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Sample records for 345-kv transmission tie

  1. Construction of a 345 kV underground power transmission line; Construcao de linha de transmissao subterranea em 345 kv

    Silva, Altimar Francisco Costa da; Pasquali Filho, Helio Antonio; Matrangolo, Gilberto; Romano Filho, Rubens [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo SA, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    In order to improve and enlarge the capacity of its electric system, the Electricity Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil is building an underground power transmission line with four circuits of 345 kV. Therefore, this construction was projected for an outdoor ditch and tunnel 4 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Sound transmission performance on cavity ferrocement panels with ties

    Kandaswamy S; Ramachandraiah A

    2003-01-01

    Ferrocement panels have been used in low cost housing construction in developingcountries. This study focuses on the sound transmission performance of cavity ferrocement pan-els with ties. In this study, panels have been cast and tested in transmission loss suite speciallydesigned and constructed for testing their sound transmission performance experimentally. Themeasured results agree well with the theoretical model.

  3. Corporate-Feed Multilayer Bow-Tie Antenna Array Design Using a Simple Transmission Line Model

    Didouh, S.; Abri, M.; F. T. Bendimerad

    2012-01-01

    A transmission line model is used to design corporate-fed multilayered bow-tie antennas arrays; the simulated antennas arrays are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID, WIFI, and radars applications. The contribution of this paper consists of modeling multilayer bow-tie antenna array fed through an aperture using transmission line model. The transmission line model is simple and precise and allows taking into account the whole geometrical, ele...

  4. Corporate-Feed Multilayer Bow-Tie Antenna Array Design Using a Simple Transmission Line Model

    S. Didouh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmission line model is used to design corporate-fed multilayered bow-tie antennas arrays; the simulated antennas arrays are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID, WIFI, and radars applications. The contribution of this paper consists of modeling multilayer bow-tie antenna array fed through an aperture using transmission line model. The transmission line model is simple and precise and allows taking into account the whole geometrical, electrical, and technological characteristics of the antennas arrays. The proposed transmission line model showed its interest in the design of different multilayered bow-tie antennas and predicted the correct resonance frequency for different applications in telecommunications. To validate the proposed transmission line model, the simulation results obtained are compared with those obtained by the method of moments. The results of simulations are presented and discussed. Using this transmission line approach, the resonant frequency, input impedance, and return loss can be determined simultaneously. The paper reports several simulation results that confirm the validity of the developed model. The obtained results are then presented and discussed.

  5. Bi-Band Bow-Tie Antennas Array Design Using a Simple Equivalent Transmission Line Model

    M. Abri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a simple equivalent and accurate transmission line model for bi-band bow-tie antennas array design over a band of frequencies for satellite communications. This model uses the resistance of a square element that appears at the edges of the antenna (radiating slots. To test this model, two antennas array were simulated and results were compared with those obtained by a rigorous method (moment’s method of the simulator ADS/Momentum. Using this transmission line approach the resonant frequency, return loss, VSWR, reflected phase, input impedance can be determined simultaneously. The results confirm the validity of the proposed model.

  6. Bi-Band Bow-Tie Antennas Array Design Using a Simple Equivalent Transmission Line Model

    Abri, M.; H. Abri Badaoui; Dib, H; A.S.E. Gharnaout

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simple equivalent and accurate transmission line model for bi-band bow-tie antennas array design over a band of frequencies for satellite communications. This model uses the resistance of a square element that appears at the edges of the antenna (radiating slots). To test this model, two antennas array were simulated and results were compared with those obtained by a rigorous method (moment’s method) of the simulator ADS/Momentum. Using this transmission line appro...

  7. Multilayered BOW-TIE Antennas Design for RFID and Radar Applications Using a Simple Equivalent Transmission Line Model

    Didouh, S.; Abri, M.; F. T. Bendimerad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose the design of bow-tie antenna based on a simple modified transmission line model. The developed model is simple, accurate and takes into account all the antenna characteristics.The simulated antennas are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID and Radars applications. To validate this last the obtained simulation results are compared to those obtained by the moment’s method (Agilent Momentum software). Using this transmission li...

  8. Multilayered BOW-TIE Antennas Design for RFID and Radar Applications Using a Simple Equivalent Transmission Line Model

    S. Didouh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the design of bow-tie antenna based on a simple modified transmission line model. The developed model is simple, accurate and takes into account all the antenna characteristics.The simulated antennas are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID and Radars applications. To validate this last the obtained simulation results are compared to those obtained by the moment’s method (Agilent Momentum software. Using this transmission line approach the resonant frequency, input impedance, return loss can be determined simultaneously. The paper reports several simulation results that confirm the validity of the developed model. The obtained results are then presented and discussed.

  9. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  10. Tie rod insertion test

    B. LEVESY

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting coil is inserted in the outer vaccum tank and supported by a set of tie rods. These tie rods are made of titanium alloy. This test reproduce the final insertion of the tie rods inside the outer vacuum tank.

  11. Bundling and Tying

    Nicholas Economides

    2014-01-01

    We discuss strategic ways that sellers can use tying and bundling with requirement conditions to extract consumer surplus. We analyze different types of tying and bundling creating (i) intra-product price discrimination; (ii) intra-consumer price discrimination; and (iii) inter-product price discrimination, and assess the antitrust liability that these practices may entail. We also discuss the impact on consumers and competition, as well as potential antitrust liability of bundling “incontest...

  12. The Strength of Varying Tie Strength

    Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    "The Strength of Weak Ties" argument (Granovetter 1973) says that the most valuable information is best collected through bridging ties with other social circles than one's own, and that those ties tend to be weak. Aral and Van Alstyne (2011) added that to access complex information, actors need strong ties ("high bandwidth") instead. These insights I generalize by pointing at actors' interest to avoid spending large resources on low value information. Weak ties are well-suited for relatively simple information at low transmission and tie maintenance costs, whereas for complex information, the best outcomes are expected for those actors who vary their bandwidths along with the value of information accessed. To support my claim I use all patents in the USA (two million) over the period 1975-1999. I also show that in rationalized fields, such as technology, bandwidth correlates highly with the value of information, which provides support for using this proxy if value can't be measured directly. Finally, I show ...

  13. More ties than we thought

    Hirsch, Dan; Markström, Ingemar; Patterson, Meredith L; Sandberg, Anders; Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    We extend the existing enumeration of neck tie-knots to include tie-knots with a textured front, tied with the narrow end of a tie. These tie-knots have gained popularity in recent years, based on reconstructions of a costume detail from The Matrix Reloaded, and are explicitly ruled out in the enumeration by Fink and Mao (2000). We show that the relaxed tie-knot description language that comprehensively describes these extended tie-knot classes is context free. It has a regular sub-language t...

  14. Relevant ties matter

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Pedersen, Jacob; Mouw, Ted

    What is the effect of social networks on labor market outcomes? The tradition following Grannovetter claims that social ties have a positive effect on wages, job prestige and job satisfaction. Although a number of studies have found positive correlations between friendship characteristics...... information about job openings....

  15. New Tech, New Ties:

    Ling, Richard

    regardless of where they are. But when we are engaged in these intimate conversations with absent friends, what happens to our relationship with the people who are actually in the same room with us? In New Tech, New Ties, Rich Ling examines how the mobile telephone affects both kinds of interactions...

  16. The Tie retraction syndrome.

    Geerling, Gerd; Neppert, Birte; Hemmant, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Tissue retraction is implicated in the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic disorders. Here we describe the clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathophysiology of a form of retraction syndrome which - to the best of our knowledge - has not been reported in the ophthalmic literature so far. We have termed this condition - consisting of a slowly progressive pseudovertical shortening of tie length due to a horizontal extension of girth length - the "Tie retraction syndrome" (TRS). Other pathognomonic features include an increased tie tip to belt buckle distance and a prolapse of the subumbilical fat pad (SUFP). The syndrome has a clear male to female preponderance and shows an increasing incidence with age and income before tax. Based on a newly proposed grading scheme we discuss and illustrate the diagnosis as well as the medical and surgical management options of this abundant, but often undiagnosed condition. The authors have no explanation for the apparent lack of awareness for this widely preponderant syndrome and its severe cosmetically disfiguring potential. We thus would like to invite all fellow colleagues with expertise in the field to comment or present their views. PMID:23088329

  17. Water and Tie

    小诗

    1999-01-01

    A tourist got separated from his tour group in the Sahara. He begged apassing nomad (游牧部落的人) for water." Sorry," said the tribesman (部落男子), "I have no water, but I do have some lovely neckties I’ll sell you." "Youmust be crazy," the tourist mumbled (喃喃而语). Nearly dead from thirst, hespied (发现) another man." Water!" the tourist gasped. "Please, give mewater. ""I have no water," came the reply, "only these handsome ties, which Iwill happily sell you."

  18. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  19. Instability of ties in compression

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from the...... temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...

  20. 7 CFR 7.12 - Tie votes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tie votes. 7.12 Section 7.12 Agriculture Office of the..., COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.12 Tie votes. (a) Tie votes in community committee elections held by mail or polling place method shall be settled by lot. Tie votes in such elections held by the...

  1. The Tying of Lending and Equity Underwriting

    Steven Drucker; Manju Puri

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the practice of tying,' which occurs when an underwriter lends to an issuer around the time of a public securities offering. We examine whether there are efficiencies from tying lending and underwriting which lead to benefits for issuers and underwriters. We find evidence consistent with tying occurring for issues when there are informational economies of scope from combining lending and underwriting. Firms benefit from tying through lower financing costs, as tied issuer...

  2. Transmission issues

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  3. Family Ties and Civic Virtues

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I establish a positive relationship between family ties and civic virtues, as captured by disapproval of tax and benefit cheating, corruption, and a range of other dimensions of exploiting others for personal gain. I find that family ties are a complement to social capital, using within country...... evidence from 83 nations and data on second generation immigrants in 29 countries with ancestry in 85 nations. Strong families cultivate universalist values and produce more civic and altruistic individuals. The results provide a constructive role for families in promoting family values that support...

  4. PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism

    A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle

  5. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  6. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....

  7. Ties matter: improving efficiency in course allocation by introducing ties

    Chen, Ning; Li, Mengling

    2013-01-01

    We study the course allocation system at Nanyang Technological University, where students submit strict preferences for courses and courses have implicit preferences for students. This formulates a many-to-many matching problem. We show the inefficiencies of the current mechanism and propose new competing mechanisms called Pareto-improving draft and dictatorship mechanisms, which introduce ties into students' preferences. Our mechanisms generate (group) stable and Pareto-efficient allocations...

  8. Release of Tongue-Tie in Neonates

    Raveenthiran, V

    2012-01-01

    Arguably, release of tongue tie is the oldest surgical procedure and it is perhaps older than circumcision. According to the Old Testament, the Lord released the tied tongue of Moses and made him speak well. Tongue-tie is pedantically known as ankyloglossia inferior minor. Simplicity of its treatment has earned this malady several etiological attributions such as difficulty of speech and breast feeding. All over the world, lactation consultants refer neonates for release of tongue tie as they...

  9. Roles of Ties in Spreading

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Controlling global epidemics in the real world and accelerating information propagation in the artificial world are of great significance, which have activated an upsurge in the studies on networked spreading dynamics. Lots of efforts have been made to understand the impacts of macroscopic statistics (e.g., degree distribution and average distance) and mesoscopic structures (e.g., communities and rich clubs) on spreading processes while the microscopic elements are less concerned. In particular, roles of ties are not yet clear to the academic community. Methodology/Principle Findings: Every edges is stamped by its strength that is defined solely based on the local topology. According to a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model, the steady-state infected density and spreading speed are respectively optimized by adjusting the relationship between edge's strength and spreading ability. Experiments on six real networks show that the infected density is increased when strong ties are favored i...

  10. Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?

    Griffiths, D Mervyn

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding. PMID:15479660

  11. Dielectric Bow-tie Nanocavity

    Lu, Qijing; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie nanocavity consisting of two tip-to-tip opposite triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity from the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8*10^-4 um3 and a high quality factor of 4.9*10^4 (401.3), consequently an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6*10^7 (1.36*10^5), at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm. This dielectric bow-tie nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon source, thresholdless nanolaser, and cavity QED strong coupling experiments.

  12. Broadband bow-tie antenna with tapered balun

    Jaafar, Hussein Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In microwave applications spectrum Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band, especially in wireless communication systems applications such as GSM, 3G, Wi-Fi and Wi-MAX applications, high antenna characteristics such as high gain and wide bandwidth are required. In this thesis, a broadband Bow Tie Antenna (BTA) with high performance characteristics has been designed, to cover the wireless application requirements. One of the fundamental problems of the transmission line in the ...

  13. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5 track where timber crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight...

  14. Family ties and child placement.

    Colón, F

    1978-09-01

    The fundamental premise of this paper is the primacy of the child's experience of biological-familial continuity in establishing his sense of self and personal significance. This paper examines the effects of current child placement practices on the child's ties to his biological, foster, and adoptive families. It explores alternative practices that would take into account biological-familial continuity. Comment is invited. PMID:744218

  15. RELEASE OF TONGUE-TIE IN NEONATES

    V. Raveenthiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, release of tongue tie is the oldest surgical procedure and it is perhaps older than circumcision. According to the Old Testament, the Lord released the tied tongue of Moses and made him speak well. Tongue-tie is pedantically known as ankyloglossia inferior minor. Simplicity of its treatment has earned this malady several etiological attributions such as difficulty of speech and breast feeding. All over the world, lactation consultants refer neonates for release of tongue tie as they believe it to be the cause of maternal nipple pain.Perhaps this is the only indication of tongue tie release in neonates.

  16. Common Values,Strong Ties

    2009-01-01

    The official visit of Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak to China on June 2-5 is seen as an important step in furthering the strategic and cooperative relationship between the two countries. In an interview with Beijing Review reporter Zhou Jianxiong, Mohamed Jawhar Hassan, Chairman and CEO of the Institute of Strategic and International Studies, a top think tank and consulting institution in Malaysia, outlined why Malaysia made its decision to establish diplomatic ties with China 35 years ago and why it looks forward to the development of this relationship in the future.

  17. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts

  18. Dielectric Bow-tie Nanocavity

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie nanocavity consisting of two tip-to-tip opposite triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity from the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8*10^-4 um3 and a high quality factor of 4.9*10^4 (401.3)...

  19. The Strength of Direct Ties

    Claussen, Jörg; Falck, Oliver; Grosjean, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the economic effects of a developer's connectedness in the electronic game industry. Knowledge spillovers between developers are likely to be of special relevance in this knowledge-intensive and regionally concentrated industry. We calculate social network measures for a developer......'s connectedness to other developers at multiple points in time. In a regression in which we exploit within-career variation in social network measures, we find that the number of direct ties a developer has to other developers has a strong effect on both a game's revenues and critics' scores. The quality of...

  20. Tying, Bundling, and Loyalty/Requirement Rebates

    Nicholas Economides

    2011-01-01

    I discuss the impact of tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates on consumer surplus in the affected markets. I show that the Chicago School Theory of a single monopoly surplus that justifies tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates on the basis of efficiency typically fails. Thus, tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates can be used to extract consumer surplus and enhance profit of firms with market power. I discuss the various setups when this occurs.

  1. [Neonatal tongue-tie: myths and science].

    Dollberg, Shaul; Botzer, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical restraining of tongue movement (tongue-tie, ankyloglossia) has been known for centuries and the subject of dozens of articles. The heated debate persists on its clinical significance and indications for treatment. Most authorities in the field of infant feeding and Lactation agree that breastfeeding problems, such as nipple pain and latching difficulties, are common signs of clinicaLly significant tongue-tie and indications for performing a frenotomy, while the sole presence of a visible lingual frenulum is not. In contrast, the lack of a visible frenulum does not rule out the diagnosis of clinically significant tongue-tie since submucosal ties, also called "posterior tongue-tie", may interfere with efficient breastfeeding. Whether tongue-tie interferes with speech articulation to a significant extent is currently unknown. Theoretically, articulation of some consonants (e.g., /s/, /th/, /r/) would be affected by impeded tongue movement. These articulation problems are, however, Less common than tongue-tie itself, and children and adults characteristically use various compensatory techniques of mouth opening and tongue movements. When it is indicated, frenotomy is performed by lifting the tongue and snipping the frenulum with scissors. Complications of frenotomy are rare and consist mainly of self-limited minor bleeding. The significance of posterior tongue tie and the long-term effects of frenotomy performed during early infancy are unresolved issues. PMID:21449157

  2. Tie1: an orphan receptor provides context for angiopoietin-2/Tie2 signaling.

    Mueller, Sarah B; Kontos, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 (ANG1/Tie2) signaling is well documented as regulating angiogenesis and vessel maturation. This pathway is complicated by involvement of the orphan receptor Tie1, which has been implicated as both a positive and negative regulator of ANG1/Tie2 signaling, and ANG2, which can serve as both a Tie2 agonist and antagonist, depending on the context. Two papers in this issue of the JCI provide new insight into this complicated pathway. Korhonen et al. reveal that Tie1 acts to modulate the effects of ANG1 and ANG2 on Tie2 in vitro and in vivo. Kim et al. demonstrate that ANG2 acts as a Tie2 agonist in non-pathological conditions, whereas in the setting of inflammation, ANG2 functions as a Tie2 antagonist and promotes vascular dysfunction. Both studies indicate that inflammation promotes cleavage of the ectodomain of Tie1 and that this cleavage event corresponds with the switch of ANG2 from a Tie2 agonist to an antagonist. The results of these studies lay the groundwork for future strategies to therapeutically exploit this pathway in diseases characterized by adverse vascular remodeling and increased permeability. PMID:27548526

  3. Dielectric bow-tie nanocavity.

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-12-15

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×10(-4) μm³ and a high quality factor of 4.9×10(4) (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×10(7) (1.36×10(5)). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. PMID:24322245

  4. Automated seismic-to-well ties?

    Herrera, Roberto Henry

    2012-01-01

    The quality of seismic-to-well tie is commonly quantified using the classical Pearson's correlation coefficient. However the seismic wavelet is time-variant, well logging and upscaling is only approximate, and the correlation coefficient does not follow this nonlinear behavior. We introduce the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) to automate the tying process, accounting for frequency and time variance. The Dynamic Time Warping method can follow the nonlinear behavior better than the commonly used correlation coefficient. Furthermore, the quality of the similarity value does not depend on the selected correlating window. We compare the developed method with the manual seismic-to-well tie in a benchmark case study.

  5. Sleep Apnea Tied to Complications After Angioplasty

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159391.html Sleep Apnea Tied to Complications After Angioplasty Nightly breathing ... 15, 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep apnea may increase the risk of serious complications ...

  6. Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158735.html Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight: Study Elevated blood ... baby's metabolism to 'imprint' the baby for childhood obesity," said study lead author Dr. Teresa Hillier. She's ...

  7. Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158735.html Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight: Study Elevated blood ... baby's metabolism to 'imprint' the baby for childhood obesity," said study lead author Dr. Teresa Hillier. She's ...

  8. Tongue tie: the evidence for frenotomy.

    Brookes, Alastair; Bowley, Douglas M

    2014-11-01

    Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a congenital variation characterised by a short lingual frenulum which may result in restriction of tongue movement and thus impact on function. Tongue tie division (frenotomy) in affected infants with breastfeeding problems yields objective improvements in milk production and breastfeeding characteristics, including objective scoring measures, weight gain and reductions in maternal pain. For the majority of mothers, frenotomy appears to enhance maintenance of breastfeeding. Tongue tie division is a safe procedure with minimal complications. The commonest complication is minor bleeding. Recurrence leading to redivision occurs with rates of 0.003-13% reported; this appears to be more common with posterior than anterior ties. There are limited reports indicating that prophylactic frenotomy may promote subsequent speech development; however, evidence is currently insufficient to condone this practice and further good quality research into this area is warranted. PMID:25258296

  9. The Orphan Receptor Tie1 Controls Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling by Differentially Regulating Tie2 in Tip and Stalk Cells

    Soniya Savant; Silvia La Porta; Annika Budnik; Katrin Busch; Junhao Hu; Nathalie Tisch; Claudia Korn; Aida Freire Valls; Andrew V. Benest; Dorothee Terhardt; Xianghu Qu; Ralf H. Adams; H. Scott Baldwin; Carmen Ruiz de Almodóvar; Hans-Reimer Rodewald

    2015-01-01

    Tie1 is a mechanistically poorly characterized endothelial cell (EC)-specific orphan receptor. Yet, Tie1 deletion is embryonic lethal and Tie1 has been implicated in critical vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and tumor angiogenesis. Here, we show that Tie1 does not function independently but exerts context-dependent effects on the related receptor Tie2. Tie1 was identified as an EC activation marker that is expressed during angiogenesis by a subset of angiogenic tip and remodeli...

  10. Automated seismic-to-well ties?

    Herrera, Roberto Henry; Van Der Baan, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    The quality of seismic-to-well tie is commonly quantified using the classical Pearson's correlation coefficient. However the seismic wavelet is time-variant, well logging and upscaling is only approximate, and the correlation coefficient does not follow this nonlinear behavior. We introduce the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) to automate the tying process, accounting for frequency and time variance. The Dynamic Time Warping method can follow the nonlinear behavior better than the commonly used cor...

  11. Software With Strong Ties to Space

    2003-01-01

    TieFlow is a simple but powerful business process improvement solution. It can automate and simplify any generic or industry-specific work process, helping organizations to transform work inefficiencies and internal operations involving people, paper, and procedures into a streamlined, well-organized, electronicbased process. TieFlow increases business productivity by improving process cycle times. The software can expedite generic processes in the areas of product design and development, purchase orders, expense reports, benefits enrollment, budgeting, hiring, and sales. It can also shore up vertical market processes such as claims processing, loan application and processing, health care administration, contract management, and advertising agency traffic. The processes can be easily and rapidly captured in a graphical manner and enforced together with rules pertaining to assignments that need to be performed. Aside from boosting productivity, TieFlow also reduces organizational costs and errors. TieFlow was developed with Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) assistance from Johnson. The SBIR support entitles all Federal Government agencies to utilize the TieFlow software technology free of charge. Tietronix emphasizes that TieFlow is an outstanding workflow resource that could produce dramatic productivity and cost improvements for all agencies, just as it has done and continues to do for NASA. The Space Agency is currently using the software throughout several mission-critical offices, including the Mission Operations Directorate and the Flight Director s Office, for worldwide participation of authorized users in NASA processes. At the Flight Director s Office, TieFlow allows personnel to electronically submit and review changes to the flight rules carried out during missions.

  12. Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures

    Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

  13. Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures

    Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack's designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler ampersand Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure

  14. Tie1 controls angiopoietin function in vascular remodeling and inflammation.

    Korhonen, Emilia A; Lampinen, Anita; Giri, Hemant; Anisimov, Andrey; Kim, Minah; Allen, Breanna; Fang, Shentong; D'Amico, Gabriela; Sipilä, Tuomas J; Lohela, Marja; Strandin, Tomas; Vaheri, Antti; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Koh, Gou Young; McDonald, Donald M; Alitalo, Kari; Saharinen, Pipsa

    2016-09-01

    The angiopoietin/Tie (ANG/Tie) receptor system controls developmental and tumor angiogenesis, inflammatory vascular remodeling, and vessel leakage. ANG1 is a Tie2 agonist that promotes vascular stabilization in inflammation and sepsis, whereas ANG2 is a context-dependent Tie2 agonist or antagonist. A limited understanding of ANG signaling mechanisms and the orphan receptor Tie1 has hindered development of ANG/Tie-targeted therapeutics. Here, we determined that both ANG1 and ANG2 binding to Tie2 increases Tie1-Tie2 interactions in a β1 integrin-dependent manner and that Tie1 regulates ANG-induced Tie2 trafficking in endothelial cells. Endothelial Tie1 was essential for the agonist activity of ANG1 and autocrine ANG2. Deletion of endothelial Tie1 in mice reduced Tie2 phosphorylation and downstream Akt activation, increased FOXO1 nuclear localization and transcriptional activation, and prevented ANG1- and ANG2-induced capillary-to-venous remodeling. However, in acute endotoxemia, the Tie1 ectodomain that is responsible for interaction with Tie2 was rapidly cleaved, ANG1 agonist activity was decreased, and autocrine ANG2 agonist activity was lost, which led to suppression of Tie2 signaling. Tie1 cleavage also occurred in patients with hantavirus infection. These results support a model in which Tie1 directly interacts with Tie2 to promote ANG-induced vascular responses under noninflammatory conditions, whereas in inflammation, Tie1 cleavage contributes to loss of ANG2 agonist activity and vascular stability. PMID:27548530

  15. Open knot-tying skills: residents skills assessed

    P.J. van Empel; M.G.E. Verdam; J.A. Huirne; H.J. Bonjer; W.J. Meijerink; F. Scheele

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Open knot-tying and suturing skills are fundamental surgical skills, founding many alternative knot-tying techniques. It is therefore mandatory for residents to possess adequate basic open knot-tying skills. The aim of this study was to compare an objective assessment of open knot-tying skills

  16. The Arithmetic Tie Effect Is Mainly Encoding-based.

    Blankenberger, Sven

    2001-01-01

    Examined two possible explanations for the arithmetic tie effect: faster encoding of tie problems versus faster access to arithmetic facts. Found that the tie effect vanished with heterogeneous addition problems, and for seven out of eight participants, the effect vanished with heterogeneous multiplication problems. Concludes that the tie effect…

  17. High tie versus low tie in rectal surgery: comparison of anastomotic perfusion

    Komen, N.; Slieker, J.; Kort, P. de; Wilt, J.H. de; Harst, E. van der; Coene, P.P.; Gosselink, M.P.; Tetteroo, G.; Graaf, E. de; Beek, T. van; Toom, R. den; Bockel, W. van; Verhoef, C.; Lange, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Both "high tie" (HT) and "low tie" (LT) are well-known strategies in rectal surgery. The aim of this study was to compare colonic perfusion after HT to colonic perfusion after LT. METHODS: Patients undergoing rectal resection for malignancy were included. Colonic perfusion was measured with

  18. Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects

    Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

  19. A matched Bow-tie antenna at 433MHz for use in underwater wireless sensor networks

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation underwater is been disregarded because of attenuation at high frequencies, however the theory predicts that propagation is possible at some useful distance in the lower Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. Common transceivers rely on narrowband antennas and matching circuit. The aim of this paper is to design a broadband 433MHz bow-tie antenna and experiment it in air and water without a matching circuit. This antenna could be attached to wireless transceivers and form a Wireless Sensor Network for deployment in various underwater applications. The bow-tie antennas were designed, simulated and constructed in laboratory. Experiments were setup carefully by using a completely isolated transmitter from electronics to avoid airborne transmission. The 433MHz. bow-tie proved its suitability for use in Underwater.

  20. NASA's Global Imagery Management System: TIE

    Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Hall, J. R.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)' Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. Using well-accepted standard protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), GIBS delivers global imagery efficiently and responsively. Behind this service, lies The Imagery Exchange (TIE), a workflow data management solution developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. TIE is an Open Archival Information System responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by the GIBS' web mapping tile service, OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility. Through this focus on metadata, TIE provides spatial and temporal searching capabilities such as an OpenSearch interface as well as facilitating the generation of metadata standards such as the OGC GetCapabilities. Designed as a scalable system, TIE's subsystems can scale-up or scale-down depending on the data volume it handles through the usage of popular open source technologies such as Apache Zookeeper and Grails. This presentation will cover the challenges and solutions to developing such a horizontally scalable data management system where science products are often varied with disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications.

  1. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  2. Weizmann ties with Cambridge in physics contest

    Siegel, J

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists and students from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot and Cambridge University in England have tied for first place in a physics competition aimed at simulating the future functioning of the particle accelerator being built at the European center CERN and due to open in 2007" (1/2 page)

  3. Analysis and Physics of Laparoscopic Intracorporeal Square-Knot Tying

    Medina, Marelyn

    2005-01-01

    Square knots are often used in open surgery to approximate tissue borders or tie off tubular structures like vessels or ducts. Three common methods are used for surgical square-knot tying: one-hand tying, two-hand tying, and the instrument-tying technique. Two types of suture placements are studied in both the open and laparoscopic surgical fields. The first called equal length has suture segment ends placed at equal distances from the tying site. The second called unequal length has one sutu...

  4. Multiple angiopoietin recombinant proteins activate the Tie1 receptor tyrosine kinase and promote its interaction with Tie2

    Saharinen, Pipsa; Kerkelä, Katja; Ekman, Niklas; Marron, Marie; Brindle, Nicholas; Lee, Gyun Min; Augustin, Hellmut; Koh, Gou Young; Alitalo, Kari

    2005-01-01

    The Tie1 receptor tyrosine kinase was isolated over a decade ago, but so far no ligand has been found to activate this receptor. Here, we have examined the potential of angiopoietins, ligands for the related Tie2 receptor, to mediate Tie1 activation. We show that a soluble Ang1 chimeric protein, COMP-Ang1, stimulates Tie1 phosphorylation in endothelial cells with similar kinetics and angiopoietin dose dependence when compared with Tie2. The phosphorylation of overexpressed Tie1 was weakly ind...

  5. Abnormal embryonic lymphatic vessel development in Tie1 hypomorphic mice

    Qu, Xianghu; Tompkins, Kevin; Batts, Lorene E.; Puri, Mira; Baldwin, H. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Tie1 is an endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase that is essential for development and maintenance of the vascular system; however, the role of Tie1 in development of the lymphatic vasculature is unknown. To address this question, we first documented that Tie1 is expressed at the earliest stages of lymphangiogenesis in Prox1-positive venous lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) progenitors. LEC Tie1 expression is maintained throughout embryonic development and persists in postnatal mice. We then ge...

  6. Coupling Human Mobility and Social Ties

    Toole, Jameson L; Schneider, Christian M; Gonzalez, Marta C

    2015-01-01

    Studies using massive, passively data collected from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion, and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographic information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns amongst social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composi...

  7. Self-assembled silver nanoparticles in a bow-tie antenna configuration.

    Eskelinen, Antti-Pekka; Moerland, Robert J; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Törmä, Päivi

    2014-03-26

    The self-assembly of silver nanoparticles into a bow-tie antenna configuration is achieved with the DNA origami method. Instead of complicated particle geometries, spherical silver nanoparticles are used. Formation of the structures in high yields is verified with transmission electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. According to finite-difference time-domain simulations, the antenna configuration could be used as a DNA sensor. PMID:24659271

  8. On the Nature, Modeling, and Neural Bases of Social Ties

    F.A.A.M. Winden, van (Frans); M. Stallen (Mirre); K.R. Ridderinkhof (Richard)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the nature, formalization, and neural bases of (affective) social ties and discusses the relevance of ties for health economics. A social tie is defined as an affective weight attached by an individual to the well-being of another individual (‘utility interdependence

  9. 49 CFR 195.308 - Testing of tie-ins.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing of tie-ins. 195.308 Section 195.308 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.308 Testing of tie-ins. Pipe associated with tie-ins must be...

  10. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The...

  11. Migration, Friendship Ties, and Cultural Assimilation

    Facchini, Giovanni; Patacchini, Eleonora; Steinhardt, Max

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we contribute to the analysis of the assimilation process of migrants by analyzing the extent to which friendship with natives can be seen as a measure of cultural assimilation and investigating the formation of social ties in the host country. Using novel information from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we find that migrants with a German friend are more similar to natives than those without a local companion along several important dimensions, including concerns about the eco...

  12. Bank ties and firm performance in Japan

    McGuire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, major Japanese banks have sold off a significant portion of their holdings of corporate equity. Using information on the identity of Japanese firms' top 10 shareholders, this paper explores the process of banks' equity disposal. There is some evidence that, after FY2001, banks' sales of equity accelerated, even holdings in firms for which the bank served as the main bank. However, affiliation with a main bank - proxied by firm-bank loan and shareholding ties - continues t...

  13. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility

    Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relo...

  14. The American Board of Ophthalmology Tie.

    Wand, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the efforts of the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) to recognize and celebrate the contributions of its volunteers to certification programs and processes. In recognition of service to the ABO, all directors and examiners received ties for men and scarves for women bearing the ABO logo and colors. This article briefly describes the rationale and the importance of these articles for those who receive them. PMID:27550002

  15. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility.

    Metcalf, Sara S

    2014-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  16. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  17. Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment

    Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

  18. Vínculos organizacionais Organizational ties

    Gustavo Garcez Kramer

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é um estudo de caso único, realizado junto a uma organização pública municipal de Curitiba, e tem como objetivo investigar e compreender os vínculos organizacionais. O estudo dos vínculos é feito por meio dos seus elementos constitutivos: a identificação, o sentimento de pertença, a cooperação, a participação, a criação de inimigos, a idealização, o reconhecimento e valorização dos indivíduos, a solidariedade, a integração, o crescimento e desenvolvimento pessoal e profissional e a autonomia. Foram utilizados, como instrumentos de coleta, questionário fechado e análise documental. O resultado dessa pesquisa é a caracterização dos elementos que são importantes na formação e manutenção dos vínculos e, conseqüentemente, para o comprometimento dos empregados com os objetivos, políticas, problemas, desempenho e resultados da organização.This article presents a unique case study of the organizational ties in a public municipal organization in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. The ties are studied through their constitutive elements: identification, sense of belonging, cooperation, participation, creation of enemies, idealization, recognition and appreciation of individuals, solidarity, integration, professional and personal development and growth, and autonomy. Documental analysis and closed questionnaires were used for data collection. The research resulted in the characterization of the elements that are important in making and keeping ties, and consequently committing employees to the organization's objectives, policies, problems, performance and results.

  19. Localization of the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 on the primary cilia in the female reproductive organs

    Teilmann, Stefan C; Christensen, Søren T

    2005-01-01

    Blood vessel homeostasis and endothelial cell survival depend on proper signalling through angiopoietin receptors such as the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2. We have studied the presence and subcellular localization of these receptors in murine female reproductive organs using confocal...... microscopy analysis of antibody stained tissue sections of ovary and oviduct. We show that Tie-2 principally localizes to primary cilia of the surface epithelium of the ovary, bursa and extra-ovarian rete ducts as well as to plasma membranes of ovarian theca and endothelial cells. Primary cilia of follicular...... granulosa cells were negative. Further, Tie-1 and Tie-2 localized to motile cilia of the oviduct. Western blotting detection and immunolocalization of anti-Tie-2 in ovary and oviduct were abolished by administration of an anti-Tie-2 blocking peptide, confirming antibody specificity. In a series of...

  20. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB, BCh, MRCSI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  1. Migrant networks and international migration: testing weak ties.

    Liu, Mao-Mei

    2013-08-01

    This article examines the role of migrant social networks in international migration and extends prior research by testing the strength of tie theory, decomposing networks by sources and resources, and disentangling network effects from complementary explanations. Nearly all previous empirical research has ignored friendship ties and has largely neglected extended-family ties. Using longitudinal data from the Migration between Africa and Europe project collected in Africa (Senegal) and Europe (France, Italy, and Spain), this article tests the robustness of network theory-and in particular, the role of weak ties-on first-time migration between Senegal and Europe. Discrete-time hazard model results confirm that weak ties are important and that network influences appear to be gendered, but they do not uphold the contention in previous literature that strong ties are more important than weak ties for male and female migration. Indeed, weak ties play an especially important role in male migration. In terms of network resources, having more resources as a result of strong ties appears to dampen overall migration, while having more resources as a result of weaker ties appears to stimulate male migration. Finally, the diversity of resources has varied effects for male and female migration. PMID:23703222

  2. The Tie Effect in Mental Arithmetic%心算加工中tie effect的加工机制

    田花; 刘昌

    2011-01-01

    This article is to review the tie effect in simple arithmetic. Tie effect means that simple arithmetic problems with repeated operands (i. e., ties such as 3 + 3,4×4) are solved more quickly and accurately than similar nontie problems (e. g., 3 + 4,4 × 5). Furthermore, problem size and tie effect so interact that latencies on both ties and nonties increase with the problem size, but the increase is much greater in nonties than in ties. There are two possible explanations for the tie effect, i.e., encoding-based and access- based accounts. Encoding-based accounts propose that the tie advantage occurs because repetition of the same physical stimulus results in faster encoding of ties than of nonties. Alternatively, access-based accounts propose that ties may be easier to solve than nonties because of differences in accessibility in memory or differences in the solution processes. Access-based accounts fall into three categories: familiarity, interference, variability in solution approaches. According to familiarity explanations, acee~ibility so varies with practice that the tie effect is related to the frequency with which problems are encountered. Ties receive more practice and the connections between operands and answers in memory are greater. So ties are solved more quickly. According to interference explanations, ties and nonties are defined as separate categories of problems and the interference is greater within categories than between category. Thus, because the tie category includes relatively few problems, ties received less inhibitory input than nonties. According to solution approach explanations, even simple arithmetic is solved not only by direct retrieval from memory but by nov_retrieval procedures. Ties are solved by direct retrieval procedures and nonties are solved by nonretrieval procedures which are slower than direct retrieval. The encoding-account can' t provide reasonable explanations for the tie ~ size interaction. Aceess

  3. Coupling human mobility and social ties.

    Toole, Jameson L; Herrera-Yaqüe, Carlos; Schneider, Christian M; González, Marta C

    2015-04-01

    Studies using massive, passively collected data from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographical information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns among social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composition of a user's ego network in terms of the type of contacts they keep is correlated with mobility behaviour. Finally, we extend a popular mobility model to include movement choices based on social contacts and compare its ability to reproduce empirical measurements with two additional models of mobility. PMID:25716185

  4. Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by…

  5. Level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery: Low tie preferred over high tie. A review

    M.M. Lange (Marilyne); M. Buunen (Mark); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractConsensus does not exist on the level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery. From oncologic considerations, many surgeons apply high tie arterial ligation (level of inferior mesenteric artery). Other strategies include ligation at the level of the superior rectal artery, just cau

  6. China TieTong: Differentiation Paves the Uncommon Path

    2006-01-01

    China TieTong has made great achievements since it was founded about six years ago. And the achievements made by China TieTong cannot be separated from the path of differentiation it has stuck to. Zhao Jibin, board chairman of China TieTong has pointed out the company should develop a path of "enlarging the dedicated network and strengthening the regional service" to ensure precise positioning and successful implementation of the development strategy with solid management foundation and improving managem...

  7. Suicide: the key role of short range ties

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the connection between short-range social ties (i.e. links with close relatives) and the occurrence of suicide. The objective is to discriminate between a model based on social ties and a model based on psychological traumas. Our methodological strategy is to focus on instances characterized by the severance of some social ties. We consider several situations of this kind. (i) Prisoners in the first days after their incarceration. (ii) Prisoners in solitary confinement. (ii...

  8. Gene expression analysis of Tek/Tie2 signaling.

    Chen, Stephen H; Babichev, Yael; Rodrigues, Natalie; Voskas, Daniel; Ling, Ling; Nguyen, Vicky P K H; Dumont, Daniel J

    2005-07-14

    The elaboration of the vasculature during embryonic development involves restructuring of the early vessels into a more complex vascular network. Of particular importance to this vascular remodeling process is the requirement of the Tek/Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. Mouse gene-targeting studies have shown that the Tie2-deficient embryos succumb to embryonic death at midgestation due to insufficient sprouting and remodeling of the primary capillary plexus. To identify the underlying genetic mechanisms regulating the process of vascular remodeling, transcriptomes modulated by Tie2 signaling were analyzed utilizing serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Two libraries were constructed and sequenced using embryonic day 8.5 yolk sac tissues from Tie2 wild-type and the Tie2-null littermates. After tag extraction, 45,689 and 45,275 SAGE tags were obtained for the Tie2 wild-type and Tie2-null libraries, respectively, yielding a total of 21,376 distinct tags. Close to 62% of the tags were uniquely annotated, whereas 10% of the total tags were unknown. Using semiquantitative PCR, the differential expression of eight genes was confirmed that included Elk3, an important angiogenic switch gene which was upregulated in the absence of Tie2 signaling. The results of this study provide valuable insight into the potential association between Tie2 signaling and other known angiogenic pathways as well as genes that might have novel functions in vascular remodeling. PMID:15899944

  9. Expression and role of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma and its relationship with invasion and metastasis in rectal carcinoma.Materials S-P immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of Tie-2 in 40 cases of rectal carcinoma and 10 cases of normal rectal tissues.Results Tie-2 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of vascular endothelial cells in cancerous tissues and partly in the cytoplasm of some cancerous cells.The expression of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma was signi...

  10. Increasing the service life of cross ties at open pits

    Tikhomirov, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis shows that the service life of cross ties on mobile tracks should be at least 6 years; on permanent ones, 11-12 years. Cross tie failure at open pits is greatly affected by frequent relaying of tracks during mining work, the significant dynamic and static loads when the rail lengths separate (up to 80-100 kN/length in the summer and 150-160 kN in the winter), instability of the soil foundation, movement of the cross ties when the gage is expanded, weakening of joints, etc. Improving their service life is affected by the ballast quality, heavier rail types, separate bolt and wood screw attachments, elastic liners between the tie plate and cross tie, and autoclave impregnation of the cross ties with oil antiseptics. Repair of old cross ties is an indispensable condition for extending their service life. At open pits, cross tie repair should be done at track repair and assembly stations with standard MPS cross tie repair shop equipment.

  11. Tie-points and fixed-points in N^*

    Dow, Alan

    2007-01-01

    A point x is a (bow) tie-point of a space X if X setminus {x} can be partitioned into (relatively) clopen sets each with x in its closure. Tie-points have appeared in the construction of non-trivial autohomeomorphisms of betaN setminus N and in the recent study of (precisely) 2-to-1 maps on betaN setminus N . In these cases the tie-points have been the unique fixed point of an involution on betaN setminus N. This paper is motivated by the search for 2-to-1 maps and obtaining tie-points of strikingly differing characteristics.

  12. Tie-points and fixed-points in N^*

    Dow, Alan; SHELAH, Saharon

    2007-01-01

    A point x is a (bow) tie-point of a space X if X setminus {x} can be partitioned into (relatively) clopen sets each with x in its closure. Tie-points have appeared in the construction of non-trivial autohomeomorphisms of betaN setminus N and in the recent study of (precisely) 2-to-1 maps on betaN setminus N . In these cases the tie-points have been the unique fixed point of an involution on betaN setminus N. This paper is motivated by the search for 2-to-1 maps and obtaining tie-points of str...

  13. Design of Compact Trapezoidal Bow-Tie Chipless RFID Tag

    Lei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel compact design of a low cost fully printable slot-loaded bowtie chipless RFID tag. The tag consists of two trapezoidal metallic patches loaded with multiple slot resonators. Slots with similar size or adjacent frequencies are loaded alternately on two bow-tie patches to double the number of data bits within the UWB frequency band without increasing the mutual coupling between slots. A coding capacity of 12 bits is obtained with 12 slots within a reasonable size of 35 mm × 33 mm. RCS of the tag has been given by simulation. Measurements have been done using a bistatic radar configuration in the frequency domain and transmission coefficient is measured. The agreement between the simulation and measurement validates this new concept of design. This tag has high data capacity and low cost and can be directly printed on product such as personal ID, credit cards, paper, and textile because it needs only one conductive layer.

  14. BSE Rap: intergenerational ties to save lives.

    Ehmann, J L

    1993-09-01

    This article presents an innovative public-education strategy that was created to promote breast health awareness and early breast cancer detection among minority and low-income adolescent females. Given the importance of teaching breast self-examination (BSE), program development focused on creation of the BSE Rap, a lively music-video presentation. Increasing adolescents' knowledge and awareness of BSE is viewed as a springboard for disseminating information to their mothers and grandmothers. Funding was obtained for production of a video and a breast health diary, which are the program's key components. Marketing strategies included contacts with community organizations and healthcare professionals. Program evaluations reveal that the BSE Rap serves as a positive motivator for participants to discuss BSE and mammography with their mothers and grandmothers. The BSE Rap offers oncology nurses the opportunity to save lives using a unique and creative tool that focuses on intergenerational ties. PMID:8415152

  15. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  16. Tongue tie and breastfeeding: assessing and overcoming the difficulties.

    Breward, Sharon

    2006-09-01

    Tongue tie, a condition in which the tongue's mobility is restricted, may reduce the ability of babies to breastfeed successfully. In this age of mass artificial feeding, the management of this condition has been, until recently, overlooked. This article highlights the effects of tongue tie on breastfeeding and what health professionals should be doing to assess and manage any difficulties PMID:17009777

  17. Fifteen-minute consultation: the infant with a tongue tie.

    Bowley, Douglas M; Arul, G Suren

    2014-08-01

    Tongue tie is an increasingly common cause for referral of infants to our general paediatric surgery service. In this article, we will explore the indications for tongue tie division in the newborn child, the practicalities of the procedure and the supporting evidence. PMID:24419208

  18. 12 CFR 563.36 - Tying restriction exception.

    2010-01-01

    ...-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure § 563.36 Tying restriction exception. (a) Safe harbor for combined-balance... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tying restriction exception. 563.36 Section 563.... (b) Limitations on exception. This exception shall terminate upon a finding by the OTS that...

  19. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    Tamar Friedlander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved.

  20. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-03-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. PMID:25798588

  1. Effects of Weak Ties on Epidemic Predictability in Community Networks

    Shu, Panpan; Gong, Kai; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Weak ties play a significant role in the structures and the dynamics of community networks. Based on the susceptible-infected model in contact process, we study numerically how weak ties influence the predictability of epidemic dynamics. We first investigate the effects of different kinds of weak ties on the variabilities of both the arrival time and the prevalence of disease, and find that the bridgeness with small degree can enhance the predictability of epidemic spreading. Once weak ties are settled, compared with the variability of arrival time, the variability of prevalence displays a diametrically opposed changing trend with both the distance of the initial seed to the bridgeness and the degree of the initial seed. More specifically, the further distance and the larger degree of the initial seed can induce the better predictability of arrival time and the worse predictability of prevalence. Moreover, we discuss the effects of weak tie number on the epidemic variability. As community strength becomes ver...

  2. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jacking and tie-down provisions. 25.519... tie-down provisions. (a) General. The airplane must be designed to withstand the limit load conditions... direction. (c) Tie-down. If tie-down points are provided, the main tie-down points and local structure...

  3. Broadband millimeter-wave GaAs transmitters and receivers using planar bow-tie antennas

    Konishi, Y.; Kamegawa, M.; Case, M.; Yu, R.; Rodwell, M. J. W.; York, R. A.; Rutledge, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30-250 GHz free space gain-frequency measurements are demonstrated with an accuracy approximately = 0.17 dB, RMS.

  4. A simple and rapid method of repeated tie over dressing

    Hardeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tie overdressing is commonly used to secure the graft against the raw surface and prevent loss due to of hematoma or seroma. A conventional tie over dressing with silk sutures, is a useful method of securing the graft to raw area. Refixation is difficult when repeated tie over dressings are needed. We assessed a low cost repeated tie over dressing method using sterile sample collection containers and silk suture threads in eight patients. After the graft is applied on the bed, tie-over stitches are taken, and paraffin gauze is applied over with adequate padding; the tie over sutures are passed through the container and the lid is tightened over it to complete the dressing. The lid can be unscrewed easily at any time to inspect the graft and can be easily reapplied in the outpatient department. The skin graft take in all the patients was complete without any seroma or hematoma. A novel and low-cost tie over dressing that enables simple fixation of the dressing, to maintain proper position of grafts that require repeated fixation is reported here.

  5. KAMG: A Tool for Converting Blood Ties and Affinity Ties into Adjacency Matrices

    Hang Xiong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinship Adjacency Matrix Generator (KAMG is a browser-based software for creating adjacency matrices using the information of kinship ties. Specifically, it is capable of converting the family trees in the format of GEDCOM files into adjacency matrices of blood relationship. With the data of intermarriages between different families, it can further create the adjacency matrix of affinity relationship for the families. The outcomes can be directly used to create networks. KAMG is written in JavaScript and implemented on web browsers. It is completely open source and the source code is publicly available on GitHub.

  6. Institutional Ties of _Journal of Development Economics_ Authors and Editors

    Klein, Daniel B; Therese DiCola

    2004-01-01

    Sociologists of science such as Richard Whitley explain that official institutions may have a profound influence on the character and organization of science. We examine the ties of authors and editorial officers of the Journal of Development Economics (2002) to the World Bank, the IMF, and so on. “Ties†includes past or current employment, consultancy, grant, publication and presentation. Regarding the 124 authorships, we find that 75 percent have ties to the “Big 8†official developme...

  7. Exercise of tied dairy cows during the winter

    Loberg, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether tied dairy cows have a motivation to move per se when exercised during winter and whether they prefer to be outdoors or indoors when exercising. In the first experiment tied dairy cows were observed when exercised outdoors every day, twice a week or once a week. In the second experiment the preference of tied dairy cows for being indoors or outdoors during exercise was tested in two types of preference tests. Cows exercised at longer intervals walked and tro...

  8. More on Tie-points and homeomorphism in N^*

    Dow, Alan; SHELAH, Saharon

    2007-01-01

    A point x is a (bow) tie-point of a space X if X setminus {x} can be partitioned into (relatively) clopen sets each with x in its closure. Tie-points have appeared in the construction of non-trivial autohomeomorphisms of betaN setminus N= N^* and in the recent study of (precisely) 2-to-1 maps on N^*. In these cases the tie-points have been the unique fixed point of an involution on N^*. One application of the results in this paper is the consistency of there being a 2-to-1 continuous image of...

  9. More on Tie-points and homeomorphism in N^*

    Dow, Alan

    2007-01-01

    A point x is a (bow) tie-point of a space X if X setminus {x} can be partitioned into (relatively) clopen sets each with x in its closure. Tie-points have appeared in the construction of non-trivial autohomeomorphisms of betaN setminus N= N^* and in the recent study of (precisely) 2-to-1 maps on N^*. In these cases the tie-points have been the unique fixed point of an involution on N^*. One application of the results in this paper is the consistency of there being a 2-to-1 continuous image of N^* which is not a homeomorph of N^* .

  10. Differentiating weak ties and strong ties among external sources of influences for enterprise resource planning (ERP) adoption

    Aubert, Benoit; Léger, Pierre-Majorique; Larocque, Denis

    2012-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems represent a major IT adoption decision. ERP adoption decisions, in the chemicals and allied products sectors, were examined between 1994 and 2005. Networks of strong ties and weak ties partners are investigated. Results show that neighbouring companies linked with strong ties can have an influence on organisations making such adoption decision. Past decisions made by major trading partners have a significant influence on the decision to adopt an ERP system for a given organisation. This reflects the complex nature of the knowledge required for such adoption.

  11. ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157591.html ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children on medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their ...

  12. Concussion Tied to More School Problems Than Other Sports Injuries

    ... Concussion Tied to More School Problems Than Other Sports Injuries Study suggests need for 'return-to-learn' guidelines ... more school difficulties than their peers with other sports-related injuries, a new study suggests. Researchers found that concussed ...

  13. Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks.

    Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a 'Goldilocks' effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079

  14. Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157492.html Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse California ... 2016 FRIDAY, Feb. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Paid family leave might lead to reduced risk of abuse- ...

  15. Concussion Tied to More School Problems Than Other Sports Injuries

    ... Concussion Tied to More School Problems Than Other Sports Injuries Study suggests need for 'return-to-learn' ... more school difficulties than their peers with other sports-related injuries, a new study suggests. Researchers found ...

  16. Zika Virus Tied to Rare Disorder That Can Cause Paralysis

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157521.html Zika Virus Tied to Rare Disorder That Can Cause ... 2016 MONDAY, Feb. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus may cause Guillain-Barre syndrome, a disorder ...

  17. Traffic Pollution Tied to Preterm Birth Risk for Asthmatic Women

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157539.html Traffic Pollution Tied to Preterm Birth Risk for Asthmatic Women ... suggests. Both short- and long-term exposure to pollution from vehicles was linked to a higher risk ...

  18. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk ... June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk ...

  19. Is Seniors' Dental Health Tied to Mental Health?

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158104.html Is Seniors' Dental Health Tied to Mental Health? Declines in one ... oral health indicators -- such as the number of teeth, the number of cavities and the presence of ...

  20. Loss of Y Chromosome in Men Tied to Alzheimer's Risk

    ... Loss of Y Chromosome in Men Tied to Alzheimer's Risk Study raises provocative questions, expert says To ... age may have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, a new study suggests. The study of ...

  1. Attention on Weak Ties in Social and Communication Networks

    Weng, Lilian; Perra, Nicola; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Granovetter's weak tie theory of social networks is built around two central hypotheses. The first states that strong social ties carry the large majority of interaction events; the second maintains that weak social ties, although less active, are often relevant for the exchange of especially important information (e.g., about potential new jobs in Granovetter's work). While several empirical studies have provided support for the first hypothesis, the second has been the object of far less scrutiny. A possible reason is that it involves notions relative to the nature and importance of the information that are hard to quantify and measure, especially in large scale studies. Here, we search for empirical validation of both Granovetter's hypotheses. We find clear empirical support for the first. We also provide empirical evidence and a quantitative interpretation for the second. We show that attention, measured as the fraction of interactions devoted to a particular social connection, is high on weak ties --- po...

  2. Widely Used Heart Drug Tied to Dementia Risk

    ... 158678.html Widely Used Heart Drug Tied to Dementia Risk Both warfarin and the atrial fibrillation it's ... fibrillation may have a heightened risk of developing dementia -- and the quality of their drug treatment may ...

  3. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E.; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in biological and technological networks. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signalin...

  4. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  5. Family ties and depression across the life course: An Overview

    Nienke Moor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Family ties in Europe are affected by demographic trends associated with parenting and partnering, such as a decline in fertility, an increase in childlessness, postponement of parenthood and of partnership formation, the rise of "new" relationship forms and divorce rates. It is unclear how the contemporary family structure and composition are associated with people's mental wellbeing. OBJECTIVE This article examines how ties with parents, siblings, a partner and children are associated with depressive mood of men and women in seven Eastern and Western European countries. METHODS To test our hypotheses we made use of data from the Generations and Gender Surveys. We performed logistic regression analyses to study the associations between people's family ties and depressive mood. RESULTS Our research findings show that family ties can diminish people's depressive feelings. Although we find some gender differences in these associations, we do not find support for the argument that family ties are more important for the mental wellbeing of women than of men. Moreover, our findings support the hierarchical model of family relations in which new ties with partner and children in adulthood gain precedence over the original primary ties with parents and siblings. Finally, we find that the association between family ties and depressive mood is quite similar in Eastern and Western Europe, but being married or having a partner more strongly reduces depressive feelings in Eastern than in Western Europe. CONCLUSIONS Although we did not dispose of longitudinal data, our research results do provide some indications about how demographic changes, for instance, those affecting family size -- the number of children or siblings -- might be associated with mental wellbeing. Our findings also suggest that the demographic trend of increasing partnership dissolution may have larger consequences for people's mental wellbeing in Eastern

  6. Ties, Leaders, and Teams: A Social Network Approach

    Clarke García, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    To examine the theoretical and empirical implications of integrating the network and team literatures, we opened three different research lines. First, we argued that leader multiplex ties with their team members fulfilled important functions for team performance. In support of our hypotheses, analysis of data from 84 teams of a Spanish public service organization suggested that leaders’ centrality in their teams’ multiplex networks comprising both advice and friendship ties predicted longitu...

  7. Tying and entry deterrence in vertically differentiated markets

    Eugen Kovac

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes tying and bundling as an entry deterrence tool. It shows that a multi-product firm can defend its monopoly position in one market via tying even when it does not have market power in another market. This is shown on a model with two complementary goods, each of which is vertically differentiated and in which consumers’ preferences for the goods are positively correlated. Some possible ways of defending against entry deterrence, and implications for competition policy, are ...

  8. Leaving Libertarianism: : Social Ties in Robert Nozick's New Philosophy

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY This thesis Leaving Libertarianism: Social Ties in Robert Nozick s New Philosophy challenges the general and most widespread portrayals of the American philosopher Robert Nozick (1938-2002) by studying the notion of social ties in his later philosophy. The point of departure is the present descriptions of Nozick s philosophy. Mostly these depictions are based upon three postulates: That Nozick is an extreme individualist, that the libertarian Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1...

  9. Social ties and health: A social neuroscience perspective

    Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2013-01-01

    Research over the last several decades has shown that the health of the body is intimately tied to the strength of our social connections, but why? This article reviews evidence from affective and social neuroscience suggesting that, because of the importance of social ties for mammalian survival, threats to social connection are processed by some of the same neural regions that process basic threats to survival and consequently trigger physiological threat responses that have negative health...

  10. Dual-Frequency Operation of Bow-Tie Microstrip Antenna

    钟顺时; 张需溥

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of a single-feed dual-frequency bow-tie microstrip antenna are studied. By using the variation method, simple formulas for resonant frequencies of the bow-tie microstrip antenna are derived. It is shown that the dual-frequency ratio can be controlled easily by choosing the parameters of the antenna. This design gives compact antenna size and simple antenna structure. Experimental results are presented, verifying the validity of the design.

  11. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    Tamar Friedlander; Mayo, Avraham E.; Tsvi Tlusty; Uri Alon

    2015-01-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in biological and technological networks. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signalin...

  12. Multicentre randomised double bind crossover trial on contamination of conventional ties and bow ties in routine obstetric and gynaecological practice.

    Biljan, M M; Hart, C. A.; Sunderland, D; Manasse, P R; Kingsland, C R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess level of contamination of neckwear worn by gynaecologists and obstetricians during routine working week. DESIGN--Multicentre randomised double blind crossover trial. Participants wore the same conventional ties for three days in one week and bow ties for the same period in second week. SETTING--Two teaching and three district general hospitals in the midlands, Wales, and north England. SUBJECTS--15 registrars and senior registrars. INTERVENTIONS--A swab soaked in sterile ...

  13. Evaluating the merchant transmission market

    This paper reviewed the North American bulk electric transmission system, with particular reference to the following merchant power transmission projects that have applied to sell transmission at negotiated rates by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): Cross Sound Cable; Neptune Phase 1; TransCanada's Northern Lights HVDC line; Montana Alberta Tie; Juan de Fuca Cable; Linden VFT; Connecticut-Long Island Cable; Lake Erie Link; Empire Connection; Harbor Cable; Chesapeake Transmission; and the Neptune/Green Line. The projects were sorted by status as either active, inactive and restructured. Each summary included the interconnection points, capacity, and sponsor. This paper also identified the major hurdles in their approvals. The relative success of the merchant transmission framework in attracting new investment was then reviewed. The successful projects shared 3 common attributes. They connected areas with large price differentials and they used advanced flow control technology such as HVDC, PARs, and VFTs. The successful projects also bridged some type of border, either geographic, electrical, economic, or a combination. Three of the active projects crossed the Canadian-US border, while the other 3 connected New York City to neighbouring regions. It was shown that merchant transmission fills a niche, enabling market responses to connect areas that may be overlooked by a regional planning process. 27 refs

  14. BowTieBuilder: modeling signal transduction pathways

    Schröder Adrian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory proteins react to changing environmental conditions by transducing signals into the cell. These signals are integrated into core proteins that activate downstream target proteins such as transcription factors (TFs. This structure is referred to as a bow tie, and allows cells to respond appropriately to complex environmental conditions. Understanding this cellular processing of information, from sensory proteins (e.g., cell-surface proteins to target proteins (e.g., TFs is important, yet for many processes the signaling pathways remain unknown. Results Here, we present BowTieBuilder for inferring signal transduction pathways from multiple source and target proteins. Given protein-protein interaction (PPI data signaling pathways are assembled without knowledge of the intermediate signaling proteins while maximizing the overall probability of the pathway. To assess the inference quality, BowTieBuilder and three alternative heuristics are applied to several pathways, and the resulting pathways are compared to reference pathways taken from KEGG. In addition, BowTieBuilder is used to infer a signaling pathway of the innate immune response in humans and a signaling pathway that potentially regulates an underlying gene regulatory network. Conclusion We show that BowTieBuilder, given multiple source and/or target proteins, infers pathways with satisfactory recall and precision rates and detects the core proteins of each pathway.

  15. It's the Recipient That Counts: Spending Money on Strong Social Ties Leads to Greater Happiness than Spending on Weak Social Ties

    Aknin, Lara B.; Gillian M Sandstrom; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Norton, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Par...

  16. The Molecular Balance between Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Tie1 and Tie2 Is Dynamically Controlled by VEGF and TNFα and Regulates Angiopoietin Signalling

    Harprit Singh; Hansen, Tania M.; Nisha Patel; Nicholas P J Brindle

    2012-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) signals via the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 which exists in complex with the related protein Tie1 at the endothelial cell surface. Tie1 undergoes regulated ectodomain cleavage in response to phorbol esters, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Recently phorbol esters and VEGF were found also to stimulate ectodomain cleavage of Tie2. Here we investigate for the first time the effects of factors activating ectodomain cleavage on ...

  17. Expression and significance of Tie-1 and Tie-2 receptors, and angiopoietins-1, 2 and 4 in colorectal adenocarcinoma:Immunohistochemical analysis and correlation with clinicopathological factors

    Toshiyuki Nakayama; Go Hatachi; Chun-Yang Wen; Ayumi Yoshizaki; KazuyukiYamazumi; Daisuke Niino; Ichiro Sekine

    2005-01-01

    AIM: There is strong evidence that tyrosine kinases are involved in the regulation of tumor progression, cellular growth and differentiation. Recently, many kinds of tyrosine kinase receptors have been reported, among them Tie-1 and Tie-2 receptors constitute a major class.Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 is known as a ligand ofTie-2 tyrosine kinase receptor. The objective of this study was to establish a comprehensive Tie-1 and Tie-2 and Ang-1, 2 and 4expression profile in human colorectal adenocarcinomas.METHODS: We examined 96 cases of surgically resected human colorectal adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry and investigated the statistical correlation between the expressions of Ties and Angs and clinicopathological factors.RESULTS: Among the 96 cases of adenocarcinoma, 87(90.6%), 92 (95.8%), 83 (86.5%), 89 (92.7%), and 76cases (79.2%) showed positive staining in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells for the Tie-1 and Tie-2 and Ang-1, 2and 4 proteins, respectively. Histologically, the expressions of Ties and Angs were variable. The expressions of Ties and Angs were correlated with several clinicopathological factors, but did not correlate with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Ties and Angs were highly expressed in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the Tie-Ang receptor-ligand complex is one of the factors involved in the cellular differentiation and progression of human colorectal adenocarcinoma.

  18. Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks

    Onnela, J P; Hyvönen, J; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Lazer, D; Saramäki, J; Szabó, G

    2006-01-01

    Electronic databases, from phone to emails logs, currently provide detailed records of human communication patterns, offering novel avenues to map and explore the structure of social and communication networks. Here we examine the communication patterns of millions of mobile phone users, allowing us to simultaneously study the local and the global structure of a society-wide communication network. We observe a coupling between interaction strengths and the network's local structure, with the counterintuitive consequence that social networks are robust to the removal of the strong ties, but fall apart following a phase transition if the weak ties are removed. We show that this coupling significantly slows the diffusion process, resulting in dynamic trapping of information in communities, and find that when it comes to information diffusion, weak and strong ties are both simultaneously ineffective.

  19. Stability and failure analysis of steering tie-rod

    Jiang, GongFeng; Zhang, YiLiang; Xu, XueDong; Ding, DaWei

    2008-11-01

    A new car in operation of only 8,000 km, because of malfunction, resulting in lost control and rammed into the edge of the road, and then the basic vehicle scrapped. According to the investigation of the site, it was found that the tie-rod of the car had been broken. For the subjective analysis of the accident and identifying the true causes of rupture of the tierod, a series of studies, from the angle of theory to experiment on the bended broken tie-rod, were conducted. The mechanical model was established; the stability of the defective tie-rod was simulated based on ANSYS software. Meanwhile, the process of the accident was simulated considering the effect of destabilization of different vehicle speed and direction of the impact. Simultaneously, macro graphic test, chemical composition analysis, microstructure analysis and SEM analysis of the fracture were implemented. The results showed that: 1) the toughness of the tie-rod is at a normal level, but there is some previous flaws. One quarter of the fracture surface has been cracked before the accident. However, there is no relationship between the flaw and this incident. The direct cause is the dynamic instability leading to the large deformation of impact loading. 2) The declining safety factor of the tie-rod greatly due to the previous flaws; the result of numerical simulation shows that previous flaw is the vital factor of structure instability, on the basis of the comparison of critical loads of the accident tie-rod and normal. The critical load can decrease by 51.3% when the initial defect increases 19.54% on the cross-sectional area, which meets the Theory of Koiter.

  20. Automatic Tie Pointer for In-Situ Pointing Correction

    Deen, Robert G/

    2011-01-01

    The MARSAUTOTIE program generates tie points for use with the Mars pointing correction software "In-Situ Pointing Correction and Rover Microlocalization," (NPO-46696) Soft ware Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 9 (September 2010), page 18, in a completely automated manner, with no operator intervention. It takes the place of MARSTIE, although MARSTIE can be used to interactively edit the tie points afterwards. These tie points are used to create a mosaic whose seams (boundaries of input images) have been geometrically corrected to reduce or eliminate errors and mis-registrations. The methods used to find appropriate tie points for use in creating a mosaic are unique, having been designed to work in concert with the "MARSNAV" program to be most effective in reducing or eliminating geometric seams in a mosaic. The program takes the input images and finds overlaps according to the nominal pointing. It then finds the most interesting areas using a scene activity metric. Points with higher scene activity are more likely to correlate successfully in the next step. It then uses correlation techniques to find matching points in the overlapped image. Finally, it performs a series of steps to reduce the number of tie points to a manageable level. These steps incorporate a number of heuristics that have been devised using experience gathered by tie pointing mosaics manually during MER operations. The software makes use of the PIG library as described in "Planetary Image Geometry Library" (NPO-46658), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 12 (December 2010), page 30, so it is multi-mission, applicable without change to any in-situ mission supported by PIG. The MARSAUTOTIE algorithm is automated, so it requires no user intervention. Although at the time of this reporting it has not been done, this program should be suitable for integration into a fully automated mosaic production pipeline.

  1. Reciprocity, social ties, and competition in markets for experience goods

    Huck, Steffen; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    a positive externality for non-reciprocal customers who would, in the absence of reciprocal types, face market breakdown. This efficiency-enhancing effect of reciprocity is boosted when there are social ties between consumers and competition between firms. The existence of social ties or competition......Reciprocal customers may disproportionately improve the performance of markets for experience goods. Reciprocal customers reward (punish) firms for providing good (bad) quality by upholding (terminating) the customer relation. This may induce firms to provide good quality which, in turn, may induce...... alone does not improve market performance...

  2. ADIEU TO TONGUE TIE. LINGUAL FRENECTOMY: A CASE REPORT

    Rizwan Sanadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Frenum is a fold of mucous membrane, usually with enclosed muscle fibers, that attaches the lips and cheeks to the alveolar mucosa and/or mucosa and underlying periosteum. Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a developmental anomaly of the tongue characterized by an abnormally short, thick lingual frenum resulting in limitation of tongue movement. It causes difficulty in speech articulation due to limitation in tongue movement. In this article we report a case of 24 years old female with Tongue tie, complaining of difficulty in speech. It was surgically treated with uneventful healing and good patient satisfaction.

  3. The mechanical properties of CAGR tie-bars

    A model is described which enables the mechanical properties of CAGR tie-bars to be predicted after several years irradiation. The model is physically based, and includes the effects of thermal and irradiation induced changes in the microstructure of the bars, and macroscopic wear. The predictions of the model, both in the failure time of stressed tie-bar samples and other results such as proof strength, have been verified against the results of an extensive post-irradiation programme carried out by the CEGB and the UKAEA. (author)

  4. Software For Tie-Point Registration Of SAR Data

    Rignot, Eric; Dubois, Pascale; Okonek, Sharon; Van Zyl, Jacob; Burnette, Fred; Borgeaud, Maurice

    1995-01-01

    SAR-REG software package registers synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) image data to common reference frame based on manual tie-pointing. Image data can be in binary, integer, floating-point, or AIRSAR compressed format. For example, with map of soil characteristics, vegetation map, digital elevation map, or SPOT multispectral image, as long as user can generate binary image to be used by tie-pointing routine and data are available in one of the previously mentioned formats. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. A Multichannel THz Detector Using Integrated Bow-Tie Antennas

    Hairui Liu; Junsheng Yu; Peter Huggard; Byron Alderman

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a kind of a multichannel THz detector using lens-based bow-tie array. A hyperhemispherical silicon lens is employed to provide a focal plane; 8 bow-tie elements are arranged on the focal plane with careful design to show a performance of broadband, high gain, well compact, and easy assembling. These characteristics of the detector are preferred for detecting weak THz signal. Measured far field shows that the radiation pattern of each element is shifted angularly, by ≈9°, w...

  6. Design criteria for unified strut and tie models

    Chandler, AM; Su, KL

    2001-01-01

    In the past two decades, the concept of strut and tie models (STM) has been used as one of the most popular and rational approaches for the design of non-flexural members of reinforced concrete structures. Design guidelines based mainly on technology from past decades are given in many national codes. The review of recent advancement in strut and tie modelling given in this paper enables a new set of design criteria and design tables for the strength of strut, node and bearing to be derived a...

  7. Chinese Medical Association anxious to establish ties with CMA

    Sibbald, B

    1998-01-01

    Included in China's health care reforms are plans to forge ties with businesses and physicians in Canada. The current challenges centre around the standardization of medical education in China, issues that a Chinese delegation raised during a recent visit to Canada.

  8. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  9. Neural correlates of dynamically evolving interpersonal ties predict prosocial behavior.

    Fahrenfort, Johannes J; van Winden, Frans; Pelloux, Benjamin; Stallen, Mirre; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behavior even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behavior to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behavior may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction - rather than trait empathy - motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum), empathy (anterior insular cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) as well as altruism, and social significance [posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behavior during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance. PMID:22403524

  10. Historic Moments of China-Russia Diplomatic Ties

    2009-01-01

    1. NEIGHBORLY TIES:Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signs the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the Kremlin,Moscow,on February 14,1950 2. PREMIER IN MOSCOW:Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai makes a speech upon his arrival in Moscow for a visit on August 17,1952

  11. The Ties That Bind Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    1997-01-01

    Scientific ties between JINR and CERN date back to 1957, when JINR Vice-Director Marian Danysz, a Polish professor, visited CERN and agreed with CERN Director-General C.J. Bakker on the exchange of scientists and on joint experiments. Since that time to progress and now JINR takes an active part in the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, project at CERN.

  12. Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

  13. On the dynamics of social ties structures in groups

    J.H. Sonnemans; F. van Dijk; F.A.A.M. van Winden

    2006-01-01

    Economic behavior often takes place in small groups of people interacting with each other (like work teams and boards of directors, but also social networks and neighborhoods). Characteristic of such interaction is the development of (affective) interpersonal relationships, or social ties. The embed

  14. Knotcraft the practical and entertaining art of tying knots

    Macfarlan, Allan and Paulette

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive reference work explains how to tie hundreds of practical (and decorative) knots in clear illustrations and precisely worded written instructions. Ideal for boaters and campers. Also covers knots in history, knot mystery and magic, and games, stunts and tricks with rope. Introduction. Index. 166 black-and-white illustrations.

  15. Neural correlates of dynamically evolving interpersonal ties predict prosocial behaviour

    Johannes Jacobus Fahrenfort

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behaviour in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behaviour even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behaviour to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behaviour may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction - rather than trait empathy - motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum, empathy (anterior insular cortex [AIC] and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC] as well as altruism and social significance (posterior superior temporal sulcus [pSTS]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behaviour during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance.

  16. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  17. The Verbal Facilitation Effect in Learning to Tie Nautical Knots

    Huff, Markus; Schwan, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Motor skills are often demonstrated with a combination of verbal information and video demonstration. In this study, participants learned to tie nautical knots with a video clip demonstrating the motor task preceded by a descriptive or a metaphorical, picture-like verbalization. In a control condition participants learned the knots with a video…

  18. Writing "Everyday Theatre": Applied Theatre, or Just TIE Rides Again?

    O'Toole, John

    2009-01-01

    The centre of this article is a critical description of the development and production of "Everyday Theatre's" performed pretext, called "replay@timeout", including a detailed account of the devising process and the programme's content. The programme is located within the history and traditions both of theatre in education (TIE) and process drama,…

  19. Application of Bow-tie methodology to improve patient safety.

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Esfandiari, Somayeh

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to apply Bow-tie methodology, a proactive risk assessment technique based on systemic approach, for prospective analysis of the risks threatening patient safety in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach - Bow-tie methodology was used to manage clinical risks threatening patient safety by a multidisciplinary team in the ICU. The Bow-tie analysis was conducted on incidents related to high-alert medications, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-related blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, and unwanted extubation. Findings - In total, 48 potential adverse events were analysed. The causal factors were identified and classified into relevant categories. The number and effectiveness of existing preventive and protective barriers were examined for each potential adverse event. The adverse events were evaluated according to the risk criteria and a set of interventions were proposed with the aim of improving the existing barriers or implementing new barriers. A number of recommendations were implemented in the ICU, while considering their feasibility. Originality/value - The application of Bow-tie methodology led to practical recommendations to eliminate or control the hazards identified. It also contributed to better understanding of hazard prevention and protection required for safe operations in clinical settings. PMID:27142951

  20. Hierarchical modularity of nested bow-ties in metabolic networks

    Luo Jian-Hua

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exploration of the structural topology and the organizing principles of genome-based large-scale metabolic networks is essential for studying possible relations between structure and functionality of metabolic networks. Topological analysis of graph models has often been applied to study the structural characteristics of complex metabolic networks. Results In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. Network decomposition of three microbes (Escherichia coli, Aeropyrum pernix and Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that almost all of the sub-networks exhibit a highly modularized bow-tie topological pattern similar to that of the global metabolic networks. Moreover, these small bow-ties are hierarchically nested into larger ones and collectively integrated into a large metabolic network, and important features of this modularity are not observed in the random shuffled network. In addition, such a bow-tie pattern appears to be present in certain chemically isolated functional modules and spatially separated modules including carbohydrate metabolism, cytosol and mitochondrion respectively. Conclusion The highly modularized bow-tie pattern is present at different levels and scales, and in different chemical and spatial modules of metabolic networks, which is likely the result of the evolutionary process rather than a random accident. Identification and analysis of such a pattern is helpful for understanding the design principles and facilitate the modelling of metabolic networks.

  1. Measurement of the location of tie-bar shoulders

    Hubert Gerwig

    2001-01-01

    The inner vactank is machined on a length of 13m at the location of the rails for HCAL. in addition at one side the inner vactank has shoulders to lodge the M48 tie-bars that will guarantee the fixation to the swivelling platform actually produced at HANJUNG Company in South Korea

  2. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.;

    2009-01-01

    Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample cons...

  3. Sino-Latin American Trade,Closer Tie

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ The financial crisis has provided a new opportunity for Sino-Latin American cooperation.In the past few years,China's economic ties to Latin America have witnessed comparable growth:from 1993 to 2003,China's trade with Latin America increased by 600 percent.

  4. Four- year thyroidectomy procedures: Ligasure Vs. clamp & tie

    Pazoki AR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system is an adjunct to the hemostatic technique, which has been successfully used in many abdominal operation, recently made available to thyroid surgery. The purpose of this was compare the outcomes of new hemostatic technique with traditional method of clamp and tie."n"nMethods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study has been done in surgery's wards of Milad & Rasul- Akram hospitals in Tehran, Iran. During three- year period between 2005-2008 all patients with different kind of pathology that need operation were assessed. Time duration of surgery and hospital stay and post surgery complication in two group, ligasure (n=45 and clamp & tie (n=145 were compared with each others."n"nResults: No difference was seen between two groups in time duration of surgery. Significant difference was seen in hospital stay and complications of surgery. Time of operation in Ligasure group was 132/22 minute and in clamp and tie group was 130/10 minute. There was found significant difference in duration of hospital stay and postoperative complication. Hypocalcemia were seen in two and 24 cases in Ligasure and Clamp & Tie group, respectively (p<0.05. Hospital stay was 2

  5. Linkage of genomic biomarkers to whole organism endpoints in a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE).

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to many toxic chemicals and interpreting the cause and effect relationships between occurrence and impairment is difficult. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) provides a systematic approach for identifying responsible toxicants. TIE relies on ...

  6. Personal Ties in the Writing of a Doctoral Dissertation

    Laura Colombo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of low graduation rates at the graduate level has been linked to the challenges of dissertation work. Given that this is a process of “disciplinary enculturation”, where graduate students acquire the ways of being and doing of each discipline, the social relations of doctoral candidates should be analyzed. Several studies have explored the support provided by social ties within academia but have, nevertheless, ignored other spheres. This qualitative study, based on in-depth interviews, explores the personal-sphere social relations in the dissertation writing process from the point of view of doctoral candidates and recent graduates in the fields of Education and Linguistics. Results indicate that the emotional, financial, economic, and academic support offered by these social ties is a necessary, although not in itself, sufficient condition. Some strategies for increasing institutional support to facilitate the process of writing a dissertation are offered.

  7. A Multichannel THz Detector Using Integrated Bow-Tie Antennas

    Hairui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kind of a multichannel THz detector using lens-based bow-tie array. A hyperhemispherical silicon lens is employed to provide a focal plane; 8 bow-tie elements are arranged on the focal plane with careful design to show a performance of broadband, high gain, well compact, and easy assembling. These characteristics of the detector are preferred for detecting weak THz signal. Measured far field shows that the radiation pattern of each element is shifted angularly, by ≈9°, which can be used for THz imaging. Tested responsivity of the detector shows a good spectral performance from 260 to 400 GHz: respective values were ≥220 V/W, and the best NEP is achieved at about 60 pW/. Besides that, the proposed antenna has advantages of simple structure, easy fabrication, and low cost.

  8. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Lara B Aknin

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  9. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness. PMID:21347326

  10. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  11. Role Markers of Adulthood and Young Adults’ Ties to Grandparents

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the implications of residential independence, enrollment in postsecondary education, employment, marital status, and parenthood for contact with, and closeness to, grandparents. Data come from 1,507 young adults interviewed in Wave 3 of the National Survey of Families and Households. Findings suggest that adult roles can be either negatively or positively associated with grandparent-grandchild ties, depending on specific configurations among such factors as the adult r...

  12. Effects of gender and tie strength on Twitter interactions

    Kivran-Swaine, Funda; Brody, Samuel; Naaman, Mor

    2013-01-01

    We examine the connection between language, gender, and social relationships, as manifested through communication patterns in social media. Building on an analysis of 78,000 Twitter messages exchanged between 1,753 gender-coded couples, we quantitatively study how the gender composition of conversing users influences the linguistic style apparent in the messages. Using Twitter data, we also model and control for the strength of ties between conversing users. Our findings show that, in line wi...

  13. The Role of Family Ties in Agency Contracts

    Gómez-Mejía, Luis R.; Núñez-Nickel, Manuel; Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2001-01-01

    Drawing on data based on the entire population of Spanish newspapers over 27 years (1966-93), this study shows that firm performance and business risk are much stronger predictors of chief executive tenure when a firm's owners and its executive have family ties and that the organizational consequences of CEO dismissal are more favorable when the replaced CEO is a member of the family owning the firm. The study also demonstrates that executives operating under weakly relational (less ambiguous...

  14. Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks

    Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a ...

  15. Representation of Women With Industry Ties in Ophthalmology.

    Reddy, AK; Bounds, GW; Bakri, SJ; Gordon, LK; Smith, JR; Haller, JA; Thorne, JE

    2016-01-01

    Women in ophthalmology are growing in number and have made strides in traditional metrics of professional achievement. Professional ties to industry represent another potential means of career advancement, recognition, and income.To report the representation of women among ophthalmologists receiving industry remuneration for research, consulting, honoraria, grants, royalties, and faculty/speaker roles.In this observational, retrospective study, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services O...

  16. Kulkurin tie viittoen : Teatterianalyysi tulkkaukseen valmistautumisen työkaluna

    Karevaara, Leena; Mäkelä, Antti

    2014-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Karevaara, Leena ja Mäkelä, Antti. Kulkurin tie viittoen – Teatterianalyysi tulkkaukseen valmistautumisen työkaluna. Kevät 2014, 55 s., 3 liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, Viittomakielen ja tulkkauksen koulutus, viittomakielentulkki (AMK). Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kehittää teatteritulkkausta tuomalla teatterin näkökulma esille viittomakielen tulkkauksessa ja tulkkaukseen valmistautumisessa. Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin valmistautumista varten uudenlainen työkalu, tea...

  17. Familial Ankyloglossia (Tongue-tie): A Case Report

    Saeid Morowati; Mobin Yasini2; Reza Ranjbar; Ali Asghar Peivandi; Mohsen Ghadami

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  18. ADIEU TO TONGUE TIE. LINGUAL FRENECTOMY: A CASE REPORT

    Rizwan Sanadi; Jayant Ambulgekar; Manan Doshi

    2013-01-01

    A Frenum is a fold of mucous membrane, usually with enclosed muscle fibers, that attaches the lips and cheeks to the alveolar mucosa and/or mucosa and underlying periosteum. Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a developmental anomaly of the tongue characterized by an abnormally short, thick lingual frenum resulting in limitation of tongue movement. It causes difficulty in speech articulation due to limitation in tongue movement. In this article we report a case of 24 years old female with Tongue t...

  19. Familial Ankyloglossia (Tongue-tie: A Case Report

    Saeid Morowati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. The identification of the defective gene(s in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  20. The ties between natural gas and oil prices

    On the European continent, the price of natural gas is still tied directly and to a great extent to the price of competing energies, especially heavy fuel oil and home heating oil. In other words, the gas market is linked to the oil market. Under the effect of deregulation, this model is likely to change in the future, making a shift like that which took place on the American market in the past. (author)

  1. Simulation of Local Tie Accuracy on VLBI Antennas

    Kallio, Ulla; Poutanen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new mathematical model to compute the centering parameters of a VLBI antenna. These include the coordinates of the reference point, axis offset, orientation, and non-perpendicularity of the axes. Using the model we simulated how precisely parameters can be computed in different cases. Based on the simulation we can give some recommendations and practices to control the accuracy and reliability of the local ties at the VLBI sites.

  2. Gender differences and social ties effects in resource sharing

    D'Exelle, Ben; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In rural areas in developing countries gender inequality tends to be severe which might have substantial welfare implications if it determines how scarce economic resources are shared between men and women. Therefore, it is important to know how gender influences resource sharing and - given the strong embeddedness of resource sharing in social networks - in what ways social ties interact with this influence. To investigate this, we combine data from resource allocation experiments and a soci...

  3. BowTieBuilder: modeling signal transduction pathways

    Schröder Adrian; Dräger Andreas; Planatscher Hannes; Spangenberg Lucía; Supper Jochen; Zell Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sensory proteins react to changing environmental conditions by transducing signals into the cell. These signals are integrated into core proteins that activate downstream target proteins such as transcription factors (TFs). This structure is referred to as a bow tie, and allows cells to respond appropriately to complex environmental conditions. Understanding this cellular processing of information, from sensory proteins (e.g., cell-surface proteins) to target proteins (e.g...

  4. Performance Characterization of Radial Stub Microstrip Bow-Tie Antenna

    B.T.P.Madhav; S.S. Mohan Reddy; Neha Sharma; J. Ravindranath Chowdary; Bala Rama Pavithra; K.N.V.S. Kishore; G Sriram; B. Sachin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a novel radial stub feeding microstrip bow-tie antenna is designed to operate between C and X band and its performance characterization is presented. This antenna is having simple structure and topology over other stub loaded antennas. In addition the proposed antenna adjusts to the desired frequency easily. Antenna output parameters like radiation pattern, axial ratio, directive gain andquality factor are simulated and presented in this current work.

  5. Performance Characterization of Radial Stub Microstrip Bow-Tie Antenna

    B.T.P.Madhav

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel radial stub feeding microstrip bow-tie antenna is designed to operate between C and X band and its performance characterization is presented. This antenna is having simple structure and topology over other stub loaded antennas. In addition the proposed antenna adjusts to the desired frequency easily. Antenna output parameters like radiation pattern, axial ratio, directive gain andquality factor are simulated and presented in this current work.

  6. Family Ties and Organizational Design: Evidence from Chinese Private Firms.

    Cai, Hongbin; Li, Hongbin; Park, Albert; Zhou, Li-An

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from a unique survey of managers of Chinese private firms, we investigate how family ties with firm heads affect managerial compensation and job assignment. We find that family managers earn higher salaries and receive more bonuses, hold higher positions, and are given more decision rights and job responsibilities than non-family managers in the same firm. However, family managers face weaker incentives than professional managers as seen in the lower sensitivity of their bonuse...

  7. It's the Recipient That Counts: Spending Money on Strong Social Ties Leads to Greater Happiness than Spending on Weak Social Ties

    Aknin, Lara B.; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Norton, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties—relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Part...

  8. Suicide: the key role of short range ties

    Röhner, B M

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the connection between short-range social ties (i.e. links with close relatives) and the occurrence of suicide. The objective is to discriminate between a model based on social ties and a model based on psychological traumas. Our methodological strategy is to focus on instances characterized by the severance of some social ties. We consider several situations of this kind. (i) Prisoners in the first days after their incarceration. (ii) Prisoners in solitary confinement. (iii) Prisoners who are transferred from one prison to another. (iv) Prisoners in closed versus open prisons. (v) Prisoners in the weeks following their release. (vi) Immigrants in the years following their relocation. (vii) Unmarried versus married people. Furthermore, in order to test the impact of major shocks we consider the responses in terms of suicides to the following shocks. (i) The attack of September 11, 2001 in Manhattan. (ii) The Korean War. (iii) The two world wars. (iv) The Great Depression in the United State...

  9. Sinogram bow-tie filtering in FBP PET reconstruction.

    Abella, M; Vaquero, J J; Soto-Montenegro, M L; Lage, E; Desco, M

    2009-05-01

    Low-pass filtering of sinograms in the radial direction is the most common practice to limit noise amplification in filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction of positron emission tomography studies. Other filtering strategies have been proposed to prevent the loss in resolution due to low-pass radial filters, although results have been diverse. Using the well-known properties of the Fourier transform of a sinogram, the authors defined a binary mask that matches the expected shape of the support region in the Fourier domain of the sinogram ("bow tie"). This mask was smoothed by a convolution with a ten-point Gaussian kernel which not only avoids ringing but also introduces a pre-emphasis at low frequencies. A new filtering scheme for FBP is proposed, comprising this smoothed bow-tie filter combined with a standard radial filter and an axial filter. The authors compared the performance of the bow-tie filtering scheme with that of other previously reported methods: Standard radial filtering, angular filtering, and stackgram-domain filtering. All the quantitative data in the comparisons refer to a baseline reconstruction using a ramp filter only. When using the smallest size of the Gaussian kernel in the stackgram domain, the authors achieved a noise reduction of 33% at the cost of degrading radial and tangential resolutions (14.5% and 16%, respectively, for cubic interpolation). To reduce the noise by 30%, the angular filter produced a larger degradation of contrast (3%) and tangential resolution (46% at 10 mm from the center of the field of view) and showed noticeable artifacts in the form of circular blurring dependent on the distance to the center of the field of view. For a similar noise reduction (33%), the proposed bow-tie filtering scheme yielded optimum results in resolution (gain in radial resolution of 10%) and contrast (1% increase) when compared with any of the other filters alone. Experiments with rodent images showed noticeable image quality

  10. HIV Transmission

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  11. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review

    Maria Dezio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to create a complete analysis about tongue-tie (or short lingual frenum or ankyloglossia according to the most important works published in literature. The analysis allowed us to do a complete evaluation of this problem, from embriology to the therapeutic approach we could use today, focusing our attention on laser-assisted therapy. This review is based on the research on the PubMed Database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov of studies about lingual frenum written in English between January 1980 and May 2014. The keywords inserted were “lingual frenum”, “frenectomy”, “laser therapy”. We have analyzed: case series, case reports, clinical studies, and also literature reviews in which embryology, physiology, diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia were described. We excluded laboratory studies, studies based on animal tests and studies about patients with particular syndromes in which we can also find tongue-tie. The selection criteria allowed us to select 42 articles. The treatment options for the releasing of the frenum are surgically represented by frenotomy (i.e. simple horizontal cut of this training and frenectomy (i.e. removal. In both cases, the intervention on the short lingual frenum is simple, short-lasting, and without particular complications. Furthermore, this kind of treatment can be carried out with different devices: with the typical cold blade scalpel or by the use of laser, a new method that shows more advantages over the prior art. Laser-assisted therapy permits to intervene on newborns (from 0 to 20 days, when there are breastfeeding problems without total anesthesia and suture. The Er:YAG, CO2 laser (according to literature data and Diode laser (according to our experience are advantageous, safe and effective in tongue-tie treatment.

  12. Tying loan interest rates to borrowers' CDS spreads

    Ivanov, Ivan T.; Santos, Joao A. C.; Vo, Thu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how the introduction of market-based pricing, the practice of tying loan interest rates to credit default swaps, has affected borrowing costs. We find that CDS-based loans are associated with lower interest rates, both at origination and during the life of the loan. Our results also indicate that banks simplify the covenant structure of market-based pricing loans, suggesting that the decline in the cost of bank debt is explained, at least in part, by a reduction in monitoring c...

  13. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation

    Pan, Wei; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social tie density and information flow as a function of the population. We demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population-level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to modularity, specialization, or hierarchy.

  14. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation

    Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy.

  15. Intergenerational family ties and the diffusion of cohabitation in Italy

    Alessandro Rosina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cohabitation has been spreading in the population during the last thirty years, and this is one of the most striking aspects of wider social changes that have taken place throughout the industrialized world. However, this change did not take place uniformly across Europe. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the current debate around the compatibility of cohabitation experiences with the Italian cultural context. Using an individual-level diffusion approach we obtain results that are consistent with the crucial role that family ties play in the choice of cohabitation in place of (or before marriage.

  16. Strengthening weak ties through on-line gaming

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana Virginia; Kirchner, Kathrin

    On-line gaming became widespread in the last couple of years. The aim of the research presented in the paper is to figure out to what extent does game playing helps to strengthen weak ties and what additional factors influence this process. The approach is rather exploratory – some factors are...... grounded in theory, some are new. These factors are age, gender, place of origin, number of their Facebook connections (friends in Facebook terminology), the amount of time they are on Facebook, the amount of time they keep the Facebook site open, the amount of time they play on-line games, and the reasons...

  17. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review

    Maria Dezio; Alessandra Piras; Livio Gallottini; Gloria Denotti

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to create a complete analysis about tongue-tie (or short lingual frenum or ankyloglossia) according to the most important works published in literature. The analysis allowed us to do a complete evaluation of this problem, from embriology to the therapeutic approach we could use today, focusing our attention on laser-assisted therapy. This review is based on the research on the PubMed Database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) of studies about lingual frenum written in English b...

  18. Friendship ties and geographical mobility: evidence from the BHPS

    Belot, Michèle; ERMISCH, JOHN

    2006-01-01

    A common finding in analyses of geographic mobility is a strong association between past movement and current mobility, a phenomenon that has given rise to the so called ‘mover-stayer model’. We argue in this paper that one of the driving forces behind this heterogeneity is the strength of local social ties. We use data from the BHPS on the location of the three closest friends and the frequency of contacts. We estimate the processes of friendship formation and residential mobility jointl...

  19. Sternal Closure With Tie Bands: A Word of Caution.

    Samuels, Louis

    2016-08-01

    The median sternotomy for cardiac operations can be reapproximated in a variety of ways. Traditionally, sternal wires have been used in several configurations to afford satisfactory closure. Alternative techniques include cables, plates, and clip-like devices. A relatively recent addition to the menu of options is the plastic tie band. Although a few studies have suggested its efficacy, this favorable experience has not been universal. The purpose of this report is to describe a failure in closure and the reaction of the soft tissue around it. PMID:27449444

  20. Burstiness and tie reinforcement in time varying social networks

    Ubaldi, Enrico; Karsai, Marton; Perra, Nicola; Burioni, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a time-varying network model accounting for burstiness and tie reinforcement observed in social networks. The analytical solution indicates a non-trivial phase diagram determined by the competition of the leading terms of the two processes. We test our results against numerical simulations, and compare the analytical predictions with an empirical dataset finding good agreements between them. The presented framework can be used to classify the dynamical features of real social networks and to gather new insights about the effects of social dynamics on ongoing spreading processes.

  1. Design of Compact Trapezoidal Bow-Tie Chipless RFID Tag

    Lei Xu; Kama Huang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compact design of a low cost fully printable slot-loaded bowtie chipless RFID tag. The tag consists of two trapezoidal metallic patches loaded with multiple slot resonators. Slots with similar size or adjacent frequencies are loaded alternately on two bow-tie patches to double the number of data bits within the UWB frequency band without increasing the mutual coupling between slots. A coding capacity of 12 bits is obtained with 12 slots within a reasonable size of ...

  2. Organizing learning processes on risks by using the bow-tie representation

    The Aramis method proposes a complete and efficient way to manage risk analysis by using the bow-tie representation. This paper shows how the bow-tie representation can also be appropriate for experience learning. It describes how a pharmaceutical production plant uses bow-ties for incident and accident analysis. Two levels of bow-ties are constructed: standard bow-ties concern generic risks of the plant whereas local bow-ties represent accident scenarios specific to each workplace. When incidents or accidents are analyzed, knowledge that is gained is added to existing local bow-ties. Regularly, local bow-ties that have been updated are compared to standard bow-ties in order to revise them. Knowledge on safety at the global and at local levels is hence as accurate as possible and memorized in a real time framework. As it relies on the communication between safety experts and local operators, this use of the bow-ties contributes therefore to organizational learning for safety

  3. Organizing learning processes on risks by using the bow-tie representation.

    Chevreau, F R; Wybo, J L; Cauchois, D

    2006-03-31

    The Aramis method proposes a complete and efficient way to manage risk analysis by using the bow-tie representation. This paper shows how the bow-tie representation can also be appropriate for experience learning. It describes how a pharmaceutical production plant uses bow-ties for incident and accident analysis. Two levels of bow-ties are constructed: standard bow-ties concern generic risks of the plant whereas local bow-ties represent accident scenarios specific to each workplace. When incidents or accidents are analyzed, knowledge that is gained is added to existing local bow-ties. Regularly, local bow-ties that have been updated are compared to standard bow-ties in order to revise them. Knowledge on safety at the global and at local levels is hence as accurate as possible and memorized in a real time framework. As it relies on the communication between safety experts and local operators, this use of the bow-ties contributes therefore to organizational learning for safety. PMID:16125315

  4. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary... concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not being, or likely to be, sold in the... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  5. Diversity of social ties in scientific collaboration networks

    Shi, Quan; Xu, Bo; Xu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yanghua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hengshan

    2011-11-01

    Diversity is one of the important perspectives to characterize behaviors of individuals in social networks. It is intuitively believed that diversity of social ties accounts for competition advantage and idea innovation. However, quantitative evidences in a real large social network can be rarely found in the previous research. Thanks to the availability of scientific publication records on WWW; now we can construct a large scientific collaboration network, which provides us a chance to gain insight into the diversity of relationships in a real social network through statistical analysis. In this article, we dedicate our efforts to perform empirical analysis on a scientific collaboration network extracted from DBLP, an online bibliographic database in computer science, in a systematical way, finding the following: distributions of diversity indices tend to decay in an exponential or Gaussian way; diversity indices are not trivially correlated to existing vertex importance measures; authors of diverse social ties tend to connect to each other and these authors are generally more competitive than others.

  6. Transcending Transmission

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication in the....... Organizations are stabilized by various non-human entities that “act” on their behalf. Accordingly, CSR communication should also take into account non-human agency and responsibility. Originality/value – This paper links the literature on CSR communication to broader debates in organizational communication...... studies and, in particular, to the CCO perspective. By applying the CCO view, it reconceptualizes CSR communication as a complex process of meaning negotiation....

  7. Review of two 1998 Mathematical Appendices Primary to Continuum Theory: Deflection Scattering and Redshift by a Particle-tied Aether

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    My development of Continuum Theory rests importantly on two mathematical treatments and calculations which I wrote in 1994 and were published in 1998 as Appendices A and B to my PIRT V paper presented in London in 1996. In view of their continuing scientific relevance, this contribution to the V9 conference proceedings is a republication of those Appendices, subject to minimal re-editing. Appendix B, presented first, tackles our 1959 finding that the daylight sky brightness distribution at high altitude shows the presence of an additional contribution whose intensity and distribution which, on careful analysis, I identified as having come from a deflection scattering mechanism due to transmission by an (atmospheric) `particle-tied aether'. Appendix A shows that redshift is one of the consequences of such transmission. The parameters involved are then used to analyse the 1968 radio ground-wave caesium clock redshift observations of Sadeh et al and to extrapolate them to the intergalactic transmission paths pertinent to the cosmic redshift as a transmission effect, not a velocity. It finds this to be a reasonable evaluation within observational uncertainties, notably those of density and degree of ionization. In that case, there being no Big Bang, the temperature is precisely known from the CMBR, identified as synchrotron-type radiation from the randomly moving aether along the path, but slightly elevated where the path has traversed a heat-generating cluster.

  8. Importance of tie strengths in the prisoner's dilemma game on social networks

    Though numerous researches have shown that tie strengths play a key role in the formation of collective behavior in social networks, little work has been done to explore their impact on the outcome of evolutionary games. In this Letter, we studied the effect of tie strength in the dynamics of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games by using online social network datasets. The results show that the fraction of cooperators has a non-trivial dependence on tie strength. Weak ties, just like previous researches on epidemics and information diffusion have shown, play a key role by the maintenance of cooperators in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games. -- Highlights: → Tie strength is used to measure heterogeneous influences of different pairs of nodes. → Weak ties play a role in maintaining cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games. → Micro-dynamics of nodes are illustrated to explain the conclusion.

  9. Studi Tentang Political Tie, Pengaruhnya Terhadap Keputusan Pemberian Kredit Bank di Indonesia

    Elisa Tjondro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses bank loan data to examine the effect of (political tie between the company and the government to on the assessment of companies financial leverage and profitability in the bank lending decisions in Indonesia. The numbers of samples are 1465 observations. This study uses moderated regression analysis (MRA. The study finds that a political tie affect corporate profitability assessment in bank lending decisions. Firms with lower profitability receive larger bank loan because their political tie (rent-seeking hypothesis. However, this study inds that a political tie does not affect the assessment of financial leverage in bank's lending decisions. This finding also supports Faccio (2010, Fisman (2001, and Backman (2001. Indonesia condition which has a weak institutional regulation and high information asymmetry is beneficial for companies that have a political tie. This leads to more trusted political tie as an indicator of the profitability.

  10. Importance of tie strengths in the prisoner's dilemma game on social networks

    Xu, Bo, E-mail: xubosuper@163.com [Department of Information Systems, School of Economics and Management, Beihang University (China); Liu, Lu; You, Weijia [Department of Information Systems, School of Economics and Management, Beihang University (China)

    2011-06-13

    Though numerous researches have shown that tie strengths play a key role in the formation of collective behavior in social networks, little work has been done to explore their impact on the outcome of evolutionary games. In this Letter, we studied the effect of tie strength in the dynamics of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games by using online social network datasets. The results show that the fraction of cooperators has a non-trivial dependence on tie strength. Weak ties, just like previous researches on epidemics and information diffusion have shown, play a key role by the maintenance of cooperators in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games. -- Highlights: → Tie strength is used to measure heterogeneous influences of different pairs of nodes. → Weak ties play a role in maintaining cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games. → Micro-dynamics of nodes are illustrated to explain the conclusion.

  11. THE RATIONALE BEHIND WEAKLY TIED NETWORKING OF THE BANGLADESHI DIASPORA IN MALAYSIA

    Nayeem, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an exploration of the survival strategies of the Bangladeshi Diaspora in Malaysia. To cope with the realities, Bangladeshi migrants develop different forms of survival strategies. As a result intra and inter-ethnic strong and weak ties are formed in the receiving country. Empirical analysis depicts that respondents with weak ties have higher income mobility than those with strong ties. It also demonstrates that the Bangladeshi migrants of the study areas do not restrict themselv...

  12. The Bright Side and Dark Side of Embedded Ties in Business-to-Business Innovation

    Noordhoff, Corine; Kyriakopoulos, Kyriakos; Moorman, Christina; Pauwels, Pieter; Dellaert, Benedict

    2011-01-01

    Although the number and importance of joint innovation projects between suppliers and their customers continue to rise, the literature has yet to resolve a key question: Do embedded ties with customers help or hurt supplier innovation? Drawing on both the tie strength and knowledge literatures, the authors theorize that embedded ties interact with supplier and customer innovation knowledge to influence supplier innovation. In a sample of 157 Dutch business-to-business innovation relationships...

  13. How foreign firms achieve competitive advantage in the Chinese emerging economy: Managerial ties and market orientation

    Zhou, KZ; Li, JJ

    2010-01-01

    As China experience unprecedented changes in its social, legal, and economic institutions, on what should foreign firms focus more to overcome this challenge, managerial ties or market orientation? This study investigates how managerial ties and market orientation affect competitive advantage and, consequently, firm performance in China. On the basis of a survey of 179 foreign firms in China, we find that both managerial ties and market orientation can lead to firm success-but in different wa...

  14. SOCIAL SUPPORT ON FACEBOOK: THE INFLUENCE OF TIE STRENGTH AND GENDER DIFFERENCES

    Pin Luarn; Hsien-Chih Kuo; Yu-Ping Chiu; Shu-Chen Chang

    2015-01-01

    How do people define their online relationships? Do “friends” still offer social support to each other on Facebook? This article discusses the effects of tie strength and gender difference on social support for online friendships. The results showed that individuals with strong ties have a significantly higher frequency of clicking “like,” and posting comments and messages on Facebook than individuals with weak ties do. In addition, females have a significantly higher frequency of liking, com...

  15. Vulnerability to changes in malaria transmission due to climate change in West Africa

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Malaria transmission in West Africa is strongly tied to climate; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the survival of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. As a result, the environmental suitability for malaria transmission in this region is expected to change as temperatures rise and rainfall patterns are altered. The vulnerability to changes in transmission varies throughout West Africa. Areas where malaria prevalence is already very high will be less sensitive to changes in transmission. Increases in environmental suitability for malaria transmission in the most arid regions may still be insufficient to allow sustained transmission. However, areas were malaria transmission currently occurs at low levels are expected to be the most sensitive to changes in environmental suitability for transmission. Here, we use data on current environment and malaria transmission rates to highlight areas in West Africa that we expect to be most vulnerable to an increase in malaria under certain climate conditions. We then analyze climate predictions from global climate models in vulnerable areas, and make predictions for the expected change in environmental suitability for malaria transmission using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a mechanistic model developed to simulate village-scale response of malaria transmission to environmental variables in West Africa.

  16. Temperature Profile in Fuel and Tie-Tubes for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Vishal Patel

    2015-02-01

    A finite element method to calculate temperature profiles in heterogeneous geometries of tie-tube moderated LEU nuclear thermal propulsion systems and HEU designs with tie-tubes is developed and implemented in MATLAB. This new method is compared to previous methods to demonstrate shortcomings in those methods. Typical methods to analyze peak fuel centerline temperature in hexagonal geometries rely on spatial homogenization to derive an analytical expression. These methods are not applicable to cores with tie-tube elements because conduction to tie-tubes cannot be accurately modeled with the homogenized models. The fuel centerline temperature directly impacts safety and performance so it must be predicted carefully. The temperature profile in tie-tubes is also important when high temperatures are expected in the fuel because conduction to the tie-tubes may cause melting in tie-tubes, which may set maximum allowable performance. Estimations of maximum tie-tube temperature can be found from equivalent tube methods, however this method tends to be approximate and overly conservative. A finite element model of heat conduction on a unit cell can model spatial dependence and non-linear conductivity for fuel and tie-tube systems allowing for higher design fidelity of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  17. Social Ties and Emotions: Evidence from Social Media

    Lerman, Kristina; Gallegos, Luciano; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    The social connections, or ties, individuals create affect their life outcomes, for example, by providing novel information that leads to new jobs or career opportunities. A host of socioeconomic and cognitive factors are believed to affect social interactions, but few of these factors have been empirically validated. In this research work, we extracted a large corpus of data from a popular social media platform that consists of geo-referenced messages, or tweets, posted from a major US metropolitan area. We linked these tweets to US Census data through their locations. This allowed us to measure emotions expressed in tweets posted from a specific area, and also use that area's socioeconomic and demographic characteristics in the analysis. We extracted the structure of social interactions from the people mentioned in tweets from that area. We find that at an aggregate level, areas where social media users engage in stronger, less diverse online social interactions are those where they express more negative em...

  18. Bonding, postpartum dysphoria, and social ties : A speculative inquiry.

    Crouch, Mira

    2002-09-01

    Since the late 1970s, disruptions and "failure" of maternal-infant bonding have been causally linked to postpartum depression. Part I of this paper examines the grounds for this connection while tracing the ramifications of bonding theory (Klaus and Kennell 1976) through obstetrics, pediatrics, and psychiatry, as well as in the (mis)representations of it in the popular media. This discussion resolves into a view of maternal attachment as a long-term development progressively established through intensive mother-infant interaction. The forms of this interaction are phylogenetically determined, albeit culturally and personally mediated. Flowing from this premise, Part II of the paper casts postpartum depression as an adaptive response to threat (from whatever cause) to adequate mothering, and develops an argument for the evolutionary role of enacted social ties in the establishment of maternal responsiveness. PMID:26192928

  19. Cooperation Prevails When Individuals Adjust Their Social Ties

    Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of “social viscosity” alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the additional

  20. Radio-planetary from tie from Phobos-2 VLBI data

    Hildebrand, C. E.; Iijima, B. A.; Kroger, P. M.; Folkner, W. M.; Edwards, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve the knowledge of the relative orientation (the 'frame tie') of the planetary ephemeris reference frame used in deep navigation and a second reference frame that is defined by the coordinates of a set of extragalactic radio sources, VLBI observations of the Soviet Phobos-2 spacecraft and nearby (in angle) radio sources were obtained at two epochs in 1989, shortly after the spacecraft entered orbit about Mars. The frame tie is an important systematic error source affecting both interplanetary navigation and the process of improving the theory of the Earth's orientation. The data from a single Phobos-2 VLBI session measure one component of the direction vector from Earth to Mars in the frame of the extragalactic radio sources (the 'radio frame'). The radio frame has been shown to be stable and internally consistent with an accuracy of 5 nrad. The planetary ephemeris reference frame has an internal consistency of approximately 15 nrad. The planetary and radio source reference frames were aligned prior to 1989 and measurements of occulations of the radio source 3C273 by the Moon. The Phobos-2 VLBI measurements provide improvement in the accuracy of two of the three angles describing a general rotation between the planetary and radio reference frames. A complete set of measurements is not available because data acquisition was terminated prematurely by loss of spacecraft. The analysis of the two Phobos-2 VLBI data sets indicates that, in the directions of the two rotation components determined by these data, the JPL planetary ephemeris DE200 is aligned with the radio frame as adopted by the International Earth Rotation Service within an accuracy of 20-40 nrad, depending on direction. The limiting errors in the solutions for these offsets are spacecraft trajectory (20 nrad), instrumental biases (19 nrad), and dependence of quasar coordinates on observing frequency (24 nrad).

  1. Software for Verifying Image-Correlation Tie Points

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Yagi, Gary

    2008-01-01

    A computer program enables assessment of the quality of tie points in the image-correlation processes of the software described in the immediately preceding article. Tie points are computed in mappings between corresponding pixels in the left and right images of a stereoscopic pair. The mappings are sometimes not perfect because image data can be noisy and parallax can cause some points to appear in one image but not the other. The present computer program relies on the availability of a left- right correlation map in addition to the usual right left correlation map. The additional map must be generated, which doubles the processing time. Such increased time can now be afforded in the data-processing pipeline, since the time for map generation is now reduced from about 60 to 3 minutes by the parallelization discussed in the previous article. Parallel cluster processing time, therefore, enabled this better science result. The first mapping is typically from a point (denoted by coordinates x,y) in the left image to a point (x',y') in the right image. The second mapping is from (x',y') in the right image to some point (x",y") in the left image. If (x,y) and(x",y") are identical, then the mapping is considered perfect. The perfect-match criterion can be relaxed by introducing an error window that admits of round-off error and a small amount of noise. The mapping procedure can be repeated until all points in each image not connected to points in the other image are eliminated, so that what remains are verified correlation data.

  2. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    2012-04-10

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or you may visit http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties... requirements for the purchase of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties, which contain certain components...

  3. A study on the dynamic tie points ASI algorithm in the Arctic Ocean

    HAO Guanghua; SU Jie

    2015-01-01

    Sea ice concentration is an important parameter for polar sea ice monitoring. Based on 89 GHz AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System) data, a gridded high-resolution passive microwave sea ice concentration product can be obtained using the ASI (the Arctic Radiation And Turbulence Interaction Study (ARTIST) Sea Ice) retrieval algorithm. Instead of using fixed-point values, we developed ASI algorithm based on daily changed tie points, called as the dynamic tie point ASI algorithm in this study. Here the tie points are expressed as the brightness temperature polarization difference of open water and 100% sea ice. In 2010, the yearly-averaged tie points of open water and sea ice in Arctic are estimated to be 50.8 K and 7.8 K, respectively. It is confirmed that the sea ice concentrations retrieved by the dynamic tie point ASI algorithm can increase (decrease) the sea ice concentrations in low-value (high-value) areas. This improved the sea ice concentrations by present retrieval algorithm from microwave data to some extent. Comparing with the products using fixed tie points, the sea ice concentrations retrieved from AMSR-E data by using the dynamic tie point ASI algorithm are closer to those obtained from MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In 40 selected cloud-free sample regions, 95% of our results have smaller mean differences and 75% of our results have lower root mean square (RMS) differences compare with those by the fixed tie points.

  4. Giorgio Agamben's inclusive exclusion of Étienne De la Boétie

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    , etc.) are subsequently addressed at length, Boétie is completely abandoned. It is the argument of this paper, that this is a significant conceptual move, constituting an inclusive exclusion of Boétie and his reflections on the subjective foundations of power, which reveals the underlying structure...

  5. Difficult intubation in an infant with Pierre Robin syndrome and concomitant tongue tie.

    Jones, S E; Derrick, G M

    1998-01-01

    Intubation and airway difficulties may be assumed in infants with Pierre Robin syndrome. We report a case of a six month old cleft palate repair who also had a tongue tie which compounded the problem. He was eventually intubated using the two anaesthetist technique. The contribution of the tongue tie is assessed. PMID:9836218

  6. Structural Assimilation Revisited: Mexican-Origin Nativity and Cross-Ethnic Primary Ties

    Brown, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    Classical assimilation theory postulates that over time, members of immigrant groups will develop more primary ties with native members of the host society. However, lack of data has led most research to rely on the study of either spatial mobility or other secondary variables as proxies of primary ties. Using data from the Multi-City Study of…

  7. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

  8. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the...

  9. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any..., or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b)...

  10. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    2013-06-20

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 30, 2013 (78 FR... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the... injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie...

  11. 77 FR 10502 - MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 13, 2012, MATL LLP (MATL) and Montana Alberta Tie Ltd (Montana Alberta...

  12. Social support and social interaction ties on internet addiction: integrating online and offline contexts.

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung

    2013-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties. PMID:23848959

  13. Social Interactions and Well-Being: The Surprising Power of Weak Ties.

    Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W

    2014-04-25

    Although we interact with a wide network of people on a daily basis, the social psychology literature has primarily focused on interactions with close friends and family. The present research tested whether subjective well-being is related not only to interactions with these strong ties but also to interactions with weak social ties (i.e., acquaintances). In Study 1, students experienced greater happiness and greater feelings of belonging on days when they interacted with more classmates than usual. Broadening the scope in Studies 2A and 2B to include all daily interactions (with both strong and weak ties), we again found that weak ties are related to social and emotional well-being. The current results highlight the power of weak ties, suggesting that even social interactions with the more peripheral members of our social networks contribute to our well-being. PMID:24769739

  14. Ageing and intergenerational family ties in Arab countries.

    Kronfol, N M; Rizk, A; Sibai, A M

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the dominant issues in intergenerational ties in Arab countries with a view to highlighting patterns, trends and challenges as well as policy implications. The data were drawn from a review of scholarly work and published literature in Arab countries and from a regional mapping of ageing policies and programmes in 2012. Social and health ageing policies in the region have been set with the premise that the family represents the core safety net for older Arabs. Yet demographic, sociocultural and economic transitions, as well as political conflict in the Arab world, are bringing profound changes to familial structures. This review feeds into efforts to promote health and social reforms that approach intergenerational solidarity from several fronts: providing equitable old-age income security, fostering cross-generational interactions, embracing caregivers and home-based care, promoting age-responsive actions in emergencies and conflicts, and prioritizing context- and country-specific research on the levels, types and trends in intergenerational and familial support. PMID:26857721

  15. Transnational Corporate Ties: A Synopsis of Theories and Empirical Findings

    Michael Nollert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, corporations are not isolated actors in an economic “war of all against all” but members of corporate networks of global reach. Although the literature on globalization emphasizes the increasing economic power of these networks and postulates the formation of a transnational capitalist class, there is still a lack of empirical findings. The article starts with a review of theoretical perspectives (resource dependence, social capital, coordination of markets, financial hegemony, class hegemony, inner circle, and transnational capitalist class which focuses on the functions and structures of corporate interlocks at the national and the transnational level. The subsequent section offers an outline of empirical studies concerning transnational corporate networks. These analyses of corporate ties (interlocking directorates, financial participations and policy group affiliations suggest the emergence of transnational economic elites whose members, however, have not lost their national identity. In the final section, the theoretical perspectives will be assessed and some prospects are sketched out. Finally, it will be argued that the disintegration of the world society, which is considerably driven by rent-seeking corporate networks, can only be restrained if a potential global regulatory agency will be anchored in a post-Washington consensus.

  16. Can space ties on board GNSS satellites replace terrestrial ties in the implementation of Terrestrial Reference Frames?

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    SLR techniques via the so-called space ties, instead of relying on the terrestrial ties evaluated with ground measurement campaigns at co-located ITRF sites.

  17. Tie2-dependent deletion of α6 integrin subunit in mice reduces tumor growth and angiogenesis.

    Bouvard, Claire; Segaoula, Zacharie; De Arcangelis, Adèle; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Mauge, Laetitia; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth; Helley, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    The α6 integrin subunit (α6) has been implicated in cancer cell migration and in the progression of several malignancies, but its role in tumor angiogenesis is unclear. In mice, anti-α6 blocking antibodies reduce tumor angiogenesis, whereas Tie1-dependent α6 gene deletion enhances neovessel formation in melanoma and lung carcinoma. To clarify the discrepancy in these results we used the cre-lox system to generate a mouse line, α6fl/fl‑Tie2Cre(+), with α6 gene deletion specifically in Tie2-lineage cells: endothelial cells, pericytes, subsets of hematopoietic stem cells, and Tie2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs), known for their proangiogenic properties. Loss of α6 expression in α6fl/fl‑Tie2Cre(+) mice reduced tumor growth in a murine B16F10 melanoma model. Immunohistological analysis of the tumors showed that Tie2-dependent α6 gene deletion was associated with reduced tumor vascularization and with reduced infiltration of proangiogenic Tie2-expressing macrophages. These findings demonstrate that α6 integrin subunit plays a major role in tumor angiogenesis and TEM infiltration. Targeting α6 could be used as a strategy to reduce tumor growth. PMID:25176420

  18. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  19. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... Healthcare Providers: Sexual Transmission of Zika Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  20. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    2010-10-01

    ... use tie-up facilities? 86.31 Section 86.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... charge the public to use tie-up facilities? You may charge the public only a reasonable fee, based on the..., based on other publicly and privately owned tie-up facilities in the area. You must approve any...

  1. 77 FR 52352 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Rio Mesa Gen-Tie Project...

    2012-08-29

    ... Gen-Tie Project and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Riverside County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land..., California, intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Rio Mesa Gen- Tie Project. The... Gen-Tie Project by any of the following methods: Web site: http://www.blm.gov/ca/st/en.html ;...

  2. United States, Europe and Poland Different Stages of Antitrust Tying War in the New Economy

    Mariusz SWORA

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft’s case has led to heated debates, both in Europe and the United States of America, on the abuse of the dominant position and on the prohibition of tying. This discussion, both in Europe and the United States, is not finished. In this article the author presents legal implications of tying products in Europe and Poland and confronts them with the American approach to tying. In Poland, a country with a fast developing economy, with the growing level of foreign investments, discussion ...

  3. Escapist Motives for On-line Gaming and Strengthening of Weak Ties

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    Due to advances of technology including faster and ubiquitously accessible Internet connection, on-line gaming have grown tremendously in the last couple of years. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether escapist motives for playing games are linked to strengthening of weak ties through on-line...... gaming. The research investigates Facebook and other on-line games separately. A surprising result is that while most of the investigated escapist motives are positively correlated with strengthening of weak ties, the mundane breaking motive is negatively correlated with strengthening of weak ties....

  4. Effect of summer grazing on welfare of dairy cows reared in mountain tie-stall barns

    Simonetta Dovier; Edi Piasentier; Mirco Corazzin; Stefano Bovolenta

    2010-01-01

    Traditional mountain farms have an important economic, social and environmental role. The Alps management system for dairy cows consists of animals kept indoors from autumn to spring, mostly in tie-stalls, and moved to mountain pasture in summer. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mountain summer grazing on the welfare of dairy cows housed in tie-stall barns. Twenty-four farms were considered. In twelve of them, animals were reared in tie-stalls and moved to mountain pasture for...

  5. Hanging Together, Together Hung? Career Implications of Interpersonal Ties Between CEOs and Top Managers

    Stefan Hilger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Is it good or bad for senior executives to have strong interpersonal ties to the CEO? We argue that a strong relationship with the CEO raises the likelihood that a top manager stays in office or makes an upward career move when the CEO leaves office voluntarily. At the same time, such interpersonal ties also reinforce the negative spillover effects of a dismissal of the CEO on the career prospects of the manager concerned. Our empirical analysis lends support to both arguments. We contribute to managerial succession research by underlining the ambivalence of interpersonal ties within top management teams.

  6. Experimental investigation of line-tying effects on the spheromak tilt mode

    Wysocki, F.J.

    1986-02-01

    A variety of passive stabilization techniques compatible with S-1 inductive spheromak formation has been evaluated for effectiveness against the MHD tilting instability. A line-tying stabilization effect has been previously identified theoretically. In the present work, the effects have been experimentally identified and investigated. The perturbed current patterns within passive stabilizing structures have been measured, and line-tying currents have been identified. The simple ring model of tilting has been expanded to include line-tying, and has provided estimates for growth rates which agree well with the measured values. 51 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Resilience by solidary ties (Resiliencia por lazos de solidaridad

    Antonio Alaminos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers an empirical approach to the relationships among three well known concepts: “Benevolence” (Schwartz, Solidarity and Resilience ("Subjective wellbeing scale" - SWB. The first concept refers to cultural values, the second one to social networks and the third to the ability to recover from crisis. The measurement of solidarity has been done from the point of view of supportive ties. The baseline hypothesis considers that the presence of a high value in Benevolence contributes to the involvements in solidarity networks. Participation in supportive relationships facilitates recovery from personal crisis. Using data from the European Social Survey (ESS6, we conclude from this structural analysis that the resilience reflected in a society is partly a consequence of the supportive networks shaped by the presence of benevolence values. | Tras introducir teóricamente los conceptos de "Benevolencia" (Schwartz, "Lazos de solidaridad" y "Resiliencia", se presenta su operativización en la Encuesta Social Europea de 2012. La hipótesis de partida plantea que la presencia de un valor alto en Benevolencia influye en la participación en interacciones solidarias y que la participación en redes solidarias facilita el recobrarse de las crisis. A partir de estos datos, y considerando varias sociedades europeas, se han testado dos modelos alternativos, según el efecto de la Benevolencia y los lazos de solidaridad sobre la resiliencia. Se concluye que existe un efecto directo de los valores de Benevolencia sobre la Solidaridad, y de esta sobre la Resiliencia. La influencia de los valores de Benevolencia sobre la Resiliencia se establece de forma indirecta mediante la activación de relaciones solidarias.

  8. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  9. Current sensors using highly-birefringent bow-tie fibres

    Qian, J.R.; Li, L.

    1986-01-01

    Faraday-effect optical-fibre current sensors have a number of well-known advantages for use in high-voltage transmission systems and other hostile environments. However, these applications have been restricted by the presence of linear birefringence in the fibre which adversely interacts with the Faraday polarisation rotation produced by magnetic fields. Linear birefringence results from (a) intrinsic effects within the fibre (ellipticity, inbuilt thermal-stress) and (b) packaging and co...

  10. One long tie bar broken after 3 days because of hydrogen contamination.

    H. Gerwig

    2000-01-01

    The tie bars have been produced with a high yield strength. As known for these type of high strength bolts, and hydrogen contamination during manufacture or heat treatment could lead to rupture under stress after several days.

  11. Hospital Volume Tied to Success of Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157804.html Hospital Volume Tied to Success of Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... they receive their radiation treatments at a high-volume facility as opposed to a lower-volume facility," ...

  12. Do family ties with those left behind intensify or weaken migrants’ assimilation?

    Stark, Oded; Dorn, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Strong ties with the home country and with the host country can coexist. An altruistic migrant who sends remittances to his family back home assimilates more the more altruistic he is, and also more than a non-remitting migrant.

  13. The weakness of strong ties : Collective action failure in a highly cohesive group

    Flache, A; Macy, MW

    1996-01-01

    Following Homans, exchange theorists have modeled informal social control as an exchange of peer approval for compliance with group obligations. The exchange model predicts higher compliance in cohesive networks with strong social ties. However, previous specifications failed to incorporate bilatera

  14. Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159804.html Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study Preliminary finding ... News) -- People who develop heart failure after a heart attack may also face a higher risk of cancer, ...

  15. Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs

    Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

  16. THE RATIONALE BEHIND WEAKLY TIED NETWORKING OF THE BANGLADESHI DIASPORA IN MALAYSIA

    S. Nayeem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exploration of the survival strategies of the Bangladeshi Diaspora in Malaysia. To cope with the realities, Bangladeshi migrants develop different forms of survival strategies. As a result intra and inter-ethnic strong and weak ties are formed in the receiving country. Empirical analysis depicts that respondents with weak ties have higher income mobility than those with strong ties. It also demonstrates that the Bangladeshi migrants of the study areas do not restrict themselves only to their close social networks; rather they develop distant networks for higher social mobility. Or in other words, though the ideal socio-cultural model emphasizes community cohesion (something that can be conceptualized as an example of a tightly structured social system, the actual behavior of the Bangladeshi migrants indicates a loosely or disintegrated social system. Migrant's embeddedness in the ongoing social relations and power structures regulates the nature and strength of these ties.

  17. Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) Phases I, II and III Guidance Document

    This presentation summarizes the sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques that allow researchers to characterize and identify chemical causes of acute toxicity in sediments that can be applied using the 10-d solid-phase sediment toxicity tests.

  18. The VEGF system and tie-2 are spatio-temporal expressed during tayassu placentation

    Miglino, M.A.; Santos, T.C.; Papa, P.C.;

    Objectives: The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important vascular mitogens, while the angiotensin receptor Tie-2 binds to the angiopoietin and stabilizes newly formed vessels. We therefore wanted to localize VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2 and the Tie-2...... for immunhistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against VEGF, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and Tie-2. Results: In the present study the VEGF-system exhibited intense staining in the uterine epithelium, uterine glandular epithelium and trophoblast. The endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of the vessels...... in the maternal and fetal compartment were also immunoreactive. Placentae from initial phase of gestation showed weaker staining when compared to middle and late gestation. In late gestation of the tayassu the Tie-2 was co-localized with the VEGF-system in both maternal (intense staining in glandular...

  19. Bow-tie topological features of metabolic networks and the functional significance

    ZHAO Jing; TAO Lin; YU Hong; LUO JianHua; GAO ZhiWei; LI YiXue

    2007-01-01

    Exploring the structural topology of genome-based large-scale metabolic network is essential for in vestigating possible relations between structure and functionality. Visualization would be helpful for obtaining immediate information about structural organization. In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. A spread bow-tie model was proposed to give a clear visualization of the bow-tie structure for metabolic networks. The revealed topological pattern helps to design more efficient algorithm specifically for metabolic networks. This coarsegrained graph also visualizes the vulnerable connections in the network, and thus could have important implication for disease studies and drug target identifications. In addition, analysis on the reciprocal links and main cores in the GSC part of bow-tie also reveals that the bow-tie structure of metabolic networks has its own intrinsic and significant features which are significantly different from those of random networks.

  20. Genes Tied to Red Hair, Pale Skin Greatly Raise Melanoma Risk?

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159831.html Genes Tied to Red Hair, Pale Skin Greatly Raise ... The study's British authors estimate that having the gene is roughly equivalent to the person spending an ...

  1. A longitudinal analysis of cross-border ties and depression for Latino adults.

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Lee, Anne; González, Hector M; Garcia, Lorena; Haan, Mary N

    2016-07-01

    Recent scholarship suggests a significant association between cross-border ties, or ties maintained with family and friends in countries and communities of origin, and the mental health of immigrants and their descendants. To date, this research has been exclusively cross-sectional, precluding conclusions about a causal association between cross-border ties and mental health outcomes. In the present study we undertake a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between cross-border ties and depression measured over a ten-year period for a sample of immigrant and U.S.-born Latinos. Data are from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008), a population-based, prospective study of Latin American-origin adults 60 years and older. We find that cross-border ties reported at baseline were significantly associated with depression in subsequent study waves, even after controlling for the presence of depression at baseline, albeit with substantial differences by gender and nativity. Specifically, communication with family and friends in Latin America and travel to Latin America at baseline were each significantly associated with greater odds of depression for immigrant women, but with lower odds of depression for U.S.-born Latina women over the study period. Travel to Latin America at baseline was significantly associated with lower odds of depression for Latino men across the study. Across all models we control for depressive symptomatology at baseline to account for the reciprocal nature of depressive symptoms and engagement with social ties, including cross-border ties. Our findings suggest that cross-border ties may represent a unique source of both resilience and risk for the long-term mental health of immigrant Latinos and their descendants. PMID:27239901

  2. Division of tongue tie: review of practice through a tertiary paediatric otorhinolaryngology service.

    Glynn, R W

    2012-10-01

    Recent NICE guidance declared that evidence regarding surgical division of tongue tie was adequate to support the use of the procedure, provided that normal arrangements are in place for consent, audit and clinical governance. This work aimed to carry out a retrospective review of those patients who have previously undergone tongue tie division through a tertiary paediatric otorhinolaryngology service. We further aimed to identify the referral patterns, indications for, and outcomes following, division.

  3. Angiopoietin-2 regulates gene expression in TIE2-expressing monocytes and augments their inherent proangiogenic functions

    Coffelt, Seth B.; Tal, Andrea O.; Scholz, Alexander; De Palma, Michele; Patel, Sunil; Urbich, Carmen; Biswas, Subhra K.; Murdoch, Craig; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Lewis, Claire E.

    2010-01-01

    TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) are a highly proangiogenic subset of myeloid cells in tumors. Here, we show that circulating human TEMs are already preprogrammed in the circulation to be more angiogenic and express higher levels of such proangiogenic genes as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), VEGFA, COX-2, and WNT5A than TIE2(-) monocytes. Additionally, angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) markedly enhanced the proangiogenic activity of TEMs and increased their expression of two proangiogenic...

  4. The 2008 Local-tie Survey at the Onsala Space Observatory

    Lösler, M.; Haas, R

    2009-01-01

    We describe an innovative approach to perform a local-tie survey at a fundamental geodetic station. The work was performed in September 2008 at the Onsala Space Observatory and used a laser tracker as survey instrument. Both the reference point of the radio telescope used for geodetic VLBI and the local tie between the latter and the reference point for GNSS measurements were determined. The application of the laser tracker allowed fast survey work and resulted in accurate coordinates with...

  5. The Contaminating Effects of Building Instrumental Ties: How Networking Can Make Us Feel Dirty

    Casciaro, Tiziana; Gino, Francesca; Kouchaki, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    To create social ties to support their professional or personal goals, people actively engage in instrumental networking. Drawing from moral psychology research, we posit that this intentional behavior has unintended consequences for an individual's morality. Unlike personal networking in pursuit of emotional support or friendship, and unlike social ties that emerge spontaneously, instrumental networking in pursuit of professional goals can impinge on an individual's moral purity—a psychologi...

  6. Analisa Kuat Geser Balok Tinggi Beton Bertulang Berdasarkan Model Strut-And-Tie

    Simamora, Vega Dinata P.

    2011-01-01

    Balok tinggi beton bertulang merupakan salah satu contoh daerah terganggu (Disturb Region) pada elemen struktur. Pada D-Region, teori balok (beam theory) tidak tepat diterapkan oleh karena itu diperlukan suatu metode yang rasional untuk diterapkan pada daerah-daerah tersebut. Strut-and-Tie Model (STM) merupakan pengembangan dari analogi rangka, telah diakui cukup baik diterapkan pada daerah-daerah tersebut. Pada penulisan skripsi ini metode Strut-and-Tie Model (STM) digunakan untuk memband...

  7. Does it pay to have friends? Social ties and executive appointments in banking

    Allen N. Berger; Kick, Thomas; Koetter, Michael; Schaeck, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Social capital theory predicts individuals establish social ties based on homophily, i.e., affinities for similar others. We exploit a unique sample to analyze how similarities and social ties affect career outcomes in banking based on age, education, gender, and employment history to examine if homophily and connectedness increase the probability that the appointee to an executive board is an outsider (an individual without previous employment at the bank) compared to being an insider. Our r...

  8. Technology For Information Engineering (TIE): A New Way of Storing, Retrieving and Analyzing Information

    Lewak, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical foundations of a new model and paradigm (called TIE) for data storage and access are introduced. Associations between data elements are stored in a single Matrix table, which is usually kept entirely in RAM for quick access. The model ties together a very intuitive "guided" GUI to the Matrix structure, allowing extremely easy complex searches through the data. Although it is an "Associative Model" in that it stores the data associations separately from the data itself, in cont...

  9. Relational ties or customized contracts? An examination of alternative governance choices in China

    Kevin Zheng Zhou; Laura Poppo; Zhilin Yang

    2008-01-01

    As business transactions become more complex in China – an increasingly market-driven economy – are managers more likely to employ relational ties or contracts? Consistent with the view that personal institutions govern transactions in China, our analysis of 361 buyer–supplier exchanges indicates that managers rely more on relational ties as asset specificity and uncertainty increase. We also find some support that impersonal institutions govern market transactions: as uncertainty increases, ...

  10. Tie-1-directed expression of Cre recombinase in endothelial cells of embryoid bodies and transgenic mice

    Gustafsson, E; Brakebusch, C; Hietanen, K;

    2001-01-01

    germline chimeras. The in vivo efficiency and specificity of the transgenic Cre was analysed by intercrossing the tie-1-Cre line with the ROSA26R reporter mice. At initial stages of vascular formation (E8-9), LacZ staining was detected in almost all cells of the forming vasculature. Between E10 and birth....... These results show that the tie-1-Cre transgenic strain can efficiently direct deletion of floxed genes in endothelial cells in vivo....

  11. Correlation between psychometric test scores and learning tying of surgical reef knots.

    Dashfield, A. K.; Lambert, A. W.; Campbell, J. K.; Wilkins, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the correlation between the scores attained on a computerised psychometric test, measuring psychomotor aptitude and learning tying of a surgical reef knot. Fifteen surgical trainees performed a test of psychomotor aptitude (ADTRACK 2) from the MICROPAT testing system. They then performed a simple test of their ability to tie a surgical reef knot and were assessed by a panel of experts prior to embarking on a standardised course of instruction and practice session. The kno...

  12. Exploring contributions to opera by The Black Tie Ensemble : a historical case study / Antoinette Johanna Olivier

    Olivier, Antoinette Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores the contribution to opera in South Africa by The Black Tie Ensemble. The research follows a qualitative research design. It is a historical case study which is conducted against an interpretivist philosophical perspective. Data were collected through interviews conducted with prominent role-players in The Black Tie Ensemble and through various articles from newspapers and magazines. From the data collected, specific themes crystallized; the impact of performance and...

  13. Bow-tie topological features of metabolic networks and the functional significance

    Jing, Zhao; Lin, Tao; Hong, Yu; Jian-Hua, Luo; Cao, Z W; Yixue, Li

    2006-01-01

    Exploring the structural topology of genome-based large-scale metabolic network is essential for investigating possible relations between structure and functionality. Visualization would be helpful for obtaining immediate information about structural organization. In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. A spread bow-tie model was proposed to give a clear visualization of the bow-tie structure for metabolic networks. The revealed top...

  14. Simulation of the effect of auxiliary ties used in the construction of Mallorca Cathedral

    Bourgeois, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is oriented on the study of Mallorca Cathedral taking into account its construction process and, particularly, the influence of iron ties used as auxiliary devices during the construction. Some previous studies (Roca et al., 2013, 2012) have presented some possible hypotheses about the construction process of this gothic cathedral. This study complements the previous results by considering the possibility of the adoption of auxiliary ties, since some evidences of their ...

  15. Tie-in of NPP Belene to the electric grid

    In the paper are presented several possible options for the tie-in of NPP Belene to the high-voltage grid for the cases of construction of one or two generating units of either 600 MW or 1000 MW capacity. It is shown that the generating units must be connected to the 400 kV grid. The backup supply for the auxiliaries of NPP Belene must be connected to the 110 kV grid. Between the 400 kV and the 110 kV switchyard must be provided one or two 400/110 kV auto transformers, depending on the size and the number of the generating units. It is proposed that the principle circuit diagram of the 400 kV substation is a double bus sectionalised system. In the case of 600 MW generating units the scheme is proposed to be one-and-a-half breakers per connection. In the case of 1000 MW units it is proposed that the switchyard is constructed according the so-called 'combined' scheme with two breakers per connection for the generating unit transformers and one-and-a-half breakers per connection for the overhead lines and the auto transformers. The principle diagram of the 110 kV sub-station is proposed to be a double bus sectionalised system with one breaker per connection. Both 400 and 110 kV switchyards are proposed to be gas insulated switchgear (SF6). The number of the outgoing 400 kV and 110 kV overhead lines is determined based on simplified stability and reliability criteria and on practical recommendations. The minimum required number of the 400 kV overhead lines is three in the case of one 600 MW generating unit. In the case of one 1000 MW unit or two units of either 600 or 1000 MW the minimum number of outgoing 400 kV lines must be four. The number of the outgoing 110 kV lines is proposed to be five. (author)

  16. Lower tie plate with stepped holes to control pressure drop and flow distribution

    This patent describes a fuel bundle for a boiling water nuclear reactor. The fuel bundle includes a lower tie plate for the support of fuel rods in side-by-side upstanding relation and permitting the inflow of moderating coolant for the moderation of fast neutrons to thermal neutrons for the maintenance of a critical nuclear reaction and the generation of steam from the coolant, an upper tie plate for the upper support of fuel rods in the side-by-side upstanding relation and permitting the outflow of moderating coolant and generated steam; fuel rods arrayed in a matrix supported on the lower tie plate and extending towards and to the upper tie plate. The fuel rods containing fissionable material for supporting a critical nuclear reaction; a channel surrounding the tie plates and the fuel rods for confining fluid flow between the upper and lower tie plates to cause heating of the moderator with boiling in the upper portion of the fuel bundle

  17. Hydraulic reinforcement of channel at lower tie-plate in BWR fuel bundle

    This patent describes an apparatus in a fuel bundle for confining fuel rods for the generation of steam in a steam water mixture passing interior of the fuel bundle. The fuel bundle includes: a lower tie-plate for supporting the fuel rods and permitting flow from the lower exterior portion of the fuel bundle into the interior portion of the fuel bundle; a plurality of fuel rods. The fuel rods supported on the lower tie-plate extending upwardly to and towards the upper portion of the fuel bundle for the generation of steam in a passing steam and water mixture interior of the fuel bundle; an upper tie-plate for maintaining the fuel rods in side-by-side relation and permitting a threaded connection between a plurality of the fuel rods with the threaded connection being at the upper and lower tie-plate. The upper tie-plate permitting escape of a steam water mixture from the top of the fuel bundle; a fuel bundle channel; and a labyrinth seal configured in the lower tie-plate

  18. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis.

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph-) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62-CCR2- (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  19. Estimation of tensile force in tie-rods using a frequency-based identification method

    Amabili, M.; Carra, S.; Collini, L.; Garziera, R.; Panno, A.

    2010-05-01

    A technique is developed to identify in-situ the tensile force in tie-rods which are used in ancient monumental masonry buildings to eliminate the lateral load exercised by the vaults and arcs. The technique is based on a frequency-based identification method that allows to minimize the measurement error and that is of simple execution. In particular, the first natural frequencies of the tie-rods are experimentally identified by measuring the frequency response functions (FRFs) with instrumented hammer excitation; four to six natural frequencies can be easily identified with a simple test. Then, a numerical model, based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method, is developed for the axially loaded tie-rod by using the Timoshenko beam theory retaining shear deformation and rotary inertia. Non-uniform section of the rod is considered since this is often the case for hand-made tie-rods in old buildings. The part of the tie-rod inserted inside the masonry wall is also modeled and a simple support is assumed at the extremities inside the walls. The constraints given to the part of the tie-rod inserted inside the masonry structure are assumed to be elastic foundations. The tensile force and the stiffness of the foundation are the unknowns. In some cases, the length of the rod inside the masonry wall can be also assumed as unknown. The numerical model is used to calculate the natural frequencies for a given set of unknowns. Then, a weighted difference between the calculated and identified natural frequencies is calculated and this difference is minimized in order to identify the unknowns, and in particular the tensile force. An estimation of the error in the identification of the force is given. The technique has been tested on five tie-rods at the ground floor of the famous castle of Fontanellato, Italy.

  20. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college. PMID:25691148

  1. Community Detection in Signed Networks: the Role of Negative ties in Different Scales

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-09-01

    Extracting community structure of complex network systems has many applications from engineering to biology and social sciences. There exist many algorithms to discover community structure of networks. However, it has been significantly under-explored for networks with positive and negative links as compared to unsigned ones. Trying to fill this gap, we measured the quality of partitions by introducing a Map Equation for signed networks. It is based on the assumption that negative relations weaken positive flow from a node towards a community, and thus, external (internal) negative ties increase the probability of staying inside (escaping from) a community. We further extended the Constant Potts Model, providing a map spectrum for signed networks. Accordingly, a partition is selected through balancing between abridgment and expatiation of a signed network. Most importantly, multi-scale spectrum of signed networks revealed how informative are negative ties in different scales, and quantified the topological placement of negative ties between dense positive ones. Moreover, an inconsistency was found in the signed Modularity: as the number of negative ties increases, the density of positive ties is neglected more. These results shed lights on the community structure of signed networks.

  2. Current singularities in line-tied three-dimensional magnetic fields

    Craig, I J D

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the current distributions that derive from finite amplitude perturbations of line-tied magnetic fields comprising hyperbolic field structures. The initial equilibrium on which we principally focus is a planar magnetic X-point threaded by a uniform axial field. This field is line-tied on all surfaces but subject to three-dimensional (3D) disturbances that alter the initial topology. Results of ideal relaxation simulations are presented which illustrate how intense current structures form that can be related, through the influence of line-tying, to the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the initial configuration. It is demonstrated that the location within the QSL that attracts the current, and its scaling properties, are strongly dependent on the relative dimensions of the QSL with respect to the line-tied boundaries. These results are contrasted with the behavior of a line-tied 3D field containing an isolated null point. In this case, it is found that the dominant current always forms at t...

  3. $m=1$ Ideal Internal Kink Modes in a Line-tied Screw Pinch

    Huang, Y M; Sovinec, C R; Huang, Yi-Min; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Sovinec, Carl R.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the radial displacement of the $m=1$ internal kink mode in a periodic screw pinch has a steep jump at the resonant surface where $\\mathbf{k}\\cdot\\mathbf{B}=0$. In a line-tied system, relevant to solar and astrophysical plasmas, the resonant surface is no longer a valid concept. It is then of interest to see how line-tying alters the aforementioned result for a periodic system. If the line-tied kink also produces a steep gradient, corresponding to a thin current layer, it may lead to strong resistive effects even with weak dissipation. Numerical solution of the eigenmode equations shows that the fastest growing kink mode in a line-tied system still possesses a jump in the radial displacement at the location coincident with the resonant surface of the fastest growing mode in the periodic counterpart. However, line-tying thickens the inner layer and slows down the growth rate. As the system length $L$ approaches infinity, both the inner layer thickness and the growth rate approach the perio...

  4. LRP5 regulates development of lung microvessels and alveoli through the angiopoietin-Tie2 pathway.

    Tadanori Mammoto

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is crucial for lung development. Although there has been considerable exploration, the mechanism by which lung vascular and alveolar formation is controlled is still not completely understood. Here we show that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5, a component of the Wnt ligand-receptor complex, regulates angiogenesis and alveolar formation in the lung by modulating expression of the angiopoietin (Ang receptor, Tie2, in vascular endothelial cells (ECs. Vascular development in whole mouse lungs and in cultured ECs is controlled by LRP5 signaling, which is, in turn, governed by a balance between the activities of the antagonistic Tie2 ligands, Ang1 and Ang2. Under physiological conditions when Ang1 is dominant, LRP5 knockdown decreases Tie2 expression and thereby, inhibits vascular and alveolar development in the lung. Conversely, when Ang2 dominates under hyperoxia treatment in neonatal mice, high LRP5 and Tie2 expression suppress angiogenesis and lung development. These findings suggest that the LRP5-Tie2-Ang signaling axis plays a central role in control of both angiogenesis and alveolarization during postnatal lung development, and that deregulation of this signaling mechanism might lead to developmental abnormalities of the lung, such as are observed in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD.

  5. Vibration Testing of Electrical Cables to Quantify Loads at Tie-Down Locations

    Dutson, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The standard method for defining static equivalent structural load factors for components is based on Mile s equation. Unless test data is available, 5% critical damping is assumed for all components when calculating loads. Application of this method to electrical cable tie-down hardware often results in high loads, which often exceed the capability of typical tie-down options such as cable ties and P-clamps. Random vibration testing of electrical cables was used to better understand the factors that influence component loads: natural frequency, damping, and mass participation. An initial round of vibration testing successfully identified variables of interest, checked out the test fixture and instrumentation, and provided justification for removing some conservatism in the standard method. Additional testing is planned that will include a larger range of cable sizes for the most significant contributors to load as variables to further refine loads at cable tie-down points. Completed testing has provided justification to reduce loads at cable tie-downs by 45% with additional refinement based on measured cable natural frequencies.

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel peptide ligand of Tie2 for targeting gene therapy

    Xianghua Wu; Jianren Gu; Zonghai Li; Ming Yao; Huamao Wang; Sumin Qu; Xianlian Chen; Jinjun Li; Ye Sun; Yuhong Xu

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domain-2 (Tie2) has been considered as a rational target for gene therapy in solid tumors. In order to identify a novel peptide ligand of Tie2 for targeted gene therapy, we screened a phage display peptide library and identified a candidate peptide ligand NSLSNASEFRAPY(designated GA5).Binding assays and Scatchard analysis revealed that GA5 could specifically bind to Tie2 with a dissociation constant of 2.1×10-8M.In addition,we showed that GA5 was internalized into tumor cells highly expressing Tie2.In the biodistribution assay.125I-GA5 was mainly accumniated in SPC-A1 xenograft tumors that express Tie2.Ingene delivery studies,GA5-conjugated polyethylenimine vector could achieve greater transgene transduction than non-targeted vectors both in vitro and in vivo.Tumor growth inhibition was observed in SPC-A1 xenograft-bearing mice that received eight intratumoral injections of GA5 polyethylenimine/p53 complexes in 3 weeks.The difference in tumor volume between the experiment and control groups was significant(P<0.05).Our results showed that GA5 is a potentially efficient targeting element for cancer gene or molecular therapy.

  7. Merchant Transmission Investment

    Joskow, Paul L.; Tirole, Jean

    2003-01-01

    We examine the performance attributes of a merchant transmission investment framework that relies on ?market driven? transmission investment to provide the infrastructure to support competitive wholesale markets for electricity. Under a stringent set of assumptions, the merchant investment model appears to solve the natural monopoly problem and the associated need for regulating transmission companies traditionally associated with electric transmission networks. We expand the model to inc...

  8. Grid-tied markets for photovoltaics - a new source emerges

    Some recent developments in the use of photovoltaics for energy independence and their integration into buildings are discussed, together with the aims of the International Energy Agency. The article discusses (a) development of the PV market; (b) drivers for the growth in PV markets; (c) Kyoto; (d) energy dependence and security issues; (e) increasing costs of conventional sources; (f) ageing or inadequate transmission and distribution infrastructure; (g) IEA goals; (h) building-integrated photovoltaics; (eye) effect of market drivers and (j) likely market developments. Diagrams show (a) how the cost per Watt has fallen, 1976 to 2000; (b) PV application segments and issues; (c) market shipments by global regional segment; (d) market growth expectations 1999 to 2005; (e) effect of the Japanese programme on the PV market, 1994 to 2000; (f) effect of the German programme on the PV market, 1995 to 2000 and (g) the US grid-connected market projection, 2001 to 2012. Five conclusions were drawn from the current market status, and trends identified

  9. Let the Weakest Link Go! Empirical Explorations on the Relative Importance of Weak and Strong Ties on Social Networking Sites

    Krämer, Nicole C.; Leonie Rösner; Eimler, Sabrina C.; Stephan Winter; German Neubaum

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical approaches as well as empirical results in the area of social capital accumulation on social networking sites suggest that weak ties/bridging versus strong ties/bonding social capital should be distinguished and that while bonding social capital is connected to emotional support, bridging social capital entails the provision of information. Additionally, recent studies imply the notion that weak ties/bridging social capital are gaining increasing importance in today’s social med...

  10. Social capital, labour precariousness and the economic performance. An empirical assessment of the strength of weak ties in Italy

    Fabio Sabatini

    2005-01-01

    This paper carries out an assessment of the influence that different kinds of social ties exert on labour precariousness, on the state of health of urban environments and on the economic performance in Italy. Overall, the empirical evidence shows that weak ties connecting members of voluntary organizations positively affect the economic performance and the quality of urban ecosystems, differently from strong ties connecting family members and close friends, which, on the other side, are prove...

  11. Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment

    Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

    1941-01-01

    About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

  12. Quantifying the impact of weak, strong, and super ties in scientific careers

    Petersen, Alexander Michael

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are frequently faced with the important decision to start or terminate a creative partnership. This process can be influenced by strategic motivations, as early career researchers are pursuers, whereas senior researchers are typically attractors, of new collaborative opportunities. Focusing on the longitudinal aspects of scientific collaboration, we analyzed 473 collaboration profiles using an ego-centric perspective which accounts for researcher-specific characteristics and provides insight into a range of topics, from career achievement and sustainability to team dynamics and efficiency. From more than 166,000 collaboration records, we quantify the frequency distributions of collaboration duration and tie-strength, showing that collaboration networks are dominated by weak ties characterized by high turnover rates. We use analytic extreme-value thresholds to identify a new class of indispensable `super ties', the strongest of which commonly exhibit >50% publication overlap with the central scienti...

  13. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    Hein de Haas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants' intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the likelihood of returning. However, according to alternative theoretical interpretations, return migration can also be the outflow of successful integration in receiving countries. Drawing on a data set of four African immigrant groups in Spain and Italy, this articlereviews these conflicting hypotheses by assessing the effects of integration and transnational ties on return migration intentions. The results of the analysis suggest that socio-cultural integration has a negative effect on return migration intentions, while economic integration and transnational ties have more ambiguous and sometimes positive effects. The results provide mixed support for the different hypotheses but question theoretical perspectives that unequivocally conceptualizereturn migration and transnationalism as causes and/or consequences of "integration failure".

  14. Application of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures for the characterization and management of dredged harbor sediments.

    Montero, N; Belzunce-Segarra, M J; Gonzalez, J-L; Menchaca, I; Garmendia, J M; Etxebarria, N; Nieto, O; Franco, J

    2013-06-15

    This study refers to the performance of Phase I Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures to identify the contaminants (i.e. organic compounds, metals and ammonia) exerting toxicity in marine sediments from the Pasaia harbor (Oiartzun estuary, northern Spain). The effectiveness of the manipulations to reduce toxicity was proved with the marine amphipod survival test (whole-sediment) and the sea urchin embryo-larval assay (elutriates). By means of TIEs it was concluded that organic compounds were the major contaminants exerting toxicity, although toxic effects by metals was also demonstrated. Additionally, the combination of Phase I treatments allowed to investigate the toxicity changes associated to the mobility of contaminants during dredging activities. Therefore, the performance of TIE procedures as another line of evidence in the decision-making process is recommended. They show a great potential to be implemented at different steps of the characterization and management of dredged harbor sediments. PMID:23465571

  15. STABLE MARRIAGE PROBLEM WITH TIES AND INCOMPLETE BOUNDED LENGTH PREFERENCE LIST UNDER SOCIAL STABILITY

    Ashish Shrivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a variant of socially stable marriage problem where preference lists may be incomplete, may contain ties and may have bounded length. In real world application like NRMP and Scottish medical matching scheme such restrictions arise very frequently where set of agents (man/woman is very large and providing a complete and strict order preference list is practically in-feasible. In presence of ties in preference lists, the most common solution is weakly socially stable matching. It is a fact that in an instance, weakly stable matching can have different sizes. This motivates the problem of finding a maximum cardinality weakly socially stable matching. In this paper, we find maximum size weakly socially stable matching for an instance of Stable Marriage problem with Ties and Incomplete bounded length preference list with Social Stability. The motivation to consider this instance is the known fact, any larger instance of this problem is NP-hard.

  16. SOCIAL SUPPORT ON FACEBOOK: THE INFLUENCE OF TIE STRENGTH AND GENDER DIFFERENCES

    Pin Luarn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How do people define their online relationships? Do “friends” still offer social support to each other on Facebook? This article discusses the effects of tie strength and gender difference on social support for online friendships. The results showed that individuals with strong ties have a significantly higher frequency of clicking “like,” and posting comments and messages on Facebook than individuals with weak ties do. In addition, females have a significantly higher frequency of liking, commenting and messaging than males. The results reconfirm the gender difference of social support in sociology and reveal the pattern behind user behavior on a social network website. These findings could be applied to the value proposition and to the design of interaction tools of social network websites in the future.

  17. Influence of social ties to environmentalists on public climate change perceptions

    Tindall, D. B.; Piggot, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    An emerging body of research proposes that climate change concern is shaped by one's social ties and cultural milieu. This work aligns with findings in the well-established field of social network analysis, whereby individuals are understood as being embedded in social networks, and network position can be used to predict attitudes. Here we examine whether having ties to environmental movement organization members is correlated with climate change attitudes amongst the general public. We use data from a nationwide survey of the Canadian public to demonstrate that having social ties to environmental organization members increases the likelihood that an individual member of the public has a plan to deal with climate change. These findings reinforce the value of focusing on social context when examining climate change attitudes, and highlight the role that environmental organization members play in mobilizing climate change responses.

  18. Design and construction of the tensioned ties for UX15 cavern vault

    Parkin, R J H

    2002-01-01

    Due to the programme constraints for the UX15 cavern set by CERN, it has been necessary to complete the concrete lining of the vault prior to the excavation of the bench. The vault lining is therefore being temporarily suspended from a number of pre-tensioned high capacity multi-strand tensioned ties. During excavation of the bench, additional loads will be imposed onto the vault lining due to ground displacements. In order to minimise the number of ties, the previously completed linings of the PX14 and PX16 access shafts will be used to support some of the load. Three-dimensional modelling has been undertaken to design the structures and determine the expected behaviour of this complex support system. Geotechnical instrumentation has been installed in the concrete linings and the ground to monitor loads and displacements during construction. After the cavern walls have been completed, the ties will be released.

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in tie-stall dairy herds using a standardized environmental sampling technique and targeted pooled samples.

    Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Côté, Geneviève; Paré, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Buczinski, Sébastien; Doré, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Julie H; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a chronic contagious enteritis of ruminants that causes major economic losses. Several studies, most involving large free-stall herds, have found environmental sampling to be a suitable method for detecting MAP-infected herds. In eastern Canada, where small tie-stall herds are predominant, certain conditions and management practices may influence the survival and transmission of MAP and recovery (isolation). Our objective was to estimate the performance of a standardized environmental and targeted pooled sampling technique for the detection of MAP-infected tie-stall dairy herds. Twenty-four farms (19 MAP-infected and 5 non-infected) were enrolled, but only 20 were visited twice in the same year, to collect 7 environmental samples and 2 pooled samples (sick cows and cows with poor body condition). Concurrent individual sampling of all adult cows in the herds was also carried out. Isolation of MAP was achieved using the MGIT Para TB culture media and the BACTEC 960 detection system. Overall, MAP was isolated in 7% of the environmental cultures. The sensitivity of the environmental culture was 44% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20% to 70%] when combining results from 2 different herd visits and 32% (95% CI: 13% to 57%) when results from only 1 random herd visit were used. The best sampling strategy was to combine samples from the manure pit, gutter, sick cows, and cows with poor body condition. The standardized environmental sampling technique and the targeted pooled samples presented in this study is an alternative sampling strategy to costly individual cultures for detecting MAP-infected tie-stall dairies. Repeated samplings may improve the detection of MAP-infected herds. PMID:27408329

  20. The automotive transmission book

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  1. Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mitchell, K. (Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

  2. United States, Europe and Poland Different Stages of Antitrust Tying War in the New Economy

    Mariusz SWORA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microsoft’s case has led to heated debates, both in Europe and the United States of America, on the abuse of the dominant position and on the prohibition of tying. This discussion, both in Europe and the United States, is not finished. In this article the author presents legal implications of tying products in Europe and Poland and confronts them with the American approach to tying. In Poland, a country with a fast developing economy, with the growing level of foreign investments, discussion on monopolist practices under the conditions of a fast technological development1 has not really commenced yet. The problems of innovation and development of New Economy undertakings has gained new impetus following Poland’s accession to the European Union. It is a matter of time when the anti-trust law begins to show interest in them. There are some indications that this has already taken place. In the first part of this article the author briefly presents the discussion related to Microsoft III case in the United States insofar as it pertains to New Economy issues. The second and third parts address legal and political aspects of the Microsoft case in the European Union. In the fourth part legal aspects related to tying practices in Poland are presented. The article aims to show that instrumental and mechanical treatment of tying practices used by firms having the market power under conditions of technological progress is not proper. The problem of antitrust analysis of such practices is universal, as universal as these practices are. However, the problem is solved differently in the United States and in Europe and the reasons for such a different approach are rooted in the legal system and policy enforcement. Microsoft antitrust is global. After US and European cases, Korean competition authority has found Microsoft guilty of tying practices2. Regarding Microsoft problems with tying it is necessary to ask the question whether tying practices are

  3. Third party referrals in the venture capital financing process : do network ties matter?

    Heuven, Joris

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and third parties and the network ties between VC’s and third parties. To do so we collected in depth information on 25 venture capital investment decisions and studied how third parties played a role in t...

  4. Escapist Motives for On-line Gaming and Strengthening of Weak Ties

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    Due to advances of technology including faster and ubiquitously ac-cessible Internet connection, on-line gaming have grown tremendously in the last couple of years. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether escapist mo-tives for playing games are linked to strengthening of weak ties through...... on-line gaming. The research investigates Facebook and other on-line games separate-ly. A surprising result is that while most of the investigated escapist motives are positively correlated with strengthening of weak ties, the mundane breaking motive is negatively correlated with strengthening of...

  5. FAMILIAL ANKYLOGLOSS IA [TONGUE – TIE] – A RARE CASE REPORT

    Siva Subba Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankyloglossia or tongue tie is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4 - 5% and characterized by abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality is 2 times more common in males. The pathogenesis of Ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated Ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal domin ant trait in four consecutive generations. The identification of the defective gene (s in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder. This case report elucidates a specific inheritance pattern of tongue tie.

  6. Hanging Together, Together Hung? Career Implications of Interpersonal Ties Between CEOs and Top Managers

    Hilger, Stefan; Richter, Ansgar; Schäffer, Utz

    2013-01-01

    Is it good or bad for senior executives to have strong interpersonal ties to the CEO? We argue that a strong relationship with the CEO raises the likelihood that a top manager stays in office or makes an upward career move when the CEO leaves office voluntarily. At the same time, such interpersonal ties also reinforce the negative spillover effects of a dismissal of the CEO on the career prospects of the manager concerned. Our empirical analysis lends support to both arguments. We contribute ...

  7. FAILURES AND DEFECTS IN THE BUILDING PROCESS – APPLYING THE BOW-TIE APPROACH

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    site was observed from the very start to the very end and all failures and defects of a certain size were recorded and analysed. The methodological approach used in this analysis was the bow-tie model from the area of safety research. It combines critical-event analysis for both causes and effects with...... event-tree analysis. The paper describes this analytical approach as an introduction to a new concept for understanding failures and defects in construction. Analysing the many critical events in the building process with the bow-tie model visualises the complexity of causes. This visualisation offers...

  8. Method for evaluating bow tie filter angle-dependent attenuation in CT: Theory and simulation results

    Boone, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) is increasingly based on Monte Carlo studies that define the dose in the patient (in mGy) as a function of air kerma (free in air) at isocenter (mGy). The accuracy of Monte Carlo studies depends in part on the accuracy of the characterization of the bow tie filter for a given CT scanner model. A simple method for characterizing the bow tie filter attenuation profile in CT scanners would therefore be very useful. The theory behind such a method is...

  9. Ground-state magnetic phase diagram of bow-tie graphene nanoflakes in external magnetic field

    Szałowski, Karol

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of a ground state is studied theoretically for graphene nanoflakes of bow-tie shape and various size in external in-plane magnetic field. The tight-binding Hamiltonian supplemented with Hubbard term is used to model the electronic structure of the systems in question. The existence of the antiferromagnetic phase with magnetic moments localized at the sides of the bow-tie is found for low field and a field-induced spin-flip transition to ferromagnetic state is predic...

  10. Analysis of Silver Ink Bow-Tie RFID Tag Antennas Printed on Paper Substrates

    Sari Merilampi; Leena Ukkonen; Lauri Sydänheimo; Pekka Ruuskanen; Markku Kivikoski

    2007-01-01

    In this study, polymeric silver inks, paper substrates, and screen printing were used to produce prototype Bow-Tie tags. Because of increasing interest in applying passive UHF-RFID systems in paper industry, the Bow-Tie antenna used in this study was designed to work through paper. The maximum reliable read ranges of the tags were measured thorough stacked paper and also in air. The analysis and functioning of the antenna design are also discussed. All inks and paper substrates were suitable ...

  11. Motivation vs. relevance: Using strong ties to find a job in Urban China

    Obukhova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    While the idea that contacts matter in finding a job is intuitively appealing, we still do not know—after decades of research—how and why strong ties benefit job seekers. To resolve this confusion, we need to theorize how specific characteristics of ties are related to the mechanisms that make job search through contacts effective. We have reasons to expect that, while a contact’s motivation influences the likelihood that a job seeker receives an offer, her homophily with the job seeker on oc...

  12. Yhteinen tie : Kasvattajien kokemuksia uskonnollisesta ja eettisestä kasvatustyöstä

    Lindholm, Nana; Mäkelä, Anitta

    2011-01-01

    Lindholm, Nana ja Mäkelä, Anitta Yhteinen tie. Kasvattajien kokemuksia uskonnollisesta ja eettisestä kasvatustyöstä. Järvenpää, syksy 2011, 59 s. Diakonia ammattikorkeakoulu. Diak etelä, Järvenpää. Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, sosionomi-diakoni (AMK) ja LTO:n virkakelpoisuus. Tutkimuksemme Yhteinen tie kuvasi hyvinkääläisen Paavolan päiväkodin kasvattajien kokemuksia ja käsityksiä uskonnollisesta ja eettisestä kasvatustyöstä. Päivähoidon kasvatustyö tehdään yhteistyössä vanhempien ...

  13. Transient Stability Studies on Industrial Power Systems Interconnected to the Transmission Grid

    Calderón–Guizar J.G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to ensure continuity in the electrical supply to critical processes, the electrical systems of large industrial plants, i.e. gas, and petrochemical industries usually posses local generation. Should the local generation be enough to satisfy the demand of the plant, then the interconnection with the public grid is commonly used as an important support for emergency conditions. This paper is concerned with the dynamical performance of two interconnected industrial power systems tied to the transmission system. Simulation results indicate that the frequency performance of one of the industrial plants, after the transients caused by the loss of the tie with the transmission system have died out, is greatly improved if both industrial plants remain connected after the disturbance.

  14. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    2013-12-12

    ... China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325, 29330 (May 20, 2013... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of...

  15. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk

  16. Investigation on the Consumption Values of Hong Kong People on Tie Products

    Sarah Mei-yi Leung; Alice Wai-ching Chu; Kit-lun Yick

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the consumption values of Hong Kong people on necktie. Based on the Sheth-Newman-Gross Model of consumption values on consumers' choice decision as conceptual framework, results from the focus group interview, a questionnaire was designed and adopted for conducting the survey. Data collected from 245 respondents were analysed using the Factor Analysis to review the important elements of consumers' decision of purchasing tie products. Implications on the results on the Functional value were reviewed and discussed in details. Interesting elements such as fabric hand-feel were also identified as influential associated in Hong Kong consumers' selection of necktie. Since, both fibre content and fabric handle were also found as major selection criteria for fabric materials, the study was focused on the analysis of functional value of the product and further extended to study the handle preference for Hong Kong customers, in which a subjective handle assessment of a wide range of tie fabrics being newly developed and introduced in the market was conducted and objective fabric physical and mechanical properties were measured. Important fabric handle attributes that influence the consumers' preference on tie fabrics were identified and their objective translation by fabric physical and mechanical properties were also obtained. The investigation provides decision support to necktie manufacturers and retailers through scientific and quantitative recommendations for product development of tie products and material selection.

  17. Could Lots of Time Spent on Social Media Be Tied to Depression?

    ... Time Spent on Social Media Be Tied to Depression? Study did not prove cause-and-effect, and researchers say more investigation is ... 24, 2016 THURSDAY, March 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The more time young adults spend using popular social media, the greater the ...

  18. Third party referrals in the venture capital financing process : do network ties matter?

    Heuven, Joris

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and thir

  19. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  20. Mechanical characterization of the tie rods for the ATLAS B0 model coil

    Alessandria, Franco; Todero, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS Barrel Toroid (BT) consists of 8 superconducting coils of 25 m length and 5 m width. Each coil is equipped with eight titanium alloy tie rods acting as support for the magnetic forces, the intensity of which will be up to 180 t for the most loaded one. The B0 model coil is about 1/3 length scale of the BT, equipped with three tie rods. In order to simulate the behavior of the coil supports, a test facility has been built to test individual tie rods at cryogenic temperature. The initial aim was to verify the amount of stick and slip, the possibility of it occurring during the excitation and the flexion of the support at the anchoring point on the magnet. This was achieved by inducing in the support the same movements foreseen during the cool-down and the excitation of the magnet and loading with the same forces. Following the evolution of the project it was decided to test the tie rod simply in traction at 250 tons, without displacements. In this paper the test facility is described and the data of t...

  1. Place of Origin, Types of Ties, and Support Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration

    Flores-Yeffal, Nadia Y.; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies explored how urban or rural place of origin influences the source of social capital. There remains a need to consider how the place of origin affects the type of ties--family, friends, or "paisanos" (countrymen)--with those who provide support to migrants. We use data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP128) and perform…

  2. Transient analysis for implementation of cross-tie on CCWS in NPP

    The Component Cooling Water System(CCWS) consists of two independent, redundant closed loops and is capable of removing heat from the safety-related components required for normal operation and accident condition. In general, in case of the design of train division, One CCW division is the loss of flow only to the non-essential load that the nuclear power plant should be shutdown. we considered the applicability of cross-tie for CCWS. When the CCWS is cross-tie operating, the major concern with respect to water hammer is the possibility of excessively high impact pressure and system load change resulting from subsequent operating mode change. Also, the surge tank level transient between both trains through cross-tie design is the secondary concern because it could cause the RCP trip due to the unexpected generation of lo-lo level signal. In this paper, the result of transient analysis of cross-tie CCWS and the system operating performance during the operating mode change using LIQT program are described

  3. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  4. Any Ties that Bind? Economic Diplomacy on the South Asian Subcontinent

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); H. Dorussen; H. Ward (Huge)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe liberal peace emphasizes the importance of commercial ties and shared norms—of which shared democratic institutions have received most attention—for peaceful interstate relations. Ever since the creation of India and Pakistan in 1947, political relations between the two states have b

  5. The Role of Social Ties in Word-of-Mouth Effectiveness

    Martensen, Anne Duhr; Grønholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This article develops consumer segmentation based on the strength of social ties in word-of-mouth (WOM) communication and examines the influence of WOM on behavioral attitude and intention in these segments. Data were collected through a survey among receivers of retail banking WOM. A cluster....... Moreover, the WOM influence is examined for customers as well as non-customers....

  6. Social ties and risk for cancer--a prospective cohort study

    Bergelt, Corinna; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    consisted of 8 548 Danes who had been examined in 1991-1994 within the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The median length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 0-11.2 years). Social ties were measured from answers to a questionnaire on social networks. Regression analyses for cancers at the most frequent sites...

  7. Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2016-01-01

    bow-tie antennas have been used at the top-edge region of mobile phone PCB. The antenna elements fed by microstrip lines are designed to operate at 17 GHz. The simulated results give good performances in terms of different antenna parameters. In addition, an investigation on the distance between...

  8. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    through an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, they show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories, and different worker...

  9. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  10. A possible mechanism for cross-tie fibril generation in crazing of amorphous polymers

    Tijssens, M.G.A.; van der Giessen, E.

    2002-01-01

    A possible mechanism for cross-tie fibril generation in crazes of amorphous polymers is proposed. Detailed finite element calculations are performed on an axisymmetric model of a single fibril inside the craze. These calculations suggest that the hydrostatic stress inside the fibril is large enough

  11. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  12. Double-sided printed bow-tie antenna with notch filter for UWB applications

    Hirata, Akimasa; ヒラタ, アキマサ; 平田, 晃正

    2009-01-01

    This letter proposes a double-sided printed bow-tie antenna with a notch band. The notch filter is based on a grounded patch inserted into the feeding microstrip line. The advantage of the structure is its tunability of the notch band.

  13. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  14. Exploring relationship between human mobility and social ties: Physical distance is not dead

    Jin, Bo; Liao, Binbing; Yuan, Ning; Wang, Wenjun

    2015-06-01

    Partly due to the difficulty of the access to a worldwide dataset that simultaneously captures the location history and social networks, our understanding of the relationship between human mobility and the social ties has been limited. However, this topic is essential for a deeper study from human dynamics and social networks aspects. In this paper, we examine the location history data and social networks data of 712 email users and 399 offline events users from a map-editing based social network website. Based on these data, we expand all our experiment both from individual aspect and community aspect. We find that the physical distance is still the most influential factor to social ties among the nine representative human mobility features extracted from our GPS trajectory dataset, although Internet revolution has made long-distance communication dramatically faster, easier and cheaper than ever before, and in turn, partly expand the physical scope of social networks. Furthermore, we find that to a certain extent, the proximity of South-North direction is more influential than East-West direction to social ties. To the our best of our knowledge, this difference between South-North and East-West is the first time to be raised and quantitatively supported by a large dataset. We believe our findings on the interplay of human mobility and social ties offer a new perspective to this field of study.

  15. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

  16. 75 FR 34941 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    2010-06-21

    ... Tying Arrangements, MB Docket No. 07-198, FCC 10-17, at 75 FR 9692. The Ordering Clause of the First...(c)(3) published at 75 FR 9692, March 3, 2010 are effective on June 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 76 Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of...

  17. Social ties within school classes : The roles of gender, ethnicity, and having older siblings

    Soetevent, AR; Kooreman, P

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we identify the lines along which social ties between high-school teenagers are primarily formed. To this end, we introduce interaction weights between pupils in the same school class that are a function of exogenous individual background characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and

  18. Method and matter in the social sciences: Umbilically tied to the Enlightenment.

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This commentary deals with the nonconformity of academics and the ethos of social science. Academics in all fields deviate from majority norms in politics and religion, and this deviance may be essential to the academic mind and to academic norms. The Enlightenment legacy inspires both methods and subject matter in academic work, and severing ties with it may be impossible. PMID:26787220

  19. Mexican American Protest, Ethnic Resiliency and Social Capital: The Mobilization Benefits of Cross-Cutting Ties

    Santoro, Wayne A.; Velez,, Maria B.; Keogh, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    Using terms like free spaces and havens, conventional wisdom views social ties by subordinate groups to dominant group members as hindering protest participation. In contrast, we draw on ethnic resiliency and social capital perspectives and argue that there are mobilization benefits to having dominant group members as friends. We offer a unique…

  20. How To Explore Weak Ties in the Biotechnological Field: The Role of Technological Diversity

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    -organisational weak ties. A number of organisational practices that enable such open exploration are identified while the main argument points to the impact a general technological competence has on the potential to form boundary-spanning social relations and the related opportunity to exchange knowledge with diverse...

  1. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    Braithwaite Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the

  2. Hydrostatic transmission design

    Dalda Rivas, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    This project treats the analysis of the hydrostatic transmission dynamic properties using a simulation model, which has been done with the simulation program AMESim. That simulation has been the main work in the project, especially because it is a good way to understand how a hydrostatic transmission works. The hydrostatic transmission are used in heavy vehicles such as earth moving machines, agriculture machines, forest machines, industrial and mining lifters. Nowadays, the demand of that...

  3. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  4. The monetary transmission mechanism

    Ireland, Peter N.

    2006-01-01

    The monetary transmission mechanism describes how policy-induced changes in the nominal money stock or the short-term nominal interest rate impact on real variables such as aggregate output and employment. Specific channels of monetary transmission operate through the effects that monetary policy has on interest rates, exchange rates, equity and real estate prices, bank lending, and firm balance sheets. Recent research on the transmission mechanism seeks to understand how these channels work ...

  5. Method for evaluating bow tie filter angle-dependent attenuation in CT: Theory and simulation results

    Purpose: Dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) is increasingly based on Monte Carlo studies that define the dose in the patient (in mGy) as a function of air kerma (free in air) at isocenter (mGy). The accuracy of Monte Carlo studies depends in part on the accuracy of the characterization of the bow tie filter for a given CT scanner model. A simple method for characterizing the bow tie filter attenuation profile in CT scanners would therefore be very useful. The theory behind such a method is proposed. Methods: A measurement protocol is discussed mathematically and demonstrated using computer simulation. The proposed method requires the placement of a radiation monitor at the periphery of the CT field, and the time domain signal (kerma rate versus time) is measured with good temporal resolution (∼200 Hz or better) and with all other objects (e.g., patient couch) retracted from the field of view. Knowledge of the source to isocenter distance (or alternately, the isocenter to probe distance) is required. The stationary detector records the kerma rate versus time signal as the gantry rotates through several revolutions. From this temporal data, signal processing techniques are used to extract in-phase peaks, as well as out-of-phase kerma rate levels. From these data, the distance from isocenter to the probe can be determined (or, alternatively, the source to isocenter distance), and the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation can be computed. By measuring the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation at several kVp settings, the bow tie composition versus fan angle can be computed using basis decomposition techniques. Results: The simulations illustrated that with 2% added noise in the kerma rate versus time signal, the attenuation properties of a hypothetical two component (aluminum and polymethyl methacrylate) bow tie filter could be determined (r2>0.99). Although the computed basis material thicknesses were not exactly equal to the actual thicknesses, their

  6. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    2013-09-19

    ... People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325 (May... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the... antidumping duty investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico,...

  7. Let the Weakest Link Go! Empirical Explorations on the Relative Importance of Weak and Strong Ties on Social Networking Sites

    Nicole C. Krämer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches as well as empirical results in the area of social capital accumulation on social networking sites suggest that weak ties/bridging versus strong ties/bonding social capital should be distinguished and that while bonding social capital is connected to emotional support, bridging social capital entails the provision of information. Additionally, recent studies imply the notion that weak ties/bridging social capital are gaining increasing importance in today’s social media environments. By means of a survey (N = 317 we challenged these presuppositions by assessing the social support functions that are ascribed to three different types of contacts from participants’ network (weak, medium, or strong tie. In contrast to theoretical assumptions, we do not find that weak ties are experienced to supply informational support whereas strong ties first and foremost provide emotional support. Instead we find that within social networking sites, strong ties are perceived to provide both emotional and informational support and weak ties are perceived as less important than recent literature assumes.

  8. What’s Causing Toxicity in Sediments? Results of Twenty Years of Toxicity Identification and Evaluations (TIEs)

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIEs) methods have been used for twenty years to identify the causes of toxicity in sediments around the world. We summarized and categorized results of more than 80 peer-reviewed TIE studies into non-ionic organic, cationic, ammo...

  9. 30 CFR 285.223 - What does MMS do if there is a tie for the highest bid?

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does MMS do if there is a tie for the highest bid? 285.223 Section 285.223 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... is a tie for the highest bid? (a) Unless otherwise specified in the Final Sale Notice, except in...

  10. Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  11. Tongue-Tie Assessment and Division: A Time-Critical Intervention to Optimise Breastfeeding

    Jack Donati-Bourne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recent reports have highlighted the benefits of surgical division of tongue-tie (frenulotomy in infants with breastfeeding difficulties. There is no clear consensus defining the appropriate age for this procedure to be undertaken in selected infants. We aimed to evaluate the impact of delays in time between referral and frenulotomy in relation to maternal abandonment of breastfeeding.Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study done in out-patient Neonatal Surgery Department, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK, between April 2013 and July 2013. All infants, referred to our tongue-tie clinic between April and July 2013, were studied prospectively. Referral time lags were calculated using computer records; details regarding breastfeeding were collected by an independent interviewer completing a questionnaire.Results: Seventy patients were included. The median infant age at clinic was 28.5 days [range 1-126]. Fifty eight [82%] of mothers had breastfeeding difficulty and their infants were confirmed to have a prominent tongue-tie. By the time of their clinic attendance, breastfeeding had either not been established or abandoned in 21%. Despite difficulty, 61% of mothers persisted breastfeeding and all these mothers consented for frenulotomy. At time of clinic, median age of infants whose mothers had abandoned breastfeeding was 37 days [range 1-80] compared to 27 days [range 1-126] in infants whose mothers had persisted.Conclusions: We demonstrated a time-critical dimension for frenulotomy: delay beyond 4-weeks from referral to assessment of neonatal tongue-tie is more likely to be associated with abandonment of breastfeeding. Timely assessment and division of tongue-tie in selected infants can therefore play an important role in a birthing unit’s breastfeeding strategy.

  12. Poverty and price transmission

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  13. Data Transmission Concepts.

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  14. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  15. Local effects of redundant terrestrial and GPS-based tie vectors in ITRF-like combinations

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Sarti, Pierguido; Negusini, Monia; Vittuari, Luca

    2009-11-01

    Tie vectors (TVs) between co-located space geodetic instruments are essential for combining terrestrial reference frames (TRFs) realised using different techniques. They provide relative positioning between instrumental reference points (RPs) which are part of a global geodetic network such as the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). This paper gathers the set of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)-global positioning system (GPS) local ties performed at the observatory of Medicina (Northern Italy) during the years 2001-2006 and discusses some important aspects related to the usage of co-location ties in the combinations of TRFs. Two measurement approaches of local survey are considered here: a GPS-based approach and a classical approach based on terrestrial observations (i.e. angles, distances and height differences). The behaviour of terrestrial local ties, which routinely join combinations of space geodetic solutions, is compared to that of GPS-based local ties. In particular, we have performed and analysed different combinations of satellite laser ranging (SLR), VLBI and GPS long term solutions in order to (i) evaluate the local effects of the insertion of the series of TVs computed at Medicina, (ii) investigate the consistency of GPS-based TVs with respect to space geodetic solutions, (iii) discuss the effects of an imprecise alignment of TVs from a local to a global reference frame. Results of ITRF-like combinations show that terrestrial TVs originate the smallest residuals in all the three components. In most cases, GPS-based TVs fit space geodetic solutions very well, especially in the horizontal components (N, E). On the contrary, the estimation of the VLBI RP Up component through GPS technique appears to be awkward, since the corresponding post fit residuals are considerably larger. Besides, combination tests including multi-temporal TVs display local effects of residual redistribution, when compared to those solutions where Medicina TVs

  16. The weak-ties in advanced business services as a major force of innovation and diffusion; Las Eak-Ties en los servicios avanzados a empresas como factor relevante de la innovacion y su difusion

    Almenar i Llongo, V.; Hernandez Sancho, F.; Solar i Marco, V.

    2012-07-01

    This paper tries to expose the role of weak-ties of advanced business services in both mechanisms which generate innovation as well as allow technological diffusion and transfer of innovations (spillovers). Assuming that the latest information generally flows to agents through weak ties, the Weak-Ties Hypothesis (WTH) is an approach that helps to explain the importance of the relations with the environment in the process of innovation and generation of new knowledge and its implementation and dissemination, evaluating the synergy's resulting from cooperation between agents. (Author) 21 refs.

  17. Wireless Power Transmission

    Pragati S. Chawardol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A great concern has been voiced in recent years over the extensive use of energy, the limited supply of resourses, and the pollution of the environment from the use of present energy conversion systems. Electrical power accounts for much of the energy consumed. One of the major issue in power system is the losses occurs during the transmission and distribution of electrical power. As the demand increases day by day, the power generation increases and the power loss is also increased. The major amount of power loss occurs during transmission and distribution. The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid distribution system causes a loss of 26-30% of the energy generated. This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is only 70-74% efficient. The above discussed problem can be solved by choose an alternative option for power transmission which could provide much higher efficiency, low transmission cost and avoid power theft. Wireless power transmission is one of the promising technologies and may be the righteous alternative for efficient power transmission. This paper focuses on the past and future possible advancements in WPT. Also the proposed method and technologies in WPT that will make the loss of energy during transmission and distribution to minimum are discussed. Keyword

  18. Longitudinal analysis of large social networks: estimating the effect of health traits on changes in friendship ties.

    O'Malley, A James; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-04-30

    We develop novel mixed effects models to examine the role of health traits on the status of peoples' close friendship nominations in the Framingham Heart Study. The health traits considered are both mutable (body mass index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, body proportion, muscularity, and depression) and, for comparison, basically immutable (height, birth order, personality type, only child, and handedness); and the traits have varying degrees of observability. We test the hypotheses that existing ties (i.e. close friendship nominations) are more likely to dissolve between people with dissimilar (mutable and observable) health traits whereas new ties are more likely to form between those with similar (mutable and observable) traits while controlling for persons' age, gender, geographic separation, and education. The mixed effects models contain random effects for both the nominator (ego) and nominated (alter) persons in a tie to account for the fact that people were involved in multiple relationships and contributed observations at multiple exams. Results for BMI support the hypotheses that people of similar BMI are less likely to dissolve existing ties and more likely to form ties, while smoker to non-smoker ties were the least likely to dissolve and smoker to smoker ties were the most likely to form. We also validated previously known findings regarding homophily on age and gender, and found evidence that homophily also depends upon geographic separation. PMID:21287589

  19. Circulating angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie-2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    Wagner Ludwig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased levels of Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 and soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2, but its impact on vascular disease is still unknown. This study aimed to further explore the associations of Ang-2 and sTie-2 with metabolic control and diabetic complications. Methods In a cross-sectional designed study, levels of Ang-2 and sTie-2 as well as their relationships to cardiometabolic parameters were determined in 80 type 2 diabetic subjects (age 65 ± 7 years, female 47.4%. Results After controlling for age and BMI, Ang-2 levels were associated with levels of sTie-2, diastolic blood pressure, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT (all p 1c, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, and liver function parameters (all p 1c, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR (p Conclusions Ang-2 is independently associated with levels of GGT while sTie-2 is independently associated with levels of HbA1c, plasma insulin and HOMA-IR in type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore we suggest that the associations of Ang-2 and sTie-2 with type 2 diabetes are based on different patho-physiological mechanisms.

  20. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  1. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats.

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

  2. Design and stability analysis of continuous skew tied-arch bridge over Bin Jiang River

    Jiancheng YU; Hao TONG; Wei HUANG

    2008-01-01

    A tied arch bridge without wind bracing was built over the Bin Jiang River, with oblique angle of 20°. Its main design details are described and mechanical performances are analyzed. The stability analytical types are also introduced and the first elastic stability theory is used. A space finite element model has been built to analyze the stability performances in both construction and operation stages for single span or continuous, orthogonal or oblique bridge. The influence of stiffness of the end crossbeam is also analyzed. The result shows that out-plane buckling occur for a rigid tie and similar no matter whether it is single span or continuous and orthogonal or oblique. When there are more and stronger inner crossbeams, the influence of the end crossbeams on arch stability becomes unremarkable.

  3. The influence of family ties on men's prostate cancer screening, biopsy, and treatment decisions.

    Shaw, Eric K; Scott, John G; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2013-11-01

    Extensive research has focused on understanding family dynamics of men with prostate cancer. However, little qualitative work has examined the role of family ties on men's prostate cancer decisions across the spectrum of screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Using data from a larger study, we qualitatively explored the influence of family ties on men's prostate cancer decisions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with men ages ≥50 (N = 64), and data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and a series of immersion/crystallization cycles. Three major themes of spousal/family member influence were identified: (a) spousal/family member alliance marked by open communication and shared decision making, (b) men who actively opposed spouse/family member pressure and made final decisions themselves, and (c) men who yielded to spouse/family member pressure. Our findings provide insights into men's relational dynamics that are important to consider for the shared decision-making process across the prostate cancer spectrum. PMID:23459024

  4. LOFAR tied-array imaging and spectroscopy of solar S bursts

    Morosan, D E; Zucca, P; O'Flannagain, A; Fallows, R; Reid, H; Magdalenic, J; Mann, G; Bisi, M M; Kerdraon, A; Konovalenko, A A; MacKinnon, A L; Rucker, H O; Thide, B; Vocks, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brouw, W N; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; Eisloffel, J; Falcke, H; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Griessmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Munk, H; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Scaife, A M M; Sluman, J; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Zarka, P

    2015-01-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission that is often associated with energetic phenomena ranging from nanoflares to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), numerous millisecond duration radio bursts have been reported, such as radio spikes or solar S bursts (where S stands for short). To date, these have neither been studied extensively nor imaged because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims. Here, Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) observations were used to study the spectral and spatial characteristics of a multitude of S bursts, as well as their origin and possible emission mechanisms. Methods. We used 170 simultaneous tied-array beams for spectroscopy and imaging of S bursts. Since S bursts have short timescales and fine frequency structures, high cadence (~50 ms) tied-array images were used instead of standard interferometric imaging, that is currently limited to one image per second. Results. On 9 July 2013, over 3000 S bursts were ob...

  5. Dendrometer Bands Made Easy: Using Modified Cable Ties to Measure Incremental Growth of Trees

    Evelyn R. Anemaet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. Methods and Results: As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. Conclusions: This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies.

  6. Utility-scale grid-tied PV inverter reliability workshop summary report.

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Quintana, Michael A.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle (SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA); Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-07-01

    A key to the long-term success of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is confidence in the reliability of PV systems. Inverters are the most commonly noted cause of PV system incidents triggered in the field. While not all of these incidents are reliability-related or even necessarily failures, they still result in a loss of generated power. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a Utility-Scale Grid-Tied Inverter Reliability Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 27-28, 2011. The workshop addressed the reliability of large (100-kilowatt+) grid-tied inverters and the implications when such inverters fail, evaluated inverter codes and standards, and provided discussion about opportunities to enhance inverter reliability. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop and identifies opportunities for future efforts.

  7. Employing static excitation control and tie line reactance to stabilize wind turbine generators

    Hwang, H. H.; Mozeico, H. V.; Guo, T.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical representation of a wind turbine generator is presented which employs blade pitch angle feedback control. A mathematical model was formulated. With the functioning MOD-0 wind turbine serving as a practical case study, results of computer simulations of the model as applied to the problem of dynamic stability at rated load are also presented. The effect of the tower shadow was included in the input to the system. Different configurations of the drive train, and optimal values of the tie line reactance were used in the simulations. Computer results revealed that a static excitation control system coupled with optimal values of the tie line reactance would effectively reduce oscillations of the power output, without the use of a slip clutch.

  8. A Study of Near-Field Radiation Pattern of Bow-Tie Dipole on Ground

    ZHAN Yi; LIANG Changhong; FANG Guangyou; YUAN Hongwei

    2001-01-01

    The study of bow-tie antenna forpulse'radiation in a ground penetrating radar systemis complicated due to the existence of reflections fromthe feed,the far end of the antenna,the air-groundinterface and their interactions.The FDTD methodsare applied in this paper by incorporating a trans-parent source,a bow-tie antenna above the ground,and a lossy soil to investigate the issues.Numeri-cal verifications are conducted to check the accuracyof the method.The radiation properties are demon-strated by near-field radiation patterns and time do-main waveforms at different positions.The influencesdue to different antenna heights and soil parametersare also discussed in detail.

  9. UWB Bi-directional Bow-tie antenna loaded by rings

    Peng, Lin; Sun, Kai; Xie, Ji-yang; Qiu, Yu-jie; Jiang, Xing

    2016-07-01

    Performances of bow-tie antennae can be improved by loading a ring. Specially, the distorted radiation patterns of the reference bow-tie antenna (RBA) at high frequencies become less distorted when a ring is added. That is due to the disciplined current flows trained by the ring. Furthermore, when more rings are loaded, which act as reflectors, higher directivities are obtained and, patterns become bi-directional. Antennae with no ring (RBA), one ring, two rings (three cases), three rings, and four rings are investigated. Research find that loading more rings means better directivity. The directivity of the RBA varies from 2.29 dB to 3.66 dB for the frequency band from 2.5 to 7.5 GHz while the directivity for the four-ring-loaded case varies from 4.27 dB to 7.61 dB in that frequency band.

  10. Analysis of Silver Ink Bow-Tie RFID Tag Antennas Printed on Paper Substrates

    Sari Merilampi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polymeric silver inks, paper substrates, and screen printing were used to produce prototype Bow-Tie tags. Because of increasing interest in applying passive UHF-RFID systems in paper industry, the Bow-Tie antenna used in this study was designed to work through paper. The maximum reliable read ranges of the tags were measured thorough stacked paper and also in air. The analysis and functioning of the antenna design are also discussed. All inks and paper substrates were suitable as antenna material and the prototype tag antennas had good reading performance. The maximum reliable read ranges were quite the same as for copper and aluminum tags studied elsewhere. This means that printed UHF tags are competitive solutions for the identification of simple mass products.

  11. Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behaviour.

    Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the 'bow-tie' architecture, which stipulates a focal component-a 'knot'-uncoupling circuits' inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs into protein outputs with independently programmable logical and dynamic behaviour. The latter is adjusted via two different knot configurations: a transcriptional activator causing the outputs to track input changes reversibly, and a recombinase-based cascade, converting transient inputs into permanent actuation. We characterize the circuits in HEK293 cells, confirming their modularity and scalability, and validate them using endogenous microRNA inputs in additional cell lines. This platform can be used for biotechnological and biomedical applications in vitro, in vivo and potentially in human therapy. PMID:25311543

  12. Knowledge-based network ties in early rapidly internationalising small firms

    Masango, Shingairai Grace; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2014-01-01

    strong knowledge-based contacts. The ERISF acts as the source that provides the technical information and knowledge, which is then adopted by their network partners. This means that the ERISF’s product and technological capabilities drive the international knowledge creation process. The findings provide......This paper sets out to establish the sources of the relationships underpinning Early Rapidly Internationalising Small Firm (ERISF) cross border activities, the main characteristics and specific functions of these relationships, and their process of development. Using interview data from ten South...... African firms, the findings show that the founder’s pre-firm knowledge pools are important in establishing the source of the initial hierarchical knowledge-based interpersonal ties. ERISF internationalisation is enabled by an initial prior interpersonal network tie set, which is composed of predominantly...

  13. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  14. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  15. Instructional Advice and Information Providing and Receiving Behavior in Elementary Schools: Exploring Tie Formation as a Building Block in Social Capital Development

    Spillane, James P.; Kim, Chong Min; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies identify those factors that might account for the development of social capital. Understanding those factors associated with the existence of a social tie among actors in schools is important because absent social ties, individuals do not have access to social resources. We investigate social tie formation in schools focusing on advice…

  16. MATL : Canada's first merchant power transmission interconnection : experiences and future outlook

    The current status of the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. (MATL) merchant transmission project was outlined with reference to the business concept, the advantages of the project and market opportunities. Some of the challenges facing the project were discussed along with lessons learned and accomplishments thus far. MATL is preparing to construct a privately funded transmission line between Lethbridge, Alberta and Great Falls, Montana. The project represents the first direct power transmission inter-connection between Montana and Alberta. The 346 km, 230 kV AC transmission line with phase shifting transformer and 300 MW transfer capacity will be a synchronous interconnection and will improve the reliability of the entire electric systems in both Montana and Alberta. The benefits of the interconnected power system include increased reliability and stability of the existing power grids; better import/export capabilities; more competition and options in the marketplace; greater flexibility in scheduling generator maintenance; and, optimal allocation of generation resources. tabs., figs

  17. Mapping the Structure of Directed Networks: Beyond the "Bow-tie" Diagram

    Timár, G.; Goltsev, A. V.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2016-01-01

    We reveal a hierarchical organization of finite directed components---tendrils---around the giant components represented by the celebrated "bow-tie" diagram for directed networks. We develop an efficient algorithm to find tendril layers. It is used together with the message passing technique, generalized to directed graphs, to find the structure and attack tolerance of complex networks, such as the World Wide Web, the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, and others. We introduce a genera...

  18. Connections to distant knowledge: Interpersonal ties between more- and less-developed countries

    Daniel Z. Levin; Helena Barnard

    2013-01-01

    Less-developed countries benefit from being connected to technologically and economically advanced countries. The well-documented mechanisms for this cross-national flow of knowledge all involve interfirm connections, such as trade, foreign direct investment (FDI), and alliances. We examine the potential of a different mechanism – interpersonal ties abroad – that has only recently become practicable, owing to advances in communication and transportation technologies, globalization, and increa...

  19. Investigation of nanoeffect on wear of details and ties of oilfield devices

    The investigations have been carried out at SOCAR on the study of nanoparticles effect on the corrosion of metallic surfaces. It was defined that corrosion rate decreases as a result.It is stated in the article that nanotechnology applications have prospects for protection of details and ties of oilfield equipment. It is necessary to work out special programs for this case. The authors had an attempt to form the main aspects of such programs.

  20. Dendrometer bands made easy: Using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees 1

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Beth A. Middleton

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. • Method...

  1. Relational benefits and quality of relation – towards understanding of the ties between science and business

    Małgorzata Grzegorczyk

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to answer the question in what way relational marketing and in particular, the concept of relational benefits, as well as quality of relation may influence the transfer of knowledge and technologies from universities to business. Another goal is to highlight significant, future directions of research in this area. Integration of the theory of relational marketing and technology transfer may create a new framework for fuller understanding of the ties between science...

  2. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    Anna Folke Larsen; John Rand; Nina Torm

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruit...

  3. Social ties within school classes –- the roles of gender, ethnicity, and having older siblings

    Adriaan R. Soetevent; Peter Kooreman

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we identify the lines along which social ties between high school teenagers are primarily formed. To this end, we introduce interaction weights between pupils in the same school class that are a function of exogenous individual background characteristics, like gender, ethnicity, and having older siblings. The resulting model with endogenous interactions and school specific fixed effects is estimated using data from the Dutch National School Youth Survey (NSYS), a survey in which...

  4. How do family ties, boards and regulation affect pay at the top? Evidence for Indian CEOs

    Sonja Fagernäs

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of corporate governance factors and family ties on the pay of managing directors in a sample of Indian stock listed companies. It uses a unique seven-year firm level panel dataset and controls for firm performance and both CEO and firm specific fixed effects. The hypothesis is that corporate governance, ownership structures and market pressure shape the power relations between the board and managers, and affect the level and structure of CEO pay. The eviden...

  5. Tongue-Tie Assessment and Division: A Time-Critical Intervention to Optimise Breastfeeding

    Jack Donati-Bourne; Zainab Batool; Charles Hendrickse; Bowley, Douglas M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recent reports have highlighted the benefits of surgical division of tongue-tie (frenulotomy) in infants with breastfeeding difficulties. There is no clear consensus defining the appropriate age for this procedure to be undertaken in selected infants. We aimed to evaluate the impact of delays in time between referral and frenulotomy in relation to maternal abandonment of breastfeeding.Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study done in out-patient Neonatal Surgery ...

  6. FAMILIAL ANKYLOGLOSS IA [TONGUE – TIE] – A RARE CASE REPORT

    Siva Subba Rao; Vineeth Abraham; Fouzia

    2014-01-01

    Ankyloglossia or tongue tie is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4 - 5% and characterized by abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality is 2 times more common in males. The pathogenesis of Ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated Ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal domin ant trait in four consecutive generations. The identification of the defective gene (s) in these patients might reveal novel info...

  7. The development of a tongue assessment tool to assist with tongue-tie identification

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel; Emond, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To produce a simple tool with good transferability to provide a consistent assessment of tongue appearance and function in infants with tongue-tie. Methods The Bristol Tongue Assessment Tool (BTAT) was developed based on clinical practice and with reference to the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF). This paper documents 224 tongue assessments using the BTAT. There were 126 tongue assessments recorded using the BTAT and ATLFF tools to facilitate comparisons be...

  8. Political power and aid tying practices in the development assistance committee countries

    Pincin, Jared

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines on a panel of 22 OECD Development Assistance Committee countries whether fragmentation of executive power and the degree of competition in the legislative branch of government increases the amount of tied aid over the 1979-2009 period. Fragmentation and competition are broadly defined as the degree to which the costs of a dollar of aid expenditure are internalized by decision makers and the relative strength of the government’s position vis-à-vis legislative composition re...

  9. LRP5 Regulates Development of Lung Microvessels and Alveoli through the Angiopoietin-Tie2 Pathway

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda Rose; Jiang, Elizabeth Qingyu; Mammoto, Akiko; Chen, Jing; Smith, Lois Elaine Hodgson; Ingber, Donald Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is crucial for lung development. Although there has been considerable exploration, the mechanism by which lung vascular and alveolar formation is controlled is still not completely understood. Here we show that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), a component of the Wnt ligand-receptor complex, regulates angiogenesis and alveolar formation in the lung by modulating expression of the angiopoietin (Ang) receptor, Tie2, in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Vasc...

  10. An Empirical Analysis of Bundling and Tying: Over-the-Counter Pain Relief and Cold Medicines

    Evans, David S.; Salinger, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We apply and extend the cost-based approach to bundling and tying under competition developed in Evans and Salinger (2004a) to over-the-counter pain relievers and cold medicines. We document that consumers pay much less for tablets with multiple ingredients than they would to buy tablets with each ingredient separately. We then decompose the sources of these savings into marginal cost savings and a component that reflects fixed costs of product offerings. The analysis both documents substanti...

  11. Curing sinus headaches and tying law : an empirical analysis of bundling decongestants and pain relievers

    Evans, David S.; Salinger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We apply and extend the cost-based approach to bundling and tying under competition developed in Evans and Salinger (2004) to over-the-counter pain relievers and cold medicines. We document that consumers pay much less for tablets with multiple ingredients than they would if they bought tablets with each ingredient separately. We then decompose the sources of these savings into marginal cost savings and a component that reflects fixed costs of product offerings. The analysis both documents su...

  12. Corruption and Multinational Companies’ Entry Modes.Do Linguistic and Historical Ties Matter?

    Marlene Grande; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Extant literature on FDI entry modes and corruption tend to convey the idea that corruption leads to the choice of low equity, i.e. joint-ventures with local partners, or non-equity modes, namely export and contracting, in order to avoid the contact with corrupt state officials. Recently, some studies argument that despite corruption, linguistic and historical ties between home and host countries guide MNCs to prefer high equity modes. Focusing on a rather unexplored setting, the African coun...

  13. Grid-tie inverter topology with maximum power extraction from two photovoltaic arrays

    Patrao Herrero, Iván; Gabriel Garcerá; Figueres Amorós, Emilio; González Medina, Raul

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a transformerless topology for a grid-tied single-phase inverter capable of performing the simultaneous maximum power point tracking of two independent and series connected photovoltaic sources. This topology is derived from the neutral point clamped multilevel inverter in half-bridge configuration. The use of a half-bridge topology reduces the leakage current to very low values, whereas the multilevel topology presents an output voltage quality similar to that of a full-b...

  14. Study of frame tie between planetary ephemerids and ICRF with millisecond and young pulsars

    Wang, Jingbo; Hobbs, George; Coles, William

    2016-07-01

    The positions of pulsar can be measured by pulsar timing technology and VLBI astrometry with high precision. They can be used to tie between referece frame based on solar system ephemerids and distant quasars with high accuracy. In this paper, we have collect the pulsar positions with VLBI measurement and obtain the pulsar timing position form Nanshan and Parkes data archive. We derive the rotation matrix between JPL DE and ICRF reference frame.

  15. Effect of summer grazing on welfare of dairy cows reared in mountain tie-stall barns

    Simonetta Dovier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mountain farms have an important economic, social and environmental role. The Alps management system for dairy cows consists of animals kept indoors from autumn to spring, mostly in tie-stalls, and moved to mountain pasture in summer. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mountain summer grazing on the welfare of dairy cows housed in tie-stall barns. Twenty-four farms were considered. In twelve of them, animals were reared in tie-stalls and moved to mountain pasture for three months in summer; they were visited three times: (i four weeks before grazing during the indoor period in the stall; (ii about three weeks after the start of grazing; and (iii in the stall, in autumn, at least three weeks after returning from grazing. The other twelve farms kept the animals in tie-stalls all year; they were visited once in autumn. Data were collected following a protocol that considers animal-based measures and structure information on the basis of Quality Welfare Consortium® indications. Data allowed the calculation of both the Animal Needs Index score (ANI 35L and an overall assessment of the cows’ welfare obtained from three general aspects: housing, animal’s physical condition, and animal’s behaviour. Summer grazing had a significant positive effect on injuries, lameness and animal’s rising duration but a negative effect on faeces consistency. Moreover, a reduction of tongue playing was observed. The ANI 35L and the overall assessment did not show significant differences linked to summer grazing, which tended to have a positive but temporary effect on animal behaviour.

  16. Potts critical frontiers of inhomogeneous and asymmetric bow-tie lattices

    Scullard, Christian R.; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke

    2012-01-01

    We study the critical frontiers of the Potts model on two-dimensional bow-tie lattices with fully inhomogeneous coupling constants. Generally, for the Potts critical frontier to be found exactly, the underlying lattice must be a 3-uniform hypergraph. A more general class of lattices are the 4-uniform ones, with unit cells contained within four boundary vertices. We demonstrate that in some cases, such lattices can be decomposed into triangular cells, and solved using a modification of standar...

  17. Bow-tie nano-antenna assisted generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation

    Pfullmann, N.; Waltermann, C.; Noack, M.; Rausch, S.; Nagy, T.; Reinhardt, C.; Kovacev, M.; Knittel, V.; Bratschitsch, R.; Akemeier, D.; Huetten, A.; Leitenstorfer, A.; Morgner, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    We report on the generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation utilizing the plasmonic field enhancement in arrays of bow-tie gold optical antennae. Furthermore, their suitability to support high-order harmonic generation is examined by means of finite-difference time-domain calculations and experiments. Particular emphasis is paid to the thermal properties, which become significant at the employed peak intensities. A damage threshold depending on the antenna length is predict...

  18. Bow-tie wobble artifact: Effect of source assembly motion on cone-beam CT

    Zheng, Dandan; John C. Ford; Lu, Jun; Lazos, Dimitrios; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Pokhrel, Damodar; Zhang, Lisha; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the cause of a bow-tie wobble artifact (BWA) discovered on Varian OBI CBCT images and to develop practical correction strategies.Method and Materials: The dependence of the BWA on phantom geometry, phantom position, specific system, and reconstruction algorithm was investigated. Simulations were conducted to study the dependence of the BWA on scatter and beam hardening corrections. Geometric calibration was performed to rule out other gantry-angle dependent mechanical ...

  19. Note: auto-relock system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation.

    Haze, Shinsuke; Hata, Sousuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    This Note reports on the implementation of an automatic relocking system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation to produce an ultra-violet laser source. The system is based on a sample-and-hold technique for controlling the cavity length using simple servo electronics. Long-term stabilization of the cavity output power is successfully achieved, which makes this system suitable for designing stable atomic physics experiments. PMID:23464273

  20. The critical manifolds of inhomogeneous bond percolation on bow-tie and checkerboard lattices

    Ziff, Robert M.; Scullard, Christian R.; Wierman, John C.; Sedlock, Matthew R. A.

    2012-01-01

    We give a conditional derivation of the inhomogeneous critical percolation manifold of the bow-tie lattice with five different probabilities, a problem that does not appear at first to fall into any known solvable class. Although our argument is mathematically rigorous only on a region of the manifold, we conjecture that the formula is correct over its entire domain, and we provide a non-rigorous argument for this that employs the negative probability regime of the triangular lattice critical...

  1. Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behavior

    Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the “bow-tie” architecture, which stipulates a focal component - a “knot” - uncoupling circuits’ inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs i...

  2. Failures and Defects in the Building Process:Applying the Bow-Tie Approach

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Function failures, defects, mistakes and poor communication are major problems for the construction sector. A Danish research project focusing on failures and defects in building processes has been carried out over the last 2 years. As the empirical element in the research, a large construction site was observed from the very start to the very end and all failures and defects of a certain size were recorded and analysed. The methodological approach used in this analysis was the bow-tie model ...

  3. Comparison radiographic and automated ultrasonic inspection of pipeline tie-in welds

    In recent years the use of automated ultrasonic inspection (AUT) for pipeline girth welds has seen rapid growth and is now used almost exclusively for all gas metal arc welding (GMAW) girth weld inspection. The following paper reviews some of the major features of ultrasonic inspection by comparison to conventional Film Radiography (RT) and reviews the use of ultrasonic inspection for pipeline and tie-in welds. (author)

  4. Reimagining "Tense and Tender Ties" in García's Monkey Hunting

    Cho, Yu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    In her article "Reimagining 'Tense and Tender Ties' in Garcia's Monkey Hunting" Yu-Fang Cho analyses Cristina García's re-narration of transnational histories of the multi-racial, multi-generational Chinese Cuban family in Monkey Hunting (2003) as a critical project that recasts developmental immigrant narratives primarily set in the United States as part of the emerging cultural archive of global migrations. Drawing on recent scholarship on comparative racialization, especially Ann Laura Sto...

  5. Attenuating resonant behavior of a tied arch railway bridge using increased hanger damping

    Andersson, Andreas; Karoumi, Raid

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic analyses and field measurements of a tied arch railway bridge is presented. Excessive vibrations of the hangers were obtained, caused by resonance during train passages. The resulting increase of the stress level and number of stress cycles were shown to decrease the fatigue service life significantly. The most critical section is a threaded turnbuckle connection of the hangers. Due to low damping of the hangers, more than 50 % of the cumulative fatigue damage was relat...

  6. Reverse Flipping Technique: An Alternate Approach to Tie Reversing Half-Hitches on Alternating Posts.

    Chong, Alexander C M; Prohaska, Daniel J; Pate, Ryan C

    2016-04-01

    Arthroscopic knot tying requires practice and attention to detail, especially tying the 3 reversing half-hitches on alternating posts (RHAPs) in a knot. Mistakes can occur that result in an unintentional tension (>10 N) applied to the wrapping suture limb, and by placing tension in the wrong limb, the previously "flipped" half-hitch is converted from a series of RHAPs into a series of identical half-hitches on the same post, thereby producing insecure knots or suture loops. This was hypothesized to be a source of knot failure by knot slippage. This error can be avoided by using a technique we describe as "reverse flipping," which purposely "flips" the half-hitch down at the main knot while tying the 3 RHAPs in a knot, and then the half-hitch is retightened using either a past-pointing or over-pointing technique. This way the surgeon can be absolutely sure that the half-hitch is tightened in the direction that it was intended to be placed, and can also prevent the unintentional tension applied to the wrapping suture limb that causes the half-hitch to "flip." However, caution should be used when tensioning the half-hitches; overtensioning (>40 N) during past-pointing or over-pointing could also potentially "flip" the previous half-hitch that has already been tightened and cause potential knot failure. PMID:27462541

  7. Relational benefits and quality of relation – towards understanding of the ties between science and business

    Małgorzata Grzegorczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to answer the question in what way relational marketing and in particular, the concept of relational benefits, as well as quality of relation may influence the transfer of knowledge and technologies from universities to business. Another goal is to highlight significant, future directions of research in this area. Integration of the theory of relational marketing and technology transfer may create a new framework for fuller understanding of the ties between science and business. Research in this area may contribute to the expansion and development of the theory of relational marketing, which until now was limited to the analysis of relations within a single sector. The results of conducted research show that ties characterized by high relational engagement are common, recognized by both academic and business environment as precious and play an important role in stimulating innovations. The quality of relations and relational benefits may play an important role in building long-term ties between universities and the industry. Integration of behavioural theories with the theory of technology transfer may contribute to a better understanding of the behaviour of particular participants of the transfer on the individual level.

  8. Social features of online networks: the strength of intermediary ties in online social media.

    Przemyslaw A Grabowicz

    Full Text Available An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media as communication channels. Recent worldwide events, such as social movements in Spain or revolts in the Middle East, highlight their capacity to boost people's coordination. Online networks display in general a rich internal structure where users can choose among different types and intensity of interactions. Despite this, there are still open questions regarding the social value of online interactions. For example, the existence of users with millions of online friends sheds doubts on the relevance of these relations. In this work, we focus on Twitter, one of the most popular online social networks, and find that the network formed by the basic type of connections is organized in groups. The activity of the users conforms to the landscape determined by such groups. Furthermore, Twitter's distinction between different types of interactions allows us to establish a parallelism between online and offline social networks: personal interactions are more likely to occur on internal links to the groups (the weakness of strong ties; events transmitting new information go preferentially through links connecting different groups (the strength of weak ties or even more through links connecting to users belonging to several groups that act as brokers (the strength of intermediary ties.

  9. Complex Dynamics of Line-tied Flux Ropes and Screw Pinches

    Brookhart, Matthew; Stemo, Aaron; Zuberbier, Amanda; Forest, Cary

    2014-10-01

    It has been suggested that flux ropes - self-contained plasma structures with axial current and magnetic field - may be the basic building blocks of many astrophysical plasmas. Many of these plasmas - including coronal loops, the solar wind, and astrophysical jets - also show ``line-tying'' where the ends of flux ropes are magnetically fixed. The Line-tied Reconnection Experiment is a basic plasma research facility designed to study the behavior, instability, and self-organization of multiple line-tied flux ropes in a variety of geometries and plasma conditions. The recent construction of a 300 coil magnetic probe array has allowed for direct, time and space resolved observations of flux rope dynamics in a wide range of conditions. Complex dynamics of 2 and 3 flux ropes are observed both with and without background plasma. These plasmas exhibit complex instabilities and interactions. Observations show that larger numbers of flux ropes merge into azimuthally-symmetric screw pinch equilibria. High safety factor kink-like instabilities are seen in both hollow and reversed current profile plasmas, akin to tokamak current holes and certain models of solar flares. The equilibria, instability criteria, and dynamics of these plasmas are explored. Supported by DOE.

  10. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  11. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  12. Down hole transmission system

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  13. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    Tomikawa, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A new method of obtaining power spectral distribution of gravity waves as a function of ground-based horizontal phase speed and propagation direction from airglow observations has recently been proposed. To explain gravity wave power spectrum anisotropy, a new gravity wave transmission diagram was developed in this study. Gravity wave transmissivity depends on the existence of critical and turning levels for waves that are determined by background horizontal wind distributio...

  14. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Seth Judson; Joseph Prescott; Vincent Munster

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fil...

  15. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  16. Glutamate Transmission in Addiction

    Kalivas, Peter W.; LaLumiere, Ryan; Knackstedt, Lori; Shen, Haowei

    2008-01-01

    Cortico-striatal glutamate transmission has been implicated in both the initiation and expression of addiction related behaviors, such as locomotor sensitization and drug seeking. While glutamate transmission onto dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area undergoes transient plasticity important for establishing addiction-related behaviors, glutamatergic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the expression of these behaviors. This information points to the value of exploring ...

  17. Continuously Variable Transmission

    Grana, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Chain slides along two cones, in novel transmission concept. Transmission includes chain drive between two splined shafts. Chain sprockets follow surfaces of two cones. As one chain sprocket moves toward smaller diameter other chain sprocket moves toward larger diameter, thereby changing "gear" ratio. Movement initiated by tension applied to chain by planetary gear mechanism. Device positive, simple, and efficient over wide range of speed ratios.

  18. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  19. Enduring Ties

    CHU HAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ This month commemorates the 60th anniversary of the establishment of Sino-Vietnamese relations, coming at the outset of 2010-the official China-Viet Nam Friendship Year. Given the complex nature of China's relationship with nations of Southeast Asia, there can be no denying the bumps on the road. Nonetheless, friendship and cooperation have since taken center stage in full force: Indeed, it is a part-nership only expected to flourish more with time.

  20. Expanding Ties

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld's visit to Southeast Asia further strengthens U.S. relationship with ASEAN The United States continues on the path toward regarding Viet Nam as a country, not an enemy. In early June, Hanoi welcomed another high-level U.S. official, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. On June 2, Rumsfeld kicked off his first tour of Asia this year. He had three objectives: to attend the fifth Asia Security Conference (known as the Shangri-La Dialogue) in Singapore, to improve m...

  1. Ties Renewed

    2008-01-01

    During Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari’s state visit to China on October 14-17, China and Pakistan enhanced their bilateral relationship by issuing a joint declaration and inking 12 cooperation agreements and MOUs. Before concluding his first overseas trip as president, Zardari sat down with Beijing Review President and Editor in Chief Wang Gangyi and talked about Sino-Pakistani relations, the global financial crisis, antiterrorism and other major regional and international issues.

  2. Tighter Ties

    2007-01-01

    China and Russia, two big neighbors that greatly influence the world, are drawing closer through enhanced cooperation Today’s world requires understanding, notonlyinthefieldsofpoliticsandthe economy, but also in culture and civi- lization. The rela

  3. National transmission grid study

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  4. The blind faith deep water horizontal pipeline tie-in project

    Charalambides, John Nicos [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    This presentation will concentrate on the design challenges, experience and learning from the SIT and offshore installation of two deepwater pipeline tie-ins using first-of-its-kind subsea technology and installation methodologies on the 'Blind Faith' project. The Blind Faith Subsea Tie-Ins join the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines with the Canyon Chief gas pipeline and the Mountaineer oil pipeline in 5100 feet of water. Both of the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines are terminated with conventional PLEMs providing a horizontal connector for the tie-in and a vertical connector for a future tie-in connection point. The connectors are ROV operable/installable clamp style connectors. The method of joining to the Canyon Chief oil and gas pipelines and the type of jumper employed are unique to the tie-in. An ROV operable / installable mechanical pipe end connector connects the bare ends of the Canyon Chief and Mountaineer pipelines. The mechanical pipe end connector is fitted with an integral clamp connector hub and rests on an ROV installed mud mat. After installation of the mechanical connector, metrology was performed to create a neutral state horizontal jumper for joining the mechanical connector hub and the Blind Faith PLEM. The neutral state horizontal jumper is a compliant 'Z-Bend' design. During installation the jumper was elastically pre-deformed using a bowstring system. Pre-deformation of the jumper provided installation clearances and facilitated the neutral stress state after installation. Once landed the jumper bowstring was relaxed, allowing the jumper to expand to fit between the hubs. After expansion and make-up, the clamp connectors were tightened via an ROV operated hydraulic torque wrench. A seal test verified the integrity of the connections. After installation the jumper remains in a minimal residual stress state atypical of most horizontal jumpers. The horizontal jumper was chosen over the vertical jumper because it provides a

  5. Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles

  6. Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable

  7. Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using a real-time dosimeter

    Whiting, Bruce R., E-mail: whitingbrucer@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Dohatcu, Andreea C. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Politte, David G. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Several areas of computed tomography (CT) research require knowledge about the intensity profile of the x-ray fan beam that is introduced by a bow tie filter. This information is considered proprietary by CT manufacturers, so noninvasive measurement methods are required. One method using real-time dosimeters has been proposed in the literature. A commercially available dosimeter was used to apply that method, and analysis techniques were developed to extract fan beam profiles from measurements. Methods: A real-time ion chamber was placed near the periphery of an empty CT gantry and the dose rate versus time waveform was recorded as the x-ray source rotated about the isocenter. In contrast to previously proposed analysis methods that assumed a pointlike detector, the finite-size ion chamber received varying amounts of coverage by the collimated x-ray beam during rotation, precluding a simple relationship between the source intensity as a function of fan beam angle and measured intensity. A two-parameter model for measurement intensity was developed that included both effective collimation width and source-to-detector distance, which then was iteratively solved to minimize the error between duplicate measurements at corresponding fan beam angles, allowing determination of the fan beam profile from measured dose-rate waveforms. Measurements were performed on five different scanner systems while varying parameters such as collimation, kVp, and bow tie filters. On one system, direct measurements of the bow tie profile were collected for comparison with the real-time dosimeter technique. Results: The data analysis method for a finite-size detector was found to produce a fan beam profile estimate with a relative error between duplicate measurement intensities of <5%. It was robust over a wide range of collimation widths (e.g., 1–40 mm), producing fan beam profiles that agreed with a relative error of 1%–5%. Comparison with a direct measurement technique on

  8. Wireless data signal transmission system

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  9. Expression of VEGF receptors VEFGR-1 and VEGFR-2, angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 in chorionic villi tree during early pregnancy.

    Ramazan Demir

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the expression of VEGF and its receptors in placentas from normal pregnancies between 22 days p.c. and 48 days p.c. of very early pregnancy. Placental tissues carried out from 19 pregnant women were examined. Immunohistochemical technique, electron microscopy were employed to evaluate the factors expression. In the new developing mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGF and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was detected in all the placental components, while in the stem villi and in the chorionic plate with large vessels only in some components. In the mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGFR-1 and -2, and angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 immunoreactivity was dominantly observed in the heamangiogenic cells and cells cords, whereas the matured villi showed immunoreactivity only in other components. The ultrastructural findings were higher in respect to the all of the early pregnancy days. The placental samples from all of pregnancies, showed the VEGF and its receptors in optimal expression levels, whereas the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 showed a higher expression levels in respect to other study factors. The receptors protein levels increased from the early days to the advanced days of gestation, but this alteration was not significant. The intensity of the immunolabeling for these proteins were not significant compared to to each other of gestatin days were examined. These findings demonstrated that a dysregulation of the placental expression of the VEGF and its receptors related to the different degrees of the gestational periods. Probably, this event may be related to complete vasculugenesis and angiogenesis in placental villi.

  10. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    2013-12-12

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary.... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed...

  11. Study on the Application of the Tie-Line-Table-Look-Up-Based Methods to Flash Calculations in Compositional Simulations

    Yan, Wei; Belkadi, Abdelkrim; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2013-01-01

    Flash calculation can be a time-consuming part in compositional reservoir simulations, and several approaches have been proposed to speed it up. One recent approach is the shadow-region method that reduces the computation time mainly by skipping stability analysis for a large portion of the...... computation time by replacing rigorous phase-equilibrium calculations with the stored results in a tie-line table whenever the new feed composition is on one of the stored tie-lines within a certain tolerance. In this study, a modified version of CSAT, named the TTL method, has been proposed to investigate if...... approximation by looking up a tie-line table can save flash-computation time in the two-phase region. The number of tie-lines stored for comparison and the tolerance set for accepting the feed composition are the key parameters in this method because they will influence the simulation speed and the accuracy of...

  12. Evaluation of the Polyethylene Reverse Sampler as a Dosing System in Marine Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs)

    Contaminated marine sediments can cause acute and chronic impairments to benthic organisms. Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are often a primary cause of impairment. Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs) are used to identify chemicals causing toxicity in sediments. Ph...

  13. Electrical stimulation upregulates angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 mRNA expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

    Shasha Li; Yonghong Yang; Qiang Gao; Jing He; Chengqi He

    2010-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains 2(Tie-2)is a newly discovered signaling pathway of angiogenesis.Angiogenesis benefits recovery of neurological functions such as swallowing.In the present study,a rat model of dysphagia following stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion to investigate the influence of low frequency electrical stimulus with bidirectional square waves and triangular waves on angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 mRNA expression.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed that low frequency electrical stimulus significantly improved the neurological scores of the model rats,and increased angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 mRNA expression.This demonstrates that low frequency electrical stimulation can ameliorate neurological function in rats with focal brain ischemia,potentially through regulation of angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 expression in the angiogenesis pathway.

  14. TacSat-2/TIE Payload Development: Enabling Rapid Development and Testing of Space Payload Hardware and Software

    Huffine, Christopher; Duffey, Timothy; Nicholson, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Tactical Satellite-2 (TacSat-2) carrying the Navy’s Target Indicator Experiment (TIE) payload has provided the first opportunity to test some of the constructs used in its development, and that of its predecessor, TacSat-1 Flying the TIE payload for the past eleven months has demonstrated, and validated, the approaches taken, proving that flexibility, extensibility, and software portability can decrease development time, increase the leveraging of existing tools, and help co...

  15. Microcontroller based new single-phase transformer less inverter for grid-tied photovoltaic system with constant common mode voltage

    Nadia Afrin; Monirul Islam; Anarul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Recently, transformerless inverters are becoming more attractive for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system because of high efficiency and low cost. Unfortunately, leakage current may flow through the whole grid-tied PV system due to fluctuating common mode (CM) voltage that depends on the topology structure and control strategy. Therefore, to meet the safety regulations, leakage current of transformerless PV inverter has to be addressed carefully. In this paper, a new microcontroller based trans...

  16. The rational weakness of strong ties: Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    Flache, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Recent research (Flache, 1996; Flache and Macy, 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than cooperation in more complex group exchanges, favoring ties at the expense of the common good. This article uses game theory to demonstrate that cognitive simplicity is not a scope condition for the result....

  17. How does the Indian diaspora help drive trade and investment ties between India and North America? An exploratory study

    Chand, Masud Sohail Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the role that the Indian diaspora plays in helping to drive trade and investment ties between India on one hand and Canada and the United States on the other. The Indian diaspora is becoming increasingly important in both political and economic terms in North America. As trade and investment ties continue to grow between a fast developing India and Canada and the United States, the Indian diaspora has been playing an important role in driving this relationship. This study ...

  18. Angiopoietin 2 stimulates TIE2-expressing monocytes to suppress T cell activation and to promote regulatory T cell expansion

    Coffelt, Seth B.; Chen, Yung-Yi; Muthana, Munitta; Welford, Abigail F.; Tal, Andrea O.; Scholz, Alexander; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Murdoch, Craig; De Palma, Michele; Lewis, Claire E.

    2011-01-01

    Angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) is a proangiogenic cytokine whose expression is often upregulated by endothelial cells in tumors. Expression of its receptor, TIE2, defines a highly proangiogenic subpopulation of myeloid cells in circulation and tumors called TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs). Genetic depletion of TEMs markedly reduces tumor angiogenesis in various tumor models, emphasizing their essential role in driving tumor progression. Previously, we demonstrated that ANGPT2 augments t...

  19. 2006 Final Transmission Proposal.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-06-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration BPABPA with respect to the adoption of transmission and ancillary services rates for the two-year rate period beginning October 1, 2005, and ending September 30, 2007 (fiscal years (FY) 2006-2007)(2006 Final Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Proposal). These decisions are based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding. The transmission and ancillary services rates adopted in this ROD are the rates proposed as a result of a comprehensive settlement agreement between BPA's Transmission Business Line (BPA-TBL) and a diverse group of transmission customers, including BPA's Power Business Line (BPA-PBL), regional investor-owned utilities, partial and full requirements customers of the BPA-PBL, Direct Services Industrial (DSI) customers, and merchant generators. The decisions in this ROD to adopt the rates and charges proposed by the settlement agreement are not intended to create or imply any factual , legal, procedural or substantive precedent, or to create agreement to any underlying principle or methodology.

  20. Effect of Tower Shadow and Wind Shear in a Wind Farm on AC Tie-Line Power Oscillations of Interconnected Power Systems

    Tan, Jin; Hu, Weihao; Wang, Xiaoru;

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a frequency domain approach for evaluating the impact of tower shadow and wind shear effects (TSWS) on tie-line power oscillations. A simplified frequency domain model of an interconnected power system with a wind farm is developed. The transfer function, which relates the tie......-line power variation to the mechanical power variation of a wind turbine, and the expression of the maximum magnitude of tie-line power oscillations are derived to identify the resonant condition and evaluate the potential risk. The effects of the parameters on the resonant magnitude of the tie-line power...... are also discussed. The frequency domain analysis reveals that TSWS can excite large tie-line power oscillations if the frequency of TSWS approaches the tie-line resonant frequency, especially in the case that the wind farm is integrated into a relatively small grid and the tie-line of the...

  1. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    Berhanu Mekibib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  2. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  3. Dynamic lung transmission studies

    The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive method for determining regional lungvolumes, which could replace bronchospirometry in routine clinical use. Transmission through the thorax of sup(99m)Tc-gammarays is measured by means of a gamma camera on line with a computer. The technique of measurement and data analysis is described and tested in several series of phantom studies. The results proved to be good: the mean difference with the real volumes was -4%. The error varied between -10% and +1. Transmission studies and bronchospirometry are compared in a group of 11 patients and there proved to be a good correspondence between the results of these methods. It is concluded that transmission experiments can determine the vital capacity of both lungs as a whole as accurately as spirometry and allows the measurement of vital capacity for each lung separately with the same accuracy as bronchospirometry. (Auth.)

  4. Transmission line capital costs

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  5. Transmission grid security

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  6. Viewing transmission issues in perspective

    This article examines electric power transmission from the perspective of the power producers. The article discusses the impact to transmission line routing policy of the health effects of, and public opinion about, electromagnetic fields. The author examines past pricing policy for transmission access and encourages the power producers and owners of transmission lines to become more involved in the regulatory process

  7. Viewing transmission issues in perspective

    Casazza, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    This article examines electric power transmission from the perspective of the power producers. The article discusses the impact to transmission line routing policy of the health effects of, and public opinion about, electromagnetic fields. The author examines past pricing policy for transmission access and encourages the power producers and owners of transmission lines to become more involved in the regulatory process.

  8. Airborne Microorganisms in Tie-stall Dairy Barns from Brasov County

    Silvana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the assessment of the airborne microorganisms in tie-stall dairy cattle barns, through determination of the total number of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We investigated 8 dairy cattle barns with tie-stalls in Brasov County during the winter of 2009. The mean numbers of bacteria and fungi in the morning and in the evening were: 1.02 °— 105 - 1.26 °— 105 CFU/m3 for mesophilic bacteria, 5.34 °— 104 - 5.91 °— 104 CFU/m3 for staphylococci, 2.93 °— 104 - 3.60 °— 104 CFU/m3 for streptococci, 2.17 °— 103 - 3.48 °— 103 CFU/m3 for gram-negative bacteria and 1.54 °— 104 - 2.75 °— 104 CFU/m3 for fungi. In the investigated cattle houses staphylococci represented 52.35 – 46.90%, streptococci were 28.73 – 28.57%, and the gram-negative bacteria were 2.13 – 2.76% within the overall number of mesophilic bacteria. The numbers of bacteria and fungi were slightly elevated in the evening comparative to the morning, but the differences were statistically insignificant (p>0.05. The great numbers of bacteria and fungi in the air of dairy cattle tie-stall barns indicate an elevated risk of disease for animals and human workers.

  9. Tension in the tie-down chains of a shipping container for hazardous material

    Chains are frequently used to tie the shipping containers of hazardous material to a truck bed. The tie-down system is nonlinear when the container is subjected to a triaxial force during transit. It is nonlinear because chains cannot carry compressive force, and the base of the container may partially lift off from the truck bed. A method was developed to calculate the amount of tension in the chains. This methodology includes three assumptions: (1) No friction exists between the container and the truck bed; (2) The container and the truck bed are rigid; and (3) All chains are properly tightened (i.e., no slacks) during preparation for shipment. The methodology employs an iterative process of a linear tie-down system. This linear system is derived from the nonlinear system with two additional assumptions: (a) All chains can carry compression as well as tension; and (b) There is a point contact between the container and the truck bed. This linear system has a closed-form solution. After the first solution of the linear system is obtained, the unreasonable, or physically impossible, rotational degree of freedom of the container and the chains with compressive force are eliminated in the follow-up iterative calculations using the same linear system. Unreasonable rotation is detected when the results indicate a rotation of the container into the truck bed. Zero rotational value is assigned to this degree of freedom in the follow-up iterations. For chains under compression, the chain length is replaced with a fictitiously large value because a long chain carries essentially no load. This process usually needs only two or three iterations and can easily be carried out in a spread sheet using such programs as Microsoft Excel or LOTUS 123

  10. Angiopoietin-2 regulates gene expression in TIE2-expressing monocytes and augments their inherent proangiogenic functions.

    Coffelt, Seth B; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; De Palma, Michele; Patel, Sunil; Urbich, Carmen; Biswas, Subhra K; Murdoch, Craig; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Lewis, Claire E

    2010-07-01

    TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) are a highly proangiogenic subset of myeloid cells in tumors. Here, we show that circulating human TEMs are already preprogrammed in the circulation to be more angiogenic and express higher levels of such proangiogenic genes as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), VEGFA, COX-2, and WNT5A than TIE2(-) monocytes. Additionally, angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) markedly enhanced the proangiogenic activity of TEMs and increased their expression of two proangiogenic enzymes: thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and cathepsin B (CTSB). Three "alternatively activated" (or M2-like) macrophage markers were also upregulated by ANG-2 in TEMs: interleukin-10, mannose receptor (MRC1), and CCL17. To investigate the effects of ANG-2 on the phenotype and function of TEMs in tumors, we used a double-transgenic (DT) mouse model in which ANG-2 was specifically overexpressed by endothelial cells. Syngeneic tumors grown in these ANG-2 DT mice were more vascularized and contained greater numbers of TEMs than those in wild-type (WT) mice. In both tumor types, expression of MMP-9 and MRC1 was mainly restricted to tumor TEMs rather than TIE2(-) macrophages. Furthermore, tumor TEMs expressed higher levels of MRC1, TP, and CTSB in ANG-2 DT tumors than WT tumors. Taken together, our data show that although circulating TEMs are innately proangiogenic, exposure to tumor-derived ANG-2 stimulates these cells to exhibit a broader, tumor-promoting phenotype. As such, the ANG-2-TEM axis may represent a new target for antiangiogenic cancer therapies. PMID:20530679

  11. Use of genotoxicity tests in a TIE to identify chemicals potentially affecting human health

    Imperial Oil operates a sour gas processing plant in southern Alberta that has, for the past several years, been the focus of considerable public and regulatory concern over perceived contamination of soils and groundwater on a nearby ranch. Elevated concentrations of DOC (∼140 mg/L) have been received in groundwater underlying the plant site. Two process-related chemicals, sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), had been previously identified as the primary components of the DOC plume, although the chemicals associated with 30% of the DOC could not be identified. A risk assessment was initiated in 1994 to determine whether off-site migration of sulfolane and DIPA or of other unidentified contaminants poses a risks to human health and/or ecological receptors. One component of the risk assessment included conducting a TIE to help identify the chemical(s) in contaminated groundwater underlying the gas plant that might adversely affect human health. Three endpoints were utilized in the TIE: MicroTox, SOS-Chromotest and the Ames test. MicroTox was used since it exhibited a response to whole groundwater from the site, while the genotoxicity tests were used because DIPA reportedly causes a response in the Ames test and because of the concern over potential human health affects arising from other unidentified contaminants. Results of the TIE indicated that the chemicals causing the toxicity in the groundwater sample were water soluble compounds, with similar characteristics to the process chemicals used at the gas plant and detected at high concentrations in groundwater from the plant site. These results provided additional evidence to help focus the risk assessment on the chemicals sulfolane and diisopropanolamine

  12. Tying-in Two-Sided Markets and the Honour All Cards Rule

    Rochet, Jean-Charles; Tirole, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Payment card associations offer both debit and credit cards and, until recently, engaged in a tie-in on the merchant side through the so-called honour-all-cards (HAC) rule. The HAC rule came under attack on the grounds that the credit and debit card markets are separate markets and that the associations lever their market power in the 'credit card market' to exclude on-line debit cards and thereby monopolize the 'debit card market'. This article analyzes the impact of the HAC rule, using a si...

  13. Structural behavior and design criteria for bridge strengthening by tied arch. Comparison with network arch bridges

    Valenzuela, Matías A.; Casas Rius, Joan Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on a new strengthening method of continuous bridges with several spans that present extensive damage in their foundation/piers due to scour and erosion. The method consists on the construction of a new upper steel arch with a network hanger's arrangement over the original deck with the aim to hang the existing deck to the new arch. The deck is acting as a tie in the new structural configuration. This allows to remove the damaged foundations/piers, deriving on an arch bridge...

  14. [Cable tie used for suicidal ligature strangulation--a case report].

    Doberentz, Elke; Hagemeier, Lars; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    Based on a case of self-strangulation committed with two connected cable ties, criteria for the differentiation of homicidal and suicidal ligature strangulation are discussed. Differentiation may be difficult and demands close cooperation between the police and the forensic experts. Apart from the history and general circumstances of the case, not only the kind of strangulation, but also the presence of any concomitant injuries, the degree of congestion and any internal injuries are of relevance for the criminalistic evaluation. As self-strangulations are rare, these cases demand special attention. PMID:19746825

  15. THE ROLE OF FAMILY TIES FOR THE OPTIMAL DESIGN OF HUMAN CAPITAL CONTRACTS

    Caroline Flammer

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of financing a child's primary education when the parent is faced with credit constraints, contracting with minors is not possible and the legal enforceability of contracts is limited – a profound problem in many developing countries. It presents a model in which the empathy of agents towards their kinship (family ties) is endogenized and self-enforcement of contracts is guaranteed through the interlinkage of credit markets – first a market for education cre...

  16. Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures

    Miguel, J; Kurde, J; Piantek, M; Kuch, W [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Sanchez-Barriga, J; Heitkamp, B; Kronast, F; Duerr, H A [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bayer, D; Aeschlimann, M, E-mail: jorge.miguel@fu-berlin.d [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Strasse 46, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2009-12-02

    We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected.

  17. Mapping the Structure of Directed Networks: Beyond the "Bow-tie" Diagram

    Timár, G; Dorogovtsev, S N; Mendes, J F F

    2016-01-01

    We reveal a hierarchical organization of finite directed components---tendrils---around the giant components represented by the celebrated "bow-tie" diagram for directed networks. We develop an efficient algorithm to find tendril layers. It is used together with the message passing technique, generalized to directed graphs, to find the structure and attack tolerance of complex networks, such as the World Wide Web, the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, and others. We introduce a generalized susceptibility characterizing the response of directed networks to damage.

  18. Frequency Adaptive Repetitive Control of Grid-Tied Single-Phase PV Inverters

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    The internal model principle based Repetitive Control (RC) offers an accurate control strategy for grid-tied power converters to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. However, in the presence of grid frequency variations, the conventional RC fails to produce high quality feeding current. This...... paper thus explores a frequency adaptive repetitive control strategy for grid converters, which employs fractional delay filters in order to adapt to the change of the grid frequency. Case studies with experimental results of a single-phase grid-connected PV inverter system are provided to verify the...... proposed controller....

  19. Proof-of-Concept Studies for a Local Tie Monitoring System

    Schmeing, Benno; Behrend, Dirk; Gipson, John; Nothnagel, Axel

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results of proof-of-concept studies for an automatic monitoring system of local site ties. The system is based on the usage of robotic total stations. A set of tests were performed with a Leica TCA2003 total station on the local network of Goddard s Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) and the 5-m VLBI antenna at this site. Both the TCA2003 and the VLBI antenna are controlled from a Matlab-coded control program. Running specific observational programs, data were collected that indicate that the reference point of the VLBI antenna can be automatically determined with an accuracy of 1 mm or better.

  20. Bank Ties and Firm Performance in Japan: Some Evidence since FY2002

    Patrick McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, major Japanese banks have sold off a significant portion of their holdings of corporate equity. Using information on the identity of Japanese firms f top 10 shareholders, this paper explores the process of banks f equity disposal. There is some evidence that, after FY2001, banks f sales of equity accelerated, even holdings in firms for which the bank served as the main bank. However, affiliation with a main bank - proxied by firm-bank loan and shareholding ties - continue...

  1. Near-field enhanced ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy using aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna.

    Li, Ling; Fang Lim, Shuang; Puretzky, Alexander A; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, H D

    2012-09-10

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of [Formula: see text] in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved. PMID:23066168

  2. Near-field enhanced ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy using aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna

    Li, Ling; Fang Lim, Shuang; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, H. D.

    2012-01-01

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of ∼105 in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes ano...

  3. Liquid Crystal Bow-Tie Microstrip antenna for Wireless Communication Applications

    B.T.P.Madhav

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented the design and analysis of Bow-Tie antenna on liquid crystal substrate, which is suitable for the Bluetooth/WLAN-2.4/WiBree/ZigBee applications. The Omni-directional radiation patterns along with moderate gain make the proposed antenna suitable for above mentioned applications. Details of the antenna design and simulated results Return loss, Input impedance, Radiation Patterns, E-Field, H-Field and Current Distributions, VSWR are presented and discussed. The proposed antenna is simulated at 2.4 GHz using Ansoft HFSS-11.

  4. Liquid Crystal Bow-Tie Microstrip antenna for Wireless Communication Applications

    B.T.P.Madhav; VGKM Pisipati; Habibulla Khan; V.G.N.S Prasad; K. Praveen Kumar; KVL Bhavani; M. Ravi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we presented the design and analysis of Bow-Tie antenna on liquid crystal substrate, which is suitable for the Bluetooth/WLAN-2.4/WiBree/ZigBee applications. The Omni-directional radiation patterns along with moderate gain make the proposed antenna suitable for above mentioned applications. Details of the antenna design and simulated results Return loss, Input impedance, Radiation Patterns, E-Field, H-Field and Current Distributions, VSWR are presented and discussed. The propose...

  5. Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy

    Farahani, Javad N.; Eisler, Hans-Jürgen; Pohl, Dieter W; Pavius, Michaël; Flückiger, Philippe; Gasser, Philippe; Hecht, Bert

    2007-01-01

    A method for the fabrication of bow-tie optical antennas at the apex of pyramidal Si3N4 atomic force microscopy tips is described. We demonstrate that these novel optical probes are capable of sub-wavelength imaging of single quantum dots at room temperature. The enhanced and confined optical near-field at the antenna feed gap leads to locally enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of single quantum dots. Photoluminescence quenching due to the proximity of metal is found to be insignificant. The met...

  6. Millimeter-wave near-field imaging with bow-tie antennas.

    Omarouayache, Rachid; Payet, Pierre; Raoult, Jérémy; Chusseau, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    A near-field reflectometry experiment operating at 60 GHz is built in view of material and circuit inspection. Experiments are always obtained in constant height mode of operation. The bow-tie near-field probe acts mostly as a linearly-polarized electric dipole and allows strongly subwavelength resolution of ≈ λ/130. Its interaction with sample is shown polarization dependent and sensitive to both the local topography and the local dielectric constant or metal conductivity. Resonant and non-resonant probes are both evaluated. PMID:25969302

  7. Printed Modified Bow-Tie Dipole Antenna for DVB/WLAN Applications

    Ching-Chih Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A printed modified bow-tie dipole antenna which consists of asymmetric-feed and inserted slots is presented to apply to the DVB and WLAN systems. This antenna combines omnidirectional radiation pattern, broad bandwidth, and band rejection in an easy way to fabricate. Experimental results of the constructed prototype indicate that the VSWR 2.5 : 1 bandwidths achieve 166.7%, 28.57%, and 23.63% at 660 MHz, 2450 MHz, and 5500 MHz, respectively.

  8. Printed Modified Bow-Tie Dipole Antenna for DVB/WLAN Applications

    Ching-Chih Hung; Chia-Mei Peng; I-Fong Chen

    2013-01-01

    A printed modified bow-tie dipole antenna which consists of asymmetric-feed and inserted slots is presented to apply to the DVB and WLAN systems. This antenna combines omnidirectional radiation pattern, broad bandwidth, and band rejection in an easy way to fabricate. Experimental results of the constructed prototype indicate that the VSWR 2.5 : 1 bandwidths achieve 166.7%, 28.57%, and 23.63% at 660 MHz, 2450 MHz, and 5500 MHz, respectively.

  9. Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Gert F. Pedersen

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of mm-wave phased array antenna for 5G mobile broadband communication systems has been provided in this manuscript. The antenna is designed on a N9000 PTFE substrate with 0.787 mm thickness and 2.2 dielectric constant and 65×130 mm2 overall dimension. Eight elements of bow-tie antennas have been used at the top-edge region of mobile phone PCB. The antenna elements fed by microstrip lines are designed to operate at 17 GHz. The simulated results give good performances...

  10. A High-Efficiency Grid-Tie Battery Energy Storage System

    Qian, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion based battery energy storage system has become one of the most popular forms of energy storage system for its high charge and discharge efficiency and high energy density. This dissertation proposes a high-efficiency grid-tie lithium-ion battery based energy storage system, which consists of a LiFePO4 battery based energy storage and associated battery management system (BMS), a high-efficiency bidirectional ac-dc converter and the central control unit which controls the operation...

  11. Economical quantum anonymous transmissions

    We present a new information-theoretically secure protocol for the anonymous transmission of quantum information. Different from the pioneering works, we use single photons to construct anonymous entanglement instead of multi-partite entangled states in this protocol, and therefore we reduce the complexity of physical implementation in practice.

  12. Watching Handball Transmissions

    Frandsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    competent when mastering the game and in relation to others. The study shows that entertainment concerns both affective involvement and identity formation, as social and cultural meaning seem to be at the root of involvement. Even though both men and women find great joy in the transmissions, their viewing...

  13. Improving Transmission Planning

    Saraswat, Kavita; Gupta, Amol

    2016-01-01

    Development of power transmission networks requires long lead times and substantial capital. Optimization of investment is especially critical in fast-growing economies such as India’s, where there are competing demands on financial resources, and utilities need to maintain adequate cash flow to expand electricity service for economic growth and poverty reduction. As shown by examples from...

  14. Dilemmas of Cultural Transmission

    Kováts-Németh, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the 21st century is that in the modern civilization "the transmission of values is not stable." There is nothing, except for the natural sense of justice and some legal traditions, which would exercise selective power on social behavior. At a critical time in 1949 Albert Szent-Györgyi drew the attention to the…

  15. Conductivities consistent with Birkeland currents in the AMPERE-driven TIE-GCM

    Marsal, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) satellite mission has offered for the first time global snapshots of the geomagnetic field-aligned currents with unprecedented space and time resolution, thus providing an opportunity to feed an acknowledged first-principles model of the Earth's upper atmosphere such as the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIE-GCM). In the first step, Marsal et al. (2012) used AMPERE data in the current continuity equation between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere to drive the TIE-GCM electrodynamics. In the present work, ionospheric conductivities have been made consistent with enhanced upward field-aligned currents, which are assumed to correspond to electrons plunging as a result of downward acceleration by electric fields built up along the geomagnetic field lines. The resulting conductance distribution is reasonably commensurate with an independent model that has tried to quantify the ionizing effect of precipitating particles onto the auroral ionosphere. On the other hand, comparison of geomagnetic observatory data with the ground magnetic variations output by the model only shows a modest improvement with respect to our previous approach.

  16. Rotating kink modes in a non-line tied plasma column in the Reconnection Scaling experiment

    Madziwa-Nussinov, Tsitsi; Ryutov, Dmitri; Abbate, Sara

    2005-10-01

    The screw pinch is one of the simplest MHD equilibria, and is relevant to fusion physics, astro-physics, and basic plasma physics. It has been studied for many years, but usually in the context of a periodic toroidal plasma column. Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX)[1] is a cylindrical device built to study the linear and non-linear evolution of the current carrying screw pinch. A plasma column is injected into one end of the chamber from a plasma gun, and terminates at an anode that can be biased to draw current. This anode acts as an adjustable non-line tied end boundary for the column. Line-tying appears to give rise to several unexpected characteristics including finite rotation frequency, and a kink instability threshold less than the Kruskal Shafranov predictions. Experimental data is compared to a phenomenological theory of the kink instability developed for a slender plasma[2] column, including effects such as boundary conditions at the electrodes, finite plasma resistivity and axial flow. [1] I. Furno et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2324 (2003).2] D. Ryutov et al., to be submitted to Phys. Plasmas.

  17. Dendrometer bands made easy: Using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees1

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. • Methods and Results: As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. • Conclusions: This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies. PMID:25202589

  18. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    Whiting, Bruce R., E-mail: whitingbrucer@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Dohatcu, Andreea C. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Politte, David G. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ∼6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (∼$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners.

  19. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness. PMID:22056235

  20. Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows.

    Hultgren, J

    2001-08-01

    Effects on dairy cow behaviour of a new type of flooring in tie-stalls, with the ability to drain faeces and urine, was studied in a controlled randomised trial in one Swedish university herd. Forty-two Swedish Red and White cows were kept tied in traditional long-stalls (2.20m). In 21 stalls (one stall row), the rearmost 0.74m of the solid stall floor had been replaced with nine rubber-coated 53mm wide slats, divided by 29mm slots. Stalls with rubber slats were equipped with 20mm ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) mats in the front part and littered with 0.7kg of wood shavings daily, while stalls with a solid floor had standard rubber mats and received 3kg of chopped straw daily as bedding. Behaviour was compared between the two stall types, using video recordings of 12 matched pairs of cows for two complete 24h periods each. Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for matched pairs or the sign test. Cows on the rubber slatted flooring lie down and rise normally and without any increased risk of slipping. They lay down more comfortably, i.e. spent on an average 23% less time preparing to lie down, and slipped less frequently during rising. There was some evidence of a preference for a solid floor when lying. PMID:11376835

  1. Ground-state magnetic phase diagram of bow-tie graphene nanoflakes in external magnetic field

    Szałowski, Karol, E-mail: kszalowski@uni.lodz.pl, E-mail: kszalowski@wp.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland)

    2013-12-28

    The magnetic phase diagram of a ground state is studied theoretically for graphene nanoflakes of bow-tie shape and various sizes in external in-plane magnetic field. The tight-binding Hamiltonian supplemented with Hubbard term is used to model the electronic structure of the systems in question. The existence of the antiferromagnetic phase with magnetic moments localized at the sides of the bow-tie is found for low field and a field-induced spin-flip transition to ferromagnetic state is predicted to occur in charge-undoped structures. For small nanoflake doped with a single charge carrier, the low-field phase is ferrimagnetic and a metamagnetic transition to ferromagnetic ordering can be forced by the field. The critical field is found to decrease with increasing size of the nanoflake. The influence of diagonal and off-diagonal disorder on the mentioned magnetic properties is studied. The effect of off-diagonal disorder is found to be more important than that of diagonal disorder, leading to significantly widened distribution of critical fields for disordered population of nanoflakes.

  2. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ∼6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (∼$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners

  3. The Response of Environmental Capacity for Malaria Transmission in West Africa to Climate Change

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The climate of West Africa is characterized by north-south gradients in temperature and rainfall. Environmental capacity for malaria transmission (e.g. as measured by vectorial capacity) is strongly tied to these two variables; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the lifespan of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. A change in climate is therefore expected to lead to changes in the distribution of malaria transmission. Current general circulation models agree that the temperature in West Africa is expected to increase by several degrees in the next century. However they predict a wide range of possible rainfall scenarios in the future, from intense drying to significant increases in rainfall (Christensen et al., 2007). The effects these changes will have on environmental capacity for malaria transmission depend on the magnitude and direction of the changes, and on current conditions. For example, malaria transmission will be more sensitive to positive changes in rainfall in dry areas where mosquito populations are currently limited by water availability than in relatively wet areas. Here, we analyze combinations of changes in rainfall and temperature within the ranges predicted by GCMs, and assess the impact these combinations will have on the environmental capacity for malaria transmission. In particular, we identify climate change scenarios that are likely to have the greatest impact on environmental capacity for malaria transmission, as well as geographic "hot spots" where the greatest changes are to be expected. Christensen, J. H., Busuioc, A., & et al. (2007). Regional climate projections. In S. Solomon (Ed.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  4. Study on the Application of the Tie-Line-Table-Look-Up-Based Methods to Flash Calculations in Compositional Simulations

    Yan, Wei; Belkadi, Abdelkrim; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2013-01-01

    compositions in the single-phase region. In the two-phase region, a highly efficient Newton-Raphson algorithm can be used with the initial estimates from the previous step. Another approach is the compositional-space adaptive-tabulation (CSAT) approach, which is based on tie-line table look-up (TTL). It saves...... computation time by replacing rigorous phase-equilibrium calculations with the stored results in a tie-line table whenever the new feed composition is on one of the stored tie-lines within a certain tolerance. In this study, a modified version of CSAT, named the TTL method, has been proposed to investigate if...... approximation by looking up a tie-line table can save flash-computation time in the two-phase region. The number of tie-lines stored for comparison and the tolerance set for accepting the feed composition are the key parameters in this method because they will influence the simulation speed and the accuracy of...

  5. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  6. ECRH transmission system

    The M.I.T. gyrotron group operates a 140 GHz, short pulse (1μs) gyrotron with output power, at present, of up to 175 kW. Output radiation has been obtained in several modes, including TE03 at 140 GHz, TE23 at 137 GHz, TE42 at 128 GHz and TE52 at 145 GHz. Studies have been carried out of the mode purity, both in frequency and in space, of gyrotron output radiation. These studies investigate parasitic mode excitation and mode conversion of gyrotron output power. Far field patterns of gyrotron radiation have been investigated to determine mode symmetry and purity. These results are useful in estimating the efficiency of various transmission systems. Finally, a new approach to quasi-optical transmission lines and mode converters, using axisymmetric optics, is suggested

  7. Data transmission networks

    Alexovich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

  8. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  9. Global wireless power transmission

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1995-01-01

    Economic and environmental pressures require the development of technologies that are compatible with the Earth’s environment and acceptable to society. An emerging power supply option based on Nikola Tesla’s concept of wireless power transmission (WPT) can be applied to transmit power over intercontinental distances with power relay satellites (PRS) [1] to access renewable energy sources at undeveloped or underutilized remote sites, and to convert solar energy in space for use on Earth on a ...

  10. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    Luiz C. de S. Dias; Oswaldo Marçal Jr.; GLASSER Carmem M.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the prog...

  11. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  12. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    Axon, Anthony T. R.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter gastroduodenitis is a serious chronic infectious disease that is responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. An understanding of the way in which it spreads is fundamentally important when considering measures for its control. Its prevalence is highest in the developing world and in individuals with a disadvantaged socio-economic childhood. The disease is believed to be contracted during the early years of life. A faeco-oral mode of transmission is considered by many to b...

  13. Wireless Power Transmission

    Pragati S. Chawardol; Deepali R. Badre ,; , Mithul S. There

    2014-01-01

    A great concern has been voiced in recent years over the extensive use of energy, the limited supply of resourses, and the pollution of the environment from the use of present energy conversion systems. Electrical power accounts for much of the energy consumed. One of the major issue in power system is the losses occurs during the transmission and distribution of electrical power. As the demand increases day by day, the power generation increases and the power loss is also increas...

  14. Superconductive communication transmission

    Recent developments in superconducting techniques have made possible the application of superconductivity in communication cables. Extensive studies have been made, and several experimental coaxial lines and superconductive communication cables have been produced and tested. The attenuation and transmission capacities of superconductive coaxial lines are greatly improved compared with existing cables. Furthermore, the cost of superconductive communication cables is far less than that of existing cables. (author)

  15. Effects of angiopoietins-1 and -2 on the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 are differentially regulated at the endothelial cell surface

    Hansen, Tania M.; Singh, Harprit; Tahir, Tariq A.; Nicholas P J Brindle

    2010-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and Ang2 are ligands for the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2. Structural data suggest that the two ligands bind Tie2 similarly. However, in endothelial cells Ang1 activates Tie2 whereas Ang2 can act as an apparent antagonist. In addition, each ligand exhibits distinct kinetics of release following binding. These observations suggest that additional factors influence function and binding of angiopoietins with receptors in the cellular context. Previous work has shown that A...

  16. THE STUDY OF STABLE MARRIAGE PROBLEM WITH TIES AND INCOMPLETE BOUNDED LENGTH PREFERENCE LIST UNDER SOCIAL STABILITY

    Ashish Shrivastava

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a variant of the Stable Marriage Problem where preference lists of man/woman may be incomplete, may contain ties and may have bounded length in presence of a notion of social stability. In real world matching applications like NRMP and Scottish medical matching scheme such restrictions can arise very frequently where set of agents (man/woman is very large and providing a complete and strict order preference list is practically in-feasible. In presence of ties in preference lists, there exist three different notion of stability, weak stability, strong stability and super stability. The most common solution is to produce a weakly stable matching. It is a fact that in an instance of Stable Marriage problem with Ties and Incomplete list (SMTI, weakly stable matching can have different sizes. This motivates the problem of finding a maximum cardinality weakly socially stable matching.

  17. Implications of MODIS bow-tie distortion on aerosol optical depth retrievals, and techniques for mitigation

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The scan geometry of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, combined with the Earth's curvature, results in a pixel shape distortion known as the "bow-tie effect". Specifically, sensor pixels near the edge of the swath are elongated along-track and across-track compared to pixels near the centre of the swath, resulting in an increase of pixel area by up to a factor of ∼ 9 and, additionally, the overlap of pixels acquired from consecutive scans. The Deep Blue and Dark Target aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms aggregate sensor pixels and provide level 2 (L2) AOD at a nominal horizontal pixel size of 10 km, but the bow-tie distortion means that they also suffer from this size increase and overlap. This means that the spatial characteristics of the data vary as a function of satellite viewing zenith angle (VZA) and, for VZA > 30°, corresponding to approximately 50 % of the data, are areally enlarged by a factor of 50 % or more compared to this nominal pixel area and are not spatially independent of each other. This has implications for retrieval uncertainty and aggregated statistics, causing a narrowing of AOD distributions near the edge of the swath, as well as for data comparability from the application of similar algorithms to sensors without this level of bow-tie distortion. Additionally, the pixel overlap is not obvious to users of the L2 aerosol products because only pixel centres, not boundaries, are provided within the L2 products. A two-step procedure is proposed to mitigate the effects of this distortion on the MODIS aerosol products. The first (simple) step involves changing the order in which pixels are aggregated in L2 processing to reflect geographical location rather than scan order, which removes the bulk of the overlap between L2 pixels and slows the rate of growth of L2 pixel size vs. VZA. This can be achieved without significant changes to existing MODIS processing algorithms. The second step involves

  18. Use of tongue ties in thoroughbred racehorses in the United Kingdom, and its association with surgery for dorsal displacement of the soft palate.

    Barakzai, S Z; Finnegan, C; Dixon, P M; Hillyer, M H; Boden, L A

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of the use of tongue ties, calculated from 60 randomly selected race meetings held in the UK during 2001 to 2003, was 5.0 per cent. After its first use on an individual horse a tongue tie was used in an average of 77 per cent of its races during the first 12 months, but after this time period, in only 55 per cent of its races. Thirty-nine per cent of horses that underwent surgery for dorsal displacement of the soft palate raced with a tongue tie preoperatively, and 41 per cent of these surgical cases raced with a tongue tie postoperatively. PMID:19734559

  19. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization

  20. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.