practical to rigorously invert entire surveys with thousands of line kilometers of AEM data to mega-cell 3D models in hours using multi-processor workstations. Since 2010, over eighty individual projects have been completed for Aerodat, AEROTEM, DIGHEM, GEOTEM, HELITEM, HoisTEM, MEGATEM, RepTEM, RESOLVE, SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPEST, and VTEM data from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, the US, and Zambia. Examples of 3D AEM inversion have been published for a variety of applications, including mineral exploration, oil sands exploration, salinity, permafrost, and bathymetry mapping. In this paper, we present a comparison of 3D inversions for SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPET and VTEM data acquired over the same area in the Musgrave region of South Australia for exploration under cover.

  14. 3-D microphysical model studies of Arctic denitrification: comparison with observations

    S. Davies

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of Arctic denitrification using a 3-D chemistry-microphysics transport model are compared with observations for the winters 1994/1995, 1996/1997 and 1999/2000. The model of Denitrification by Lagrangian Particle Sedimentation (DLAPSE couples the full chemical scheme of the 3-D chemical transport model, SLIMCAT, with a nitric acid trihydrate (NAT growth and sedimentation scheme. We use observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and Improved Limb Atmospheric Sounder (ILAS satellite instruments, the balloon-borne Michelsen Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B, and the in situ NOy instrument on-board the ER-2. As well as directly comparing model results with observations, we also assess the extent to which these observations are able to validate the modelling approach taken. For instance, in 1999/2000 the model captures the temporal development of denitrification observed by the ER-2 from late January into March. However, in this winter the vortex was already highly denitrified by late January so the observations do not provide a strong constraint on the modelled rate of denitrification. The model also reproduces the MLS observations of denitrification in early February 2000. In 1996/1997 the model captures the timing and magnitude of denitrification as observed by ILAS, although the lack of observations north of ~67° N make it difficult to constrain the actual timing of onset. The comparison for this winter does not support previous conclusions that denitrification must be caused by an ice-mediated process. In 1994/1995 the model notably underestimates the magnitude of denitrification observed during a single balloon flight of the MIPAS-B instrument. Agreement between model and MLS HNO3 at 68 hPa in mid-February 1995 was significantly better. Sensitivity tests show that a 1.5 K overall decrease in vortex temperatures or a factor 4 increase in assumed NAT nucleation rates produce the best

  15. Beam test studies of 3D pixel sensors irradiated non-uniformly for the ATLAS forward physics detector

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper

  16. Beam test studies of 3D pixel sensors irradiated non-uniformly for the ATLAS forward physics detector

    Grinstein, S., E-mail: sgrinstein@ifae.es [ICREA and Institut de Física d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Baselga, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Trento (Italy); Christophersen, M. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington (United States); Da Via, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Fadeyev, V. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); Fleta, C. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Gemme, C. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park (United States); Jimenez, A.; Lopez, I.; Micelli, A. [ICREA and Institut de Física d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Nelist, C. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Parker, S. [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (United States); Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Phlips, B. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington (United States); Pohl, D.-L. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Sadrozinski, H.F.-W. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  17. Beam Test Studies of 3D Pixel Sensors Irradiated Non-Uniformly for the ATLAS Forward Physics Detector

    Grinstein, S; Boscardin, M; Christophersen, M; Da Via, C; Betta, G -F Dalla; Darbo, G; Fadeyev, V; Fleta, C; Gemme, C; Grenier, P; Jimenez, A; Lopez, I; Micelli, A; Nelist, C; Parker, S; Pellegrini, G; Phlips, B; Pohl, D L; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sicho, P; Tsiskaridze, S

    2013-01-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  18. Tracing terrestrial DOC in the Baltic Sea—A 3-D model study

    Fransner, Filippa; Nycander, Jonas; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Humborg, Christoph; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hordoir, Robinson; Gustafsson, Erik; Deutsch, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The fate of terrestrial organic matter brought to the coastal seas by rivers and its role in the global carbon cycle are still not very well known. Here the degradation rate of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOCter) is studied in the Baltic Sea, a subarctic semienclosed sea, by releasing it as a tracer in a 3-D circulation model and applying linear decay constants. A good agreement with available observational data is obtained by parameterizing the degradation in two rather different ways: one by applying a decay time on the order of 10 years to the whole pool of DOCter and one by dividing the DOCter into one refractory pool and one pool subject to a decay time on the order of 1 year. The choice of parameterization has a significant effect on where in the Baltic Sea the removal takes place, which can be of importance when modeling the full carbon cycle and the CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In both cases the biogeochemical decay operates on time scales less than the water residence time. Therefore, only a minor fraction of the DOCter reaches the North Sea, whereas approximately 80% is removed by internal sinks within the Baltic Sea. This further implies that DOCter mineralization is an important link in land-sea-atmosphere cycling of carbon in coastal and shelf seas that are heavily influenced by riverine DOC.

  19. Thermocapillary bubble flow and coalescence in a rotating cylinder: A 3D study

    Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, A.; Al-mazidi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The process of thermocapillary bubbles rising in a rotating 3D cylinder in zero gravity was analysed and presented numerically with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by means of the volume of fluid (VOF) method. Calculations were carried out to investigate in detail the effect of the rotational speed of the hosted liquid on the trajectory of both single and group bubbles driven by the Marangoni force in zero-gravity conditions. For rotational speeds from 0.25 to 2 rad/s, bubble displacement with angular motion was found to be directed between the hotter surface and the rotational axis. This is contrary to the conventional bubble flow from areas of high pressure to low pressure, radial direction, or from cold to hot regions, axial direction. The results demonstrate that for the ratio of rotational speeds to the thermocapillary bubble velocity larger than unity, the surface tension gradient is the dominant force and the bubble motion towards the hotter. On the other hand, for ratio less than 1, the bubble motion is dominated and is significantly affected by centrifugal force. As rotation speed increases, the amount of deflection increases and the Marangoni effect vanishes. The current study is novel in the sense that single- and multi-bubble motion incorporating thermocapillary forces in a rotating liquid in a zero-gravity environment has never been numerically investigated.

  20. FUN3D Grid Refinement and Adaptation Studies for the Ares Launch Vehicle

    Bartels, Robert E.; Vasta, Veer; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Park, Mike; Mineck, Raymond E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents grid refinement and adaptation studies performed in conjunction with computational aeroelastic analyses of the Ares crew launch vehicle (CLV). The unstructured grids used in this analysis were created with GridTool and VGRID while the adaptation was performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code FUN3D with a feature based adaptation software tool. GridTool was developed by ViGYAN, Inc. while the last three software suites were developed by NASA Langley Research Center. The feature based adaptation software used here operates by aligning control volumes with shock and Mach line structures and by refining/de-refining where necessary. It does not redistribute node points on the surface. This paper assesses the sensitivity of the complex flow field about a launch vehicle to grid refinement. It also assesses the potential of feature based grid adaptation to improve the accuracy of CFD analysis for a complex launch vehicle configuration. The feature based adaptation shows the potential to improve the resolution of shocks and shear layers. Further development of the capability to adapt the boundary layer and surface grids of a tetrahedral grid is required for significant improvements in modeling the flow field.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, antifungal evaluation and 3D-QSAR study of phenylhydrazine substituted tetronic acid derivatives.

    Hu, Ying; Wang, Junjun; Lu, Aimin; Yang, Chunlong

    2014-08-15

    A series of 3-(1-(2-(substituted phenyl)hydrazinyl)alkylidene)furan-2,4(3H,5H)-diones were designed and prepared using two synthetic routes. Their structures were confirmed by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS, elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their bioactivity was evaluated against Botrytis cinerea in vitro. Most target compounds exhibited remarkable antifungal activity. Two compounds 7f and 7h were highly effective and their EC50 values were 0.241 μg/mL and 0.167 μg/mL, respectively, close to that of the control drug procymidone. 3D-QSAR studies of CoMFA and CoMSIA were carried out. Models with good predictive ability were generated with the cross validated q(2) values for CoMFA and CoMSIA being 0.565 and 0.823. Conventional r(2) values were 0.983 and 0.945, respectively. The results provided a practical tool for guiding the design and synthesis of novel and more potent tetronic acid derivatives containing substituted phenylhydrazine moiety. PMID:25042337

  2. Study of CT-based positron range correction in high resolution 3D PET imaging

    Positron range limits the spatial resolution of PET images and has a different effect for different isotopes and positron propagation materials. Therefore it is important to consider it during image reconstruction, in order to obtain optimal image quality. Positron range distributions for most common isotopes used in PET in different materials were computed using the Monte Carlo simulations with PeneloPET. The range profiles were introduced into the 3D OSEM image reconstruction software FIRST and employed to blur the image either in the forward projection or in the forward and backward projection. The blurring introduced takes into account the different materials in which the positron propagates. Information on these materials may be obtained, for instance, from a segmentation of a CT image. The results of introducing positron blurring in both forward and backward projection operations was compared to using it only during forward projection. Further, the effect of different shapes of positron range profile in the quality of the reconstructed images with positron range correction was studied. For high positron energy isotopes, the reconstructed images show significant improvement in spatial resolution when positron range is taken into account during reconstruction, compared to reconstructions without positron range modeling.

  3. Study of CT-based positron range correction in high resolution 3D PET imaging

    Cal-Gonzalez, J., E-mail: jacobo@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Herraiz, J.L. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Vicente, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Herranz, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Dpto. de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Positron range limits the spatial resolution of PET images and has a different effect for different isotopes and positron propagation materials. Therefore it is important to consider it during image reconstruction, in order to obtain optimal image quality. Positron range distributions for most common isotopes used in PET in different materials were computed using the Monte Carlo simulations with PeneloPET. The range profiles were introduced into the 3D OSEM image reconstruction software FIRST and employed to blur the image either in the forward projection or in the forward and backward projection. The blurring introduced takes into account the different materials in which the positron propagates. Information on these materials may be obtained, for instance, from a segmentation of a CT image. The results of introducing positron blurring in both forward and backward projection operations was compared to using it only during forward projection. Further, the effect of different shapes of positron range profile in the quality of the reconstructed images with positron range correction was studied. For high positron energy isotopes, the reconstructed images show significant improvement in spatial resolution when positron range is taken into account during reconstruction, compared to reconstructions without positron range modeling.

  4. Study on a robust insert-bump (ISB) bonding technique for a 3D package

    Lee, J. H.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, S. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding process, commonly used in bonding technology for the 3D stacking of TSV (through silicon via) formed chips, requires an additional process for the generation of bumps on the face and back-side of the chip, and it has a drawback in that it is structurally vulnerable to mechanical stresses, such as thermal stress. This study proposes an ISB (insert-bump) bonding process to overcome such drawbacks. Compared to the conventional Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding process, the ISB bonding process has advantages in that it is simple and has high mechanical reliability of the package due to the mechanical interlocking. The stress distributions at the joints of the packages produced from Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding and ISB processes were compared and analyzed through FEM analyses, and characteristics analyses of the fracture mode and joint characteristics; process variable optimization with respect to the bonding parameters was also conducted through experiments. The results of the analyses and experiments verified that the ISB bonding process yields a bonding strength of 917.6 mgf/bump, which is approximately twice as much as that of the conventional Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding, and which yields a highly reliable mechanical structure.

  5. Intraosseous rotation of the scaphoid: assessment by using a 3D CT model - an anatomic study

    Schmidle, Gernot; Gabl, Markus [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Rieger, Michael [Regional Hospital Hall, Department of Radiology, Hall in Tirol (Austria); Klauser, Andrea Sabine; Thauerer, Michael [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Hoermann, Romed [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology-Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess intraosseous rotation as the third dimension of scaphoid anatomy on a 3D CT model using common volume rendering software to impact anatomical reconstruction of scaphoid fractures. CT images of 13 cadaver wrist pairs were acquired. Reference axes for the alignment of distal and proximal scaphoid poles were defined three-dimensionally. Two methods for rotation measurement - the reference axis method (RAM) and the scapho-trapezio-trapezoidal joint method (STTM) - were developed and compared by three independent observers. Rotation measured by the RAM averaged 66.9 ± 7 for the right and 67.2 ± 5.8 for the left wrists. Using the STTM there was a mean rotation of 68.6 ± 6.6 for the right and 68.6 ± 6.8 for the left wrists. The overall results showed a significant variability of the measured values between different specimens (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between left and right wrists of the same specimen, neither for the RAM (P = 0.268) nor for the STTM (P = 0.774). Repeatability coefficients between the observers were low, indicating good repeatability. The presented methods are practical tools to quantify intraosseous rotation between distal and proximal scaphoid poles using common volume rendering software. For clinical application the opposite side provides the best reference values to assess malrotation in scaphoid fracture cases. (orig.)

  6. 3D modeling of soil structure in urban groundwater areas: case studies in Kolpene, Rovaniemi, Finland

    Kupila, Juho

    2015-04-01

    3D modeling of groundwater areas is an important research method in groundwater surveys. Model of geological soil structure improves the knowledge of linkage between land use planning and groundwater protection. Results can be used as base information when developing the water supply services and anticipating and performing the measures needed in case of environmental accidents. Also, collected information is utilized when creating the groundwater flow model. In Finland, structure studies have been conducted in cooperation (among others) with the municipalities and local water suppliers and with the authorities from the Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment. Geological Survey of Finland carries out project "Structure studies in Kolpene groundwater area" in Rovaniemi, Finnish Lapland. Study site is located in northern Finland, in the vicinity of the city center of Rovaniemi. Extent of the area is about 13 square kilometers and there are lots of urban residential areas and other human activities. The objective of this project is to determine the geological structure of the Kolpene groundwater area so that the results can be used to estimate the validity of the present exclusion area and possible risks to the groundwater caused by the land use. Soil layers of the groundwater area are studied by means of collecting information by heavy drilling, geophysical surveying (ground penetrating radar and gravimeter measurements) and water sampling from the installed observation pipes. Also the general geological and hydrological mappings are carried out. Main results which will be produced are: 1) the model of the bedrock surface, 2) the model of the surface of the ground water and flow directions, 3) the thickness of ground water saturated soil layers and 4) location and main characteristics of the soil layers which are significant to the ground water conditions. The preparing studies have been started at the end of 2013 and the results will be

  7. Digital Curvatures Applied to 3D Object Analysis and Recognition: A Case Study

    Chen, Li

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose using curvatures in digital space for 3D object analysis and recognition. Since direct adjacency has only six types of digital surface points in local configurations, it is easy to determine and classify the discrete curvatures for every point on the boundary of a 3D object. Unlike the boundary simplicial decomposition (triangulation), the curvature can take any real value. It sometimes makes difficulties to find a right value for threshold. This paper focuses on the global properties of categorizing curvatures for small regions. We use both digital Gaussian curvatures and digital mean curvatures to 3D shapes. This paper proposes a multi-scale method for 3D object analysis and a vector method for 3D similarity classification. We use these methods for face recognition and shape classification. We have found that the Gaussian curvatures mainly describe the global features and average characteristics such as the five regions of a human face. However, mean curvatures can be used to find ...

  8. Retrieval of cloud microphysical parameters from INSAT-3D: a feasibility study using radiative transfer simulations

    Jinya, John; Bipasha, Paul S.

    2016-05-01

    Clouds strongly modulate the Earths energy balance and its atmosphere through their interaction with the solar and terrestrial radiation. They interact with radiation in various ways like scattering, emission and absorption. By observing these changes in radiation at different wavelength, cloud properties can be estimated. Cloud properties are of utmost importance in studying different weather and climate phenomena. At present, no satellite provides cloud microphysical parameters over the Indian region with high temporal resolution. INSAT-3D imager observations in 6 spectral channels from geostationary platform offer opportunity to study continuous cloud properties over Indian region. Visible (0.65 μm) and shortwave-infrared (1.67 μm) channel radiances can be used to retrieve cloud microphysical parameters such as cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud effective radius (CER). In this paper, we have carried out a feasibility study with the objective of cloud microphysics retrieval. For this, an inter-comparison of 15 globally available radiative transfer models (RTM) were carried out with the aim of generating a Look-up- Table (LUT). SBDART model was chosen for the simulations. The sensitivity of each spectral channel to different cloud properties was investigated. The inputs to the RT model were configured over our study region (50°S - 50°N and 20°E - 130°E) and a large number of simulations were carried out using random input vectors to generate the LUT. The determination of cloud optical thickness and cloud effective radius from spectral reflectance measurements constitutes the inverse problem and is typically solved by comparing the measured reflectances with entries in LUT and searching for the combination of COT and CER that gives the best fit. The products are available on the website www.mosdac.gov.in

  9. Modeling blood flow circulation in intracranial arterial networks: a comparative 3D/1D simulation study.

    Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E

    2011-01-01

    We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645

  10. Studies of mixed HEU-LEU-MTR cores using 3D models

    Haenggi, P.; Lehmann, E.; Hammer, J.; Christen, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    Several different core loadings were assembled at the SAPHIR research reactor in Switzerland combining the available types of MTR-type fuel elements, consisting mainly of both HEU and LEU fuel. Bearing in mind the well known problems which can occur in such configurations (especially power peaking), investigations have been carried out for each new loading with a 2D neutron transport code (BOXER). The axial effects were approximated by a global buckling value and therefore the radial effects could be studied in considerably detail. Some of the results were reported at earlier RERTR meetings and were compared to those obtained by other methods and with experimental values. For the explicit study of the third dimension of the core, another code (SILWER), which has been developed in PSI for LWR power plant cores, has been selected. With the help of an adapted model for the MTR-core of SAPHIR, several important questions have been addressed. Among other aspects, the estimation of the axial contribution to the hot channel factors, the influence of the control rod position and of the Xe-poisoning on the power distribution were studied. Special attention was given to a core position where a new element was assumed placed near a empty, water filled position. The comparison of elements of low and high enrichments at this position was made in terms of the induced power peaks, with explicit consideration of axial effects. The program SILWER has proven to be applicable to MTR-cores for the investigation of axial effects. For routine use as for the support of reactor operation, this 3D code is a good supplement to the standard 2D model.

  11. Study of a viewer tracking system with multiview 3D display

    Yang, Jinn-Cherng; Wu, Chang-Shuo; Hsiao, Chuan-Heng; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Liu, Wen-Chieh; Hung, Yi-Ping

    2008-02-01

    An autostereoscopic display provides users great enjoyment of stereo visualization without uncomfortable and inconvenient drawbacks of wearing stereo glasses. However, bandwidth constraints of current multi-view 3D display severely restrict the number of views that can be simultaneously displayed without degrading resolution or increasing display cost unacceptably. An alternative to multiple view presentation is that the position of observer can be measured by using viewer-tracking sensor. It is a very important module of the viewer-tracking component for fluently rendering and accurately projecting the stereo video. In order to render stereo content with respect to user's view points and to optically project the content onto the left and right eyes of the user accurately, the real-time viewer tracking technique that allows the user to move around freely when watching the autostereoscopic display is developed in this study. It comprises the face detection by using multiple eigenspaces of various lighting conditions, fast block matching for tracking four motion parameters of the user's face region. The Edge Orientation Histogram (EOH) on Real AdaBoost to improve the performance of original AdaBoost algorithm is also applied in this study. The AdaBoost algorithm using Haar feature in OpenCV library developed by Intel to detect human face and enhance the accuracy performance with rotating image. The frame rate of viewer tracking process can achieve up to 15 Hz. Since performance of the viewer tracking autostereoscopic display is still influenced under variant environmental conditions, the accuracy, robustness and efficiency of the viewer-tracking system are evaluated in this study.

  12. 3D Surface Realignment Tracking for Medical Imaging: A Phantom Study with PET Motion Correction

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl;

    2011-01-01

    is equipped with a near infrared diode and uses phase-shift interferometry to compute 3D representations of the forehead of the patient. These 3D point clouds are progressively aligned to a reference surface and thereby giving the head pose changes. The estimated pose changes are used to reposition a......We present a complete system for motion correction in high resolution brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It is based on a compact structured light scanner mounted above the patient tunnel of the Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph PET brain scanner. The structured light system...

  13. Study of 3-D Numerical Simulation for Gas Transfer in the Goaf of the Coal Mining

    WU Zheng-yan; JIANG Shu-guang; HE Xin-jian; WANG Lan-yun; LIN Bai-quan

    2007-01-01

    In order to simulate field distribution rules, mathematical models for 3-D air flows and gas transfer in the goaf of the coal mining are established, based on theories of permeability and dynamic dispersion through porous media. A gas dispersion equation in a 3-D field is calculated by use of numerical method on a weighted upstream multi-element balance. Based on data of an example with a U type ventilation mode, surface charts of air pressure distribution and gas concentration are drawn by Graphtool software. Finally, a comparison between actually measured results in the model test and the numerical simulation results is made to proves the numerical implementation feasible.

  14. Measurement of the 3D arterial wall strain tensor using intravascular B-mode ultrasound images: a feasibility study

    Liang, Yun; Zhu, Hui; Friedman, Morton H.

    2010-11-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography is a promising tool for studying atherosclerotic plaque composition and assessing plaque vulnerability. Current IVUS elastography techniques can measure the 1D or 2D strain of the vessel wall using various motion tracking algorithms. Since biological soft tissue tends to deform non-uniformly in 3D, measurement of the complete 3D strain tensor is desirable for more rigorous analysis of arterial wall mechanics. In this paper, we extend our previously developed method of 2D arterial wall strain measurement based on non-rigid image registration into 3D strain measurement. The new technique registers two image volumes acquired from the same vessel segment under different levels of luminal pressure and longitudinal stress. The 3D displacement field obtained from the image registration is used to calculate the local 3D strain tensor. From the 3D strain tensor, radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain distributions can be obtained and displayed. This strain tensor measurement method is validated and evaluated using IVUS images of healthy porcine carotid arteries subjected to a luminal pressure increase and longitudinal stretch. The ability of the algorithm to overcome systematic noise was tested, as well as the consistency of the results under different longitudinal frame resolutions.

  15. Theoretical study of relative width of photonic band gap for the 3-D dielectric structure

    G K Johri; Akhilesh Tiwari; Saumya Saxena; Rajesh Sharma; Kuldeep Srivastava; Manoj Johri

    2002-03-01

    Calculations for the relative width (/0) as a function of refractive index and relative radius of the photonic band gap for the fcc closed packed 3-D dielectric microstructure are reported and comparison of experimental observations and theoretical predictions are given. This work is useful for the understanding of photonic crystals and occurrence of the photonic band gap.

  16. Case study of the 3D model in ANGRA 3 project

    The 3D modeling has been increasingly used in NPP - Nuclear Power Plant from its design to its life cycle management. This paper presents experiences and developments regarding the methods applied for 3D Model in the Angra 3 NPP design using proprietary software PDS® - Plant Design System, and complementary in-house software developed by ETN. A description of the adopted methodology in all disciplines such as piping, piping support, equipment, civil, steel structure, HVAC and electrical will be detailed. The PDS® system is a comprehensive, intelligent computer-aided design/engineering application for plant design, construction, and operations. The use of PDS® and the developed tools has resulted in optimization in the design process as well as the project execution. After the design phase during the erection, commissioning and start-up of the plant, the 3D Model will be strongly helpful to obtain basic data about plant components such as piping, supports, valves, equipment and pumps. They can be easily found, opened, visualized and their properties analyzed in seconds. A corresponding data-base can also provide several different information queries. Furthermore the detailed 3D Model in the as-built condition can be used during operation and in-service inspections, reducing maintenance costs and improving safety of workers. It can also be used as an additional tool in training new operators.(author)

  17. Case study of the 3D model in ANGRA 3 project

    Faloppa, Altair A., E-mail: afaloppa@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Elias, Marcos V., E-mail: mvelias@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento GTP-T; Widuch, Lutzian, E-mail: Lutzian.Widuch@areva.com [AREVA GmbH, Engineering Methods and CAD Tools, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The 3D modeling has been increasingly used in NPP - Nuclear Power Plant from its design to its life cycle management. This paper presents experiences and developments regarding the methods applied for 3D Model in the Angra 3 NPP design using proprietary software PDS® - Plant Design System, and complementary in-house software developed by ETN. A description of the adopted methodology in all disciplines such as piping, piping support, equipment, civil, steel structure, HVAC and electrical will be detailed. The PDS® system is a comprehensive, intelligent computer-aided design/engineering application for plant design, construction, and operations. The use of PDS® and the developed tools has resulted in optimization in the design process as well as the project execution. After the design phase during the erection, commissioning and start-up of the plant, the 3D Model will be strongly helpful to obtain basic data about plant components such as piping, supports, valves, equipment and pumps. They can be easily found, opened, visualized and their properties analyzed in seconds. A corresponding data-base can also provide several different information queries. Furthermore the detailed 3D Model in the as-built condition can be used during operation and in-service inspections, reducing maintenance costs and improving safety of workers. It can also be used as an additional tool in training new operators.(author)

  18. Development and Validation of a 3D Clinostat for the Study of Cells during Microgravity Simulation.

    Russomano, T; Cardoso, R; Falcao, F; Dalmarco, G; V Dos Santos, C; F Dos Santos, L; G de Azevedo, D; Dos Santos, M; Martinelli, L; Motta, J; Forraz, N; McGuckin, C

    2005-01-01

    The clinostat was originally used to find out why plant roots appear to grow predominantly toward the center of the Earth. Over the last 2-3 decades, slow- and fast-rotating 2D and 3D clinostats have been used to assess cellular adaptation to this environment. A cell culture is placed in a spin module of the clinostat platform and its rotation is set empirically (2-3 rpm). The machine is then allowed to run for a specified period (hours to days) after which the cultures are removed and assayed for specific properties, such as cell growth, size and shape, distribution of receptors, integrity of the cytoskeleton or gene expression. A 3D clinostat was developed by the Microgravity Laboratory/IPCT-PUCRS group and validated by the Stem Cell Group of Kingston University London, which used 4 different types of human cancer cells and cord blood stem cells (CBSC). After rotation for 19h at 37degC, 5%CO2 humidified atmosphere, the 3D clinostat significantly improved proliferation potential of all tested cell populations when compared to static cultures. After only 5 days, high definition microscopic analysis revealed that all CBSC adhered and expanded onto the BDtrade 3D collagen composite scaffolds, and cross-developed into hepatocyte-like cells upon stimulation. PMID:17282243

  19. Initial design of an LADM-based 3D Cadastre - Case study from Korea

    Jeong, D.H.; Jang, B.B.; Lee, J.Y.; Hong, S.I.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; de Zeeuw, K.; Stoter, J.E.; Lemmen, C.H.J.; Zevenbergen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Korea and The Netherlands have started a 3 year cooperation covering joint research, capacity building and international advisory in the domain of cadastre and land administration with a special focus on 3D developments. At the Korean side the Korea Cadastral Survey Corporation and the University of

  20. Mid-latitude ozone changes: studies with a 3-D CTM forced by ERA-40 analyses

    W. Feng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used an off-line three-dimensional (3-D chemical transport model (CTM to study long-term changes in stratospheric O3. The model was run from 1977–2004 and forced by ECMWF ERA-40 and operational analyses. Model runs were performed to examine the impact of increasing halogens and additional stratospheric bromine from short-lived source gases. The analyses capture much of the observed interannual variability in column ozone, but there are also unrealistic features. In particular the ERA-40 analyses cause a large positive anomaly in northern hemisphere (NH column O3 in the late 1980s. Also, the change from ERA-40 to operational winds at the start of 2002 introduces abrupt changes in some model fields (e.g. temperature, ozone which affect analysis of trends. The model reproduces the observed column increase in NH mid-latitudes from the mid 1990s. Analysis of a run with fixed halogens shows that this increase is not due to a significant decrease in halogen-induced loss, i.e. is not an indication of recovery. The model predicts only a small decrease in halogen-induced loss after 1999. In the upper stratosphere, despite the modelled turnover of chlorine around 1999, O3 does not increase because of the effects of increasing ECMWF temperatures, decreasing modelled CH4 at this altitude, and abrupt changes in the SH temperatures at the end of the ERA-40 period. The impact of an additional 5 pptv stratospheric bromine from short-lived species decreases mid-latitude column O3 by about 10 DU. However, the impact on the modelled relative O3 anomaly is generally small except during periods of large volcanic loading.

  1. A novel 3-D mineralized tumor model to study breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Siddharth P Pathi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic bone disease is a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with advanced breast cancer, but the role of the bone mineral hydroxyapatite (HA in this process remains unclear. We have developed a novel mineralized 3-D tumor model and have employed this culture system to systematically investigate the pro-metastatic role of HA under physiologically relevant conditions in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were cultured within non-mineralized or mineralized polymeric scaffolds fabricated by a gas foaming-particulate leaching technique. Tumor cell adhesion, proliferation, and secretion of pro-osteoclastic interleukin-8 (IL-8 was increased in mineralized tumor models as compared to non-mineralized tumor models, and IL-8 secretion was more pronounced for bone-specific MDA-MB231 subpopulations relative to lung-specific breast cancer cells. These differences were pathologically significant as conditioned media collected from mineralized tumor models promoted osteoclastogenesis in an IL-8 dependent manner. Finally, drug testing and signaling studies with transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta confirmed the clinical relevance of our culture system and revealed that breast cancer cell behavior is broadly affected by HA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that HA promotes features associated with the neoplastic and metastatic growth of breast carcinoma cells in bone and that IL-8 may play an important role in this process. The developed mineralized tumor models may help to reveal the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that may ultimately enable more efficacious therapy of patients with advanced breast cancer.

  2. 3-D habitat suitability of jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in the Southeastern Pacific, a comprehensive study

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Habasque, Jérémie; Hattab, Tarek; Hintzen, Niels T.; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Demarcq, Hervé; Gerlotto, François

    2016-08-01

    South Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, has an ocean-scale distribution, from the South American coastline to New Zealand and Tasmania. This fish, captured by Humans since the Holocene, is nowadays heavily exploited and its population has decreased substantially since the mid-1990s. The uncertainty associated to jack mackerel population structure currently hampers management. Several hypotheses have been proposed from a single population up to several discrete populations. Still no definitive answer was given. Determining how environmental conditions drive jack mackerel distribution can provide insights on its population structure. To do so, here we performed in three steps. First, we used satellite data to develop a statistical model of jack mackerel horizontal habitat suitability. Model predictions based on interaction between temperature and chlorophyll-a match the observed jack mackerel distribution, even during extreme El Niño event. Second, we studied the impact of oxygen and show that jack mackerel distribution and abundance is correlated to oxygen over a wide variety of scales and avoid low oxygen areas and periods. Third, on the basis of the above we built a conceptual 3D model of jack mackerel habitat in the Southeastern Pacific. We reveal the presence of a low suitable habitat along the Chilean and Peruvian coast, figuratively presenting a closed door caused by a gap in the horizontal habitat at ∼19-22°S and a shallow oxycline off south-centre Peru. This kind of situation likely occurs on a seasonal basis, in austral summer but also at longer temporal scales. A lack of exchanges at some periods/seasons partially isolate jack mackerel distributed off Peru. On the other hand the continuity in the habitat during most of the year explains why exchanges occur. We conclude that the more likely population structure for jack mackerel is a pelagic metapopulation.

  3. Characterization of double modified internal gate pixel by 3D simulation study

    Aurola, A.; Marochkin, V.; Tuuva, T.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a novel detector concept based on Modified Internal Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET) wherein a buried Modified Internal Gate (MIG) is implanted underneath a channel of a FET. In between the MIG and the channel of the FET there is a depleted semiconductor material forming a potential barrier between charges in the channel and similar type signal charges located in the MIG. The signal charges in the MIG have a measurable effect on the conductance of the channel. In this paper a double MIGFET pixel is investigated comprising two MIGFETs. By transferring the signal charges between the two MIGs Non-Destructive Correlated Double Sampling Readout (NDCDSR) is enabled. The proposed MIG radiation detector suits particularly well for low-light-level imaging, X-ray spectroscopy, as well as synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facilities. The reason for the excellent X-ray detection performance stems from the fact that interface related issues can be considerably mitigated since interface generated dark noise can be completely avoided and interface generated 1/f and Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise can be considerably reduced due to a deep buried channel readout configuration. Electrical parameters of the double MIGFET pixel have been evaluated by 3D TCAD simulation study. Simulation results show the absence of interface generated dark noise, significantly reduced interface generated 1/f and RTS noise, well performing NDCDSR operation, and blooming protection due to an inherent vertical anti-blooming structure. In addition, the backside illuminated thick fully depleted pixel design provides a homogeneous radiation entry window, low crosstalk due to lack of diffusion, and good quantum efficiency for low energy X-rays and NIR light. These facts result in excellent Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and very low crosstalk enabling thus excellent X-ray energy and spatial resolution. The simulation demonstrates the charge to current conversion gain for

  4. 3D seismics for geothermal reservoir characterization - a case study from Schneeberg (Germany)

    Hlousek, F.; Hellwig, O.; Buske, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of a 3D seismic survey acquired near Schneeberg in the western Erzgebirge (Germany). The aim of the project is to use seismic exploration methods to image and to characterize a major fault zone in crystalline rock which could be used as a geothermal reservoir at a target depth of about 5-6 km with expected temperatures between 160-180°C. For this purpose a high resolution 3D Vibroseis survey with more than 5300 source and approximately 8000 receiver locations was performed at the end of 2012 and covered an area of approximately 10 km x 13 km. The 3D survey was complemented by an additional wide-angle seismic survey using explosives along eleven profile lines radially centered at the target area. The region itself is dominated by the NW-SE striking Gera-Jáchymov fault system. The main geological features in the survey area are well known from intensive mining activities down to a depth of about 2 km. The seismic investigations aimed at imaging the partly steeply dipping fault branches at greater depth, in particular a dominant steeply NE dipping fault in the central part of the survey area. Beside this main structure, the Gera-Jáchymov fault zone consists of a couple of steeply SW dipping conjugated faults. Advanced processing and imaging methods have been applied to the data set. 3D Kirchhoff prestack depth migration delivered a clear image of the structure of the various fault branches at depths of around 2-5 km. Furthermore, focusing migration methods (e.g. coherency migration) have been applied and even sharpened the image such that the 3D seismic result allows for a profound characterization of this potential geothermal reservoir in crystalline rock.

  5. 2D or 3D? New user interfaces for control rooms in process industries. A feasibility study; 2D eller 3D? Nya graenssnitt foer processindustrins kontrollrum

    Karlsson, MariAnne

    2008-01-15

    Three dimensional user interfaces and techniques for visualisation have been discussed as possible ways to improve the work situation for control room operators in process industries. The aims of the project, which is a pilot project, has been: (i) to compile existing knowledge on the pro's and con's of 2D versus 3D user interfaces in order to assess and conclude if, and how, 3-dimensional visualisations could be applied when designing new user interfaces for modern process control rooms and (ii) to investigate operators' attitudes towards and acceptance of 3-dimensional user interfaces for visualisation of information. The project has included the following activities: a literature review has been completed in order to collect information on different projects and tests in which 3-dimensional user interfaces have been evaluated for different tasks; an identification of feasible use cases has been made, partly on basis of a workshop in which participated researchers from the field and partly on basis of study visits to different process plants on the west coast of Sweden; an interview study has been carried with control room operators at four different power plants in order to find out the operators' assessments of and attitudes towards 3-dimensional information visualisation; and interviews with representatives of system developers have been completed in order to elicit information on ongoing development work and experiences of developing and implementing 3-dimensional user interfaces in control rooms. On basis of the literature review as well as the interview studies cannot be concluded that 3-dimensional user interfaces and 3-dimensional visualisation of information hold any general advantages compared to 2-dimensional solutions. Pro's and con's are, instead, highly contextual and dependant upon (i) the characteristics of user (in terms e.g. of computer skills); (ii) the (work) task; and (iii) the specific design of the user

  6. Water exchange of Oeregrundsgrepen. A baroclinic 3D-model study

    Hypothetically transport of radionuclides from the SFR repository for low and medium active wastes could be mediated by natural water circulation within receiving coastal basins. In this context a basic equation, free surface 3D-model has been used to compute the water exchange of the Oeregrundsgrepen bay-like area for a representative full year cycle. This has been achieved in two steps in order to provide coherent densimetric and sea level elevation boundary data relative to the adjacent Baltic coastal water. Weather data from 1992 were chosen. The focus is placed entirely on water exchange aspects with no consideration of what the water parcels may contain. Earlier model and measurement programs have also been reviewed. The first phase consisted of running a 3D-model encompassing the entire Baltic Sea. This model resolves the Baltic horizontally in five by five nautical miles (5x5). This model was driven by gridded (approx. 20x20) synoptic weather data with geostrophic wind and the varying density and sea level elevation on the Kattegat border. Freshwater discharge from the major rivers along the Baltic coastline was also taken into account. Initial data prior to December 1991 have been assessed from the available, but relatively scarce, salinity and temperature profile measurements in the Baltic. The time step was 2 hours. The relevant boundary data in the vicinity of the Oeregrundsgrepen area were saved after one full-year cycle of simulation. The second phase consisted of running a local model over the Oeregrundsgrepen with a higher horizontal grid resolution consisting of a 0.1x0.1 grid. This model was driven by the same weather data, combined with the saved densimetric and sea level elevation boundary data that were produced by the Baltic model with the coarser grid. This procedure applies both for the wide northern and the narrow southern interface. The transference of boundary data necessitated development of an appropriate interpolation scheme. This

  7. Fundamental Study on Applicability of Powder-Based 3D Printer for Physical Modeling in Rock Mechanics

    Fereshtenejad, Sayedalireza; Song, Jae-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Applications of 3D printing technology become more widespread in many research fields because of its rapid development and valuable capabilities. In rock mechanics and mining engineering, this technology has the potential to become a useful tool that might help implement a number of research studies previously considered impractical. Most commercial 3D printers cannot print prototypes with mechanical properties that match precisely those of natural rock samples. Therefore, some additional enhancements are required for 3D printers to be effectively utilized for rock mechanics applications. In this study, we printed and studied specimens using a powder-based commercial ZPrinter® 450 with ZP® 150 powder and Zb® 63 binder used as raw materials. The specimens printed by this 3D printer exhibited relatively low strength and ductile behavior, implying that it needs further improvements. Hence, we focused on several ways to determine the best combination of printing options and post-processing including the effects of the printing direction, printing layer thickness, binder saturation level, and heating process on the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and stress-strain behavior of the printed samples. The suggested procedures have demonstrated their effectiveness by obtaining the printed samples that behave similarly to the natural rocks with low UCS. Although our optimization methods were particularly successful, further improvements are required to expand 3D printer application in the area of rock mechanics.

  8. A kinematic study on (unintentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    Luisa Sartori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (unintentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post-hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e. rostrum and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D post-hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the ‘visuomotor priming’ condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model. Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability.

  9. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  10. Population Estimation Using a 3D City Model: A Multi-Scale Country-Wide Study in the Netherlands.

    Biljecki, Filip; Arroyo Ohori, Ken; Ledoux, Hugo; Peters, Ravi; Stoter, Jantien

    2016-01-01

    The remote estimation of a region's population has for decades been a key application of geographic information science in demography. Most studies have used 2D data (maps, satellite imagery) to estimate population avoiding field surveys and questionnaires. As the availability of semantic 3D city models is constantly increasing, we investigate to what extent they can be used for the same purpose. Based on the assumption that housing space is a proxy for the number of its residents, we use two methods to estimate the population with 3D city models in two directions: (1) disaggregation (areal interpolation) to estimate the population of small administrative entities (e.g. neighbourhoods) from that of larger ones (e.g. municipalities); and (2) a statistical modelling approach to estimate the population of large entities from a sample composed of their smaller ones (e.g. one acquired by a government register). Starting from a complete Dutch census dataset at the neighbourhood level and a 3D model of all 9.9 million buildings in the Netherlands, we compare the population estimates obtained by both methods with the actual population as reported in the census, and use it to evaluate the quality that can be achieved by estimations at different administrative levels. We also analyse how the volume-based estimation enabled by 3D city models fares in comparison to 2D methods using building footprints and floor areas, as well as how it is affected by different levels of semantic detail in a 3D city model. We conclude that 3D city models are useful for estimations of large areas (e.g. for a country), and that the 3D approach has clear advantages over the 2D approach. PMID:27254151

  11. 3-D electromagnetic induction studies using the Swarm constellation: Mapping conductivity anomalies in the Earth's mantle

    Kuvshinov, A.; Sabaka, T.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    An approach is presented to detect deep-seated regional conductivity anomalies by analysis of magnetic observations taken by low-Earth-orbiting satellites. The approach deals with recovery of C-responses on a regular grid and starts with a determination of time series of external and internal...... validation of the approach, 3 years of realistic synthetic data at Simulated orbits of the forthcoming Swarm constellation of 3 satellites have been used. To obtain the synthetic data for a given 3-D conductivity Earth's model a time-domain scheme has been applied which relies oil a Fourier transformation of...... the inducing field, and oil a frequency domain forward modelling. The conductivity model consists of a thin Surface layer of realistic conductance and a 3-D mantle that incorporates a hypothetic deep regional anomaly beneath the Pacific Ocean plate. To establish the ability of the approach to capture...

  12. 3-D NUMERICAL STUDY AND COMPARISON OF ECCENTRIC AND CONCENTRIC ANNULAR-FINNED TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    FAROUK TAHROUR; ABDELMOUMENE HAKIM BENMACHICHE; MOUNIR AKSAS; CHERIF BOUGRIOU

    2015-01-01

    The use of 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is proposed to simulate the conjugate conduction-convection of heat transfer problems in eccentric annularfinned tube heat exchangers. The numerical simulation results allow us to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient over fin surfaces, the fin efficiency and the pressure drop. The aim of the present paper is to determine the optimum tube position in the circular fin that maximizes heat dissipation and minimizes pressure drop. In addition, th...

  13. Simulation study of a 3-D device integrating FinFET and UTBFET

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2015-01-01

    By integrating 3-D nonplanar fins and 2-D ultrathin bodies, wavy FinFETs merge two formerly competing technologies on a silicon-on-insulator platform to deliver enhanced transistor performance compared with conventional trigate FinFETs with unprecedented levels of chip-area efficiency. This makes it suitable for ultralarge-scale integration high-performance logic at and beyond the 10-nm technology node.

  14. Optical 3D-Nanometry to Study the Function of Biomolecular Motors in Nanotransport

    Nitzsche, Bert

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge in nanotechnology is the controlled transport of cargo on the nanometer scale. A promising approach to this problem is the use of molecular motors of the cellular cytoskeleton. The aim of this work was to develop a method to characterize the behavior of filamentous nanoshuttles – specifically of motor protein-driven microtubules – in three dimensions (3-D). The main requirements to meet were low impact on the nanotransport system, high spatial and temporal resolution, and...

  15. 3D contrast-enhanced MR portography and direct X-ray portography: a correlation study

    Our objective was to compare 3D contrast-enhanced MR portography (3D CE MRP) on a 1.5-T MR imager with direct X-ray portography. Twenty-six consecutive patients underwent 3D CE MRP with in-plane resolution of 1.4 or 1.8 mm, and direct X-ray portography. The findings of these two methods were evaluated and compared. The main portal vein (PV), right PV with its anterior and posterior segmental branches, and left PV including its sagittal segment were shown clearly without diagnostic problem in all cases on MRP. The main PV appearance was accordant with MRP and X-ray. For intrahepatic PVs, the results agreed in 21 patients but disagreed in 5 patients. In 1 patient with a huge tumor in right liver, the right posterior PV was classified as occluded at MRP, but diffusely narrowed at X-ray. The findings of left intrahepatic PV were discordant in 3 patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma in the left lobe. The MRP demonstrated complete occlusion of the left PVs, whereas X-ray showed proximal narrowing and distal occlusion. In another patient with hepatocelluar carcinoma, a small non-occlusive thrombus involving the sagittal segment of the left PV was seen on MRP but not on X-ray. With demonstration of varices and portosystemic shunts, MRP showed results similar to those of X-ray, except one recanalized para-umbilical vein was excluded from the field of view at MRP due to the patient's limited ability of breathholding. The 3D CE MRP correlated well with direct X-ray portography in most cases, it was limited in distinguishing narrowing of an intrahepatic PV from occlusion, but it showed advantage in demonstrating small thrombus within PV. (orig.)

  16. Study of a Microfluidic Chip Integrating Single Cell Trap and 3D Stable Rotation Manipulation

    Liang Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Single cell manipulation technology has been widely applied in biological fields, such as cell injection/enucleation, cell physiological measurement, and cell imaging. Recently, a biochip platform with a novel configuration of electrodes for cell 3D rotation has been successfully developed by generating rotating electric fields. However, the rotation platform still has two major shortcomings that need to be improved. The primary problem is that there is no on-chip module to facilitate the placement of a single cell into the rotation chamber, which causes very low efficiency in experiment to manually pipette single 10-micron-scale cells into rotation position. Secondly, the cell in the chamber may suffer from unstable rotation, which includes gravity-induced sinking down to the chamber bottom or electric-force-induced on-plane movement. To solve the two problems, in this paper we propose a new microfluidic chip with manipulation capabilities of single cell trap and single cell 3D stable rotation, both on one chip. The new microfluidic chip consists of two parts. The top capture part is based on the least flow resistance principle and is used to capture a single cell and to transport it to the rotation chamber. The bottom rotation part is based on dielectrophoresis (DEP and is used to 3D rotate the single cell in the rotation chamber with enhanced stability. The two parts are aligned and bonded together to form closed channels for microfluidic handling. Using COMSOL simulation and preliminary experiments, we have verified, in principle, the concept of on-chip single cell traps and 3D stable rotation, and identified key parameters for chip structures, microfluidic handling, and electrode configurations. The work has laid a solid foundation for on-going chip fabrication and experiment validation.

  17. Swimming Behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Studied by Holographic 3D Tracking

    Vater, Svenja M.; Weiße, Sebastian; Maleschlijski, Stojan; Lotz, Carmen; Koschitzki, Florian; Schwartz, Thomas; Obst, Ursula; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Holographic 3D tracking was applied to record and analyze the swimming behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The obtained trajectories allow to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the free swimming behavior of the bacterium. This can be classified into five distinct swimming patterns. In addition to the previously reported smooth and oscillatory swimming motions, three additional patterns are distinguished. We show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa performs helical movements which were so far on...

  18. Comparative study between the Spin-echo and 3-D fast imaging techniques in the Knee evaluation with magnetic resonance

    We have carried out a retrospective analysis of the results of magnetic resonance (MR) studies in 20 patients, comparing two different sequences. We compared a 2-D spin-echo (SE2D) sequence with a 3-D fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP3D) sequence in the attempt to compare the reliability of each in the detection of knee injuries. Arthroscopy was employed as a control technique. Our study revealed no statistically significant difference between the two sequences, although the overall sensitivity for the detection of meniscal lesions was slightly greater with the FISP3D sequence; however, the reliability in the detection of ruptures of the posterior cruciate ligament is less with this sequence than with the SE2D sequence. Both sequences showed very low sensitivity in the detection of hyaline cartilage injuries. (Author) 14 refs

  19. Weak lensing reconstructions in 2D & 3D: implications for cluster studies

    Leonard, Adrienne; Starck, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    We compare the efficiency with which 2D and 3D weak lensing mass mapping techniques are able to detect clusters of galaxies using two state-of-the-art mass reconstruction techniques: MRLens in 2D and GLIMPSE in 3D. We simulate otherwise-empty cluster fields for 96 different virial mass-redshift combinations spanning the ranges $3\\times10^{13}h^{-1}M_\\odot \\le M_{vir}\\le 10^{15}h^{-1}M_\\odot$ and $0.05 \\le z_{\\rm cl} \\le 0.75$, and for each generate 1000 realisations of noisy shear data in 2D and 3D. For each field, we then compute the cluster (false) detection rate as the mean number of cluster (false) detections per reconstruction over the sample of 1000 reconstructions. We show that both MRLens and GLIMPSE are effective tools for the detection of clusters from weak lensing measurements, and provide comparable quality reconstructions at low redshift. At high redshift, GLIMPSE reconstructions offer increased sensitivity in the detection of clusters, yielding cluster detection rates up to a factor of $\\sim 10\\...

  20. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Petry, H.; Ebel, A.; Franzkowiak, V.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Moellhoff, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1997-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  1. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy.

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-07-25

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  2. Subtle traps prediction using sequence stratigraphy and 3D seismic technology: A case study from Qikou depression in Huanghua basin

    MAO Ning-bo; DAI Ta-gen; PENG Sheng-lin

    2005-01-01

    Forecasting subtle traps by sequence stratigraphy and 3D seismic data is a sensitive topic in hydrocarbon exploration. Research on subtle traps by geophysical data is the most popular and difficult. Based on the sufficiently drilling data, log data, core data and 3D seismic data, sediment sequence of Qikou depression, Huanghua basin was partitioned by using sequence stratigraphy theory. Each sediment sequence system mode was built. Sediment faces of subtle traps were pointed out. Dominating factors forming subtle traps were analyzed. Sandstone seismic rock physics and its response were studied in Tertiary System. Sandstone geophysical response and elastic modulus vary laws with pressure, temperature, porosity, depth were built. Experimental result and practice shows that it is possible using seismic information forecasting subtle traps. Integrated using geology, log, drilling data, special seismic processing technique, interpretation technique, high precision horizon calibration technique, 3D seismic visualizing interpretation, seismic coherence analysis, attribute analysis, logging-constrained inversion, time frequency analysis, subtle trapsobject is identified and interpreted. Finally, advantage object of subtle trap in this area was determined. Bottomland sand stratigraphic and lithologic reservoirs in Qinan slope zone have been founded by means of high resolution 3D seismic data field technique, high resolution 3D seismic data processing technique and seismic wave impendence inversion technique.

  3. Effective Permeability of Fractured Rocks by Analytical Methods: A 3D Computational Study

    Sævik, P. N.; Berre, I.; Jakobsen, M.; Lien, M.

    2013-12-01

    Analytical upscaling methods have been proposed in the literature to predict the effective hydraulic permeability of a fractured rock from its micro-scale parameters (fracture aperture, fracture orientation, fracture content, etc.). In this presentation, we put special emphasis on three effective medium methods (the symmetric and asymmetric self-consistent methods, and the differential method), and evaluate their accuracy for a wide range of parameter values. The analytical predictions are computed using our recently developed effective medium formulations, which are specifically adapted for fractured media. Compared to previous formulations, the new expressions have improved numerical stability properties, and require fewer input parameters. To assess their accuracy, the analytical predictions have been compared with 3D finite element simulations. Specifically, we generated realizations of several different fracture geometries, each consisting of 102 fractures within a unit cube. We applied unit potential difference on two opposing sides, and no-flux conditions on the remaining sides. A commercial finite-element solver was used to calculate the mean flux, from which the effective conductivity was found. This process was repeated for fracture densities up to ɛ = 1.0. Also, a wide range of fracture permeabilities was considered, from completely blocking to infinitely permeable fractures. The results were used to determine the range of applicability for each analytical method, which excels in different regions of the parameter space. For blocking fractures, the differential method is very accurate throughout the investigated parameter range. The symmetric self-consistent method also agrees well with the numerical results on sealed fractures, while the asymmetric self-consistent method is more unreliable. For permeable fractures, the performance of the methods depends on the dimensionless quantity λ = (Kfrac a)/(r Kmat ), describing the contrast between fracture and

  4. Estudos de QSAR 3D para um conjunto de inibidores de butirilcolinesterase humana QSAR 3D studies of a series of human butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors

    Humberto F. Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is considered the main cause of cognitive decline in adults. The available therapies for AD treatment seek to maintain the activity of cholinergic system through the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. However, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE can be considered an alternative target for AD treatment. Aiming at developing new BuChE inhibitors, robust QSAR 3D models with high predictive power were developed. The best model presents a good fit (r²=0.82, q²=0.76, with two PCs and high predictive power (r²predict=0.88. Analysis of regression vector shows that steric properties have considerable importance to the inhibition of the BuChE.

  5. An Australian and New Zealand Scoping Study on the Use of 3D Immersive Virtual Worlds in Higher Education

    Dalgarno, Barney; Lee, Mark J. W.; Carlson, Lauren; Gregory, Sue; Tynan, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the research design of, and reports selected findings from, a scoping study aimed at examining current and planned applications of 3D immersive virtual worlds at higher education institutions across Australia and New Zealand. The scoping study is the first of its kind in the region, intended to parallel and complement a…

  6. Full 3D Microwave Tomography enhanced GPR surveys: a case study

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Affinito, Antonio; Hugenschmidt, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems are well assessed non-invasive diagnostic tools capable of providing high resolution images of the inner structure of the probed spatial region. Owing to this capability, GPR systems are nowadays more and more considered in the frame of civil engineering surveys since they may give information on constructive details as well as on the aging and risk factors affecting the healthiness of an infrastructure. In this frame, accurate, reliable and easily interpretable images of the probed scenarios are mandatory in order to support the management of maintenance works and assure the safety of structures. Such a requirement motivates the use of different and sophisticated data processing approaches in order to compare more than one image of the same scene, thus improving the reliability and objectiveness of the GPR survey results. Among GPR data processing procedures, Microwave Tomography approaches based on the Born approximation face the imaging as the solution of a linear inverse problem, which is solved by using the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition as a regularized inversion scheme [1]. So far, an approach exploiting a 2D scalar model of the scattering phenomenon have been adopted to process GPR data gathered along a single scan. In this case, 3D images are obtained by interpolating 2D reconstructions (this is referred commonly as pseudo 3D imaging). Such an imaging approach have provided valuable results in several real cases dealing with not only surveys for civil engineering but also archeological prospection, subservice monitoring, security surveys and so on [1-4]. These encouraging results have motivated the development of a full 3D Microwave Tomography approach capable of accounting for the vectorial nature of the wave propagation. The reconstruction capabilities of this novel approach have been assessed mainly against experimental data collected in laboratory controlled conditions. The obtained results corroborate

  7. A study of flow mixing in a PWR vessel in asymmetric cooldown faults using the FLOW3D code

    The Harwell computational fluid dynamics code, FLOW3D has been used to simulate a flow mixing test in the Oconee-1 reactor. The object was to test the ability of FLOW3D to describe thermal mixing in a PWR pressure vessel for the conditions of an over-cooling fault. The code produced reasonable estimates of the thermal diffusion observed in the Oconee test, with a tendency to underpredict mixing. However, the test exhibited gross swirl and asymmetric mixing which was not predicted by FLOW3D. Sensitivity studies to investigate the effects of downcomer ovality, inlet flow vorticity and flow imbalance between loops, have not revealed the source of the observed asymmetries

  8. Micro 3D printing using a digital projector and its application in the study of soft materials mechanics.

    Lee, Howon; Fang, Nicholas X

    2012-01-01

    Buckling is a classical topic in mechanics. While buckling has long been studied as one of the major structural failure modes(1), it has recently drawn new attention as a unique mechanism for pattern transformation. Nature is full of such examples where a wealth of exotic patterns are formed through mechanical instability(2-5). Inspired by this elegant mechanism, many studies have demonstrated creation and transformation of patterns using soft materials such as elastomers and hydrogels(6-11). Swelling gels are of particular interest because they can spontaneously trigger mechanical instability to create various patterns without the need of external force(6-10). Recently, we have reported demonstration of full control over buckling pattern of micro-scaled tubular gels using projection micro-stereolithography (PμSL), a three-dimensional (3D) manufacturing technology capable of rapidly converting computer generated 3D models into physical objects at high resolution(12,13). Here we present a simple method to build up a simplified PμSL system using a commercially available digital data projector to study swelling-induced buckling instability for controlled pattern transformation. A simple desktop 3D printer is built using an off-the-shelf digital data projector and simple optical components such as a convex lens and a mirror(14). Cross-sectional images extracted from a 3D solid model is projected on the photosensitive resin surface in sequence, polymerizing liquid resin into a desired 3D solid structure in a layer-by-layer fashion. Even with this simple configuration and easy process, arbitrary 3D objects can be readily fabricated with sub-100 μm resolution. This desktop 3D printer holds potential in the study of soft material mechanics by offering a great opportunity to explore various 3D geometries. We use this system to fabricate tubular shaped hydrogel structure with different dimensions. Fixed on the bottom to the substrate, the tubular gel develops

  9. Designing with 3D Printed Textiles: A case study of Material Driven Design

    Lussenburg, K.; Van der Velden, N.M.; Doubrovski, E.L.; Geraedts, J.M.P.; Karana, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the findings and results of a design project with the goal to design a wearable garment using 3D Printed textiles, which not only has functional or environmental superiorities, but also experiential ones. The approach that was adopted for this project is a recently developed method on Material Driven Design (MDD), which suggests a number of steps to design meaningful products when a chosen material is the point of departure. As this method has not yet been applied on a pr...

  10. Combination of SANS and 3D stochastic reconstruction techniques for the study of nanostructured materials

    Kikkinides, E S; Steriotis, T A; Kanellopoulos, N K; Mitropoulos, A C; Treimer, W

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic nanostructured materials have recently received scientific and industrial interest due to their unique properties. A series of such nanoporous structures were characterised by SANS techniques. The resulting scattering curves were analysed to obtain basic structural information regarding the pore size distribution and autocorrelation function of each material. Furthermore, stochastic reconstruction models were employed to generate 3D images with the same basic structural characteristics obtained from SANS. Finally, simulation results of permeation on the reconstructed images provide very good agreement with experimental data. (orig.)

  11. 3-D in vivo brain tumor geometry study by scaling analysis

    Torres Hoyos, F.; Martín-Landrove, M.

    2012-02-01

    A new method, based on scaling analysis, is used to calculate fractal dimension and local roughness exponents to characterize in vivo 3-D tumor growth in the brain. Image acquisition was made according to the standard protocol used for brain radiotherapy and radiosurgery, i.e., axial, coronal and sagittal magnetic resonance T1-weighted images, and comprising the brain volume for image registration. Image segmentation was performed by the application of the k-means procedure upon contrasted images. We analyzed glioblastomas, astrocytomas, metastases and benign brain tumors. The results show significant variations of the parameters depending on the tumor stage and histological origin.

  12. First-principles study on structural stability of 3d transition metal alloying magnesium hydride

    2006-01-01

    A first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method based on the density functional theory was used to investigate the energy and electronic structure of magnesium hydride (MgH2) alloyed by 3d transition metal elements. Through calculations of the negative heat formation of magnesium hydride alloyed by X (X denotes 3d transition metal) element, it is found that when a little X (not including Sc) dissolves into magnesium hydride, the structural stability of alloying systems decreases, which indicates that the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2 can be improved. After comparing the densities of states(DOS) and the charge distribution of MgH2 with or without X alloying, it is found that the improvement for the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2 alloyed by X attributes to the fact that the weakened bonding between magnesium and hydrogen is caused by the stronger interactions between X (not including Cu) and hydrogen. The calculation results of the improvement for the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2-X (X=Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co,Ni, Cu) systems are in agreement with the experimental results. Hence, the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2 are expected to be improved by addition of Cr, Zn alloying elements.

  13. Study of the thermal properties of filaments for 3D printing

    Trhlíková, Lucie; Zmeskal, Oldrich; Psencik, Petr; Florian, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Various materials are used for 3D printing, most commonly Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Polylactic acid (PLA), Polyethylene (PET) and Polypropylene (PP). These materials differ mainly in their melting point, which significantly influences the properties of the final products. Filaments are melted in the print head during the printing process. The temperature range is from 150 °C to 250 °C depending on the technology used. The optimum temperature for the cooling substrate on which printing is carried out is chosen so as to ensure uniform cooling and deformation. It generally varies between (40 - 100) °C. From the above it is clear that both temperatures can significantly affect the properties of the printed 3D object. It is therefore important to determine the thermal parameters (thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity) of the materials used across the entire range of temperatures. For evaluating the properties of different types of PLA materials, the step transient method was used, which allows determination of all required parameters using a fractal heat transfer model.

  14. Adsorption of Ge nanowire with 3d transition metals: A density-functional theory study

    Using density-functional theory calculations, we investigate the energetic, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition metals adsorption on hydrogen-passivated germanium nanowire along [0 0 1] direction. It is found that most of the adatoms prefer to bind on the HH site, while the Sc adatom prefers to the Top site. The atoms of good conducting metals, such as Cu and Zn form weak bonding with the wire, however, those such as Ti, V, Fe, Co, and Ni have relative larger binding energies. In addition, various types of wires can be obtained depending on the adatom species, including nonmagnetic metals (Sc or Cu adsorption) and semiconductors (Ni or Zn adsorption), weak-ferromagnetic metals (Ti or V adsorption), ferromagnetic semiconductor (Cr adsorption), and more interesting the ferromagnetic half-metals (Mn, Fe or Co adsorption) with 100% spin-polarization at the Fermi level. These ferromagnetic wires should have potential applications in the fields of quasi-one-dimensional spintronics devices. Detail analysis of the density of states indicates that the ferromagnetism originates mainly from spin-split of the TM-3d states. Furthermore, the effect of on-site Coulomb interaction on the stability of the three ferromagnetic half-metallic wires is also examined, and it is found that the half-metallic ground state of Mn- or Co-adsorbed wire is more robust than that of Fe-adsorbed wire.

  15. MR neurography with multiplanar reconstruction of 3D MRI datasets: an anatomical study and clinical applications

    Freund, Wolfgang; Aschoff, Andrik J.; Stuber, Gregor; Schmitz, Bernd [University Hospitals Ulm, Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany); Brinkmann, Alexander; Wagner, Florian; Dinse, Alexander [University Hospitals Ulm, Department of Anesthesiology, Ulm (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Extracranial MR neurography has so far mainly been used with 2D datasets. We investigated the use of 3D datasets for peripheral neurography of the sciatic nerve. A total of 40 thighs (20 healthy volunteers) were examined with a coronally oriented magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence with isotropic voxels of 1 x 1 x 1 mm and a field of view of 500 mm. Anatomical landmarks were palpated and marked with MRI markers. After MR scanning, the sciatic nerve was identified by two readers independently in the resulting 3D dataset. In every volunteer, the sciatic nerve could be identified bilaterally over the whole length of the thigh, even in areas of close contact to isointense muscles. The landmark of the greater trochanter was falsely palpated by 2.2 cm, and the knee joint by 1 cm. The mean distance between the bifurcation of the sciatic nerve and the knee-joint gap was 6 cm ({+-}1.8 cm). The mean results of the two readers differed by 1-6%. With the described method of MR neurography, the sciatic nerve was depicted reliably and objectively in great anatomical detail over the whole length of the thigh. Important anatomical information can be obtained. The clinical applications of MR neurography for the brachial plexus and lumbosacral plexus/sciatic nerve are discussed. (orig.)

  16. 3D NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON SETTLING BASIN LAYOUT: A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project, Nepal

    Shrestha, Bishwo Vijaya

    2012-01-01

    This study is about 3D Numerical Investigation of Settling basin layout by using numerical modeling program SSIIM. This study is carried out by using SSIIM windows version 1 (SSIIM 1.0). SSIIM is numerical modeling software, developed at NTNU by Professor Nils Reidar B. Olsen. This program has been used for investigation numerical modeling of hydraulic and sediment transport for different layouts geometry of settling basin.In this study a case study has carried out on settling basin layout of...

  17. 3D NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON SETTLING BASIN LAYOUT : A case study on Mai Khola Hydropower Project, Nepal

    Shrestha, Bishwo Vijaya

    2012-01-01

    This study is about 3D Numerical Investigation of Settling basin layout by using numerical modeling program SSIIM. This study is carried out by using SSIIM windows version 1 (SSIIM 1.0). SSIIM is numerical modeling software, developed at NTNU by Professor Nils Reidar B. Olsen. This program has been used for investigation numerical modeling of hydraulic and sediment transport for different layouts geometry of settling basin.In this study a case study has carried out on settling basin layout of...

  18. 3D SURVEY AND AUGMENTED REALITY FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE. THE CASE STUDY OF AURELIAN WALL AT CASTRA PRAETORIA IN ROME

    M. Canciani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of close-range photogrammetry has produced a lot of new possibility to study cultural heritage. 3D data acquired with conventional and low cost cameras can be used to document, investigate the full appearance, materials and conservation status, to help the restoration process and identify intervention priorities. At the same time, with 3D survey a lot of three-dimensional data are collected and analyzed by researchers, but there are a very few possibility of 3D output. The augmented reality is one of this possible output with a very low cost technology but a very interesting result. Using simple mobile technology (for iPad and Android Tablets and shareware software (in the case presented “Augment” it is possible to share and visualize a large number of 3D models with your own device. The case study presented is a part of an architecture graduate thesis, made in Rome at Department of Architecture of Roma Tre University. We have developed a photogrammetric survey to study the Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome. The surveys of 8000 square meters of surface have allowed to identify stratigraphy and construction phases of a complex portion of Aurelian Wall, specially about the Northern door of Castra. During this study, the data coming out of 3D survey (photogrammetric and topographic, are stored and used to create a reverse 3D model, or virtual reconstruction, of the Northern door of Castra. This virtual reconstruction shows the door in the Tiberian period, nowadays it's totally hidden by a curtain wall but, little and significative architectural details allow to know its original feature. The 3D model of the ancient walls has been mapped with the exact type of bricks and mortar, oriented and scaled according to the existing one to use augmented reality. Finally, two kind of application have been developed, one on site, were you can see superimposed the virtual reconstruction on the existing walls using the image

  19. The ATLAS3D project - XX. Mass-size and mass-σ distributions of early-type galaxies: bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    In the companion Paper XV of this series, we derive accurate total mass-to-light ratios (M/L)_JAM≈ (M/L)({r}= {R_e}) within a sphere of radius r= {R_e} centred on the galaxy, as well as stellar (M/L)stars (with the dark matter removed) for the volume-limited and nearly mass-selected (stellar mass M_star ≳ 6× 10^9 { M_{⊙}}) ATLAS3D sample of 260 early-type galaxies (ETGs, ellipticals Es and lenticulars S0s). Here, we use those parameters to study the two orthogonal projections ({M_JAM}, {σ _e}) and ({M_JAM}, {R_e^maj}) of the thin Mass Plane (MP) ({M_JAM}, {σ _e}, {R_e^maj}) which describes the distribution of the galaxy population, where {M_JAM}≡ L× (M/L)_JAM≈ M_star. The distribution of galaxy properties on both projections of the MP is characterized by: (i) the same zone of exclusion (ZOE), which can be transformed from one projection to the other using the scalar virial equation. The ZOE is roughly described by two power laws, joined by a break at a characteristic mass {M_JAM}≈ 3× 10^{10} { M_{⊙}}, which corresponds to the minimum Re and maximum stellar density. This results in a break in the mean {M_JAM}-{σ _e} relation with trends {M_JAM}∝ σ _e^{2.3} and {M_JAM}∝ σ _e^{4.7} at small and large σe, respectively; (ii) a characteristic mass {M_JAM}≈ 2× 10^{11} { M_{⊙}} which separates a population dominated by flat fast rotator with discs and spiral galaxies at lower masses, from one dominated by quite round slow rotators at larger masses; (iii) below that mass the distribution of ETGs' properties on the two projections of the MP tends to be constant along lines of roughly constant σe, or equivalently along lines with {R_e^maj}∝ {M_JAM}, respectively (or even better parallel to the ZOE: {R_e^maj}∝ M_JAM^{0.75}); (iv) it forms a continuous and parallel sequence with the distribution of spiral galaxies; (v) at even lower masses, the distribution of fast-rotator ETGs and late spirals naturally extends to that of dwarf ETGs (Sph

  20. Study of deeply buried waveguides: A way towards 3D integration

    Ion-exchange on glass is now a mature integrated optics technology. Indeed, many devices such as wavelength multiplexers, splitters, optical amplifiers, lasers or sensors have been already realized. The challenge now is to integrate all these functions on a single chip. Two different paths can be used to achieve this goal: the first one consists of a reduction of the waveguides' dimensions by an increase of the refractive index change, whereas the second one, which is addressed in this paper, is based on the realization of multilayered devices. Because ion-exchange on glass allows manufacturing either surface or buried waveguides, this technology is well adapted for 3D integration. However, to realize integrated optical devices with two different layers, it is mandatory to prevent any parasitic light transfer between them. This condition can be fulfilled if the top and bottom waveguides are sufficiently separated. In this article, we present the development of ion-exchanged waveguides deeply buried into a glass substrate and their application to 3D integrated devices. Deeply buried waveguides have been realized by means of a two steps silver-sodium ion-exchange on a dedicated custom made silicate glass. First, a thermal ion-exchange has been carried out at 330 deg. C during 2 min in a 0.8NaNO3-0.2AgNO3 molten salt in order to create the core of the waveguide. Then, this core has been buried into the glass substrate by applying an electric field of 450 kV/m during 1 h 30 min in a sodium nitrate solution at 260 deg. C. The obtained waveguide has been measured to be 22 μm under the glass surface. It is singlemode at λ = 1.55 μm. In order to prove the good isolation between this waveguide and the surface, a top layer has been added to the device by the realization of surface channel waveguides through a thermal ion-exchange performed in a 0.8NaNO3-0.2AgNO3 molten salt at 330 deg. C during 2 min. The near-field observation of the device output has shown no coupling

  1. A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration - a simulation study

    3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 ± 0.6 (deg.) and 4.1 ± 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 ± 0.7 (deg.) and 4.2 ± 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications

  2. 3D Projection Installations

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  3. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  4. AlgiMatrix™ based 3D cell culture system as an in-vitro tumor model for anticancer studies.

    Chandraiah Godugu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D in-vitro cultures are recognized for recapitulating the physiological microenvironment and exhibiting high concordance with in-vivo conditions. Taking the advantages of 3D culture, we have developed the in-vitro tumor model for anticancer drug screening. METHODS: Cancer cells grown in 6 and 96 well AlgiMatrix™ scaffolds resulted in the formation of multicellular spheroids in the size range of 100-300 µm. Spheroids were grown in two weeks in cultures without compromising the growth characteristics. Different marketed anticancer drugs were screened by incubating them for 24 h at 7, 9 and 11 days in 3D cultures and cytotoxicity was measured by AlamarBlue® assay. Effectiveness of anticancer drug treatments were measured based on spheroid number and size distribution. Evaluation of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic markers was done by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The 3D results were compared with the conventional 2D monolayer cultures. Cellular uptake studies for drug (Doxorubicin and nanoparticle (NLC were done using spheroids. RESULTS: IC(50 values for anticancer drugs were significantly higher in AlgiMatrix™ systems compared to 2D culture models. The cleaved caspase-3 expression was significantly decreased (2.09 and 2.47 folds respectively for 5-Fluorouracil and Camptothecin in H460 spheroid cultures compared to 2D culture system. The cytotoxicity, spheroid size distribution, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and nanoparticle penetration data suggested that in vitro tumor models show higher resistance to anticancer drugs and supporting the fact that 3D culture is a better model for the cytotoxic evaluation of anticancer drugs in vitro. CONCLUSION: The results from our studies are useful to develop a high throughput in vitro tumor model to study the effect of various anticancer agents and various molecular pathways affected by the anticancer drugs and formulations.

  5. Enhanced ICP for the Registration of Large-Scale 3D Environment Models: An Experimental Study.

    Han, Jianda; Yin, Peng; He, Yuqing; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    One of the main applications of mobile robots is the large-scale perception of the outdoor environment. One of the main challenges of this application is fusing environmental data obtained by multiple robots, especially heterogeneous robots. This paper proposes an enhanced iterative closest point (ICP) method for the fast and accurate registration of 3D environmental models. First, a hierarchical searching scheme is combined with the octree-based ICP algorithm. Second, an early-warning mechanism is used to perceive the local minimum problem. Third, a heuristic escape scheme based on sampled potential transformation vectors is used to avoid local minima and achieve optimal registration. Experiments involving one unmanned aerial vehicle and one unmanned surface vehicle were conducted to verify the proposed technique. The experimental results were compared with those of normal ICP registration algorithms to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method. PMID:26891298

  6. Engineering approaches to study fibrosis in 3-D in vitro systems.

    Porras, Ana M; Hutson, Heather N; Berger, Anthony J; Masters, Kristyn S

    2016-08-01

    Fibrotic diseases occur in virtually every tissue of the body and are a major cause of mortality, yet they remain largely untreatable and poorly understood on a mechanistic level. The development of anti-fibrotic agents has been hampered, in part, by the insufficient fibrosis biomimicry provided by traditional in vitro platforms. This review focuses on recent advancements toward creating 3-D platforms that mimic key features of fibrosis, as well as the application of novel imaging and sensor techniques to analyze dynamic extracellular matrix remodeling. Several opportunities are highlighted to apply new tools from the fields of biomaterials, imaging, and systems biology to yield pathophysiologically relevant in vitro platforms that improve our understanding of fibrosis and may enable identification of potential treatment targets. PMID:26926460

  7. Application of ANSYS 3D FEM in Studies of Surface Deformation Caused by Pipe Jacking

    LI Fabin; FANG Kun; LI Hechao

    2007-01-01

    By using site observation data and establishing 3D model using ANSYS software, this paper has discussed the strain change of stratum stress during process of jacking-in and the impact of machine head on ground surface under different frontal resistances. Analysis of the two cases shows that soil pressure reaches its maximum point when the soil is right above machine head, and soil stress will gradually decline when machine head passes over it. It also shows that impact brought by pipe-jacking construction on stress change of the surrounding soil is limited. The thesis suggest that road surface should be consolidated and soil condition be improved before construction to prevent loss and disaster caused by road surface deformation, jacking force can be increased so that jacking efficiency can be enhanced when ground stratum is well filled with soil, but the frontal resistance facing machine head should be equal to surrounding soil pressure in order to avoid rise of ground surface.

  8. A 3D surface seismic pilot study at Olkiluoto, Finland. Aquisition and processing report

    Juhlin, C. (Uppsala University (SE)); Cosma, C. (Vibrometric Oy, Vantaa (FI))

    2007-08-15

    Posiva carries out R and D tasks related to spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. Works are currently performed in the Olkiluoto Island, in western Finland. Multidisciplinary engineering and geological investigations have been carried out since 1987. Site and rock characterization continued underground after 2004, in the ONKALO underground research facility. Posiva co-operated with Andra, France (Agence Nationale des Dechets Radioactifs) to purchase the design, acquisition and processing work needed to demonstrate the capability of 3D seismic techniques to image geological and structural features in crystalline rock. A 3D seismic pilot survey was carried out at the Olkiluoto site during seven days in June 2006. Data acquisition and processing were carried out as a Finnish-Swedish joint effort of Vibrometric and Uppsala University. The seismic survey covered 600 x 650 m area to the west of ONKALO underground premises. The single-template fixed array consisted of 270 active geophones on nine NW-SE lines. Geophone line interval was 60 m and station interval 24 m (30 channels on line). Sources (469 in total) were placed on seven NE-SW lines perpendicular to the receiver lines. The shot line interval was 100 m and the shot spacing 10 m (71 shots per line). The source was a time distributed Vibsist impact source (2000-2500 J/ impact), using a hydraulic rock breaker. The receivers (28 Hz geophones) were connected to a Sercel 408 UL seismograph. The coverage and signal quality were good. The array size was small compared to imaging depth, compared with conventional 3D works. The fold (CDP bin size 12 x 12 m) was highly variable (5->100), lower at the edges of area. Reflections are already seen in the processed receiver and shot gathers. The processing comprised time stacking (impact decoding), first arrival picking, resampling, refraction and residual static corrections, spectral equalisation, band-pass filtering, NMO and DMO, stacking. Static corrections, DMO and

  9. 3D imaging using combined neutron-photon fan-beam tomography: A Monte Carlo study.

    Hartman, J; Yazdanpanah, A Pour; Barzilov, A; Regentova, E

    2016-05-01

    The application of combined neutron-photon tomography for 3D imaging is examined using MCNP5 simulations for objects of simple shapes and different materials. Two-dimensional transmission projections were simulated for fan-beam scans using 2.5MeV deuterium-deuterium and 14MeV deuterium-tritium neutron sources, and high-energy X-ray sources, such as 1MeV, 6MeV and 9MeV. Photons enable assessment of electron density and related mass density, neutrons aid in estimating the product of density and material-specific microscopic cross section- the ratio between the two provides the composition, while CT allows shape evaluation. Using a developed imaging technique, objects and their material compositions have been visualized. PMID:26953978

  10. Simulation Study of Real Time 3-D Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming for Ultrasound Imaging

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Stuart, Matthias Bo;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new beamforming method for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging using a 2-D matrix transducer. To obtain images with sufficient resolution and contrast, several thousand elements are needed. The proposed method reduces the required channel count from the...... transducer to the main imaging system, by including electronics in the transducer handle. The reduction of element channel count is achieved using a sequential beamforming scheme. The beamforming scheme is a combination of a fixed focus beamformer in the transducer and a second dynamic focus beamformer in...... the main system. The real-time imaging capability is achieved using a synthetic aperture beamforming technique, utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual elements that in combination can generate an image. The two core capabilities in combination is named Synthetic Aperture Sequential...

  11. Preliminary study of surface modification of 3D Poly (ɛ - caprolactone) scaffolds by ultrashort laser irradiation

    Daskalova, A.; Bliznakova, I.; Iordanova, E.; Yankov, G.; Grozeva, M.; Ostrowska, B.

    2016-02-01

    Three - dimensional poly (e- caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds as suitable biocompatible material for manufacturing tissue replacements are utilized for tissue engineering purposes. The porous structures are fabricated by rapid prototyping method (Bioscaffolder) based on hypodermic dispensing process. The consecution of experiments demonstrated the possibility on creation of surface micro formations, applying different laser fluences, at 1 kHz repetition rate for fixed time of exposure 1 sec at 800 nm central wavelength. The combination of both methods offers possibilities for successful production of 3D matrices with modified surfaces. The obtained results of laser - induced surface modifications of PCL demonstrate the potential of the method to microprocess this kind of material for possible applications in regenerative medicine.

  12. Quasi 3D ECE imaging system for study of MHD instabilities in KSTAR.

    Yun, G S; Lee, W; Choi, M J; Lee, J; Kim, M; Leem, J; Nam, Y; Choe, G H; Park, H K; Park, H; Woo, D S; Kim, K W; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Ito, N; Mase, A; Lee, S G

    2014-11-01

    A second electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been installed on the KSTAR tokamak, toroidally separated by 1/16th of the torus from the first ECEI system. For the first time, the dynamical evolutions of MHD instabilities from the plasma core to the edge have been visualized in quasi-3D for a wide range of the KSTAR operation (B0 = 1.7∼3.5 T). This flexible diagnostic capability has been realized by substantial improvements in large-aperture quasi-optical microwave components including the development of broad-band polarization rotators for imaging of the fundamental ordinary ECE as well as the usual 2nd harmonic extraordinary ECE. PMID:25430233

  13. Enhanced ICP for the Registration of Large-Scale 3D Environment Models: An Experimental Study

    Jianda Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main applications of mobile robots is the large-scale perception of the outdoor environment. One of the main challenges of this application is fusing environmental data obtained by multiple robots, especially heterogeneous robots. This paper proposes an enhanced iterative closest point (ICP method for the fast and accurate registration of 3D environmental models. First, a hierarchical searching scheme is combined with the octree-based ICP algorithm. Second, an early-warning mechanism is used to perceive the local minimum problem. Third, a heuristic escape scheme based on sampled potential transformation vectors is used to avoid local minima and achieve optimal registration. Experiments involving one unmanned aerial vehicle and one unmanned surface vehicle were conducted to verify the proposed technique. The experimental results were compared with those of normal ICP registration algorithms to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

  14. A 3D surface seismic pilot study at Olkiluoto, Finland. Aquisition and processing report

    Posiva carries out R and D tasks related to spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. Works are currently performed in the Olkiluoto Island, in western Finland. Multidisciplinary engineering and geological investigations have been carried out since 1987. Site and rock characterization continued underground after 2004, in the ONKALO underground research facility. Posiva co-operated with Andra, France (Agence Nationale des Dechets Radioactifs) to purchase the design, acquisition and processing work needed to demonstrate the capability of 3D seismic techniques to image geological and structural features in crystalline rock. A 3D seismic pilot survey was carried out at the Olkiluoto site during seven days in June 2006. Data acquisition and processing were carried out as a Finnish-Swedish joint effort of Vibrometric and Uppsala University. The seismic survey covered 600 x 650 m area to the west of ONKALO underground premises. The single-template fixed array consisted of 270 active geophones on nine NW-SE lines. Geophone line interval was 60 m and station interval 24 m (30 channels on line). Sources (469 in total) were placed on seven NE-SW lines perpendicular to the receiver lines. The shot line interval was 100 m and the shot spacing 10 m (71 shots per line). The source was a time distributed Vibsist impact source (2000-2500 J/ impact), using a hydraulic rock breaker. The receivers (28 Hz geophones) were connected to a Sercel 408 UL seismograph. The coverage and signal quality were good. The array size was small compared to imaging depth, compared with conventional 3D works. The fold (CDP bin size 12 x 12 m) was highly variable (5->100), lower at the edges of area. Reflections are already seen in the processed receiver and shot gathers. The processing comprised time stacking (impact decoding), first arrival picking, resampling, refraction and residual static corrections, spectral equalisation, band-pass filtering, NMO and DMO, stacking. Static corrections, DMO and

  15. A 3D dynamical biomechanical tongue model to study speech motor control

    Gérard, J M; Perrier, P; Payan, Y; Gerard, Jean-Michel; Wilhelms-Tricarico, Reiner; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2003-01-01

    A 3D biomechanical dynamical model of human tongue is presented, that is elaborated in the aim to test hypotheses about speech motor control. Tissue elastic properties are accounted for in Finite Element Modeling (FEM). The FEM mesh was designed in order to facilitate the implementation of muscle arrangement within the tongue. Therefore, its structure was determined on the basis of accurate anatomical data about the tongue. Mechanically, the hypothesis of hyperelasticity was adopted with the Mooney-Rivlin formulation of the strain energy function. Muscles are modeled as general force generators that act on anatomically specified sets of nodes of the FEM structure. The 8 muscles that are known to be largely involved in the production of basic speech movements are modeled. The model and the solving of the Lagrangian equations of movement are implemented using the ANSYSTM software. Simulations of the influence of muscle activations onto the tongue shape are presented and analyzed.

  16. Using 2D and 3D Computer Games to Detect Colorblindness – a Comparative Study

    Laskowski Maciej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer games have accompanied the development of computer technologies since the very beginning. Despite their basic, purely entertainment-targeted appliance, games can also be used for many other purposes. Medical applications are especially interesting, as games (especially different kinds of simulations are widely used for training personnel, e.g. to perform certain procedures or in learning to use equipment. This allows the trainees to gain knowledge and proper habits, as well as test themselves in different situations without any risk. Computer games can also be used as a diagnostic tool, although this topic is still insufficiently researched. This paper discusses the possibility of using serious games for diagnosing color vision disorders, focusing especially on two problems: differences in diagnosing colorblindness using 2D and 3D environments, and the influence of individual features, such as reflex or agility, on the diagnostic process.

  17. Fatigue of hybrid glass/carbon composites: 3D computational studies

    Dai, Gaoming; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2014-01-01

    3D computational simulations of fatigue of hybrid carbon/glass fiber reinforced composites is carried out using X-FEM and multifiber unit cell models. A new software code for the automatic generation of unit cell multifiber models of composites with randomly misaligned fibers of various properties...... and geometrical parameters is developed. With the use of this program code and the X-FEM method, systematic investigations of the effect of microstructure of hybrid composites (fraction of carbon versus glass fibers, misalignment, and interface strength) and the loading conditions (tensile versus...... compression cyclic loading effects) on fatigue behavior of the materials are carried out. It was demonstrated that the higher fraction of carbon fibers in hybrid composites is beneficial for the fatigue lifetime of the composites under tension-tension cyclic loading, but might have negative effect on the...

  18. Quasi 3D ECE imaging system for study of MHD instabilities in KSTAR

    Yun, G. S., E-mail: gunsu@postech.ac.kr; Choi, M. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Leem, J.; Nam, Y.; Choe, G. H. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.; Park, H. K. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H.; Woo, D. S.; Kim, K. W. [School of Electrical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Ito, N. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Mase, A. [Ube National College of Technology, Ube-shi, Yamaguchi 755-8555 (Japan); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A second electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been installed on the KSTAR tokamak, toroidally separated by 1/16th of the torus from the first ECEI system. For the first time, the dynamical evolutions of MHD instabilities from the plasma core to the edge have been visualized in quasi-3D for a wide range of the KSTAR operation (B{sub 0} = 1.7∼3.5 T). This flexible diagnostic capability has been realized by substantial improvements in large-aperture quasi-optical microwave components including the development of broad-band polarization rotators for imaging of the fundamental ordinary ECE as well as the usual 2nd harmonic extraordinary ECE.

  19. The impact of active versus passive use of 3D technology: a study of dental students at Wuhan University, China.

    Qi, Shengcai; Yan, Yanhong; Li, Rong; Hu, Jian

    2013-11-01

    A variety of computer-based 3D applications are becoming regular tools for dental students for self-learning. This study investigated the learning effectiveness of junior dental students in passively versus actively controlling the 3D virtual scenes of implant dentistry. Participants were randomized into three groups and were exposed to three designs of educational materials: traditional 2D webpages (2D); active-controlling 3D webpages (A3); and passive-controlling 3D webpages (P3). After reviewing the webpages, the participants were asked to complete a posttest to assess the relative quality of information acquisition. Their responses were compared and analyzed. The results indicated that the P3 group received the highest score of 26.4±3.1 on the post-test, significantly better than the A3 group, which had the worst performance with a score of 20.3±4.0. The 2D group received a score of 24.2±4.6. There was a significant correlation between the scores on a mental rotations test and the subjects' performance on the posttest (pimpacts on students, especially for individuals with low spatial ability. PMID:24192420

  20. Estimating elastic moduli of rocks from thin sections: Digital rock study of 3D properties from 2D images

    Saxena, Nishank; Mavko, Gary

    2016-03-01

    Estimation of elastic rock moduli using 2D plane strain computations from thin sections has several numerical and analytical advantages over using 3D rock images, including faster computation, smaller memory requirements, and the availability of cheap thin sections. These advantages, however, must be weighed against the estimation accuracy of 3D rock properties from thin sections. We present a new method for predicting elastic properties of natural rocks using thin sections. Our method is based on a simple power-law transform that correlates computed 2D thin section moduli and the corresponding 3D rock moduli. The validity of this transform is established using a dataset comprised of FEM-computed elastic moduli of rock samples from various geologic formations, including Fontainebleau sandstone, Berea sandstone, Bituminous sand, and Grossmont carbonate. We note that using the power-law transform with a power-law coefficient between 0.4-0.6 contains 2D moduli to 3D moduli transformations for all rocks that are considered in this study. We also find that reliable estimates of P-wave (Vp) and S-wave velocity (Vs) trends can be obtained using 2D thin sections.

  1. Human Liver Infection in a Dish: Easy-To-Build 3D Liver Models for Studying Microbial Infection

    Petropolis, Debora B.; Faust, Daniela M.; Tolle, Matthieu; Rivière, Lise; Valentin, Tanguy; Neuveut, Christine; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora; Dufour, Alexandre; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Guillen, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Human liver infection is a major cause of death worldwide, but fundamental studies on infectious diseases affecting humans have been hampered by the lack of robust experimental models that accurately reproduce pathogen-host interactions in an environment relevant for the human disease. In the case of liver infection, one consequence of this absence of relevant models is a lack of understanding of how pathogens cross the sinusoidal endothelial barrier and parenchyma. To fill that gap we elaborated human 3D liver in vitro models, composed of human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Huh-7 hepatoma cells as hepatocyte model, layered in a structure mimicking the hepatic sinusoid, which enable studies of key features of early steps of hepatic infection. Built with established cell lines and scaffold, these models provide a reproducible and easy-to-build cell culture approach of reduced complexity compared to animal models, while preserving higher physiological relevance compared to standard 2D systems. For proof-of-principle we challenged the models with two hepatotropic pathogens: the parasitic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We constructed four distinct setups dedicated to investigating specific aspects of hepatic invasion: 1) pathogen 3D migration towards hepatocytes, 2) hepatocyte barrier crossing, 3) LSEC and subsequent hepatocyte crossing, and 4) quantification of human hepatic virus replication (HBV). Our methods comprise automated quantification of E. histolytica migration and hepatic cells layer crossing in the 3D liver models. Moreover, replication of HBV virus occurs in our virus infection 3D liver model, indicating that routine in vitro assays using HBV or others viruses can be performed in this easy-to-build but more physiological hepatic environment. These results illustrate that our new 3D liver infection models are simple but effective, enabling new investigations on infectious disease mechanisms. The better

  2. Human Liver Infection in a Dish: Easy-To-Build 3D Liver Models for Studying Microbial Infection.

    Petropolis, Debora B; Faust, Daniela M; Tolle, Matthieu; Rivière, Lise; Valentin, Tanguy; Neuveut, Christine; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora; Dufour, Alexandre; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Guillen, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Human liver infection is a major cause of death worldwide, but fundamental studies on infectious diseases affecting humans have been hampered by the lack of robust experimental models that accurately reproduce pathogen-host interactions in an environment relevant for the human disease. In the case of liver infection, one consequence of this absence of relevant models is a lack of understanding of how pathogens cross the sinusoidal endothelial barrier and parenchyma. To fill that gap we elaborated human 3D liver in vitro models, composed of human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Huh-7 hepatoma cells as hepatocyte model, layered in a structure mimicking the hepatic sinusoid, which enable studies of key features of early steps of hepatic infection. Built with established cell lines and scaffold, these models provide a reproducible and easy-to-build cell culture approach of reduced complexity compared to animal models, while preserving higher physiological relevance compared to standard 2D systems. For proof-of-principle we challenged the models with two hepatotropic pathogens: the parasitic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We constructed four distinct setups dedicated to investigating specific aspects of hepatic invasion: 1) pathogen 3D migration towards hepatocytes, 2) hepatocyte barrier crossing, 3) LSEC and subsequent hepatocyte crossing, and 4) quantification of human hepatic virus replication (HBV). Our methods comprise automated quantification of E. histolytica migration and hepatic cells layer crossing in the 3D liver models. Moreover, replication of HBV virus occurs in our virus infection 3D liver model, indicating that routine in vitro assays using HBV or others viruses can be performed in this easy-to-build but more physiological hepatic environment. These results illustrate that our new 3D liver infection models are simple but effective, enabling new investigations on infectious disease mechanisms. The better

  3. Feasibility Study of a 3D CFD Solution for FSI Investigations on NREL 5MW Wind Turbine Blade

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    With the increase in length of wind turbine blades flutter is becoming a potential design constrain, hence the interest in computational tools for fluid-structure interaction studies. The general approach to this problem makes use of simplified aerodynamic computational tools. Scope of this work is to investigate the outcomes of a 3D CFD simulation of a complete wind turbine blade, both in terms of numerical results and computational cost. The model studied is a 5MW theoretical wind turbine f...

  4. Studies of Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) Accelerating Structures with 3-D Codes

    Spalek, G; Smith, P D; Greninger, P T; Charman, C M

    2000-01-01

    The cw CCL being designed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project accelerates protons from 96MeV to 211MeV. It consists of 99 segments each containing up to seven accelerating cavities. Segments are coupled by intersegment coupling cavities and grouped into supermodules. The design method needs to address not only basic cavity sizing for a given coupling and pi/2 mode frequency, but also the effects of high power densities on the cavity frequency, mechanical stresses, and the structure's stop band during operation. On the APT project, 3-D RF (Ansoft Corp.'s HFSS) and coupled RF/structural (Ansys Inc.'s ANSYS) codes are being used to develop tools to address the above issues and guide cooling channel design. The code's predictions are being checked against available low power Aluminum models. Stop band behavior under power will be checked once the tools are extended to CCDTL structures that have been tested at high power. A summary of calculations made to date and agreement with measured result...

  5. Orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors: a 3D finite element method study

    Armando Yukio Saga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In orthodontic treatment, intrusion movement of maxillary incisors is often necessary. Therefore, the objective of this investigation is to evaluate the initial distribution patterns and magnitude of compressive stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL in a simulation of orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors, considering the points of force application. Methods: Anatomic 3D models reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography scans were used to simulate maxillary incisors intrusion loading. The points of force application selected were: centered between central incisors brackets (LOAD 1; bilaterally between the brackets of central and lateral incisors (LOAD 2; bilaterally distal to the brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 3; bilaterally 7 mm distal to the center of brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 4. Results and Conclusions: Stress concentrated at the PDL apex region, irrespective of the point of orthodontic force application. The four load models showed distinct contour plots and compressive stress values over the midsagittal reference line. The contour plots of central and lateral incisors were not similar in the same load model. LOAD 3 resulted in more balanced compressive stress distribution.

  6. A 3D theoretical model for green management: a case study of Chinese enterprises

    Zhang Ying; Wen Xingzi

    2007-01-01

    Companies that not only abide by environmental regulations, but also discover new techniques and adopt new management methods to reduce negative environmental impacts often have positive effects on corporate profitability. In order to meet the needs of sustainability of enterprises and protect environment, the concept of green management is developed and regarded as an important direction of management theory of the 21st century. Though there are many theories and practices about green management in western countries, they are built based on the developed market economy, which are not suitable for Chinese enterprises absolutely. By analyzing the viewpoints and models of the overseas and domestic experts and scholars, combining characteristic of China's market economy, this paper points out the real connotation of enterprise green management - the combination of ecological harmony (harmony between human and nature) with human harmony (harmony among people), establishes a 3D theoretical model, points out the defects of enterprise's green management in China, reanalyzes and redesigned enterprise green management, which paves the way for the deeper and broader development of green management.

  7. Orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors: a 3D finite element method study

    Saga, Armando Yukio; Maruo, Hiroshi; Argenta, Marco André; Maruo, Ivan Toshio; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In orthodontic treatment, intrusion movement of maxillary incisors is often necessary. Therefore, the objective of this investigation is to evaluate the initial distribution patterns and magnitude of compressive stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL) in a simulation of orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors, considering the points of force application. Methods: Anatomic 3D models reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography scans were used to simulate maxillary incisors intrusion loading. The points of force application selected were: centered between central incisors brackets (LOAD 1); bilaterally between the brackets of central and lateral incisors (LOAD 2); bilaterally distal to the brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 3); bilaterally 7 mm distal to the center of brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 4). Results and Conclusions: Stress concentrated at the PDL apex region, irrespective of the point of orthodontic force application. The four load models showed distinct contour plots and compressive stress values over the midsagittal reference line. The contour plots of central and lateral incisors were not similar in the same load model. LOAD 3 resulted in more balanced compressive stress distribution. PMID:27007765

  8. Studies of coupled cavity LINAC (CCL) accelerating structures with 3-D codes

    The cw CCL being designed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project accelerates protons from 96 MeV to 211 MeV. It consists of 99 segments each containing up to seven accelerating cavities. Segments are coupled by intersegment coupling cavities and grouped into supermodules. The design method needs to address not only basic cavity sizing for a given coupling and pi/2 mode frequency, but also the effects of high power densities on the cavity frequency, mechanical stresses, and the structure's stop band during operation. On the APT project, 3-D RF (Ansoft Corp.'s HFSS) and coupled RF/structural (Ansys Inc.'s ANSYS) codes are being used. to develop tools to address the above issues and guide cooling channel design. The code's predictions are being checked against available low power Aluminum models. Stop band behavior under power will be checked once the tools are extended to CCDTL structures that have been tested at high power. A summary of calculations made to date and agreement with measured results will be presented

  9. Feasibility Study of Using PAGAT Polymer Gel Dosimeter for 3D Dosimetry Around the Reactor Core

    An important problem for samples irradiation in research reactors is determination of three dimensional dose distributions in the vicinity of reactor core. Polymer gel dosimeters can be used to measure complex three dimensional dose distributions as well as the integrated dose accurately with no dependency on the dose rate. Furthermore, as they are tissue-equivalent, they may be used as a phantom. So far, polymer gel dosimeters have been used for photon, electron, proton, neutron and heavy ions, but there is a lack of application of polymer gel dosimeters for dosimetry of the mixed field of radiation of different linear ionization concentration. In this research, PAGAT polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated in the laboratory and then were irradiated with the mixed neutron gamma field from the fission process of the Tehran Research Reactor. The gel response was determined by the nuclear magnetic resonance imaging technique as a change in the relaxation rate (R2) of the gel dosimeters. The gel response as a function of normalized dose was investigated and a bi-exponential fitting was adjusted to the dose-R2 data. The region with a linear response, is called dynamic range. The slope of the region as the sensitivity of PAGAT gels to the normalized dose resulted from the neutron-gamma mixed field, was estimated to be 1.695 s-1. The results of this research showed that PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter is a useful tool for 3D dose distribution to determine the neutron gamma mixed field.

  10. Use of High resolution 3D Diffusion tensor imaging to study brain white matter development in live neonatal rats

    Yu eCai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available High resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI can provide important information on brain development, yet it is challenging in live neonatal rats due to the small size of neonatal brain and motion-sensitive nature of DTI. Imaging in live neonatal rats has clear advantages over fixed brain scans, as longitudinal and functional studies would be feasible to understand neuro-developmental abnormalities. In this study, we developed imaging strategies that can be used to obtain high resolution 3D DTI images in live neonatal rats at postnatal day 5 (PND5 and postnatal day 14 (PND14, using only 3 hours of imaging acquisition time. An optimized 3D DTI pulse sequence and appropriate animal setup to minimize physiological motion artifacts are the keys to successful high resolution 3D DTI imaging. Thus, a 3D RARE DTI sequence with twin navigator echoes was implemented to accelerate imaging acquisition time and minimize motion artifacts. It has been suggested that neonatal mammals possess a unique ability to tolerate mild to moderate hypothermia and hypoxia without long term impact. Thus, we additionally utilized this ability to minimize motion artifacts in MR images by carefully suppressing the respiratory rate to around 15/min for PND5 and 30/min for PND14 using mild to moderate hypothermia. These imaging strategies have been successfully implemented to study how the effect of cocaine exposure in dams might affect brain development in their rat pups. Image quality resulting from this in vivo DTI study was comparable to ex vivo scans. FA values were also similar between the live and fixed brain scans. The capability of acquiring high quality in vivo DTI imaging offers a valuable opportunity to study many neurological disorders in brain development in an authentic living environment.

  11. A multifunctional 3D co-culture system for studies of mammary tissue morphogenesis and stem cell biology.

    Jonathan J Campbell

    Full Text Available Studies on the stem cell niche and the efficacy of cancer therapeutics require complex multicellular structures and interactions between different cell types and extracellular matrix (ECM in three dimensional (3D space. We have engineered a 3D in vitro model of mammary gland that encompasses a defined, porous collagen/hyaluronic acid (HA scaffold forming a physiologically relevant foundation for epithelial and adipocyte co-culture. Polarized ductal and acinar structures form within this scaffold recapitulating normal tissue morphology in the absence of reconstituted basement membrane (rBM hydrogel. Furthermore, organoid developmental outcome can be controlled by the ratio of collagen to HA, with a higher HA concentration favouring acinar morphological development. Importantly, this culture system recapitulates the stem cell niche as primary mammary stem cells form complex organoids, emphasising the utility of this approach for developmental and tumorigenic studies using genetically altered animals or human biopsy material, and for screening cancer therapeutics for personalised medicine.

  12. Magnetic compton profile study of orbital ordering state of 3d electrons in YTiO3

    Orbital ordering state of 3d electrons in YTiO3 has been studied by magnetic Compton profile (MCP) measurement for crystallographic directions of [100] (a-axis) and [001] (c-axis). The magnetic effect of the observed MCP leads to the spin moment that is equal to the saturated magnetic moment within the estimated errors, which strongly suggests quenching of the orbital moment. Shape of the observed MCPs shows directional anisotropy between the two axes. The MCPs are calculated by using an atomic model wave function of a linear combination of two 3d-t2g orbitals, udyz ± vdzx (u2 + v2=1) for the Ti sites. The observed MCP is best reproduced by the calculated MCP with u=0.84±0.04 and v=0.54±0.04. This value of u is slightly larger than those obtained in the previous studies. (author)

  13. Application of 3D laser scanning technology in historical building preservation: a case study of a Chinese temple

    Chang, Yu Min; Lu, Nien Hua; Wu, Tsung Chiang

    2005-06-01

    This study applies 3D Laser scanning technology to develop a high-precision measuring system for digital survey of historical building. It outperformed other methods in obtaining abundant high-precision measuring points and computing data instantly. In this study, the Pei-tien Temple, a Chinese Taoism temple in southern Taiwan famous for its highly intricate architecture and more than 300-year history, was adopted as the target to proof the high accuracy and efficiency of this system. By using French made MENSI GS-100 Laser Scanner, numerous measuring points were precisely plotted to present the plane map, vertical map and 3D map of the property. Accuracies of 0.1-1 mm in the digital data have consistently been achieved for the historical heritage measurement.

  14. Study of materials and machines for 3D printed large-scale, flexible electronic structures using fused deposition modeling

    Hwang, Seyeon

    The 3 dimensional printing (3DP), called to additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), is emerged to revolutionize manufacturing and completely transform how products are designed and fabricated. A great deal of research activities have been carried out to apply this new technology to a variety of fields. In spite of many endeavors, much more research is still required to perfect the processes of the 3D printing techniques especially in the area of the large-scale additive manufacturing and flexible printed electronics. The principles of various 3D printing processes are briefly outlined in the Introduction Section. New types of thermoplastic polymer composites aiming to specified functional applications are also introduced in this section. Chapter 2 shows studies about the metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Various metal particles, copper and iron particles, are added into thermoplastics polymer matrices as the reinforcement filler. The thermo-mechanical properties, such as thermal conductivity, hardness, tensile strength, and fracture mechanism, of composites are tested to figure out the effects of metal fillers on 3D printed composite structures for the large-scale printing process. In Chapter 3, carbon/polymer composite filaments are developed by a simple mechanical blending process with an aim of fabricating the flexible 3D printed electronics as a single structure. Various types of carbon particles consisting of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), conductive carbon black (CCB), and graphite are used as the conductive fillers to provide the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with improved electrical conductivity. The mechanical behavior and conduction mechanisms of the developed composite materials are observed in terms of the loading amount of carbon fillers in this section. Finally, the prototype flexible electronics are modeled and manufactured by the FDM process using Carbon/TPU composite filaments and

  15. 3D Ultrastructural Organization of Whole Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cells Studied by Nanoscale Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Hummel, Eric; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Tarek, Basel; SCHNEIDER, Gerd; Kunz, Michael; Frangakis, Achilleas S.; Westermann, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    The complex architecture of their structural elements and compartments is a hallmark of eukaryotic cells. The creation of high resolution models of whole cells has been limited by the relatively low resolution of conventional light microscopes and the requirement for ultrathin sections in transmission electron microscopy. We used soft x-ray tomography to study the 3D ultrastructural organization of whole cells of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at unprecedented spatial re...

  16. 3D ultrastructural organization of whole Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells studied by nanoscale soft x-ray tomography

    Hummel, Eric; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Tarek, Basel; SCHNEIDER, Gerd; Kunz, Michael; Frangakis, Achilleas S.; Westermann, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    The complex architecture of their structural elements and compartments is a hallmark of eukaryotic cells. The creation of high resolution models of whole cells has been limited by the relatively low resolution of conventional light microscopes and the requirement for ultrathin sections in transmission electron microscopy. We used soft x-ray tomography to study the 3D ultrastructural organization of whole cells of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at unprecedented spatial re...

  17. Ez-response as a monitor of a Baikal rift fault electrical resistivity: 3D modelling studies

    Trofimov, I.L.; V. S. Shneyer; D. B. Avdeev; A. V. Kuvshinov; O. V. Pankratov

    2004-01-01

    3D numerical studies have shown that the vertical voltage above the Baikal deep-water fault is detectable and that respective transfer functions, Ez-responses, are sensitive to the electrical resistivity changes of the fault, i.e. these functions appear actually informative with respect to the resistivity «breath» of the fault. It means that if the fault resistivity changed, conventional electromagnetic instruments would be able to detect this fact by measurement of the vertical ele...

  18. 3D video

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  19. 3D Animation Essentials

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  20. Linearity of patient positioning detection. A phantom study of skin markers, cone beam computed tomography, and 3D ultrasound

    Ballhausen, Hendrik; Hieber, Sheila; Li, Minglun; Belka, Claus; Reiner, Michael [University Hospital of LMU, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Parodi, Katia [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Experimental Physics - Medical Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) is a modality complementary to kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) and skin markers for patient positioning detection. This study compares the linearity of evaluations based on measurements using a modern 3D-US system (Elekta Clarity {sup registered}; Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden), a kV-CBCT system (Elekta iView {sup registered}), and skin markers. An investigator deliberately displaced a multimodal phantom by up to ± 30 mm along different axes. The following data points were acquired: 27 along the lateral axis, 29 along the longitudinal axis, 27 along the vertical axis, and 27 along the space diagonal. At each of these 110 positions, the displacements according to skin' markers were recorded and scans were performed using both 3D-US and kV-CBCT. Shifts were detected by matching bony anatomy or soft tissue density to a reference planning CT in the case of kV-CBCT and for 3D-US, by matching ultrasound volume data to a reference planning volume. A consensus value was calculated from the average of the four modalities. With respect to this consensus value, the linearity (offset and regression coefficient, i.e., slope), average offset, systematic error, and random error of all four modalities were calculated for each axis. Linearity was similar for all four modalities, with regression coefficients between 0.994 and 1.012, and all offsets below 1 mm. The systematic errors of skin markers and 3D-US were higher than for kV-CBCT, but random errors were similar. In particular, 3D-US demonstrated an average offset of 0.36 mm to the right, 0.08 mm inferiorly, and 0.15 mm anteriorly; the systematic error was 0.36 mm laterally, 0.35 mm longitudinally, and 0.22 mm vertically; the random error was 0.15 mm laterally, 0.30 mm longitudinally, and 0.12 mm vertically. A total of 109 out of 110 (99 %) 3D-US measurements were within 1 mm of the consensus value on either axis. The linearity of 3D-US was no worse than that of skin

  1. Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies on 3d and 4f magnetic compounds

    First, some theoretical aspects of neutron scattering techniques are given, and the cyrogenic equipment and the neutron spectrometers employed are described. Experiments on a 3-d Ising system are described, performed at very low temperatures and in a magnetic field. Experimental proof has been obtained for the theoretical prediction that the critical behaviour of a d-dimensional Ising system in a transverse magnetic field near T=0 is identical to that of a d+1 dimensional Ising system as a function of temperature in zero field. Experiments are described on a Ni2+ compound which represents a good example of a 1-d antiferromagnetic Heisenberg (HAF), spin s=1, system. The results give evidence for the so called 'Haldane conjecture', a theory which predicts that the ground state of HAF systems with integer spin is a nonmagnetic many-body singlet. The excited states are separated from the ground state by an energy gap. Contrastingly, half-integer spin systems are predicted to have no such gap. A short introduction is given to phenomena in rare earth, 4f compunds, like the Kondo effect and heavy fermion behaviour. Experimental results on the RE hexaborides are reported, among which CeB6, a typical Kondo system with complex magnetic orderings. Furthermore, inelastic neutron scattering experiments on NdB6 and CeB6, performed in order to get insight in the various reaction mechanisms, are presented. Finally a report is given on magnetic correlations and excitations in two nonmagnetically ordered heavy fermion compounds, CeCu6 and CeRu2Si2 and their interpretation in the light of existing theories. 201 refs.; 61 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. A primary study of appropriate intraoral scanning frequency of single 3D image

    Li, Hong; Lyu, Peijun; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong; Liang, Xiaoyue

    2015-07-01

    Objective To make a quantitative analysis between sampling frequencies and micro-movement distance of mark points on tooth surfaces, and to provide a reference for sampling frequency settings of intraoral scanning systems. Methods Mark points affixed to the incisors of five subjects. In total, 3600 groups of tracking point coordinates were obtained with frequencies of 60, 150 and 300 Hz using an optical 3D tracking system. The data was then re-sampled to obtain coordinates at lower frequencies (5, 10, 15 and 20 Hz) at equal intervals of groups of tracking point coordinates. Change in distance (Δd) was defined as the change in position of a single v from one sampling time point to another, and was valued by clinical accuracy requirement (20-100μm). The curve equation was fit quantitatively between Δd median (M) and the sampling frequency (f). The difference between upper and lower incisor mark points were analyzed by a non-parametric test; α=0.05. Result When the frequency (f) was 60 Hz, upper jaw Δd median (M) and interquartile (Q) were 14.4 μm and 9.2 μm, respectively, while the lower Δd(M) and (Q) were 6.4 μm and 10.2 μm, respectively. Every Δd value was less than 100 μm, while 74% of Δd vales were less than 20 μm. Δd(M) and f satisfy the power curve equation: Δd(M)=0.526×f-0.979(f∈[5,300]). Significant differences of incisor feature points were noted between upper and lower jaws of the same subject (P<0.01). Conclusion Clinical accuracy can be met when the sampling frequency of the intraoral scanning system is 60 Hz.

  3. 3D Case Studies of Monitoring Dynamic Structural Tests using Long Exposure Imagery

    McCarthy, D. M. J.; Chandler, J. H.; Palmeri, A.

    2014-06-01

    Structural health monitoring uses non-destructive testing programmes to detect long-term degradation phenomena in civil engineering structures. Structural testing may also be carried out to assess a structure's integrity following a potentially damaging event. Such investigations are increasingly carried out with vibration techniques, in which the structural response to artificial or natural excitations is recorded and analysed from a number of monitoring locations. Photogrammetry is of particular interest here since a very high number of monitoring locations can be measured using just a few images. To achieve the necessary imaging frequency to capture the vibration, it has been necessary to reduce the image resolution at the cost of spatial measurement accuracy. Even specialist sensors are limited by a compromise between sensor resolution and imaging frequency. To alleviate this compromise, a different approach has been developed and is described in this paper. Instead of using high-speed imaging to capture the instantaneous position at each epoch, long-exposure images are instead used, in which the localised image of the object becomes blurred. The approach has been extended to create 3D displacement vectors for each target point via multiple camera locations, which allows the simultaneous detection of transverse and torsional mode shapes. The proposed approach is frequency invariant allowing monitoring of higher modal frequencies irrespective of a sampling frequency. Since there is no requirement for imaging frequency, a higher image resolution is possible for the most accurate spatial measurement. The results of a small scale laboratory test using off-the-shelf consumer cameras are demonstrated. A larger experiment also demonstrates the scalability of the approach.

  4. Integrative multicellular biological modeling: a case study of 3D epidermal development using GPU algorithms

    Christley Scott

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation of sophisticated biological models requires considerable computational power. These models typically integrate together numerous biological phenomena such as spatially-explicit heterogeneous cells, cell-cell interactions, cell-environment interactions and intracellular gene networks. The recent advent of programming for graphical processing units (GPU opens up the possibility of developing more integrative, detailed and predictive biological models while at the same time decreasing the computational cost to simulate those models. Results We construct a 3D model of epidermal development and provide a set of GPU algorithms that executes significantly faster than sequential central processing unit (CPU code. We provide a parallel implementation of the subcellular element method for individual cells residing in a lattice-free spatial environment. Each cell in our epidermal model includes an internal gene network, which integrates cellular interaction of Notch signaling together with environmental interaction of basement membrane adhesion, to specify cellular state and behaviors such as growth and division. We take a pedagogical approach to describing how modeling methods are efficiently implemented on the GPU including memory layout of data structures and functional decomposition. We discuss various programmatic issues and provide a set of design guidelines for GPU programming that are instructive to avoid common pitfalls as well as to extract performance from the GPU architecture. Conclusions We demonstrate that GPU algorithms represent a significant technological advance for the simulation of complex biological models. We further demonstrate with our epidermal model that the integration of multiple complex modeling methods for heterogeneous multicellular biological processes is both feasible and computationally tractable using this new technology. We hope that the provided algorithms and source code will be a

  5. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity, 3D QSAR, and Molecular Docking Study of 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

    Ramesh L. Sawant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In continuation with our research program, in search of potent enzyme tyrosinase inhibitor, a series of synthesized 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles have been evaluated for enzyme tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Subsequently, 3D QSAR and docking studies were performed to find optimum structural requirements for potent enzyme tyrosinase inhibitor from this series. The synthesized 20 compounds of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole series were screened for mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity at various concentrations by enzyme inhibition assay. The percentage enzyme inhibition was calculated by recording absorbance at 492 nm with microplate reader. 3D QSAR and docking studies were performed using VLife MDS 3.5 software. In the series 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles enzyme tyrosinase inhibitory activity was found to be dose dependent with maximum activity for compounds 4c, 4h, 4m, and 4r. 3D QSAR and docking studies revealed that more electropositive and less bulky substituents if placed on 1,3,4-oxadiazole nucleus may result in better tyrosinase inhibitory activity in the series.

  6. Pharmacophore modeling, 3D-QSAR and docking study of 2-phenylpyrimidine analogues as selective PDE4B inhibitors.

    Tripuraneni, Naga Srinivas; Azam, Mohammed Afzal

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacophore modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies have been performed, to explore the putative binding modes of 2-phenylpyrimidine series as PDE4B selective inhibitors. A five point pharmacophore model was developed using 87 molecules having pIC50 ranging from 8.52 to 5.07. The pharmacophore hypothesis yielded a statistically significant 3D-QSAR model, with a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.918), cross validation coefficient (Q(2)=0.852), and F value (175) at 4 component PLS factor. The external validation indicated that our QSAR model possessed high predictive power (R(2)=0.70). The generated model was further validated by enrichment studies using the decoy test. To evaluate the effectiveness of docking protocol in flexible docking, we have selected crystallographic bound compound to validate our docking procedure as evident from root mean square deviation. A 10ns molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the docking results of both stability of the 1XMU-ligand complex and the presumed active conformation. Further, similar orientation was observed between the superposition of the conformations of 85 after MD simulation and best XP-docking pose; MD simulation and 3D-QSAR pose; best XP-docking and 3D-QSAR poses. Outcomes of the present study provide insight in designing novel molecules with better PDE4B selective inhibitory activity. PMID:26804643

  7. 3D automatic exposure control for 64-detector row CT: Radiation dose reduction in chest phantom study

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of three-dimensional (3D) automatic exposure control (AEC) for low-dose CT examination in a chest phantom study. Materials and methods: A chest CT phantom including simulated focal ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and nodules was scanned with a 64-detector row CT with and without AEC. Performance of 3D AEC included changing targeted standard deviations (SDs) of image noise from scout view. To determine the appropriate targeted SD number for identification, the capability of overall identification with the CT protocol adapted to each of the targeted SDs was compared with that obtained with CT without AEC by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: When targeted SD values equal to or higher than 250 were used, areas under the curve (Azs) of nodule identification with CT protocol using AEC were significantly smaller than that for CT protocol without AEC (p < 0.05). When targeted SD numbers at equal to or more than 180 were adapted, Azs of CT protocol with AEC had significantly smaller than that without AEC (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This phantom study shows 3D AEC is useful for low-dose lung CT examination, and can reduce the radiation dose while maintaining good identification capability and good image quality.

  8. 3D automatic exposure control for 64-detector row CT: Radiation dose reduction in chest phantom study

    Matsumoto, Keiko, E-mail: palm_kei@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Shimokato, Yamanashi (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Kono, Atsushi [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Inokawa, Hiroyasu [Toshiba Medical Systems, Ohtawara, Tochigi (Japan); Onishi, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Nogami, Munenobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Division of Image-Based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Takenaka, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Araki, Tsutomu [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Shimokato, Yamanashi (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of three-dimensional (3D) automatic exposure control (AEC) for low-dose CT examination in a chest phantom study. Materials and methods: A chest CT phantom including simulated focal ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and nodules was scanned with a 64-detector row CT with and without AEC. Performance of 3D AEC included changing targeted standard deviations (SDs) of image noise from scout view. To determine the appropriate targeted SD number for identification, the capability of overall identification with the CT protocol adapted to each of the targeted SDs was compared with that obtained with CT without AEC by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: When targeted SD values equal to or higher than 250 were used, areas under the curve (Azs) of nodule identification with CT protocol using AEC were significantly smaller than that for CT protocol without AEC (p < 0.05). When targeted SD numbers at equal to or more than 180 were adapted, Azs of CT protocol with AEC had significantly smaller than that without AEC (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This phantom study shows 3D AEC is useful for low-dose lung CT examination, and can reduce the radiation dose while maintaining good identification capability and good image quality.

  9. Assessment of different 3D culture systems to study tumor phenotype and chemosensitivity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Zeeberg, Katrine; Cardone, Rosa Angela; Greco, Maria Raffaella; Saccomano, Mara; Nøhr-Nielsen, Asbjørn; Alves, Frauke; Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Reshkin, Stephan Joel

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly malignant disease with a very poor prognosis, due to the influence of the tumor stroma, which promotes tumor growth, early invasion and chemoradiation resistance. Efforts to develop models for identifying novel anticancer therapeutic compounds have been hampered by the limited ability of in vitro models to mimic these in vivo tumor-stroma interactions. This has led to the development of various three-dimensional (3D) culture platforms recapitulating the in vivo tumor-stroma crosstalk and designed to better understand basic cancer processes and screen drug action. However, a consensus for different experimental 3D platforms is still missing in PDAC. We compared four PDAC cell lines of different malignancy grown in 2D monolayers to three of the more commonly used 3D techniques (ultralow adhesion concave microwells, Matrigel inclusion and organotypic systems) and to tumors derived from their orthotopic implantation in mice. In these 3D platforms, we observed that cells grow with very different tumor morphologies and the organotypic setting most closely resembles the tumor cytoarchitecture obtained by orthotopically implanting the four cell lines in mice. We then analyzed the molecular and cellular responses of one of these cell lines to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulation with EGF and inhibition with erlotinib and found that only in the 3D platforms, and especially the organotypic, cells: i) responded to EGF by changing the expression of signalling components underlying cell-stroma crosstalk and tissue architecture, growth, invasion and drug resistance (E-cadherin, EGFR, ezrin, β1 integrin, NHERF1 and HIF-1α) similar to those reported in vivo; ii) had stimulated growth and increased erlotinib sensitivity in response to EGF, more faithfully mimicking their known in vivo behaviour. Altogether, these results, indicate the organotypic as the most relevant physiological 3D system to study the

  10. Study of the structure of 3D-ordered macroporous GaN-ZnS:Mn nanocomposite films

    Kurdyukov, D. A., E-mail: kurd@gvg.ioffe.ru; Shishkin, I. I.; Grudinkin, S. A.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.; Golubev, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    A film-type 3D-ordered macroporous GaN-ZnS:Mn nanocomposite with the structure of an inverted opal is fabricated. Structural studies of the nanocomposite are performed, and it is shown that GaN and ZnS:Mn introduced into the pores of the silica opal are nanocrystallites misoriented with respect to each other. It is shown that the nanocomposite is a structurally perfect 3D photonic crystal. The efficiency of using a buffer of GaN crystallites to preclude interaction between the surface of the spherical a-SiO{sub 2} particles forming the opal matrix and chemically active substances introduced into the pores is demonstrated.

  11. Study of the structure of 3D-ordered macroporous GaN-ZnS:Mn nanocomposite films

    A film-type 3D-ordered macroporous GaN-ZnS:Mn nanocomposite with the structure of an inverted opal is fabricated. Structural studies of the nanocomposite are performed, and it is shown that GaN and ZnS:Mn introduced into the pores of the silica opal are nanocrystallites misoriented with respect to each other. It is shown that the nanocomposite is a structurally perfect 3D photonic crystal. The efficiency of using a buffer of GaN crystallites to preclude interaction between the surface of the spherical a-SiO2 particles forming the opal matrix and chemically active substances introduced into the pores is demonstrated

  12. Taming Supersymmetric Defects in 3d-3d Correspondence

    Gang, Dongmin; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group $SL(N,\\mathbb{C})$, in the context of its relation with 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d $(2,0)$ theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold $\\hat{M}$. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d $SL(N,\\mathbb{C})$ Chern-Simons theory, in 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theory, in 5d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper, which contains more details and more results.

  13. Mechanical Simulation of the Localized Deformation in the Aluminum Foams: A Three-dimensional (3D) Structure Based Study

    Kai, Zhu; Enyu, Guo; Wenqian, Zhou; Sansan, Shuai; Tao, Jing; Hongliang, Hou; Yanjin, Xu

    2015-06-01

    Metal-foam materials have been used increasingly in industry for their low-density, high-toughness and high impact resistance properties. Understanding the macro-scale mechanical properties of these materials is essential to evaluate their actual performance and thus to optimize the structures and properties accordingly. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomographytechnique is a promising method to study 3D structures at small length scales, which provides high spatial resolution and allows the researchers to observe the change of structures/features in situ without destroying the original objects. In this work, the real 3D structure of closed-cell aluminum foam was obtained by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography. The reconstructed 3D model of the foam was further utilized as input for the subsequent mechanical study to investigate the localized deformation behaviors and evolution process of the foam under longitudinal quasi-static uniaxial compressive loading. By analyzing the simulated results, it is demonstrated that the deformation bands always initiate and propagate along the cell walls which are finally folded upon loading. And the large spherical cells are more susceptible to yielding, as well as to the stress concentration than the cells with other shapes. This finding is consistent with the experimental results.

  14. Assessing quality of urban underground spaces by coupling 3D geological models: The case study of Foshan city, South China

    Hou, Weisheng; Yang, Liang; Deng, Dongcheng; Ye, Jing; Clarke, Keith; Yang, Zhijun; Zhuang, Wenming; Liu, Jianxiong; Huang, Jichun

    2016-04-01

    Urban underground spaces (UUS), especially those containing natural resources that have not yet been utilized, have been recognized as important for future sustainable development in large cities. One of the key steps in city planning is to estimate the quality of urban underground space resources, since they are major determinants of suitable land use. Yet geological constraints are rarely taken into consideration in urban planning, nor are the uncertainties in the quality of the available assessments. Based on Fuzzy Set theory and the analytic hierarchy process, a 3D stepwise process for the quality assessment of geotechnical properties of natural resources in UUS is presented. The process includes an index system for construction factors; area partitioning; the extraction of geological attributes; the creation of a relative membership grade matrix; the evaluation of subject and destination layers; and indeterminacy analysis. A 3D geological model of the study area was introduced into the process that extracted geological attributes as constraints. This 3D geological model was coupled with borehole data for Foshan City, Guangdong province, South China, and the indeterminacies caused by the cell size and the geological strata constraints were analyzed. The results of the case study show that (1) a relatively correct result can be obtained if the cell size is near to the average sampling distance of the boreholes; (2) the constraints of the 3D geological model have a major role in establishing the UUS quality level and distribution, especially at the boundaries of the geological bodies; and (3) the assessment result is impacted by an interaction between the cell resolution and the geological model used.

  15. 3D element imaging using NSECT for the detection of renal cancer: a simulation study in MCNP

    Viana, R. S.; Agasthya, G. A.; Yoriyaz, H.; Kapadia, A. J.

    2013-09-01

    This work describes a simulation study investigating the application of neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) for noninvasive 3D imaging of renal cancer in vivo. Using MCNP5 simulations, we describe a method of diagnosing renal cancer in the body by mapping the 3D distribution of elements present in tumors using the NSECT technique. A human phantom containing the kidneys and other major organs was modeled in MCNP5. The element composition of each organ was based on values reported in literature. The two kidneys were modeled to contain elements reported in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and healthy kidney tissue. Simulated NSECT scans were executed to determine the 3D element distribution of the phantom body. Elements specific to RCC and healthy kidney tissue were then analyzed to identify the locations of the diseased and healthy kidneys and generate tomographic images of the tumor. The extent of the RCC lesion inside the kidney was determined using 3D volume rendering. A similar procedure was used to generate images of each individual organ in the body. Six isotopes were studied in this work—32S, 12C, 23Na, 14N, 31P and 39K. The results demonstrated that through a single NSECT scan performed in vivo, it is possible to identify the location of the kidneys and other organs within the body, determine the extent of the tumor within the organ, and to quantify the differences between cancer and healthy tissue-related isotopes with p ≤ 0.05. All of the images demonstrated appropriate concentration changes between the organs, with some discrepancy observed in 31P, 39K and 23Na. The discrepancies were likely due to the low concentration of the elements in the tissue that were below the current detection sensitivity of the NSECT technique.

  16. Solar response in tropical stratospheric ozone: a 3-D chemical transport model study using ERA reanalyses

    S. Dhomse

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have used an off-line 3-D chemical transport model (CTM to investigate the 11-yr solar cycle response in tropical stratospheric ozone. The model is forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF (reanalysis (ERA-40/operational and ERA-Interim data for the 1979–2005 time period. We have compared the modelled solar response in ozone to observation-based data sets that are constructed using satellite instruments such as Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, Solar Backscatter UltraViolet instrument (SBUV, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE. A significant difference is seen between simulated and observed ozone during the 1980s, which is probably due to inhomogeneities in the ERA-40 reanalyses. In general, the model with ERA-Interim dynamics shows better agreement with the observations from 1990 onwards than with ERA-40. Overall both standard model simulations are partially able to simulate a "double peak"-structured ozone solar response with a minimum around 30 km, and these are in better agreement with HALOE than SAGE-corrected SBUV (SBUV/SAGE or SAGE-based data sets. In the tropical lower stratosphere (TLS, the modelled solar response with time-varying aerosols is amplified through aliasing with a volcanic signal, as the model overestimates ozone loss during high aerosol loading years. However, the modelled solar response with fixed dynamics and constant aerosols shows a positive signal which is in better agreement with SBUV/SAGE and SAGE-based data sets in the TLS. Our model simulations suggests that photochemistry contributes to the ozone solar response in this region. The largest model-observation differences occur in the upper stratosphere where SBUV/SAGE and SAGE-based data show a significant (up to 4% solar response whereas the standard model and HALOE do not. This is partly due to a positive solar response in the ECMWF upper stratospheric temperatures which

  17. Use of 3-D magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography in detecting human cerebral stroke: a simulation study

    GAO Nuo; ZHU Shan-an; HE Bin

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a new three dimensional (3-D) conductivity imaging approach and have used it to detect human brain conductivity changes corresponding to acute cerebral stroke. The proposed Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) approach is based on the J-Substitution algorithm and is expanded to imaging 3-D subject conductivity distribution changes. Computer simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the present MREIT imaging approach.Simulations of both types of cerebral stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke, were performed on a four-sphere head model Simulation results showed that the correlation coefficient (CC) and relative error (RE) between target and estimated conductivity distributions were 0.9245±0.0068 and 8.9997%±0.0084%, for hemorrhagic stroke, and 0.6748±0.0197 and 8.8986%±0.0089%,for ischemic stroke, when the SNR (signal-to-noise radio) of added GWN (Gaussian White Noise) was 40. The convergence characteristic was also evaluated according to the changes of CC and RE with different iteration numbers. The CC increases and RE decreases monotonously with the increasing number of iterations. The present simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed 3-D MREIT approach in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke detection and suggest that the method may become a useful alternative in clinical diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke in humans.

  18. 3D Ultrastructural organization of whole Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells studied by nanoscale soft x-ray tomography.

    Eric Hummel

    Full Text Available The complex architecture of their structural elements and compartments is a hallmark of eukaryotic cells. The creation of high resolution models of whole cells has been limited by the relatively low resolution of conventional light microscopes and the requirement for ultrathin sections in transmission electron microscopy. We used soft x-ray tomography to study the 3D ultrastructural organization of whole cells of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at unprecedented spatial resolution. Intact frozen hydrated cells were imaged using the natural x-ray absorption contrast of the sample without any staining. We applied different fiducial-based and fiducial-less alignment procedures for the 3D reconstructions. The reconstructed 3D volumes of the cells show features down to 30 nm in size. The whole cell tomograms reveal ultrastructural details such as nuclear envelope membranes, thylakoids, basal apparatus, and flagellar microtubule doublets. In addition, the x-ray tomograms provide quantitative data from the cell architecture. Therefore, nanoscale soft x-ray tomography is a new valuable tool for numerous qualitative and quantitative applications in plant cell biology.

  19. The Representation of Cultural Heritage from Traditional Drawing to 3d Survey: the Case Study of Casamary's Abbey

    Canciani, M.; Saccone, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 3D survey the aspects most discussed in the scientific community are those related to the acquisition of data from integrated survey (laser scanner, photogrammetric, topographic and traditional direct), rather than those relating to the interpretation of the data. Yet in the methods of traditional representation, the data interpretation, such as that of the philological reconstruction, constitutes the most important aspect. It is therefore essential in modern systems of survey and representation, filter the information acquired. In the system, based on the integrated survey that we have adopted, the 3D object, characterized by a cloud of georeferenced points, defined but their color values, defines the core of the elaboration. It allows to carry out targeted analysis, using section planes as a tool of selection and filtering data, comparable with those of traditional drawings. In the case study of the Abbey of Casamari (Veroli), one of the most important Cistercian Settlement in Italy, the survey made for an Agreement with the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (MiBACT) and University of RomaTre, within the project "Accessment of the sismic safety of the state museum", the reference 3D model, consisting of the superposition and geo-references data from various surveys, is the tool with which yo develop representative models comparable to traditional ones. It provides the necessary spatial environment for drawing up plans and sections with a definition such as to develop thematic analysis related to phases of construction, state of deterioration and structural features.

  20. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    Cali, Corrado

    2015-07-14

    Advances for application of electron microscopy to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions (3D). From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here, we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room where we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of electron microscopy (EM) preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to observe a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. A kinematic study of the Andromeda dwarf spheroidal system

    Collins, Michelle L M; Rich, R Michael; Ibata, Rodrigo A; Martin, Nicolas F; Irwin, Michael J; Bate, Nicholas F; Lewis, Geraint F; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Arimoto, Nobuo; Casey, Caitlin M; Ferguson, Annette M N; Koch, Andreas; McConnachie, Alan W; Tanvir, Nial

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous kinematic analysis of red giant branch stars within 18 of the 28 Andromeda dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, obtained using the Keck I LRIS and Keck II DEIMOS spectrographs. Based on their g-i colors (taken with the CFHT MegaCam imager), physical positions on the sky, and radial velocities, we assign probabilities of dSph membership to each observed star. Using this information, the velocity dispersions, central masses and central densities of the dark matter halos are calculated for these objects, and compared with the properties of the Milky Way dSph population. We also measure the average metallicity ([Fe/H]) from the co-added spectra of member stars for each M31 dSph and find that they are consistent with the trend of decreasing [Fe/H] with luminosity observed in the Milky Way population. We find that three of our studied M31 dSphs appear as significant outliers in terms of their central velocity dispersion, And XIX, XXI and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii (>700 pc) ...

  2. Ethical Praxis in Body Scanning:An Experimental Study into 3D laser Scanning in Fashion and Textiles/Surface Design

    Taylor, Andrew; Unver, Ertu

    2005-01-01

    Ethical Praxis in Body Scanning: An Experimental Study into 3D laser Scanning in Fashion and Textiles/Surface Design Artists, scientists, anthropometrists and tailors have accurately measured the human body with traditional tools, such as tape measures, callipers and accumulated experience for centuries. Due to the recent acceleration in the quality of 3D graphics technology and computer processing power, many industries who traditionally use 3D software as a design/visualisation...

  3. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  4. A combination of Monte Carlo and transfer matrix methods to study 2D and 3D percolation

    Saleur, H.; Derrida, B.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we develop a method which combines the transfer matrix and the Monte Carlo methods to study the problem of site percolation in 2 and 3 dimensions. We use this method to calculate the properties of strips (2D) and bars (3D). Using a finite size scaling analysis, we obtain estimates of the threshold and of the exponents which confirm values already known. We discuss the advantages and the limitations of our method by comparing it with usual Monte Carlo calculations.

  5. A combination of Monte Carlo and transfer matrix methods to study 2D and 3D percolation

    In this paper we develop a method which combines the transfer matrix and the Monte Carlo methods to study the problem of site percolation in 2 and 3 dimensions. We use this method to calculate the properties of strips (2D) and bars (3D). Using a finite size scaling analysis, we obtain estimates of the threshold and of the exponents wich confirm values already known. We discuss the advantages and the limitations of our method by comparing it with usual Monte Carlo calculations

  6. Pharmacophore Modeling, Atom based 3D-QSAR and Docking Studies of Chalcone derivatives as Tubulin inhibitors

    Naresh Kandakatla; Geetha Ramakrishnan; J. Karthikeyan; Rajasekhar Chekkara

    2014-01-01

    Tubulin is attractive target for anticancer drug design and their inhibitors are useful in treatment of various cancers. Pharmacophore and Atom based QSAR studies were carried out for series of Chalcone derivatives. Pharmacophore model was developed using 38 compounds, having pIC50 ranging 4.003 to 6.552. The best Pharmacophoric hypothesis AHHRR.10 (one H-acceptor, two hydrophobic groups, two aromatic rings) had survival score of 4.824. Atom based 3D QSAR was built for the best hypothesis w...

  7. A 3D biomechanical vocal tract model to study speech production control: How to take into account the gravity?

    Buchaillard, S; Payan, Y; Buchaillard, St\\'{e}phanie; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling study of the way speech motor control can deal with gravity to achieve steady-state tongue positions. It is based on simulations carried out with the 3D biomechanical tongue model developed at ICP, which is now controlled with the Lambda model (Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis). The influence of short-delay orosensory feedback on posture stability is assessed by testing different muscle force/muscle length relationships (Invariant Characteristics). Muscle activation patterns necessary to maintain the tongue in a schwa position are proposed, and the relations of head position, tongue shape and muscle activations are analyzed.

  8. Solid works 3D

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  9. 3D visualization and quantification of bone and teeth mineralization for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis in mice models

    Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Ordureau, S.; Lédée, R.; Léger, C.; Young, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2011-03-01

    Research on bone and teeth mineralization in animal models is critical for understanding human pathologies. Genetically modified mice represent highly valuable models for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis defects and osteoporosis. Current investigations on mice dental and skeletal phenotype use destructive and time consuming methods such as histology and scanning microscopy. Micro-CT imaging is quicker and provides high resolution qualitative phenotypic description. However reliable quantification of mineralization processes in mouse bone and teeth are still lacking. We have established novel CT imaging-based software for accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of mouse mandibular bone and molars. Data were obtained from mandibles of mice lacking the Fibromodulin gene which is involved in mineralization processes. Mandibles were imaged with a micro-CT originally devoted to industrial applications (Viscom, X8060 NDT). 3D advanced visualization was performed using the VoxBox software (UsefulProgress) with ray casting algorithms. Comparison between control and defective mice mandibles was made by applying the same transfer function for each 3D data, thus allowing to detect shape, colour and density discrepencies. The 2D images of transverse slices of mandible and teeth were similar and even more accurate than those obtained with scanning electron microscopy. Image processing of the molars allowed the 3D reconstruction of the pulp chamber, providing a unique tool for the quantitative evaluation of dentinogenesis. This new method is highly powerful for the study of oro-facial mineralizations defects in mice models, complementary and even competitive to current histological and scanning microscopy appoaches.

  10. Improving the management of multimorbidity in general practice: protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial (The 3D Study)

    Chaplin, Katherine; Bower, Peter; Brookes, Sara; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Guthrie, Bruce; Shaw, Alison; Mercer, Stewart; Rafi, Imran; Thorn, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of people are living with multimorbidity. The evidence base for how best to manage these patients is weak. Current clinical guidelines generally focus on single conditions, which may not reflect the needs of patients with multimorbidity. The aim of the 3D study is to develop, implement and evaluate an intervention to improve the management of patients with multimorbidity in general practice. Methods and analysis This is a pragmatic two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial. 32 general practices around Bristol, Greater Manchester and Glasgow will be randomised to receive either the ‘3D intervention’ or usual care. 3D is a complex intervention including components affecting practice organisation, the conduct of patient reviews, integration with secondary care and measures to promote change in practice organisation. Changes include improving continuity of care and replacing reviews of each disease with patient-centred reviews with a focus on patients' quality of life, mental health and polypharmacy. We aim to recruit 1383 patients who have 3 or more chronic conditions. This provides 90% power at 5% significance level to detect an effect size of 0.27 SDs in the primary outcome, which is health-related quality of life at 15 months using the EQ-5D-5L. Secondary outcome measures assess patient centredness, illness burden and treatment burden. The primary analysis will be a multilevel regression model adjusted for baseline, stratification/minimisation, clustering and important co-variables. Nested process evaluation will assess implementation, mechanisms of effectiveness and interaction of the intervention with local context. Economic analysis of cost-consequences and cost-effectiveness will be based on quality-adjusted life years. Ethics and dissemination This study has approval from South-West (Frenchay) National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee (14/SW/0011). Findings will be disseminated via final report, peer

  11. Study of proximal femoral bone perfusion with 3D T1 dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: a feasibility study

    Budzik, Jean-Francois [Groupe Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique de Lille / Faculte Libre de Medecine, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, Lille (France); Centre de Consultation et d' Imagerie de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Lille (France); Universite Catholique de Lille, Lille (France); Universite Nord de France, Lille (France); EA 4490 PMOI (Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires) IFR 114 PRES Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Lefebvre, Guillaume; El Rafei, Mazen [Centre de Consultation et d' Imagerie de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Lille (France); Universite Nord de France, Lille (France); CHU Lille, Lille (France); Forzy, Gerard [Universite Catholique de Lille, Lille (France); Universite Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique de Lille, Laboratoire de Biologie, Departement de Biostatistiques, Lille (France); Chechin, David [Philips Medical Systems, Suresnes (France); Cotten, Anne [Centre de Consultation et d' Imagerie de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Lille (France); Universite Nord de France, Lille (France); EA 4490 PMOI (Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires) IFR 114 PRES Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); CHU Lille, Lille (France)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this study was to compare measurements of semi-quantitative and pharmacokinetic parameters in areas of red (RBM) and yellow bone marrow (YBM) of the hip, using an in-house high-resolution DCE T1 sequence, and to assess intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of these measurements. The right hips of 21 adult patients under 50 years of age were studied. Spatial resolution was 1.8 x 1.8 x 1.8 mm{sup 3}, and temporal resolution was 13.5 seconds. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently processed DCE images and measured semi-quantitative and pharmacokinetic parameters in areas of YBM and RBM. Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed. Area under the curve (AUC) and initial slope (IS) were significantly greater for RBM than for YBM (p < 0.05). K{sup trans} and k{sub ep} were also significantly greater for RBM (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in time to peak between the regions (p < 0.05). SNR, CNR, and intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were all good. DCE study of the whole hip is feasible with high spatial resolution using a 3D T1 sequence. Measures were possible even in low vascularized areas of the femoral head. K{sup trans}, k{sub ep}, AUC, and IS values were significantly different between red and yellow marrow, whereas TTP values were not. (orig.)

  12. Controlled Experimental Study Depicting Moving Objects in View-Shared Time-Resolved 3D MRA

    Mostardi, Petrice M.; Haider, Clifton R.; Rossman, Phillip J.; Borisch, Eric A.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Various methods have been used for time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA), many involving view sharing. However, the extent to which the resultant image time series represents the actual dynamic behavior of the contrast bolus is not always clear. Although numerical simulations can be used to estimate performance, an experimental study can allow more realistic characterization. The purpose of this work was to use a computer-controlled motion phantom for study of the temporal fidelity of ...

  13. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks.

    Nishimura, K

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from ~450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of ~2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with ~1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of Emuon greater than 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  14. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks

    Nishimura, K.; Dey, B.; /Hawaii U. /UC, Riverside; Aston, D.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; /SLAC; Roberts, D.; /Maryland U.; Ruckman, L.; /Hawaii U.; Shtol, D.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Varner, G.S.; /Hawaii U.; Va' vra, J.; Vavra, Jerry; /SLAC

    2012-07-30

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from {approx}450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of {approx}2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with {approx}1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of E{sub muon} > 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  15. A KINEMATIC STUDY OF THE ANDROMEDA DWARF SPHEROIDAL SYSTEM

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Rise, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Penarrubia, Jorge [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Arimoto, Nobuo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Casey, Caitlin M. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Koch, Andreas [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, British Columbia, Victoria V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tanvir, Nial [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    We present a homogeneous kinematic analysis of red giant branch stars within 18 of the 28 Andromeda dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, obtained using the Keck I/LRIS and Keck II/DEIMOS spectrographs. Based on their g - i colors (taken with the CFHT/MegaCam imager), physical positions on the sky, and radial velocities, we assign probabilities of dSph membership to each observed star. Using this information, the velocity dispersions, central masses, and central densities of the dark matter halos are calculated for these objects, and compared with the properties of the Milky Way dSph population. We also measure the average metallicity ([Fe/H]) from the co-added spectra of member stars for each M31 dSph and find that they are consistent with the trend of decreasing [Fe/H] with luminosity observed in the Milky Way population. We find that three of our studied M31 dSphs appear as significant outliers in terms of their central velocity dispersion, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii ({approx}> 700 pc) and low velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub v} < 5 km s{sup -1}). In addition, And XXV has a mass-to-light ratio within its half-light radius of just [M/L]{sub half}=10.3{sup +7.0}{sub -6.7}, making it consistent with a simple stellar system with no appreciable dark matter component within its 1{sigma} uncertainties. We suggest that the structure of the dark matter halos of these outliers have been significantly altered by tides.

  16. A numerical study of the 3D random interchange and random loop models

    Barp, Alessandro; Barp, Edoardo Gabriele; Briol, François-Xavier; Ueltschi, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We have studied numerically the random interchange model and related loop models on the three-dimensional cubic lattice. We have determined the transition time for the occurrence of long loops. The joint distribution of the lengths of long loops is Poisson-Dirichlet with parameter 1 or \\frac{1}{2}.

  17. High-frequency 3D echodentographic imaging modality for early assessment of periodontal diseases: in vitro study

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ngan, Peter; Crout, Richard; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2009-02-01

    The use of ultrasound in dentistry is still an open growing area of research. Currently, there is a lack of imaging modalities to accurately predict minute structures and defects in the jawbone. In particular, the inability of 2D radiographic images to detect bony periodontal defects resulted from infection of the periodontium. This study investigates the feasibility of high frequency ultrasound to reconstruct high resolution 3D surface images of human jawbone. Methods: A dentate and non-dentate mandibles were used in this study. The system employs high frequency single-element ultrasound focused transducers (15-30 MHz) for scanning. Continuous acquisition using a 1 GHz data acquisition card is synchronized with a high precision two-dimensional stage positioning system of +/-1 μm resolution for acquiring accurate and quantitative measurements of the mandible in vitro. Radio frequency (RF) signals are acquired laterally 44-45.5 μm apart for each frame. Different frames are reconstructed 500 μm apart for the 3D reconstruction. Signal processing algorithms are applied on the received ultrasound signals for filtering, focusing, and envelope detection before frame reconstruction. Furthermore, an edge detection technique is adopted to detect the bone surface in each frame. Finally, all edges are combined together in order to render a 3D surface image of the jawbone. Major anatomical landmarks on the resultant images were confirmed with the anatomical structures on the mandibles to show the efficacy of the system. Comparison were also made with conventional 2D radiographs to show the superiority of the ultrasound imaging system in diagnosing small defects in the lateral, axial and elevation planes of space. Results: The landmarks on all ultrasound images matched with those on the mandible, indicating the efficacy of the system in detecting small structures in human jaw bones. Comparison with conventional 2D radiographic images of the same mandible showed superiority of

  18. Structural study of the low-temperature phase transition in Cs3D(SeO4)2

    The X-ray structure of tricaesium deuteriumbiselenate, Cs3D(SeO4)2, Mr = 686.7, has been studied at 25, 190 and 297 K with particular attention being paid to the low-temperature phase transition at Tc3 = 180 K. The structure of Cs3H(SeO4)2 has also been studied at 297 K. The data were refined in the monoclinic space group C2/m, Z = 2, at 297 and 190 K, and in P21/m, Z = 2, at 25 K (Mo Kα radiation, λ = 0.71073 A). Temperature effects on the structure are mainly noticeable in the Cs--O bond distances of the oxygen coordination polyhedra of Cs (0.016 A per 100 K on average). Accompanying the Tc3 transition, the space group changes from C2/m to P21/m, and the two SeO4 groups in the dimer become non-equivalent with one adopting HSeO-4 character and the other SeO2-4 character. As a result, the dimers have a net dipole moment and are arranged in an antipolar way, similar to K3D(SO4)2. An examination of the room-temperature structure of Cs3D(SeO4)2 and other M3H(XO4)2-type crystals reveals that the non-H atoms lie in approximately the same position in both cases and that the only major difference is that half of the hydrogens in other M3H(XO4)2-type crystals are involved in hydrogen-bonded dimers which are formed with two different adjacent selenate groups. The successive transitions in Cs3D(SeO4)2 are characterized as an order-disorder transition of the donor-oxygen atom at Tc1, reorganization of the hydrogen bonds at Tc2 and an order-disorder transition of the proton at Tc3. (orig./GSCH)

  19. Simultaneous real-time 3D photoacoustic tomography and EEG for neurovascular coupling study in an animal model of epilepsy

    Wang, Bo; Xiao, Jiaying; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Neurovascular coupling in epilepsy is poorly understood; its study requires simultaneous monitoring of hemodynamic changes and neural activity in the brain. Approach. Here for the first time we present a combined real-time 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and electrophysiology/electroencephalography (EEG) system for the study of neurovascular coupling in epilepsy, whose ability was demonstrated with a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced generalized seizure model in rats. Two groups of experiments were carried out with different wavelengths to detect the changes of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) signals in the rat brain. We extracted the average PAT signals of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), and compared them with the EEG signal. Main results. Results showed that the seizure process can be divided into three stages. A ‘dip’ lasting for 1-2 min in the first stage and the following hyperfusion in the second stage were observed. The HbO2 signal and the HbR signal were generally negatively correlated. The change of blood flow was also estimated. All the acquired results here were in accordance with other published results. Significance. Compared to other existing functional neuroimaging tools, the method proposed here enables reliable tracking of hemodynamic signal with both high spatial and high temporal resolution in 3D, so it is more suitable for neurovascular coupling study of epilepsy.

  20. A Case Study of a Hybrid Parallel 3D Surface Rendering Graphics Architecture

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the design strategy used inbuilding a graphics computer, for drawing very complex 3Dgeometric surfaces. The goal is to build a PC based computer systemcapable of handling surfaces built from about 2 million triangles, andto be able to render a perspective view...... of these on a computer displayat interactive frame rates, i.e. processing around 50 milliontriangles per second. The paper presents a hardware/softwarearchitecture called HPGA (Hybrid Parallel Graphics Architecture) whichis likely to be able to carry out this task. The case study focuses ontechniques to increase...... the clock frequency as well as the parallelismof the system. This paper focuses on the back-end graphics pipeline,which is responsible for rasterizing triangles.%with a practically linear increase in performance. A pure software implementation of the proposed architecture iscurrently able to process 300...

  1. Beam dynamics study of RFQ for CADS with a 3D space-charge-effect

    The ADS (accelerator driven subcritical system) project was proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The initial proton beams delivered from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source can be effectively accelerated by 162.5 MHz 4.2 m long room temperature radio-frequency-quadrupoles (RFQ) operating in CW mode. To test the feasibility of this physical design, a new Fortran code for RFQ beam dynamics study, which is space charge dominated, was developed. This program is based on Particle-In-Cell (PIC) technique in the time domain. Using the RFQ structure designed for the CADS project, the beam dynamics behavior is performed. The well-known simulation code TRACK is used for benchmarks. The results given by these two codes show good agreements. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented in this paper. (authors)

  2. Beam dynamics study of RFQ for CADS with a 3D space-charge-effect

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Lei; Qi, Xin; Xu, Xian-Bo; He, Yuan; Yang, Lei

    2014-03-01

    The ADS (accelerator driven subcritical system) project was proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The initial proton beams delivered from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source can be effectively accelerated by 162.5 MHz 4.2 m long room temperature radio-frequency-quadrupoles (RFQ) operating in CW mode. To test the feasibility of this physical design, a new Fortran code for RFQ beam dynamics study, which is space charge dominated, was developed. This program is based on Particle-In-Cell (PIC) technique in the time domain. Using the RFQ structure designed for the CADS project, the beam dynamics behavior is performed. The well-known simulation code TRACK is used for benchmarks. The results given by these two codes show good agreements. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented in this paper.

  3. Microfluidics 3D gel-island chip for single cell isolation and lineage-dependent drug responses study.

    Zhang, Zhixiong; Chen, Yu-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Heng; Luan, Yi; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-07-01

    3D cell culture in the extracellular matrix (ECM), which not only provides structural support to cellular constituents, but also initiates regulatory biochemical cues for a variety of important cell functions in tissue, has become more and more important in understanding cancer pathology and drug testing. Although the ECM-gel has been used in cell culture both in bulk and on-chip, previous studies focused on collective cell behavior rather than single-cell heterogeneity. To track the behavior of each individual cell, we have developed a gel-island chip, which can form thousands of islands containing single cells encapsulated by the desired ECM. Optimized by Poisson's distribution, the device can attain 34% single cell capture efficiency of the exact number of single cells per island. A good culture media exchange rate and high cell viability can be achieved in the gel-islands. The cells in the islands can be automatically counted for high-throughput analysis. As a proof of concept, we monitored the proliferation and differentiation of single Notch+ (stem-like) T47D breast cancer cells. The 3D collagen gel environment was found to be favorable for the stem-like phenotype through better self-renewal and de-differentiation (Notch- to Notch+ transition). More interestingly, we found that the Notch- de-differentiated cells were more resistant to doxorubicin and cisplatin than the Notch+ cells. Combining the 3D ECM culture and single cell resolution, the presented platform can automatically analyze the individual cell behaviors of hundreds of cells using a small amount of drug and reagents. PMID:27270563

  4. Comparative study of software techniques for 3D mapping of perforators in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap planning

    Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) is widely considered the gold standard imaging modality for preoperative planning autologous breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator (DIEP) flap. Improved anatomical understanding from CTA has translated to enhanced clinical outcomes. To achieve this, the use of appropriate CT hardware and software is vital. Various CT scanners and contrast materials have been demonstrated to consistently produce adequate scan data. However, the availability of affordable and easily accessible imaging software capable of generating 3D volume-rendered perforator images to clinically useful quality has been lacking. Osirix (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland) is a free, readily available medical image processing software that shows promise. We have previously demonstrated in a case report the usefulness of Osirix in localizing perforators and their course. Methods In the current case series of 50 consecutive CTA scans, we compare the accuracy of Osirix to a commonly used proprietary 3D imaging software, Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), in identifying perforator number and location. Moreover, we compared both programs to intraoperative findings. Results We report a high rate of concordance with Osirix and Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (99.6%). Both programs correlated closely with operative findings (92.2%). Most of the discrepancies were found in the lateral row perforators (90%). Conclusions In the current study, we report the accuracy of Osirix that is comparable to Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D, a proprietary software, in mapping perforators. However, it provides an added advantage of being free, easy-to-use, portable, and potentially a superior quality of 3D reconstructed image. PMID:27047778

  5. Coordination diversity of new mononucleating hydrazone in 3d metal complexes: Synthesis, characterization and structural studies

    RAJESH S. BALIGAR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The mononucleating hydrazone ligand LH3, a condensation product of salicyloylhydrazine and (2-formylphenoxyacetic acid, was synthesized and its coordination behavior with first row transition metal(II ions was investigated by isolating and elucidating the structure of the complexes using elemental analysis, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements, as well as IR, 1H-NMR, electronic and EPR spectral techniques. The ligand forms mononuclear metal(II complexes of the type [CoLH(H2O2], [NiLH(H2O2, [CuLH] and [ZnLH]. The ligand field parameters, Dq, B and b values, in the case of the cobalt and nickel complexes support not only the octahedral geometry around the metal ion, but also imply the covalent nature of the bonding in the complexes. The EPR study revealed the presence of a spin exchange interaction in the solid copper complex and the covalent nature of the bonding. The 1H-NMR study of the zinc(II complex indicated the non-involvement of the COOH group in the coordination. The physico-chemical study supports for the presence of octahedral geometry around cobalt(II, nickel(II and tetrahedral geometry around copper(II and zinc(II ions.

  6. Volume learning algorithm artificial neural networks for 3D QSAR studies.

    Tetko, I V; Kovalishyn, V V; Livingstone, D J

    2001-07-19

    The current study introduces a new method, the volume learning algorithm (VLA), for the investigation of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of chemical compounds. This method incorporates the advantages of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and artificial neural network approaches. VLA is a combination of supervised and unsupervised neural networks applied to solve the same problem. The supervised algorithm is a feed-forward neural network trained with a back-propagation algorithm while the unsupervised network is a self-organizing map of Kohonen. The use of both of these algorithms makes it possible to cluster the input CoMFA field variables and to use only a small number of the most relevant parameters to correlate spatial properties of the molecules with their activity. The statistical coefficients calculated by the proposed algorithm for cannabimimetic aminoalkyl indoles were comparable to, or improved, in comparison to the original study using the partial least squares algorithm. The results of the algorithm can be visualized and easily interpreted. Thus, VLA is a new convenient tool for three-dimensional QSAR studies. PMID:11448223

  7. Model studies with a 3-d global CTM using ECMWF data

    Sundet, Jostein Kandal

    1997-12-31

    It has become evident during the last decades that the large-scale tropospheric distribution of chemical compounds is changing due to man-made emissions. These changes, in turn, lead to changes in the atmospheric oxidation capacity that may significantly affect the environment, such as global warming and increased acid rain. The main objective of this thesis was to use data from a meteorological weather prediction model to drive a global Chemical Tracer (or transport) Model (CTM), the Oslo CTM-2, where the data are generated at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). It is the kind of data that are taken from the IFS model that is the innovative part of this study. In contrast to other studies, the purpose of the IFS model run is to generate selected data instead of using data from the ECMWF archive. This enabled the extraction of fields useful for atmospheric chemistry studies. The thesis describes the CTM-2 model, presents the data from the IFS model and briefly introduces tropospheric chemistry. Experiments are run to verify the model. The following points for improvements of the model are pointed out: (1) clouds must be included in the photodissociation calculations, (2) better boundary value representing the stratosphere must be obtained for ozone and probably NO and HNO{sub 3} as well, (3) the surface deposition scheme for ozone must be improved, and (4) fluctuations in the chemistry were found and should be eliminated through assessing the fast cycling of OH and HO{sub 2}. Some issues for consideration by the ECMWF are also pointed out. 57 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Studies of the 3D structure of the proton at Jlab

    Avakian, Harut A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In recent years parton distributions, describing longitudinal momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of quarks and gluons, have been generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom. Two new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Distributions (TMDs) and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) were introduced to describe transverse momentum and spatial distributions of partons. Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs) in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes, providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Studies of TMDs and GPDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12 GeV upgrade project.

  9. Experimental study on gas permeability by adsorption under 3D-stress

    LONG Qing-ming; WEN Guang-cai; ZOU Yin-hui; ZHAO Xu-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Using self-developed gas-seepage experimental installation, under the same effective stress conditions, coal permeability experiments on different adsorption charac-teristics of gases, different temperatures and different gas adsorption contents were per-formed, and the influence law of adsorption on coal permeability was studied. At the same time, experimental analogy showed clearly that gas drawing plucks the permeability varia-tion law. The results show that adsorption has a major impact on coal permeability. The greater the adsorption, the more the gas adsorption capacity and the coal permeability becomes smaller. Permeability becomes smaller along with confining of pressure and temperature, and this is in accord with local practice results.

  10. Studi Numerik dan Eksperimental Aliran 3-D pada Kombinasi Airfoil Pelat Datar dengan Variasi Permukaan Bawah dan Pengaruh Celah

    Gunawan Nugroho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the complexity of 3-D flow around airfoil/flat plate junction at endwall region has attracted many researchers of Aerodynamics. The majority of its experimental and numerical observations are conducted to compressor cascade. Because of that importance, stronger conceptual basis of 3-D flow is required, so the present study has stressed on single body airfoil/flat plate which clearance effect is exist. Variation of angle of attack and geometry on lower surface in this research have been carried out numerically and experimentally. Numerical study has been implemented by putting inlet velocity 25 m/s as initial condition while air density and viscosity are assumed constants. Trends of coefficient of pressure and velocity vector are studied accurately. Experimental study was conducted in wind tunnel with inlet velocity 25 m/s by means of measurement of static pressure on wall and airfoil which endwall and midspan are included. Two previous methods were supported by flow visualisation in the manner of examining the details of skin friction line. It was evidenced that 2-D history flow was strongly influenced 3-D flow characteristics. It was clarified by lower surface variation and by usage of wider blade thickness model, that was when incoming flow attached to leading edge would experience stronger adverse pressure gradient with the result that separated earlier and so was when it pass more curved surface, stronger adverse pressure gradient is responsible for generating greater pressure difference between upper and lower surface and finally, tip clearance flow is induced more intensivelly. Those effects are amplified when angle of attack is applied. Saddle point is formed further away in front of leading edge and tend to move on pressure side below, Wider branch separation line is detected and jet flow is amplified. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kompleksnya aliran 3-D pada daerah endwall dan ujung dari kombinasi airfoil/plat datar telah

  11. A 3-D study of the photosphere of HD99563: I. Pulsation analysis

    Freyhammer, L M; Elkin, V G; Mathys, G; Savanov, I; Zima, W; Shibahashi, H; Sekiguchi, K

    2009-01-01

    We have used high-speed spectroscopy of the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star HD99563 to study the pulsation amplitude and phase behaviour of elements in its stratified atmosphere over one 2.91-d rotation cycle. We identify spectral features related to patches in the surface distribution of chemical elements and study the pulsation amplitudes and phases as the patches move across the stellar disk. The variations are consistent with a distorted nonradial dipole pulsation mode. We measure a 1.6 km/s rotational variation in the mean radial velocities of H-alpha and argue that this is the first observation of H-alpha abundance spots caused by He settling through suppression of convection by the magnetic field on an oblique rotator, in support of a prime theory for the excitation mechanism of roAp star pulsation. We demonstrate that HD99563 is the second roAp star to show aspect dependence of blue-to-red running wave line profile variations in Nd iii spots.

  12. 3D polylactide-based scaffolds for studying human hepatocarcinoma processes in vitro

    Roberto Scaffaro, Giada Lo Re, Salvatrice Rigogliuso and Giulio Ghersi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the combination of leaching techniques and melt blending of polymers and particles for the preparation of highly interconnected three-dimensional polymeric porous scaffolds for in vitro studies of human hepatocarcinoma processes. More specifically, sodium chloride and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG were used as water-soluble porogens to form porous and solvent-free poly(L,D-lactide (PLA-based scaffolds. Several characterization techniques, including porosimetry, image analysis and thermogravimetry, were combined to improve the reliability of measurements and mapping of the size, distribution and microarchitecture of pores. We also investigated the effect of processing, in PLA-based blends, on the simultaneous bulk/surface modifications and pore architectures in the scaffolds, and assessed the effects on human hepatocarcinoma viability and cell adhesion. The influence of PEG molecular weight on the scaffold morphology and cell viability and adhesion were also investigated. Morphological studies indicated that it was possible to obtain scaffolds with well-interconnected pores of assorted sizes. The analysis confirmed that SK-Hep1 cells adhered well to the polymeric support and emitted surface protrusions necessary to grow and differentiate three-dimensional systems. PEGs with higher molecular weight showed the best results in terms of cell adhesion and viability.

  13. Numerical study of density-stratified flow past two 3D hills : aligned in tandem

    In this paper, a parametric study using an immersed boundary method has been carried out to investigate the effects of stable density stratification on the wakes past two identical three-dimensional hills aligned in tandem. The Reynolds number based on the uniform inlet velocity and twice the hill height was fixed at Re=300 while the Froude number based on the inlet velocity and the hill height was retained at Fr=0.2. Neutral flow without density stratification was also computed for comparison. Under a strong stratification, vertical motion of fluid particles over the three-dimensional hills is suppressed and the wake structures behind the hills become planar. Depending on the distance between the two hills, the flow pattern of each wake is significantly affected by the stratification. There is a critical hill distance at which flow characteristics drastically change. Qualitative and quantitative features of the wake interaction are reported

  14. Quantification of Regional Breast Density in Four Quadrants Using 3D MRI—A Pilot Study

    Peter T. Fwu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study presented a three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR–based method to separate a breast into four quadrants for quantitative measurements of the quadrant breast volume (BV and density. METHODS: Breast MR images from 58 healthy women were studied. The breast and the fibroglandular tissue were segmented by using a computer-based algorithm. A breast was divided into four quadrants using two perpendicular planes intersecting at the nipple or the nipple-centroid line. After the separation, the BV, the fibroglandular tissue volume, and the percent density (PD were calculated. The symmetry of the quadrant BV in the left and right breasts separated by using the nipple alone, or the nipple-centroid line, was compared. RESULTS: The quadrant separation made on the basis of the nipple-centroid line showed closer BVs in four quadrants than using the nipple alone. The correlation and agreement for the BV in corresponding quadrants of the left and the right breasts were improved after the nipple-centroid reorientation. Among the four quadrants, PD was the highest in the lower outer and the lowest in the upper outer (significant than the other three quadrants (P < .05. CONCLUSIONS: We presented a quantitative method to divide a breast into four quadrants. The reorientation based on the nipple-centroid line improved the left to right quadrant symmetry, and this may provide a better standardized method to measure quantitative quadrant density. The cancer occurrence rates are known to vary in different sites of a breast, and our method may provide a tool for investigating its association with the quantitative breast density.

  15. Experimental study on the confined 3D laminar flow past a square prism with a high blockage ratio

    Highlights: • Experimental study of the flow past a confined square section prism. • Flow regime is 3D and laminar. • Different regimes are identified depending on the Reynolds number. • Results could be used for practical engineering design purposes. -- Abstract: An experimental PIV study is presented that addresses the confined 3D laminar flow behaviour past a square prism. The Reynolds number (Re), based on prism cross-section height varies between 100 and 256. The channel aspect ratio is 1/1 and the blockage ratio is 1/2.5. This geometry is representative of a passive method to enhance mixing in otherwise highly ordered laminar channel flow. It is found that the lateral walls exert a strong effect on the flow behaviour with two main consequences: (a) the onset of vortex shedding is delayed to a Re in the vicinity of 170, as opposed to the unconfined case where the critical Re is reported to be between 50 and 60 and (b) transition from the steady closed recirculation bubble regime to the vortex shedding regime is not abrupt. In particular, there is a range of Re for which the closed recirculation bubble pulsates with increasing amplitude prior to the onset of the Karman street regime. The experimental results are supported by numerical computations, and the relation of the results with the practical design of engineering systems is also discussed

  16. Numerical and experimental study of the 3D effect on connecting arm of vertical axis tidal current turbine

    Guo, Wei; Kang, Hai-gui; Chen, Bing; Xie, Yu; Wang, Yin

    2016-03-01

    Vertical axis tidal current turbine is a promising device to extract energy from ocean current. One of the important components of the turbine is the connecting arm, which can bring about a significant effect on the pressure distribution along the span of the turbine blade, herein we call it 3D effect. However, so far the effect is rarely reported in the research, moreover, in numerical simulation. In the present study, a 3D numerical model of the turbine with the connecting arm was developed by using FLUENT software compiling the UDF (User Defined Function) command. The simulation results show that the pressure distribution along the span of blade with the connecting arm model is significantly different from those without the connecting arm. To facilitate the validation of numerical model, the laboratory experiment has been carried out by using three different types of NACA aerofoil connecting arm and circle section connecting arm. And results show that the turbine with NACA0012 connecting arm has the best start-up performance which is 0.346 m/s and the peak point of power conversion coefficient is around 0.33. A further study has been performed and a conclusion is drawn that the aerofoil and thickness of connecting arm are the most important factors on the power conversion coefficient of the vertical axis tidal current turbine.

  17. 3D soft tissue predictions with a tetrahedral mass tensor model for a maxillofacial planning system: a quantitative validation study

    Mollemans, W.; Schutyser, F.; Nadjmi, N.; Maes, F.; Suetens, P.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we present an extensive quantitative validation on 3D facial soft tissue simulation for maxillofacial surgery planning. The study group contained 10 patients. In previous work we presented a new Mass Tensor Model to simulate the new facial appearance after maxillofacial surgery in a fast way. 10 patients were preoperatively CT-scanned and the surgical intervention was planned. 4 months after surgery, a post-operative control CT was acquired. In this study, the simulated facial outlook is compared with post-operative image data. After defining corresponding points between the predicted and actual post-operative facial skin surface, using a variant of the non-rigid TPS-RPM algorithm, distances between these correspondences are quantified and visualized in 3D. As shown, the average median distance measures only 0.60 mm and the average 90% percentile stays below 1.5 mm. We can conclude that our model clearly provides an accurate prediction of the real post-operative outcome and is therefore suitable for use in clinical practice.

  18. 3D standard brain of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum: a tool to study metamorphic development and adult plasticity

    David Dreyer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0. The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes, optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the antennal lobes. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, very importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity.

  19. AutoGPA-Based 3D-QSAR Modeling and Molecular Docking Study on Factor Xa Inhibitors as Anticoagulant Agents

    Guo Fang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR studies were performed on a series of direct factor Xa (FXa inhibitors using AutoGPA-based modeling method in this paper. A training set of 38 molecules and a test set containing 10 molecules were used to build the 3D-QSAR model and validate the derived model, respectively. The developed model with correlation coefficients (r2 of 0.8564 and cross-validated correlation coefficients (q2 of 0.6721 were validated by an external test set of 10 molecules with predicted correlation coefficient (rpred2 of 0.6077. Docking study of FXa inhibitors and FXa active site was performed to check the induced pharmacophore query and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA contour maps using MOE2012.10. It was proved to be coincidence with the interaction information between ligand and FXa active site and was rendered to provide a useful tool to improve FXa inhibitors.

  20. A multinational deployment of 3D laser scanning to study craniofacial dysmorphology in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Rogers, Jeff; Wernert, Eric; Moore, Elizabeth; Ward, Richard; Wetherill, Leah F.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Craniofacial anthropometry (the measurement and analysis of head and face dimensions) has been used to assess and describe abnormal craniofacial variation (dysmorphology) and the facial phenotype in many medical syndromes. Traditionally, anthropometry measurements have been collected by the direct application of calipers and tape measures to the subject's head and face, and can suffer from inaccuracies due to restless subjects, erroneous landmark identification, clinician variability, and other forms of human error. Three-dimensional imaging technologies promise a more effective alternative that separates the acquisition and measurement phases to reduce these variabilities while also enabling novel measurements and longitudinal analysis of subjects. Indiana University (IU) is part of an international consortium of researchers studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Fetal alcohol exposure results in predictable craniofacial dysmorphologies, and anthropometry has been proven to be an effective diagnosis tool for the condition. IU is leading a project to study the use of 3D surface scanning to acquire anthropometry data in order to more accurately diagnose FASD, especially in its milder forms. This paper describes our experiences in selecting, verifying, supporting, and coordinating a set of 3D scanning systems for use in collecting facial scans and anthropometric data from around the world.

  1. Prediction of 3D internal organ position from skin surface motion: results from electromagnetic tracking studies

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Tang, Jonathan; Zhang, Hui J.; Varghese, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2005-04-01

    An effective treatment method for organs that move with respiration (such as the lungs, pancreas, and liver) is a major goal of radiation medicine. In order to treat such tumors, we need (1) real-time knowledge of the current location of the tumor, and (2) the ability to adapt the radiation delivery system to follow this constantly changing location. In this study, we used electromagnetic tracking in a swine model to address the first challenge, and to determine if movement of a marker attached to the skin could accurately predict movement of an internal marker embedded in an organ. Under approved animal research protocols, an electromagnetically tracked needle was inserted into a swine liver and an electromagnetically tracked guidewire was taped to the abdominal skin of the animal. The Aurora (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Canada) electromagnetic tracking system was then used to monitor the position of both of these sensors every 40 msec. Position readouts from the sensors were then tested to see if any of the movements showed correlation. The strongest correlations were observed between external anterior-posterior motion and internal inferior-superior motion, with many other axes exhibiting only weak correlation. We also used these data to build a predictive model of internal motion by taking segments from the data and using them to derive a general functional relationship between the internal needle and the external guidewire. For the axis with the strongest correlation, this model enabled us to predict internal organ motion to within 1 mm.

  2. Upper Atmospheric Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Interferometer and NASA's THEMIS Space Probes

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the latest results obtained from the implementation of a new three-dimensional embedded reconfigurable interferometer that remotely senses the irregularities in the plasma present in the ionospheric-magnetospheric coupled system. The results are seriatim compared to the data obtained from NASA's THEMIS satellite cluster mission. The new instrument acts as a support in measuring the immense plasmasphere that surrounds Earth. The main scientific algorithms implemented into reconfigurable hardware are explained. The system performs regular self-calibration and automatically adjusts its settings to fully capture events associated to high heliospheric activity. The importance of studying the behavior of the energetic particles is explained. The energized particles are either restrained in the magnetospheric plasma or swift to the planet's surface through the coupled ionospheric-magnetospheric complex system. The various phenomena associated to the particles' movement are captured by the new system. Measurements that were obtained during intense solar activity are presented. The system captures activity related to particle precipitation of energy levels >9 KeV. Other instruments suitable for capturing activity related to energy levels <9 KeV are required for fully measuring the plasmaspheric conditions.

  3. 3D-QSAR and docking studies of flavonoids as potent Escherichia coli inhibitors.

    Fang, Yajing; Lu, Yulin; Zang, Xixi; Wu, Ting; Qi, XiaoJuan; Pan, Siyi; Xu, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are potential antibacterial agents. However, key substituents and mechanism for their antibacterial activity have not been fully investigated. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and molecular docking of flavonoids relating to potent anti-Escherichia coli agents were investigated. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were developed by using the pIC50 values of flavonoids. The cross-validated coefficient (q(2)) values for CoMFA (0.743) and for CoMSIA (0.708) were achieved, illustrating high predictive capabilities. Selected descriptors for the CoMFA model were ClogP (logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient), steric and electrostatic fields, while, ClogP, electrostatic and hydrogen bond donor fields were used for the CoMSIA model. Molecular docking results confirmed that half of the tested flavonoids inhibited DNA gyrase B (GyrB) by interacting with adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) pocket in a same orientation. Polymethoxyl flavones, flavonoid glycosides, isoflavonoids changed their orientation, resulting in a decrease of inhibitory activity. Moreover, docking results showed that 3-hydroxyl, 5-hydroxyl, 7-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups were found to be crucial active substituents of flavonoids by interacting with key residues of GyrB, which were in agreement with the QSAR study results. These results provide valuable information for structure requirements of flavonoids as antibacterial agents. PMID:27049530

  4. [Novel methods for studies of testicular development and spermatogenesis: From 2D to 3D culture].

    Zhang, Lian-dong; Li, He-cheng; Zhang, Tong-dian; Wang, Zi-ming

    2016-03-01

    The two-dimensional model of cell culture is an important method in the study of testicular development and spermatogenesis but can not effectively mimic and regulate the testicular microenvironment and the whole process of spermatogenesis due to the lack of relevant cell factors and the disruption of a three-dimensional spatial structure. In the past 20 years, the development and optimization of the in vitro model such as testis organotypic culture and in vivo model such as testis transplantation achieved a transformation from two- to three-dimension. The maintenance and optimization of the testicular niche structure could mimic the testicular microenvironment and cell types including Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells, which showed similar biological behaviors to those in vivo. Besides, the cell suspension or tissue fragment floats in the gas-liquid interface so that the development of somatic and germ cells is well maintained in vitro whilst the feedback linkage between grafted testis tissue and hypothalamus-pituitary of the host rebuilt in the in vitro model provides an endocrinological basis for spermatogenesis, which serves as an effective methodology to better understand the organogenesis and development of the testis as well as testicular function regulation, advancing the concept of treatment of male infertility. Al- though each of the methods may have its limitations, the progress in the processing, freezing, thawing, and transplantation of cells and tissues will surely promote their clinical application and present their value in translational medicine. PMID:27172668

  5. The Atlas3D project - XX. Mass-size and Mass-sigma projections of the Virial Plane of early-type galaxies: variation of morphology, kinematics, mass-to-light ratio and stellar initial mass function

    Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    In the companion Paper XIX we derive accurate total (M/L)_JAM within a sphere of radius r=Re, as well as stellar (M/L)_stars for the volume-limited Atlas3D sample of 260 early-type galaxies. Here we study the two projections (M_JAM,sigma_e) and (M_JAM,R_e^max) of the thin Virial Plane (VP)(M_JAM,sigma_e,R_e^max) which describes the distribution of the galaxy population. The distribution of galaxy properties on both projections of the VP is characterized by (i) a boundary in the galaxy distribution, described by two power-laws, joined by a break at a characteristic mass M_JAM ~ 3*10^10 Msun, which corresponds to the minimum Re and maximum stellar density, and (ii) a characteristic mass M_JAM ~ 2*10^11 Msun which separates a population dominated by fast rotator with disks at lower masses, from one dominated by quite round slow rotators at larger masses. The distribution of ETGs properties on the two projections of the VP tends to be constant along lines of constant sigma_e, and forms a continuous and parallel s...

  6. Open 3D Projects

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  7. Phase I 3D Conformal Radiation Dose Escalation Study in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma: RTOG 9803

    Tsien, Christina; Moughan, Jennifer; Michalski, Jeff M; Gilbert, Mark R.; Purdy, James; Simpson, Joseph; Kresel, John J.; Curran, Walter J.; Diaz, A.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Phase I trial to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of dose escalated 3DCRT concurrent with chemotherapy in patients with primary supratentorial GBM. Materials/Methods 209 patients were enrolled. All received 46 Gy in 2 Gy fractions to PTV1, defined as GTV plus 1.8 cm. Subsequent boost was given to PTV2, defined as GTV plus 0.3 cm. Patients were stratified into two groups (gp): (Gp 1: PTV2 < 75 cc, and Gp 2: PTV2≥75 cc). Four RT dose levels were evaluated: 66, 72 ,78 and 84 Gy. BCNU 80 mg/m2 was given during RT, then q 8 weeks for 6 cycles. Pre-treatment characteristics were well balanced. Results Acute and late grade (Gr) 3/4 RT-related toxicities were no more frequent at higher RT dose or with larger tumors. There were no DLTs (acute ≥ Gr 3 irreversible CNS toxicities) observed on any dose level in either group. Based on the absence of DLTs, dose was escalated to 84 Gy in both groups. Late RT necrosis was noted at 66 (1 pt), 72 (2), 78 (2) and 84 Gy (3) in Group 1. In Group 2, late RT necrosis was noted at 78 (1 pt) and 84 Gy (2). Median time to RT necrosis was 8.8 months (range: 5.1–12.5). Median survival in Group 1: 11.8–19.3 months. Median survival in Group 2: 8.2–13.9 months. Conclusions Our study shows the feasibility of delivering higher than standard (60 Gy) RT dose with concurrent chemotherapy for primary GBM with an acceptable risk of late CNS toxicity. PMID:18723297

  8. 3D NUMERICAL STUDY ON LAMINAR FORCED CONVECTION IN V-BAFFLED SQUARE CHANNEL

    Amnart Boonloi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical study of fully developed periodic laminar flow visualization and heat transfer characteristics in an isothermal wall square-channel fitted with V-shaped baffles on one wall. The computations based on the finite volume method together with the SIMPLE algorithm have been performed. The investigation covers a range of Re based on the hydraulic diameter of the channel, Re = 100-1200. To create a pair of main streamwise vortex flows through the tested section, the V-baffles with the attack angle of 30° with the main flow direction are mounted in tandem and pointing downstream on the lower channel wall only. Effects of different baffle heights and pitches on heat transfer and pressure drop in the channel are examined and the results obtained are compared with smooth channel with no baffle. The numerical result shows that the presence of the V-baffle yields a significant heat transfer enhancement compared with the smooth channel. It is visible that the main vortex flows, a pair of streamwise twisted vortex (P-vortex can induce impingement flows on the walls leading to a drastic increase in heat transfer rate over the channel. In addition, the increase in the baffle height leads to the rise in the heat transfer and pressure loss while that in the baffle pitch provides the opposite trend. The predicted results expose that the maximum thermal enhancement factors for the V-baffles with BR = 0.3, 0.3 and 0.4; and PR = 1, 1.5 and 2 are, respectively, about 2.44, 2.29 and 2.37 at higher Re.

  9. In-cloud oxalate formation in the global troposphere: a 3-D modeling study

    S. Myriokefalitakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids attract increasing attention as contributors to atmospheric acidity, secondary organic aerosol mass and aerosol hygroscopicity. Oxalic acid is globally the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, formed via chemical oxidation of gas-phase precursors in the aqueous phase of aerosols and droplets. Its lifecycle and atmospheric global distribution remain highly uncertain and are the focus of this study. The first global spatial and temporal distribution of oxalate, simulated using a state-of-the-art aqueous phase chemical scheme embedded within the global 3-dimensional chemistry/transport model TM4-ECPL, is here presented. The model accounts for comprehensive gas-phase chemistry and its coupling with major aerosol constituents (including secondary organic aerosol. Model results are consistent with ambient observations of oxalate at rural and remote locations (slope = 0.83 ± 0.06, r2 = 0.67, N = 106 and suggest that aqueous phase chemistry contributes significantly to the global atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol. In TM4-ECPL most oxalate is formed in-clouds and less than 10% is produced in aerosol water. About 61% of the oxalate is removed via wet deposition, 35% by in-cloud reaction with hydroxyl radical and 4% by dry deposition. The global oxalate net chemical production is calculated to be about 17–27 Tg yr−1 with almost 91% originating from biogenic hydrocarbons, mainly isoprene. This condensed phase net source of oxalate in conjunction with a global mean turnover time against deposition of about 5 days, maintain oxalate's global tropospheric burden of 0.24–0.39 Tg that is about 13–19% of calculated total organic aerosol burden.

  10. In-cloud oxalate formation in the global troposphere: a 3-D modeling study

    S. Myriokefalitakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids attract increasing attention as contributors to atmospheric acidity, secondary organic aerosol mass and aerosol hygroscopicity. Oxalic acid is globally the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, formed via chemical oxidation of gas-phase precursors in the aqueous phase of aerosols and droplets. Its lifecycle and atmospheric global distribution remain highly uncertain and are the focus of this study. The first global spatial and temporal distribution of oxalate, simulated using a state-of-the-art aqueous-phase chemical scheme embedded within the global 3-dimensional chemistry/transport model TM4-ECPL, is here presented. The model accounts for comprehensive gas-phase chemistry and its coupling with major aerosol constituents (including secondary organic aerosol. Model results are consistent with ambient observations of oxalate at rural and remote locations (slope = 1.16 ± 0.14, r2 = 0.36, N = 114 and suggest that aqueous-phase chemistry contributes significantly to the global atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol. In TM4-ECPL most oxalate is formed in-cloud and less than 5 % is produced in aerosol water. About 62 % of the oxalate is removed via wet deposition, 30 % by in-cloud reaction with hydroxyl radical, 4 % by in-cloud reaction with nitrate radical and 4 % by dry deposition. The in-cloud global oxalate net chemical production is calculated to be about 21–37 Tg yr−1 with almost 79 % originating from biogenic hydrocarbons, mainly isoprene. This condensed phase net source of oxalate in conjunction with a global mean turnover time against deposition of about 5 days, maintain oxalate's global tropospheric burden of 0.2–0.3 Tg, i.e. 0.05–0.1 Tg-C that is about 5–9 % of model-calculated water soluble organic carbon burden.

  11. Experimental Studies on Self-Formed 3D Fluvio-Deltaic Sand and Gravel Sorting Patterns

    van de Lageweg, W. I.; van Dijk, W. M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Postma, G.

    2010-12-01

    Sedimentary records provide comprehensive and detailed information on the sedimentary history of a basin. As these systems are the result of a complicated interplay between many processes, distinguishing between pure autogenic and allogenic forcings remains challenging. We performed a series of experiments in which we first had a fluvial system grade itself to the shelf edge during a low-stand sea level scenario. By maintaining the extrinsic variables (discharge, sediment supply, sea-level and basin relief) constant, the resulting morphodynamics and architecture are the expression of pure autogenic behavior. A subsequent sea-level forcing allowed us to study the fluvial-deltaic morphodynamics and architecture resulting from the interaction between autogenic fluvial processes and allogenic sea-level forcing. The experiments were conducted in the Eurotank facility (11 x 6 m) and river flow measurements involved channel width, depth, flow velocity, sediment transport and time lapse monitoring. Landscape evolution was recorded by a high-resolution (0.5 mm) line laser-scanner and Single-Lens-Reflex (SLR) camera. Results from the autogenic fluvial experiment indicate that an ongoing upstream disturbance is needed to maintain an active meandering pattern. Also, the addition of fines (silica flour) is effective in filling up chute channels and thereby promotes a single-thread river. No major changes in fluvial pattern were observed during sea level rise. Stratigraphical analysis shows the presence of a clear bend sorting effect with a distinctive ridge and swale topography. The delta which formed during constant base level is build up from multiple fining-upward sequences with clear erosion surfaces in between. During sea level rise a back-stepping delta formed across the active fluvial plain.

  12. Studies of Bystander Effects in 3-D Tissue Systems Using a Low-LET Microbeam

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-17

    It is now accepted that biological effects may occur in cells that were not themselves traversed by ionizing radiation but are close to those that were. Little is known about the mechanism underlying such a bystander effect, although cell-to-cell communication is thought to be important. Previous work demonstrated a significant bystander effect for clonogenic survival and oncogenic transformation in C3H 10T(1/2) cells. Additional studies were undertaken to assess the importance of the degree of cell-to-cell contact at the time of irradiation on the magnitude of this bystander effect by varying the cell density. When 10% of cells were exposed to a range of 2-12 alpha particles, a significantly greater number of cells were inactivated when cells were irradiated at high density than at low density. In addition, the oncogenic transformation frequency was significantly higher in high-density cultures. These results suggest that when a cell is hit by radiation, the transmission of the bystander signal through cell-to-cell contact is an important mediator of the effect, implicating the involvement of intracellular communication through gap junctions. Additional studies to address the relationship between the bystander effect and the adaptive response were undertaken. A novel apparatus, where targeted and non-targeted cells were grown in close proximity, was used to investigate these. It was further examined whether a bystander effect or an adaptive response could be induced by a factor(s) present in the supernatants of cells exposed to a high or low dose of X-rays, respectively. When non-hit cells were co-cultured for 24 h with cells irradiated with 5 Gy alpha-particles, a significant increase in both cell killing and oncogenic transformation frequency was observed. If these cells were treated with 2 cGy X-rays 5 h before co-culture with irradiated cells, approximately 95% of the bystander effect was cancelled out. A 2.5-fold decrease in the oncogenic transformation

  13. Interactive scan control for kinematic study in open MRI

    A tool to support the subject is generally used for kinematic joint imaging with an open MRI apparatus because of difficulty setting the image plane correctly. However, use of a support tool requires a complicated procedure to position the subject, and setting the image plane when the joint angle changes is time consuming. Allowing the subject to move freely enables better diagnoses when kinematic joint imaging is performed. We therefore developed an interactive scan control (ISC) to facilitate the easy, quick, and accurate setting of the image plane even when a support tool is not used. We used a 0.4T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system open in the horizontal direction. The ISC determines the image plane interactively on the basis of fluoroscopy images displayed on a user interface. The imaging pulse is a balanced steady-state acquisition with rewound gradient echo (SARGE) sequence with update time less than 2 s. Without using a tool to support the knee, we positioned the knee of a healthy volunteer at 4 different joint angles and set the image plane through the patella and femur at each of the angles. Lumbar imaging is also demonstrated with ISC. Setting the image plane was easy and quick at all knee angles, and images obtained clearly showed the patella and femur. Total imaging time was less than 10 min, a fourth of the time needed when a support tool is used. We also used our ISC in kinematic imaging of the lumbar. The ISC shortens total time for kinematic joint imaging, and because a support tool is not needed, imaging can be done more freely in an open MR imaging apparatus. (author)

  14. Contribution of 3-D time-lapse ERT to the study of leachate recirculation in a landfill

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the operation of municipal waste landfills as bioreactors. It aims at increasing the moisture content to optimise the biodegradation. Because waste is a very heterogeneous and anisotropic porous media, the geometry of the leachate plume recirculation is difficult to delineate from the surface at the scale of the bioreactor site. In this study, 3-D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to obtain useful information for understanding leachate recirculation hydrodynamics. The ERT inversion methodology and the electrode arrays were optimised using numerical modelling simulating a 3-D leachate injection scenario. Time-lapse ERT was subsequently applied at the field scale during an experimental injection. We compared ERT images with injected volumes to evaluate the sensitivity of time-lapse ERT to delineate the plume migration. The results show that time-lapse ERT can accomplish the following: (i) accurately locate the injection plume, delineating its depth and lateral extension; (ii) be used to estimate some hydraulic properties of waste.

  15. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues.

    Calì, Corrado; Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J; Holst, Glendon R; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. PMID:26179415

  16. 3D Assessment of Mandibular Growth Based on Image Registration: A Feasibility Study in a Rabbit Model

    I. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our knowledge of mandibular growth mostly derives from cephalometric radiography, which has inherent limitations due to the two-dimensional (2D nature of measurement. Objective. To assess 3D morphological changes occurring during growth in a rabbit mandible. Methods. Serial cone-beam computerised tomographic (CBCT images were made of two New Zealand white rabbits, at baseline and eight weeks after surgical implantation of 1 mm diameter metallic spheres as fiducial markers. A third animal acted as an unoperated (no implant control. CBCT images were segmented and registered in 3D (Implant Superimposition and Procrustes Method, and the remodelling pattern described used color maps. Registration accuracy was quantified by the maximal of the mean minimum distances and by the Hausdorff distance. Results. The mean error for image registration was 0.37 mm and never exceeded 1 mm. The implant-based superimposition showed most remodelling occurred at the mandibular ramus, with bone apposition posteriorly and vertical growth at the condyle. Conclusion. We propose a method to quantitatively describe bone remodelling in three dimensions, based on the use of bone implants as fiducial markers and CBCT as imaging modality. The method is feasible and represents a promising approach for experimental studies by comparing baseline growth patterns and testing the effects of growth-modification treatments.

  17. A true 3D physical model test study on the stability of an underground cavern group in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station

    Zhu, Weishen; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yong; Zhang, Qianbing

    2010-03-01

    Taking the underground caverns of Shuangjiangkou (SJK) Hydropower Station as an engineering background, a largescale true 3D physical model test is performed to study the stability of the enclosing rock masses, including the analogous material, the steel structure frame, fabrications of rock bolts and cables, development of the measuring techniques, fabrication of the physical model, excavations and the overload test. The developed steel structure can simulate the complicated circumstances just like high in-situ stress and high overburden depth. It also can apply the true 3D loading on six surfaces of the physical model. Many combinational ball sliding blocks are installed between model surface and the structural wall to reduce the friction between the contact surfaces. During the model construction, precast blocks are used and monitoring holes are predefined before the analogous material is piled up. A unique grouting technique and prestressed cables are adopted in the model test. A digital photogrammetric technique, displacement sensing bars based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) technology, and mini extensometers are developed and adopted for measuring the deformation in the process of excavations. The overload tests are accomplished under the conditions of different overburden depths. The results of this research will make certain guiding significance to the practical engineering.

  18. 3-PHENYLQUINOLINYLCHALCONE DERIVATIVES: PHARMACOPHORE MODELLING, 3D-QSAR ANALYSIS AND DOCKING STUDIES AS ANTI-CANCER AGENTS

    Manoj Kumar Mahto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain 3-Phenylquinolinylchalcone derivatives were evaluated for their anti-proliferative activities and found to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. 3D-QSAR and molecular docking approaches were performed on 3-Phenylquinolinylchalcone derivatives to understand their structural requisites and binding mode of the best fitted ligand for cancer inhibitory activity. Among them, (E-3-(3-(4-methoxyphenylquinolin-2-yl-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (6a was the most active compound against the growth of  H460, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 cancer cell line respectively. Four featured hypothesis  AHRR.521 of  H460 was considered to be the best hypothesis which yielded a statistically significant 3D-QSAR model built with PLS values 3, Regression coefficient (R2 = 0.8986, Cross validation coefficient (Q2 = 0.9542, Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD = 0.0067, Pearson-R = 1. Interestingly, the result of docking was found to correlate with the pharmacophore study where this compound was active against all six oncoproteins p53, Raf Kinase, Aurora-A-Kinase, CDK-2, Resveratrol and HSP90. The results provide detailed insights of 6a compound which can afford guidance for rational drug design of novel potent anti-cancer agents

  19. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  20. Determining sex with the clavicle in a contemporary Spanish reference collection: A study on 3D images.

    Mediavilla, Elena Ruiz; Pérez, Bernardo Perea; González, Elena Labajo; Sánchez, José Antonio Sánchez; Fernández, Enrique Dorado; Sáez, Andrés Santiago

    2016-04-01

    Sexual dimorphism of the clavicle based on metric studies has been determined among different populations from different eras. Due to the need to know about sexual dimorphism in the Spanish population in order to apply the results to the field of Forensic Anthropology, a study has been carried out on a sample in the contemporary Spanish population, made up of the right and left clavicles of 50 males and 50 females. A metric, volumetric and curvature study was performed. To do so, 3D scanning was completed on the entire sample using the Picza 3D Laser Scanner, and the study was performed using reproductions. There were taken 6 metric measurements and 4 volumetric measurements using the Geomagic software, and for the study of curves, an index was calculated which related the direct length of the clavicle and its length as cast onto a surface. The data are presented for all of the variables, distinguishing between the right and left side, and there were processed using the statistical program PASW Statistics 18. The results show that the classification functions which best categorize the sample with an unique variable are volumetric, which classify the sample correctly in 94% of cases based on diaphysis volume, followed by total volume, which provides an accurate classification in 92% of all cases. The sagittal diameter at midshaft provides an accurate classification in 90% of cases and the maximum length in 88% of cases. The curvature index shows that there are no statistically significant differences by side and the only curvature index that shows significant differences by sex is the total anterior curve of the left clavicle being the males curve more pronounced. The validation study performed on a sample of 20 individuals confirms the high discriminatory power of the volume obtaining an accurate classification rate of 85-100% depending on the variable studied. PMID:26908024

  1. Do fault-related folds follow the same scaling law as their associated faults? A study using 3D seismic reflection data

    Pitcher, Eleanor; Imber, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Fractal distributions are largely agreed to follow a power-law distribution. Power-law scaling relationships describe the size distribution of fault lengths or displacements. Being able to identify these scaling properties provides a powerful tool for predicting the numbers of geological structures, such as small-scale faults in sedimentary basins that are below the resolution of seismic reflection data. The aim of this study is to determine whether fault-related folds follow the same power law scaling properties, or if they follow a different scaling law. We use TrapTester to interpret a 3D seismic volume from the Gulf of Mexico to construct fault planes and cut-off lines along selected horizons in the vicinity of fault upper tip lines. Fault-related folds are particularly well developed above steeply plunging tip lines, but are discontinuous along the strike of the fault plane. Folding is less well developed on horizons that intersect, or lie close to, the locus of maximum throw (bullseye) of the fault plane. We then measured fold amplitudes and fault throws across these same horizons using a one-dimensional multi-line sampling approach. Graphs of fault throw and fold amplitude vs. distance parallel to fault strike show that folds occur where there is no resolvable fault throw, and that fault throw and fold amplitudes show an approximately inverse relationship. Close to the locus of maximum throw, there is largely just faulting, whilst at the upper tip line folding predominates. By plotting cumulative frequency against throw for the fault and fold data we can investigate whether the data follow a power law, log normal or exponential distribution. Plotting the data on log vs. log (power law), linear vs. log (log normal) and log vs. linear (exponential) axes allow us to establish which displays the best "straight-line fit". We observed that the fault throw data satisfied a straight-line on a log vs. log graph - implying a power law distribution - and also returned

  2. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  3. Initial study of 3D perfused blood volume imaging using 64-detector CT in hyperacute cerebral infarction

    Objective: To evaluate the value of three dimensional CT whole brain perfused blood volume (3D-PBV) based on CTA row data in hyperacute cerebral infarction. Methods: 38 patients with stroke within 12 hours performed plain CT and CTA scans. 3D software Neuro PBV was applied to process the CTA row data and 3D-PBV of brain was obtained. MR examinations were performed within 2 hours after CT scans. The numbers of ischemic lesions on plain CT, 3D-PBV and MRI-DWI were recorded. The volumes of ischemic lesions on 3D-PBV and MR -DWI were measured. Results: In 38 patients, the number of infarct lesion detected by MRI-DWI, PBV, and plain CT was 45, 41, and 16 respectively. Kappa test showed a substantial agreement (κ=0.78) between 3D-PBV and MRI-DWI in detecting ischemic lesions. The detectability of plain CT showed fair or slight agreements to 3D-PBV and MR-DWI (κ=0.24, 0.18, respectively). The lesion volumes did not differ on 3D-PBV and MR-DWI (t=7.249, P>0.05). Conclusion: 3D-PBV combined with CTA can detect ischemic lesion and evaluate perfusion. It had important value in diagnosing hyperacute cerebral infarction. (authors)

  4. PEPT: An invaluable tool for 3-D particle tracking and CFD simulation verification in hydro-cyclone studies

    Particle tracks in a hydro-cyclone generated both experimentally by positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) and numerically with Eulerian-Lagrangian CFD have been studied and compared. A hydro-cyclone with a cylinder-on-cone design was used in this study, the geometries used in the CFD simulations and in the experiments being identical. It is shown that it is possible to track a fast-moving particle in a hydro-cyclone using PEPT with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The numerical 3-D particle trajectories were generated using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model for the fluid and Lagrangian particle tracking for the particles. The behaviors of the particles were analyzed in detail and were found to be consistent between experiments and CFD simulations. The tracks of the particles are discussed and related to the fluid flow field visualized in the CFD simulations using the cross-sectional static pressure distribution. (authors)

  5. Study of transient heat transfer in a fuel rod 3D, in a situation of unplanned shutdown of a PWR

    Affonso, Renato Raoni Werneck; Martins, Rodolfo Ienny; Sampaio, Paulo Augusto Berquo de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rodolfoienny@gmail.com, E-mail: sampaio@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The study, in situations involving accidents, of heat transfer in fuel rods is of known importance, since it can be used to predict the temperature limits in designing a nuclear reactor, to assist in making more efficient fuel rods, and to increase the knowledge about the behavior of the reactor's components, a crucial aspect for safety analysis. This study was conducted using as parameter the fuel rod that has the highest average power in a typical PWR reactor. For this, we developed a program (Fuel{sub R}od{sub 3}D) in Fortran language using the Finite Elements Method (FEM) for the discretization of a fuel rod and coolant channel, in order to study the temperature distribution in both the fuel rod and the coolant channel. Transient parameters were coupled to the heat transfer equations in order to obtain details of the behavior of the rod and the channel, which allows the analysis of the temperature distribution and its change over time. This work aims to present a study case of an accident where there is a lack of energy in the reactor's coolant pumps and in the diesel engines, resulting in an unplanned shutdown of the reactor. In order to achieve the intended goal, the present work was divided as follows: a short introduction about heat transfer, including the equations concerning the fuel rod and the energy equation in the channel, an explanation about how the verification of the Fuel{sub R}od{sub 3}D program was made, and the analysis of the results. (author)

  6. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  7. 3-D tomography by automated in situ block face ultramicrotome imaging using an FEG-SEM to study complex corrosion protective paint coatings

    Highlights: •A new technique was demonstrated to image paint microstructures in 3-D. •The cracking of paint coatings was studied in 3-D. •The morphology and distribution of paint additives was investigated in 3-D. •3-D images were used to the measure and follow corrosion inhibitor depletion. -- Abstract: Aircraft coatings are generally multi-layered with both barrier properties and are corrosion inhibitor filled to prevent corrosion. A new technique, automated in situ block face ultramicrotome imaging using an FEG-SEM has been employed for high resolution 3-D imaging of such aircraft coatings. A pristine and a cracked aged coating were visualised by this method clearly showing the coatings microstructure and subsequent crack growth properties. Filler particles were segmented and labelled allowing the coating to be more clearly visualised and enabling statistical particle analysis and meshing. Finally the method was used to investigate the inhibitor leaching properties of four aircraft primers

  8. Studies of ionising radiation induced bystander effects in 3D artificial tissue system and applications for radiation protection

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. The bystander effect cannot be comprehensively explained on the basis of a single cell reaction. It is well known that an organism is composed of different cell types that interact as functional units in a way to maintain normal tissue function. Therefore the radiation response is not simply the sum of cellular responses as assumed in classical radiobiology, predominantly from studies using cell cultures. Experimental models, which maintain tissue-like intercellular cell signalling and 3D structure, are essential for proper understanding of the bystander effect. Our work relates to experimentation with novel 3D artificial human tissue systems available from MatTek Corporation (Boston, USA). Air-liquid interface culture technique is used to grow artificial tissues, which allow to model conditions present in vivo. The Gray Cancer Institute (Northwood, UK) charged particle microbeam was used to irradiate tissue samples in a known pattern with a known number of 3He2+ particles or protons. After irradiation, the tissues models were incubated for 3 days, fixed in 10 % NBF, paraffin embedded and then sliced into 5 μm histological sections located at varying distances from the plane of the irradiated cells. We studied in situ apoptosis and markers of differentiation. Significantly elevated bystander induced apoptosis was observed with 3'-OH DNA end-labelling based technique in 3D artificial tissue systems. Our results also suggested an importance of proliferation and differentiation status for bystander

  9. 3D and Education

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  10. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  12. Feasibility Study for Ballet E-Learning: Automatic Composition System for Ballet "Enchainement" with Online 3D Motion Data Archive

    Umino, Bin; Longstaff, Jeffrey Scott; Soga, Asako

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on "Web3D dance composer" for ballet e-learning. Elementary "petit allegro" ballet steps were enumerated in collaboration with ballet teachers, digitally acquired through 3D motion capture systems, and categorised into families and sub-families. Digital data was manipulated into virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and fit…

  13. Effect of the starting block posture on the 3D joint angular velocity in sprinters

    SLAWINSKI, J; ONTANON, G; Dumas, R; Cheze, L.; Miller, C.; MAZURE-BONNEFOY, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of the modification of the posture during a sprint start on 3D joint angular velocity. This was performed using a 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body. Ten trained sprinters started using three different starting positions in the starting blocks (bunched, medium and elongated). They were equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, and an opto-electronic Motion Analysis® system (12 digital cameras 250 Hz) was used to collect the 3D marker tra...

  14. Reduced Dimensionality (4,3)D-hnCOCANH Experiment: An Efficient Backbone Assignment tool for NMR studies of Proteins

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Sequence specific resonance assignment and secondary structure determination of proteins form the basis for variety of structural and functional proteomics studies by NMR. In this context, an efficient standalone method for rapid assignment of backbone (1H, 15N, 13Ca and 13C') resonances and secondary structure determination of proteins has been presented here. Compared to currently available strategies used for the purpose, the method employs only a single reduced dimensionality (RD) experiment -(4,3)D-hnCOCANH and exploits the linear combinations of backbone (13Ca and 13C') chemical shifts to achieve a dispersion relatively better compared to those of individual chemical shifts (see the text) for efficient and rapid data analysis. Further, the experiment leads to the spectrum with direct distinction of self (intra-residue) and sequential (inter-residue) carbon correlation peaks; these appear opposite in signs and therefore can easily be discriminated without using an additional complementary experiment. On ...

  15. Progress in the Peeling-Ballooning Model of ELMs: Numerical Studies of 3D Nonlinear ELM Dynamics

    Snyder, P B; Wilson, H R; Xu, X Q

    2004-12-13

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the non-linear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outer wall. Similarities to non-linear linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.

  16. PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 3D NONLINEAR ELM DYNAMICS

    SNYDER,P.B; WILSON,H.R; XU,X.Q

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the nonlinear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outboard wall. Similarities to non-linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.

  17. PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 3D NONLINEAR ELM DYNAMICS

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the nonlinear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outboard wall. Similarities to non-linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed

  18. Thermo-hydro-mechanical simulation of a 3D fractured porous rock: preliminary study of coupled matrix-fracture hydraulics

    We present a problem involving the modeling of coupled flow and elastic strain in a 3D fractured porous rock, which requires prior homogenization (up-scaling) of the fractured medium into an equivalent Darcian anisotropic continuum. The governing equations form a system of PDE's (Partial Differential Equations) and, depending on the case being considered, this system may involve two different types of 'couplings' (in a real system, both couplings (1) and (2) generally take place): 1) Hydraulic coupling in a single (no exchange) or in a dual matrix-fracture continuum (exchange); 2) Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical interactions between fluid flow, pressure, elastic stress, strain, and temperature. We present here a preliminary model and simulation results with FEMLABR, for the hydraulic problem with anisotropic heterogeneous coefficients. The model is based on data collected at an instrumented granitic site (FEBEX project) for studying a hypothetical nuclear waste repository at the Grimsel Test Site in the Swiss Alps. (authors)

  19. A 3D Multiscale Modelling of Cortical Bone Structure, Using the Inverse Identification Method: Microfibril Scale Study

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed

    2011-01-01

    Complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modelling to understand their mechanical behaviour and their remodelling mechanism. Human cortical bone structure consists of six structural scale levels which are the (macroscopic) cortical bone, osteonal, lamellar, fibrous, fibril and microfibril. In this paper, a 3D model based on finite elements method was achieved to study the nanomechanical behaviour of collagen Microfibril. The mechanical properties and the geometry (gap, overlap and diameter) of both tropocollagen and mineral were taken into consideration as well as the effects of cross-links. An inverse identification method has been applied to determine equivalent averaged properties in order to link up these nanoscopic characteristics to the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of bone tissue. Results of nanostructure modelling of the nanomechanical properties of strain deformation under varying cross-links were investigated in this work.

  20. A Study of the Navier-Stokes Equations with the Kinematic and Navier Boundary Conditions

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Qian, Zhongmin

    2008-01-01

    We study the initial-boundary value problem of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids in a domain in $\\R^3$ with compact and smooth boundary, subject to the kinematic and Navier boundary conditions. We first reformulate the Navier boundary condition in terms of the vorticity, which is motivated by the Hodge theory on manifolds with boundary from the viewpoint of differential geometry, and establish basic elliptic estimates for vector fields subject to the kinematic and Navier b...

  1. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  2. Molecular docking and 3D-QSAR studies of 2-substituted 1-indanone derivatives as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

    Liang-liang SHEN; Gui-xia LIU; Yun TANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To explore the binding mode of 2-substituted 1-indanone derivatives with acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and provide hints for the future design of new de- rivatives with higher potency and specificity. Methods: The GOLD-docking con- formations of the compounds in the active site of the enzyme were used in subse- quent studies. The highly reliable and predictive three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were achieved by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity analysis (CoMSIA) methods. The predictive capabilities of the models were validated by an external test set. Moreover, the stabilities of the 3D-QSAR models were veri- fied by the leave-4-out cross-validation method. Results: The CoMFA and CoMSIA models were constructed successfully with a good cross-validated coef- ficient (q2) and a non-cross-validated coefficient (r2). The q2 and r2 obtained from the leave-1-out cross validation method were 0.784 and 0.974 in the CoMFA model and 0.736 and 0.947 in the CoMSIA model, respectively. The coefficient isocontour maps obtained from these models were compatible with the geometrical and physi- cochemical properties of AChE. Conclusion: The contour map demonstrated that the binding affinity could be enhanced when the small protonated nitrogen moi- ety was replaced by a more hydrophobic and bulky group with a highly partial positive charge. The present study provides a better understanding of the inter- action between the inhibitors and ACHE, which is helpful for the discovery of new compounds with more potency and selective activity.

  3. Motor resonance facilitates movement execution: an ERP and kinematic study

    Mathilde Ménoret

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Action observation, simulation and execution share neural mechanisms that allow for a common motor representation. It is known that when these overlapping mechanisms are simultaneously activated by action observation and execution, motor performance is influenced by observation and vice versa. To understand the neural dynamics underlying this influence and to measure how variations in brain activity impact the precise kinematics of motor behaviour, we coupled kinematics and electrophysiological recordings of participants while they performed and observed congruent or non-congruent actions or during action execution alone. We found that movement velocities and the trajectory deviations of the executed actions increased during the observation of congruent actions compared to the observation of non-congruent actions or action execution alone. This facilitation was also discernible in the motor-related potentials of the participants; the motor-related potentials were transiently more negative in the congruent condition around the onset of the executed movement, which occurred 300 ms after the onset of the observed movement. This facilitation seemed to depend not only on spatial congruency but also on the optimal temporal relationship of the observation and execution events.

  4. Comparative Study of 3D-SPGR vs 2D-SE T1WI after Enhancement in the Brain

    朱文珍; 漆剑频; 王承缘

    2003-01-01

    Summary: The utility of three-dimensional spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (3D-SPGR) imaging in the cerebral diseases was evaluated and 3D-SPGR after enhancement in depictingcontrast enhancement of all lesions and 2D-SE T1WI comparatively analyzed. 117 patients were sub-jected to MRI by a GE 1.5T MR system. After performance of axial T1WI and T2WI in all pa-tients, MRA (3D-MOTSA) images were acquired in 6 cases (8 lesions) of aneurysms. After en-hancement, 3D-SPGR images were obtained in all the remaining patients. Quality parameters (SNR,C and CNR) were calculated on enhanced 2D-SE T1WI and 3D-SPGR images. And a four-pointscale was used to measure the signal intensity of the main lesions on both sequences, then statisticalanalysis of the average score was performed with "t" test. Except for aneurysms, 2D-SE T1WI de-tected 134 lesions and 3D-SPGR disclosed 147 lesions. It was found that there was no statistically sig-nificant difference between the two average scores as determined by the "t" test (t= 1. 894, P>0.05 ). The enhancement degree of the main lesion was equivalent on 3D-SPGR and 2D-SE T1WI.Quality parameters (SNR, C and CNR) on 2D-SE T1WI were much larger than that of 3D-SPGR,increasing by an average of 57 %, 20 % and 97 % respectively. 3D-SPGR imaging with MPR couldclearly depict vascularity related to neoplasms in 20 cases and demonstrate shifted, deformed andblocked vessels involved by tumors. Six cases of large aneurysms (8 lesions) were visualized moreclearly on 3D-SPGR than MRA (3D-MOTSA): 3D-SPGR could display aneurysm necks and differ-entiate thrombosed portion from the patent lumen, and disclose relationship of aneurysm to surround-ing structures. It was concluded that enhanced 3D-SPGR played an important role in the depiction ofthe cerebral lesions and was superior to 2D-SE T1WI in many aspects.

  5. Docking based 3d-QSAR studies applied at the BRAF inhibitors to understand the binding mechanism

    BRAF is a great therapeutic target in a wide variety of human cancers. It is the member of Ras Activating Factor (RAF) family of serine/throenine kinase. The mutated form of the BRAF has diverted all the attention towards itself because of increase severity and elevated kinase activity. The RAF signal transduction cascade is a conserved protein pathway that is involved in cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The ERK regulates phosphorylation of different proteins either in cytosol or in nucleus but disorders in ERK signaling pathway cause mutation in BRAF. This cascade in these cells may provide selection of mutated BRAF in which valine is substituted with glutamatic acid at position 600. This mutation occurs in activation loop. A number of inhibitors reported to target different members of RAF, some of them have potential to target the BRAF as well. Major reason for failure of previously reported inhibitors was due to the highly conserved sequence and confirmation of catalytic cleft which is always a center of consideration for binding of inhibitors to suppress the kinase activity. This is the first attempt to study and understand the BARF inhibitors - protein interactions in detail by utilizing 3D-QSAR and molecular docking techniques. Most reliable techniques of 3D QSAR i.e Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) were applied for three different data sets. The data sets selected for better evaluation of BRAF inhibitors belongs to 2, 6-Disubstituted Pyrazine, Pyridoimidazolones and its derivatives. Our models would offer help to better understand the structure-activity relationships that exist for these classes of compounds and also facilitate the design of novel inhibitors with good chemical diversity. (Author)

  6. Protocol for Translabial 3D-Ultrasonography for diagnosing levator defects (TRUDIL: a multicentre cohort study for estimating the diagnostic accuracy of translabial 3D-ultrasonography of the pelvic floor as compared to MR imaging

    Gondrie Ed TCM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a condition affecting more than half of the women above age 40. The estimated lifetime risk of needing surgical management for POP is 11%. In patients undergoing POP surgery of the anterior vaginal wall, the re-operation rate is 30%. The recurrence risk is especially high in women with a levator ani defect. Such defect is present if there is a partially or completely detachment of the levator ani from the inferior ramus of the symphysis. Detecting levator ani defects is relevant for counseling, and probably also for treatment. Levator ani defects can be imaged with MRI and also with Translabial 3D ultrasonography of the pelvic floor. The primary aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of translabial 3D ultrasonography for diagnosing levator defects in women with POP with Magnetic Resonance Imaging as the reference standard. Secondary goals of this study include quantification of the inter-observer agreement about levator ani defects and determining the association between levator defects and recurrent POP after anterior repair. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of adding translabial ultrasonography to the diagnostic work-up in patients with POP will be estimated in a decision analytic model. Methods/Design A multicentre cohort study will be performed in nine Dutch hospitals. 140 consecutive women with a POPQ stage 2 or more anterior vaginal wall prolapse, who are indicated for anterior colporapphy will be included. Patients undergoing additional prolapse procedures will also be included. Prior to surgery, patients will undergo MR imaging and translabial 3D ultrasound examination of the pelvic floor. Patients will be asked to complete validated disease specific quality of life questionnaires before surgery and at six and twelve months after surgery. Pelvic examination will be performed at the same time points. Assuming a sensitivity and specificity of 90% of 3D ultrasound for

  7. A 3D elasto-plastic FEM program developed for reservoir Geomechanics simulations: Introduction and case studies

    Amin Chamani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of yielded or failure zone due to an engineering construction is a subject of study in different disciplines. In Petroleum engineering, depletion from and injection of gas into a porous rock can cause development of a yield zone around the reservoir. Studying this phenomenon requires elasto-plastic analysis of geomaterial, in this case the porous rocks. In this study, which is a continuation of a previous study investigating the elastic behaviour of geomaterial, the elasto-plastic responses of geomaterial were studied. A 3D finite element code (FEM was developed, which can consider different constitutive models. The code features were explained and some case studies were presented to validate the output results of the code. The numerical model was, then, applied to study the development of the plastic zone around a horizontal porous formation subjected to the injection of gas. The model is described in detail and the results are presented. It was observed that by reducing the cohesion of rocks the extension of the plastic zone increased. Comparing to the elastic model, the ability to estimate the extension of the yield and failure zone is the main advantage of an elasto-plastic model.

  8. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  9. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  10. An Experimental Study on the Gait Patterns and Kinematics of Chinese Mitten Crabs

    Jianqiao Li; Xiaodong Zhang; Meng Zou; Rui Zhang; Benard Chirende; Ruiyang Shi; Cangang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Despite the many studies on eight-legged animals and the importance of their mechanics of terrestrial locomotion,the mechanical energy of crabs in voluntary locomotion on uneven,unpredictable terrain surfaces has received little attention thus far.In this paper,motion video images of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis Milne-Edwards) locomotion on five types of terrains were recorded using a high-speed three-dimensional (3D) recording video system.The typical variables of locomotion such as gait patterns,duty factor,mechanical energy of the mass center,mass-specific rate of the total mechanical power of the mass center,and percentage recovery,were analyzed.Results show that the Chinese mitten crab uses random gaits instead of the alternating tetrapod gait with the increasing terrain roughness.The duty factors of the rows of the leading legs are greater for all terrains than those of the rows of the trailing legs.On smooth terrain,the duty factors of the rows of the trailing legs are greater than that on rough terrains.Kinematic measurements and calculations reveal that similar to mammals,birds,and arthropods,the Chinese mitten crab uses two fundamental gaits to save mechanical energy:the inverted pendulum gait and the bouncing gait.The bouncing gait is the main pattern of mechanical energy conservation.The low probability of injury and energy expenditure due to adaptations to various terrains induce the Chinese mitten crab to modify the mass-specific rate of the total mechanical power of the mass center.The statistical results of percentage recovery also reveal that the Chinese mitten crab has lower energy recovery efficiency over rough terrains compared with smooth terrains.

  11. Estudos de QSAR-3D em derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos com atividade frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente 3D QSAR studies of 5-nitrothiophene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Andrea Masunari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Campos moleculares extraídos de aplicativos utilizados em estudos de QSAR-3D apresentam, em geral, grande número de informações, muitas vezes irrelevantes na expressão da atividade biológica. O programa Volsurf converte as informações presentes em mapas de energia de interação tridimensionais em número reduzido de descritores bidimensionais que se caracterizam como de fácil entendimento e interpretação. Assim, foram avaliados, neste estudo, dezoito derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos com atividade antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente, correlacionando as características tridimensionais destes ligantes com a referida atividade. Para o desenho e conversão tridimensional dos ligantes foram utilizados os aplicativos Sybyl (Tripos Inc e CORINA (Molecular Networks GmbH Computerchemie, respectivamente. Os campos de interação molecular foram calculados no programa GRID (Molecular Discovery Ltd. A aplicação do programa Volsurf (Molecular Discovery Ltd resultou em modelo estatisticamente robusto (r² = 0,93, q² = 0,87 com 48 descritores estruturais, mostrando ser a hidrofobicidade propriedade fundamental no condicionamento da atividade antimicrobiana.Studies in three-dimensional molecular fields generally contain a large amount of data, some of which are redundant or not relevant. The program Volsurf, a quite fast method, is able to compress the relevant information present in 3D molecular structures into a few easy bidimensional descriptors. This study correlates the antimicrobial activity of eighteen 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with three-dimensional molecular fields of these ligands. For molecular structures sketching and 3D conversion, Sybyl and CORINA programs were used, respectively. The GRID force field was applied to generate the 3D interaction energies. The Volsurf characterization results on significant statistic model with 48 descriptors (r

  12. Quantification of Shunt Volume Through Ventricular Septal Defect by Real-Time 3-D Color Doppler Echocardiography: An in Vitro Study.

    Zhu, Meihua; Ashraf, Muhammad; Tam, Lydia; Streiff, Cole; Kimura, Sumito; Shimada, Eriko; Sahn, David J

    2016-05-01

    Quantification of shunt volume is important for ventricular septal defects (VSDs). The aim of the in vitro study described here was to test the feasibility of using real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography (RT3-D-CDE) to quantify shunt volume through a modeled VSD. Eight porcine heart phantoms with VSDs ranging in diameter from 3 to 25 mm were studied. Each phantom was passively driven at five different stroke volumes from 30 to 70 mL and two stroke rates, 60 and 120 strokes/min. RT3-D-CDE full volumes were obtained at color Doppler volume rates of 15, 20 and 27 volumes/s. Shunt flow derived from RT3-D-CDE was linearly correlated with pump-driven stroke volume (R = 0.982). RT3-D-CDE-derived shunt volumes from three color Doppler flow rate settings and two stroke rate acquisitions did not differ (p > 0.05). The use of RT3-D-CDE to determine shunt volume though VSDs is feasible. Different color volume rates/heart rates under clinically/physiologically relevant range have no effect on VSD 3-D shunt volume determination. PMID:26850842

  13. Alterations of left ventricular deformation and cardiac sympathetic derangement in patients with systolic heart failure: a 3D speckle tracking echocardiography and cardiac 123I-MIBG study

    Myocardial contractile function is under the control of cardiac sympathetic activity. Three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) and cardiac imaging with 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) are two sophisticated techniques for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) deformation and sympathetic innervation, respectively, which offer important prognostic information in patients with heart failure (HF). The purpose of this investigation was to explore, in patients with systolic HF, the relationship between LV deformation assessed by 3D-STE and cardiac sympathetic derangement evaluated by 123I-MIBG imaging. We prospectively studied 75 patients with systolic HF. All patients underwent a 3D-STE study (longitudinal, circumferential, area and radial) and 123I-MIBG planar and SPECT cardiac imaging. 3D-STE longitudinal, circumferential and area strain values were correlated with 123I-MIBG late heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio and late SPECT total defect score. After stratification of the patients according to ischaemic or nonischaemic HF aetiology, we observed a good correlation of all 3D-STE measurements with late H/M ratio and SPECT data in the ischaemic group, but in patients with HF of nonischaemic aetiology, no correlation was found between LV deformation and cardiac sympathetic activity. At the regional level, the strongest correlation between LV deformation and adrenergic innervation was found for the left anterior descending coronary artery distribution territory for all four 3D-STE values. In multivariate linear regression analyses, including age, gender, LV ejection fraction, NYHA class, body mass index, heart rate and HF aetiology, only 3D-STE area and radial strain values significantly predicted cardiac sympathetic derangement on 123I-MIBG late SPECT. This study indicated that 3D-STE measurements are correlated with 123I-MIBG planar and SPECT data. Furthermore, 3D-STE area and radial strain values, but not LVEF, predict cardiac sympathetic

  14. 3D-CTA、DSA对颅内动脉瘤诊疗价值的对比%Comparative study of 3D-CTA and DSA in the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms

    李祥; 于如同; 范月超; 郭克勤

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical value of three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography(3D-DSA), three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) and conventional DSA(2D-DSA) in the diagnosis and treatment of Intracranial aneurysms. Methods The data of 3D-DSA, 3D-CTA, 2D-DSA and operation of 32 patients with Intracranial aneurysms were reviewed, retrospectively. Results 35 aneurysms were detected by 3D-DSA and correlated well with microsurgical findings. The shape of the aneurysms, their neck size and their relationships to the parent vessels and other branches were depicted clearly, especially compared with images obtained by 3D-CTA and 2D-DSA. 33 aneurysms were detected by 3D-CTA. 32 aneurysms were detected by 2D-DSA. Aneurysms' body, neck, parent artery and the relationship between the aneurysms and surrounding structures (bone) were clearly and surely displayed by 3D-CTA. Conclusion 3D-CTA is a sensitivity and rapid and noninvasive method for detecting aneurysms. 3D-CTA can be the first choice for diagnosing Intracranial aneurysms without performing 2D-DSA. During CT for ruptured aneurysms, a negative 3D-CTA should be investigated further by 3D-DSA. 3D-DSA should be performed in cases of multiple intracranial aneurysms with complex shapes or very small size. 3D-DSA should be the "gold standard" for detecting intracranial aneurysms.%目的 评价3D-DSA、3D-CTA、2D-DSA在颅内动脉瘤诊疗中的作用.方法 回顾性分析32例动脉瘤患者3D-DSA、3D-CTA、2D-DSA和手术资料.结果 32例患者共35个动脉瘤(有3例患者为多发动脉瘤).3D-DSA能清楚显示所有动脉瘤的形态,准确判断3例多发动脉瘤中破裂的动脉瘤且手术顺利夹闭;3D-CTA检出33个,遗漏1个前交通动脉瘤及1个颈内动脉瘤;2D-DSA检出32个,遗漏2个前交通动脉瘤和1个大脑中动脉瘤.3D-DSA及3D-CTA在显示瘤颈上明显优于2D-DSA,3D-CTA可准确显示动脉瘤与相邻骨质结构关系.结论 3D~CTA是检查颅

  15. 3D virtuel udstilling

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  16. Methodological proposal for the volumetric study of archaeological ceramics through 3D edition free-software programs: the case of the celtiberians cemeteries of the meseta

    Álvaro Sánchez Climent

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the free-software programs have been converted into the ideal tools for the archaeological researches, reaching the same level as other commercial programs. For that reason, the 3D modeling tool Blender has reached in the last years a great popularity offering similar characteristics like other commercial 3D editing programs such as 3D Studio Max or AutoCAD. Recently, it has been developed the necessary script for the volumetric calculations of three-dimnesional objects, offering great possibilities to calculate the volume of the archaeological ceramics. In this paper, we present a methodological approach for the volumetric studies with Blender and a study case of funerary urns from several celtiberians cemeteries of the Spanish Meseta. The goal is to demonstrate the great possibilities that the 3D editing free-software tools have in the volumetric studies at the present time.

  17. 3D Urban Information Models in making a smart city – the i-SCOPE project case study

    Dragutin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available i-SCOPE pilot project, funded by the European Commission through the CIP-ICT-PSP program, aims to develop an open source toolkit for 3D smart city services in three different domains: improved inclusion and personal mobility, solar energy potential assessment, noise mapping and simulation. The services are expected to improve life and work of their users. The services are built upon 3D Urban Information Models (UIM that are based on cityGML format providing the necessary standardization and interoperability. Generation, enrichment and management of the 3D city model is part of the i-SCOPE services. The paper shows the importance of comprehensive and interoperable 3D city models for building smart city services.

  18. Underwater 3D filming

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  19. 3D Urban Information Models in making a smart city – the i-SCOPE project case study

    Dragutin; Ivan

    2014-01-01

    i-SCOPE pilot project, funded by the European Commission through the CIP-ICT-PSP program, aims to develop an open source toolkit for 3D smart city services in three different domains: improved inclusion and personal mobility, solar energy potential assessment, noise mapping and simulation. The services are expected to improve life and work of their users. The services are built upon 3D Urban Information Models (UIM) that are based on cityGML format providing the necessary standardization and ...

  20. Theoretical study of the Usutu virus helicase 3D structure, by means of computer-aided homology modelling

    Vlachakis Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Usutu virus belongs to the Flaviviridae viral family and constitutes an important pathogen. The viral helicase is an ideal target for inhibitor design, since this enzyme is essential for the survival, proliferation and transmission of the virus. Results Towards a drug-design approach, the 3D model of the Usutu virus helicase structure has been designed, using conventional homology modelling techniques and the known 3D-structure of the Murray Valley Encephalitis virus helic...

  1. Development of the spent fuel disassembling process by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology

    For developing the spent fuel disassembling process, the 3D graphic simulation has been established by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology which is widely used in the industry. The spent fuel disassembling process consists of a downender, a rod extraction device, a rod cutting device, a pellet extracting device and a skeleton compaction device. In this study, the 3D graphical design model of these devices is implemented by conceptual design and established the virtual workcell within kinematics to motion of each device. By implementing this graphic simulation, all the unit process involved in the spent fuel disassembling processes are analyzed and optimized. The 3D graphical model and the 3D graphic simulation can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process

  2. Pharmacophore modeling and 3D-QSAR studies on substituted benzothiazole / benzimidazole analogues as DHFR inhibitors with antimycobacterial activity

    R. Priyadarsini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The resurgence of tuberculosis and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacteria drugs has propelled the development of new structural classes of antitubercular agents. The present study was undertaken to investigate the opportunities which the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, a promising drug target for treatmentof Mycobacterial infections offers for the development of new TB drugs. Pharmacophore models were established by using the HipHop and HypoGen algorithms implemented in the Catalyst software package. Thebest quantitative pharmacophore model, consisted of two hydrogen bond acceptor, a hydrophobic aliphatic, and a ring aromatic feature which has the highest correlation coefficient (0.93, as well as enrichment factor of 1.75 and Goodness of hit score of 0.73. Based on the pharmacophore model some leads were optimized and some of its derivatives were synthesized and analysed by following QSAR studies. About 25 compounds of substituted benzothiazole/ benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized as potent DHFR inhibitors and screened for antimycobacterial activity. To further explore the structure-activity relationships of all newly synthesized compounds, 3D-QSAR analyses were developed. MFA studies were performed with the QSAR module of Cerius2 using genetic partial least squares (G/PLS algorithm. The predictive ability of the developed model was assessed using a training set of 25 and a test set of 5 compounds (r2pred = 0.924.The analyzed MF

  3. Structure based 3D-QSAR studies of Interleukin-2 inhibitors: Comparing the quality and predictivity of 3D-QSAR models obtained from different alignment methods and charge calculations.

    Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Zaheer-ul-Haq

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin-2 is an essential cytokine in an innate immune response, and is a promising drug target for several immunological disorders. In the present study, structure-based 3D-QSAR modeling was carried out via Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA) methods. Six different partial charge calculation methods were used in combination with two different alignment methods to scrutinize their effects on the predictive power of 3D-QSAR models. The best CoMFA and CoMSIA models were obtained with the AM1 charges when used with co-conformer based substructure alignment (CCBSA) method. The obtained models posses excellent correlation coefficient value and also exhibited good predictive power (for CoMFA: q(2)=0.619; r(2)=0.890; r(2)Pred=0.765 and for CoMSIA: q(2)=0.607; r(2)=0.884; r(2)Pred=0.655). The developed models were further validated by using a set of another sixteen compounds as external test set 2 and both models showed strong predictive power with r(2)Pred=>0.8. The contour maps obtained from these models better interpret the structure activity relationship; hence the developed models would help to design and optimize more potent IL-2 inhibitors. The results might have implications for rational design of specific anti-inflammatory compounds with improved affinity and selectivity. PMID:26051521

  4. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  5. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    Raguvarun, K., E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Rajagopal, Prabhu, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in [Centre for NDE, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamilnadu (India); Palanisamy, Suresh [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 Australia and Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic [University of Wollongong, Faculty of Engineering, New South Wales 2522, Australia and Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  6. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength

  7. A numerical study of the transition to oscillatory flow in 3D lid-driven cubic cavity flows

    Chiu, Shang-Huan; He, Jiwen; Guo, Aixia; Glowinski, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this article, three dimensional (3D) lid-driven cubic cavity flows have been studied numerically for various values of Reynolds number ($Re$). The numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations modeling incompressible viscous fluid flow in a cubic cavity is obtained via a methodology combining a first order accurate operator-splitting, $L^2$-projection Stokes solver, a wave-like equation treatment of the advection and finite element methods. The numerical results obtained for Re$=$400, 1000, and 3200 show a good agreement with available numerical and experimental results in literature. Simulation results predict that the critical Re$_{cr}$ for the transition from steady flow to oscillatory (a Hopf bifurcation) is somewhere in [1870, 1875] for the mesh size $h=1/96$. Via studying the flow field distortion of fluid flow at Re before and after Re$_{cr}$, the occurrence of the first pair of Taylor-G\\"ortler-like vortices is connected to the flow field distortion at the transition from steady flow to oscilla...

  8. Pharmacophore Modeling, Atom based 3D-QSAR and Docking Studies of Chalcone derivatives as Tubulin inhibitors

    Naresh Kandakatla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tubulin is attractive target for anticancer drug design and their inhibitors are useful in treatment of various cancers. Pharmacophore and Atom based QSAR studies were carried out for series of Chalcone derivatives. Pharmacophore model was developed using 38 compounds, having pIC50 ranging 4.003 to 6.552. The best Pharmacophoric hypothesis AHHRR.10 (one H-acceptor, two hydrophobic groups, two aromatic rings had survival score of 4.824. Atom based 3D QSAR was built for the best hypothesis with training set of 31 and test set of 7 compounds using PLS factor. The obtained QSAR model has excellent regression coefficient of R2 = 0.954, cross validated correlation coefficient q2 = 0.681, Pearson-R = 0.886 and Fisher ratio F = 136.9. The QSAR results explain electron withdrawing, positive, negative ionic and hydrophobic groups are crucial for tubulin inhibition. The docking studies of these inhibitors on the active site of the beta-tubulin shows crucial hydrogen bond interactions with the Gln11, Asn101, Thr145 amino acids. These findings provide designing of novel compounds with better tubulin inhibitory potential.

  9. Molecular docking and 3D-QSAR studies on the glucocorticoid receptor antagonistic activity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Liu, S; Luo, Y; Fu, J; Zhou, J; Kyzas, G Z

    2016-02-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonistic activities of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) were recently characterised. To further explore the interactions between HO-PCBs and the GR, and to elucidate structural characteristics that influence the GR antagonistic activity of HO-PCBs, molecular docking and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed. Comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) was performed using both ligand- and receptor-based alignment schemes. Results generated from the receptor-based model were found to be more satisfactory, with q(2) of 0.632 and r(2) of 0.931 compared with those from the ligand-based model. Some internal validation strategies (e.g. cross-validation analysis, bootstrapping analysis and Y-randomisation) and an external validation method were used respectively to further assess the stability and predictive ability of the derived model. Graphical interpretation of the model provided some insights into the structural features that affected the GR antagonistic activity of HO-PCBs. Molecular docking studies revealed that some key residues were critical for ligand-receptor interactions by forming hydrogen bonds (Glu540) and hydrophobic interactions with ligands (Ile539, Val543 and Trp577). Although CoMSIA sometimes depends on the alignment of the molecules, the information provided is beneficial for predicting the GR antagonistic activities of HO-PCB homologues and is helpful for understanding the binding mechanisms of HO-PCBs to GR. PMID:26848875

  10. Combined Pharmacophore Modeling, 3D-QSAR, Homology Modeling and Docking Studies on CYP11B1 Inhibitors

    Rui Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzymes inhibitor steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1 can decrease the production of cortisol. Therefore, these inhibitors have an effect in the treatment of Cushing’s syndrome. A pharmacophore model generated by Genetic Algorithm with Linear Assignment for Hypermolecular Alignment of Datasets (GALAHAD was used to align the compounds and perform comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA with Q2 = 0.658, R2 = 0.959. The pharmacophore model contained six hydrophobic regions and one acceptor atom, and electropositive and bulky substituents would be tolerated at the A and B sites, respectively. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR study based on the alignment with the atom root mean square (RMS was applied using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA with Q2 = 0.666, R2 = 0.978, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA with Q2 = 0.721, R2 = 0.972. These results proved that all the models have good predictability of the bioactivities of inhibitors. Furthermore, the QSAR models indicated that a hydrogen bond acceptor substituent would be disfavored at the A and B groups, while hydrophobic groups would be favored at the B site. The three-dimensional (3D model of the CYP11B1 was generated based on the crystal structure of the CYP11B2 (PDB code 4DVQ. In order to probe the ligand-binding modes, Surflex-dock was employed to dock CYP11B1 inhibitory compounds into the active site of the receptor. The docking result showed that the imidazolidine ring of CYP11B1 inhibitors form H bonds with the amino group of residue Arg155 and Arg519, which suggested that an electronegative substituent at these positions could enhance the activities of compounds. All the models generated by GALAHAD QSAR and Docking methods provide guidance about how to design novel and potential drugs for Cushing’s syndrome treatment.

  11. Study of the initiation and the propagation of cracks under 3D thermal cyclic loading; Etude de l'amorcage et de la propagation des fissures sous chargement thermique cyclique 3D

    Ancelet, O

    2005-07-01

    The incident which has occurred on the Civaux power plant has shown the noxiousness of thermal loading and the difficulty to take it into account at design level. The objective of this report is to study the initiation and the propagation of crack under thermal loading. In this aim the CEA has developed a new experiment named FAT3D. The various experiments carried out showed the harmfulness of a thermal loading, which makes it possible to rapidly initiate a network of cracks and to propagate one (or some) cracks through the totally thickness of the component under certain conditions. These experimental results associated with a mechanical analysis put at fault the usual criteria of damage based on the variations of the equivalent strain. In addition, the study of the propagation stage shows the importance of the plasticity which, in the case of a thermal loading, slows down the propagation of the crack. (author)

  12. Blender 3D cookbook

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  13. 3D modeling of human cancer: A PEG-fibrin hydrogel system to study the role of tumor microenvironment and recapitulate the in vivo effect of oncolytic adenovirus.

    Del Bufalo, Francesca; Manzo, Teresa; Hoyos, Valentina; Yagyu, Shigeki; Caruana, Ignazio; Jacot, Jeffrey; Benavides, Omar; Rosen, Daniel; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between malignant and stromal cells and the 3D spatial architecture of the tumor both substantially modify tumor behavior, including the responses to small molecule drugs and biological therapies. Conventional 2D culture systems cannot replicate this complexity. To overcome these limitations and more accurately model solid tumors, we developed a highly versatile 3D PEG-fibrin hydrogel model of human lung adenocarcinoma. Our model relevantly recapitulates the effect of oncolytic adenovirus; tumor responses in this setting nearly reproduce those observed in vivo. We have also validated the use of this model for complex, long-term, 3D cultures of cancer cells and their stroma (fibroblasts and endothelial cells). Both tumor proliferation and invasiveness were enhanced in the presence of stromal components. These results validate our 3D hydrogel model as a relevant platform to study cancer biology and tumor responses to biological treatments. PMID:26826297

  14. 3D打印犯罪工具研究%Study on the 3D Printed Instruments of Crime

    高金

    2015-01-01

    3D printing guns, credit cards, keys and other examples highlight the criminal risk of 3D printing, impact on the healthy development of 3D printing industry. 3D data model and 3D print items are likely to be used by the tool of crime. The information and material object of 3D printing contain crime risk. The existing criminal theory proposal that criminal instrument is material object, which can not meet the needs of information regulation on 3D data model. The Criminal Law of the people's Republic of China stipulates that criminal instrument have two kinds: the essential elements of crime and selective elements of crime. This kind of legislative model has a strong flexibility and tolerance. The Criminal Law regulated action, omission, holding to prevent criminal instrument of the 3D printing. Amendment (IX) to the Criminal Law strengthened criminal legislation of information, new charges to fill the legislative loopholes. It is of far-reaching significance for preventing 3D printing criminal instrument.%3D打印枪支、信用卡、钥匙等事例凸显3D打印的刑事犯罪风险,影响3D打印产业健康发展。3D数据模型和3D打印物品均可能被犯罪工具化运用,犯罪隐患横跨信息与实物两个领域。现有刑法理论偏重于将犯罪工具理解为实物,不能满足3D数据模型的信息规制需要。《刑法》对犯罪工具作了犯罪构成必备要件和选择性要件两种规定,罪状有极强的弹性和包容性,并通过作为、不作为、持有三类危害行为的规制防范3D打印犯罪工具。《刑法修正案(九)》强化信息管理刑事立法,新设罪名填补立法漏洞,对预防3D打印犯罪工具有深远意义。

  15. Study on the 3D Printed Instruments of Crime%3D打印犯罪工具研究

    高金

    2015-01-01

    3D打印枪支、信用卡、钥匙等事例凸显3D打印的刑事犯罪风险,影响3D打印产业健康发展。3D数据模型和3D打印物品均可能被犯罪工具化运用,犯罪隐患横跨信息与实物两个领域。现有刑法理论偏重于将犯罪工具理解为实物,不能满足3D数据模型的信息规制需要。《刑法》对犯罪工具作了犯罪构成必备要件和选择性要件两种规定,罪状有极强的弹性和包容性,并通过作为、不作为、持有三类危害行为的规制防范3D打印犯罪工具。《刑法修正案(九)》强化信息管理刑事立法,新设罪名填补立法漏洞,对预防3D打印犯罪工具有深远意义。%3D printing guns, credit cards, keys and other examples highlight the criminal risk of 3D printing, impact on the healthy development of 3D printing industry. 3D data model and 3D print items are likely to be used by the tool of crime. The information and material object of 3D printing contain crime risk. The existing criminal theory proposal that criminal instrument is material object, which can not meet the needs of information regulation on 3D data model. The Criminal Law of the people's Republic of China stipulates that criminal instrument have two kinds: the essential elements of crime and selective elements of crime. This kind of legislative model has a strong flexibility and tolerance. The Criminal Law regulated action, omission, holding to prevent criminal instrument of the 3D printing. Amendment (IX) to the Criminal Law strengthened criminal legislation of information, new charges to fill the legislative loopholes. It is of far-reaching significance for preventing 3D printing criminal instrument.

  16. Structural studies on transition metal oxides with only one or two electrons in the 3d shell

    Transition metal oxides with only one or two electrons in the 3d-shell are particularily interesting, as diffraction may more easily isolate the impact of the active electrons. The vanadate AV2O5 shows a variety of low-dimensional phenomena. We confirm the persistence of charge ordering of LiV2O5 down to 2 K by single crystal neutron diffraction and present an electron density study. We were able to solve the complex, distorted tetragonal hollandite (K2V8O16) structure below the MI-transition at 175 K revealing a dimerization of the vanadium ions in one of two vanadium chains and a zig-zag-chain formation in the neighbouring chain. CaCrO3 is a d2 system with the unusual Cr oxidation state 4+. It appears to be a bad metal, as found in optical spectroscopy, but in contrast to most metallic transition metal oxides CaCrO3 orders antiferromagnetically with a pronounced structural anomaly occuring just at the Neel temperature. Cubic spinels AM2O4 with magnetic M ions have attracted strong attention due to intrinsic frustration. We determined the electron density of ZnV2O4

  17. Single Molecule 3D Orientation in Time and Space: A 6D Dynamic Study on Fluorescently Labeled Lipid Membranes.

    Börner, Richard; Ehrlich, Nicky; Hohlbein, Johannes; Hübner, Christian G

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between single molecules profoundly depend on their mutual three-dimensional orientation. Recently, we demonstrated a technique that allows for orientation determination of single dipole emitters using a polarization-resolved distribution of fluorescence into several detection channels. As the method is based on the detection of single photons, it additionally allows for performing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) as well as dynamical anisotropy measurements thereby providing access to fast orientational dynamics down to the nanosecond time scale. The 3D orientation is particularly interesting in non-isotropic environments such as lipid membranes, which are of great importance in biology. We used giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) labeled with fluorescent dyes down to a single molecule concentration as a model system for both, assessing the robustness of the orientation determination at different timescales and quantifying the associated errors. The vesicles provide a well-defined spherical surface, such that the use of fluorescent lipid dyes (DiO) allows to establish a a wide range of dipole orientations experimentally. To complement our experimental data, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of the rotational dynamics of dipoles incorporated into lipid membranes. Our study offers a comprehensive view on the dye orientation behavior in a lipid membrane with high spatiotemporal resolution representing a six-dimensional fluorescence detection approach. PMID:26972111

  18. Evaluation of the ECAT EXACT HR+ 3D PET scanner in 15O-water brain activation studies

    We evaluated the performance of the ECAT EXACT HR+ 3D whole body PET scanner when employed to measure brain function using 15O-water-bolus activation protocols in single data acquisition sessions. Using vibrotactile and auditory stimuli as independent activation tasks, we studied the scanner's performance under different imaging conditions in four healthy volunteers. Cerebral blood flow images were acquired from each volunteer using 15O-water-bolus injections of activity varying from 5 to 20mCi. Performance characteristics. The scanner's dead time grew linearly with injected dose from 10% to 25%. Random events varied from 30% to 50% of the detected events. Scattered events were efficiently corrected at all doses. Noise-effective-count curves plateau at about 15mCi. One-session 12-injection bolus PET activation protocol. Using an acquisition protocol that accounts for the scanner's performance and the practical aspects of imaging volunteers and patients in one session, we assessed the correlation between the statistical significance of activation foci and the dose per injection used The one-session protocol employs 12 bolus injections per subject. We present evidence suggesting that 15-20mCi is the optimal dose per injection to be used routinely in one-time scanning sessions

  19. Simulations of 3D electromagnetic field and design study of SWS for millimeter tunneladder coupled-cavity TWT

    Simulations of electromagnetic field and design study of slow-wave structure (SWS) for millimeter tunneladder coupled-cavity TWT (travelling-wave tube) have been performed and cold-test parameters such as dispersion, interaction impedance and attenuation in this system are obtained by using 3D electromagnetic code CST-MWS and symmetric field of high frequency structure. For verification of mastering code, firstly, simulated are the dispersion characteristics parameters of a sample tube from Huges Co., the United States, which are completely consistent with those tested and theoretically calculated results published from Huges Co., and probably better. Furthermore, also using this code, cold-test parameters at Ka frequency range such as dispersion, interaction impedance and attenuation have been simulated, calculated and compared respectively for the tunneladder structures of linear coupled-cavity, single stagger tuning coupled-cavity and double stagger tuning coupled-cavity. It is concluded from these results that compared to the slow-wave system without stagger tuning coupled-cavity, pass bandwidth and interaction impedance of those with a single (double) stagger tuning coupled-cavity can be considerably improved

  20. Electronic structure of trioxide, oxoperoxide, oxosuperoxide, and ozonide clusters of the 3d elements: density functional theory study.

    Uzunova, Ellie L

    2011-03-01

    The trioxide clusters with stoichiometry MO3, and the structural isomers with side-on and end-on bonded oxygen atoms, are studied by DFT with the B1LYP functional. For the first half of the 3d elements row (Sc to Cr), pyramidal or distorted pyramidal structures dominate among the trioxide and oxoperoxide ground states, while the remaining elements form planar trioxides, oxoperoxides, oxosuperoxides, and ozonides. Low-lying trioxide clusters are formed by Ti, V, Cr, and Mn, among which the distorted pyramidal VO3 in the (2)A'' state, the pyramidal CrO3 in the (1)A1 state, and the planar MnO3 in the (2)A1' state are global minima. With the exception of the middle-row elements Mn, Fe, and Co, the magnetic moment of the ground-state clusters is formed with a major contribution from unpaired electrons located at the oxygen atoms. The stability of trioxides and oxoperoxides toward release of molecular oxygen is significantly higher for Sc, Ti, and V than for the remaining elements of the row. A trend of increasing the capability to dissociate one oxygen molecule is observed from Cr to Cu, with the exception of OFe(O2) being more reactive than OCo(O2). A gradual increase of reactivity from Ti to Cu is observed for the complete fragmentation reaction M + O + O2. PMID:21299242