WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d dual energy

  1. Probing Local Mineralogy in 3D with Dual Energy X-Ray Microscopy

    Gelb, J.; Yun, S.; Doerr, D.; Hunter, L.; Johnson, B.; Merkle, A.; Fahey, K.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, 3D imaging of rock microstructures has become routine practice for determining pore-scale properties in the geosciences. X-Ray imaging techniques, such as X-Ray Microscopy (XRM), have demonstrated several unique capabilities: namely, the ability to characterize the same sample across a range of length scales and REVs (from millimeters to nanometers), and to perform these characterizations on the same sample over a range of times/treatments (e.g., to observe fluid transporting through the pore networks in a flow cell). While the XRM technique is a popular choice for structural (i.e., pore) characterization, historically it has provided little mineralogical information. This means that resulting simulations are either based on pore structure alone, or rely on correlative chemical mapping techniques for compositionally-sensitive models. Recent advancements in XRM techniques are now enabling compositional sensitivity for a variety of geological sample types. By collecting high-resolution 3D tomography data sets at two different source settings (energies), results may be mixed together to enhance the appearance (contrast) of specific materials. This approach is proving beneficial, for example, to mining applications to locate and identify precious metals, as well as for oil & gas applications to map local hydrophobicity. Here, we will introduce the technique of dual energy X-Ray microscopy, showing how it extends the capabilities of traditional XRM techniques, affording the same high resolution structural information while adding 3D compositional data. Application examples will be shown to illustrate its effectiveness at both the single to sub-micron length scale for mining applications as well as at the 150 nm length scale for shale rock analysis.

  2. Automatic 3D-to-2D registration for CT and dual-energy digital radiography for calcification detection

    Chen, Xiang; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Fei, Baowei

    2007-01-01

    We are investigating three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) registration methods for computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy digital radiography (DEDR). CT is an established tool for the detection of cardiac calcification. DEDR could be a cost-effective alternative screening tool. In order to utilize CT as the “gold standard” to evaluate the capability of DEDR images for the detection and localization of calcium, we developed an automatic, intensity-based 3D-to-2D registration method...

  3. Automated materials discrimination using 3D dual energy X ray images

    The ability of a human observer to identify an explosive device concealed in complex arrangements of objects routinely encountered in the 2D x-ray screening of passenger baggage at airports is often problematic. Standard dual-energy x-ray techniques enable colour encoding of the resultant images in terms of organic, inorganic and metal substances. This transmission imaging technique produces colour information computed from a high-energy x-ray signal and a low energy x-ray signal (80keVeff ≤ 13) to be automatically discriminated from many layers of overlapping substances. This is achieved by applying a basis materials subtraction technique to the data provided by a wavelet image segmentation algorithm. This imaging technique is reliant upon the image data for the masking substances to be discriminated independently of the target material. Further work investigated the extraction of depth data from stereoscopic images to estimate the mass density of the target material. A binocular stereoscopic dual-energy x-ray machine previously developed by the Vision Systems Group at The Nottingham Trent University in collaboration with The Home Office Science and Technology Group provided the image data for the empirical investigation. This machine utilises a novel linear castellated dual-energy x-ray detector recently developed by the Vision Systems Group. This detector array employs half the number of scintillator-photodiode sensors in comparison to a conventional linear dual-energy sensor. The castellated sensor required the development of an image enhancement algorithm to remove the spatial interlace effect in the resultant images prior to the calibration of the system for materials discrimination. To automate the basis materials subtraction technique a wavelet image segmentation and classification algorithm was developed. This enabled overlapping image structures in the x-rayed baggage to be partitioned. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the

  4. Automated materials discrimination using 3D dual energy X ray images

    Wang, T W

    2002-01-01

    The ability of a human observer to identify an explosive device concealed in complex arrangements of objects routinely encountered in the 2D x-ray screening of passenger baggage at airports is often problematic. Standard dual-energy x-ray techniques enable colour encoding of the resultant images in terms of organic, inorganic and metal substances. This transmission imaging technique produces colour information computed from a high-energy x-ray signal and a low energy x-ray signal (80keV

  5. Automatic 3D-to-2D registration for CT and dual-energy digital radiography for calcification detection

    We are investigating three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) registration methods for computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy digital radiography (DEDR). CT is an established tool for the detection of cardiac calcification. DEDR could be a cost-effective alternative screening tool. In order to utilize CT as the ''gold standard'' to evaluate the capability of DEDR images for the detection and localization of calcium, we developed an automatic, intensity-based 3D-to-2D registration method for 3D CT volumes and 2D DEDR images. To generate digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) from the CT volumes, we developed several projection algorithms using the fast shear-warp method. In particular, we created a Gaussian-weighted projection for this application. We used normalized mutual information (NMI) as the similarity measurement. Simulated projection images from CT values were fused with the corresponding DEDR images to evaluate the localization of cardiac calcification. The registration method was evaluated by digital phantoms, physical phantoms, and clinical data sets. The results from the digital phantoms show that the success rate is 100% with a translation difference of less than 0.8 mm and a rotation difference of less than 0.2 deg. . For physical phantom images, the registration accuracy is 0.43±0.24 mm. Color overlay and 3D visualization of clinical images show that the two images registered well. The NMI values between the DRR and DEDR images improved from 0.21±0.03 before registration to 0.25±0.03 after registration. Registration errors measured from anatomic markers decreased from 27.6±13.6 mm before registration to 2.5±0.5 mm after registration. Our results show that the automatic 3D-to-2D registration is accurate and robust. This technique can provide a useful tool for correlating DEDR with CT images for screening coronary artery calcification

  6. The dual gonihedric 3D Ising model

    Johnston, D A [Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Ranasinghe, R P K C M, E-mail: D.A.Johnston@hw.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila (Sri Lanka)

    2011-07-22

    We investigate the dual of the {kappa} = 0 gonihedric Ising model on a 3D cubic lattice, which may be written as an anisotropically coupled Ashkin-Teller model. The original {kappa} = 0 gonihedric model has a purely plaquette interaction, displays a first order transition and possesses a highly degenerate ground state. We find that the dual model admits a similar large ground state degeneracy as a result of the anisotropic couplings and investigate the coupled mean-field equations for the model on a single cube. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations which confirm a first order phase transition in the model and suggest that the ground state degeneracy persists throughout the low temperature phase. Some exploratory cooling simulations also hint at non-trivial dynamical behaviour.

  7. The dual gonihedric 3D Ising model

    We investigate the dual of the κ = 0 gonihedric Ising model on a 3D cubic lattice, which may be written as an anisotropically coupled Ashkin-Teller model. The original κ = 0 gonihedric model has a purely plaquette interaction, displays a first order transition and possesses a highly degenerate ground state. We find that the dual model admits a similar large ground state degeneracy as a result of the anisotropic couplings and investigate the coupled mean-field equations for the model on a single cube. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations which confirm a first order phase transition in the model and suggest that the ground state degeneracy persists throughout the low temperature phase. Some exploratory cooling simulations also hint at non-trivial dynamical behaviour.

  8. Automatic Intensity-based 3D-to-2D Registration of CT Volume and Dual-energy Digital Radiography for the Detection of Cardiac Calcification

    Chen, Xiang; Gilkeson, Robert; Fei, Baowei

    2013-01-01

    We are investigating three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) registration methods for computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy digital radiography (DR) for the detection of coronary artery calcification. CT is an established tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases (CADs). Dual-energy digital radiography could be a cost-effective alternative for screening coronary artery calcification. In order to utilize CT as the “gold standard” to evaluate the ability of DR images for the detection and localization of calcium, we developed an automatic intensity-based 3D-to-2D registration method for 3D CT volumes and 2D DR images. To generate digital rendering radiographs (DRR) from the CT volumes, we developed three projection methods, i.e. Gaussian-weighted projection, threshold-based projection, and average-based projection. We tested normalized cross correlation (NCC) and normalized mutual information (NMI) as similarity measurement. We used the Downhill Simplex method as the search strategy. Simulated projection images from CT were fused with the corresponding DR images to evaluate the localization of cardiac calcification. The registration method was evaluated by digital phantoms, physical phantoms, and clinical data sets. The results from the digital phantoms show that the success rate is 100% with mean errors of less 0.8 mm and 0.2 degree for both NCC and NMI. The registration accuracy of the physical phantoms is 0.34 ± 0.27 mm. Color overlay and 3D visualization of the clinical data show that the two images are registered well. This is consistent with the improvement of the NMI values from 0.20 ± 0.03 to 0.25 ± 0.03 after registration. The automatic 3D-to-2D registration method is accurate and robust and may provide a useful tool to evaluate the dual-energy DR images for the detection of coronary artery calcification. PMID:24386527

  9. Dual local and non-local cascades in 3D turbulent Beltrami flows

    Herbert, E; Daviaud, F; Dubrulle, B.; Nazarenko, S.; A. Naso

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of dual local and non-local cascades in a 3D turbulent Beltrami flow, with inverse energy cascade and direct helicity cascade, by analogy with 2D turbulence. We discuss the corresponding energy spectrum in both local and non-local case. Comparison with a high Reynolds number turbulent von Karman flow is provided and discussed.

  10. 3D modeling of dual-gate FinFET.

    Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands 3D modeling for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco modeling tool with quantization effects, we modeled a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in 3D. We compared it with a 2D model of the same device. We demonstrated that 3D modeling produces more accurate results. As 3D modeling results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device. PMID:23148493

  11. 3D modeling of dual wind-up extensional rheometers

    Yu, Kaijia; Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    Fully three-dimensional numerical simulations of a dual wind-up drum rheometer of the Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER; Sentmanat, 2004 [1]) or the Extensional Viscosity Fixture (EVF; Garritano and Berting, 2006 [2]) type have been performed. In the SER and EVF a strip of rectangular shape is...... attached onto two drums, followed by a rotation of both drums in opposite direction. The numerical modeling is based on integral constitutive equations of the K-BKZ type. Generally, to ensure a proper uni-axial extensional deformation in dual wind-up drum rheometers the simulations show that a very small...

  12. Superior Sodium Storage in 3D Interconnected Nitrogen and Oxygen Dual-Doped Carbon Network.

    Wang, Min; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Weihan; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Carbonaceous materials have attracted immense interest as anode materials for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) because of their good chemical, thermal stabilities, as well as high Na-storage capacity. However, the carbonaceous materials as anodes for NIBs still suffer from the lower rate capability and poor cycle life. An N,O-dual doped carbon (denoted as NOC) network is designed and synthesized, which is greatly favorable for sodium storage. It exhibits high specific capacity and ultralong cycling stability, delivering a capacity of 545 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles and retaining a capacity of 240 mAh g(-1) at 2 A g(-1) after 2000 cycles. The NOC composite with 3D well-defined porosity and N,O-dual doped induces active sites, contributing to the enhanced sodium storage. In addition, the NOC is synthesized through a facile solution process, which can be easily extended to the preparation of many other N,O-dual doped carbonaceous materials for wide applications in catalysis, energy storage, and solar cells. PMID:27028729

  13. 3D motion analysis via energy minimization

    Wedel, Andreas

    2009-10-16

    This work deals with 3D motion analysis from stereo image sequences for driver assistance systems. It consists of two parts: the estimation of motion from the image data and the segmentation of moving objects in the input images. The content can be summarized with the technical term machine visual kinesthesia, the sensation or perception and cognition of motion. In the first three chapters, the importance of motion information is discussed for driver assistance systems, for machine vision in general, and for the estimation of ego motion. The next two chapters delineate on motion perception, analyzing the apparent movement of pixels in image sequences for both a monocular and binocular camera setup. Then, the obtained motion information is used to segment moving objects in the input video. Thus, one can clearly identify the thread from analyzing the input images to describing the input images by means of stationary and moving objects. Finally, I present possibilities for future applications based on the contents of this thesis. Previous work in each case is presented in the respective chapters. Although the overarching issue of motion estimation from image sequences is related to practice, there is nothing as practical as a good theory (Kurt Lewin). Several problems in computer vision are formulated as intricate energy minimization problems. In this thesis, motion analysis in image sequences is thoroughly investigated, showing that splitting an original complex problem into simplified sub-problems yields improved accuracy, increased robustness, and a clear and accessible approach to state-of-the-art motion estimation techniques. In Chapter 4, optical flow is considered. Optical flow is commonly estimated by minimizing the combined energy, consisting of a data term and a smoothness term. These two parts are decoupled, yielding a novel and iterative approach to optical flow. The derived Refinement Optical Flow framework is a clear and straight-forward approach to

  14. A dual 3D DIC-system application for DSL strain and displacement measurements

    Raurova, I.; Berggreen, Christian; Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a dual 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system application for DLS strain and displacement measurements, where two 3D DIC-systems are used in parallel. The bonded specimens were tested to failure under monotonic loading in a uni-axial tensile testing machine at ambient...... describes guidelines for a mutual system setup, applied in an experimental study of steel/epoxy DLS joints under pure tension....

  15. A first 3D parallel diffusion solver based on a mixed dual finite element approximation

    This paper presents a new extension of the mixed dual finite element approximation of the diffusion equation in rectangular geometry. The mixed dual formulation has been extended in order to take into account discontinuity conditions. The iterative method is based on an alternating direction method which uses the current as unknown. This method is parallelizable and have very fast convergence properties. Some results for a 3D calculation on the CRAY computer are presented. (orig.)

  16. Development of confocal 3D micro-XRF spectrometer with dual Cr-Mo excitation

    A new 3D micro-XRF instrument based on a confocal setup using two independent poly-capillary x-ray lenses and two x-ray sources (Cr and Mo targets) was developed. A full poly-capillary x-ray lens was attached to each x-ray tube. Another half poly-capillary lens was attached to a silicon drift x-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The depth resolutions that were evaluated by use of a 10-μm thick Au foil were approximately 90 μm for the x-ray energy of Au Lα. The effects of the dual Cr-Mo x-ray beam excitation were investigated. It was confirmed that the XRF intensity of light elements was increased by applying the Cr-target x-ray tube in a confocal configuration. In the proposed confocal configuration, 3D elemental mapping of the major elements of an amaranth seed was performed nondestructively at ambient air pressure. Each element of the seed showed different mapping images in the different depth layers. (authors)

  17. Anomalous dissipation and energy cascade in 3D inviscid flows

    Dascaliuc, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Adopting the setting for the study of existence and scale locality of the energy cascade in 3D viscous flows in physical space introduced in [arXiv:1101.2193] to 3D inviscid flows, it is shown that the anomalous dissipation is indeed capable of triggering the cascade which then continues ad infinitum, confirming Onsager's predictions.

  18. 3D Vertical Dual-Layer Oxide Memristive Devices for Neuromorphic Computing

    Gaba, Siddharth; Sheridan, Patrick; Du, Chao; Wei LU

    2014-01-01

    Dual-layer resistive switching devices with horizontal W electrodes, vertical Pd electrodes and WOx switching layer formed at the sidewall of the horizontal electrodes have been fabricated and characterized. The devices exhibit well-characterized analog switching characteristics and small mismatch in electrical characteristics for devices formed at the two layers. The three-dimensional (3D) vertical device structure allows higher storage density and larger connectivity for neuromorphic comput...

  19. A Prospective Study of Breast Dynamic Morphological Changes after Dual-plane Augmentation Mammaplasty with 3D Scanning Technique

    Ji, Kai; Luan, Jie; LIU, CHUNJUN; Mu, Dali; Mu, Lanhua; Xin, Minqiang; Sun, Jingjing; Yin, Shilu; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background The dual-plane technique has been widely used in augmentation mammaplasty procedures. However, there are some concerns about aesthetic contour maintenance for long time after muscle releasing. This study aims to track and analyze breast dynamic morphological changes after dual-plane breast augmentation with three-dimensional (3D) scanning technique. Methods Thirteen dual-plane anatomic implant augmentation patients underwent 3D scanning preoperatively (pre-OP) and postoperatively i...

  20. Construction of 3D wormhole supported by phantom energy

    Rahaman, F.; Kalam, M.; Bhui, B. C.; Chakraborty, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we have found a series solution of 3D Einstein equations describing a wormhole for an inhomogeneous distribution of phantom energy. Here, we assume equation of state is linear but highly anistropic.

  1. 3D printed 20/30-GHz dual-band offset stepped-reflector antenna

    Menendez, Laura G.; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Persson, Frank;

    2015-01-01

    peak directivity of 36.7 dB and 40.4 dB at 20 and 30 GHz, respectively; this corresponds to an aperture efficiency of 61 % and 64 %, respectively. These results demonstrate that 3D printing is a viable manufacturing technology for medium-sized high-frequency antennas.......This paper documents the manufacturing by selective laser sintering of a 20/30 GHz dual-band circularly polarized offset stepped-reflector antenna for K- and Ka-band satellite communication. The manufactured antenna has been measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility with a...

  2. Measuring dark energy properties with 3D cosmic shear

    Heavens, A. F.; Kitching, T. D.; Taylor, A N

    2006-01-01

    We present parameter estimation forecasts for present and future 3D cosmic shear surveys. We demonstrate that, in conjunction with results from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, the properties of dark energy can be estimated with very high precision with large-scale, fully 3D weak lensing surveys. In particular, a 5-band, 10,000 square degree ground-based survey to a median redshift of zm=0.7 could achieve 1-$\\sigma$ marginal statistical errors, in combination with the constraint...

  3. Dual targeting of EGFR and focal adhesion kinase in 3D grown HNSCC cell cultures

    Purpose: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) show frequent overexpression and hyperactivity in various human malignancies including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). To examine effects of dual EGFR/FAK inhibition on cellular radiosensitivity of HNSCC cells in a more physiological environment, we employed a previously established laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) based three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model. Materials and methods: UTSCC15 and SAS HNSCC cell lines stably transfected with EGFR-CFP or CFP were used. Single or combined EGFR (Cetuximab, siRNA) and FAK (TAE226, siRNA) inhibition were accomplished prior to measuring clonogenic survival and protein expression and phosphorylation. Immunofluorescence enabled visualization of EGFR-CFP and FAK. Results: Cetuximab resulted in higher radiosensitization in EGFR-CFP overexpressing cell lines than CFP controls. Single EGFR or FAK inhibition mediated radiosensitization, while dual EGFR/FAK targeting further augmented this effect. Despite signaling alterations upon Cetuximab and siRNA knockdown, analysis of protein expression and phosphorylation indicates EGFR and FAK signaling coexistence without obvious overlap. Conclusions: Combined EGFR/FAK targeting yielded stronger radiosensitization than either approach alone, which might be based on non-overlapping downstream signaling. Whether dual targeting of EGFR and FAK can reasonably be combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy needs clarification.

  4. Towards a 3d Spatial Urban Energy Modelling Approach

    Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    Today's needs to reduce the environmental impact of energy use impose dramatic changes for energy infrastructure and existing demand patterns (e.g. buildings) corresponding to their specific context. In addition, future energy systems are expected to integrate a considerable share of fluctuating power sources and equally a high share of distributed generation of electricity. Energy system models capable of describing such future systems and allowing the simulation of the impact of these developments thus require a spatial representation in order to reflect the local context and the boundary conditions. This paper describes two recent research approaches developed at EIFER in the fields of (a) geo-localised simulation of heat energy demand in cities based on 3D morphological data and (b) spatially explicit Agent-Based Models (ABM) for the simulation of smart grids. 3D city models were used to assess solar potential and heat energy demand of residential buildings which enable cities to target the building refurbishment potentials. Distributed energy systems require innovative modelling techniques where individual components are represented and can interact. With this approach, several smart grid demonstrators were simulated, where heterogeneous models are spatially represented. Coupling 3D geodata with energy system ABMs holds different advantages for both approaches. On one hand, energy system models can be enhanced with high resolution data from 3D city models and their semantic relations. Furthermore, they allow for spatial analysis and visualisation of the results, with emphasis on spatially and structurally correlations among the different layers (e.g. infrastructure, buildings, administrative zones) to provide an integrated approach. On the other hand, 3D models can benefit from more detailed system description of energy infrastructure, representing dynamic phenomena and high resolution models for energy use at component level. The proposed modelling strategies

  5. Investigating clustering dark energy with 3d weak cosmic shear

    Ayaita, Youness; Weber, Maik

    2011-01-01

    As observational evidence increasingly consolidates the case for a cosmological constant being the source of the Universe's accelerated expansion, the question whether, and if so, how well future experiments could detect deviations from this standard scenario is raised with urgency. Assuming a dark energy component different from a cosmological constant, the observable effects in general include gravitational clustering described by the fluid's (rest-frame) speed of sound. We employ 3d weak cosmic shear, a proposed method to take advantage of the full three-dimensional information inherent to the cosmic shear field, to explore the capability of future surveys to detect dark energy clustering and the signature of an enhanced amplitude of the matter power spectrum on large scales. For this purpose, we present adequate numerical methods facilitating 3d weak cosmic shear calculations. We find that the possible constraints heavily depend on the dark energy equation of state w. If w is not very close to -1, constra...

  6. A dual 3D DIC-system application for DSL strain and displacement measurements

    Eriksen R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a dual 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC system application for DLS strain and displacement measurements, where two 3D DIC-systems are used in parallel. The bonded specimens were tested to failure under monotonic loading in a uni-axial tensile testing machine at ambient temperature. Both surface inplane strain and full-field displacement values were recorded using two DIC systems: high speed (HS and high resolution (HR. The HS system was used in a parallel setup with the HR system in order to detect the initial failure location and crack propagation rate during the brittle failure mechanism, where an interface crack is propagating between the straps and the inner adherent. Using two inherently different DIC systems involve a number of problems. This involves synchronization of the HS and HR systems, a common illumination level and speckle pattern. This paper therefore describes guidelines for a mutual system setup, applied in an experimental study of steel/epoxy DLS joints under pure tension.

  7. Calculated surface-energy anomaly in the 3d metals

    Aldén, M.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Mirbt, S.;

    1992-01-01

    Local-spin-density theory and a Green’s-function technique based on the linear muffin-tin orbitals method have been used to calculate the surface energy of the 3d metals. The theory explains the variation of the values derived from measurements of the surface tension of liquid metals including th...... pronounced anomaly occurring between vanadium and nickel in terms of a decrease in the d contribution caused by spin polarization....

  8. First clinical results of ultrafast, gadolinium-enhanced dual-phase 3D MR-angiography in the abdomen

    To assess the utility of breath-hold abdominal ultrafast three-dimensional (3D) gadolinium-enhanced dual-phase magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Material and methods: 125 patients with various abdominal pathologies were imaged using a breath-hold ultrafast gadolinium-enhanced dual-phase 3D-MRA technique. Results: 119 (95%) of 125 MRA's were of good or excellent quality. The sensitivity in the detection of renal artery stenoses as well as stenoses of the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery was 100%. Accessory renal arteries (n=9) and replaced hepatic arteries (n=4) were reliably detected by MRA. In 24 (71%) of 34 cases MR-angiographic delineation of the spleno-portal system and hepatic veins was superior compared to conventional angiography. Conclusion: Breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced dual-phase 3D-MRA has the potential to replace conventional angiography in the abdomen. (orig.)

  9. Usefulness of US-CT 3D dual imaging for the planning and monitoring of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment using HIFU

    Purpose: We evaluated the safety and usefulness of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) assisted by ultrasound-computed tomography three-dimensional (US-CT 3D) dual imaging for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: HIFU ablation was performed in 13 patients with small HCC (≤3 lesions, ≤3 cm in diameter). The HIFU system (Chongqing Haifu Tech) was used under ultrasound guidance. By transferring the sagittal or axial plane of the 3D US and the CT volume data into the ZioM900, multiplanar reconstruction images were displayed in a manner resembling conventional monitor US to assist the HIFU treatment. Results: Overall, 69% (9/13) of the patients in whom good visualization using B-mode sonography could not be obtained because of the influence of multi-reflections, rib shadows, and unclear tumor margins were successfully treated under the guidance of US-CT 3D dual imaging. In 5 of the 13 patients, multi-reflections were responsible for the poor visualization. In 2 cases, the tumor was poorly visualized because of a rib shadow. In one case, the margin of the tumor was too unclear to be detected using ultrasography. The 3D US images obtained as part of the US-CT 3D dual imaging had a high resolution and were useful for examining the area of HCC invasion and for determining the extent of the ablation area. The CT images, which are not influenced by bone shadows or multi-reflections, were useful for detecting the tumors and for visualizing the presence of the intestines in the sonication zone. HIFU treatments were successfully performed in all the patients with the assistance of US-CT 3D dual imaging. Conclusion: US-CT 3D dual imaging is useful for HIFU treatment for HCC, compensating for the occasionally poor visualization provided by US monitor.

  10. Cut Slotted Microstrip Antenna for Dual Frequency Application and Analysis Using Different Optimizer Available In Ie3d

    Hasanujjaman,; Mehedi Hasan Habib Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Design of dual frequency antenna always gives the added advantages for microwave antenna applications. In this paper Fast EM and Powel method based design of a dual-frequency patch antenna using IE3D is presented. The proposed antenna is excited through the inset feed technique and the antenna design and parametric studies has been executed. The method effectively obtains the geometric parameters for efficient antenna performance. Maximum return loss obtained at 7 GHz is -36.5...

  11. 3D edge energy transport in stellarator configurations

    McTaggart, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Zagorski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, P.O. Box 49, Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: zagorski@ifpilm.waw.pl; Bonnin, X. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Runov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Schneider, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Kaiser, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Rognlien, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Umansky, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The finite difference discretization method is used to solve the electron energy transport equation in complex 3D edge geometries using an unstructured grid. This grid is generated by field-line tracing to separate the radial and parallel fluxes and minimize the numerical diffusion connected with the strong anisotropy of the system. The influence of ergodicity on the edge plasma transport in the W7-X stellarator is investigated in this paper. Results show that the combined effect of ergodicity and the radial plasma diffusion leads to the efficient smoothing of the temperature profiles in the finite-{beta} case.

  12. 3-D Biped Robot Walking along Slope with Dual Length Linear Inverted Pendulum Method (DLLIPM

    Fariz Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new design method to obtain walking parameters for a three-dimensional (3D biped walking along a slope is proposed in this paper. Most research is focused on the walking directions when climbing up or down a slope only. This paper investigates a strategy to realize biped walking along a slope. In conventional methods, the centre of mass (CoM is moved up or down during walking in this situation. This is because the height of the pendulum is kept at the same length on the left and right legs. Thus, extra effort is required in order to bring the CoM up to higher ground. In the proposed method, a different height of pendulum is applied on the left and right legs, which is called a dual length linear inverted pendulum method (DLLIPM. When a different height of pendulum is applied, it is quite difficult to obtain symmetrical and smooth pendulum motions. Furthermore, synchronization between sagittal and lateral planes is not confirmed. Therefore, DLLIPM with a Newton Raphson algorithm is proposed to solve these problems. The walking pattern for both planes is designed systematically and synchronization between them is ensured. As a result, the maximum force fluctuation is reduced with the proposed method.

  13. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Puria, Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  14. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  15. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations

  16. Energy harvesting “3-D knitted spacer” based piezoelectric textiles

    Anand, S.; Soin, N.; Shah, T. H.; Siores, E.

    2016-07-01

    The piezoelectric effect in Poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, was discovered over four decades ago and since then, significant work has been carried out aiming at the production of high p-phase fibres and their integration into fabric structures for energy harvesting. However, little work has been done in the area of production of “true piezoelectric fabric structures” based on flexible polymeric materials such as PVDF. In this work, we demonstrate “3-D knitted spacer” technology based all-fibre piezoelectric fabrics as power generators and energy harvesters. The knitted single-structure piezoelectric generator consists of high p-phase (~80%) piezoelectric PVDF monofilaments as the spacer yarn interconnected between silver (Ag) coated polyamide multifilament yarn layers acting as the top and bottom electrodes. The novel and unique textile structure provides an output power density in the range of 1.105.10 gWcm-2 at applied impact pressures in the range of 0.02-0.10 MPa, thus providing significantly higher power outputs and efficiencies over the existing 2-D woven and nonwoven piezoelectric structures. The high energy efficiency, mechanical durability and comfort of the soft, flexible and all-fibre based power generator is highly attractive for a variety of potential applications such as wearable electronic systems and energy harvesters charged from ambient environment or by human movement.

  17. Fabrication of scalable tissue engineering scaffolds with dual-pore microarchitecture by combining 3D printing and particle leaching

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Sanger, Kuldeep; Heiskanen, Arto;

    2016-01-01

    fabricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue engineering applications where 3D printing of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mould is combined with salt leaching process. In this technique the sacrificial PVA mould, determining the structured pore architecture, was filled with salt crystals to define the random...... pore regions of the scaffold. After crosslinking the casted polymer the combined PVA-salt mould was dissolved in water. The technique has advantages over previously reported ones, such as automated assembly of the sacrificial mould, and precise control over pore architecture/dimensions by 3D printing...

  18. 3D Printing of Molecular Potential Energy Surface Models

    Lolur, Phalgun; Dawes, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, is gaining popularity in a variety of applications and has recently become routinely available. Today, 3D printing services are not only found in engineering design labs and through online companies, but also in university libraries offering student access. In addition, affordable options for…

  19. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  20. UV-Assisted 3D Printing of Glass and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Dual-Cure Polymer Composites

    Marta Invernizzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Glass (GFR and carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR dual-cure polymer composites fabricated by UV-assisted three-dimensional (UV-3D printing are presented. The resin material combines an acrylic-based photocurable resin with a low temperature (140 °C thermally-curable resin system based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether as base component, an aliphatic anhydride (hexahydro-4-methylphthalic anhydride as hardener and (2,4,6,-tris(dimethylaminomethylphenol as catalyst. A thorough rheological characterization of these formulations allowed us to define their 3D printability window. UV-3D printed macrostructures were successfully demonstrated, giving a clear indication of their potential use in real-life structural applications. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis highlighted the good thermal stability and mechanical properties of the printed parts. In addition, uniaxial tensile tests were used to assess the fiber reinforcing effect on the UV-3D printed objects. Finally, an initial study was conducted on the use of a sizing treatment on carbon fibers to improve the fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion, giving preliminary indications on the potential of this approach to improve the mechanical properties of the 3D printed CFR components.

  1. Fabrication of a 3D micro/nano dual-scale carbon array and its demonstration as the microelectrodes for supercapacitors

    An easily accessible method is proposed for the fabrication of a 3D micro/nano dual-scale carbon array with a large surface area. The process mainly consists of three critical steps. Firstly, a hemispherical photoresist micro-array was obtained by the cost-effective nanoimprint lithography process. Then the micro-array was transformed into hierarchical structures with longitudinal nanowires on the microstructure surface by oxygen plasma etching. Finally, the micro/nano dual-scale carbon array was fabricated by carbonizing these hierarchical photoresist structures. It has also been demonstrated that the micro/nano dual-scale carbon array can be used as the microelectrodes for supercapacitors by the electrodeposition of a manganese dioxide (MnO2) film onto the hierarchical carbon structures with greatly enhanced electrochemical performance. The specific gravimetric capacitance of the deposited micro/nano dual-scale microelectrodes is estimated to be 337 F g−1 at the scan rate of 5 mV s−1. This proposed approach of fabricating a micro/nano dual-scale carbon array provides a facile way in large-scale microstructures’ manufacturing for a wide variety of applications, including sensors and on-chip energy storage devices. (paper)

  2. Dual array 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade.

    Classen, I G J; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Bogomolov, A V; Suttrop, W; Boom, J E; Tobias, B J; Donné, A J H

    2014-11-01

    In a major upgrade, the (2D) electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic (ECEI) at ASDEX Upgrade has been equipped with a second detector array, observing a different toroidal position in the plasma, to enable quasi-3D measurements of the electron temperature. The new system will measure a total of 288 channels, in two 2D arrays, toroidally separated by 40 cm. The two detector arrays observe the plasma through the same vacuum window, both under a slight toroidal angle. The majority of the field lines are observed by both arrays simultaneously, thereby enabling a direct measurement of the 3D properties of plasma instabilities like edge localized mode filaments. PMID:25430246

  3. Dual array 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade

    Classen, I. G. J., E-mail: I.G.J.Classen@differ.nl; Bogomolov, A. V. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Applied Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Suttrop, W.; Boom, J. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Donné, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    In a major upgrade, the (2D) electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic (ECEI) at ASDEX Upgrade has been equipped with a second detector array, observing a different toroidal position in the plasma, to enable quasi-3D measurements of the electron temperature. The new system will measure a total of 288 channels, in two 2D arrays, toroidally separated by 40 cm. The two detector arrays observe the plasma through the same vacuum window, both under a slight toroidal angle. The majority of the field lines are observed by both arrays simultaneously, thereby enabling a direct measurement of the 3D properties of plasma instabilities like edge localized mode filaments.

  4. 3D Tests on Overtopping for SSG Wave Energy Converter

    Margheritini, Lucia; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of the first study based on laboratory tests of the behaviour of the SSG pilot module in 3D wave conditions. This study was recommended already during Phase 2 of the Co-operation agreement between WEVEnergy AS (Norway) and Aalborg University, Department of Civil...

  5. DCM3D: A dual-continuum, three-dimensional, ground-water flow code for unsaturated, fractured, porous media

    This report constitutes the user's manual for DCM3D. DCM3D is a computer code for solving three-dimensional, ground-water flow problems in variably saturated, fractured porous media. The code is based on a dual-continuum model with porous media comprising one continuum and fractures comprising the other. The continua are connected by a transfer term that depends on the unsaturated permeability of the porous medium. An integrated finite-difference scheme is used to discretize the governing equations in space. The time-dependent term is allowed to remain continuous. The resulting set of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) is solved with a general ODE solver, LSODES. The code is capable of handling transient, spatially dependent source terms and boundary conditions. The boundary conditions can either prescribed head or prescribed flux. 24 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs

  6. US-CT 3D dual imaging by mutual display of the same sections for depicting minor changes in hepatocellular carcinoma

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasound-computed tomography (US-CT) 3D dual imaging for the detection of small extranodular growths of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The clinical and pathological profiles of 10 patients with single nodular type HCC with extranodular growth (extranodular growth) who underwent a hepatectomy were evaluated using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography (US), three-dimensional (3D) US, 3D computed tomography (CT) and 3D US-CT dual images. Raw 3D data was converted to DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) data using Echo to CT (Toshiba Medical Systems Corp., Tokyo, Japan), and the 3D DICOM data was directly transferred to the image analysis system (ZioM900, ZIOSOFT Inc., Tokyo, Japan). By inputting the angle number (x, y, z) of the 3D CT volume data into the ZioM900, multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images of the 3D CT data were displayed in a manner such that they resembled the conventional US images. Eleven extranodular growths were detected pathologically in 10 cases. 2D US was capable of depicting only 2 of the 11 extranodular growths. 3D CT was capable of depicting 4 of the 11 extranodular growths. On the other hand, 3D US was capable of depicting 10 of the 11 extranodular growths, and 3D US-CT dual images, which enable the dual analysis of the CT and US planes, revealed all 11 extranodular growths. In conclusion, US-CT 3D dual imaging may be useful for the detection of small extranodular growths

  7. US-CT 3D dual imaging by mutual display of the same sections for depicting minor changes in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki, E-mail: fukuhiro1962@hotmail.com [International HIFU Center, Sanmu Medical Center Hospital, Naruto 167, Sanbu-shi, Chiba 289-1326 (Japan); Ito, Ryu; Ohto, Masao; Sakamoto, Akio [International HIFU Center, Sanmu Medical Center Hospital, Naruto 167, Sanbu-shi, Chiba 289-1326 (Japan); Otsuka, Masayuki; Togawa, Akira; Miyazaki, Masaru [Department of General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-0856 (Japan); Yamagata, Hitoshi [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara 324-0036 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasound-computed tomography (US-CT) 3D dual imaging for the detection of small extranodular growths of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The clinical and pathological profiles of 10 patients with single nodular type HCC with extranodular growth (extranodular growth) who underwent a hepatectomy were evaluated using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography (US), three-dimensional (3D) US, 3D computed tomography (CT) and 3D US-CT dual images. Raw 3D data was converted to DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) data using Echo to CT (Toshiba Medical Systems Corp., Tokyo, Japan), and the 3D DICOM data was directly transferred to the image analysis system (ZioM900, ZIOSOFT Inc., Tokyo, Japan). By inputting the angle number (x, y, z) of the 3D CT volume data into the ZioM900, multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images of the 3D CT data were displayed in a manner such that they resembled the conventional US images. Eleven extranodular growths were detected pathologically in 10 cases. 2D US was capable of depicting only 2 of the 11 extranodular growths. 3D CT was capable of depicting 4 of the 11 extranodular growths. On the other hand, 3D US was capable of depicting 10 of the 11 extranodular growths, and 3D US-CT dual images, which enable the dual analysis of the CT and US planes, revealed all 11 extranodular growths. In conclusion, US-CT 3D dual imaging may be useful for the detection of small extranodular growths.

  8. Rapid thiol-yne-mediated fabrication and dual postfunctionalization of micro-resolved 3D mesostructures

    Quick, A. S.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Bruns, M.; Bückmann, T.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Wegener, M.; Barner-Kowollik, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 24 (2015), s. 3735-3744. ISSN 1616-301X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : click chemistry * direct laser writing * dual functionalization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 11.805, year: 2014

  9. Estimation of perilymph enhancement after intratympanic administration of Gd-DTPA by fast T1-mapping with a dual flip angle 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence

    Eleven patients with suspected Meniere's disease received intratympanic (IT) administration of gadolinium (gadopentetate dimeglumine; Gd) prior to acquisition of 3-dimensional (3D) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 3D real inversion recovery (IR), and fast T1 mapping by dual flip angle 3D gradient echo (FT1-map) imaging sequences to evaluate the degree of perilymph enhancement. Though 3-dimensional FLAIR could detect lower concentrations of gadolinium than 3D real IR, in 2 patients, poor enhancement still prevented visualization of the endolymphatic space using 3D FLAIR. We could predict poor contrast enhancement in these 2 patients using the FT1-map technique. (author)

  10. 3-D Biped Robot Walking along Slope with Dual Length Linear Inverted Pendulum Method (DLLIPM)

    Fariz Ali; Ahmad Zaki Hj. Shukor; Muhammad Fahmi Miskon; Mohd Khairi Mohamed Nor; Sani Irwan Md Salim

    2013-01-01

    A new design method to obtain walking parameters for a three-dimensional (3D) biped walking along a slope is proposed in this paper. Most research is focused on the walking directions when climbing up or down a slope only. This paper investigates a strategy to realize biped walking along a slope. In conventional methods, the centre of mass (CoM) is moved up or down during walking in this situation. This is because the height of the pendulum is kept at the same length on the left and right leg...

  11. 3D synchrotron laminography assessment of damage evolution in blanked dual phase steels

    Kahziz, Mouhcine; Morgeneyer, Thilo F.; Mazière, Matthieu; Helfen, Lukas; Maire, Éric; Bouaziz, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical performance of automotive structures made of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is often seen reduced by the presence of cut-edges. Here an attempt is made to gain insight into the initial damage state and the damage evolution during loading of a cut-edge. This is assessed in 3D and in-situ by synchrotron laminography observation during simultaneous tensile and bending loading of a cut-edge produced by stamping. Laminography is a technique that allows to observe regions of in...

  12. Physical-dosimetric enabling a dual linear accelerator 3D planning systems for radiotherapy

    The process of commissioning clinical linear accelerator requires a dual comprehensive study of the therapeutic beam parameters, both photons Electron. All information gained by measuring physical and dosimetric these beams must be analyzed, processed and refined for further modeling in computer-based treatment planning (RTPS). Of professionalism of this process will depend on the accuracy and precision of the calculations the prescribed doses. This paper aims to demonstrate availability clinical linear accelerator system-RTPS with late radiotherapy treatments shaped beam of photons and electrons. (author)

  13. 3D dual-virtual-pinhole assisted single particle tracking microscopy

    Ma, Ye; Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Xin; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2014-07-01

    We propose a novel approach for high-speed, three-dimensional single particle tracking (SPT), which we refer to as dual-virtual-pinhole assisted single particle tracking microscopy (DVPaSPTM). DVPaSPTM system can obtain axial information of the sample without optical or mechanical depth scanning, so as to offer numbers of advantages including faster imaging, improved efficiency and a great reduction of photobleaching and phototoxicity. In addition, by the use of the dual-virtual-pinhole, the effect that the quantum yield exerts to the fluorescent signal can be eliminated, which makes the measurement independent of the surroundings and increases the accuracy of the result. DVPaSPTM system measures the intensity within different virtual pinholes of which the radii are given by the host computer. Axial information of fluorophores can be measured by the axial response curve through the ratio of intensity signals. We demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method by a series of experiments. Results showed that the standard deviation of the axial measurement was 19.2 nm over a 2.5 μm range with 30 ms temporal resolution.

  14. Dual wavelength optical CT scanning of anthropomorphic shaped 3D dosimeters

    To create an optical density map of 3D dosimeter phantoms, the ratio of the transmission profile (either a line or planar) acquired after irradiation of the dosimeter and a pre-irradiation reference scan of the same dosimeter phantom is taken. Any uncertainty in repositioning of the phantom may result in an uncertainty in the optical density map and finally also in the derived dose maps. Correct repositioning is paramount when scanning noncylindrical dosimeter phantoms as any repositioning error will give rise to severe imaging artifacts. We hereby propose a different scanning technique that does not require any repositioning of the dosimeter phantom. In this method, no pre-irradiation san is recorded but the dosimeter phantom is scanned twice with light at two different wavelengths. It is demonstrated that this method is accurate in scanning non-cylindrical anthropomorphic shaped phantoms

  15. Single Lens Dual-Aperture 3D Imaging System: Color Modeling

    Bae, Sam Y.; Korniski, Ronald; Ream, Allen; Fritz, Eric; Shearn, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to miniaturize a 3D imaging system, we created two viewpoints in a single objective lens camera. This was accomplished by placing a pair of Complementary Multi-band Bandpass Filters (CMBFs) in the aperture area. Two key characteristics about the CMBFs are that the passbands are staggered so only one viewpoint is opened at a time when a light band matched to that passband is illuminated, and the passbands are positioned throughout the visible spectrum, so each viewpoint can render color by taking RGB spectral images. Each viewpoint takes a different spectral image from the other viewpoint hence yielding a different color image relative to the other. This color mismatch in the two viewpoints could lead to color rivalry, where the human vision system fails to resolve two different colors. The difference will be closer if the number of passbands in a CMBF increases. (However, the number of passbands is constrained by cost and fabrication technique.) In this paper, simulation predicting the color mismatch is reported.

  16. E, B, \\mu, T Phase Structure of the D3/D7 Holographic Dual

    Evans, Nick; Kim, Keun-Young

    2011-01-01

    The large N_c N=4 gauge theory with quenched N=2 quark matter displays chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of a magnetic field. We previously studied the temperature and chemical potential phase structure of this theory in the grand canonical ensemble - here we, in addition, include the effect of an electric field which acts to counter chiral symmetry breaking by disassociating mesons. We compute using the gravity dual based on the D3/probe-D7 brane system. The theory displays two transition at one of which chiral symmetry is restored. At the other transition density switches on, the mesons of the theory become unstable and a current forms, making it a conductor-insulator transition. Through the temperature, electric field, chemical potential volume (at fixed magnetic field parallel to the electric field) these transitions can coincide or separate at critical points, and be first order or second order. We map out this full phase structure which provides varied computable examples relevant to strongly cou...

  17. 3D Printers Can Provide an Added Dimension for Teaching Structure-Energy Relationships

    Blauch, David N.; Carroll, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D printer is used to prepare a variety of models representing potential energy as a function of two geometric coordinates. These models facilitate the teaching of structure-energy relationships in molecular conformations and in chemical reactions.

  18. Calibration model of a dual gain flat panel detector for 2D and 3D x-ray imaging

    The continuing research and further development in flat panel detector technology have led to its integration into more and more medical x-ray systems for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging, such as fixed or mobile C arms. Besides the obvious advantages of flat panel detectors, like the slim design and the resulting optimum accessibility to the patient, their success is primarily a product of the image quality that can be achieved. The benefits in the physical and performance-related features as opposed to conventional image intensifier systems (e.g., distortion-free reproduction of imaging information or almost linear signal response over a large dynamic range) can be fully exploited, however, only if the raw detector images are correctly calibrated and postprocessed. Previous procedures for processing raw data contain idealizations that, in the real world, lead to artifacts or losses in image quality. Thus, for example, temperature dependencies or changes in beam geometry, as can occur with mobile C arm systems, have not been taken into account up to this time. Additionally, adverse characteristics such as image lag or aging effects have to be compensated to attain the best possible image quality. In this article a procedure is presented that takes into account the important dependencies of the individual pixel sensitivity of flat panel detectors used in 2D or 3D imaging and simultaneously minimizes the work required for an extensive recalibration. It is suitable for conventional detectors with only one gain mode as well as for the detectors specially developed for 3D imaging with dual gain read-out technology

  19. 3D asynchronous particle tracking in single and dual continuum matrix-fractures. Application to nuclear waste storage

    This PhD research was conducted as a collaboration between Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement (LNHE) from EDF R and D and the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT) in the frame of a CIFRE contract. This PhD thesis aims at providing LNHE a reliable numerical model to study the feasibility of a nuclear waste storage in deep geological structures. The main focus of the thesis is put on developing and implementing a Random Walk Particle Method (RWPM) to model contaminant transport in 3D heterogeneous and fractured porous media. In its first part, the report presents the Lagrangian particle tracking method used to model transport in heterogeneous media with a direct high resolution approach. The solute plume is discretized into concentration packets: particles. The model tracks each particle based on a time-explicit displacement algorithm according to an advective component and a diffusive random component. The method is implemented on a hydraulic model discretized on a 3D unstructured tetrahedral finite element mesh. We focus on techniques to overcome problems due to the discontinuous transport parameters and the unstructured mesh. First, we introduce an asynchronous time-stepping approach to deal with the numerical and overshoot errors that occur with conventional RWPM. Then, a filtering method is applied to smooth discontinuous transport parameters (pre-processing). Finally, once the particle displacements are computed, we propose several filtering and sampling methods to obtain concentrations from particle positions (post-processing). Applications of these methods are presented with cases of tracer advection-dispersion in homogeneous and heterogeneous media. For dense fracture networks, direct high resolution methods are very time consuming and need a lot of computational resources. So, as an alternative to the discrete approach, a dual-continuum representation is used, in the second part of the report, to describe the porous matrix

  20. 3D graphene-based hybrid materials: synthesis and applications in energy storage and conversion.

    Shi, Qiurong; Cha, Younghwan; Song, Yang; Lee, Jung-In; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, Xiaoyu; Song, Min-Kyu; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-08-25

    Porous 3D graphene-based hybrid materials (3D GBHMs) are currently attractive nanomaterials employed in the field of energy. Heteroatom-doped 3D graphene and metal, metal oxide, and polymer-decorated 3D graphene with modified electronic and atomic structures provide promising performance as electrode materials in energy storage and conversion. Numerous synthesis methods such as self-assembly, templating, electrochemical deposition, and supercritical CO2, pave the way to mass production of 3D GBHMs in the commercialization of energy devices. This review summarizes recent advances in the fabrication of 3D GBHMs with well-defined architectures such as finely controlled pore sizes, heteroatom doping types and levels. Moreover, current progress toward applications in fuel cells, supercapacitors and batteries employing 3D GBHMs is also highlighted, along with the detailed mechanisms of the enhanced electrochemical performance. Furthermore, current critical issues, challenges and future prospects with respect to applications of 3D GBHMs in practical devices are discussed at the end of this review. PMID:27531643

  1. Electricity Generation with the Novel 3D Electrode from Swim Wastewater in a Dual-chamber Microbial Fuel Cell

    Lai Mei-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The swine wastewater has the characteristics of high concentration of organic matter, suspended solids and more high ammonia nitrogen, odor, complex pollution ingredient and large emissions. Microbial fuel cells (MFC is an electrochemical and biological systems related to chemical energy into electrical energy. A two-chambered cubic microbial fuel cell was used to evaluate the effect of a novel 3D electrode which made of iron and copper on the electricity generation. The swine wastewater containing total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD 3300±300 mg/L was used as the feedstock in anode chamber, and the potassium ferricyanide was used as electron acceptor in cathode chamber. The MFC reactor was incubated with the initial pH 7.0 in a air-shaker with a temperature (ca. 35°C and 100 rpm in fed-batch mode. A fixed external resistance (R of 100 Ω was connected between the electrodes and the closed circuit potentials of the MFCs were recorded every 2 min. The results show that using iron 3D electrode has the peak electricity generation of 176 mV at the first two day and maintained the stable electricity voltage of 110 mV during the 5th to 15th days. The COD removal efficiency could reach 80%. Using copper 3D electrode only can generate the peak electricity of 33.1 mV and stable electricity of 27 mV with the COD removal efficiency of 70%.

  2. Fabrication of a novel dual mode cholesterol biosensor using titanium dioxide nanowire bridged 3D graphene nanostacks.

    Komathi, S; Muthuchamy, N; Lee, K-P; Gopalan, A-I

    2016-10-15

    Herein, we fabricated a novel electrochemical-photoelectrochemical (PEC) dual-mode cholesterol biosensor based on graphene (G) sheets interconnected-graphene embedded titanium nanowires (TiO2(G)-NWs) 3D nanostacks (designated as G/Ti(G) 3DNS) by exploiting the beneficial characteristics of G and TiO2-NWs to achieve good selectivity and high sensitivity for cholesterol detection. The G/Ti(G) 3DNS was fabricated by the reaction between functionalized G and TiO2(G)-NWs. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was subsequently immobilized in to G/Ti(G) 3DNS using chitosan (CS) as the binder and the dual mode G/Ti(G) 3DNS/CS/ChOx biosensor was fabricated. The electro-optical properties of the G/Ti(G) 3DNS/CS/ChOx bioelectrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The cyclic voltammetry of immobilized ChOx showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks indicating direct electron transfer (DET) of ChOx. The amperometric reduction peak current (at -0.05V) linearly increased with increase in cholesterol concentration. The G/Ti(G) 3DNS/CS/ChOx bioelectrode was selective to cholesterol with a remarkable sensitivity (3.82μA/cm(2)mM) and a lower detection limit (6μM). Also, G/Ti(G) 3DNS/CS/ChOx functioned as photoelectrode and exhibited selective detection of cholesterol under a low bias voltage and light irradiation. Kinetic parameters, reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and effect of temperature and pH were evaluated. We envisage that G/Ti(G) 3DNS with its prospective characteristics, would be a promising material for wide range of biosensing applications. PMID:26611566

  3. Les obturateurs à cristaux liquide pour la vision stéréoscopique et l'application 3D Dual View

    Nunes Henrique Silva, Vinicius

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the main objectives were to improve the liquid crystal shutters and to develop a stereoscopic vision application called 3D Dual View. The vision quality of a 3D system based on active glasses is direct related to the performance of the liquid crystal shutters. There are a lot of parameters that plays an important role in the quality of 3D glasses. Thus, efforts were concentrated in the organization of the liquid crystal molecules between the substrates and in the liquid crystal...

  4. Impulse Turbine with 3D Guide Vanes for Wave Energy Conversion

    Manabu TAKAO; Toshiaki SETOGUCHI; Kenji KANEKO; Shuichi NAGATA

    2006-01-01

    In this study, in order to achieve further improvement of the performance of an impulse turbine with fixed guide vanes for wave energy conversion, the effect of guide vane shape on the performance was investigated by experiment. The investigation was performed by model testing under steady flow condition. As a result, it was found that the efficiency of the turbine with 3D guide vanes are slightly superior to that of the turbine with 2D guide vanes because of the increase of torque by means of 3D guide vane, though pressure drop across the turbine for the 3D case is slightly higher than that for the 2D case.

  5. Analytical 1-D dual-porosity equivalent solutions to 3-D discrete single-continuum models. Application to karstic spring hydrograph modelling

    Cornaton, F

    2011-01-01

    One dimensional analytical porosity-weighted solutions of the dual-porosity model are derived, providing insights on how to relate exchange and storage coefficients to the volumetric density of the high-permeability medium. It is shown that porosity-weighted storage and exchange coefficients are needed when handling highly heterogeneous systems - such as karstic aquifers - using equivalent dual-porosity models. The sensitivity of these coefficients is illustrated by means of numerical experiments with theoretical karst systems. The presented 1-D dual-porosity analytical model is used to reproduce the hydraulic responses of reference 3-D karst aquifers, modelled by a discrete single-continuum approach. Under various stress conditions, simulation results show the relations between the dual-porosity model coefficients and the structural features of the discrete single-continuum model. The calibration of the equivalent 1-D analytical dual-porosity model on reference hydraulic responses confirms the dependence of ...

  6. A Review on Energy Harvesting Using 3D Printed Fabrics for Wearable Electronics

    Gowthaman, Swaminathan; Chidambaram, Gowri Shankar; Rao, Dilli Babu Govardhana; Subramya, Hemakumar Vyudhayagiri; Chandrasekhar, Udhayagiri

    2016-06-01

    Embedding of energy harvesting systems into wearable health and environment monitoring systems, like integration of smart piezoelectric fibers into soldier fabric structures opens up avenues in generating electricity from natural mechanical movements for self-powering of wearable electronics. Emergence of multitudinous of materials and manufacturing technologies has enabled realization of various energy harvesting systems from mechanical movements. The materials and manufacturing related to 3D printing of energy harvesting fabrics are reviewed in this paper. State-of-the-art energy harvesting sources are briefly described following which an in-depth analysis on the materials and 3D printing techniques for energy harvesting fabrics are presented. While tremendous motivation and opportunity exists for wider-scale adoption of 3D printing for this niche area, the success depends on efficient design of three critical factors namely materials, process and structure. The present review discusses on the complex issues of materials selection, modelling and processing of 3D printed fabrics. The paper culminates by presenting a discussion on how future advancements in 3D printing technology might be useful for development of wearable electronics.

  7. Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy with integrated dual-axis MEMS scanner for fast 3D imaging and metrology

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cogliati, Andrea; Hayes, Adam; Santhanam, Anand P.; Tankam, Patrice; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2015-10-01

    Fast, robust, nondestructive 3D imaging is needed for characterization of microscopic structures in industrial and clinical applications. A custom micro-electromechanical system (MEMS)-based 2D scanner system was developed to achieve 55 kHz A-scan acquisition in a Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) instrument with a novel multilevel GPU architecture for high-speed imaging. GD-OCM yields high-definition volumetric imaging with dynamic depth of focusing through a bio-inspired liquid lens-based microscope design, which has no moving parts and is suitable for use in a manufacturing setting or in a medical environment. A dual-axis MEMS mirror was chosen to replace two single-axis galvanometer mirrors; as a result, the astigmatism caused by the mismatch between the optical pupil and the scanning location was eliminated and a 12x reduction in volume of the scanning system was achieved. Imaging at an invariant resolution of 2 μm was demonstrated throughout a volume of 1 × 1 × 0.6 mm3, acquired in less than 2 minutes. The MEMS-based scanner resulted in improved image quality, increased robustness and lighter weight of the system - all factors that are critical for on-field deployment. A custom integrated feedback system consisting of a laser diode and a position-sensing detector was developed to investigate the impact of the resonant frequency of the MEMS and the driving signal of the scanner on the movement of the mirror. Results on the metrology of manufactured materials and characterization of tissue samples with GD-OCM are presented.

  8. Renal applications of dual-energy CT.

    Kaza, Ravi K; Platt, Joel F

    2016-06-01

    Dual-energy CT is being increasingly used for abdominal imaging due to its incremental benefit of material characterization without significant increase in radiation dose. Knowledge of the different dual-energy CT acquisition techniques and image processing algorithms is essential to optimize imaging protocols and understand potential limitations while using dual-energy CT renal imaging such as urinary calculi characterization, assessment of renal masses and in CT urography. This review article provides an overview of the current dual-energy CT techniques and use of dual-energy CT in renal imaging. PMID:27010938

  9. Continuous-energy eigenvalue sensitivity coefficient calculations in TSUNAMI-3D

    Perfetti, C. M.; Rearden, B. T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6170 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Two methods for calculating eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients in continuous-energy Monte Carlo applications were implemented in the KENO code within the SCALE code package. The methods were used to calculate sensitivity coefficients for several test problems and produced sensitivity coefficients that agreed well with both reference sensitivities and multigroup TSUNAMI-3D sensitivity coefficients. The newly developed CLUTCH method was observed to produce sensitivity coefficients with high figures of merit and a low memory footprint, and both continuous-energy sensitivity methods met or exceeded the accuracy of the multigroup TSUNAMI-3D calculations. (authors)

  10. 3D dual-confined sulfur encapsulated in porous carbon nanosheets and wrapped with graphene aerogels as a cathode for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    Hou, Yang; Li, Jianyang; Gao, Xianfeng; Wen, Zhenhai; Yuan, Chris; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-01

    Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior electrochemical performance, including a large reversible capacity of 1328 mA h g-1 in the first cycle, excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 647 mA h g-1 at 0.2 C after 300 cycles) with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency, and a high rate capability of 512 mA h g-1 at 8 C for 30 cycles, which is among the best reported rate capabilities.Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior

  11. 3D van der Waals $\\sigma$-model and topological excitations with logarithmic energy

    Bulgadaev, S A

    1999-01-01

    The 3D vector van der Waals (or conformal) nonlinear sigma-model is proposed. It is shown that it has the "hedgehog"-like topological excitations with logarithmic energy. Their "neutral" configurations have nontrivial topological structures described by Hopf invariant. A possible influence of these excitations on the properties of the model are discussed.

  12. Implementing a 3D histogram version of the Energy-Test in ROOT

    Cohen, E. O.; Reid, I. D.; Piasetzky, E.

    2016-08-01

    Comparing simulation and data histograms is of interest in nuclear and particle physics experiments; however, the leading three-dimensional histogram comparison tool available in ROOT, the 3D Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, exhibits shortcomings. Throughout the following, we present and discuss the implementation of an alternative comparison test for three-dimensional histograms, based on the Energy-Test by Aslan and Zech.

  13. Freestanding nanocellulose-composite fibre reinforced 3D polypyrrole electrodes for energy storage applications

    Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Zhang, Peng; Huo, Jinxing; Ericson, Fredric; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2014-10-01

    It is demonstrated that 3D nanostructured polypyrrole (3D PPy) nanocomposites can be reinforced with PPy covered nanocellulose (PPy@nanocellulose) fibres to yield freestanding, mechanically strong and porosity optimised electrodes with large surface areas. Such PPy@nanocellulose reinforced 3D PPy materials can be employed as free-standing paper-like electrodes in symmetric energy storage devices exhibiting cell capacitances of 46 F g-1, corresponding to specific electrode capacitances of up to ~185 F g-1 based on the weight of the electrode, and 5.5 F cm-2 at a current density of 2 mA cm-2. After 3000 charge/discharge cycles at 30 mA cm-2, the reinforced 3D PPy electrode material also showed a cell capacitance corresponding to 92% of that initially obtained. The present findings open up new possibilities for the fabrication of high performance, low-cost and environmentally friendly energy-storage devices based on nanostructured paper-like materials.It is demonstrated that 3D nanostructured polypyrrole (3D PPy) nanocomposites can be reinforced with PPy covered nanocellulose (PPy@nanocellulose) fibres to yield freestanding, mechanically strong and porosity optimised electrodes with large surface areas. Such PPy@nanocellulose reinforced 3D PPy materials can be employed as free-standing paper-like electrodes in symmetric energy storage devices exhibiting cell capacitances of 46 F g-1, corresponding to specific electrode capacitances of up to ~185 F g-1 based on the weight of the electrode, and 5.5 F cm-2 at a current density of 2 mA cm-2. After 3000 charge/discharge cycles at 30 mA cm-2, the reinforced 3D PPy electrode material also showed a cell capacitance corresponding to 92% of that initially obtained. The present findings open up new possibilities for the fabrication of high performance, low-cost and environmentally friendly energy-storage devices based on nanostructured paper-like materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c

  14. Facile 3D Metal Electrode Fabrication for Energy Applications via Inkjet Printing and Shape Memory Polymer

    This paper reports on a simple 3D metal electrode fabrication technique via inkjet printing onto a thermally contracting shape memory polymer (SMP) substrate. Inkjet printing allows for the direct patterning of structures from metal nanoparticle bearing liquid inks. After deposition, these inks require thermal curing steps to render a stable conductive film. By printing onto a SMP substrate, the metal nanoparticle ink can be cured and substrate shrunk simultaneously to create 3D metal microstructures, forming a large surface area topology well suited for energy applications. Polystyrene SMP shrinkage was characterized in a laboratory oven from 150-240°C, resulting in a size reduction of 1.97-2.58. Silver nanoparticle ink was patterned into electrodes, shrunk, and the topology characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Zinc-Silver Oxide microbatteries were fabricated to demonstrate the 3D electrodes compared to planar references. Characterization was performed using 10M potassium hydroxide electrolyte solution doped with zinc oxide (57g/L). After a 300s oxidation at 3Vdc, the 3D electrode battery demonstrated a 125% increased capacity over the reference cell. Reference cells degraded with longer oxidations, but the 3D electrodes were fully oxidized for 4 hours, and exhibited a capacity of 5.5mA-hr/cm2 with stable metal performance

  15. Facile 3D Metal Electrode Fabrication for Energy Applications via Inkjet Printing and Shape Memory Polymer

    Roberts, R. C.; Wu, J.; Hau, N. Y.; Chang, Y. H.; Feng, S. P.; Li, D. C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a simple 3D metal electrode fabrication technique via inkjet printing onto a thermally contracting shape memory polymer (SMP) substrate. Inkjet printing allows for the direct patterning of structures from metal nanoparticle bearing liquid inks. After deposition, these inks require thermal curing steps to render a stable conductive film. By printing onto a SMP substrate, the metal nanoparticle ink can be cured and substrate shrunk simultaneously to create 3D metal microstructures, forming a large surface area topology well suited for energy applications. Polystyrene SMP shrinkage was characterized in a laboratory oven from 150-240°C, resulting in a size reduction of 1.97-2.58. Silver nanoparticle ink was patterned into electrodes, shrunk, and the topology characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Zinc-Silver Oxide microbatteries were fabricated to demonstrate the 3D electrodes compared to planar references. Characterization was performed using 10M potassium hydroxide electrolyte solution doped with zinc oxide (57g/L). After a 300s oxidation at 3Vdc, the 3D electrode battery demonstrated a 125% increased capacity over the reference cell. Reference cells degraded with longer oxidations, but the 3D electrodes were fully oxidized for 4 hours, and exhibited a capacity of 5.5mA-hr/cm2 with stable metal performance.

  16. On the energy landscape of 3D spin Hamiltonians with topological order

    Bravyi, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We explore feasibility of a quantum self-correcting memory based on 3D spin Hamiltonians with topological quantum order in which thermal diffusion of topological defects is suppressed by macroscopic energy barriers. To this end we characterize the energy landscape of stabilizer code Hamiltonians with local bounded-strength interactions which have a topologically ordered ground state but do not have string-like logical operators. We prove that any sequence of local errors mapping a ground state of such Hamiltonian to an orthogonal ground state must cross an energy barrier growing at least as a logarithm of the lattice size. Our bound on the energy barrier is shown to be tight up to a constant factor for one particular 3D spin Hamiltonian.

  17. 3D printed elastic honeycombs with graded density for tailorable energy absorption

    Bates, Simon R. G.; Farrow, Ian R.; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the development and experimental analysis of hyperelastic honeycombs with graded densities, for the purpose of energy absorption. Hexagonal arrays are manufactured from thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing and the density graded by varying cell wall thickness though the structures. Manufactured samples are subject to static compression tests and their energy absorbing potential analysed via the formation of energy absorption diagrams. It is shown that by grading the density through the structure, the energy absorption profile of these structures can be manipulated such that a wide range of compression energies can be efficiently absorbed.

  18. 3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.

  19. Energy Efficient Run-Time Incremental Mapping for 3-D Networks-on-Chip

    Xiao-Hang Wang; Peng Liu; Mei Yang; Maurizio Palesi; Ying-Tao Jiang; Michael C Huang

    2013-01-01

    3-D Networks-on-Chip (NoC) emerge as a potent solution to address both the interconnection and design complexity problems facing future Multiprocessor System-on-Chips (MPSoCs).Effective run-time mapping on such 3-D NoC-based MPSoCs can be quite challenging,as the arrival order and task graphs of the target applications are typically not known a priori,which can be further complicated by stringent energy requirements for NoC systems.This paper thus presents an energy-aware run-time incremental mapping algorithm (ERIM) for 3-D NoC which can minimize the energy consumption due to the data communications among processor cores,while reducing the fragmentation effect on the incoming applications to be mapped,and simultaneously satisfying the thermal constraints imposed on each incoming application.Specifically,incoming applications are mapped to cuboid tile regions for lower energy consumption of communication and the minimal routing.Fragment tiles due to system fragmentation can be gleaned for better resource utilization.Extensive experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm ERIM,and the results are compared against the optimal mapping algorithm (branch-and-bound) and two heuristic algorithms (TB and TL).The experiments show that ERIM outperforms TB and TL methods with significant energy saving (more than 10%),much reduced average response time,and improved system utilization.

  20. Threshold selection, mitosis and dual mutation in cooperative co-evolution: application to medical 3d tomography

    Vidal, Franck; Lutton, Evelyne; Louchet, Jean; Rocchisani, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    We present and analyse the behaviour of specialised operators designed for cooperative coevolution strategy in the framework of 3D tomographic PET reconstruction. The basis is a simple cooperative co-evolution scheme (the "fly algorithm"), which embeds the searched solution in the whole population, letting each individual be only a part of the solution. An individual, or fly, is a 3D point that emits positrons. Using a cooperative co-evolution scheme to optimize the position of positrons, the...

  1. New developments for 3D CT at high X-ray energy

    CT is well suited both for measurements and for flaw detection in cast metal products which as a rule have a complex shape and internal caverns. Currently available tomographs for 3D scanning of large objects still have shortcomings. Line detectors - normally operated with a 450 kV X-ray source - are slow. Systems with detector panels normally have 225 kV microfocus tubes which provide insufficient power. The microfocus tube cannot be replaced by a 450 kV tube as scattered radiation at higher energies will considerably reduce the image quality of the tomograms. In the context of European research projects during the past few years, Empa developed new methods for faster data acquisition with line detector systems and correction of scattered radiation for CT with conical beams and with panel detectors. The contribution outlines the state of the art and also presents new trends, especially for fast 3D volume scanning with high X-ray energy

  2. 3D-printing of Redox flow batteries for energy storage: a rapid prototype laboratory cell

    Arenas-Martinez, L.F.; Walsh, F.C.; Ponce de Leon, C.

    2015-01-01

    Although interest in redox flow batteries (RFBs) for energy storage has grown over the last few years, implementation of RFB technology has been slow and challenging. Recent developments in 3D-printing of materials enable a transforming technology for fast, reproducible and documented cell manufacture. This technology can give an improved engineering approach to cell design and fabrication, needed to fulfil requirements for lower cost, longer lifetime hardware capable of efficient reliable pe...

  3. A GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage in northern Germany

    Nolde, Michael; Malte, Schwanebeck; Ehsan, Biniyaz; Rainer, Duttmann

    2015-04-01

    We would like to present the concept and current state of development of a GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The presented information system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt domes and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, powerline arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the process of pre-selecting sites suitable for energy storage. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. While the process of pre-selection itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, so that it can easily be utilized in any web browser. The results are visualized online as interactive 3d graphics. The information system is implemented in the Python programming language in combination with current Web standards, and is build using only free and open source software. It is being developed at Kiel University as part of the ANGUS+ project (lead by Prof. Sebastian Bauer) for the federal state of

  4. Collisional energy transfer in Na(4p--3d)--He,H2 collisions

    We have investigated the direct collisional energy transfer process Na*(4p)+M→Na*(3d)+M, where M=He,H2 under gas cell conditions. We have measured the temporal profiles of the Na(3d--3p) sensitized fluorescence as a function of quenching gas pressure and fit the profiles to a two-state rate equation model to obtain the quenching rate coefficients from the Na*(4p) state. The total energy transfer rate coefficient out of the 4p state for He is small [(0.5±0.2)x10-10 cm3/s]. The total quenching rate coefficient out of the 4p state is much larger for H2[(3.9±0.5)x10-10 cm3/s]. Evidence suggests that the energy transfer rate coefficient for the 4p--3d process is ∼2.0x10-10 cm3/s with the remainder of the 4p quenching being predominantly reactive. We also compare the far-red wing absorption line shapes for the NaHe and NaH2 systems

  5. SCALE 6.2 Continuous-Energy TSUNAMI-3D Capabilities

    Perfetti, Christopher M [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The TSUNAMI (Tools for Sensitivity and UNcertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation) capabilities within the SCALE code system make use of sensitivity coefficients for an extensive number of criticality safety applications, such as quantifying the data-induced uncertainty in the eigenvalue of critical systems, assessing the neutronic similarity between different systems, quantifying computational biases, and guiding nuclear data adjustment studies. The need to model geometrically complex systems with improved ease of use and fidelity and the desire to extend TSUNAMI analysis to advanced applications have motivated the development of a SCALE 6.2 module for calculating sensitivity coefficients using three-dimensional (3D) continuous-energy (CE) Monte Carlo methods: CE TSUNAMI-3D. This paper provides an overview of the theory, implementation, and capabilities of the CE TSUNAMI-3D sensitivity analysis methods. CE TSUNAMI contains two methods for calculating sensitivity coefficients in eigenvalue sensitivity applications: (1) the Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) method and (2) the Contributon-Linked eigenvalue sensitivity/Uncertainty estimation via Track length importance CHaracterization (CLUTCH) method. This work also presents the GEneralized Adjoint Response in Monte Carlo method (GEAR-MC), a first-of-its-kind approach for calculating adjoint-weighted, generalized response sensitivity coefficients—such as flux responses or reaction rate ratios—in CE Monte Carlo applications. The accuracy and efficiency of the CE TSUNAMI-3D eigenvalue sensitivity methods are assessed from a user perspective in a companion publication, and the accuracy and features of the CE TSUNAMI-3D GEAR-MC methods are detailed in this paper.

  6. 3D asynchronous particle tracking in single and dual continuum matrix-fractures. Application to nuclear waste storage; Modelisation 3D du transport particulaire asynchrone en simple et double continuum matrice-fractures: application au stockage de dechets nucleaires

    Lam, M.Ph

    2008-06-15

    This PhD research was conducted as a collaboration between Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement (LNHE) from EDF R and D and the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT) in the frame of a CIFRE contract. This PhD thesis aims at providing LNHE a reliable numerical model to study the feasibility of a nuclear waste storage in deep geological structures. The main focus of the thesis is put on developing and implementing a Random Walk Particle Method (RWPM) to model contaminant transport in 3D heterogeneous and fractured porous media. In its first part, the report presents the Lagrangian particle tracking method used to model transport in heterogeneous media with a direct high resolution approach. The solute plume is discretized into concentration packets: particles. The model tracks each particle based on a time-explicit displacement algorithm according to an advective component and a diffusive random component. The method is implemented on a hydraulic model discretized on a 3D unstructured tetrahedral finite element mesh. We focus on techniques to overcome problems due to the discontinuous transport parameters and the unstructured mesh. First, we introduce an asynchronous time-stepping approach to deal with the numerical and overshoot errors that occur with conventional RWPM. Then, a filtering method is applied to smooth discontinuous transport parameters (pre-processing). Finally, once the particle displacements are computed, we propose several filtering and sampling methods to obtain concentrations from particle positions (post-processing). Applications of these methods are presented with cases of tracer advection-dispersion in homogeneous and heterogeneous media. For dense fracture networks, direct high resolution methods are very time consuming and need a lot of computational resources. So, as an alternative to the discrete approach, a dual-continuum representation is used, in the second part of the report, to describe the porous

  7. A 3D City Model Used as User-interface for an Energy-system

    Kjems, Erik

    2011-01-01

    At CUPUM 2009 the project “Object Oriented Visualization of Urban Energy Consumption” was presented, explaining the technology behind the visualization of an energy-model connected to a 3D city model. This paper presents the subsequent work involving the final design, the user involvement and the...... visualization, could handle a lot more input parameters, only 6 different but important ones where implemented and could be adjusted. The assumption was that the handling of too many parameters would confuse more then benefit the user....

  8. CONTINUOUS-ENERGY MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR CALCULATING GENERALIZED RESPONSE SENSITIVITIES USING TSUNAMI-3D

    Perfetti, Christopher M [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This work introduces a new approach for calculating sensitivity coefficients for generalized neutronic responses to nuclear data uncertainties using continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods. The approach presented in this paper, known as the GEAR-MC method, allows for the calculation of generalized sensitivity coefficients for multiple responses in a single Monte Carlo calculation with no nuclear data perturbations or knowledge of nuclear covariance data. The theory behind the GEAR-MC method is presented here, and proof of principle is demonstrated by using the GEAR-MC method to calculate sensitivity coefficients for responses in several 3D, continuous-energy Monte Carlo applications.

  9. Continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods for calculating generalized response sensitivities using TSUNAMI-3D

    This work introduces a new approach for calculating the sensitivity of generalized neutronic responses to nuclear data uncertainties using continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods. The GEneralized Adjoint Responses in Monte Carlo (GEAR-MC) method has enabled the calculation of high resolution sensitivity coefficients for multiple, generalized neutronic responses in a single Monte Carlo calculation with no nuclear data perturbations or knowledge of nuclear covariance data. The theory behind the GEAR-MC method is presented here and proof of principle is demonstrated by calculating sensitivity coefficients for responses in several 3D, continuous-energy Monte Carlo applications. (author)

  10. Phase-field modeling for 3D grain growth based on a grain boundary energy database

    A 3D phase-field model for grain growth combined with a grain boundary (GB) energy database is proposed. The phase-field model is applied to a grain growth simulation of polycrystalline bcc Fe to investigate the effect of anisotropic GB energy on the microstructural evolution and its kinetics. It is found that the anisotropy in the GB energy results in different microstructures and slower kinetics, especially when the portion of low-angle, low-energy GBs is large. We discuss the applicability of the proposed phase-field simulation technique, based on the GB or interfacial energy database to simulations for microstructural evolution, including abnormal grain growth, phase transformations, etc., in a wider range of polycrystalline materials. (paper)

  11. Implementation of a new interfacial mass and energy transfer model in RETRAN-3D

    The RETRAN-3D MOD002.0 best estimate code includes a five-equation flow field model developed to deal with situations in which thermodynamic non-equilibrium phenomena are important. Several applications of this model to depressurization and pressurization transients showed serious convergence problems. An analysis of the causes for the numerical instabilities identified the models for interfacial heat and mass transfer as the source of the problems. A new interfacial mass and energy transfer model has thus been developed and implemented in RETRAN-3D. The heat transfer for each phase is equal to the product of the interfacial area density, a heat transfer coefficient and the temperature difference between the interface at saturation and the bulk temperature of the respective phase. However, in the context of RETRAN-3D, the vapor remains saturated in a two-phase volume, and no vapor heat transfer is thus calculated. The values of interfacial area density and heat transfer coefficient are obtained based on correlations appropriate for different flow regimes. A flow regime map, based on the work of Taitel and Dukler, with void fraction and mixture mass flux as map coordinates, is used to identify the flow regime present in a given volume. The new model has performed well when assessed against data from four experimental facilities covering depressurization, condensation and steady state void distribution. The results also demonstrate the viability of the approach followed to develop the new model for a five-equation based code. (author)

  12. Feasibility and evaluation of dual-source transmit 3D imaging of the orbits: Comparison to high-resolution conventional MRI at 3T

    Highlights: • Reduced FOV imaging enables a 3D approach for a very fast assessment of the orbits. • Conventional MRI exhibited higher eSNR values and consecutively higher scores for overall image quality in the subjective readers’ analysis. • All pathologies could be detected compared to high-resolution conventional MRI making 3D pTX SPACE to a potential alternative and fast imaging technique. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of orbital MR images obtained by using a dual-source parallel transmission (pTX) 3D sequence (Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrasts using different flip angle Evolution, SPACE) with the image quality of conventional high-resolution standard protocol for clinical use in patients at 3T. Materials and methods: After obtaining institutional review board approval and patient consent, 32 patients with clinical indication for orbital MRI were examined using a high-resolution conventional sequences and 3D pTX SPACE sequences. Quantitative measurements, image quality of the healthy orbit, incidence of artifacts, and the subjective diagnostic performance to establish diagnosis was rated. Statistical significance was calculated by using a Student's t-test and nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Length measurements were comparable in the two techniques, 3D pTX SPACE resulted in significant faster image acquisition with higher spatial resolution and less motion artifacts as well as better delineation of the optic nerve sheath. However, estimated contrast-to-noise and signal-to-noise and overall image quality as well as subjective scores of the conventional TSE imaging were rated significantly higher. The conventional MR sequences were the preferred techniques by the readers. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of 3D pTX SPACE of the orbit resulting in a rapid acquisition of isotropic high-resolution images. Although no pathology was

  13. Feasibility and evaluation of dual-source transmit 3D imaging of the orbits: Comparison to high-resolution conventional MRI at 3T

    Seeger, Achim, E-mail: achim.seeger@gmx.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Schulze, Maximilian, E-mail: maximilian.schulze@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Schuettauf, Frank, E-mail: fschuettauf@uni-tuebingen.de [University Eye Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Schleichstrasse 12, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Klose, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.klose@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Ernemann, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.ernemann@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Hauser, Till-Karsten, E-mail: till-karsten.hauser@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Reduced FOV imaging enables a 3D approach for a very fast assessment of the orbits. • Conventional MRI exhibited higher eSNR values and consecutively higher scores for overall image quality in the subjective readers’ analysis. • All pathologies could be detected compared to high-resolution conventional MRI making 3D pTX SPACE to a potential alternative and fast imaging technique. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of orbital MR images obtained by using a dual-source parallel transmission (pTX) 3D sequence (Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrasts using different flip angle Evolution, SPACE) with the image quality of conventional high-resolution standard protocol for clinical use in patients at 3T. Materials and methods: After obtaining institutional review board approval and patient consent, 32 patients with clinical indication for orbital MRI were examined using a high-resolution conventional sequences and 3D pTX SPACE sequences. Quantitative measurements, image quality of the healthy orbit, incidence of artifacts, and the subjective diagnostic performance to establish diagnosis was rated. Statistical significance was calculated by using a Student's t-test and nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Length measurements were comparable in the two techniques, 3D pTX SPACE resulted in significant faster image acquisition with higher spatial resolution and less motion artifacts as well as better delineation of the optic nerve sheath. However, estimated contrast-to-noise and signal-to-noise and overall image quality as well as subjective scores of the conventional TSE imaging were rated significantly higher. The conventional MR sequences were the preferred techniques by the readers. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of 3D pTX SPACE of the orbit resulting in a rapid acquisition of isotropic high-resolution images. Although no pathology was

  14. Deconfinement and universality in the 3D U(1) lattice gauge theory at finite temperature: study in the dual formulation

    Borisenko, Oleg; Gravina, Mario; Papa, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We study analytically and numerically the three-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory at finite temperature in the dual formulation. For an appropriate disorder operator, we obtain the renormalization group equations describing the critical behavior of the model in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition. These equations are used to check the validity of the Svetitsky-Yaffe conjecture regarding the critical behavior of the lattice U(1) model. Furthermore, we perform numerical simulations of the model for $N_t = 1, 2, 4, 8$ and compute, by a cluster algorithm, the dual correlation functions and the corresponding second moment correlation length. In this way we locate the position of the critical point and calculate critical indices.

  15. Energy and critical ionic-bond parameter of a 3D large-radius bipolaron

    A theory of a strong-coupling large-radius bipolaron has been developed. The possibility of the formation of 3D bipolarons in high-temperature superconductors is discussed. For the bipolaron energy, the lowest variational estimate has been obtained at α > 8, where α is the electron-phonon coupling constant. The critical ionic-bond parameter ηc = ε∞/ε0, where ε∞ and ε0 are the high-frequency and static dielectric constants, has been found to be ηc = 0.2496.

  16. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  17. Evaluation of planar 3D electrical capacitance tomography: from single-plane to dual-plane configuration

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is sensitive to the dielectric permittivity property of an object. Conventional ECT systems have a circular/cylindrical or rectangular geometry, in which the electrode plates are usually spaced equally around the tank. It is the most common configuration as it can be easily applied to industrial pipelines. However, under some circumstances, the full access to the imaging geometry may not be applicable due to the limitation of the process area. In those cases, and with limited access, planar ECT sensors can fit the process structure if access to only one side is possible. A single-plane ECT configuration has been proposed for such applications. However, the planar array often suffers from a lack of sensitivity and difficulty with depth detection. To better understand these limitations we investigate the imaging performance from the single-plane ECT to dual-plane ECT structure. The limitations and constraints of the planar configuration will also be discussed. Several experiments were conducted using both single-plane and dual-plane configurations to evaluate the potential applications. The initial results are promising, and the quality of the reconstructed images are compared with the real condition for process validation. (paper)

  18. High-energy particle transport in 3D hydrodynamic models of colliding-wind binaries

    Reitberger, K; Reimer, A; Dubus, G; Reimer, O

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars in binary systems (as WR140, WR147 or $\\eta$ Carinae) have long been regarded as potential sources of high-energy $\\gamma$-rays. The emission is thought to arise in the region where the stellar winds collide and produce relativistic particles which subsequently might be able to emit $\\gamma$-rays. Detailed numerical hydrodynamic simulations have already offered insight in the complex dynamics of the wind collision region (WCR), while independent analytical studies, albeit with simplified descriptions of the WCR, have shed light on the spectra of charged particles. In this paper, we describe a combination of these two approaches. We present a 3D-hydrodynamical model for colliding stellar winds and compute spectral energy distributions of relativistic particles for the resulting structure of the WCR. The hydrodynamic part of our model incorporates the line-driven acceleration of the winds, gravity, orbital motion and the radiative cooling of the shocked plasma. In our treatment of charged particle...

  19. Small molecule hydration energy and entropy from 3D-RISM.

    Johnson, J; Case, D A; Yamazaki, T; Gusarov, S; Kovalenko, A; Luchko, T

    2016-09-01

    Implicit solvent models offer an attractive way to estimate the effects of a solvent environment on the properties of small or large solutes without the complications of explicit simulations. One common test of accuracy is to compute the free energy of transfer from gas to liquid for a variety of small molecules, since many of these values have been measured. Studies of the temperature dependence of these values (i.e. solvation enthalpies and entropies) can provide additional insights into the performance of implicit solvent models. Here, we show how to compute temperature derivatives of hydration free energies for the 3D-RISM integral equation approach. We have computed hydration free energies of 1123 small drug-like molecules (both neutral and charged). Temperature derivatives were also used to calculate hydration energies and entropies of 74 of these molecules (both neutral and charged) for which experimental data is available. While direct results have rather poor agreement with experiment, we have found that several previously proposed linear hydration free energy correction schemes give good agreement with experiment. These corrections also provide good agreement for hydration energies and entropies though simple extensions are required in some cases. PMID:27367817

  20. 3D finite element simulation of effects of deflection rate on energy absorption for TRIP steel

    Hayashi, Asuka; Pham, Hang; Iwamoto, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, with the requirement of lighter weight and more safety for a design of automobile, energy absorption capability of structural materials has become important. TRIP (Transformation-induced Plasticity) steel is expected to apply to safety members because of excellent energy absorption capability and ductility. Past studies proved that such excellent characteristics in TRIP steel are dominated by strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during plastic deformation. Because SIMT strongly depends on deformation rate and temperature, an investigation of the effects of deformation rate and temperature on energy absorption in TRIP is essential. Although energy absorption capability of material can be estimated by J-integral experimentally by using pre-cracked specimen, it is difficult to determine volume fraction of martensite and temperature rise during the crack extension. In addition, their effects on J-integral, especially at high deformation rate in experiment might be quite hard. Thus, a computational prediction needs to be performed. In this study, bending deformation behavior of pre-cracked specimen until the onset point of crack extension are predicted by 3D finite element simulation based on the transformation kinetics model proposed by Iwamoto et al. (1998). It is challenged to take effects of temperature, volume fraction of martensite and deformation rate into account. Then, the mechanism for higher energy absorption characteristic will be discussed.

  1. Estimation of Optimized Energy and Latency Constraint for Task Allocation in 3d Network on Chip

    Vaibhav Jha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Network on Chip (NoC rooted system, energy consumption is affected by task scheduling and allocation schemes which affect the performance of the system. In this paper we test the pre - existing proposed algorithms and introduced a new energy skilled algorithm for 3D NoC architecture. An efficient dynamic and cluster approaches are proposed along with the optimizat ion using bio - inspired algorithm . The proposed algorithm has been implemented and evaluated on randomly generated benchmark and real life application such as MMS, Telecom and VOPD. The algorithm has also been tested with the E3S benchmark and has been comp ared with the existing mapping algorithm spiral and crinkle and has shown better reduction in the communication energy consumption and shows improvement in the performance of the system. On performing experimental analysis of proposed algorithm results sho ws that average reduction in energy consumption is 49%, reduction in communication cost is 48% and average latency is 34%. Cluster based approach is mapped onto NoC using Dynamic Diagonal Mapping ( D D Map, Crinkle and Spiral algorithms and found D D map provide s improved result. On analysis and comparison of mapping of cluster using DDmap approach the average energy reduction is 14% and 9% with crinkle and spiral

  2. Building Analysis for Urban Energy Planning Using Key Indicators on Virtual 3d City Models - the Energy Atlas of Berlin

    Krüger, A.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    In the context of increasing greenhouse gas emission and global demographic change with the simultaneous trend to urbanization, it is a big challenge for cities around the world to perform modifications in energy supply chain and building characteristics resulting in reduced energy consumption and carbon dioxide mitigation. Sound knowledge of energy resource demand and supply including its spatial distribution within urban areas is of great importance for planning strategies addressing greater energy efficiency. The understanding of the city as a complex energy system affects several areas of the urban living, e.g. energy supply, urban texture, human lifestyle, and climate protection. With the growing availability of 3D city models around the world based on the standard language and format CityGML, energy system modelling, analysis and simulation can be incorporated into these models. Both domains will profit from that interaction by bringing together official and accurate building models including building geometries, semantics and locations forming a realistic image of the urban structure with systemic energy simulation models. A holistic view on the impacts of energy planning scenarios can be modelled and analyzed including side effects on urban texture and human lifestyle. This paper focuses on the identification, classification, and integration of energy-related key indicators of buildings and neighbourhoods within 3D building models. Consequent application of 3D city models conforming to CityGML serves the purpose of deriving indicators for this topic. These will be set into the context of urban energy planning within the Energy Atlas Berlin. The generation of indicator objects covering the indicator values and related processing information will be presented on the sample scenario estimation of heating energy consumption in buildings and neighbourhoods. In their entirety the key indicators will form an adequate image of the local energy situation for

  3. Coronal energy input and dissipation in a solar active region 3D MHD model

    Bourdin, Philippe-A; Peter, Hardi

    2015-01-01

    Context. We have conducted a 3D MHD simulation of the solar corona above an active region in full scale and high resolution, which shows coronal loops, and plasma flows within them, similar to observations. Aims. We want to find the connection between the photospheric energy input by field-line braiding with the coronal energy conversion by Ohmic dissipation of induced currents. Methods. To this end we compare the coronal energy input and dissipation within our simulation domain above different fields of view, e.g. for a small loops system in the active region (AR) core. We also choose an ensemble of field lines to compare, e.g., the magnetic energy input to the heating per particle along these field lines. Results. We find an enhanced Ohmic dissipation of currents in the corona above areas that also have enhanced upwards-directed Poynting flux. These regions coincide with the regions where hot coronal loops within the AR core are observed. The coronal density plays a role in estimating the coronal temperatur...

  4. Mono or 3D video production for scientific dissemination of nuclear energy applications

    This work presents results of educational videos development, mono or stereo, for scientific dissemination of nuclear energy applications. Nuclear energy span through many important applications for the society, ranging from electrical power generation to nuclear medicine, among others. Thus, the purpose is to disseminate this information for the general public and specially for students. Educational videos consist in a good approach for this purpose, due to the involvement of the public they provide, more than simply text or oral exposition, or even static images presentation. Stereo videos result in even more involvement of the public, besides immersion, the later due to the realism 3D views provide. The video developed in this work deals with explanations of electrical power generation, including nuclear reactor operation, shows the percentage of nuclear source as power generation all over the world, and explains also nuclear energy application in medicine. It is expected all these characteristics provided by the use of video or virtual reality techniques will achieve the purpose of disseminating such important information, regarding the benefits of nuclear energy to the society. (author)

  5. Mono or 3D video production for scientific dissemination of nuclear energy applications

    Freitas, Victor Goncalves G.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Biermann, Bruna; Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F., E-mail: mol@ien.gov.b, E-mail: vgoncalves@ien.gov.b, E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Araujo, Tawein [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Belas Artes; Legey, Ana Paula [Universidade Gama Filho (UGF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents results of educational videos development, mono or stereo, for scientific dissemination of nuclear energy applications. Nuclear energy span through many important applications for the society, ranging from electrical power generation to nuclear medicine, among others. Thus, the purpose is to disseminate this information for the general public and specially for students. Educational videos consist in a good approach for this purpose, due to the involvement of the public they provide, more than simply text or oral exposition, or even static images presentation. Stereo videos result in even more involvement of the public, besides immersion, the later due to the realism 3D views provide. The video developed in this work deals with explanations of electrical power generation, including nuclear reactor operation, shows the percentage of nuclear source as power generation all over the world, and explains also nuclear energy application in medicine. It is expected all these characteristics provided by the use of video or virtual reality techniques will achieve the purpose of disseminating such important information, regarding the benefits of nuclear energy to the society. (author)

  6. Simultaneous acquisition of 13Cα–15N and 1H–15N–15N sequential correlations in proteins: application of dual receivers in 3D HNN

    We describe here, adaptation of the HNN pulse sequence for multiple nuclei detection using two independent receivers by utilizing the detectable 13Cα transverse magnetization which was otherwise dephased out in the conventional HNN experiment. It enables acquisition of 2D 13Cα–15N sequential correlations along with the standard 3D 15N–15N–1H correlations, which provides directionality to sequential walk in HNN, on one hand, and enhances the speed of backbone assignment, on the other. We foresee that the implementation of dual direct detection opens up new avenues for a wide variety of modifications that would further enhance the value and applications of the experiment, and enable derivation of hitherto impossible information.

  7. A 3D nodal mixed dual method for nuclear reactor kinetics with improved quasistatic model and a semi-implicit scheme to solve the precursor equations

    The mixed dual nodal method MINOS is used to solve the reactor kinetics equations with improved quasistatic IQS model and the θ method is used to solve the precursor equations. The speed of calculation which is the main advantage of the MINOS method and the possibility to use the large time step for shape flux calculation permitted by the IQS method, allow us to reduce considerably the computing time. The IQS/MINOS method is implemented in CRONOS 3D reactor code. Numerical tests on different transient benchmarks show that the results obtained with the IQS/MINOS method and the direct numerical method used to solve the kinetics equations, are very close and the total computing time is largely reduced

  8. Efficient combination of a 3D Quasi-Newton inversion algorithm and a vector dual-primal finite element tearing and interconnecting method

    Voznyuk, I.; Litman, A.; Tortel, H.

    2015-08-01

    A Quasi-Newton method for reconstructing the constitutive parameters of three-dimensional (3D) penetrable scatterers from scattered field measurements is presented. This method is adapted for handling large-scale electromagnetic problems while keeping the memory requirement and the time flexibility as low as possible. The forward scattering problem is solved by applying the finite-element tearing and interconnecting full-dual-primal (FETI-FDP2) method which shares the same spirit as the domain decomposition methods for finite element methods. The idea is to split the computational domain into smaller non-overlapping sub-domains in order to simultaneously solve local sub-problems. Various strategies are proposed in order to efficiently couple the inversion algorithm with the FETI-FDP2 method: a separation into permanent and non-permanent subdomains is performed, iterative solvers are favorized for resolving the interface problem and a marching-on-in-anything initial guess selection further accelerates the process. The computational burden is also reduced by applying the adjoint state vector methodology. Finally, the inversion algorithm is confronted to measurements extracted from the 3D Fresnel database.

  9. Integrated canopy, building energy and radiosity model for 3D urban design

    Burdet, Etienne; Morand, Denis; Diab, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    We present an integrated, three dimensional, model of urban canopy, building energy and radiosity, for early stage urban designs and test it on four urban morphologies. All sub-models share a common descriptions of the urban morphology, similar to 3D urban design master plans and have simple parameters. The canopy model is a multilayer model, with a new discrete layer approach that does not rely on simplified geometry such as canyon or regular arrays. The building energy model is a simplified RC equivalent model, with no hypotheses on internal zoning or wall composition. We use the CitySim software for the radiosity model. We study the effects of convexity, the number of buildings and building height, at constant density and thermal characteristics. Our results suggest that careful three dimensional morphology design can reduce heat demand by a factor of 2, especially by improving insolation of lower levels. The most energy efficient morphology in our simulations has both the highest surface/volume ratio and ...

  10. A manufacturing process for an energy storage device using 3D printing

    Tanwilaisiri, A; Zhang, R.; Xu, Y; Harrison, D.; Fyson, J

    2016-01-01

    3D printing has been widely applied in the development of prototypes. The main advantage of this process is that the objects or products can be viewed in three dimensions on a computer display and a 3D sample can be created before committing to a large production run. There are various 3D printing technologies that are capable of manufacturing metal, ceramic, plastic substrate and paste objects. Recently several research groups have focused on the fabrication freedom of 3D printing for differ...

  11. Development and evaluation of a LOR-based image reconstruction with 3D system response modeling for a PET insert with dual-layer offset crystal design

    In this study we present a method of 3D system response calculation for analytical computer simulation and statistical image reconstruction for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible positron emission tomography (PET) insert system that uses a dual-layer offset (DLO) crystal design. The general analytical system response functions (SRFs) for detector geometric and inter-crystal penetration of coincident crystal pairs are derived first. We implemented a 3D ray-tracing algorithm with 4π sampling for calculating the SRFs of coincident pairs of individual DLO crystals. The determination of which detector blocks are intersected by a gamma ray is made by calculating the intersection of the ray with virtual cylinders with radii just inside the inner surface and just outside the outer-edge of each crystal layer of the detector ring. For efficient ray-tracing computation, the detector block and ray to be traced are then rotated so that the crystals are aligned along the X-axis, facilitating calculation of ray/crystal boundary intersection points. This algorithm can be applied to any system geometry using either single-layer (SL) or multi-layer array design with or without offset crystals. For effective data organization, a direct lines of response (LOR)-based indexed histogram-mode method is also presented in this work. SRF calculation is performed on-the-fly in both forward and back projection procedures during each iteration of image reconstruction, with acceleration through use of eight-fold geometric symmetry and multi-threaded parallel computation. To validate the proposed methods, we performed a series of analytical and Monte Carlo computer simulations for different system geometry and detector designs. The full-width-at-half-maximum of the numerical SRFs in both radial and tangential directions are calculated and compared for various system designs. By inspecting the sinograms obtained for different detector geometries, it can be seen that the DLO crystal

  12. Virtual monochromatic imaging in dual-source dual-energy CT: Radiation dose and image quality

    Yu, Lifeng; Christner, Jodie A.; Leng, Shuai; Wang, Jia; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the image quality of virtual monochromatic images synthesized from dual-source dual-energy computed tomography (CT) in comparison with conventional polychromatic single-energy CT for the same radiation dose.

  13. PAF-derived nitrogen-doped 3D Carbon Materials for Efficient Energy Conversion and Storage

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Wang, Dan; Xue, Yuhua; Dai, Liming; Chen, Jian-Feng; Cao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the shortage of the traditional fossil fuels caused by fast consumption, it is an urgent task to develop the renewable and clean energy sources. Thus, advanced technologies for both energy conversion (e.g., solar cells and fuel cells) and storage (e.g., supercapacitors and batteries) are being studied extensively. In this work, we use porous aromatic framework (PAF) as precursor to produce nitrogen-doped 3D carbon materials, i.e., N-PAF-Carbon, by exposing NH3 media. The “graphitic” and “pyridinic” N species, large surface area, and similar pore size as electrolyte ions endow the nitrogen-doped PAF-Carbon with outstanding electronic performance. Our results suggest the N-doping enhance not only the ORR electronic catalysis but also the supercapacitive performance. Actually, the N-PAF-Carbon obtains ~70 mV half-wave potential enhancement and 80% increase as to the limiting current after N doping. Moreover, the N-PAF-Carbon displays free from the CO and methanol crossover effect and better long-term durability compared with the commercial Pt/C benchmark. Moreover, N-PAF-Carbon also possesses large capacitance (385 F g−1) and excellent performance stability without any loss in capacitance after 9000 charge–discharge cycles. These results clearly suggest that PAF-derived N-doped carbon material is promising metal-free ORR catalyst for fuel cells and capacitor electrode materials. PMID:26045229

  14. Dual energy radiography using active detector technology

    A new technology has been implemented using an open-quotes active-detectorclose quotes comprised of two computed radiography (CR) imaging plates in a sandwich geometry for dual-energy radiography. This detector allows excellent energy separation, short exposure time, and high signal to noise ratio (SNR) for clinically robust open-quotes bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images with minimum patient motion. Energy separation is achieved by two separate exposures at widely different kVp's: the high energy (120 kVp + 1.5 mm Cu filter) exposure is initiated first, followed by a short burst of intense light to erase the latent image on the front plate, and then a 50 kVp (low energy) exposure. A personal computer interfaced to the x-ray generator, filter wheel, and active detector system orchestrates the acquisition sequence within a time period of 150 msec. The front and back plates are processed using a CR readout algorithm with fixed speed and wide dynamic range. open-quotes Bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images are calculated by geometric alignment of the two images and application of dual energy decomposition algorithms on a pixel by pixel basis. Resultant images of a calibration phantom demonstrate an increase of SNR2 / dose by ∼73 times when compared to a single exposure open-quotes passive-detectorclose quotes comprised of CR imaging plates, and an ∼8 fold increase compared to a screen-film dual-energy cassette comprised of different phosphor compounds. In conclusion, dual energy imaging with open-quotes active detectorclose quotes technology is clinically feasible and can provide substantial improvements over conventional methods for dual-energy radiography

  15. 3d-4f Metal-Organic Framework with Dual Luminescent Centers That Efficiently Discriminates the Isomer and Homologues of Small Organic Molecules.

    Zeng, Guang; Xing, Shanghua; Wang, Xiuru; Yang, Yulin; Ma, Dingxuan; Liang, Hongwei; Gao, Lu; Hua, Jia; Li, Guanghua; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-02-01

    A 3d-4f luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF), [Tb2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (4), and three analogues {[La2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(C4H8O2)2(H2O)2]·3C4H8O2·2H2O (1), [Ce2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (2), and [Eu2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (3)}, were self-assembled from copper(I) halide clusters and lanthanide metal ions with an organic linker [3-(pyridin-4-yl)benzoic acid] under solvothermal conditions. Compound 4 with high quantum yield (Φ = 68%) exhibits reversible luminescence behavior, accompanying the removal and recovery of guest molecules (1,4-dioxane). Because of the unique porous structure and dual luminescent centers of compound 4, it can efficiently differentiate benzene series with different sizes and provide readouts in corresponding optical signals. Furthermore, it also can unambiguously discriminate the isomers, homologues, and other small molecules with similar structural motifs from one another. The luminescent color of the MOF sensor in different guest solvents has obvious changes that can be clearly distinguished by the naked eye. This multicolor luminescence originates from emissions of the dual luminescent centers, and the emissions have shifted, enhanced, weakened, or quenched to different degrees. PMID:26756250

  16. A Scheme of 3-D Breakdown-whip Analysis Methodology for High Energy Piping

    excessive conservatism. It is thought that more accurate and effective system design is possible by making a combination of fluid transient analysis and 3-D structural analysis. The main purpose of this study is to introduce the procedure and method for analyzing 3-dimensional breakdown-whip of high energy piping. This study also shows some results of analyzing the fluid transient loads at the main steam line of APR1400

  17. Vision-based building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis using 3D thermography and building information modeling

    Ham, Youngjib

    localization issues of 2D thermal image-based inspection, a new computer vision-based method is presented for automated 3D spatio-thermal modeling of building environments from images and localizing the thermal images into the 3D reconstructed scenes, which helps better characterize the as-is condition of existing buildings in 3D. By using these models, auditors can conduct virtual walk-through in buildings and explore the as-is condition of building geometry and the associated thermal conditions in 3D. Second, to address the challenges in qualitative and subjective interpretation of visual data, a new model-based method is presented to convert the 3D thermal profiles of building environments into their associated energy performance metrics. More specifically, the Energy Performance Augmented Reality (EPAR) models are formed which integrate the actual 3D spatio-thermal models ('as-is') with energy performance benchmarks ('as-designed') in 3D. In the EPAR models, the presence and location of potential energy problems in building environments are inferred based on performance deviations. The as-is thermal resistances of the building assemblies are also calculated at the level of mesh vertex in 3D. Then, based on the historical weather data reflecting energy load for space conditioning, the amount of heat transfer that can be saved by improving the as-is thermal resistances of the defective areas to the recommended level is calculated, and the equivalent energy cost for this saving is estimated. The outcome provides building practitioners with unique information that can facilitate energy efficient retrofit decision-makings. This is a major departure from offhand calculations that are based on historical cost data of industry best practices. Finally, to improve the reliability of BIM-based energy performance modeling and analysis for existing buildings, a new model-based automated method is presented to map actual thermal resistance measurements at the level of 3D vertexes to the

  18. Inductively Driven, 3D Liner Compression of a Magnetized Plasma to Megabar Energy Densities

    Slough, John [MSNW LLC, Redmond, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    modules. The additional energy and switching capability proposed will thus provide for optimal utilization of the liner energy. The following tasks were outlined for the three year effort: (1) Design and assemble the foil liner compression test structure and chamber including the compression bank and test foils [Year 1]. (2) Perform foil liner compression experiments and obtain performance data over a range on liner dimensions and bank parameters [Year 2]. (3) Carry out compression experiments of the FRC plasma to Megagauss fields and measure key fusion parameters [Year 3]. (4) Develop numerical codes and analyze experimental results, and determine the physics and scaling for future work [Year 1-3]. The principle task of the project was to design and assemble the foil liner FRC formation chamber, the full compression test structure and chamber including the compression bank. This task was completed successfully. The second task was to test foils in the test facility constructed in year one and characterize the performance obtained from liner compression. These experimental measurements were then compared with analytical predictions, and numerical code results. The liner testing was completed and compared with both the analytical results as well as the code work performed with the 3D structural dynamics package of ANSYS Metaphysics®. This code is capable of modeling the dynamic behavior of materials well into the non-linear regime (e.g. a bullet hit plate glass). The liner dynamic behavior was found to be remarkably close to that predicted by the 3D structural dynamics results. Incorporating a code that can also include the magnetics and plasma physics has also made significant progress at the UW. The remaining test bed construction and assembly task is was completed, and the FRC formation and merging experiments were carried out as planned. The liner compression of the FRC to Megagauss fields was not performed due to not obtaining a sufficiently long lived FRC during the

  19. Orientation gradients and geometrically necessary dislocations in ultrafine grained dual-phase steels studied by 2D and 3D EBSD

    We study orientation gradients and geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) in two ultrafine grained dual-phase steels with different martensite particle size and volume fraction (24 vol.% and 38 vol.%). The steel with higher martensite fraction has a lower elastic limit, a higher yield strength and a higher tensile strength. These effects are attributed to the higher second phase fraction and the inhomogeneous transformation strain accommodation in ferrite. The latter assumption is analyzed using high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). We quantify orientation gradients, pattern quality and GND density variations at ferrite-ferrite and ferrite-martensite interfaces. Using 3D EBSD, additional information is obtained about the effect of grain volume and of martensite distribution on strain accommodation. Two methods are demonstrated to calculate the GND density from the EBSD data based on the kernel average misorientation measure and on the dislocation density tensor, respectively. The overall GND density is shown to increase with increasing total martensite fraction, decreasing grain volume, and increasing martensite fraction in the vicinity of ferrite.

  20. 3D and 1D calculation of hysteresis loops and energy products for anisotropic nanocomposite films with perpendicular anisotropy

    In this paper, the magnetic reversal process, hysteresis loops and energy products for exchange-coupled Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe bilayers are studied systematically by a three-dimensional (3D) model. The 3D calculations are numerically solved using the finite difference method, where the results are carefully compared with those calculated by one-dimensional (1D) model. It is found that the calculated hysteresis loops and energy products based on the two methods are consistent with each other. Both nucleation fields and coercivities decrease monotonically as the soft layer thickness Ls increases. In addition, the calculated spatial distributions of magnetization orientations in the thickness direction at various applied fields based on both methods signify a three-step magnetic reversal process, which are nucleation, growth and displacement of the domain wall. The calculated magnetic orientations within the film plane, however, are totally different according to the two methods. The 3D calculation exhibits a process of vortex formation and annihilation. On the other hand, the 1D calculation gives a quasi-coherent one, where magnetization orientation is coherent in the film plane and varies in the thickness direction. This new reversal mechanism displayed in the film plane has a systematic influence on the nucleation fields, coercivity and energy products. - Highlights: • Consistent hysteresis loops and energy products for 3D and 1D calculation. • Domain wall formation, evolution and displacement perpendicular to the film plane. • Vortex formation, annihilation and better loop squareness in 3D calculation. • Larger nucleation fields, remanence and smaller coercivity in 3D calculation

  1. Segment-interaction in sprint start: Analysis of 3D angular velocity and kinetic energy in elite sprinters

    Slawinski, Jean; BONNEFOY, Alice; ONTANON, Guy; LEVEQUE, Jean-Michel; Miller, Christian; RIQUET, Annie; CHEZE, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure during a sprint start the joint angularv elocity and the kinetic energy of the different segments in elite sprinters.This was performed using a 3D kinematic analysis of the wholebody.

  2. Finite-element discretization of 3D energy-transport equations for semiconductors

    Gadau, Stephan

    2007-07-01

    demonstrated in detail. We compare these new iterations with a standard method that is complemented by a feature to fit in the current context. A further innovation is the computation of solutions in three-dimensional domains, which are still rare. Special attention is paid to applicability of the 3D simulation tools. The programs are designed to have justifiable working complexity. The simulation results of some models of contemporary semiconductor devices are shown and detailed comments on the results are given. Eventually, we make a prospect on future development and enhancements of the models and of the algorithms that we used. (orig.)

  3. State-of-the-art 3-D neutronics analysis methods for fusion energy systems

    Wilson, P.P.H. [Wisconsin-Madison Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Feder, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (United States); Fischer, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (United Kingdom); Petrizzi, L. [ENEA-Frascati (Italy); Wu, Y. [Academy of Sciences (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics; Youssef, M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Recent advances in radiation transport simulation tools enable an increased fidelity and accuracy in modeling complex geometries in fusion systems. Future neutronics calculations for design and analysis will increasingly be based directly on 3-D CAD-based geometries, allowing enhanced model complexity, reduced human effort and improved quality assurance. Improvements have been made in both stochastic and deterministic radiation transport methodologies. To adapt the MCNP stochastic transport software, the translator approach allows CAD geometries to be converted from their native formats into standard input files, while the direct geometry approach uses computer graphics algorithms to perform the radiation transport on the CAD geometry itself. The former takes advantage of the efficiency of the native MCNP software without modifications while the latter permits the modeling of more complex surfaces. The ATTILA radiation transport package uses a finite-element formulation of the discrete-ordinate methodology to provide a deterministic solution on a tetrahedral mesh derived automatically from a CAD-based geometry. All of these tools are being applied to a dedicated benchmark problem consisting of a 40 degree sector of the ITER machine defined only in a CAD-based solid model. The specific benchmark problems exercise the ability to use a CAD-based geometry to solve a range of fusion neutronics problems including neutron wall loading, deep penetration and narrow duct streaming. The results of this exercise will be used to validate/qualify these tools for use on ITER. At the same time, many of these tools are being used to support the design of ITER components and other related fusion systems. UW has provided high-fidelity nuclear analysis of ITER first wall and shield modules identifying local effects of geometric features. ASIPP has used the MCAM tool to update and extend the existing ITER basic model and used it for neutronics analysis of the proposed Chinese ITER

  4. State-of-the-art 3-D neutronics analysis methods for fusion energy systems

    Recent advances in radiation transport simulation tools enable an increased fidelity and accuracy in modeling complex geometries in fusion systems. Future neutronics calculations for design and analysis will increasingly be based directly on 3-D CAD-based geometries, allowing enhanced model complexity, reduced human effort and improved quality assurance. Improvements have been made in both stochastic and deterministic radiation transport methodologies. To adapt the MCNP stochastic transport software, the translator approach allows CAD geometries to be converted from their native formats into standard input files, while the direct geometry approach uses computer graphics algorithms to perform the radiation transport on the CAD geometry itself. The former takes advantage of the efficiency of the native MCNP software without modifications while the latter permits the modeling of more complex surfaces. The ATTILA radiation transport package uses a finite-element formulation of the discrete-ordinate methodology to provide a deterministic solution on a tetrahedral mesh derived automatically from a CAD-based geometry. All of these tools are being applied to a dedicated benchmark problem consisting of a 40 degree sector of the ITER machine defined only in a CAD-based solid model. The specific benchmark problems exercise the ability to use a CAD-based geometry to solve a range of fusion neutronics problems including neutron wall loading, deep penetration and narrow duct streaming. The results of this exercise will be used to validate/qualify these tools for use on ITER. At the same time, many of these tools are being used to support the design of ITER components and other related fusion systems. UW has provided high-fidelity nuclear analysis of ITER first wall and shield modules identifying local effects of geometric features. ASIPP has used the MCAM tool to update and extend the existing ITER basic model and used it for neutronics analysis of the proposed Chinese ITER

  5. Dual energy CTA of the supraaortic arteries: Technical improvements with a novel dual source CT system

    Objectives: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a well-accepted imaging modality to evaluate the supraaortic vessels. Initial reports have suggested that dual energy CTA (DE-CTA) can enhance diagnosis by creating bone-free data sets, which can be visualized in 3D, but a number of limitations of this technique have also been addressed. We sought to describe the performance of DE-CTA of the supraaortic vessels with a novel dual source CT system with special emphasis on image quality and post-processing related artifacts. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients underwent carotid CT angiography on a second generation dual source CT system. Simultaneous acquisitions of 100 and 140 kV data sets in arterial phase were performed. Two examiners evaluated overall bone suppression with a 3-point scale (1 = poor; 3 = excellent) and image quality regarding integrity of the vessel lumen of different vessel segments (n = 26) with a 5-point scale (1 = poor; 5 = excellent), CTA source data served as the reference. Results: Excellent bone suppression could be achieved in the head and neck. Only minor bone remnants occurred, mean score for bone removal was 2.9. Mean score for vessel integrity was 4.3. Eight hundred fifty-seven vessel segments could be evaluated. Six hundred thirty-five segments (74%) showed no lumen alteration, 65 segments (7.6%) lumen alterations 10% resulting in a total luminal reduction 50%, and 113 segments (13.2%) showed a gap in the vessel course (100% total lumen reduction). Artificial gaps of the vessel lumen occurred in 28 vessel segments due to artifacts caused by dental hardware and in all but one (65) ophthalmic arteries. Conclusions: Excellent bone suppression could be achieved, DE imaging with 100 and 140 kV lead to improved image quality and vessel integrity in the shoulder region than previously reported. The ophthalmic artery still cannot be adequately visualized.

  6. The dual sustainability of wind energy

    Welch, Jonathan B.; Venkateswaran, Anand [413 Hayden Hall, College of Business, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Academics, practitioners, and policy makers continue to debate the benefits and costs of alternative sources of energy. Environmental and economic concerns have yet to be fully reconciled. One view is that decisions that incorporate both society's concern with the environment and investors' desire for shareholder value maximization are more likely to be truly sustainable. We coin the term dual sustainability to mean the achievement of environmental and financial sustainability simultaneously. Many experts believe that wind energy can help to meet society's needs without harming future generations. It is clean and renewable. Because the fuel is free it provides the ultimate in energy independence. Wind energy has emerged as a leading prospect, in part, because it is considered by many to be environmentally sustainable. However, a key question that remains is whether wind energy is financially sustainable without the extensive government support that has helped to create and nurture this growth industry. Using reliable, proprietary data from field research, our analysis employs a capital budgeting framework to evaluate the financial economics of investments in wind energy. We find that because of the convergence of improved technology, greater efficiency, and with the increasing cost of traditional, competing sources such as oil and natural gas, wind energy is close to becoming self-sustaining financially without the extensive federal government support that exists today. Wind energy can provide the best of both worlds. It is sustainable from an environmental perspective and it is becoming sustainable financially. In short, those companies investing in wind energy will be able to do well by doing good. Perhaps the achievement of dual sustainability is true sustainability. Our research findings and dual sustainability have several interesting and important implications for public policy towards wind energy. All imply that public policy can now be

  7. Retrieving Leaf Area Index and Foliage Profiles Through Voxelized 3-D Forest Reconstruction Using Terrestrial Full-Waveform and Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidars

    Strahler, A. H.; Yang, X.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Saenz, E.; Paynter, I.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Martel, J.; Howe, G.; Hewawasam, K.; Jupp, D.; Culvenor, D.; Newnham, G.; Lowell, J.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring and monitoring canopy biophysical parameters provide a baseline for carbon flux studies related to deforestation and disturbance in forest ecosystems. Terrestrial full-waveform lidar systems, such as the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI) and its successor Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar (DWEL), offer rapid, accurate, and automated characterization of forest structure. In this study, we apply a methodology based on voxelized 3-D forest reconstructions built from EVI and DWEL scans to directly estimate two important biophysical parameters: Leaf Area Index (LAI) and foliage profile. Gap probability, apparent reflectance, and volume associated with the laser pulse footprint at the observed range are assigned to the foliage scattering events in the reconstructed point cloud. Leaf angle distribution is accommodated with a simple model based on gap probability with zenith angle as observed in individual scans of the stand. The DWEL instrument, which emits simultaneous laser pulses at 1064 nm and 1548 nm wavelengths, provides a better capability to separate trunk and branch hits from foliage hits due to water absorption by leaf cellular contents at 1548 nm band. We generate voxel datasets of foliage points using a classification methodology solely based on pulse shape for scans collected by EVI and with pulse shape and band ratio for scans collected by DWEL. We then compare the LAIs and foliage profiles retrieved from the voxel datasets of the two instruments at the same red fir site in Sierra National Forest, CA, with each other and with observations from airborne and field measurements. This study further tests the voxelization methodology in obtaining LAI and foliage profiles that are largely free of clumping effects and returns from woody materials in the canopy. These retrievals can provide a valuable 'ground-truth' validation data source for large-footprint spaceborne or airborne lidar systems retrievals.

  8. Methodology toward 3D micro X-ray fluorescence imaging using an energy dispersive charge-coupled device detector.

    Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Tack, Pieter; De Samber, Björn; Schmitz, Sylvia; Brenker, Frank E; Falkenberg, Gerald; Vincze, Laszlo

    2014-12-01

    A new three-dimensional (3D) micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) methodology based on a novel 2D energy dispersive CCD detector has been developed and evaluated at the P06 beamline of the Petra-III storage ring (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany. This method is based on the illumination of the investigated sample cross-section by a horizontally focused beam (vertical sheet beam) while fluorescent X-rays are detected perpendicularly to the sheet beam by a 2D energy dispersive (ED) CCD detector allowing the collection of 2D cross-sectional elemental images of a certain depth within the sample, limited only by signal self-absorption effects. 3D elemental information is obtained by a linear scan of the sample in the horizontal direction across the vertically oriented sheet beam and combining the detected cross-sectional images into a 3D elemental distribution data set. Results of the 3D μXRF analysis of mineral inclusions in natural deep Earth diamonds are presented to illustrate this new methodology. PMID:25346101

  9. Segment-interaction in sprint start: Analysis of 3D angular velocity and kinetic energy in elite sprinters.

    Slawinski, J; Bonnefoy, A; Ontanon, G; Leveque, J M; Miller, C; Riquet, A; Chèze, L; Dumas, R

    2010-05-28

    The aim of the present study was to measure during a sprint start the joint angular velocity and the kinetic energy of the different segments in elite sprinters. This was performed using a 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body. Eight elite sprinters (10.30+/-0.14s 100 m time), equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, realised four maximal 10 m sprints start on an indoor track. An opto-electronic Motion Analysis system consisting of 12 digital cameras (250 Hz) was used to collect the 3D marker trajectories. During the pushing phase on the blocks, the 3D angular velocity vector and its norm were calculated for each joint. The kinetic energy of 16 segments of the lower and upper limbs and of the total body was calculated. The 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body demonstrated that joints such as shoulders, thoracic or hips did not reach their maximal angular velocity with a movement of flexion-extension, but with a combination of flexion-extension, abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation. The maximal kinetic energy of the total body was reached before clearing block (respectively, 537+/-59.3 J vs. 514.9+/-66.0 J; p< or =0.01). These results suggested that a better synchronization between the upper and lower limbs could increase the efficiency of pushing phase on the blocks. Besides, to understand low interindividual variances in the sprint start performance in elite athletes, a 3D complete body kinematic analysis shall be used. PMID:20226465

  10. A Dual Function Energy Store

    Ron Tolmie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat can be collected from local energy sources and concentrated into a relatively small volume, and at a useful working temperature, by using a heat pump as the concentrator. That heat can be stored and utilized at a later date for applications like space heating. The process is doing two things at the same time: storing heat and shifting the power demand. The concentration step can be done at night when there is normally a surplus of power and its timing can be directly controlled by the power grid operator to ensure that the power consumption occurs only when adequate power is available. The sources of heat can be the summer air, the heat extracted from buildings by their cooling systems, natural heat from the ground or solar heat, all of which are free, abundant and readily accessible. Such systems can meet the thermal needs of buildings while at the same time stabilizing the grid power demand, thus reducing the need for using fossil-fuelled peaking power generators. The heat pump maintains the temperature of the periphery at the ambient ground temperature so very little energy is lost during storage.

  11. Optimizing detector thickness in dual-shot dual-energy x-ray imaging

    Kim, Dong Woon; Kam, Soohwa; Youn, Hanbean; Kim, Ho Kyung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As a result, there exist apparent limitations in the conventional two-dimensional (2D) radiography: One is that the contrast between the structure of interest and the background in a radiograph is much less than the intrinsic subject contrast (i.e. the difference between their attenuation coefficients; Another is that the superimposed anatomical structures in the 2D radiograph results in an anatomical background clutter that may decrease the conspicuity of subtle underlying features. These limitations in spatial and material discrimination are important motivations for the recent development of 3D (e.g. tomosynthesis) and dual energy imaging (DEI) systems. DEI technique uses a combination of two images obtained at two different energies in successive x-ray exposures by rapidly switching the kilovolage (kV) applied to the x-ray tube. Commercial DEI systems usually employ a 'single' of flat-panel detector (FPD) to obtain two different kV images. However, we have a doubt in the use of the same detector for acquiring two different projections for the low- and high-kV setups because it is typically known that there exists an optimal detector thickness regarding specific imaging tasks or energies used.

  12. Optimizing detector thickness in dual-shot dual-energy x-ray imaging

    As a result, there exist apparent limitations in the conventional two-dimensional (2D) radiography: One is that the contrast between the structure of interest and the background in a radiograph is much less than the intrinsic subject contrast (i.e. the difference between their attenuation coefficients; Another is that the superimposed anatomical structures in the 2D radiograph results in an anatomical background clutter that may decrease the conspicuity of subtle underlying features. These limitations in spatial and material discrimination are important motivations for the recent development of 3D (e.g. tomosynthesis) and dual energy imaging (DEI) systems. DEI technique uses a combination of two images obtained at two different energies in successive x-ray exposures by rapidly switching the kilovolage (kV) applied to the x-ray tube. Commercial DEI systems usually employ a 'single' of flat-panel detector (FPD) to obtain two different kV images. However, we have a doubt in the use of the same detector for acquiring two different projections for the low- and high-kV setups because it is typically known that there exists an optimal detector thickness regarding specific imaging tasks or energies used

  13. Residential dual energy programs: Tariffs and incentives

    The problem of efficiently pricing electricity has been of concern to economists and policy makers for some time. A natural solution to variable demand is tariffs to smooth demand and reduce the need for excessive reserve margins. An alternative approach is dual energy programs whereby electric space heating systems are equipped with a secondary system (usually oil) which is used during periods of peak demand. Comments are presented on two previous papers (Bergeron and Bernard, 1991; Sollows et al., 1991) published in Energy Studies Review, applying them to Hydro Quebec tariff structure and dual energy programs. The role of tariffs in demand-side management needs to be considered more fully. Hydro-Quebec's bi-energy tariff structure could be modified by using positive incentives to make use of bi-energy attractive below -12 C to give the following benefits. The modified tariff would be easier for consumers to understand, corrects the misallocation problem due to differential pricing in the current tariff, transfers the risk related to price fluctuations of the alternative energy source from the consumer to the utility, and corrects the potential avoidance problem due to the negative incentive of the current tariff. 21 refs

  14. Vision-based building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis using 3D thermography and building information modeling

    Ham, Youngjib

    localization issues of 2D thermal image-based inspection, a new computer vision-based method is presented for automated 3D spatio-thermal modeling of building environments from images and localizing the thermal images into the 3D reconstructed scenes, which helps better characterize the as-is condition of existing buildings in 3D. By using these models, auditors can conduct virtual walk-through in buildings and explore the as-is condition of building geometry and the associated thermal conditions in 3D. Second, to address the challenges in qualitative and subjective interpretation of visual data, a new model-based method is presented to convert the 3D thermal profiles of building environments into their associated energy performance metrics. More specifically, the Energy Performance Augmented Reality (EPAR) models are formed which integrate the actual 3D spatio-thermal models ('as-is') with energy performance benchmarks ('as-designed') in 3D. In the EPAR models, the presence and location of potential energy problems in building environments are inferred based on performance deviations. The as-is thermal resistances of the building assemblies are also calculated at the level of mesh vertex in 3D. Then, based on the historical weather data reflecting energy load for space conditioning, the amount of heat transfer that can be saved by improving the as-is thermal resistances of the defective areas to the recommended level is calculated, and the equivalent energy cost for this saving is estimated. The outcome provides building practitioners with unique information that can facilitate energy efficient retrofit decision-makings. This is a major departure from offhand calculations that are based on historical cost data of industry best practices. Finally, to improve the reliability of BIM-based energy performance modeling and analysis for existing buildings, a new model-based automated method is presented to map actual thermal resistance measurements at the level of 3D vertexes to the

  15. Technology development of 3D detectors for high energy physics and medical imaging

    Pellegrini, G

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the fabrication, characterisation and simulation of 3D semiconductor detectors. Due to their geometry, these detectors have more efficient charge collection properties than current silicon and gallium arsenide planar detectors. The unit cell of these detectors is hexagonal with a central anode surrounded by six cathode contacts. This geometry gives a uniform electric field with the maximum drift and depletion distance set by electrode spacing, 85m in this project, rather than detector thickness, as in the case of planar detectors (typically 100-300m). This results in lower applied biases (35-40 V in the work of this project) compared to >200 V in typical planar detectors. The reduction in bias offers the possibility of improved detector operation in the presence of bulk radiation damage as lower voltage reduces leakage current which limits the signal to noise ratio and hence the overall detector efficiency. In this work, 3D detectors realised in Si, GaAs and SiC have ...

  16. Breit-Pauli energy levels, transition probabilities, and lifetimes for 3d^5 levels in Fe IV of astrophysical interest

    Fischer, Charlotte Froese; Rubin, Robert H

    2004-01-01

    Energy levels, lifetimes, and transition probabilities for transitions between computed levels of 3d^5 of Fe IV are reported. The E2 and M1 transition probabilities are compared with earlier theoretical results, often only the values published by Garstang in 1958. From the available astronomical observations of optical emission lines arising from the same level, a few direct tests are now possible and they show consistency with the theoretical calculations.

  17. Effect of vorticity coherence on energy-enstrophy bounds for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations

    Dascaliuc, Radu; Jolly, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Bounding curves in the energy,enstrophy-plane are derived for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations under an assumption on coherence of the vorticity direction. The analysis in the critical case where the direction is H\\"older continuous with exponent $r=1/2$ results in a curve with extraordinarily large maximal enstrophy (exponential in Grashof), in marked contrast to the subcritical case, $r>1/2$ (algebraic in Grashof).

  18. Nuclear contribution into single-event upset in 3D on-board electronics at moderate energy cosmic proton impact

    Chechenin, N. G.; Chuvilskaya, T. V.; Shirokova, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    In continuation and development of our previous works where nuclear reactions of moderate energy (10 - 400 MeV) protons with Si, Al and W have been investigated, the results of reactions with Cu are reported in this paper. Cu is a most important component in composition of materials in contact pads and pathways of modern and perspective ultra large-scale integration circuitry, especially in 3D topology.

  19. Precision measurement of the $3d \\to 2p$ x-ray energy in kaonic $^4$He

    Okada, S; Bhang, H; Cargnelli, M; Chiba, J; Choi, Seonho; Curceanu, C; Fukuda, Y; Hanaki, T; Hayano, R S; Iio, M; Ishikawa, T; Ishimoto, S; Ishiwatari, T; Itahashi, K; Iwai, M; Iwasaki, M; Juhász, B; Kienle, P; Marton, J; Matsuda, Y; Ohnishi, H; Outa, H; Sato, M; Schmid, P; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, T; Tatsuno, H; Tomono, D; Widmann, E; Yamazaki, T; Yim, H; Zmeskal, J

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the Balmer-series x-rays of kaonic $^4$He atoms using novel large-area silicon drift x-ray detectors in order to study the low-energy $\\bar{K}$-nucleus strong interaction. The energy of the $3d \\to 2p$ transition was determined to be 6467 $\\pm$ 3 (stat) $\\pm$ 2 (syst) eV. The resulting strong-interaction energy-level shift is in agreement with theoretical calculations, thus eliminating a long-standing discrepancy between theory and experiment.

  20. Precision measurement of the 3 d → 2 p x-ray energy in kaonic 4He

    Okada, S.; Beer, G.; Bhang, H.; Cargnelli, M.; Chiba, J.; Choi, Seonho; Curceanu, C.; Fukuda, Y.; Hanaki, T.; Hayano, R. S.; Iio, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishimoto, S.; Ishiwatari, T.; Itahashi, K.; Iwai, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Juhász, B.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Matsuda, Y.; Ohnishi, H.; Outa, H.; Sato, M.; Schmid, P.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, T.; Tatsuno, H.; Tomono, D.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, T.; Yim, H.; Zmeskal, J.

    2007-09-01

    We have measured the Balmer-series x-rays of kaonic 4He atoms using novel large-area silicon drift x-ray detectors in order to study the low-energy Kbar-nucleus strong interaction. The energy of the 3 d → 2 p transition was determined to be 6467 ± 3 (stat) ± 2 (syst) eV. The resulting strong-interaction energy-level shift is in agreement with theoretical calculations, thus eliminating a long-standing discrepancy between theory and experiment.

  1. Precision measurement of the 3d{yields}2p x-ray energy in kaonic {sup 4}He

    Okada, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)], E-mail: sokada@riken.jp; Beer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Bhang, H. [Department of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cargnelli, M. [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer subatomare Physik, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Chiba, J. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Choi, Seonho [Department of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Curceanu, C. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Fukuda, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hanaki, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Hayano, R.S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Iio, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishikawa, T. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ishimoto, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ishiwatari, T. [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer subatomare Physik, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Itahashi, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Iwai, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Juhasz, B. [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer subatomare Physik, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kienle, P. [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer subatomare Physik, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] (and others)

    2007-09-27

    We have measured the Balmer-series x-rays of kaonic {sup 4}He atoms using novel large-area silicon drift x-ray detectors in order to study the low-energy K-bar -nucleus strong interaction. The energy of the 3d{yields}2p transition was determined to be 6467{+-}3(stat){+-}2(syst) eV. The resulting strong-interaction energy-level shift is in agreement with theoretical calculations, thus eliminating a long-standing discrepancy between theory and experiment.

  2. Taming Supersymmetric Defects in 3d-3d Correspondence

    Gang, Dongmin; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group $SL(N,\\mathbb{C})$, in the context of its relation with 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d $(2,0)$ theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold $\\hat{M}$. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d $SL(N,\\mathbb{C})$ Chern-Simons theory, in 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theory, in 5d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper, which contains more details and more results.

  3. QUASI-OPTICAL 3-dB HYBRID FOR FUTURE HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    Phase-controlled wave combiners-commutators and isolators for protecting rf sources against reflection from the accelerating structure can be built using a 3-dB hybrid built around a metallic grating used in a ''magic-Y'' configuration. Models of the magic-Y were designed and tested, both at 34.272 GHz using the Omega-P Ka-band magnicon, and at 11.424 GHz using the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon. All elements of the magic-Y were optimized analytically and numerically. A non-vacuum 34 GHz model of the magic Y was built and tested experimentally at a low power. An engineering design for the high power (vacuum) compressor was configured. Similar steps were taken for the 11-GHz version

  4. Hierarchical 3D ZnIn2S4/graphene nano-heterostructures: their in situ fabrication with dual functionality in solar hydrogen production and as anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Kale, Sayali B; Kalubarme, Ramchandra S; Mahadadalkar, Manjiri A; Jadhav, Harsharaj S; Bhirud, Ashwini P; Ambekar, Jalinder D; Park, Chan-Jin; Kale, Bharat B

    2015-12-21

    Hierarchical 3D ZnIn2S4/graphene (ZnIn2S4/Gr) nano-heterostructures were successfully synthesized using an in-situ hydrothermal method. The dual functionality of these nano-heterostructures i.e. for solar hydrogen production and lithium ion batteries has been demonstrated for the first time. The ZnIn2S4/Gr nano-heterostructures were optimized by varying the concentrations of graphene for utmost hydrogen production. An inspection of the structure shows the existence of layered hexagonal ZnIn2S4 wrapped in graphene. The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to graphene was confirmed by Raman and XPS analyses. The morphological analysis demonstrated that ultrathin ZnIn2S4 nanopetals are dispersed on graphene sheets. The optical study reveals the extended absorption edge to the visible region due to the presence of graphene and hence is used as a photocatalyst to transform H2S into eco-friendly hydrogen using solar light. The ZnIn2S4/Gr nano-heterostructure that is comprised of graphene and ZnIn2S4 in a weight ratio of 1 : 99 exhibits enhanced photocatalytically stable hydrogen production i.e. ∼6365 μmole h(-1) under visible light irradiation using just 0.2 g of nano-heterostructure, which is much higher as compared to bare hierarchical 3D ZnIn2S4. The heightened photocatalytic activity is attributed to the enhanced charge carrier separation due to graphene which acts as an excellent electron collector and transporter. Furthermore, the usage of nano-heterostructures and pristine ZnIn2S4 as anodes in lithium ion batteries confers the charge capacities of 590 and 320 mA h g(-1) after 220 cycles as compared to their initial reversible capacities of 645 and 523 mA h g(-1), respectively. These nano-heterostructures show high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability, and high-rate capability indicating their potential as promising anode materials for LIBs. The excellent performance is due to the nanostructuring of ZnIn2S4 and the presence of a graphene layer, which

  5. Architectural integration of the components necessary for electrical energy storage on the nanoscale and in 3D.

    Rhodes, Christopher P; Long, Jeffrey W; Pettigrew, Katherine A; Stroud, Rhonda M; Rolison, Debra R

    2011-04-01

    We describe fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) multifunctional nanoarchitectures in which the three critical components of a battery--cathode, separator/electrolyte, and anode--are internally assembled as tricontinuous nanoscopic phases. The architecture is initiated using sol-gel chemistry and processing to erect a 3D self-wired nanoparticulate scaffold of manganese oxide (>200 m(2) g(-1)) with a continuous, open, and mesoporous void volume. The integrated 3D system is generated by exhaustive coverage of the oxide network by an ultrathin, conformal layer of insulating polymer that forms via self-limiting electrodeposition of poly(phenylene oxide). The remaining interconnected void volume is then wired with RuO(2) nanowebs using subambient thermal decomposition of RuO(4). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the three nanoscopic charge-transfer functional components--manganese oxide, polymer separator/cation conductor, and RuO(2)--exhibit the stratified, tricontinuous design of the phase-by-phase construction. This architecture contains all three components required for a solid-state energy storage device within a void volume sized at tens of nanometres such that nanometre-thick distances are established between the opposing electrodes. We have now demonstrated the ability to assemble multifunctional energy-storage nanoarchitectures on the nanoscale and in three dimensions. PMID:21327256

  6. 3D hierarchical porous graphene aerogel with tunable meso-pores on graphene nanosheets for high-performance energy storage.

    Ren, Long; Hui, K N; Hui, K S; Liu, Yundan; Qi, Xiang; Zhong, Jianxin; Du, Yi; Yang, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    New and novel 3D hierarchical porous graphene aerogels (HPGA) with uniform and tunable meso-pores (e.g., 21 and 53 nm) on graphene nanosheets (GNS) were prepared by a hydrothermal self-assembly process and an in-situ carbothermal reaction. The size and distribution of the meso-pores on the individual GNS were uniform and could be tuned by controlling the sizes of the Co3O4 NPs used in the hydrothermal reaction. This unique architecture of HPGA prevents the stacking of GNS and promises more electrochemically active sites that enhance the electrochemical storage level significantly. HPGA, as a lithium-ion battery anode, exhibited superior electrochemical performance, including a high reversible specific capacity of 1100 mAh/g at a current density of 0.1 A/g, outstanding cycling stability and excellent rate performance. Even at a large current density of 20 A/g, the reversible capacity was retained at 300 mAh/g, which is larger than that of most porous carbon-based anodes reported, suggesting it to be a promising candidate for energy storage. The proposed 3D HPGA is expected to provide an important platform that can promote the development of 3D topological porous systems in a range of energy storage and generation fields. PMID:26382852

  7. Flexydos3D: A new deformable anthropomorphic 3D dosimeter readout with optical CT scanning

    A new deformable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based dosimeter is proposed that can be cast in an anthropomorphic shape and that can be used for 3D radiation dosimetry of deformable targets. The new material has additional favorable characteristics as it is tissue equivalent for high-energy photons, easy to make and is non-toxic. In combination with dual wavelength optical scanning, it is a powerful dosimeter for dose verification of image gated or organ tracked radiotherapy with moving and deforming targets

  8. On Energy Cascades in the Forced 3D Navier-Stokes Equations

    Dascaliuc, R.; Grujić, Z.

    2016-06-01

    We show—in the framework of physical scales and (K_1,K_2)-averages—that Kolmogorov's dissipation law combined with the smallness condition on a Taylor length scale is sufficient to guarantee energy cascades in the forced Navier-Stokes equations. Moreover, in the periodic case we establish restrictive scaling laws—in terms of Grashof number—for kinetic energy, energy flux, and energy dissipation rate. These are used to improve our sufficient condition for forced cascades in physical scales.

  9. Feasibility study of a 3D vibration-driven electromagnetic MEMS energy harvester with multiple vibration modes

    A novel electromagnetic energy harvester (EH) with multiple vibration modes has been developed and characterized using three-dimensional (3D) excitation at different frequencies. The device consists of a movable circular-mass patterned with three sets of double-layer aluminum (Al) coils, a circular-ring system incorporating a magnet and a supporting beam. The 3D dynamic behavior and performance analysis of the device shows that the first vibration mode of 1285 Hz is an out-of-plane motion, while the second and third modes of 1470 and 1550 Hz, respectively, are in-plane at angles of 60° (240°) and 150° (330°) to the horizontal (x-) axis. For an excitation acceleration of 1 g, the maximum power density achieved are 0.444, 0.242 and 0.125 µW cm−3 at vibration modes of I, II and III, respectively. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation and indicate a good potential in the development of a 3D EH device. (paper)

  10. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  11. Direct observation of multistep energy transfer in LHCII with fifth-order 3D electronic spectroscopy

    Zhang, Zhengyang; Lambrev, Petar H.; Wells, Kym L.; Garab, Győző; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2015-07-01

    During photosynthesis, sunlight is efficiently captured by light-harvesting complexes, and the excitation energy is then funneled towards the reaction centre. These photosynthetic excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways are complex and proceed in a multistep fashion. Ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is an important tool to study EET processes in photosynthetic complexes. However, the multistep EET processes can only be indirectly inferred by correlating different cross peaks from a series of 2DES spectra. Here we directly observe multistep EET processes in LHCII using ultrafast fifth-order three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (3DES). We measure cross peaks in 3DES spectra of LHCII that directly indicate energy transfer from excitons in the chlorophyll b (Chl b) manifold to the low-energy level chlorophyll a (Chl a) via mid-level Chl a energy states. This new spectroscopic technique allows scientists to move a step towards mapping the complete complex EET processes in photosynthetic systems.

  12. Dual energy CTA of the supraaortic arteries: Technical improvements with a novel dual source CT system

    Lell, Michael M., E-mail: Michael.lell@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiology, University Erlangen, Maximiliansplatz 1, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Hinkmann, Fabian [Department of Radiology, University Erlangen, Maximiliansplatz 1, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Nkenke, Emeka [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Erlangen (Germany); Schmidt, Bernhard [Bayer-Schering Healthcare, Berlin (Germany); Seidensticker, Peter [Siemens Healthcare, CT-Division, Forchheim (Germany); Kalender, Willi A. [Institute of Medical Physics, University Erlangen (Germany); Uder, Michael [Department of Radiology, University Erlangen, Maximiliansplatz 1, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Achenbach, Stephan [Department of Cardiology, University Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Objectives: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a well-accepted imaging modality to evaluate the supraaortic vessels. Initial reports have suggested that dual energy CTA (DE-CTA) can enhance diagnosis by creating bone-free data sets, which can be visualized in 3D, but a number of limitations of this technique have also been addressed. We sought to describe the performance of DE-CTA of the supraaortic vessels with a novel dual source CT system with special emphasis on image quality and post-processing related artifacts. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients underwent carotid CT angiography on a second generation dual source CT system. Simultaneous acquisitions of 100 and 140 kV data sets in arterial phase were performed. Two examiners evaluated overall bone suppression with a 3-point scale (1 = poor; 3 = excellent) and image quality regarding integrity of the vessel lumen of different vessel segments (n = 26) with a 5-point scale (1 = poor; 5 = excellent), CTA source data served as the reference. Results: Excellent bone suppression could be achieved in the head and neck. Only minor bone remnants occurred, mean score for bone removal was 2.9. Mean score for vessel integrity was 4.3. Eight hundred fifty-seven vessel segments could be evaluated. Six hundred thirty-five segments (74%) showed no lumen alteration, 65 segments (7.6%) lumen alterations <10%, 27 segments (3.1%) lumen alterations >10% resulting in a total luminal reduction <50%, 17 segments (2%) lumen alterations of more than 10% resulting in a total luminal reduction >50%, and 113 segments (13.2%) showed a gap in the vessel course (100% total lumen reduction). Artificial gaps of the vessel lumen occurred in 28 vessel segments due to artifacts caused by dental hardware and in all but one (65) ophthalmic arteries. Conclusions: Excellent bone suppression could be achieved, DE imaging with 100 and 140 kV lead to improved image quality and vessel integrity in the shoulder region than previously

  13. Time-and-energy-resolved measurement of Auger cascades following Kr 3d excitation by attosecond pulses

    We show that attosecond metrology has evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to a level where complex processes can be resolved in time that cannot be accessed using any other existing technique. The cascaded Auger decay following ionization and excitation of the 3d-subshell in Kr with subfemtosecond 94 eV soft x-ray pulses has been energy- and time-resolved in an x-ray pump-infrared probe experiment. This Auger cascade reveals rich multi-electron dynamics, which despite the fact that there are many experimental and theoretical data available, is not yet fully understood. We present time-resolved data showing the sequence of the temporal dynamics in the cascaded Auger decay. The decay time of several groups of lines has been measured, including the lines at the low-energy part of the spectrum, which are predominantly produced by the second-step Auger transitions. Our experimental data reveal long lifetimes (up to 70 fs) of the subvalence excited ionic (intermediate) states in the cascaded resonant Auger decay. Extensive theoretical calculations within the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) approach show that the observed long lifetime may be attributed to the second-step Auger decay of the resonantly excited 3d-1np states with n = 6,7. Furthermore, our experimental data show that the electrons with a kinetic energy around 25 eV (generally assigned as M4,5N1N1 1S0 normal Auger lines) have a component corresponding to the second-step Auger decay of the ion after resonant Auger transition 3d-1np → 4s2 4p3 4dnp → 4s2 4p4 with a lifetime of 26 ± 4 fs. (paper)

  14. 3D-Modeling and Energy Simulation of a Single Family House in Southern Greece

    Liotsios, Kyriakos

    2012-01-01

    Energy usage deriving from human activities is increasing day by day acting against the quality of the environment and the sustainable use of natural resources. The major impact of these actions is reflected on the quality of daily life. In order to face the challenge of preserving an acceptable balance between human needs and environmental status, the combination of proper design and energy simulation of buildings is the key towards smarter and more sustainable solutions. Solutions that cove...

  15. 3D quantitative analysis of graphite morphology in high strength cast iron by high-energy X-ray tomography

    The size and morphology of the graphite particles play a crucial role in determining various mechanical and thermal properties of cast iron. In the present study, we utilized high-energy synchrotron X-ray tomography to perform quantitative 3D-characterization of the distribution of graphite particles in high-strength compacted graphite iron (CGI). The size, shape, and spatial connectivity of graphite were examined. The analysis reveals that the compacted graphite can grow with a coral-tree-like morphology and span several hundred microns in the iron matrix

  16. Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock energy levels and transition probabilities for 3d^5 in Fe IV

    Fischer, C. Froese; Rubin, R. H.; M. Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic dipole (M1) transition probabilities are reported for transitions between levels of 3d^5 in [Fe IV]. The accuracy of the ab initio energy levels and the agreement in the length and velocity forms of the line strength for the E2 transitions are used as indicators of accuracy. The present E2 and M1 transition probabilities are compared with earlier Breit-Pauli results and other theories. An extensive set of transition p...

  17. 3D numerical model for a focal plane view in case of mosaic grating compressor for high energy CPA chain.

    Montant, S; Marre, G; Blanchot, N; Rouyer, C; Videau, L; Sauteret, C

    2006-12-11

    An important issue, mosaic grating compressor, is studied to recompress pulses for multiPetawatt, high energy laser systems. Alignment of the mosaic elements is crucial to control the focal spot and thus the intensity on target. No theoretical approach analyses the influence of compressor misalignment on spatial and temporal profiles in the focal plane. We describe a simple 3D numerical model giving access to the focal plane view after a compressor. This model is computationally inexpensive since it needs only 1D Fourier transforms to access to the temporal profile. We present simulations of monolithic and mosaic grating compressors. PMID:19529688

  18. Nonlinear stability analysis of 3D Couette flow considering energy transfer conservation

    The transition from laminar plane Couette flow to intermittency is studied within a 108-dimensional Galerkin representation of Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire modes. A distinct transient behaviour is found in the Reynolds number region 325≤R≤350. The results also confirm the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in the intermittency regime as recently found in a higher-dimensional function space. As a crucial point, the conservation of the overall energy-transfer rate is rigorously implemented by renormalizing the nonlinear coefficients of the Galerkin system. As a consequence, there are no runaway trajectories in the cut-off system considered. Surprisingly, further consistency conditions were found in the quadratic terms of the time derivative of the kinetic energy. After they have been taken into account by the renormalization, a quantitatively good fulfillment of the energy balances is achieved

  19. A 3D City Model as User Interface Connected to an Energy Model

    Kjems, Erik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    Back in 2007 the municipality of Frederikshavn in Northern Jutland in Denmark decided to use only 100% renewable energy for electricity, heat and transport by the year of 2015. Frederikshavn, the largest city in the municipality, was naturally chosen as case city. To be able to verify whether the...

  20. 3D Fokker-Planck model for high and moderate energy ions in weakly ripple tokamaks

    Fokker-Planck coefficients specifying diffusion and convection transport processes for charged fusion products and NBI ions in tokamaks with weak TF ripples are derived in the COM space describing the collisional ripple transport processes of fast ions, both in the moderate and in the high energy range. The collisional diffusion coefficient of toroidally trapped ions which are in resonance with the TF ripple perturbations (so-called superbananas) is shown to exhibit only a weak dependence on the ripple magnitude and, further, to reach a maximum in the medium collisionality regime where the bounce frequency of superbananas is close to the effective collision frequency. This maximum appears in the energy range from a few tens of kEV to a few hundreds of keV and may exceed the well-known Boozer- ripple plateau diffusion in the case of weak ripples. The radial convection of superbananas induced by slowing down is shown also to exceed the corresponding convection of bananas. The collisional superbanana transport is supposed to be responsible for the enhanced NBI ion loss observed in the intermediate energy range and, hence, should be essentially embodied into any modeling of charged fusion products at energies E<1MeV. (author)

  1. Dual-beam focused ion beam/electron microscopy processing and metrology of redeposition during ion-surface 3D interactions, from micromachining to self-organized picostructures.

    Moberlychan, Warren J

    2009-06-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) tools have become a mainstay for processing and metrology of small structures. In order to expand the understanding of an ion impinging a surface (Sigmund sputtering theory) to our processing of small structures, the significance of 3D boundary conditions must be realized. We consider ion erosion for patterning/lithography, and optimize yields using the angle of incidence and chemical enhancement, but we find that the critical 3D parameters are aspect ratio and redeposition. We consider focused ion beam sputtering for micromachining small holes through membranes, but we find that the critical 3D considerations are implantation and redeposition. We consider ion beam self-assembly of nanostructures, but we find that control of the redeposition by ion and/or electron beams enables the growth of nanostructures and picostructures. PMID:21715751

  2. Dual-beam focused ion beam/electron microscopy processing and metrology of redeposition during ion-surface 3D interactions, from micromachining to self-organized picostructures

    MoberlyChan, Warren J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, CMELS, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-06-03

    Focused ion beam (FIB) tools have become a mainstay for processing and metrology of small structures. In order to expand the understanding of an ion impinging a surface (Sigmund sputtering theory) to our processing of small structures, the significance of 3D boundary conditions must be realized. We consider ion erosion for patterning/lithography, and optimize yields using the angle of incidence and chemical enhancement, but we find that the critical 3D parameters are aspect ratio and redeposition. We consider focused ion beam sputtering for micromachining small holes through membranes, but we find that the critical 3D considerations are implantation and redeposition. We consider ion beam self-assembly of nanostructures, but we find that control of the redeposition by ion and/or electron beams enables the growth of nanostructures and picostructures.

  3. The photoionization of Fe7+ and Fe8+ in the 2p-3d resonance energy region

    The photoionization cross sections of the levels belonging to the ground configuration [Ne]3s23p63d of Fe7+ and [Ne]3s23p6 of Fe8+ have been investigated using the fully relativistic R-matrix method in the 2p-3d excitation region. The detailed resonance structures are described and analysed in some detail with the resonance positions, widths and oscillator strengths being determined. To identify the resonances, the transition energies and oscillator strengths are calculated by the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method implemented by the GRASP code as well. The cross sections have also been obtained using the non-relativistic R-matrix calculations. The resonances in the relativistic calculation span a much broader energy region than the non-relativistic result. For an iron plasma at a temperature of 20 eV and a density of 0.004 g cm-3, which is a typical experimental condition recently carried out by Chenais-Popovics et al (2000 Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 127 275), the autoionization widths of the 2p-3d resonances are much larger than the widths caused by the radiative lifetime and electron impact broadening, while the Doppler widths are smaller than but rather close to the autoionization widths

  4. A 3D MPI-Parallel GPU-accelerated framework for simulating ocean wave energy converters

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    We present an MPI-parallel GPU-accelerated computational framework for studying the interaction between ocean waves and wave energy converters (WECs). The computational framework captures the viscous effects, nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI), and breaking of waves around the structure, which cannot be captured in many potential flow solvers commonly used for WEC simulations. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the two-step projection method, which is accelerated by porting the pressure Poisson equation to GPUs. The FSI is captured using the numerically stable fictitious domain method. A novel three-phase interface reconstruction algorithm is used to resolve three phases in a VOF-PLIC context. A consistent mass and momentum transport approach enables simulations at high density ratios. The accuracy of the overall framework is demonstrated via an array of test cases. Numerical simulations of the interaction between ocean waves and WECs are presented. Funding from the National Science Foundation CBET-1236462 grant is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Development of main steam line break mass and energy release analysis methodology with RETRAN-3D code

    The estimation methodology of the mass and energy (M/E) release in the main steam line break (MSLB) has been developed with the RETRAN-3D code. In the case of equipment qualification (EQ), the over-estimated temperature would exceed the design limits of some cables or valves. In order to have a more flexible EQ profiles from the MSLB M/E release, the methodology with the best-estimated code was used. The major conditions affecting the MSLB M/E were found to be the initial SG level, heat transfer between primary and secondary sides, power level, operable protection system, main or auxiliary feedwater availability, and break conditions. The RETRAN-3D models were developed for the Kori unit 1(KRN-1) which is typical two loop Westinghouse (WH) designed plant. Particularly, a detailed model of the steam generators was developed to estimate a more realistic two-phase heat transfer effect of the steam flow. After the modeling, the methodology has been developed through the sensitivity analyses. The M/E release data generated from the analyses have been used as the input to the inside containment pressure and temperature (P/T) analysis. According to the results at the point of view containment P/T, the Kori unit 1 can have more margin of 5 - 15 kPa in pressure and 8 - 15degC in temperature. (author)

  6. Dual energy computed tomography: Physical principles and methods

    Κοντογιάννη, Λουκία

    2013-01-01

    The current thesis concerns Dual Energy Computed Tomography and specifically the physical principles and methods it is based on. Dual Energy CT offers the potential of not only anatomical, but also functional information from Computed Tomography (CT) exams. This is achieved by utilizing the energy dependence of X-rays’ attenuation within matter. In this way, materials are divided into those that are characterized by energy-dependent attenuation (strong spectral behavior), due t...

  7. Self-dual teleparallel gravity and the positive energy theorem

    Chee, G. Y.

    2004-01-01

    A self-dual and anti-self-dual decomposition of the teleparallel gravity is carried out and the self-dual Lagrangian of the teleparallel gravity which is equivalent to the Ashtekar Lagrangian in vacuum is obtained. Its Hamiltonian formulation and the constraint analysis are developed. Starting from Witten's equation Nester's gauge condition is derived directly and a new expression of the boundary term is obtained. Using this expression and Witten's identity the proof of the positive energy th...

  8. Cerebral artery evaluation of dual energy CT angiography with dual source CT

    MA Rui; LIU Cheng; DENG Kai; SONG Shao-juan; WANG Dao-ping; HUANG Ling

    2010-01-01

    Background Conventional computed tomography angiography (CTA) is time consuming, user-dependent and has poor image quality in skull base region. This study assessed the feasibility of a new method, dual energy CTA for depicting the cerebral artery.Methods Phantom scan was done with head CTA sequences on dual source CT and 64 spiral CT for radiation dose calculation. Dual energy CTA was done with dual source CT on 36 patients who were suspected of having cerebral vascular disease. Three series axial images in 0.75 mm thick, 0.4 mm increment were acquired, which were named with 80 kV, 140 kV and merged images; 80 kV and 140 kV images were transferred into dual energy software, and maximum intensity projection (MIP) image was generated quickly by dual energy bone remove (DEBR group); merged images were transferred into In Space software to acquire MIP image through manual conventional bone remove (CoBR group). Post processing time and reading time were compared. Image qualities of the two groups were compared, mainly focusing on skull base segments of internal carotid artery and bone subtraction. ANOVA and SNK tests were applied for radiation dose comparison. Student's t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were applied for assessing differences between data for significance. Cohen's kappa was used for interobserver agreement. Results Radiation dose of phantom scan showed dual energy CTA was between digital bone subtraction and conventional CTA. The post processing time and reading time were much shorter in DEBR than CoBR, and image quality in skull base was much higher in DEBR than CoBR (P0.5). Interobserver agreement for all vessel segments was excellent (kappa=0.97). Conclusions Dual energy CTA is a reliable, new modality for depicting cerebral artery, overcoming the limitation of conventional CTA in the skull base region. It can save much time in post processing and reading than conventional CTA.

  9. Hybrid nickel manganese oxide nanosheet-3D metallic dendrite percolation network electrodes for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Eugénio, Sónia; Boudard, Michel; Rapenne, Laetitia; Carmezim, M. João; Silva, Teresa M.; Montemor, M. Fátima

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the fabrication, by electrodeposition and post-thermal annealing, of hybrid electrodes for high rate electrochemical energy storage composed of nickel manganese oxide (Ni0.86Mn0.14O) nanosheets over 3D open porous dendritic NiCu foams. The hybrid electrodes are made of two different percolation networks of nanosheets and dendrites, and exhibit a specific capacitance value of 848 F g-1 at 1 A g-1. The electrochemical tests revealed that the electrodes display an excellent rate capability, characterized by capacitance retention of approximately 83% when the applied current density increases from 1 A g-1 to 20 A g-1. The electrodes also evidenced high charge-discharge cycling stability, which attained 103% after 1000 cycles.

  10. Costs and energy efficiency of a dual-mode system

    Heft, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The life cycle costs of a dual mode system for both public and semiprivate ownership are examined, and the costs in terms of levelized required revenue per passenger mile are presented. The energy use of the dual mode vehicle is analyzed by means of a detailed vehicle simulation program for the control policy and guideway system. Several different propulsion systems are considered.

  11. Coupling Motion and Energy Harvesting of Two Side-by-Side Flexible Plates in a 3D Uniform Flow

    Dibo Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fluid-structure interaction problems of two side-by-side flexible plates with a finite aspect ratio in a three-dimensional (3D uniform flow are numerically studied. The plates’ motions are entirely passive under the force of surrounding fluid. By changing the aspect ratio and transverse distance, the coupling motions, drag force and energy capture performance are analyzed. The mechanisms underlying the plates’ motion and flow characteristics are discussed systematically. The adopted algorithm is verified and validated by the simulation of flow past a square flexible plate. The results show that the plate’s passive flapping behavior contains transverse and spanwise deformation, and the flapping amplitude is proportional to the aspect ratio. In the side-by-side configuration, three distinct coupling modes of the plates’ motion are identified, including single-plate mode, symmetrical flapping mode and decoupled mode. The plate with a lower aspect ratio may suffer less drag force and capture less bending energy than in the isolated situation. The optimized selection for obtaining higher energy conversion efficiency is the plate flapping in single-plate mode, especially the plate with a higher aspect ratio. The findings of this work provide several new physical insights into the understanding of fish schooling and are expected to inspire the developments of underwater robots or energy harvesters.

  12. Characterization of the microstructure of dual-phase 9Cr-ODS steels using a laser-assisted 3D atom probe

    Dual-phase 9Cr-ODS (oxide dispersion-strengthened) steel consisting of residual-α ferrite and α' martensite has excellent high-temperature strength. This study describes the microstructure of dual-phase 9Cr-ODS steels characterized by atom-probe tomography in order to compare oxide-particle dispersion states in each phase. This revealed that nano-size oxide particles were of the same chemical composition and that their mean size was about 3 nm in each phase. On the other hand, the number density in the residual-α phase was about four times higher than that of the α' phase. These results indicate that the dense distribution of the oxide particles in the residual-α phase contribute to the excellent high-temperature strength of 9Cr-ODS steel.

  13. 3D video

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  14. 3D Animation Essentials

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  15. Simultaneous dual-energy X-ray stereo imaging

    Mokso, R.; Oberta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, Jul (2015), 1078-1082. ISSN 0909-0495 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : optics * crystal * imaging * dual-energy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.736, year: 2014

  16. Virtual monochromatic imaging in dual-source dual-energy CT: Radiation dose and image quality

    Purpose: To evaluate the image quality of virtual monochromatic images synthesized from dual-source dual-energy computed tomography (CT) in comparison with conventional polychromatic single-energy CT for the same radiation dose. Methods: In dual-energy CT, besides the material-specific information, one may also synthesize monochromatic images at different energies, which can be used for routine diagnosis similar to conventional polychromatic single-energy images. In this work, the authors assessed whether virtual monochromatic images generated from dual-source CT scanners had an image quality similar to that of polychromatic single-energy images for the same radiation dose. First, the authors provided a theoretical analysis of the optimal monochromatic energy for either the minimum noise level or the highest iodine contrast to noise ratio (CNR) for a given patient size and dose partitioning between the low- and high-energy scans. Second, the authors performed an experimental study on a dual-source CT scanner to evaluate the noise and iodine CNR in monochromatic images. A thoracic phantom with three sizes of attenuating rings was used to represent four adult sizes. For each phantom size, three dose partitionings between the low-energy (80 kV) and the high-energy (140 kV) scans were used in the dual-energy scan. Monochromatic images at eight energies (40 to 110 keV) were generated for each scan. Phantoms were also scanned at each of the four polychromatic single energy (80, 100, 120, and 140 kV) with the same radiation dose. Results: The optimal virtual monochromatic energy depends on several factors: phantom size, partitioning of the radiation dose between low- and high-energy scans, and the image quality metrics to be optimized. With the increase of phantom size, the optimal monochromatic energy increased. With the increased percentage of radiation dose on the low energy scan, the optimal monochromatic energy decreased. When maximizing the iodine CNR in

  17. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer

  18. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    Molloi, Sabee, E-mail: symolloi@uci.edu; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  19. The Development of WARP - A Framework for Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Neutron Transport in General 3D Geometries on GPUs

    Bergmann, Ryan

    Graphics processing units, or GPUs, have gradually increased in computational power from the small, job-specific boards of the early 1990s to the programmable powerhouses of today. Compared to more common central processing units, or CPUs, GPUs have a higher aggregate memory bandwidth, much higher floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), and lower energy consumption per FLOP. Because one of the main obstacles in exascale computing is power consumption, many new supercomputing platforms are gaining much of their computational capacity by incorporating GPUs into their compute nodes. Since CPU-optimized parallel algorithms are not directly portable to GPU architectures (or at least not without losing substantial performance), transport codes need to be rewritten to execute efficiently on GPUs. Unless this is done, reactor simulations cannot take full advantage of these new supercomputers. WARP, which can stand for ``Weaving All the Random Particles,'' is a three-dimensional (3D) continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code developed in this work as to efficiently implement a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport algorithm on a GPU. WARP accelerates Monte Carlo simulations while preserving the benefits of using the Monte Carlo Method, namely, very few physical and geometrical simplifications. WARP is able to calculate multiplication factors, flux tallies, and fission source distributions for time-independent problems, and can run in both criticality or fixed source modes. WARP can transport neutrons in unrestricted arrangements of parallelepipeds, hexagonal prisms, cylinders, and spheres. WARP uses an event-based algorithm, but with some important differences. Moving data is expensive, so WARP uses a remapping vector of pointer/index pairs to direct GPU threads to the data they need to access. The remapping vector is sorted by reaction type after every transport iteration using a high-efficiency parallel radix sort, which serves to keep the

  20. The North Korean nuclear test in 2016 - release of shear energy determined by 3D moment tensor inversion

    Barth, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    On January 6, 2016 the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) carried out an announced nuclear test, which was the fourth after tests conducted in 2006, 2009, and 2013. An important task in discriminating a man-made explosion and a natural tectonic earthquake is the analysis of seismic waveforms. To determine the isotropic and non-isotropic characteristics of the detonation source, I invert long-period seismic data for the full seismic moment tensor to match the observed seismic signals by synthetic waveforms based on a 3D earth model. Here, I show that the inversion of long-period seismic data of the 2016 test reveals a clear explosive (isotropic) component combined with a significant release of shear energy by the double-couple part of the moment tensor. The short- and long-period waveforms of the recent test are very similar to the previous ones. First data show that the energy release of the recent event on long periods greater than 10 s is enlarged by 20-30% compared to the nuclear test in 2013. As shown previously, the double-couple part of the 2009 event was lower by a factor of 0.55 compared to the explosion in 2013, while the isotropic parts of the nuclear tests in 2009 and 2013 were similar (Barth, 2014). However, the recent test again shows a rather small double-couple part, indicating a lower amount of shear-energy radiation than in 2013. This highlights the importance of considering the release of shear energy in understanding near source damaging effects and the containment of nuclear explosions.

  1. Preliminary study of single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging using dual-source CT

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary applications of single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging using dual-source CT (DSCT). Methods: Thirty patients underwent dual energy heart imaging with DSCT, of which 6 cases underwent SPECT or DSA within one week. Two experienced radiologists assessed image quality of coronary arteries and iodine map of myocardium. and correlated the coronary artery stenosis with the perfusion distribution of iodine map. Results: l00% (300/300) segments reached diagnostic standards. The mean score of image for all patients was 4.68±0.57. Mural coronary artery was present in 10 segments in S cases, atherosclerotic plaques in 32 segments in 12 cases, of which 20 segments having ≥50% stenosis, 12 segments ≤50% stenosis; dual energy CT coronary angiography was consistent with the DSA in 3 patients. 37 segmental perfusion abnormalities on iodine map were found in 15 cases, including 28 coronary blood supply segment narrow segment and 9 no coronary stenosis (including three negative segments in SPECD. Conclusion: Single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging can provide good coronary artery and myocardium perfusion images in the patients with appropriate heart rate, which has a potential to be used in the clinic and further studies are needed. (authors)

  2. Combination of cross-sectional MRI, MRCP and gadolinium-enhanced dual-phase 3D-MRA in the staging of pancreatic tumors: first clinical results; Kombinierter Einsatz von MRT, MRCP und kontrastverstaerkter 2-Phasen 3D-MRA in der Diagnostik von Pankreastumoren: Erste klinische Ergebnisse

    Gaa, J.; Tesdal, I.K.; Lehmann, K.J.; Boehm, C.; Moeckel, R.; Georgi, M. [Klinikum Mannheim gGmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Wendl, K.; Meier-Willersen, H.J.; Richter, A.; Trede, M. [Klinikum Mannheim gGmbH (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a non-invasive `all-in-one` staging MR method in patients with pancreatic tumors. Material and Methods: 46 patients were prospectively evaluated by a combined MR imaging protocol including breath-hold T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted pulse sequence, MRCP using a breath-hold 2D-RARE sequence, and breathhold gadolinium-enhanced dual-phase 3D-MR angiography. Results: All pancreatic tumors were detected by the combination of cross-sectional imaging and MRCP. In spite of the use of MRCP, definitive differentiation between pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis was not possible in 3 (6.5%) out of 46 cases. High quality 3D-MR angiograms were obtained in 43 (93.5%) cases. In 6 (13%) patients 3D-MRA showed an aberrant right hepatic artery. The overall accuracy of MRI in assessing extrapancreatic tumor spread, lymph node metastases, liver metastases, and vascular involvement was 95.7%, 80.4%, 93.5%, and 89.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Due to its high accuracy the `all-in-one` MR protocol may become the most important modality after clinical examination and ultrasound in the diagnostic work-up for most patients with suspicion of pancreatic tumors. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Beurteilung der Wertigkeit eines `globalen` MR-Protokolls in der Diagnostik von Pankreastumoren. Material und Methode: 46 Patienten mit Verdacht auf Pankreaskarzinom wurden mit einem definierten Protokoll unter Einbeziehung von T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}-gewichteten Sequenzen, einer 2D-RARE MRCP-Sequenz und einer konstrastverstaerkten 2-Phasen 3D-MRA untersucht. Ergebnisse: Alle Pankreastumoren wurden mit der Kombination von Schnittbild und MRCP nachgewiesen. Trotz des Einsatzes der MRCP gelang in 3 (6,5%) von 46 Faellen eine sichere Differenzierung zwischen Pankreaskarzinom und chronischer Pankreatitis nicht. Qualitativ hochwertige 3D-MR-Angiogramme wurden in 43 (93,5%) Faellen erzielt. In 6 (13%) Faellen wurde eine aberrierende, aus der A. mesenterica superior

  3. Structural modelling and testing of failed high energy pipe runs: 2D and 3D pipe whip

    Reid, S.R., E-mail: steve.reid@abdn.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Wang, B.; Aleyaasin, M. [School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    The sudden rupture of a high energy piping system is a safety-related issue and has been the subject of extensive study and discussed in several industrial reports (e.g. ). The dynamic plastic response of the deforming pipe segment under the blow-down force of the escaping liquid is termed pipe whip. Because of the potential damage that such an event could cause, various geometric and kinematic features of this phenomenon have been modelled from the point of view of dynamic structural plasticity. After a comprehensive summary of the behaviour of in-plane deformation of pipe runs that deform in 2D in a plane, the more complicated case of 3D out-of-plane deformation is discussed. Both experimental studies and modelling using analytical and FE methods have been carried out and they show that, for a good estimate of the 'hazard zone' when unconstrained pipe whip motion could occur, a large displacement analysis is essential. The classical, rigid plastic, small deflection analysis (e.g. see ), is valid for estimating the initial failure mechanisms, however it is insufficient for describing the details and consequences of large deflection behaviour. - Highlights: > Dynamic plastic response of piping system under extreme loading (fluid escape). > Two and three dimensional analysis of the pipe whipping phenomena. > Comparison between theory and the experiments. > Determination of the Hazard Zone (HZ) and safety-related issues.

  4. A tandem-based compact dual-energy gamma generator

    Persaud, A.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.N.; Ludewigt, B.; Tanaka, N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Antolak, A.J.; Morse, D.H.; Raber, T.

    2009-11-11

    A dual-energy tandem-type gamma generator has been developed at E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The tandem accelerator geometry allows higher energy nuclear reactions to be reached, thereby allowing more flexible generation of MeV-energy gammas for active interrogation applications.

  5. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  6. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus; Mahir Asif Mohammed; Sanzidur Rahman; Sayedus Salehin; Mohammad Abdul Mannan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. Th...

  7. Solid works 3D

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  8. Simultaneous acquisition of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}-{sup 15}N and {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N-{sup 15}N sequential correlations in proteins: application of dual receivers in 3D HNN

    Chakraborty, Swagata; Paul, Subhradip; Hosur, Ramakrishna V., E-mail: hosur@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Chemical Sciences (India)

    2012-01-15

    We describe here, adaptation of the HNN pulse sequence for multiple nuclei detection using two independent receivers by utilizing the detectable {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} transverse magnetization which was otherwise dephased out in the conventional HNN experiment. It enables acquisition of 2D {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}-{sup 15}N sequential correlations along with the standard 3D {sup 15}N-{sup 15}N-{sup 1}H correlations, which provides directionality to sequential walk in HNN, on one hand, and enhances the speed of backbone assignment, on the other. We foresee that the implementation of dual direct detection opens up new avenues for a wide variety of modifications that would further enhance the value and applications of the experiment, and enable derivation of hitherto impossible information.

  9. Dual-energy performance of dual kVp in comparison to dual-layer and quantum-counting CT system concepts

    Kappler, S.; Grasruck, M.; Niederlöhner, D.; Strassburg, M.; Wirth, S.

    2009-02-01

    Recent publications in the field of Computed Tomography (CT) demonstrate the rising interest in applying dual-energy methods for material classification during clinical routine examinations. Based on today's standard of technology, dual-energy CT can be realized by either scanning with different X-ray spectra or by deployment of energy selective detector technologies. The list of so-called dual-kVp methods contains sequential scans, fast kVp-switching and dual-source CT. Examples of energy selective detectors are scintillator-based energyintegrating dual-layer devices or direct converter with quantum counting electronics. The general difference of the approaches lies in the shape of the effectively detected X-ray energy spectra and in the presence of crossscatter radiation in the case of dual-source devices. This leads to different material classification capabilities for the various techniques. In this work, we present detector response simulations of realistic CT scans with subsequent CT image reconstruction. Analysis of the image data allows direct and objective comparison of the dual-kVp, dual-layer, and quantum counting CT system concepts. The dual-energy performance is benchmarked in terms of image noise and Iodine-bone separation power at given image sharpness and dose exposure. For the case of dual-source devices the effect of cross-scatter radiation, as well as the benefit of additional filtering are taken into account.

  10. In vitro differentiation of renal stone composition using dual-source, dual-energy CT

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of dual-source. dual-energy CT in differentiating uric acid stones from non-uric acid stones with infrared spectroscopy as reference standard. Materials and Methods: Urinary calculus from 308 patients were scanned in first generation dual-source CT with dual-energy mode between July 2011 and June 2012. Renal Stone application was used to analyze their composition. The uric acid stones color were coded red and non-uric acid stones were blue. CT values were measured in 60 selective urinary calculus including 30 uric acid stones and 30 non-uric acid stones. The accuracy of dual energy CT to differentiate uric acid and no-uric acid stones was calculated. Results: Of 308 patients, 60 patients had uric acid stones and 248 non-uric acid stones. No difference was found for uric acid stone at 80 kV and 140 kV (375.8±69.2 HU vs. 374.1±69.4 HU; t=-0.217, P=0.830), while CT values of non-uric acid stones were higher at 80 kV than those at 140 kV (1455.1±312.4 HU vs. 1039.6±194.4 HU; t=-12.16. P<0.001). CT values of non-uric acid stones at 80 kV, 140 kV, and average weighted images (1455.1±312.4 HU, 1 039.6±194.4 HU, and 882.0±176.4 HU, respectively) were higher than those of uric acid stones (375.8±69.2 HU, 374.1±69.4 HU, and 366.3±80.1 HU, respectively; P<0.001). With infrared spectrum findings as reference standard, the accuracy of dual energy CT in differentiating uric acid stones from non-uric acid stones was 100%. Conclusions: Dual-source, dual-energy CT can accurately differentiate uric acid stones from non-uric acid stones, and plays an important role in treatment planning of renal stones. (authors)

  11. Vacuum Referred Binding Energy of the Single 3d, 4d, or 5d Electron in Transition Metal and Lanthanide Impurities in Compounds

    Rogers, E.G.; Dorenbos, P.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum referred binding energy (VRBE) of the single electron in the lowest energy 3d level of Sc2 +, V4 +, Cr5 +, the lowest 4d level of Y2 +, Zr3 +, Nb4 +, Mo5 + and the lowest 5d level of Ta4 +, and W5 + in various compounds are determined by means of the chemical shift model. They will be compared with the VRBE in the already established lowest 3d level of Ti3 + and the lowest 5d level of Eu2 + and Ce3 +. Clear trends with changing charge of the transition metal (TM) cation and with ch...

  12. The Development of WARP - A Framework for Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Neutron Transport in General 3D Geometries on GPUs

    Bergmann, Ryan

    Graphics processing units, or GPUs, have gradually increased in computational power from the small, job-specific boards of the early 1990s to the programmable powerhouses of today. Compared to more common central processing units, or CPUs, GPUs have a higher aggregate memory bandwidth, much higher floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), and lower energy consumption per FLOP. Because one of the main obstacles in exascale computing is power consumption, many new supercomputing platforms are gaining much of their computational capacity by incorporating GPUs into their compute nodes. Since CPU-optimized parallel algorithms are not directly portable to GPU architectures (or at least not without losing substantial performance), transport codes need to be rewritten to execute efficiently on GPUs. Unless this is done, reactor simulations cannot take full advantage of these new supercomputers. WARP, which can stand for ``Weaving All the Random Particles,'' is a three-dimensional (3D) continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code developed in this work as to efficiently implement a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport algorithm on a GPU. WARP accelerates Monte Carlo simulations while preserving the benefits of using the Monte Carlo Method, namely, very few physical and geometrical simplifications. WARP is able to calculate multiplication factors, flux tallies, and fission source distributions for time-independent problems, and can run in both criticality or fixed source modes. WARP can transport neutrons in unrestricted arrangements of parallelepipeds, hexagonal prisms, cylinders, and spheres. WARP uses an event-based algorithm, but with some important differences. Moving data is expensive, so WARP uses a remapping vector of pointer/index pairs to direct GPU threads to the data they need to access. The remapping vector is sorted by reaction type after every transport iteration using a high-efficiency parallel radix sort, which serves to keep the

  13. Open 3D Projects

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  14. The high-energy dual-beam facility

    This proposal presents a new experimental facility at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) to study the effects of irradiation on the first wall and blanket materials of a fusion reactor. A special effort is made to demonstrate the advantages of the Dual Beam Technique (DBT) as a future research tool for materials development within the European Fusion Technology Programme. The Dual-Beam-Technique allows the production both of helium and of damage in thick metal and ceramic specimens by simultaneous irradiation with high energy alpha particles and protons produced by the two KfK cyclotrons. The proposal describes the Dual Beam Technique the planned experimental activities and the design features of the Dual Beam Facility presently under construction. (orig.)

  15. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  16. Optimizing the CsI thickness for chest dual-shot dual-energy detectors

    Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Junwoo; Youn, Hanbean; Jeon, Hosang; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Dual-energy imaging method has been introduced to improve conspicuity of abnormalities in radiographs. The method typically uses the fast kilovoltage-switching approach, which acquires low and high-energy projections in successive x-ray exposures with the same detector. However, it is typically known that there exists an optimal detector thickness regarding specific imaging tasks or energies used. In this study, the dual-energy detectability has been theoretically addressed for various combinations of detector thicknesses for low and high-energy spectra using the cascaded-systems analysis. Cesium iodide (CsI) is accounted for the x-ray converter in the hypothetical detector. The simple prewhitening model shows that a larger CsI thickness (250 mg cm-2 for example) would be preferred to the the typical CsI thickness of 200 mg cm-2 for better detectability. On the other hand, the typical CsI thickness is acceptable for the prewhitening model considering human-eye filter. The theoretical strategy performed in this study will be useful for a better design of detectors for dual-energy imaging.

  17. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  18. Dual energy radiography using a single exposure technique

    This study presents preliminary results of single exposure dual energy computed radiography using laser stimulable luminescent phosphor imaging plate detectors. The single exposure technique makes use of four of these plates in a single cassette, each plate acting as an X-ray filter to the next so that the energy separation required for the dual energy basis decomposition is achieved. An analysis to determine the best operating technique for the chest is performed using computer simulation, and was found to be 85 kVp and 14 mAs. This information for the decomposition is obtained without additional dose to the patient. The ISo-transmission line technique is obtained without additional dose to the patient. The phantom was used to test the quality of the resulting calibration material equivalent images. The quality of the images, although slightly inferior to that of dual exposure techniques, seem acceptable for clinical application

  19. Customer loyalty program for the dual-energy clientele

    Hydro-Quebec''s plans to provide a dual energy residential heating program, combining a main electric heating system and a fossil fuel back-up system, were described as an example of a customer loyalty program. It provides a portfolio of products and services answering to the different needs of customers. Dual-energy heating systems were first offered in Quebec as far back as the 1980s. Currently there are 115,000 Quebec households making use of this service. Some 35,000 of them have heat pumps and subscribe to Hydro-Quebec''s DT rate which is based on fuel mode usage being determined by exterior temperatures. The dual-energy system permits a peak-saving of some 600 MW, while maintaining electricity sales of 1,000 GWh in off-peak periods. Experiences with this system and some of the important lessons learned, especially in terms of consumer relations, were summarized. 2 refs., 1 tab

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  2. Estimation of the matrix attenuation in heterogeneous radioactive waste drums using dual-energy computed tomography

    Gamma spectroscopy measurements of the activity of radionuclides in nuclear waste drums must be corrected for the attenuation due to the non-homogeneous waste matrix. The attenuation factors depend on the matrix local density and effective atomic number, and on the energy of the gamma rays emitted by the radionuclides. The requirements for the system presented in this paper are to estimate the attenuation in low-density (3), 120 l drums containing radionuclides emitting in the (59.5 keV, 1.4 MeV) energy range. A series of three-dimensional (3D) attenuation maps of the drum are computed using a dual-energy computerized tomography (DE-CT) system with an external, polychromatic X-ray source. The system successively records low-energy (mean energy about 62 keV) and high-energy (about 300 keV) projections using different tube voltages, anode current, and filtration. Each projection is acquired by 22 BGO scintillators - PM detectors in fan-beam geometry. The drum is rotated and elevated in a helical scan. A DE calibration transforms pairs of DE projections into pairs of 'equivalent basis materials (BM)' projections. This non-linear transformation allows to correct for polychromaticity. After reconstruction, the two 'equivalent BM' 3D maps are used, together with tabulated attenuation data of the BMs, in order to extrapolate the 3D attenuation map at any energy peak. Maps of the mass density and of the effective atomic number can also be computed. The total examination time is less than 5 min. Experimental images are shown

  3. Hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-V2O5 (vanadium pentoxide) spheres as cathode materials for high-energy and high-power lithium ion-batteries

    We facilely fabricate hierarchical 3D microspheres consisting of 2D V2O5 (vanadium pentoxide) nanosheets by a low temperature hydrothermal method and use it to structure hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-LIBs (lithium ion batteries) cathode. This is a template-free and facile method easy for scale-up production of hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-structured V2O5 spheres beneficial for high performance LIBs applications. Such a facile method resulted hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-V2O5 possess many unique features good for LIBs: (1) 2D V2O5 nanosheets facilitate the Li+ diffusions and electron transports; (2) hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-cathode structure built up by V2O5 nanosheet spheres will lead to the close and sufficient contact between electrolytes and activate materials and at the same time will create buffer volume to accommodate the volume change during discharging/charging process; and (3) micro-scale V2O5 spheres are easy to result in high cell packing density beneficial for high power battery. As revealed by the experimental results, the micro-/nano-V2O5 electrode demonstrates high initial discharge and charge capacities with no irreversible loss, high rate capacities at different currents and long-lasting lifespan. The high-energy and high-power performances of the micro-/nano-V2O5 electrode is ascribed to the unique hierarchical micro-/nano-structure merits of V2O5 spheres as abovementioned. In view of the advantages of facile fabrication method and unique features of 3D micro-/nano-V2O5 spheres for high power and high energy LIB battery, it is of great significance to beneficially broaden the applications of high-energy and high-power LIBs with creating novel hierarchical micro-/nano-structured V2O5 cathode materials. - Highlights: • Hierarchical 3D micro-/nano-V2O5 spheres were facile fabricated by a template free hydrothermal method for LIBs cathode. • High energy and high power LIBs were resulted from many unique features. • Unique hierarchical 3D micro

  4. 3D and Education

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  5. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion imaging with dual-energy CT

    Thieme, Sven F. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Muenchen (Germany); Klinikum Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, LMU Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Hoegl, Sandra; Fisahn, Juergen; Irlbeck, Michael [Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Anesthesiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Muenchen (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Maxien, Daniel; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Christoph R.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT) ventilation imaging in combination with DE perfusion mapping for a comprehensive assessment of ventilation, perfusion, morphology and structure of the pulmonary parenchyma. Two dual-energy CT acquisitions for xenon-enhanced ventilation and iodine-enhanced perfusion mapping were performed in patients under artificial respiration. Parenchymal xenon and iodine distribution were mapped and correlated with structural or vascular abnormalities. In all datasets, image quality was sufficient for a comprehensive image reading of the pulmonary CTA images, lung window images and pulmonary functional parameter maps and led to expedient results in each patient. With dual-source CT systems, DECT of the lung with iodine or xenon administration is technically feasible and makes it possible to depict the regional iodine or xenon distribution representing the local perfusion and ventilation. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion imaging with dual-energy CT

    To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT) ventilation imaging in combination with DE perfusion mapping for a comprehensive assessment of ventilation, perfusion, morphology and structure of the pulmonary parenchyma. Two dual-energy CT acquisitions for xenon-enhanced ventilation and iodine-enhanced perfusion mapping were performed in patients under artificial respiration. Parenchymal xenon and iodine distribution were mapped and correlated with structural or vascular abnormalities. In all datasets, image quality was sufficient for a comprehensive image reading of the pulmonary CTA images, lung window images and pulmonary functional parameter maps and led to expedient results in each patient. With dual-source CT systems, DECT of the lung with iodine or xenon administration is technically feasible and makes it possible to depict the regional iodine or xenon distribution representing the local perfusion and ventilation. (orig.)

  7. CdS sensitized 3D hierarchical TiO2/ZnO heterostructure for efficient solar energy conversion.

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Xie, Wen; Lim, Zhi Shiuh; You, Lu; Wang, Junling

    2014-01-01

    For conventional dye or quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which are fabricated using mesoporous films, the inefficient electron transport due to defects such as grain boundaries and surface traps is a major drawback. To simultaneously increase the carrier transport efficiency as well as the surface area, optimal-assembling of hierarchical nanostructures is an attractive approach. Here, a three dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructure, consisting of CdS sensitized one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods deposited on two dimensional (2D) TiO2 (001) nanosheet, is prepared via a solution-process method. Such heterstructure exhibits significantly enhanced photoelectric and photocatalytic H2 evolution performance compared with CdS sensitized 1D ZnO nanorods/1D TiO2 nanorods photoanode, as a result of the more efficient light harvesting over the entire visible light spectrum and the effective electron transport through a highly connected 3D network. PMID:25030846

  8. CdS sensitized 3D hierarchical TiO2/ZnO heterostructure for efficient solar energy conversion

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Xie, Wen; Lim, Zhi Shiuh; You, Lu; Wang, Junling

    2014-01-01

    For conventional dye or quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which are fabricated using mesoporous films, the inefficient electron transport due to defects such as grain boundaries and surface traps is a major drawback. To simultaneously increase the carrier transport efficiency as well as the surface area, optimal-assembling of hierarchical nanostructures is an attractive approach. Here, a three dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructure, consisting of CdS sensitized one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods deposited on two dimensional (2D) TiO2 (001) nanosheet, is prepared via a solution-process method. Such heterstructure exhibits significantly enhanced photoelectric and photocatalytic H2 evolution performance compared with CdS sensitized 1D ZnO nanorods/1D TiO2 nanorods photoanode, as a result of the more efficient light harvesting over the entire visible light spectrum and the effective electron transport through a highly connected 3D network. PMID:25030846

  9. Similarities between 2D and 3D convection for large Prandtl number

    PANDEY AMBRISH; VERMA MAHENDRA K; CHATTERJEE ANANDO G; DUTTA BIPLAB

    2016-07-01

    Using direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh–Bénard convection (RBC), we perform a comparative study of the spectra and fluxes of energy and entropy, and the scaling of large-scale quantities for large and infinite Prandtl numbers in two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions. We observe close similarities between the 2D and 3D RBC, in particular, the kinetic energy spectrum $E^{u}(k) ∼ k^{−13/3}$, and the entropy spectrum exhibits a dual branch with a dominant $k^{−2}$ spectrum. We showed that the dominant Fourier modes in 2D and 3D flows are very close. Consequently, the 3D RBC is quasi-two-dimensional, which is the reason for the similarities between the 2D and 3D RBC for large and infinite Prandtl numbers.

  10. A combination of 3D-QSAR, docking, local-binding energy (LBE) and GRID study of the species differences in the carcinogenicity of benzene derivatives chemicals.

    Fratev, Filip; Benfenati, Emilio

    2008-09-01

    A combination of 3D-QSAR, docking, local-binding energy (LBE) and GRID methods was applied as a tool to study and predict the mechanism of action of 100 carcinogenic benzene derivatives. Two 3D-QSAR models were obtained: (i) model of mouse carcinogenicity on the basis of 100 chemicals (model 1) and (ii) model of the differences in mouse and rat carcinogenicity on the basis of 73 compounds (model 2). 3D-QSAR regression maps indicated the important differences in species carcinogenicity, and the molecular positions associated with them. In order to evaluate the role of P450 metabolic process in carcinogenicity, the following approaches were used. The 3D models of CYP2E1 for mouse and rat were built up. A docking study was applied and the important ligand-protein residues interactions and oxidation positions of the molecules were identified. A new approach for quantitative assessment of metabolism pathways was developed, which enabled us to describe the species differences in CYP2E1 metabolism, and how it can be related to differences in the carcinogenic potential for a subset of compounds. The binding energies of the important substituents (local-binding energy-LBE) were calculated, in order to quantitatively demonstrate the contribution of the substituents in metabolic processes. Furthermore, a computational procedure was used for determining energetically favourable binding sites (GRID examination) of the enzymes. The GRID procedure allowed the identification of some important differences, related to species metabolism in CYP2E1. Comparing GRID, 3D-QSAR maps and LBE results, a similarity was identified, indicating a relationship between P450 metabolic processes and the differences in the carcinogenicity. PMID:18495507

  11. 3D proton beam micromachining

    Focused high energy ion beam micromachining is the newest of the micromachining techniques. There are about 50 scanning proton microprobe facilities worldwide, but so far only few of them showed activity in this promising field. High energy ion beam micromachining using a direct-write scanning MeV ion beam is capable of producing 3D microstructures and components with well defined lateral and depth geometry. The technique has high potential in the manufacture of 3D molds, stamps, and masks for X-ray lithography (LIGA), and also in the rapid prototyping of microcomponents either for research purposes or for components testing prior to batch production. (R.P.)

  12. 3D virtuel udstilling

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  13. Dual-energy perfusion-CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Klauß, M., E-mail: miriam.klauss@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Stiller, W., E-mail: wolfram.stiller@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pahn, G., E-mail: gregor.pahn@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Fritz, F., E-mail: franzi.fritz@cegug.org [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kieser, M., E-mail: meinhard.kieser@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Inst. of Medical Biometry and Informatics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Werner, J., E-mail: jens.werner@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.U., E-mail: hans-ulrich.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grenacher, L., E-mail: lars.grenacher@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT)-perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas for assessing the differences in perfusion, permeability and blood volume of healthy pancreatic tissue and histopathologically confirmed solid pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and methods: 24 patients with histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma were examined prospectively with a 64-slice dual source CT using a dynamic sequence of 34 dual-energy (DE) acquisitions every 1.5 s (80 ml of iodinated contrast material, 370 mg/ml, flow rate 5 ml/s). 80 kV{sub p}, 140 kV{sub p}, and weighted average (linearly blended M0.3) 120 kV{sub p}-equivalent dual-energy perfusion image data sets were evaluated with a body-perfusion CT tool (Body-PCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) for estimating perfusion, permeability, and blood volume values. Color-coded parameter maps were generated. Results: In all 24 patients dual-energy CT-perfusion was. All carcinomas could be identified in the color-coded perfusion maps. Calculated perfusion, permeability and blood volume values were significantly lower in pancreatic carcinomas compared to healthy pancreatic tissue. Weighted average 120 kV{sub p}-equivalent perfusion-, permeability- and blood volume-values determined from DE image data were 0.27 ± 0.04 min{sup −1} vs. 0.91 ± 0.04 min{sup −1} (p < 0.0001), 0.5 ± 0.07 *0.5 min{sup −1} vs. 0.67 ± 0.05 *0.5 min{sup −1} (p = 0.06) and 0.49 ± 0.07 min{sup −1} vs. 1.28 ± 0.11 min{sup −1} (p < 0.0001). Compared with 80 and 140 kV{sub p} the standard deviations of the kV{sub p}120 kV{sub p}-equivalent values were manifestly smaller. Conclusion: Dual-energy CT-perfusion of the pancreas is feasible. The use of DECT improves the accuracy of CT-perfusion of the pancreas by fully exploiting the advantages of enhanced iodine contrast at 80 kV{sub p} in combination with the noise reduction at 140 kV{sub p}. Therefore using dual-energy perfusion data could improve the delineation

  14. Motion artifacts in dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography

    Allec, Nicholas; Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Lewin, John M.; Karim, Karim S.

    2012-03-01

    Several strategies have been investigated to acquire both low- and high-energy images simultaneously for contrastenhanced mammography (CEM). However, for the dual-energy technique where the existing conventional mammography infrastructure can be leveraged, low- and high-energy images are acquired using two separate exposures and the finite time between image acquisition leads to motion artifacts in the combined image. Motion artifacts lead to greater noise in the combined image and affect image quality, however the relationship between them is not clear. In this study we examine motion artifacts in dual-energy CEM and their impact on anatomical noise in the combined image and tumor detectability. To study the impact of motion artifacts, a cascaded systems model is extended to include such motion artifacts. An ideal observer model is used to quantify the performance and CEM images from a previous clinical study are used for comparison of the extended model.

  15. Energy calibration of the TUNL dual-900 magnet analyzing system

    An energy calibration of the dual-900 magnet momentum analyzing system has been completed for proton beams spanning the energy range of 1.9 to 14.2 MeV. The absolute calibration points used, resulted from measurements of both (p,n) thresholds and narrow (p,p) resonances. The calibration measurements were made during several separate experimental runs over a time period of approximately 1-1/2 years. Through careful monitoring of the system parameters and by using consistent magnet recycling procedures, the calibration allows accurate measurements of beam energies to within +- 2 keV. The dual-900 magnet system was determined to have a non-constant energy-to-frequency relationship for low magnetic fields

  16. Novel clinical applications of dual energy computed tomography.

    Kraśnicki, Tomasz; Podgórski, Przemysław; Guziński, Maciej; Czarnecka, Anna; Tupikowski, Krzysztof; Garcarek, Jerzy; Marek Sąsiadek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Dual energy CT (DECT) was conceived at the very beginning of the computed tomography era. However the first DECT scanner was developed in 2006. Nowadays there are three different types of DECT available: dual-source CT with 80(100) kVp and 140 kVp tubes (Siemens Medical Solution); dual-layer multi-detector scanner with acquisition 120 or 140kVp (Philips Healthcare); CT unit with one rapid kVp switching source and new detector based on gemstone scintillator materials (GE Healthcare). This article describes the physical background and principles of DECT imaging as well as applications of this innovative method in routine clinical practice (renal stone differentiation, pulmonary perfusion, neuroradiology and metallic implant imaging). The particular applications are illustrated by cases from author's material. PMID:23457140

  17. Underwater 3D filming

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  18. Material differentiation by dual energy CT: initial experience

    Johnson, Thorsten R.C.; Morhard, Dominik; Fink, Christian; Weckbach, Sabine; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Christoph R. [University of Munich-Grosshadern Campus, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Krauss, Bernhard; Grasruck, Michael; Bruder, Herbert; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Medical Solutions AG - Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany); Sedlmair, Martin [University of Munich-Grosshadern Campus, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Siemens Medical Solutions AG - Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany); Lenhard, Miriam [University of Munich-Grosshadern Campus, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a differentiation of iodine from other materials and of different body tissues using dual energy CT. Ten patients were scanned on a SOMATOM Definition Dual Source CT (DSCT; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) system in dual energy mode at tube voltages of 140 and 80 kVp and a ratio of 1:3 between tube currents. Weighted CT Dose Index ranged between 7 and 8 mGy, remaining markedly below reference dose values for the respective body regions. Image post-processing with three-material decomposition was applied to differentiate iodine or collagen from other tissue. The results showed that a differentiation and depiction of contrast material distribution is possible in the brain, the lung, the liver and the kidneys with or without the underlying tissue of the organ. In angiographies, bone structures can be removed from the dataset to ease the evaluation of the vessels. The differentiation of collagen makes it possible to depict tendons and ligaments. Dual energy CT offers a more specific tissue characterization in CT and can improve the assessment of vascular disease. Further studies are required to draw conclusions on the diagnostic value of the individual applications. (orig.)

  19. Basis set limit electronic excitation energies, ionization potentials, and electron affinities for the 3d transition metal atoms: Coupled cluster and multireference methods

    Balabanov, Nikolai B.; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2006-08-01

    Recently developed correlation consistent basis sets for the first row transition metal elements Sc-Zn have been utilized to determine complete basis set (CBS) scalar relativistic electron affinities, ionization potentials, and 4s23dn -2-4s1dn -1 electronic excitation energies with single reference coupled cluster methods [CCSD(T), CCSDT, and CCSDTQ] and multireference configuration interaction with three reference spaces: 3d4s, 3d4s4p, and 3d4s4p3d'. The theoretical values calculated with the highest order coupled cluster techniques at the CBS limit, including extrapolations to full configuration interaction, are well within 1kcal/mol of the corresponding experimental data. For the early transition metal elements (Sc-Mn) the internally contracted multireference averaged coupled pair functional method yielded excellent agreement with experiment; however, the atomic properties for the late transition metals (Mn-Zn) proved to be much more difficult to describe with this level of theory, even with the largest reference function of the present work.

  20. 3D visualization of TiO2 nanocrystals in mesoporous nanocomposite using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy tomography

    Gondo, Takashi; Kasama, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    NPs and for comparison. Result and discussionFigure 1 shows 3D-volume of AuNPs and TiO2 nanocrystals from EFTEM-tomography. TiO2 nanocrystals in the porous material were successfully visualized using EFTEM -tomography, and local relationship between AuNPs and TiO2 nanocrystals were revealed. A large...... number of TiO2 nanocrystals were randomly distributed in the SBA-15. It was found that most AuNPs were directly on the exposed TiO2 nanocrystals. It implies that TiO2 nanocrystals were exposed on the surface of the pore and anchored AuNPs inside the pores.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i27/DFU081F1F1DFU081F1Fig. 1.3D......NPs. Materials and methodAu/TiO2-SBA-15 was embedded into epoxy resin for electron microscopy and microtomed to about 30 nm thickness. EFTEM-tomography was operated at 120 kV and using Ti-L ionization edge via three-window method. Prior to EFTEM, STEM-HAADF tomography was also carried out for visualizing Au...

  1. Predicting the binding free energy of the inclusion process of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and small molecules by means of the MM/3D-RISM method

    Sugita, Masatake; Hirata, Fumio

    2016-09-01

    A protocol to calculate the binding free energy of a host–guest system is proposed based on the MM/3D-RISM method, taking cyclodextrin derivatives and their ligands as model systems. The protocol involves the procedure to identify the most probable binding mode (MPBM) of receptors and ligands by means of the umbrella sampling method. The binding free energies calculated by the MM/3D-RISM method for the complexes of the seven ligands with the MPBM of the cyclodextrin, and with the fluctuated structures around it, are in agreement with the corresponding experimental data in a semi-quantitative manner. It suggests that the protocol proposed here is promising for predicting the binding affinity of a small ligand to a relatively rigid receptor such as cyclodextrin.

  2. Predicting the binding free energy of the inclusion process of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and small molecules by means of the MM/3D-RISM method.

    Sugita, Masatake; Hirata, Fumio

    2016-09-28

    A protocol to calculate the binding free energy of a host-guest system is proposed based on the MM/3D-RISM method, taking cyclodextrin derivatives and their ligands as model systems. The protocol involves the procedure to identify the most probable binding mode (MPBM) of receptors and ligands by means of the umbrella sampling method. The binding free energies calculated by the MM/3D-RISM method for the complexes of the seven ligands with the MPBM of the cyclodextrin, and with the fluctuated structures around it, are in agreement with the corresponding experimental data in a semi-quantitative manner. It suggests that the protocol proposed here is promising for predicting the binding affinity of a small ligand to a relatively rigid receptor such as cyclodextrin. PMID:27452185

  3. Large $N$ matrix models for 3d ${\\cal N}=2$ theories: twisted index, free energy and black holes

    Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We provide general formulae for the topologically twisted index of a general three-dimensional ${\\cal N}\\geq 2$ gauge theory with an M-theory or massive type IIA dual in the large $N$ limit. The index is defined as the supersymmetric path integral of the theory on $S^2\\times S^1$ in the presence of background magnetic fluxes for the R- and global symmetries and it is conjectured to reproduce the entropy of magnetically charged static BPS AdS$_4$ black holes. For a class of theories with an M-...

  4. Pancreatic dual-source dual-energy CT: Is it time to discard unenhanced imaging?

    Aim: To compare pancreatic virtual unenhanced (VUE) and true unenhanced (TUE) images and to calculate the potential dose reduction by omitting the conventional unenhanced scan. Materials and methods: Fifty-one patients with known or suspected pancreatic masses underwent contrast-enhanced computed-tomography (CT) during unenhanced and portal venous phases acquired in single-energy (SE) mode, and pancreatic parenchymal phase acquired in dual-energy (DE) mode. The image quality (IQ) and image noise (IN) of TUE and VUE images were evaluated. The effective dose of a combined DE/SE dual-phase protocol was compared with that of a theoretical standard SE triple-phase protocol. The results were tested for statistical significance using the Cohen’s k, the Wilcoxon’s signed rank test, and the paired t-test; p-values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Mean TUE and VUE IQ were 1.5 ± 0.6 and 1.6 ± 0.6 (k = 0.891), with no significant difference (p > 0.05). Mean TUE and VUE IN were 12.3 ± 1.6 and 10.3 ± 1.5 HU, and resulted significantly different (p < 0.001). Mean effective doses for a combined DE/SE dual-phase protocol and SE triple-phase protocol were 8.9 ± 2.4 mSv (range 4.8–16.2 mSv) and 12.1 ± 3.1 mSv (range 6.4–21.1 mSv). The calculated mean dose reduction achievable by omitting the unenhanced scan was 26.7 ± 9.7% (range 10–46.1; p < 0.001). Conclusion: VUE images are feasible for pancreatic abdominal CT. A combined DE/SE dual-phase protocol permits a significant reduction in dose exposure to patients.

  5. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  6. Large $N$ matrix models for 3d ${\\cal N}=2$ theories: twisted index, free energy and black holes

    Hosseini, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    We provide general formulae for the topologically twisted index of a general three-dimensional ${\\cal N}\\geq 2$ gauge theory with an M-theory or massive type IIA dual in the large $N$ limit. The index is defined as the supersymmetric path integral of the theory on $S^2\\times S^1$ in the presence of background magnetic fluxes for the R- and global symmetries and it is conjectured to reproduce the entropy of magnetically charged static BPS AdS$_4$ black holes. For a class of theories with an M-theory dual, we show that the logarithm of the index scales indeed as $N^{3/2}$ (and $N^{5/3}$ in the massive type IIA case). We find an intriguing relation with the (apparently unrelated) large $N$ limit of the partition function on $S^3$. We also provide a universal formula for extracting the index from the large $N$ partition function on $S^3$ and its derivatives and point out its analogy with the attractor mechanism for AdS black holes.

  7. Blender 3D cookbook

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  8. Robust solution procedure for the discrete energy-averaged model on the calculation of 3D hysteretic magnetization and magnetostriction of iron–gallium alloys

    A reformulation of the Discrete Energy-Averaged model for the calculation of 3D hysteretic magnetization and magnetostriction of iron-gallium (Galfenol) alloys is presented in this paper. An analytical solution procedure based on an eigenvalue decomposition is developed. This procedure avoids the singularities present in the existing approximate solution by offering multiple local minimum energy directions for each easy crystallographic direction. This improved robustness is crucial for use in finite element codes. Analytical simplifications of the 3D model to 2D and 1D applications are also presented. In particular, the 1D model requires calculation for only one easy direction, while all six easy directions must be considered for general applications. Compared to the approximate solution procedure, it is shown that the resulting robustness comes at no expense for 1D applications, but requires almost twice the computational effort for 3D applications. To find model parameters, we employ the average of the hysteretic data, rather than anhysteretic curves, which would require additional measurements. An efficient optimization routine is developed that retains the dimensionality of the prior art. The routine decouples the parameters into exclusive sets, some of which are found directly through a fast preprocessing step to improve accuracy and computational efficiency. The effectiveness of the model is verified by comparison with existing measurement data. - Highlights: • The discrete energy-averaged model for Galfenol is reformulated. • An analytical solution for 3D magnetostriction and magnetization is developed from eigenvalue decomposition. • Improved robustness is achieved. • An efficient optimization routine is developed to identify parameters from averaged hysteresis curves. • The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated against experimental data

  9. 3D Digital Modelling

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  10. More on Massive 3D Supergravity

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    Completing earlier work on three dimensional (3D) N=1 supergravity with curvature-squared terms, we construct the general supergravity extension of cosmological massive gravity theories. We expand about supersymmetric anti-de Sitter vacua, finding the conditions for bulk unitarity and the critical points in parameter space at which the spectrum changes. We discuss implications for the dual conformal field theory.

  11. Professional Papervision3D

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  12. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich;

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  13. Construction of a 3D porous network of copper film via a template-free deposition method with superior mechanical and electrical properties for micro-energy devices

    Peng, Yuncheng; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan

    2016-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of performance of energy conversion micro-devices, such as thin-film solar cells and thermoelectric micro-generators or coolers, their reliability and stability still remain a challenge. The high electrical and mechanical stability of an electrode is two of the critical factors that affect the long-term life of devices. Here we show that these factors can be achieved by constructing a 3D porous network of nanostructures in copper film using facile magnetron sputtering technology without any templates. The constructed 3D porous network of nanostructures in Cu film provides not only the advantages of light weight, prominently high conductivity, and large elastic deformation, but also the ability to absorb stress, preventing crack propagation, which is crucial for electrodes to maintain stable electrical and mechanical properties under working conditions. The nanopores inside the 3D network are capable of unrestrained deformation under applied stress resulting in strong elastic recovery. This work puts forward a feasible solution for manufacturing electrodes with excellent electrical and mechanical properties for micro-energy devices.

  14. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field.

  15. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field

  16. Dual-Energy X-Radiography With Gadolinium Filter

    Rutt, Brian

    1987-01-01

    Image resolution increased, and cost reduced. Proposed dual-energy x-ray imaging system, continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum from x-ray tube filtered by foil of nonradioactive gadolinium or another rare-earth metal to form two-peaked energy spectrum. After passing through patient or object under examination, filtered radiation detected by array of energy-discriminating, photon-counting detectors. Detector outputs processed to form x-ray image for each peak and possibly enhanced image based on data taken at both peaks.

  17. Application of dual-energy scanning technique with dual-source CT in pulmonary mass lesions

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of DSCT dual-energy technique in pulmonary mass lesions. Methods: A total of 100 patients with pulmonary masses underwent conventional plain CT scan and dual-energy enhanced CT scan. The virtual non-contrast (VNC) images were obtained at post-processing workstation.The mean CT value,enhancement value,signal to noise ratio (SNR), image quality and radiation dose of pulmonary masses were compared between the two scan techniques using F or t test and the detectability of lesions was compared using Wilcoxon test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among VNC (A) (32.89 ± 12.58) HU,VNC (S) (30.86 ± 9.60) HU and conventional plain images (35.89 ± 9.99) HU in mean CT value of mass (F =2.08, P>0.05). There was statistically significant difference among VNC (A) (3.29 ± 1.45), VNC (S) (3.93 ± 1.49) and conventional plain image (4.61 ± 1.50) in SNR (F =6.01, P<0.05), which of conventional plain scan was higher than that of VNC.The enhancement value of mass in conventional enhanced scan (60.74 ± 13.9) HU and distribution of iodine from VNC (A) (58.26 ± 31.99) HU was no statistically significant difference (t=0.48, P>0.05), but there was a significant difference between conventional enhanced scan (56.51 ± 17.94) HU and distribution of iodine from VNC (S) (52.65 ± 16.78) HU (t=4.45, P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference among conventional plain scan (4.69 ± 0.06) and VNC (A) (4.60 ± 0.09), VNC (S) (4.61 ±0.11) in image quality at mediastinal window (F=3.014, P>0.05). The appearance, size, internal features of mass (such as necrosis, calcification and cavity) were showed the same in conventional plain scan, VNC (A) and VNC (S). Of 41 patients with hilar mass, 18 patients were found to have lobular and segmental perfusion decrease or defect. Perfusion defect area was found in 59 patients with peripheral lung mass. The radiation dose of dual-energy enhanced scan was lower than that of

  18. Prototype construction of a dual-channel 3D many-core NoC based on KILL rule%基于KILL规则的双通道3D众核NoC原型构建

    谭海

    2013-01-01

    In order to design a low-delay and low-overhead many-core Network-on-Chip (NoC),the paper proposes an Architecture Utilizing 3D Stack Hierarchical Dual-channel NoC (AUSHDN) and KILL(Kill If Less Linear)rule is used to determine the number of processing cores in each group of AUSHDN.What's more,the prototype of the AUSHDN system is established based on the Graphite simulator from MIT.In AUSGHN system,3D stack Hierarchical multilevel internet-on-chip is employed and different communication link is used to transfer control and data signal according to different content of communication.The results of simulation test in prototype system show that:compared with the traditional 2D NOC,the power consumption has reduced by 20% and the time delay has shortened by 30%.Meanwhile,the hierarchy feature of the AUSGHN system guarantees its good scalability.%为设计一个低开销低时延的众核NoC系统,提出了一种使用3D叠片技术的双通道片上众核体系AUTSDN,应用KILL规则确定了片上众核中组内处理核的个数,并基于MIT的Graphite模拟器建立了该体系的原型.AUTSDN体系中采用3D叠片分组多级片上互连网络,并且根据通信内容的不同,控制信号和数据信号的传输采取不同的通信链路.原型系统中的模拟测试结果表明,相比传统的2D片上网络,功耗降低了20%,时延降低了30%,同时AUTSDN的系统层次化特征确保了良好的系统扩展性.

  19. Anatomical decomposition in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the early diagnosis of lung cancer has recently become more important. For early screening lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as a gold standard for early diagnosis of lung cancer [1]. The major advantage of CT is that it is not susceptible to the problem of misdiagnosis caused by anatomical overlapping while CT has extremely high radiation dose and cost compared to chest radiography. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced new modality for lung cancer screening with relatively low radiation dose compared to CT [2] and also showing high sensitivity and specificity to prevent anatomical overlapping occurred in chest radiography. Dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules as means of reducing the anatomical noise [3]. In this study, possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by simulation study and actual experiment using prototype CDT. Furthermore organ absorbed dose and effective dose were compared with single energy CDT. The Gate v6 (Geant4 application for tomographic emission), and TASMIP (Tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomial) code were used for simulation study and simulated cylinder shape phantom consisted of 4 inner beads which were filled with spine, rib, muscle and lung equivalent materials. The patient dose was estimated by PCXMC 1.5 Monte Carlo simulation tool [4]. The tomosynthesis scan was performed with a linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over 30 degree of angular range with 1.5° degree of angular interval. The proto type CDT system has same geometry with simulation study and composed of E7869X (Toshiba, Japan) x-ray tube and FDX3543RPW (Toshiba, Japan) detector. The result images showed that reconstructed with dual energy clearly visualize lung filed by removing unnecessary bony structure. Furthermore, dual energy CDT could enhance

  20. A New Energy-Based Method for 3-D Finite-Element Nonlinear Flux Linkage computation of Electrical Machines

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    introduced in this paper is much easier to use and is computational faster. This method is derived based on the “apparent energy.” Calculation of the nonlinear flux linkage from this energy avoids numerical differentiation, which is sensitive to numerical errors but is required in the traditional energy...

  1. Dual physical interpretations of the energy tensor in general relativity

    The authors investigates the possibility of dual physical interpretations of the energy tensor in General Relativity, i.e., that a particular form might correspond to more than one physical kind of matter field. Plausibility is developed as the criterion for arguing whether such dual interpretations should be deemed viable. Electromagnetic and imperfect fluid energy tensors are studied, these being the most prevalent classical fields. The algebraic Rainich conditions are applied to the fluid. Characteristics and equations of state are analyzed. While requiring a relativistic fluid of peculiar properties, a dual interpretation is not prohibited. Conduction is shown to be generally necessary, and analogous to the Poynting vector. Large viscosity effects are always necessary, showing that the common photon gas/null fluid models for e.m. fields are not correct. Exact relations between fluid and e.m. parameters are then found, via an alternate e.m. energy tensor. This identifies the relationships between basic quantities of both fields, relating them to fluid rest-frame invariants. Examples of known electromagnetic metrics are tested as an equivalent fluid. Viscous identifications are shown to fail for all cases studied

  2. Development of energy efficient mixing strategies in egg-shaped anaerobic reactors through 3D CFD simulation.

    Hernandez-Aguilar, Eduardo; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Osorio-Mirón, Anselmo; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a 3D computational fluid dynamic model, which characterizes the hydrodynamic behavior of a mixing strategy applied to egg-shaped reactors that lack a mechanical stirring device. The model is based on Navier-Stokes and material balance equations without a chemical reaction. To describe the behavior of mixing, initial water feed flows of 6, 7.5 and 9 mL s(-1) were used. An experimental validation was subsequently carried out using a pulse technique, with NaCl as a tracer. The residence time distributions were quantitatively determined. Then, the degradation process of the wastewater sludge was characterized by studying the time dependence of the dynamic viscosity, the concentration of volatile solids and the density of wastewater sludge. The data resulting were introduced into the validated model, and five feed flows from 9 to 13 mL s(-1), the best performance found was with feed flow of 11 mL s(-1). PMID:26950282

  3. Projectile energy dependence in the molecular excitation of th H3+, D3+ molecular ions in their polar dissociation

    Yousif, F.B.; Hinojosa, G.; Dominguez, I. [IFUNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The laboratory energy distributions of H{sup +} and D{sup +} in coincidence with H{sup {minus}} and D{sup {minus}} ions, resulting from the collision-induced-dissociation of H{sup 3+} and D{sup 3+} on He target for incoming beam energies ranging from 2.5 to 9.0 keV has been measured. The energy-analyzed-spectra of ionic fragments were measured both independently and in coincidence with each other. From these, the energy absorbed by the dissociating molecular ions in the excitation process induced by the collision with He prior to its breakup, was evaluated as a function of the projectile energy and it was found that it is not constant but it is consistent with the identified H{sup 3+} excited states which have adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer energies of 21-50 eV above the H{sup 3+} ground state.

  4. Projectile energy dependence in the molecular excitation of th H3+, D3+ molecular ions in their polar dissociation

    The laboratory energy distributions of H+ and D+ in coincidence with H- and D- ions, resulting from the collision-induced-dissociation of H3+ and D3+ on He target for incoming beam energies ranging from 2.5 to 9.0 keV has been measured. The energy-analyzed-spectra of ionic fragments were measured both independently and in coincidence with each other. From these, the energy absorbed by the dissociating molecular ions in the excitation process induced by the collision with He prior to its breakup, was evaluated as a function of the projectile energy and it was found that it is not constant but it is consistent with the identified H3+ excited states which have adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer energies of 21-50 eV above the H3+ ground state

  5. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  6. 3D Projection Installations

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  7. Developments in Dual-Energy Single-Exposure Chest Radiography.

    Ho, Jung-Tsuoe

    1990-01-01

    Conventional chest radiography is the most commonly performed technique for the detection and diagnosis of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Nevertheless, a high percentage of cancer tumors are missed with this technique. One reason for errors is the overlap of tumor image with bone image in a chest radiograph. Dual-energy radiography has been suggested as the most effective method to eliminate bone contrast for better lung tumor visualization. Dual-energy radiography also provides a bone image from which benign nodules can be identified by the presence of nodule calcification. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a film-screen based dual-energy, single-exposure technique in lung nodule detection and to improve its performance by both hardware and software developments to increase the accuracy of lung cancer diagnosis. Our previous implementation of the technique resulted in small residual tissue contrast and incomplete tissue subtraction due to screen selection and x-ray beam hardening, respectively. Hardware developments, including uses of a new screen pair (Y_2O _2S/CaWO_4) and a K-edge filter (europium), were studied to improve residual tissue contrast by increasing the energy separation. As software developments, a three-dimensional interpolation algorithm and noise suppression methods were studied to achieve complete tissue subtraction and noise reduction, respectively. The results show that the Y_2O _2S/CaWO_4 performed better than LaOBr/CaWO_4; the use of K-edge filter produced more residual tissue contrast than that obtained without it; the interpolation algorithm effectively compensated for beam hardening and resulted in more complete tissue subtraction than image subtraction; and the noise suppression methods reduced noise by half. Even though the dual-exposure technique performed better than the single-exposure technique in a simulated lung nodule detection study, the difference between

  8. Dual energy scanning beam laminographic x-radiography

    Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.F.

    1998-04-21

    A multiple x-ray energy level imaging system includes a scanning x-ray beam and two detector design having a first low x-ray energy sensitive detector and a second high x-ray energy sensitive detector. The low x-ray energy detector is placed next to or in front of the high x-ray energy detector. The low energy sensitive detector has small stopping power for x-rays. The lower energy x-rays are absorbed and converted into electrical signals while the majority of the higher energy x-rays pass through undetected. The high energy sensitive detector has a large stopping power for x-rays as well as it having a filter placed between it and the object to absorb the lower energy x-rays. In a second embodiment; a single energy sensitive detector is provided which provides an output signal proportional to the amount of energy in each individual x-ray it absorbed. It can then have an electronic threshold or thresholds set to select two or more energy ranges for the images. By having multiple detectors located at different positions, a dual energy laminography system is possible. 6 figs.

  9. Dual energy scanning beam laminographic x-radiography

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Wojcik, Randolph F.

    1998-01-01

    A multiple x-ray energy level imaging system includes a scanning x-ray beam and two detector design having a first low x-ray energy sensitive detector and a second high x-ray energy sensitive detector. The low x-ray energy detector is placed next to or in front of the high x-ray energy detector. The low energy sensitive detector has small stopping power for x-rays. The lower energy x-rays are absorbed and converted into electrical signals while the majority of the higher energy x-rays pass through undetected. The high energy sensitive detector has a large stopping power for x-rays as well as it having a filter placed between it and the object to absorb the lower energy x-rays. In a second embodiment; a single energy sensitive detector is provided which provides an output signal proportional to the amount of energy in each individual x-ray it absorbed. It can then have an electronic threshold or thresholds set to select two or more energy ranges for the images. By having multiple detectors located at different positions, a dual energy laminography system is possible.

  10. Dual energy scanning beam laminographic x-radiography

    A multiple x-ray energy level imaging system includes a scanning x-ray beam and two detector design having a first low x-ray energy sensitive detector and a second high x-ray energy sensitive detector. The low x-ray energy detector is placed next to or in front of the high x-ray energy detector. The low energy sensitive detector has small stopping power for x-rays. The lower energy x-rays are absorbed and converted into electrical signals while the majority of the higher energy x-rays pass through undetected. The high energy sensitive detector has a large stopping power for x-rays as well as it having a filter placed between it and the object to absorb the lower energy x-rays. In a second embodiment; a single energy sensitive detector is provided which provides an output signal proportional to the amount of energy in each individual x-ray it absorbed. It can then have an electronic threshold or thresholds set to select two or more energy ranges for the images. By having multiple detectors located at different positions, a dual energy laminography system is possible. 6 figs