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Sample records for 30s 31cl deduced

  1. Mass of astrophysically relevant $^{31}$Cl and the breakdown of the isobaric multiplet mass equation

    Kankainen, A; Eronen, T; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Koponen, J; Moore, I D; Nesterenko, D; Reinikainen, J; Rinta-Antila, S; Voss, A; Äystö, J

    2015-01-01

    The mass of $^{31}$Cl has been measured with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer at the Ion-Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility. The determined mass-excess value, -7034.7(34) keV, is 15 times more precise than in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012. The quadratic form of the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the T=3/2 quartet at A=31 fails ($\\chi^2_n$=11.6) and a non-zero cubic term, d=-3.49(44) keV, is obtained when the new mass value is adopted. $^{31}$Cl has been found to be less proton-bound with a proton separation energy of $S_p$=265(4) keV. Energies for the excited states in $^{31}$Cl and the photodisintegration rate on $^{31}$Cl have been determined with significantly improved precision using the new $S_p$ value. The improved photodisintegration rate helps to constrain astrophysical conditions where $^{30}$S can act as a waiting point in the rapid proton capture process in type I x-ray bursts.

  2. One-Proton Halo in 31Cl with Relativistic Mean-Field Theory

    蔡翔舟; 沈文庆; 任中洲; 蒋维洲; 方德清; 张虎勇; 钟晨; 魏义彬; 郭威; 马余刚; 朱志远

    2002-01-01

    We investigate proton-rich isotopes s1,32Cl using the nonlinear relativistic mean-field model. It is shown that this model can reproduce the properties of these nuclei well. A long tail appears in the calculated proton density distribution of 31 Cl. The results of relativistic density-dependent Hartree theory show a similar trend of tail density distribution. It is strongly suggested that there is a proton halo in 31Cl and it is indicated that there may be a proton skin in 32 Cl. The relation between the proton halo in 31Cl and the new proton magic number is discussed.

  3. 31Cl beta decay and the 30P31S reaction rate in nova nucleosynthesis

    Bennett, Michael; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; NSCL e12028 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The 30P31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, identifying the origin of presolar nova grains, and calibrating proposed nova thermometers. Unfortunately, this rate is essentially experimentally unconstrained because the strengths of key 31S proton capture resonances are not known, due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using a 31Cl beam produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, we have populated several 31S states for study via beta decay and devised a new decay scheme which includes updated beta feedings and gamma branchings as well as multiple states previously unobserved in 31Cl beta decay. Results of this study, including the unambiguous identification due to isospin mixing of a new l = 0 , Jπ = 3 /2+ 31S resonance directly in the middle of the Gamow Window, will be presented, and significance to the evaluation of the 30P31S reaction rate will be discussed. Work supported by U.S. Natl. Sci. Foundation (Grants No. PHY-1102511, PHY-1404442, PHY-1419765, and PHY-1431052); U.S. Dept. of Energy, Natl. Nucl. Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0000979); Nat. Sci. and Eng. Research Council of Canada.

  4. 30S RI Beam Production and X-ray Bursts

    Kahl, David; Binh, Dam Nguyen; Chen, Jun; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hayakawa, Seiya; Kim, Aram; Kubono, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yuzo; Lee, Nam Hee; Michimasa, Shin'ichiro; Nishimura, Shunji; Van Ouellet, Christian; nia, Kiana Setoodeh; Wakabayashi, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Hideotoshi

    2009-01-01

    The present work reports the results of 30S radioactive beam development for a future experiment directly measuring data to extrapolate the 30S(alpha,p) stellar reaction rate in Type I X-ray bursts, a phenomena where nuclear explosions occur repeatedly on the surface of accreting neutron stars. We produce the radioactive ion 30S via the 3He(28Si,30S)n reaction, by bombarding a cryogenically cooled target of 3He at 400 Torr and 80 K with 28Si beams of 6.9 and 7.54 MeV/u. In order to perform a successful future experiment which allows us to calculate the stellar 30S(alpha, p) reaction rate, Hauser-Feshbach calculations indicate we require a 30S beam of ~10^5 particles per second at ~32 MeV. Based on our recent beam development experiments in 2006 and 2008, it is believed that such a beam may be fabricated in 2009 according to the results presented. We plan to measure the 4He(30S,p) cross-section at astrophysical energies in 2009, and some brief remarks on the planned (alpha,p) technique are also elucidated.

  5. Proton scattering from unstable nuclei 20O, 30S, 34Ar: experimental study and models

    Elastic and inelastic proton scattering from the unstable nuclei 20O, 30S and 34Ar were measured in inverse kinematics at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds. Secondary beams of 20O at 43 MeV/A, 30S at 53 MeV/A and 34Ar at 47 MeV/A impinged on a (CH2)n target. Recoiling protons were detected in the silicon strip array MUST. Energies and angular distributions of the first 2+ and 3- states were measured. A phenomenological analysis yields values of the deformation parameters β2 and β3 of 0.55 (6) and 0.35 (5) for 20O, 0.32 (3) and 0.22 (4) for 30S, 0.27 (2) and 0.39 (3) for 34Ar, respectively, and allows the extraction of the ratio of neutron to proton transition matrix elements (Mn/Mp)/(N/Z) for 2+ states: 2.35 (37) for 20O, 0.93 (20) for 30S and 1.35 (28) for 34Ar. Therefore the proton rich nuclei 30S and 34Ar show a 2+ excitation of isoscalar character whereas the excitation of 20O is of isovector character. In order to perform a microscopic analysis of the data, we have developed a QRPA model, using three Skyrme interaction: SIII, SG2, SLy4. This model reproduces measured B(EL) values for the oxygen, sulfur and argon isotopic chains, whereas RPA calculations, which do not take pairing into account, underestimate these values. In the case of the QRPA model the energies of the first 2+ state are overestimated by about 1 MeV, but the evolution along the isotopic chains is well reproduced. (Mn/Mp)/(N/Z) ratios for the first 2+ state deduced from the microscopic analysis using QRPA are 1.98 for 20O, 1.05 for 30S and 1.00 for 34Ar, in agreement with the conclusions of the phenomenological analysis. However important discrepancies are observed between the two types of analysis for other isotopes, in particular neutron rich argon and sulfur nuclei. (author)

  6. Study of astrophysically important resonant states in 30 S using the 32S(p,t30 S reaction

    Wrede C.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A small fraction (< 1% of presolar SiC grains is suggested to have been formed in the ejecta of classical novae. The 29P(p,γ30S reaction plays an important role in understanding the Si isotopic abundances in such grains, which in turn provide us with information on the nature of the probable white dwarf progenitor’s core, as well as the peak temperatures achieved during nova outbursts, and thus the nova nucleosynthetic path. The 29P(p,γ30S reaction rate at nova temperatures is determined by two low-lying 3+ and 2+ resonances above the proton threshold at 4399 keV in 30S. Despite several experimental studies in the past, however, only one of these two states has only been observed very recently. We have studied the 30S nuclear structure via the 32S(p,t 30S reaction at 5 laboratory angles between 9° to 62°. We have observed 14 states, eleven of which are above the proton threshold, including two levels at 4692.7 ± 4.5 keV and 4813.8 ± 3.4 keV that are candidates for the 3+ and the previously “issing” 2+ state, respectively.

  7. Proton scattering from unstable nuclei {sup 20}O, {sup 30}S, {sup 34}Ar: experimental study and models; Diffusion de protons sur les noyaux instables {sup 20}O, {sup 30}S, {sup 34}Ar: etude experimentale et developpement de modeles

    Khan, Elias [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS - IN2P3, Universite Paris - Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2000-01-28

    Elastic and inelastic proton scattering from the unstable nuclei {sup 20}O, {sup 30}S and {sup 34}Ar were measured in inverse kinematics at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds. Secondary beams of {sup 20}O at 43 MeV/A, {sup 30}S at 53 MeV/A and {sup 34}Ar at 47 MeV/A impinged on a (CH{sub 2}){sub n} target. Recoiling protons were detected in the silicon strip array MUST. Energies and angular distributions of the first 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states were measured. A phenomenological analysis yields values of the deformation parameters {beta}{sub 2} and {beta}{sub 3} of 0.55 (6) and 0.35 (5) for {sup 20}O, 0.32 (3) and 0.22 (4) for {sup 30}S, 0.27 (2) and 0.39 (3) for {sup 34}Ar, respectively, and allows the extraction of the ratio of neutron to proton transition matrix elements (M{sub n}/M{sub p})/(N/Z) for 2{sup +} states: 2.35 (37) for {sup 20}O, 0.93 (20) for {sup 30}S and 1.35 (28) for {sup 34}Ar. Therefore the proton rich nuclei {sup 30}S and {sup 34}Ar show a 2{sup +} excitation of isoscalar character whereas the excitation of {sup 20}O is of isovector character. In order to perform a microscopic analysis of the data, we have developed a QRPA model, using three Skyrme interaction: SIII, SG2, SLy4. This model reproduces measured B(EL) values for the oxygen, sulfur and argon isotopic chains, whereas RPA calculations, which do not take pairing into account, underestimate these values. In the case of the QRPA model the energies of the first 2{sup +} state are overestimated by about 1 MeV, but the evolution along the isotopic chains is well reproduced. (M{sub n}/M{sub p})/(N/Z) ratios for the first 2{sup +} state deduced from the microscopic analysis using QRPA are 1.98 for {sup 20}O, 1.05 for {sup 30}S and 1.00 for {sup 34}Ar, in agreement with the conclusions of the phenomenological analysis. However important discrepancies are observed between the two types of analysis for other isotopes, in particular neutron rich argon and sulfur nuclei. (author)

  8. Finite pure integer programming algorithms employing only hyperspherically deduced cuts

    Young, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Three algorithms are developed that may be based exclusively on hyperspherically deduced cuts. The algorithms only apply, therefore, to problems structured so that these cuts are valid. The algorithms are shown to be finite.

  9. Insufficiency of the quantum state for deducing observational probabilities

    It is usually assumed that the quantum state is sufficient for deducing all probabilities for a system. This may be true when there is a single observer, but it is not true in a universe large enough that there are many copies of an observer. Then the probability of an observation cannot be deduced simply from the quantum state (say as the expectation value of the projection operator for the observation, as in traditional quantum theory). One needs additional rules to get the probabilities. What these rules are is not logically deducible from the quantum state, so the quantum state itself is insufficient for deducing observational probabilities. This is the measure problem of cosmology.

  10. The Cryo-EM structure of a complete 30S translation initiation complex from Escherichia coli.

    Patricia Julián

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the 30S initiation complex (30S IC is an important checkpoint in regulation of gene expression. The selection of mRNA, correct start codon, and the initiator fMet-tRNA(fMet requires the presence of three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3 of which IF3 and IF1 control the fidelity of the process, while IF2 recruits fMet-tRNA(fMet. Here we present a cryo-EM reconstruction of the complete 30S IC, containing mRNA, fMet-tRNA(fMet, IF1, IF2, and IF3. In the 30S IC, IF2 contacts IF1, the 30S subunit shoulder, and the CCA end of fMet-tRNA(fMet, which occupies a novel P/I position (P/I1. The N-terminal domain of IF3 contacts the tRNA, whereas the C-terminal domain is bound to the platform of the 30S subunit. Binding of initiation factors and fMet-tRNA(fMet induces a rotation of the head relative to the body of the 30S subunit, which is likely to prevail through 50S subunit joining until GTP hydrolysis and dissociation of IF2 take place. The structure provides insights into the mechanism of mRNA selection during translation initiation.

  11. The Cryo-EM structure of a complete 30S translation initiation complex from Escherichia coli.

    Julián, Patricia; Milon, Pohl; Agirrezabala, Xabier; Lasso, Gorka; Gil, David; Rodnina, Marina V; Valle, Mikel

    2011-07-01

    Formation of the 30S initiation complex (30S IC) is an important checkpoint in regulation of gene expression. The selection of mRNA, correct start codon, and the initiator fMet-tRNA(fMet) requires the presence of three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3) of which IF3 and IF1 control the fidelity of the process, while IF2 recruits fMet-tRNA(fMet). Here we present a cryo-EM reconstruction of the complete 30S IC, containing mRNA, fMet-tRNA(fMet), IF1, IF2, and IF3. In the 30S IC, IF2 contacts IF1, the 30S subunit shoulder, and the CCA end of fMet-tRNA(fMet), which occupies a novel P/I position (P/I1). The N-terminal domain of IF3 contacts the tRNA, whereas the C-terminal domain is bound to the platform of the 30S subunit. Binding of initiation factors and fMet-tRNA(fMet) induces a rotation of the head relative to the body of the 30S subunit, which is likely to prevail through 50S subunit joining until GTP hydrolysis and dissociation of IF2 take place. The structure provides insights into the mechanism of mRNA selection during translation initiation. PMID:21750663

  12. Experimental Conditions: SE30_S01_M01_D01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Full Text Available SE30_S01_M01_D01 SE30 Comparison of seed metabolites among soybean varieties SE30_S...01 Glycine max Kamogawashichiri green seed SE30_S01_M01 6.7mg [MassBase ID] MDLC1_21988 SE30_MS1 LC-FT-ICR-MS ESI posit...ive method 1 SE30_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) 6|ITMS 2 SE30_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 ...

  13. Experimental Conditions: SE30_S02_M02_D01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Full Text Available SE30_S02_M02_D01 SE30 Comparison of seed metabolites among soybean varieties SE30_S02 Glycine max Koit...ozairai green seed SE30_S02_M02 6.7mg [MassBase ID] MDLC1_21992 SE30_MS1 LC-FT-ICR-MS ESI posit...ive method 1 SE30_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) 6|ITMS 2 SE30_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 ...

  14. Insufficiency of the Quantum State for Deducing Observational Probabilities

    Page, Don N.

    2008-01-01

    It is usually assumed that the quantum state is sufficient for deducing all probabilities for a system. This may be true when there is a single observer, but it is not true in a universe large enough that there are many copies of an observer. Then the probability of an observation cannot be deduced simply from the quantum state (say as the expectation value of the projection operator for the observation, as in traditional quantum theory). One needs additional rules to get the probabilities. W...

  15. Deducing Reaction Mechanism: A Guide for Students, Researchers, and Instructors

    Meek, Simon J.; Pitman, Catherine L.; Miller, Alexander J. M.

    2016-01-01

    An introductory guide to deducing the mechanism of chemical reactions is presented. Following a typical workflow for probing reaction mechanism, the guide introduces a wide range of kinetic and mechanistic tools. In addition to serving as a broad introduction to mechanistic analysis for students and researchers, the guide has also been used by…

  16. Goniometer-based femtosecond X-ray diffraction of mutant 30S ribosomal subunit crystals.

    Dao, E Han; Sierra, Raymond G; Laksmono, Hartawan; Lemke, Henrik T; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Coey, Aaron; Larsen, Kevin; Baxter, Elizabeth L; Cohen, Aina E; Soltis, S Michael; DeMirci, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we collected radiation-damage-free data from a set of cryo-cooled crystals for a novel 30S ribosomal subunit mutant using goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography. Crystal quality assessment for these samples was conducted at the X-ray Pump Probe end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using recently introduced goniometer-based instrumentation. These 30S subunit crystals were genetically engineered to omit a 26-residue protein, Thx, which is present in the wild-type Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit. We are primarily interested in elucidating the contribution of this ribosomal protein to the overall 30S subunit structure. To assess the viability of this study, femtosecond X-ray diffraction patterns from these crystals were recorded at the LCLS during a protein crystal screening beam time. During our data collection, we successfully observed diffraction from these difficult-to-grow 30S ribosomal subunit crystals. Most of our crystals were found to diffract to low resolution, while one crystal diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. These data suggest the feasibility of pursuing high-resolution data collection as well as the need to improve sample preparation and handling in order to collect a complete radiation-damage-free data set using an X-ray Free Electron Laser. PMID:26798805

  17. Goniometer-based femtosecond X-ray diffraction of mutant 30S ribosomal subunit crystals

    E. Han Dao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we collected radiation-damage-free data from a set of cryo-cooled crystals for a novel 30S ribosomal subunit mutant using goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography. Crystal quality assessment for these samples was conducted at the X-ray Pump Probe end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS using recently introduced goniometer-based instrumentation. These 30S subunit crystals were genetically engineered to omit a 26-residue protein, Thx, which is present in the wild-type Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit. We are primarily interested in elucidating the contribution of this ribosomal protein to the overall 30S subunit structure. To assess the viability of this study, femtosecond X-ray diffraction patterns from these crystals were recorded at the LCLS during a protein crystal screening beam time. During our data collection, we successfully observed diffraction from these difficult-to-grow 30S ribosomal subunit crystals. Most of our crystals were found to diffract to low resolution, while one crystal diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. These data suggest the feasibility of pursuing high-resolution data collection as well as the need to improve sample preparation and handling in order to collect a complete radiation-damage-free data set using an X-ray Free Electron Laser.

  18. First measurement of the 33Cl(p,α)30S reaction

    Deibel, C. M.; Rehm, K. E.; Figueira, J. M.; Greene, J. P.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lee, H. Y.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Pardo, R. C.; Patel, N.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.; Woodard, A.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Zinkann, G.

    2011-10-01

    The 30S(α,p)33Cl reaction may have a significant impact on final elemental abundances and energy output of type I X-ray bursts, as well as influencing observables such as double-peaked luminosity profiles, because it could bypass the 30S waiting point. This reaction has been studied experimentally for the first time in inverse kinematics via the time-inverse reaction 1H(33Cl,30S)α with a 33Cl radioactive ion beam produced at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System facility by the “in-flight” technique. This reaction was studied at three different beam energies. The experimental method used and the resulting data are discussed.

  19. On the heat impulse method for deducing sap flow

    Ron Gribben

    1999-01-01

    Speed of sap flow in plants and trees is of interest to botanists and environmentalists because of its connection with the rate of utilisation of nutrients in the soil. An established method uses the transport of heat where an impulsive heat source is introduced along a radial line by a probe in the trunk sapwood. The temperature is monitored, upstream and downstream, and, by solving the heat flow equation in the moving fluid, the sap velocity may be deduced indirectly under so...

  20. A new evolutionary theory deduced mathematically from entropy amplification

    2000-01-01

    A new evolutionary theory which is able to unite the present evolutionary debates is deduced mathematically from the principle of entropy amplification.It suggests that the extensive evolution is driven by the amplification of entropy,or microscopic diversity,and the biological evolution is driven by the amplification of biodiversity.Forming high hierarchies is the most important way for the amplification and brings out spontaneously three kinds of selection.This theory has some positive cultural meanings.

  1. Photon strength function deduced from photon scattering and neutron capture

    Matic A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dipole strength function of 78Se and 196Pt are investigated by two different experimental methods, capture of cold neutrons in 77Se and 195Pt and photon scattering experiments on 78Se and 196Pt. Considering the different ways of excitation, the strength function deduced from the results are expected to agree. The report shows the status of the data analysis and presents first preliminary results.

  2. Studies on dissociation and reconstitution of nuclear 30-S ribonucleoprotein particles containing pre-mRNA.

    Kulguskin, V V; Krichevskaya, A A; Lukanidin, E M; Georgiev, G P

    1980-10-17

    Treatment of nuclear 30-S ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles containing pre-mRNA (precursor of mRNA) with 2 M NaCl leads to dissociation of RNA and protein. The protein component is present either as an aggregate with a sedimentation coefficient close to 30 S (a free informofer) or as a slowly sedimenting material (monomers or oligomers of informatin). Most of the informofers and slowly sedimenting material are in the equilibrium state. Iodination or aging of the 30-S particles stabilizes informofers. Lowering of NaCl concentration in the mixture of RNA with informofers or informatin subunits leads to reconstitution of RNP particles. In both cases, the particles formed have a sedimentation coefficient of about 30 S and a buoyant density equal to 1.4-1.41 g/cm3 but their response to pancreatic RNAase (EC 3.1.27.5) and high salt treatment is very different. Both the particles reconstituted from RNA and informofers and the original particles are very sensitive to pancreatic RNAase and after high salt treatment free informofers are formed. In contrast, the RNA of the particles reconstituted from slowly sedimenting material is much more protected against pancreatic RNAase action. These particles are also rather stable to high salt treatment. Thus, only if a protein in the form of an informofer aggregate is used, faithful reconstitution takes place. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the structure of the nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles containing precursor of messenger RNA. PMID:7437433

  3. Precipitation processes as deduced by combining Doppler radar and disdrometer

    Thomson, Alan Douglas

    Precipitation processes are investigated in stratiform and convective weather systems by combining Doppler radar and disdrometer measurements. Vertical scans are designed to measure the standard radar data fields and the power spectrum of the vertical Doppler velocities with high spatial and temporal resolution. A new method, based on iterative application of a disdrometer-determined Z-R relation, is developed to estimate vertical winds from the vertical scan data. Using this method, radar-based raindrop size spectra calculated near the surface in light stratiform rain compare well with simultaneous measurements from a collocated disdrometer. A full raindrop size spectrum profile is deduced for a specific steady state case. It is found that the spectrum does not vary with height, suggesting that the spectral shape is mainly controlled by the ice particles occurring above the 0oC level. Vertical scan data are also combined with volume scan data obtained by the Atmospheric Environment Service King City radar to examine the precipitation structure of a hail producing region within a severe squall line. The vertical scan shows a large variation in precipitation structure and also reveals important storm features which, in this case, are not detected by the conventional volume scans, such as a weak echo vault, a downdraught outflow, and streaks of very high downward velocity corresponding to separate hail trajectories. The power spectra were used to identify and locate hailstones, to deduce the growth of descending hailstones, and to qualitatively examine properties of raindrop size spectra. A conceptual model of hail formation is proposed by comparing the deduced storm structure and precipitation processes with the analyses of two somewhat similar storms documented in the literature.

  4. Temporal variability of TEC deduced from groundbased measurements

    This paper presents a study of the behaviour of the integrated total electron content (ITEC) deduced from electron density profiles of two Argentine stations: Tucuman (26.9 S; 294.6 E) and San Juan (31.5 S; 290.4 E). The ITEC values have been obtained by the technique proposed by Reinisch and Huang (2000). The database includes electron density profiles derived from ionograms recorded at 4 typical hours of the day (00.00, 06.00, 12.00 and 18.00 LT) during different seasonal and solar activity conditions. An analysis of the day to day variability of ITEC has also been done. (author)

  5. Age and fertility: Can we wait until the early 30s?

    McDonald, John W; Rosina, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ester; Colombo, Bernardo

    2005-01-01

    Delaying the start of childbearing raises the issue of fertility postponed versus fertility foregone. One of the limits of previous studies of ``How late can you wait?'' is the difficulty of controlling for sexual activity. Data on the frequency and timing of intercourse within a menstrual cycle are uncommon. We use such data from the Menstrual Cycle Fecundability Study to study ``Can we wait until the early 30s?''. We model the effect of age on conditional fecund...

  6. Neutron scattering and the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli

    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today. 30 references, 5 figures

  7. Neutron Scattering and the 30 S Ribosomal Subunit of E. Coli

    Moore, P. B.; Engelman, D. M.; Langer, J. A.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Schindler, D. G.; Schoenborn, B. P.; Sillers, I. Y.; Yabuki, S.

    1982-06-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today.

  8. Performance of an electron feed assembly for ORNL/MFTF-B 30-s ion sources

    An electron feed assembly similar to that used for PLT/ ISX-B injectors is used in ORNL/MFTF-B 30-s ion source. Its thermionic cathode is made of a La2O3 -doped molybdenum with an emission surface area of about 100 cm2 and is indirectly heated by a graphite heater. Working at 17000C, it needs a heating power of about 39 kW. Active water cooling is employed for the intermediate electrode liner and anode 1 which enclose the arc column: These electrodes are made of copper with cooling channels prepared by an electroforming technique. A longpulse (30 s) life time evaluation of this electron feed assembly is being conducted experimentally. Arc behavior, electrode power loading, reliability and longevity are being studied. Based on information obtained so far, the electron-feed assembly has been found to behave satisfactorily even after 2200 pulses of 30 s duration arc operation at 30% duty factor. Further progress of this study is reported

  9. Development of an ion source for long-pulse (30-s) neutral beam injection

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Moeller, J.A.; Ponte, N.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Schecter, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a long-pulse positive ion source that has been designed to provide high brightness deuterium beams (divergence approx. = 0.25/sup 0/ rms, current density approx. = 0.15 A cm/sup -2/) of 40 to 45 A, at a beam energy of 80 keV, for pulse lengths up to 30 s. The design and construction of the ion source components are described with particular emphasis placed on the long-pulse cathode assembly and ion accelerator.

  10. The Cryo-EM Structure of a Complete 30S Translation Initiation Complex from Escherichia coli

    Julián, Patricia; Milon, Pohl; Agirrezabala, Xabier; Lasso, Gorka; Gil, David; Rodnina, Marina V; Valle Rodríguez, Mikel Karmel

    2011-01-01

    Author Summary Translation is the process by which a ribosome converts the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA)—produced from a gene—into the sequence of amino acids that comprise a protein. Bacterial ribosomes each have one large and one small subunit: the 50S and 30S subunits. Initiation of translation entails selection of an mRNA, identification of the correct starting point from which to read its code, and engagement of the initial amino acid carrier (tRNA). These events take place in the 3...

  11. Development of Deduced Protein Database Using Variable Bit Binary Encoding

    B. Parvathavarthini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of biological data is semi-structured and stored in any one the following file formats such as flat, XML and relational files. These databases must be integrated with the structured data available in relational or object-oriented databases. The sequence matching process is difficult in such file format, because string comparison takes more computation cost and time. To reduce the memory storage size of amino acid sequence in protein database, a novel probability-based variable bit length encoding technique has been introduced. The number of mapping of triplet CODON for every amino acid evaluates the probability value. Then, a binary tree has been constructed to assign unique bits of binary codes to each amino acid. This derived unique bit pattern of amino acid replaces the existing fixed byte representation. The proof of reduced protein database space has been discussed and it is found to be reduced between 42.86 to 87.17%. To validate our method, we have collected few amino acid sequences of major organisms like Sheep, Lambda phage and etc from NCBI and represented them using proposed method. The comparison shows that of minimum and maximum reduction in storage space are 43.30% and 72.86% respectively. In future the biological data can further be reduced by applying lossless compression on this deduced data.

  12. Deducing the three gauge interactions from the three Reidemeister moves

    We give one of the first known arguments for the origin of the three observed gauge groups. The argument is based on modelling nature at Planck scales as a collection of featureless strands that fluctuate in three dimensions. This approach models vacuum as untangled strands and particles as tangles of strands. Modelling vacuum as untangled strands implies the field equations of general relativity, when applying an argument from 1995 to the thermodynamics of strands. Modelling fermions as tangles of two or more strands allows to define wave functions as time-averages of strand crossings; using an argument from 1980, this allows to deduce the Dirac equation. When modelling fermions as tangled strands, gauge interactions appear naturally as deformation of tangle cores. The three possible types of observable core deformations are given by the three Reidemeister moves. They naturally lead to a U(1), a broken and parity-violating SU(2) and a SU(3) gauge group. The model is unique, is unmodifiable, is consistent with all known data, and makes numerous testable predictions, including the absence of other interactions, of grand unification and of higher dimensions. A method for calculating coupling constants seems to appear naturally.

  13. PPARA intron polymorphism associated with power performance in 30-s anaerobic Wingate Test.

    Miroslav Petr

    Full Text Available To date, polymorphisms in several genes have been associated with a strength/power performance including alpha 3 actinin, ciliary neurotrophic factor, vitamin D receptor, or angiotensin I converting enzyme, underlining the importance of genetic component of the multifactorial strength/power-related phenotypes. The single nucleotide variation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene (PPARA intron 7 G/C (rs4253778; g.46630634G>C has been repeatedly found to play a significant role in response to different types of physical activity. We investigated the effect of PPARA intron 7 G/C polymorphism specifically on anaerobic power output in a group of 77 elite male Czech ice hockey players (18-36 y. We determined the relative peak power per body weight (Pmax.kg(-1 and relative peak power per fat free mass (W.kg(-1FFM during the 30-second Wingate Test (WT30 on bicycle ergometer (Monark 894E Peak bike, MONARK, Sweden. All WT30s were performed during the hockey season. Overall genotype frequencies were 50.6% GG homozygotes, 40.3% CG heterozygotes, and 9.1% CC homozygotes. We found statistically significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1 and marginally significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1FFM values in WT30 between carriers and non-carriers for C allele (14.6 ± 0.2 vs. 13.9 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1 and 15.8 ± 0.2 vs. 15.2 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1FFM, P = 0.036 and 0.12, respectively. Furthermore, Pmax.kg(-1FFM strongly positively correlated with the body weight only in individuals with GG genotypes (R = 0.55; p<0.001. Our results indicate that PPARA 7C carriers exhibited higher speed strength measures in WT30. We hypothesize that C allele carriers within the cohort of trained individuals may possess a metabolic advantage towards anaerobic metabolism.

  14. Advance of the perihelion of Mercury deduced from QFT

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    I deduce the new gravitational formula from the variance in mass of QFT and GR (H05-0029-08, E15-0039 -08, E14-0032-08, D31-0054-10) in the partial differential: f (QFT) = f (GR) = delta∂ (m v)/delta∂ t = f _{P} + f _{C} , f _{P} = m delta∂ v / delta∂ t = - ( G m M /r (2) ) r / r, f _{C} = v delta∂ m / delta∂ t = - ( G m M / r (2) ) v / c (1), f (QFT) is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos nuν _{0} flux (after counteract contrary direction nuν _{0}). f (GR) is equivalent to Einstein’s equation, Eq. (1) is a new version of GR and can be solved exactly. Its core content is that the gravity produced by particles collide cannot linear addition, i.e., the nonlinearity of Einstein equation had been replaced by the nonlinearity caused by the variable mass in Eq.(1). Einstein equation can be inferred from Eq.(1) thereby from QFT, but QFT cannot be inferred from Eq.(1) or GR. f (QFT) is essential but f (GR) is phenomenological. Eq.(1) is obtained just by to absorb the essence of corpuscule collided gravitation origin ism proposed by Fatio in 1690 and 1920 Majorana’s experiment concept about gravitational shield effect again fuse with QFT. In my paper ‘QFT’S advance of the perihelion of Mercury, China Science &Technology Overview 125 88-90 (2011)’ QFT gravitational potential U = - G M /r is just the distribution density of net nuν _{0} flux, from SR we again get that: f (QFT) = f _{P} + f _{C}, f _{P} = - m ( delta∂ U / delta∂ r) r / r, f _{C} = - m ( delta∂U / delta∂ r) v / c (2), f _{ P} correspond the change rate of three-dimensional momentum p, f _{C} correspond the change rate of fourth dimensional momentum i m c which show directly as a dissipative force of mass change. According to Eq.(2) the circular motion is instability and elliptic motion is in the auto-stability state. In the fluctuation vacuum a particle with mass M neighbor another particle with mass m, the renormalization mass M and m will be less than that when

  15. Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on 30-S ribosomal subunits. Identification of the RNA region crosslinked to protein S7

    The effects of ultraviolet irradiation on Escherichia coli 30-S ribosomal subunits were studied. At the doses of radiation used in this work (0-4.5 x 105 quanta/30-S subunit), only protein S7 was found to be significantly crosslinked to the 16-S RNA. In conditions where 25% of the protein was covalently crosslinked, the ability of the irradiated 30-S subunits to reassociate with 50-S subunits and their activity in polyphenylalanine synthesis decreased strongly. Similar results were obtained by irradiation with a germicide lamp (254 nm) or with a monochromatic ultraviolet light at 248 nm. No additional proteins were crosslinked to the 16-S RNA by irradiating 30-S subunits depleted in protein S1 or 70-S ribosomes. The covalent complex of 16-S RNA and protein S7 was isolated and digested by T1 ribonuclease. The oligonucleotide remaining attached to the crosslinked protein was characterised as A-C-C-U-C-G (position 1261-1266, see the sequence published by Carbon et al. (1979) Eur. J. Biochem. 160, 399-410). Analysis of this fragment suggests that protein S7 was linked to the cytosine at position 1265 in the RNA sequence. (orig.)

  16. Heterogeneity in Men’s Marijuana Use in the 20s: Adolescent Antecedents and Consequences in the 30s

    Washburn, Isaac J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent psychopathology is commonly connected to marijuana use. How changes in these adolescent antecedents and in adolescent marijuana use are connected to patterns of marijuana use in the 20s is little understood. Also not clearly understood is psychopathology in the 30s as predicted by marijuana use in the 20s. This study sought to examine these two issues – and associations with marijuana disorder diagnoses – using a longitudinal dataset of 205 men with essentially annual reports. Indi...

  17. Method of estimating horizontal vectors of ionospheric electric field deduced from HF Doppler data

    An HF Doppler method for estimating the time variations of the horizontal electric field in the ionosphere is presented which takes into account, for long-lasting variations in the electric field, the effect of electron decay due to attachment and/or recombination processes. The method is applied to an isolated substorm event, using equivalent ionospheric current systems deduced from worldwide magnetometer data in the estimations. The present results are found to agree with data deduced from current systems and high latitude electrojet activity. 18 references

  18. Method of estimating horizontal vectors of ionospheric electric field deduced from HF Doppler data

    Tsutsui, M.; Ogawa, T.; Kamide, Y.; Kroehl, H.W.; Hausman, B.A.

    1988-04-01

    An HF Doppler method for estimating the time variations of the horizontal electric field in the ionosphere is presented which takes into account, for long-lasting variations in the electric field, the effect of electron decay due to attachment and/or recombination processes. The method is applied to an isolated substorm event, using equivalent ionospheric current systems deduced from worldwide magnetometer data in the estimations. The present results are found to agree with data deduced from current systems and high latitude electrojet activity. 18 references.

  19. Note on the shelf break upwelling off the southeast coast of Brazil (lat. 26º30'S

    Afrânio Rubens de Mesquita

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A western margin frontal zone is described, from measurements of temperature, salinity and currents, in a section taken with R/V "Prof. W. Besnard" in December 1980, crossing the shelf break border at latitude 26º30'S. The analyses of the sections showed consistently the occurrence of an ascension of the T and S isolines over the shelf break. Simultaneous current measurements showed a surface eddy structure with clockwise circulation and anti-clockwise circulation having a common stem over the break characterizing a shelf break upwelling.

  20. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  1. New Route to Deducing Integration Formulas by Virtue of the IWOP Technique*

    FAN Hong-Yi; LI Hong-Qi; XU Xing-Lei

    2011-01-01

    We point out a new route to deducing integration formulas, i.e., using the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators we derive some new integration formulas, which seems concise. As a by-product,some new operator identities also appear.

  2. A Deduced Feynman Rule for Calculating Retarded and Advanced Green function in Closed Time Path Formalism

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Enke(Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, 430079, Wuhan, China)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the closed time path formalism, a new Feynman rule for directly calculating the retarded and advanced Green functions is deduced. This Feynman rule is used to calculate the two-point self-energy and three-point vertex correction in $\\phi^3$ theory. The generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem for three-point nonlinear response function is verified.

  3. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M;

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250...

  4. Differential effects of ribosomal proteins and Mg2+ ions on a conformational switch during 30S ribosome 5'-domain assembly.

    Abeysirigunawardena, Sanjaya C; Woodson, Sarah A

    2015-11-01

    Ribosomal protein S4 nucleates assembly of the 30S ribosome 5' and central domains, which is crucial for the survival of cells. Protein S4 changes the structure of its 16S rRNA binding site, passing through a non-native intermediate complex before forming native S4-rRNA contacts. Ensemble FRET was used to measure the thermodynamic stability of non-native and native S4 complexes in the presence of Mg(2+) ions and other 5'-domain proteins. Equilibrium titrations of Cy3-labeled 5'-domain RNA with Cy5-labeled protein S4 showed that Mg(2+) ions preferentially stabilize the native S4-rRNA complex. In contrast, ribosomal proteins S20 and S16 act by destabilizing the non-native S4-rRNA complex. The full cooperative switch to the native complex requires S4, S16, and S20 and is achieved to a lesser degree by S4 and S16. The resulting thermodynamic model for assembly of the 30S body illustrates how ribosomal proteins selectively bias the equilibrium between alternative rRNA conformations, increasing the cooperativity of rRNA folding beyond what can be achieved by Mg(2+) ions alone. PMID:26354770

  5. Single protein omission reconstitution studies of tetracycline binding to the 30S subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes

    In previous work the authors showed that on photolysis of Escherichia coli ribosomes in the presence of [3H]tetracycline (TC) the major protein labeled is S7, and they presented strong evidence that such labeling takes place from a high-affinity site related to the inhibitory action of TC. In this work they use single protein omission reconstitution (SPORE) experiments to identify those proteins that are important for high-affinity TC binding to the 30S subunit, as measured by both cosedimentation and filter binding assays. With respect to both sedimentation coefficients and relative Phe-tRNAPhe binding, the properties of the SPORE particles they obtain parallel very closely those measured earlier, with the exception of the SPORE particle lacking S13. A total of five proteins, S3, S7, S8, S14, and S19, are shown to be important for TC binding, with the largest effects seen on omission of proteins S7 and S14. Determination of the protein compositions of the corresponding SPORE particles demonstrates that the observed effects are, for the most part, directly attributable to the omission of the given protein rather than reflecting an indirect effect of omitting one protein on the uptake of another. A large body of evidence supports the notion that four of these proteins, S3, S7, S14, and S19, are included, along with 16S rRNA bases 920-1,396, in one of the major domains of the 30S subunit. The results support the conclusion that the structure of this domain is important for the binding of TC and that, within this domain, TC binds directly to S7

  6. KONDISI SOSIAL EKONOMI BURUH PABRIK GULA SRAGI KABUPATEN PEKALONGAN PASCA G 30 S TAHUN 1965-1998

    Ilin Suryantono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of labor in the sugar industry was once used as a political tool during the conflict in 1965 and became the party that is often neglected in the subsequent period between the years 1965-1998. On the one hand, sugar factory was one of plantation sectors having crucial position as one of development achievement of the new order government, because it increased income. It is an irony to see that workers having a vital role for the development of the country's economy but rather their fate are often not addressed by the state. Fundamental problems that later emerged in the life of labor is poverty, but the truth of this argument needs to be proved through research in order to obtain accurate answers. Keywords: Labor, sugar factory, event G 30 S     Keberadaan buruh di pabrik gula menjadi salah satu alat politik pada tahun 1965 dan menjadi tersisih pada masa berikutnya pada tahun 1965-1998. Di satu sisi, pabrik gula menjadi salah satu sektor perkebunan yang memiliki posisi penting sebagai salah satu capaian pembangunan pada masa pemerintahan Orde Baru, karena posisinya penting dalam meningkatkan pemasukan dalam negeri. Hal ini sangat ironi ketika melihat peran pekerja yang memiliki posisi penting dalam pembangunan ekonomi, tetapi sering kali tidak diperhatikan oleh pemerintah. Permasalahan utama yang muncul dalam kehidupan buruh adalah kemiskinan, tetapi permasalahan ini membutuhkan pembuktian melalui penelitian untuk menemukan jawaban yang tepat.   Kata kunci: buruh, pabrik gula, peristiwa G 30 S  

  7. Fission fragment mass yield deduced from density distribution in the pre-scission configuration

    Warda, M.; Zdeb, A.

    2015-01-01

    Static self-consistent methods usually allow to determine the most probable fission fragments mass asymmetry. We have applied random neck rupture mechanism to the nuclei in the configuration at the end of fission paths. Fission fragment mass distributions have been deduced from the pre-scission nuclear density distribution obtained from the self-consistent calculations. Potential energy surfaces as well as nuclear shapes have been calculated in the fully microscopic theory, namely the constra...

  8. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  9. MAGNETIC ANOMALY LINEATION AND FRACTURE ZONE IN ENDERBY BASIN DEDUCED FROM GEOMAGNETIC ANOMALY FIELD VECTOR

    ノギ, ヨシフミ; セアマ, ノブカズ; イセザキ, ノブヒロ; フクダ, ヨウイチ; Yoshifumi, NOGI; Nobukazu, SEAMA; Nobuhiro, ISEZAKI; Yoichi, FUKUDA

    1995-01-01

    The formation of magnetic anomaly lineations and fracture zones in Enderby Basin (10°E-80°E), Southern Indian Ocean, are vital to understanding process of the Gondwana breakup. Vector anomalies of the geomagnetic field were obtained during the 30th, 31st, 32nd, and 33rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions. The strikes of the magnetic anomaly lineations and fracture zones were deduced from vector geomagnetic anomaly field data as well as seasurface and satellite gravity anomalies. We surmi...

  10. The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.

    Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

  11. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    The thick-target yield (TTY) is a macroscopic quantity reflected by nuclear reactions and matter properties of targets. In order to evaluate TTYs on radioactive targets, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. The method to deduce the TTY is theoretically derived from inverse kinematics. We apply the method to the natCu(12C,X)24Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the 137Cs + 12C reaction as an example of a radioactive system and discussed a conversion coefficient of a TTY measurement

  12. Intrinsic neutrino properties: As deduced from cosmology, astrophysics, accelerator and non-accelerator experiments

    I review the intrinsic properties of neutrinos as deduced from cosmological, astrophysical, and laboratory experiments. Bounds on magnetic moments and theoretical models which yield large moments but small masses are briefly discussed. The MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is reviewed in light of the existing data from the 37Cl and Kamiokande II experiments. The combined data disfavor the adiabatic solution and tend to support either the large angle solution or the nonadiabatic one. In the former case the 71Ga signal will be suppressed by the same factor as for 37Cl, and in the latter case the suppression factor could be as large as 10 or more. 41 refs

  13. Effect of single base changes and the absence of modified bases in 16S RNA on the reconstitution and function of Escherichia coli 30S ribosomes

    The gene coding for E. coli 16S rRNA was placed in pUC19 under the control of the strong class III T7 promoter, phi 10, by ligation of the 1490 bp BclI/BstEII fragment of the rrnB operon with appropriate synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Such constructs allowed efficient in vitro synthesis of full-length transcripts (up to 900 mol RNA/mol template) free of modified bases. The synthetic RNA could be assembled into 30S subunits upon addition of E. coli 30S ribosomal proteins. The particles co-sedimented with authentic 30S particles and were electron microscopically indistinguishable from them. Upon addition of 50S subunits, codon-dependent P-site binding of tRNA and codon-dependent polypeptide synthesis were >80% of 30S reconstituted from natural 16S RNA and >50% of isolated 30S. UV-induced crosslinking of P-site bound AcVal-tRNA to residue C1400 was preserved. Changing C1400 to A had little effect on reconstitution, P-site binding, or polypeptide synthesis. However, the substitution of C1499 by G markedly inhibited assembly. The effect on P-site binding and polypeptide synthesis is under study. These results show (1) none of the modified bases of 16S RNA are essential for protein synthesis, (2) substitution of A for C1400 has little functional effect, and (3) position 1400 may be important for ribosome assembly

  14. Interconversion of active and inactive 30 S ribosomal subunits is accompanied by a conformational change in the decoding region of 16 S rRNA

    Moazed, D; Van Stolk, B J; Douthwaite, S;

    1986-01-01

    Zamir, Elson and their co-workers have shown that 30 S ribosomal subunits are reversibly inactivated by depletion of monovalent or divalent cations. We have re-investigated the conformation of 16 S rRNA in the active and inactive forms of the 30 S subunit, using a strategy that is designed......' regions of 16 S rRNA. The inactive form also shows significantly decreased reactivity at positions 1533 to 1538 (the Shine-Dalgarno region), in agreement with earlier findings. The principal changes in reactivity involve the universally conserved nucleotides G926, C1395, A1398 and G1401. The three purines...

  15. Fission fragment mass yield deduced from density distribution in the pre-scission configuration

    Warda, M

    2015-01-01

    Static self-consistent methods usually allow to determine the most probable fission fragments mass asymmetry. We have applied random neck rupture mechanism to the nuclei in the configuration at the end of fission paths. Fission fragment mass distributions have been deduced from the pre-scission nuclear density distribution obtained from the self-consistent calculations. Potential energy surfaces as well as nuclear shapes have been calculated in the fully microscopic theory, namely the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogolubov model with the effective Gogny D1S density-dependent interaction. The method has been applied for analysis of fission of Fm-256,258, Cf-252 and Hg-180 and compared with the experimental data.

  16. Fission fragment mass yield deduced from density distribution in the pre-scission configuration

    Warda, M.; Zdeb, A.

    2015-11-01

    Static self-consistent methods usually allow one to determine the most probable fission fragments mass asymmetry. We have applied random neck rupture mechanism to the nuclei in the configuration at the end of fission paths. Fission fragment mass distributions have been deduced from the pre-scission nuclear density distribution obtained from the self-consistent calculations. Potential energy surfaces as well as nuclear shapes have been calculated in the fully microscopic theory, namely the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model with the effective Gogny D1S density-dependent interaction. The method has been applied for analysis of fission of {}{256,258}Fm, 252Cf and 180Hg and compared with the experimental data.

  17. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave

    Arman, Samuel D.; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  18. Deducing ink thickness variations of fluorescent print by a spectral prediction model

    Wang, Qingjuan; Zhang, Yixin; Tian, Dongwen

    2012-01-01

    In the color printing process, the thickness and uniformity of ink have a great affect on the color reproduction. The ink thickness uniformity is an important parameters of measuring the quality of printing. Based on the fluorescent additives may absorb ultraviolet light and exit blue light or visible light and by considering the expansion of the ink, optical properties of paper with fluorescent additives , the internal lateral spread of light in paper with fluorescent additives and the fluorescent Clapper-Yule spectral reflectance prediction model, we introduce two factor parameters which are the initial thickness of the inks and the factor of ink thickness variation. A model for deducing ink thickness variations of printing on the fluorescent substrate is developed by the least square method and the spectrum reflectance of prints which measures the ink thickness variations. The correctness of the conclusions are verified by experiment.

  19. Theoretical model to deduce a PDF with a power law tail using Extreme Physical Information

    Bonilla, Ricardo; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The theory of Extreme Physical Information (EPI) is used to deduce a probability density function (PDF) of a system that exhibits a power law tail. The computed PDF is useful to study and fit several observed distributions in complex systems. This new approach permits to describe extreme and rare events in the tail, and also the frequent events in the distribution head. Using EPI an information functional is constructed, and minimized using Euler-Lagrange equations. As a solution a second order differential equation is derived. By solving this equation a family of functions is calculated. These functions allow describing the system in terms of a eigenstates. A dissipative term is introduced into the model, as a relevant term to study open systems. One of the main results is a mathematical relation between the scaling parameter of the power law observed in the tail and the shape of the head.

  20. Hydrodynamic properties of gamma-ray bursts outflows deduced from thermal component

    Pe'er, Asaf; O'Mahony, Shane; Margutti, Raffaella; Ryde, Felix; Larsson, Josefin; Lazzatti, Davide; Livio, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of a significant thermal emission component that was identified in 47 GRBs observed by different instruments. Within the framework of the "fireball" model, we deduce the values of the Lorentz factor Gamma, and the acceleration radius, r_0, for these bursts. We find that all the values of Gamma in our sample are in the range 10^2 = 310. We find a very weak dependence of Gamma on the acceleration radius r_0, Gamma ~ r_0^alpha with alpha = -0.10 +- 0.09 at sigma = 2.1 confidence level. The values of r_0 span a wide range, 10^7 ~10^{8.5} cm. This is higher than the gravitational radius of a 10 M_sun black hole by a factor ~100. We argue that this result provides indirect evidence for jet propagation inside a massive star, and suggests the existence of recollimation shocks that take place close to this radius.

  1. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  2. Atmospheric phenomena deduced from radiosonde and GPS occultation measurements for various application related studies

    C J Johny; S K Sarkar; D Punyasesudu

    2009-02-01

    The tropopause height and tropopause temperature are sensitive to temperature changes in troposphere and stratosphere. These are the measures of global climatic variability. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, refractivity and water vapour are always needed for communication, navigation and atmospheric modeling studies. The tropopause characteristics over the Indian region have been studied using radio occultation measurements (CHAMP) on the basis of cold point criterion. Tropopause height shows large variation in the latitude range ∼30° –40°N during winter. Tropopause temperature less than −82°C, assumed to facilitate troposphere to stratosphere air transport, is observed at a number of tropical Indian locations and no seasonal pattern is observed in its occurrence. The bias in temperature and refractivity deduced from radiosonde and radio occultation measurements is also presented.

  3. The work function of n-ZnO deduced from heterojunctions with Si prepared by ALD

    Quemener, V.; Alnes, M.; Vines, L.; Rauwel, P.; Nilsen, O.; Fjellvåg, H.; Monakhov, E. V.; Svensson, B. G.

    2012-08-01

    Highly doped n-type ZnO films have been grown on n-type and p-type Si substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Transmission electron microscopy shows columnar growth of the ZnO films with randomly oriented grains and a very thin interfacial layer of SiOx(x ⩽ 2) with a thickness below 0.4 nm to the Si substrate. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements performed at temperatures from 50 to 300 K reveal a strong rectifying behaviour on both types of substrates with an ideality factor close to unity between 180 and 280 K. Using the classical approach of thermionic emission, the barrier heights of the ZnO/n-Si and ZnO/p-Si junctions have been deduced and consistent values are obtained yielding a work function of n-type ZnO close to 4.65 eV.

  4. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Imai, Shotaro

    2014-01-01

    The thick-target yield (TTY) of long-lived fission products (LLFP) is an essential quantity and represents basic data for transmutation. In order to evaluate TTY on radioactive targets including LLFP, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. We demonstrate the method to deduce the TTY from inverse kinematics derived from the theoretical definition. This method is highly applicable in reactions at the energy per nucleon \\epsilon > 20 MeV/A as practically confirmed by the simulation of the SRIM2008 code. In this paper, we apply the method to the natCu(12C,X)24Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the 137Cs + 12C reaction to reduce 137Cs and to suggest a TTY measurement of the 137Cs induced reaction on a thick 12C target.

  5. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  6. Proton and $\\gamma$- partial widths of astrophysically important states of $^{30}$S studied by the $\\beta$-delayed decay of $^{31}$Ar

    Koldste, G T; Borge, M J G; Briz, J A; Carmona-Gallardo, M; Fraile, L M; Fynbo, H O U; Giovinazzo, J; Johansen, J G; Jokinen, A; Jonson, B; Kurturkian-Nieto, T; Kusk, J H; Nilsson, T; Perea, A; Pesudo, V; Picado, E; Riisager, K; Saastamoinen, A; Tengblad, O; Thomas, J -C; Van de Walle, J

    2013-01-01

    Resonances just above the proton threshold in $^{30}$S affect the $^{29}$P(p,$\\gamma$)$^{30}$S reaction under astrophysical conditions. The (p,$\\gamma$)-reaction rate is currently determined indirectly and depends on the properties of the relevant resonances. We present here a method for finding the ratio between the proton and $\\gamma$- partial widths of resonances in $^{30}$S. The widths are determined from the $\\beta$-2p and $\\beta$-p-$\\gamma$- decay of $^{31}$Ar, which is produced at ISOLDE, CERN. Experimental limits on the ratio between the proton and $\\gamma$- partial widths for astrophysical relevant levels in $^{30}$S have been found for the first time. A level at 4689.2(24)keV is identified in the $\\gamma$-spectrum, and an upper limit on the $\\Gamma_{p}/\\Gamma_{\\gamma}$ ratio of 0.26 (95% C.L.) is found. In the two-proton spectrum two levels at 5227(3)keV and 5847(4)keV are identified. These levels were previously seen to $\\gamma$-decay and upper limits on the $\\Gamma_{\\gamma}/\\Gamma_{p}$ ratio of 0....

  7. Angular Momentum Exchange Between Light and Material Media Deduced from the Doppler Shift

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves carry energy as well as linear and angular momenta. When a light pulse is reflected from, transmitted through, or absorbed by a material medium, energy and momentum (both linear and angular) are generally exchanged, while the total amount of each entity remains intact. The extent of such exchanges between light and matter can be deduced, among other methods, with the aid of the Doppler shift phenomenon. The main focus of the present paper is on the transfer of angular momentum from a monochromatic light pulse to spinning objects such as a mirror, an absorptive dielectric, or a birefringent plate. The fact that individual photons of frequency omega carry energy in the amount of h_bar*omega, where h_bar is Planck's reduced constant, enables one to relate the Doppler shift to the amount of energy exchanged. Under certain circumstances, the knowledge of exchanged energy leads directly to a determination of the momentum transferred from the photon to the material body, or vice versa.

  8. PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein mediates the interaction with NifA

    TU Ran; CUI Yanhua; CHEN Sanfeng; LI Jilun

    2006-01-01

    NifA in Azospirillum brasilense plays a key role in regulating the synthesis of nitrogenase in response to ammonia and oxygen available. Recently,our laboratory has identified four clones, whose gene prodcuts interact with NifA, from A. brasilense Sp7genomic libraries by using the yeast two-hybrid system with NifA as bait. We are interested in clone S35,one of the four clones, because it contains a PAS-domain coding region. The entire open reading frame (ORF) for the PAS domain-containing protein was isolated and designated as org35 here. org35gene is 2211-bp long and encodes a protein of 736aa with a predicted molecular weight of about 78.4 kD.The predicted amino acid sequence of org35 has similarity to some two-component sensor kinase/response regulator hybrids of bacteria. Structural analyses showed that Org35 comprises at least three discrete conserved domains: the N-terminal PAS, the central histidine protein kinase (HPK) and the C-terminal response regulator (RR). The PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein was found to interact directly with NifA, but the central HPK and the C-terminal RR domains of Org35 were not. These results indicated that interaction between NifA and Org35 was mediated by PAS domain.

  9. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase [LDHC4, LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27] has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC4 is as different from rodent LDHC4 (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA4 (76% homology) and porcine LDHB4 (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC4 and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC4 reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC4 sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine

  10. Function of longitudinal vs circular muscle fibers in esophageal peristalsis, deduced with mathematical modeling

    James G Brasseur; Mark A Nicosia; Anupam Pal; Larr S Miller

    2007-01-01

    We summarize from previous works the functions of circular vs. longitudinal muscle in esophageal peristaltic bolus transport using a mix of experimental data, the conservation laws of mechanics and mathematical modeling. Whereas circular muscle tone generates radial closure pressure to create a local peristaltic closure wave, longitudinal muscle tone has two functions, one physiological with mechanical implications, and one purely mechanical. Each of these functions independently reduces the tension of individual circular muscle fibers to maintain closure as a consequence of shortening of longitudinal muscle locally coordinated with increasing circular muscle tone. The physiological function is deduced by combining basic laws of mechanics with concurrent measurements of intraluminal pressure from manometry, and changes in cross sectional muscle area from endoluminal ultrasound from which local longitudinal shortening (LLS) can be accurately obtained. The purely mechanical function of LLS was discovered from mathematical modeling of peristaltic esophageal transport with the axial wall motion generated by LLS. Physiologically, LLS concentrates circular muscle fibers where closure pressure is highest.However, the mechanical function of LLS is to reduce the level of pressure required to maintain closure. The combined physiological and mechanical consequences of LLS are to reduce circular muscle fiber tension and power by as much as 1/10 what would be required for peristalsis without the longitudinal muscle layer, a tremendous benefit that may explain the existence of longitudinal muscle fiber in the gut. We also review what is understood of the role of longitudinal muscle in esophageal emptying, reflux and pathology.

  11. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Fallon, P; Clark, R; Delaplanque, M; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S

    2005-08-16

    The authors have deduced the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross-section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}'f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}'f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). The energies of the scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} to 131{sup o}.

  12. The Seismic risk perception in Italy deduced by a statistical sample

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Pessina, Vera; Peruzza, Laura; Cerbara, Loredana; Crescimbene, Cristiana

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 EGU Assembly we presented the results of a web a survey on the perception of seismic risk in Italy. The data were derived from over 8,500 questionnaires coming from all Italian regions. Our questionnaire was built by using the semantic differential method (Osgood et al. 1957) with a seven points Likert scale. The questionnaire is inspired the main theoretical approaches of risk perception (psychometric paradigm, cultural theory, etc.) .The results were promising and seem to clearly indicate an underestimation of seismic risk by the italian population. Based on these promising results, the DPC has funded our research for the second year. In 2015 EGU Assembly we present the results of a new survey deduced by an italian statistical sample. The importance of statistical significance at national scale was also suggested by ISTAT (Italian Statistic Institute), considering the study as of national interest, accepted the "project on the perception of seismic risk" as a pilot study inside the National Statistical System (SISTAN), encouraging our RU to proceed in this direction. The survey was conducted by a company specialised in population surveys using the CATI method (computer assisted telephone interview). Preliminary results will be discussed. The statistical support was provided by the research partner CNR-IRPPS. This research is funded by Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC).

  13. Rates of intra- and intermolecular electron transfers in hydrogenase deduced from steady-state activity measurements.

    Dementin, Sébastien; Burlat, Bénédicte; Fourmond, Vincent; Leroux, Fanny; Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Abou Hamdan, Abbas; Léger, Christophe; Rousset, Marc; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Bertrand, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Electrons are transferred over long distances along chains of FeS clusters in hydrogenases, mitochondrial complexes, and many other respiratory enzymes. It is usually presumed that electron transfer is fast in these systems, despite the fact that there has been no direct measurement of rates of FeS-to-FeS electron transfer in any respiratory enzyme. In this context, we propose and apply to NiFe hydrogenase an original strategy that consists of quantitatively interpreting the variations of steady-state activity that result from changing the nature of the FeS clusters which connect the active site to the redox partner, and/or the nature of the redox partner. Rates of intra- and intermolecular electron transfer are deduced from such large data sets. The mutation-induced variations of electron transfer rates cannot be explained by changes in intercenter distances and reduction potentials. This establishes that FeS-to-FeS rate constants are extremely sensitive to the nature and coordination of the centers. PMID:21615141

  14. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Y. Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  15. Deducing conformational variability of intrinsically disordered proteins from infrared spectroscopy with Bayesian statistics

    Highlights: • Deduce secondary structure content of intrinsically disordered proteins from IR spectra. • Bayesian analysis to infer conformations of disordered regions of proteins from IR. • Comparison of measured and calculated IR spectra to obtain thermodynamic weights. - Abstract: As it remains practically impossible to generate ergodic ensembles for large intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, it becomes critical to compare spectroscopic characteristics of the theoretically generated ensembles to corresponding measurements. We develop a Bayesian framework to infer the ensemble properties of an IDP using a combination of conformations generated by MD simulations and its measured infrared spectrum. We performed 100 different MD simulations totaling more than 10 μs to characterize the conformational ensemble of α-synuclein, a prototypical IDP, in water. These conformations are clustered based on solvent accessibility and helical content. We compute the amide-I band for these clusters and predict the thermodynamic weights of each cluster given the measured amide-I band. Bayesian analysis produces a reproducible and non-redundant set of thermodynamic weights for each cluster, which can then be used to calculate the ensemble properties. In a rigorous validation, these weights reproduce measured chemical shifts

  16. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Serial femtosecond X-ray (SFX) diffraction extending beyond 6 Å resolution using T. thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit crystals is reported. High-resolution ribosome structures determined by X-ray crystallography have provided important insights into the mechanism of translation. Such studies have thus far relied on large ribosome crystals kept at cryogenic temperatures to reduce radiation damage. Here, the application of serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain diffraction data from ribosome microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature is described. 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals diffracted to beyond 6 Å resolution, demonstrating the feasibility of using SFX for ribosome structural studies. The ability to collect diffraction data at near-physiological temperatures promises to provide fundamental insights into the structural dynamics of the ribosome and its functional complexes

  17. Factors and Effects of Self-Acknowledgment of Vocational Strength: An Empirical Analysis using the "Survey on the Working Style of Those in Their 30s" (Japanese)

    Honda, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how working people acknowledge their own vocational strength, using data from the "Survey on the Working Style of Those in Their 30s." Main findings are: 1) The acknowledged strengths can be classified into "skills/qualifications" and "communication/behavior"; 2) While both types of strength have been formed mostly within workplaces,"skills/qualifications" is more likely to be formed within educational institutions, especially in the case of women; 3) Men w...

  18. An evaluation of the 30-s chair stand test in older adults: frailty detection based on kinematic parameters from a single inertial unit

    Millor, Nora; Lecumberri, Pablo; Gómez, Marisol; Martínez-Ramírez, Alicia; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing interest in frailty syndrome exists because it is regarded as a major predictor of co-morbidities and mortality in older populations. Nevertheless, frailty assessment has been controversial, particularly when identifying this syndrome in a community setting. Performance tests such as the 30-second chair stand test (30-s CST) are a cornerstone for detecting early declines in functional independence. Additionally, recent advances in body-fixed sensors have enhanced the sens...

  19. Zonal currents in the F region deduced from Swarm constellation measurements

    Lühr, Hermann; Kervalishvili, Guram; Rauberg, Jan; Stolle, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Swarm constellation has been used to estimate zonal currents in the topside F region ionosphere at about 500 km. Near-simultaneous magnetic field measurements from two altitudes but the same meridian are used for the current density calculations. We consider the period 15 February to 23 June 2014 for deriving a full 24 h local time coverage of the latitudinal distribution over ±50° in magnetic latitude. Intervals with close orbital phasing at the two heights are considered, which repeat every 6 days. From such days seven successive orbits are used where the epochs of equator crossings differ by less than 2 min. Deduced current densities are predominantly eastward (about 20 nA/m2) on the dayside and westward (about 10 nA/m2) on the nightside. A number of different drivers contribute to the observed total current. We identified the gravity-driven eastward current as the most prominent at low latitudes. Eastward currents in the Northern Hemisphere are clearly stronger than in the south. This is attributed to the proximity of our study period to June solstice, when the solar radiation is stronger in the north. In addition, interhemispheric winds from the Northern (summer) to the Southern (winter) Hemisphere contribute. They cause eastward currents in the north and westward in the south. We find a relatively large variability of the zonal currents both in space and time. The standard deviation is at least twice as large as the mean value of current density. This large variability is suggested to be related to gravity wave forcing from below.

  20. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 104 to 4 x 105 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s27s 2S/sub 1/2/ and 6s26s 2P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194Tl. A large isomer shift in 193Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2- isomer than in the 1/2+ ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2- band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2- strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  1. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  2. Tropospheric CO vertical profiles deduced from total columns using data assimilation: methodology and validation

    L. El Amraoui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation of a method to derive the vertical profile of carbon monoxide (CO from its total column using data assimilation. The main motivation of this study is twofold. First, to deduce both the vertical CO profiles and the assimilated CO fields with good confidence. Second, for chemical species that can be measured only as the total column, this method provides an attractive alternative for estimating their vertical profiles in the troposphere. We choose version 3 (V3 of MOPITT CO total columns to validate the proposed method. MOPITT has the advantage of providing both the vertical profiles and the total columns of CO. Furthermore, this version has been extensively validated by comparison with many independent datasets, and has been used in many scientific studies. The first step of the paper consists in the specification of the observation errors based on the Chi-square (χ2 test. The observations have been binned according to day, night, land and sea (LAND_DAY, LAND_NIGHT and SEA, respectively. The respective optimal observation error values for which the χ2 metric is the closest to 1 are: 7%, 8% and 11% for SEA, LAND_DAY and LAND_NIGHT, respectively. In a second step, the CO total column, with its specified errors, is used within the assimilation system to estimate the vertical profiles. These are validated by comparison with vertical profiles of MOPITT V3 retrievals at global and regional scales. Generally, both datasets show similar patterns and good agreement at both global and regional scales. Nevertheless, the total column analyses (TOTCOL_ANALYSES slightly overestimate CO concentrations compared to MOPITT observations. In a third step, vertical profiles calculated from TOTCOL_ANALYSES have been compared to those calculated from the assimilation of MOPITT V3 vertical profiles (PROFILE_ANALYSES. Both datasets shows very good agreement, but TOTCOL_ANALYSES tend to slightly overestimate CO concentrations. The mean

  3. Active deformation processes of the Northern Caucasus deduced from the GPS observations

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Steblov, Grigory; Gabsatarov, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of three Northern Caucasian Republics of the Russian Federation: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and North Ossetia. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. This result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. The concept of such convergence implies that the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt is under compression, the layers of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are folded, the basement blocks are subject to shifts in various directions, and the upper crust layers are ruptured by reverse faults and thrusts. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. The deformation tensor deduced from the velocity field also exhibits the sub-meridional direction of the major compressional axes which coincides with the direction of

  4. Incorporation of single dinitrophenyl-modified proteins in to the 30S subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes by total reconstitution for localization by immune electron microscopy

    The ribosome is a structurally defined organelle whose function is central to the existence of all organisms. It is the unique site of protein biosynthesis in all cells. A detailed understanding of ribosome structure is essential in understanding the process of translation. This thesis represents a new approach to the systematic localization of individual proteins contained in the small subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes using immunoelectron microscopy. All 30S proteins were purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and eight isolated proteins (S12,S21,S14,S19,S18,S17,S16 and S13) were derivatized with 2,4-[3,5-3H]dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). The extent of modification of these proteins was estimated by both radioactivity and integrated peak areas, using dual wavelength monitoring at 214nm to detect protein and 360nm (to detect dinitrophenyl groups). Each dinitrophenylated protein was introduced in place of the corresponding unmodified protein into totally reconstituted 30S subunits. Antibodies raised against the DNP-hapten bound effectively to such reconstituted subunits and did not cause dissociation of the modified protein from the subunit. Electron microscopy of the immune complexes was used to localize the modified protein on the subunit surface. Incorporation of any of the DNP-modified proteins, with the exception of DNP-S18, does not interfere with the functionality of the ribosome as measure by the binding of Phe-tRNAPhe or the synthesis of poly(Phe) in a poly(U)-dependent manner. Results show that unmodified protein competes with DNP-protein and that DNP-protein can function, as its native counterpart, in stimulating uptake of specific proteins during reconstitution. This data provides evidence that each DNP-protein occupies the same position in 30S subunits as does the corresponding unmodified protein

  5. Hydrogen bonding and packing density are factors most strongly connected to limiting sites of high flexibility in the 16S rRNA in the 30S ribosome

    Ghosh Sujit K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformational flexibility in structured RNA frequently is critical to function. The 30S ribosomal subunit exists in different conformations in different functional states due to changes in the central part of the 16S rRNA. We are interested in evaluating the factors that might be responsible for restricting flexibility to specific parts of the 16S rRNA using biochemical data obtained from the 30S subunit in solution. This problem was approached taking advantage of the observation that there must be a high degree of conformational flexibility at sites where UV photocrosslinking occurs and a lack of flexibility inhibits photoreactivity at many other sites that are otherwise suitable for reaction. Results We used 30S x-ray structures to quantify the properties of the nucleotide pairs at UV- and UVA-s4U-induced photocrosslinking sites in 16S rRNA and compared these to the properties of many hundreds of additional sites that have suitable geometry but do not undergo photocrosslinking. Five factors that might affect RNA flexibility were investigated – RNA interactions with ribosomal proteins, interactions with Mg2+ ions, the presence of long-range A minor motif interactions, hydrogen bonding and the count of neighboring heavy atoms around the center of each nucleobase to estimate the neighbor packing density. The two factors that are very different in the unreactive inflexible pairs compared to the reactive ones are the average number of hydrogen bonds and the average value for the number of neighboring atoms. In both cases, these factors are greater for the unreactive nucleotide pairs at a statistically very significant level. Conclusion The greater extent of hydrogen bonding and neighbor atom density in the unreactive nucleotide pairs is consistent with reduced flexibility at a majority of the unreactive sites. The reactive photocrosslinking sites are clustered in the 30S subunit and this indicates nonuniform patterns of

  6. Using the Sub-Game Perfect Nash Equilibrium to Deduce the Effect of Government Subsidy on Consumption Rates and Prices

    Dr. Magdi Amer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments are interested in inducing positive habits and behaviors in its citizens and discouraging ones that are harmful to the individual or to the society. Taxation and legislation are usually used to discourage negative behaviors. Subsidy seems the politically correct way to encourage positive behaviors. In this paper, the Subgame Perfect Nash Equilibrium is used to deduce the effect of the government subsidy on the user consumption, prices and producer and distributor profits.

  7. Characterization of the optical constants and dispersion parameters of chalcogenide Te{sub 40}Se{sub 30}S{sub 30} thin film: thickness effect

    Abd-Elrahman, M.I.; Hafiz, M.M.; Qasem, Ammar; Abdel-Rahim, M.A. [Assiut University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut (Egypt)

    2016-02-15

    Chalcogenide Te{sub 40}Se{sub 30}S{sub 30} thin films of different thickness (100-450 nm) are prepared by thermal evaporation of the Te{sub 40}Se{sub 30}S{sub 30} bulk. X-ray examination of the film shows some prominent peaks relate to crystalline phases indicating the crystallization process. The calculated particles of crystals from the X-ray diffraction peaks are found to be from 11 to 26 nm. As the thickness increases, the transmittance decreases and the reflectance increases. This could be attributed to the increment of the absorption of photons as more states will be available for absorbance in the case of thicker films. The decrease in the direct band gap with thickness is accompanied with an increase in energy of localized states. The obtained data for the refractive index could be fit to the dispersion model based on the single oscillator equation. The single-oscillator energy decreases, while the dispersion energy increases as the thickness increases. (orig.)

  8. The antibiotic Furvina® targets the P-site of 30S ribosomal subunits and inhibits translation initiation displaying start codon bias.

    Fabbretti, Attilio; Brandi, Letizia; Petrelli, Dezemona; Pon, Cynthia L; Castañedo, Nilo R; Medina, Ricardo; Gualerzi, Claudio O

    2012-11-01

    Furvina®, also denominated G1 (MW 297), is a synthetic nitrovinylfuran [2-bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl)-furan] antibiotic with a broad antimicrobial spectrum. An ointment (Dermofural®) containing G1 as the only active principle is currently marketed in Cuba and successfully used to treat dermatological infections. Here we describe the molecular target and mechanism of action of G1 in bacteria and demonstrate that in vivo G1 preferentially inhibits protein synthesis over RNA, DNA and cell wall synthesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that G1 targets the small ribosomal subunit, binds at or near the P-decoding site and inhibits its function interfering with the ribosomal binding of fMet-tRNA during 30S initiation complex (IC) formation ultimately inhibiting translation. Notably, this G1 inhibition displays a bias for the nature (purine vs. pyrimidine) of the 3'-base of the codon, occurring efficiently only when the mRNA directing 30S IC formation and translation contains the canonical AUG initiation triplet or the rarely found AUA triplet, but hardly occurs when the mRNA start codon is either one of the non-canonical triplets AUU or AUC. This codon discrimination by G1 is reminiscent, though of opposite type of that displayed by IF3 in its fidelity function, and remarkably does not occur in the absence of this factor. PMID:22941660

  9. Physical and biochemical nature of the bacterial cytoplasm: movement and localization of mRNA and the 30S subunits of ribosomes.

    Trevors, J T

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on how mRNA transcripts in the spatially crowded, but molecularly organized bacterial cytoplasm contact the 30S ribosomal subunits. Does simple diffusion in the cytoplasm account for transcript-ribosome interactions given that a large number of ribosomes (e.g., about 72,000 in Escherichia coli during exponential growth) can be present in the cytoplasm? Or are undiscovered mechanisms present where specific transcripts are directed to specific ribosomes at specific cytoplasmic locations, while others are mobilized in a random manner? Moreover, is it possible that cytoplasmic mobilization occurs in bacteria, driven possibly by thermal infrared (IR) radiation and the generation of exclusion zone (EZ) water? These aspects will be discussed in this article and hypotheses presented. PMID:22710107

  10. A type of new conserved quantity deduced from Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in a holonomic system with unilateral constraints

    Han Yue-Lin; Sun Xian-Ting; Wang Xiao-Xiao; Zhang Mei-Ling; Jia Li-Qun

    2012-01-01

    A type of new conserved quantity deduced from Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in a holonomic system with unilateral constraints is investigated.Nielsen equations and differential equations of motion for the holonomic mechanical system with unilateral constraints are established.The definition and the criterion of Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in the holonomic systems with unilateral constraints under the infinitesimal transformations of Lie group are also given.The expressions of the structural equation and a type of new conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in the holonomic system with unilateral constraints are obtained.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  11. On the moment of inertia in deformed Ba-Xe nuclei as deduced from gamma-gamma energy correlation experiments

    The γ-rays following reactions induced by bombarding targets of 114,116,118,120,122Sn with 118 MeV 12C ions were investigated using six NaI(Tl) detectors in a two-dimensional coincidence arrangement. Experimental energy-correlation spectra were extracted from the original coincidence matrices. The energy-correlation spectra exhibit the features expected for rotational nuclei and were used to deduce information on the moment of inertia Isup((2)) = ΔI/Δω. The gross properties of the behaviour of Isup((2)) in the Ba-Xe region are discussed together with their interpretation within the cranked shell model (CSM). (orig.)

  12. Oscillatory electron phonon coupling in Pb/Si(111) deduced by temperature-dependent quantum well states

    Zhang Yan-Feng; Jia Jin-Feng; Han Tie-Zhu; Tang Zhe; Shen Quan-Tong; Guo Yang; Xue Qi-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Photoemission study of atomically flat Pb films with a thickness from 15 to 24 monolayers (ML) have been performed within a temperature range 75-270K. Well-defined quantum well states (QWSs) are observed, which exhibit interesting temperature-dependent behaviours. The peak position of the QWSs shifts towards higher binding energy with increasing substrate temperature, whereas the peak width broadens linearly due to enhanced electron-phonon coupling strength (λ). An oscillatory λ with a period of 2ML is deduced. Preliminary analysis shows that the oscillation can be explained in terms of the interface induced phase variations, and is thus a manifestation of the quantum size effects.

  13. Physical, meteorological, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 1991 (NODC Accession 9200024)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 1991....

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 01 January 1992 - 17 February 1993 (NODC Accession 9600019)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from January 1, 1992 to...

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 03 November 1992 - 05 December 1992 (NODC Accession 9600018)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from November 3, 1992 to...

  16. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 27 December 1980 - 26 June 1986 (NODC Accession 9400011)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from December 27, 1980 to June 26, 1986. Data were...

  17. Wind and temperature data from current meter in the TOGA - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS), 28 May 1994 to 21 March 1995 (NODC Accession 9800041)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and temperature data were collected using current meter in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from May 28, 1994 to March 21, 1995. Data were...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 16 April 1984 - 01 October 1985 (NODC Accession 8700147)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from April 16, 1984 to October 1, 1985. Data were...

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 01 May 1987 to 05 May 1987 (NODC Accession 9000211)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 01 May 1987 to 06 August 1988. Data were submitted...

  20. Mutations in the leader region of ribosomal RNA operons cause structurally defective 30 S ribosomes as revealed by in vivo structural probing.

    Balzer, M; Wagner, R

    1998-02-27

    The biogenesis of functional ribosomes is regulated in a very complex manner, involving different proteins and RNA molecules. RNAs are not only essential components of both ribosomal subunits but also transiently interacting factors during particle formation. In eukaryotes snoRNAs act as molecular chaperones to assist maturation, modification and assembly. In a very similar way highly conserved leader sequences of bacterial rRNA operons are involved in the correct formation of 30 S ribosomal subunits. Certain mutations in the rRNA leader region cause severe growth defects due to malfunction of ribosomes which are assembled from such transcription units. To understand how the leader sequences act to facilitate the formation of the correct 30 S subunits we performed in vivo chemical probing to assess structural differences between ribosomes assembled either from rRNA transcribed from wild-type operons or from operons which contain mutations in the rRNA leader region. Cells transformed with plasmids containing the respective rRNA operons were reacted with dimethylsulphate (DMS). Ribosomes were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation and modified nucleotides within the 16 S rRNA were identified by primer extension reaction. Structural differences between ribosomes from wild-type and mutant rRNA operons occur in several clusters within the 16 S rRNA secondary structure. The most prominent differences are located in the central domain including the universally conserved pseudoknot structure which connects the 5', the central and the 3' domain of 16 S rRNA. Two other clusters with structural differences fall in the 5' domain where the leader had been shown to interact with mature 16 S rRNA and within the ribosomal protein S4 binding site. The other differences in structure are located in sites which are also known as sites for the action of several antibiotics. The data explain the functional defects of ribosomes from rRNA operons with leader mutations and help to

  1. Nuevo esquema estratigráfico para los depósitos marinos mio-pliocenos del área de Navidad (33º00'-34º30'S, Chile central New stratigrafic scheme for the Mio-Pliocene marine deposits of the Navidad area (33º00'-34º30'S, central Chile

    Alfonso Encinas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Varios autores han propuesto diferentes esquemas estratigráficos para los depósitos sedimentarios neógenos marinos que afloran en la zona costera de Chile central entre Valparaíso (~33°00'S y Punta Topocalma (~34°30'S, sin que exista un consenso al respecto. Tampoco existe acuerdo respecto a las correlaciones entre los depósitos que afloran en la parte norte de dicha zona, entre Valparaíso y San Antonio (~33°30'S con aquellos que aparecen en la parte sur, entre San Antonio y Punta Topocalma. Sobre la base de nuevos estudios estratigráficos, sedimentológicos y paleontológicos se propone, de manera formal, un nuevo esquema estratigráfico para estos depósitos. De acuerdo con este nuevo esquema se definen la Formación Navidad (Mioceno Superior-Plioceno Inferior y las formaciones Licancheu, Rapel y La Cueva (Plioceno. Se propone la elevación de las tres primeras unidades (Navidad, Licancheu y Rapel, generalmente consideradas como miembros en clasificaciones anteriores, al rango de formaciones debido a que se encuentran separadas por discontinuidades (paraconformidades de escala regional. En el presente trabajo se definen estas unidades, se revisan los esquemas anteriores y se justifica la proposición de este nuevo esquemaDifferent stratigraphic schemes have been proposed by various authors for the Neogene marine sedimentary deposits cropping out along the central Chilean coast between Valparaíso (~33°00'S and Punta Topocalma (~34°30'S, without any consensus having been reached. Neither does any agreement exist with respect to the correlation between the deposits cropping out in the northern part of this area, between San Antonio (~33°30'S and Valparaíso, and those of the southern part, between San Antonio and Punta Topocalma. Based on new stratigraphic, sedimentologic and paleontologic studies we propose a formal, new stratigraphic classification for this area. According to this scheme we define the Navidad Formation (Upper

  2. Identification of the oligonucleotide and oligopeptide involved in an RNA-protein crosslink induced by ultraviolet irradiation of Escherichia coli 30 S ribosomal subunits

    When 30 S ribosomal subunits are irradiated with ultraviolet light, it has been found that an RNA-protein crosslinking reaction occurs whose primary target is protein S7. This paper describes the identification of the oligopeptide and oligonucleotide at the crosslinking point, by direct analysis (a) of the peptide remaining attached to an oligonucleotide (after total digestion of the RNA in the crosslinked complex with ribonucleases A and Tperpendicular, followed by digestion with trypsin), and (b) of the nucleotides remaining attached to the crosslinked protein (after digestion of the RNA in the complex with ribonuclease Tperpendicular alone). The crosslinking site was found to lie within a single short peptide, Ser-Met-Ala-Leu-Arg (positions 113 to 117 in the S7 sequence), with methionine as the probable amino acid concerned. The principal RNA site was found to lie within an oligonucleotide three to six bases long, the bracketed portion of the partially ordered sequence C-U-A-C-[A-A-U-G.G.C]-G in section P of the 16 S RNA. The methodology involved has been designed with a view to being generally applicable in future RNA-protein crosslinking studies, where several proteins are simultaneously attached to the RNA. (author)

  3. 30S Subunit-Dependent Activation of the Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 Aminoglycoside Resistance-Conferring 16S rRNA Methyltransferase Kmr

    Savic, Miloje; Sunita, S.; Zelinskaya, Natalia; Desai, Pooja M.; Macmaster, Rachel; Vinal, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of bacterial 16S rRNA within the ribosomal decoding center confers exceptionally high resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. This resistance mechanism is exploited by aminoglycoside producers for self-protection while functionally equivalent methyltransferases have been acquired by human and animal pathogenic bacteria. Here, we report structural and functional analyses of the Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 aminoglycoside resistance-conferring methyltransferase Kmr. Our results demonstrate that Kmr is a 16S rRNA methyltransferase acting at residue A1408 to confer a canonical aminoglycoside resistance spectrum in Escherichia coli. Kmr possesses a class I methyltransferase core fold but with dramatic differences in the regions which augment this structure to confer substrate specificity in functionally related enzymes. Most strikingly, the region linking core β-strands 6 and 7, which forms part of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding pocket and contributes to base flipping by the m1A1408 methyltransferase NpmA, is disordered in Kmr, correlating with an exceptionally weak affinity for SAM. Kmr is unexpectedly insensitive to substitutions of residues critical for activity of other 16S rRNA (A1408) methyltransferases and also to the effects of by-product inhibition by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). Collectively, our results indicate that adoption of a catalytically competent Kmr conformation and binding of the obligatory cosubstrate SAM must be induced by interaction with the 30S subunit substrate. PMID:25733511

  4. Lithium- and boron-bearing brines in the Central Andes: exploring hydrofacies on the eastern Puna plateau between 23° and 23°30'S

    Steinmetz, R. L. López

    2016-04-01

    Internally drained basins of the Andean Plateau are lithium- and boron-bearing systems. The exploration of ionic facies and parental links in a playa lake located in the eastern Puna (23°-23°30'S) was assessed by hydrochemical determinations of residual brines, feed waters and solutions from weathered rocks. Residual brines have been characterized by the Cl- (SO4 =)/Na+ (K+) ratio. Residual brines from the playa lake contain up to 450 mg/l of boron and up to 125 mg/l of lithium, and the Las Burras River supplies the most concentrated boron (20 mg/l) and lithium (3.75 mg/l) inflows of the basin. The hydro-geochemical assessment allowed for the identification of three simultaneous sources of boron: (1) inflow originating from granitic areas of the Aguilar and Tusaquillas ranges; (2) weathering of the Ordovician basement; and (3) boron-rich water from the Las Burras River. Most of the lithium input of the basin is likely generated by present geothermal sources rather than by weathering and leaching of ignimbrites and plutonic rocks. However, XRD analyses of playa lake sediments revealed the presence of lithian micas of clastic origin, including taeniolite and eucriptite. This study is the first to document these rare Li-micas from the Puna basin. Thus, both residual brines and lithian micas contribute to the total Li content in the studied hydrologic system.

  5. The level of non-thermal velocity fluctuations deduced from Doppler spectroscopy and its role on TJ-II confinement

    Zurro, B

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to study, in the line of previous works, the level of velocity fluctuations in different scenarios of the TJ-II stellarator. The method followed consists in measuring the apparent Doppler temperature of C4+ and protons with high spectral resolution techniques with spatial resolution. The level of turbulent velocities in the plasma has been deduced from the difference observed between the apparent temperature of both species, following a method previously presented and borrowed from astrophysics. The study of this difference, as a function of plasma density and injected power, provides a way to explore if this turbulence plays any role in the confinement of the hot TJ-II plasma.

  6. Deduced soft-rotator model Hamiltonian parameters and collective properties of medium-to-heavy even-even nuclei

    The soft-rotator model Hamiltonian parameters were deduced for 63 even-even medium and heavy nuclei in a mass range 56 ≤ A ≤ 238. We obtained those values by the combination of the low-lying level structure and the coupled-channels proton scattering analyses. It was found that the values of the effective quadrupole and octupole deformations obtained were consistent with those derived from experimental data. Besides, the equilibrium ground-state quadrupole deformation parameters were also in reasonable accord with the theoretical mass-models results for deformed heavy nuclei. In this report, we present a complete set of the Hamiltonian parameters for each nucleus. The obtained values of the parameters often varied with the constituent neutron and/or proton numbers anomalously. On the other hand, some clear systematic trends were seen among the major Hamiltonian parameters. (author)

  7. Problems of impurities deducing from multicomponent media at thermal heating, ionization and rotation of plasma in crossed fields

    The possibility of multicomponent mixtures separation at thermal heating, ionization and plasma rotation in relation to the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is shown. At thermal heating it is possible to allocate up to 75% of impurities of fission products (FP), after which the SNF contains oxides of zirconium, niobium and lanthanides. At the stage of ionization it is impossible to deduce the lanthanide oxides, but it is possible to remove partially the oxides of zirconium and niobium. Further removal of impurities will occur in rotated plasma. Under certain conditions heavy ions will get to lateral surface of vacuum chamber, and the light ones will move along the magnetic field lines and precipitate on the collector. The molecular plasma has energy cost to excitation of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, dissociation. As simulation media it is advisable to use non-radioactive isotopes of spent nuclear fuel oxides

  8. Structural and functional characterization of hBD-1(Ser35), a peptide deduced from a DEFB1 polymorphism.

    Circo, Raffaella; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Gennaro, Renato; Amoroso, Antonio; Zanetti, Margherita

    2002-04-26

    beta-Defensins are mammalian antimicrobial peptides that share a unique disulfide-bonding motif of six conserved cysteines. An intragenic polymorphism of the DEFB1 gene that changes a highly conserved Cys to Ser in the peptide coding region has recently been described. The deduced peptide cannot form three disulfide bonds, as one of the cysteines is unpaired. We have determined the cysteine connectivities of a corresponding synthetic hBD-1(Ser35) peptide, investigated the structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, and assayed the in vitro antimicrobial activity. Despite a different arrangement of the disulfides, hBD-1(Ser35) proved as active as hBD-1 against the microorganisms tested. This activity likely depends on the ability of hBD-1(Ser35) to adopt an amphipathic conformation in hydrophobic environment, similar to the wild type peptide, as suggested by CD spectroscopy. PMID:12054642

  9. On the $\\lambda$ energy dependence deduced from BEC of $\\pi\\pi$ pairs produced in $pp$ collisions

    Alexander, G

    2016-01-01

    The $\\sqrt{s_{pp}}$ behavior of the chaoticity parameter $\\lambda$, derived from Bose - Einstein Correlations (BEC) of pion-pairs produced in $pp$ collisions, is investigated. Considered are the one and three dimensions (1D, 3D) of the BEC analyzed in terms of a Gaussian and/or Exponential distributions. A marked difference is observed between the $\\lambda$ dependence on energy in the 1D and the 3D analyzes. The experimental data are examined in terms of the relation between the pion cluster of sources and the BEC dimension R which in turn are deduced from the charged outgoing particle multiplicity. While in this approach the general decrease with energy of the 1D $\\lambda$ is accounted for it fails to represent the few 3D $\\lambda$ data which are seen to remain constant with energy above $\\sim$200 GeV.

  10. Use of activity measurements in the plume from Chernobyl to deduce fuel state before, during and after the accident

    Work performed at Berkely Nuclear Laboratories both prior to the meeting in Vienna at which USSR gave full details of the Chernobyl accident and after that meeting is recorded. Plume data from Western Europe were used to deduce the likely damage to the fuel and its previous irradiation history. The note concludes that the source to the environment consisted of an initial dispersion of fuel particulate followed by a prolonged release at a lower rate, the total release being some 3% of the core inventory of fuel. Early and late in the release period it was enhanced in volatile species. Damage to the fuel was thus due both to mechanical disruption and to high temperatures. During the early dispersive event high temperatures (probably approaching fuel melting) were reached in some of the core, though the proportion of the fuel affected may have been small. (UK)

  11. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the LewisX antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    1H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-α-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-β-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)[3-O-α-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, 13C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The 1H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The13C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the1H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS2. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data

  12. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)

    1997-07-15

    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Efeito da intensidade do exercício de corrida intermitente 30s:15s no tempo de manutenção no ou próximo do VO2max Effect of intensity of intermittent running exercise 30s:15s at the time maintenance at or near VO2max

    Rafael Alves de Aguiar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo comparou o tempo mantido acima de 90% (t90VO2max e de 95% VO2max (t95VO2max em três diferentes intensidades de exercício. Após a realização de um teste incremental para determinar o VO2max, oito estudantes de educação física ativos (23 ± 3 anos executaram três sessões de exercícios intermitentes (100, 110 e 120% da velocidade do VO2max (vVO2max com razão esforço:recuperação de 30s:15s. O t95VO2max foi significantemente maior em 110%vVO2max (EI110% (218,1 ± 81,6 s quando comparado a 100%vVO2max (EI100% (91,9 ± 75,2s e a 120%vVO2max (EI120% (126,3 ± 29,4 s, porém sem diferença entre EI100% e EI120%. O t90VO2max somente apresentou diferença significante entre EI110% e EI120%. Portanto, conclui-se que durante exercício intermitente com razão 30s:15s, a intensidade de 110%vVO2max apresenta-se mais adequada para manter o VO2 próximo ou no VO2max por um tempo maior.The present study compared the time maintained above 90% (t90VO2max or 95% VO2max (t95VO2max in three different exercise intensities. After performing an incremental test to determine VO2max, eight physical education active students (23 ± 3 years performed three intermittent exercise sessions (100, 110 e 120% velocity of VO2max (vVO2max with ratio effort:recovery of 30s:15s. The t95%VO2max was significantly higher at 110%vVO2max (EI110% (218.1 ± 81.6s compared to 100% vVO2max (EI100% (91.9 ± 75.2s and 120%vVO2max (EI120% (126.3 ± 29.4s, but without differences between EI100% and EI120%. The t90%vVO2max was significantly different only between EI110% and 120%. Therefore, we conclude that during intermittent exercise with ratio 30s:15s, the intensity of 110%vVO2max appears more appropriate to maintain VO2max for a longer time.

  14. cDNA, deduced polypeptide structure and chromosomal assignment of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid, SPL(pVal)

    In hyaline membrane disease of premature infants, lack of surfactant leads to pulmonary atelectasis and respiratory distress. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins of M/sub r/ = 5000-14,000 have been isolated from mammalian surfactants which enhance the rate of spreading and the surface tension lowering properties of phospholipids during dynamic compression. The authors have characterized the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of pulmonary proteolipids from ether/ethanol extracts of bovine, canine, and human surfactant. Two distinct peptides were identified and termed SPL(pVal) and SPL(Phe). An oligonucleotide probe based on the valine-rich amino-terminal amino acid sequence of SPL(pVal) was utilized to isolate cDNA and genomic DNA encoding the human protein, termed surfactant proteolipid SPL(pVal) on the basis of its unique polyvaline domain. The primary structure of a precursor protein of 20,870 daltons, containing the SPL(pVal) peptide, was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs. Hybrid-arrested translation and immunoprecipitation of labeled translation products of human mRNA demonstrated a precursor protein, the active hydrophobic peptide being produced by proteolytic processing. Two classes of cDNAs encoding SPL(pVal) were identified. Human SPL(pVal) mRNA was more abundant in the adult than in fetal lung. The SPL(pVal) gene locus was assigned to chromosome 8

  15. A blind trial evaluation of a crime scene methodology for deducing impact velocity and droplet size from circular bloodstains.

    Hulse-Smith, Lee; Illes, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, mechanical engineering models were utilized to deduce impact velocity and droplet volume of circular bloodstains by measuring stain diameter and counting spines radiating from their outer edge. A blind trial study was subsequently undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of this technique, using an applied, crime scene methodology. Calculations from bloodstains produced on paper, drywall, and wood were used to derive surface-specific equations to predict 39 unknown mock crime scene bloodstains created over a range of impact velocities (2.2-5.7 m/sec) and droplet volumes (12-45 microL). Strong correlations were found between expected and observed results, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.83 and 0.99. The 95% confidence limit associated with predictions of impact velocity and droplet volume was calculated for paper (0.28 m/sec, 1.7 microL), drywall (0.37 m/sec, 1.7 microL), and wood (0.65 m/sec, 5.2 microL). PMID:17209911

  16. Comparison of the chromosomal localization of murine and human glucocerebrosidase genes and of the deduced amino acid sequences

    To study structure-function relationships and molecular evolution, the authors determined the nucleotide sequence and chromosomal location of the gene encoding murine glucocerebrosidase. In the protein coding region of the murine cDNA, the nucleotide sequence and the corresponding deduced amino acid sequences were 82% and 86% identical to the respective humans sequences. All five amino acids presently known to be essential for normal enzymatic activity were conserved between mouse and man. The murine enzyme had a single deletion relative to the human enzyme at amino acid number 273. One ATG translation initiation signal was present in the mouse sequence in contrast to the human sequence, where two start codons have been reported. Nucleotide sequencing of a clone derived from murine genomic DNA revealed that the murine signal for translation initiation was located in exon 2. The locations of all 10 introns were conserved among mouse and man. They mapped the genetic locus for glucocerebrosidase to mouse chromosome 3, at a position 7.6 ± 3.2 centimorgans from the locus for the β subunit of nerve growth factor. Comparison of linkage relationships in the human and murine genome indicates that these closely linked mouse genes are also syntenic on human chromosome 1 but in positions that span the centromere

  17. Deducing receptor signaling parameters from in vivo analysis: LuxN/AI-1 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi

    Swem, Lee R.; Swem, Danielle L.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Quorum sensing, a process of bacterial cell-cell communication, relies on production, detection, and response to autoinducer signaling molecules. Here we focus on LuxN, a nine transmembrane domain protein from Vibrio harveyi, and the founding example of membrane-bound receptors for acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducers. Previously, nothing was known about signal recognition by membrane-bound AHL receptors. We used mutagenesis and suppressor analyses to identify the AHL-binding domain of LuxN, and discovered LuxN mutants that confer decreased and increased AHL sensitivity. Our analysis of dose-response curves of multiple LuxN mutants pins these inverse phenotypes on quantifiable opposing shifts in the free-energy bias of LuxN for its kinase and phosphatase states. To extract signaling parameters, we exploited a strong LuxN antagonist, one of fifteen small-molecule antagonists we identified. We find that quorum-sensing-mediated communication can be manipulated positively and negatively to control bacterial behavior, and that signaling parameters can be deduced from in vivo data. PMID:18692469

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 24 May 1988 to 26 May 1989 (NODC Accession 9100207)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 24 May 1988 to 26 May 1989. Data were submitted by...

  19. Utilization of metabonomics to identify serum biomarkers in murine H22 hepatocarcinoma and deduce antitumor mechanism of Rhizoma Paridis saponins.

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Yang, He; Fan, Wei; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-08-25

    Murine H22 hepatocarcinoma model is so popular to be used for the preclinical anticancer candidate's evaluation. However, the metabolic biomarkers of this model were not identified. Meanwhile, Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) as natural products have been found to show strong antitumor activity, while its anti-cancer mechanism is not clear. To search for potential metabolite biomarkers of this model, serum metabonomics approach was applied to detect the variation of metabolite biomarkers and the related metabolism genes and signaling pathway were used to deduce the antitumor mechanisms of RPS. As a result, ten serum metabolites were identified in twenty-four mice including healthy mice, non-treated cancer mice, RPS-treated cancer mice and RPS-treated healthy mice. RPS significantly decreased tumor weight correlates to down-regulating lactate, acetate, N-acetyl amino acid and glutamine signals (p p53 and PTEN, and suppressed FASN to inhibit lipogenesis. What's more, RPS repressed Myc and GLS expression and decreased glutamine level. The regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and HIF-1α/Myc/Ras networks also participated in these metabolic changes. Taken together, RPS suppressed ATP product made the tumor growth slow, which indicated a good anti-cancer effect and new angle for understanding the mechanism of RPS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the utility of (1)H NMR metabolic profiles taken together with tumor weight and viscera index was a promising screening tool for evaluating the antitumor effect of candidates. In addition, RPS was a potent anticancer agent through inhibiting cancer cellular metabolism to suppress proliferation in hepatoma H22 tumor murine, which promoted the application of RPS in the future. PMID:27369806

  20. Vertical ozone distribution characteristics deduced from 44,000 re-evaluated Umkehr profiles (1957-2000)

    Bojkov, R. D.; Kosmidis, E.; DeLuisi, J. J.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Godin, S.; Zerefos, C.

    maximum. The deduced trends above 33km confirm a strong ozone decline since the mid-1970s of over 5% per decade without significant seasonal differences. In the mid-latitude stations, the decline in the 15-24km layer is nearly twice as strong in the winter-spring season but much smaller in the summer and fall. The effect of including 1998 and 1999 years with relatively high total ozone data reduces the overall-declining trend. The trends estimated from alg-99 retrievals are statistically not significantly different from those in WMO 1998a; however, they are stronger by about 1% per decade in the lower stratosphere and thus closer to the estimates by sondes. Comparisons of the integrated ozone loss from the Umkehr measurements with the total ozone changes for the same periods at stations with good records show complete concurrence. The altitude and latitude appearances of the long-term geophysical signals like solar (1-2%) and QBO (2-7%) are investigated.

  1. Modelling Al-4wt.%Cu as-cast structure using equiaxed morphological parameters deduced from in-situ synchrotron X-ray radiography

    Ahmadein, M.; Wu, M.; Reinhart, G.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Ludwig, A.

    2016-03-01

    The as-cast structure of laboratory scale Al-4wt.%Cu was numerically calculated using assumed morphological parameters. Two parameters are identified: The shape factor which correlates the growth velocity of dendrite envelope to that of the tip; and the sphericity of the equiaxed envelope or the circularity of the columnar trunk envelope which is required to calculate the averaged species diffusion flux across the envelope. In the present work, the real-time radiographs of equiaxed solidification experiment carried out on Al-4wt.%Cu at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility are used to track the development of crystal envelope with time. The growth rate of the equivalent circular envelope was correlated to dendrite tip growth velocity to deduce the shape factor. The sphericity of dendrite envelope is estimated over the time. The average of the deduced morphological parameters is applied to the model to predict the as-cast structure. The results were compared to those obtained by using morphological parameters from literature. The predicted phase quantities, columnar-to- equiaxed transition, and macrosegregation exhibited significant dependence on those parameters. The predicted macrosegregation using the experimentally deduced parameters fits better to the measurements.

  2. Primary structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) ascorbate oxidase deduced from cDNA sequence: homology with blue copper proteins and tissue-specific expression.

    Ohkawa, J; Okada, N; Shinmyo, A; Takano, M.

    1989-01-01

    cDNA clones for ascorbate oxidase were isolated from a cDNA library made from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit mRNA. The library was screened with synthetic oligonucleotides that encode the NH2-terminal sequence of this enzyme. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA inserts revealed a 1761-base-pair open reading frame that encoded an NH2-terminal signal peptide of 33 amino acids and a mature enzyme of 554 amino acids (Mr, 62,258). The amino acid sequence deduced from nucleotide seque...

  3. Concentrations of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide in the free upper troposphere and lower stratosphere deduced from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 infrared solar occultation spectra

    Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the volume mixing ratio profiles of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide, deduced from the spectroscopic analysis of IR solar absorption spectra obtained in the occultation mode with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during its mission aboard Spacelab 3. A comparison of the ATMOS measurements for both northern and southern latitudes with previous field investigations at low midlatitudes shows a relatively good agreement. Southern Hemisphere volume mixing ratio profiles for both molecules were obtained for the first time, as were the profiles for the Northern Hemisphere covering the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere simultaneously.

  4. Nucleotide sequence of Phaseolus vulgaris L. alcohol dehydrogenase encoding cDNA and three-dimensional structure prediction of the deduced protein

    Amelia, Kassim; Khor, Chin Yin; Shah, Farida Habib; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken. Objective: The objective of this study was to elucidate P. vulgaris L. AD (PvAD) gene cDNA sequence and to predict the three-dimensional (3D) structure of deduced protein. Materials and Methods: positive and negative strands of the PvAD cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and M13 reverse primers to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. Deduced PvAD cDNA and protein sequence was analyzed for their basic features using online bioinformatics tools. Sequence comparison was carried out using bl2seq program, and tree-view program was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The secondary structures and 3D structure of PvAD protein were predicted by using the PHYRE automatic fold recognition server. Results: The sequencing results analysis showed that PvAD cDNA is 1294 bp in length. It's open reading frame encodes for a protein that contains 371 amino acids. Deduced protein sequence analysis showed the presence of putative substrate binding, catalytic Zn binding, and NAD binding sites. Results indicate that the predicted 3D structure of PvAD protein is analogous to the experimentally determined crystal structure of s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from an Arabidopsis species. Conclusions: The 1294 bp long PvAD cDNA encodes for 371 amino acid long protein that contains conserved domains required for biological functions of AD. The predicted deduced PvAD protein's 3D structure reflects the analogy with the crystal structure of

  5. Meeting Quay 2k30's requirements

    Wijnants, G.H.; Toorn, A. van der; Schuylenburg, M.; Heijnen, H.P.J.; Gijt, J.G. de; Molenaar, W.F.; Ligteringen, H.; Krom, A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The requirements that a quay design should meet in order to yield a viable port infrastructure, vary widely from flexibility due to future customers requirements to durability due to owners requirements. In a Port of Rotterdam backed project, current and future requirements have been aggregated by c

  6. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems

    Kunio Kawamura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  7. Tomographic analysis of data from the JET neutron profile monitor to deduce the 2-D spatial and temporal evolution of neutron emissivity

    Measurements from the JET neutron profile monitor are analyzed tomographically to deduce the two-dimensional spatial distribution of neutron emissivity and its temporal evolution. The most dramatic change in the emissivity profile is produced by a sawtooth crash. The profiles before and after a sawtooth crash are determined and changes in their characteristics, such as width and amplitude, are compared to those deduced from other diagnostics, including soft X-rays, electron density interferometers and electron cyclotron emission. The drop in the central neutron emissivity can be much larger than that obtained from the integrated global neutron emission, and hollow emissivity profiles are produced. The observed inversion radius is the same on neutron, soft X-ray, and electron temperature profiles. This hollow profile can be understood by observations of the soft X-ray emissivity on the fastest time-scale. A major theme of this paper is that much more information and understanding can be gained if several diagnostics are used together, with their different resolutions, time-scales and physical properties measured. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  8. Atmospheric CO2 variations over the last three glacial-interglacial climatic cycles deduced from the Dome Fuji deep ice core, Antarctica using a wet extraction technique

    A deep ice core drilled at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica was analyzed for the CO2 concentration using a wet extraction method in order to reconstruct its atmospheric variations over the past 320 kyr, which includes three full glacial-interglacial climatic cycles, with a mean time resolution of about 1.1 kyr. The CO2 concentration values derived for the past 65 kyr are very close to those obtained from other Antarctic ice cores using dry extraction methods, although the wet extraction method is generally thought to be inappropriate for the determination of the CO2 concentration. The comparison between the CO2 and Ca2+ concentrations deduced from the Dome Fuji core suggests that calcium carbonate emitted from lands was mostly neutralized in the atmosphere before reaching the central part of Antarctica, or that only a small part of calcium carbonate was involved in CO2 production during the wet extraction process. The CO2 concentration for the past 320 kyr deduced from the Dome Fuji core varies between 190 and 300 ppmv, showing clear glacial-interglacial variations similar to the result of the Vostok ice core. However, for some periods, the concentration values of the Dome Fuji core are higher by up to 20 ppmv than those of the Vostok core. There is no clear indication that such differences are related to variations of chemical components of Ca2+, microparticle and acidity of the Dome Fuji core

  9. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach

    Kenji Ikehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  10. Temperature profile and other data collected using moored buoy in the Pacific Ocean (30-N to 30-S) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project from 06 November 1977 to 24 March 1978 (NODC Accession 8200053)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Air pressure, current, wind and temperature time series data were collected from moored buoys from TOGA Area in Pacific (30 N to 30 S). Buoy data from the...

  11. Current meter components and other data from fixed platforms from TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) and the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) projects from 16 April 1989 to 14 May 1990 (NODC Accession 9200266)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from fixed platforms from the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) and other locations from 16 April 1989 to 14 May 1990....

  12. On the possibility of determining the radial profile of hydrogen isotope composition of JET plasmas, and of deducing radial transport of the isotope ions

    Measurements of internal hydrogen isotopic composition of plasmas in JET and elsewhere have been lacking. In this report we show that it is feasible to determine the profile of relative hydrogen isotope density, using a neutral particle analyzer. Using detailed modeling of the formation of atomic flux and its measurement, we have quantified sensitivity of the deduced plasma composition to uncertainty of plasma parameters that impact on the measurement. We have tested application of the proposed methodology by experimentally determining the perturbed deuteron density profile in a hydrogen plasma, when the deuteron density at the plasma edge was modulated using a short pulse of deuterium gas. We have also determined the deuteron density diffusivity. The determinations are very crude at present; however this exercise is intended to enable us to design better experiments to determine plasma isotopic composition and the radial isotope ion diffusivities. (author)

  13. Population structure, distribution and abundance patterns of the patagonian smoothhound Mustelus schmitti Springer, 1939 (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii, Triakidae in the rio de La Plata and inner continental shelf , sw Atlantic ocean (34º30'-39º30'S

    María Cristina Oddone

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 4824 Mustelus schmitti was sampled. Females ranged from 25 to 93 cm in spring and from 28 to 90 cm in summer. Males ranged from 34 to 82 and from 28 to 77 cm, respectively. Length composition of the population showed significant differences between spring and summer being females larger than males. Total length distribution did not show significant differences between cruises. Males density varied significantly between cruises while for the females no significant variation was observed. In the spring cruise, both sexes occurred at depths lower than 50 m. Females occurred in the whole area with adult occurrence only above 35°30'S. Mature males occurred throughout the area, immature males occurring in two trawls in Samborombón Bay. The summer cruise showed a discontinuous distribution of the species along the study area resulting in spatial segregation in two groups with immature females predominating in both of them.Um total de 4824 Mustelus schmitti foi amostrado. As fêmeas apresentaram comprimento total de 25-93 cm na primavera e 28-90 cm no verão enquanto os machos apresentaram 34-82 e de 28-77 cm, respectivamente. A composição de comprimentos da população mostrou diferenças significativas entre primavera e verão sendo as fêmeas maiores do que os machos. A distribuição de comprimento total não variou significativamente entre cruzeiros. A densidade variou significativamente entre cruzeiros nos machos sendo que a variação não foi expressiva nas fêmeas. No cruzeiro da primavera, ambos os sexos ocorreram em profundidades menores do que 50 m, as fêmeas ocorrendo em toda a área de estudo, as adultas somente acima da latitude 35°30'S. Os machos adultos foram observados em toda a área sendo que os imaturos somente em dois arrastos na Bahia de Samborombón. O cruzeiro de verão mostrou uma distribuição descontínua da espécie ao longo da área de estudo, resultando na segregação espacial em dois grupos, com

  14. Deducibility of the standard model

    Full text: The standard model of High Energy Physics is derived from basic mathematical principles with no auxiliary bundles. Why do geometric images such like Solomon's Seal play a role in HEPhy? The reason for the appearance of the eightfold path is in the structure of higher dimensional Clifford algebras such as Cl(3,1). The spinors of fermions can be derived as polarized isotropic multivectors within the Clifford algebra of the Minkowski spacetime. We just assume that each spinor Clifford multiplied with its grade inverse s-hat constitutes that primitive idempotent f = ss-hat in Cl(3,1) in the minimal left ideal of which it is located, that is, we have s in fxCxCl(3,1). Then we obtain all spinors and their densities. The list of fermions is complete. The spinors presented obey the symmetries of the forces of nature. They do not rely on the addition of any auxiliary bundle. (author)

  15. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Martins Juliana R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110 diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp, a target of juvenile hormone (JH. The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body

  16. Primary structure of human corticosteroid binding globulin, deduced from hepatic and pulmonary cDNAs, exhibits homology with serine protease inhibitors

    The authors have isolated and sequenced cDNAs for corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) prepared from human liver and lung mRNAs. The results indicate that CBG mRNA is relatively abundant in the liver but is also present in the lung, testis, and kidney. The liver CBG cDNA contains an open reading frame for a 405-amino acid (M/sub r/ 45,149) polypeptide. This includes a predominantly hydrophobic, leader sequence of 22 residues that precedes the known NH2-terminal sequence of human CBG. We, therefore, predict that the mature protein is composed of 383 amino acids and is a polypeptide of M/sub r/ 42,646. A second, in-frame, 72-base-pair cistron of unknown significance exists between the TAA termination codon for CBG and a possible polyadenylylation signal (AATAAA) located 16 nucleotides before the polyadenylylation site. The deduced amino acid sequence of mature CBG contains two cysteine residues and consensus sequences for the attachment of six possible N-linked oligosaccharide chains. The sequences of the human lung and liver CBG cDNAs differ by only one nucleotide within the proposed leader sequence,and they attribute this to a point mutation. No sequence homology was found between CBG and other steroid binding proteins, but there is a remarkable similarity between the amino acid sequences of CBG and of α1-antitrypsin, and this extends to other members of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) superfamily

  17. Low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance in Mo98 and Mo100 deduced from photon-scattering experiments

    Rusev, G.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Kosev, K.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.; Bečvář, F.; Krtička, M.

    2008-06-01

    Dipole-strength distributions in the nuclides Mo98 and Mo100 up to the neutron-separation energies have been studied in photon-scattering experiments at the bremsstrahlung facility of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. To determine the dipole-strength distributions up to the neutron-emission thresholds, statistical methods were developed for the analysis of the measured spectra. The measured spectra of scattered photons were corrected for detector response and atomic background by simulations using the code GEANT3. Simulations of γ-ray cascades were performed to correct the intensities of the transitions to the ground state for feeding from higher-lying levels and to determine their branching ratios. The photoabsorption cross sections obtained for Mo98 and Mo100 from the present (γ,γ') experiments are combined with (γ,n) data from literature, resulting in a photoabsorption cross section covering the range from 4 to about 15 MeV of interest for network calculations in nuclear astrophysics. Novel information about the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance and its energy dependence is derived. The photoabsorption cross sections deduced from the present photon-scattering experiments are compared with existing data from neutron capture and He3-induced reactions.

  18. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  19. 性别视角下“中国三明治”创业者创业行为研究%The Gender Perspective of Entrepreneurship Research of 'China30s' Entrepreneurs

    罗瑾琏; 杨光华

    2015-01-01

    The 'China30s' Entrepreneurs is a group in their 30s, who are stressed out by various issues including careers and family life while keeping their dreams alive. After several years of high quality career, they often be-gin to have a business which can be completely controlled by their own. Thus, this paper focuses on this unique group as the research object, explores prior knowledge's influence on the entrepreneurship in the process of start-up entrepreneurs, and the role of gender factors. Through the grounded theory with 7 female and 7 male en-trepreneurs groups comparison, we find that as the inertia of dependence on prior knowledge of entrepreneurs has been increasing, they will fall into lock-in effect, which means influence of prior knowledge on entrepreneurship change from positive to negative, thus impact process is a curve path. Gender comparison study found that, male entrepreneurs focus on accumulation of function knowledge, which make them more easily fall into lock-in effect;female entrepreneurs focus on the industry knowledge.%“中国三明治”创业者是一群30岁上下,感受到来自职业发展、家庭生活等多层次压力,但又试图保留自身理想的年轻群体,在数年的职场生涯之后,开始尝试拥有一份自己能完全掌控的事业。以“三明治创业者”这一群体为研究对象,探究在创业过程中创业者先前经验对创业行为的影响过程,以及性别因素的作用方式。通过对7位女性和7位男性创业者分组进行扎根研究后发现,随着创业者对先前经验的依赖惯性增强进而陷入到锁定效应中,其对创业行为的影响从促进转变为抑制,从而使得这一影响过程呈现曲线路径。性别对比研究发现:男性创业者侧重于职能经验的积累,进而更易陷入到“路径锁定”的负面影响中;女性创业者则更加侧重于行业经验的获取。

  20. How to deduce and teach the logical and unambiguous answer, namely L = ∑C, to "What is Life?" using the principles of communication?

    De Loof, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to understand the very nature of 'Life' and 'Death' based on contemporary biology? The usual spontaneous reaction is: "No way. Life is far too complicated. It involves both material- and an immaterial dimensions, and this combination exceeds the capacities of the human brain." In this paper, a fully contrarian stand is taken. Indeed it will be shown that without invoking any unknown principle(s) unambiguous definitions can be logically deduced. The key? First ask the right questions. Next, thoroughly imbue contemporary biology with the principles of communication, including both its 'hardware' and its 'software' aspects. An integrative yet simple principle emerges saying that: 1. All living matter is invariably organized as sender-receiver compartments that incessantly handle and transfer information (= communicate); 2. The 'communicating compartment' is better suited to serve as universal unit of structure, function and evolution than 'the (prokaryotic) cell', the smallest such unit; 3. 'Living matter' versus 'non-living' are false opposites while 'still alive' and 'just not alive anymore' are true opposites; 4. 'Death' ensues when a given sender-receiver compartment irreversibly loses its ability to handle information at its highest level of compartmental organization; 5. The verb 'Life' (L) denotes nothing else than the total sum (∑) of all acts of communication (C) executed by a sender-receiver at all its levels of compartmental organization: L = ∑C; 6. Any act of communication is a problem-solving act; 6. Any Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) should have the definition of Life at its core. PMID:27064373

  1. Structural and dynamic aspects of binding of prototype lexitropsin to the decadeoxyribonucleotide d(CGCAATTGCC)2 deduced from high-resolution 1H NMR studies

    Structural and dynamic properties of the self-complementary decadeoxyribonucleotide d-(CGCAATTGCC)2 and the interaction between a prototype lexitropsin, or information-reading oligopeptide, and the decadeoxyribonucleotide and are deduced by using high-resolution 1H NMR techniques. The nonexchangeable and imino proton resonances of d(CGCAATTGCG)2 have been completely assigned by two-dimensional NMR studies. The decadeoxyribonucleotide exists as a right-handed B-DNA. In the 1H NMR spectrum of the l:1 complex, the selective chemical shifts and removal of degeneracy of AH2(4), AH2(5), T-CH3(6), and T-CH3(7) due to the anisotropy effects of the heterocyclic moieties of the ligand, and with lesser effects at the flanking base sites C(3) and G(8), locate the drug centrally in the decadeoxyribonucleotide. This conclusion is supported by plots of individual chemical shift changes across the decadeoxyribonucleotide. Strong nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) between pyrrol H5 and AH2(5), and weaker NOEs to AH1'(5), TH3'(6), and AH2'(5), firmly locate the ligand in the minor groove. Intraligand NOEs between the adjacent heterocyclic moieties indicate that the lexitropsin is subject to propeller twisting about the N6-C9 bond in both the bound and free forms. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) and correlated spectroscopy (COSY) experiments also indicate that the removal of degeneracy of the C16 methylene protons upon complexation may arise from restricted rotation about the C15-N9, C15-C16, and C16-C17 bonds. NOE measurements on the decadeoxyribonucleotide in the 1:1 complex confirm it exists as a right-handed helix and belongs to the B family. Alternative mechanisms for this exchange process are considered

  2. Metabolic and evolutionary insights into the closely-related species Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans deduced from high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization

    Harrison Marcus

    2010-12-01

    deduce that S. lividans 66 and TK24, both deficient in the glyoxylate bypass, possess an alternative metabolic mechanism for the assimilation of C2 compounds. Given that streptomycetes generally display high genetic instability it is envisaged that these high-density arrays will find application for rapid assessment of genome content (particularly amplifications/deletions in mutational studies of S. coelicolor and related species.

  3. New settlements and territorial domination in the '30s

    Carabelli, Romeo

    2016-01-01

    This text talks about urban and landscape planning in Italy and in its Mediterranean possessions during the period between the two world wars. The Italian unification dates from 1860 and the capital, Rome, was acquired from the catholic Vatican state after a short war in September 1870. Up to this date, the country - involved in a series of independence wars – had no colonial vision abroad.

  4. Deducing Security Goals From Shape Analysis Sentences

    Ramsdell, John D

    2012-01-01

    Guttman presented a model-theoretic approach to establishing security goals in the context of Strand Space theory. In his approach, a run of the Cryptographic Protocol Shapes Analyzer (CPSA) produces models that determine if a goal is satisfied. This paper presents a method for extracting a sentence that completely characterizes a run of CPSA. Logical deduction can then be used to determine if a goal is satisfied. This method has been implemented and is available to all.

  5. Gravitation as deduced from submicroscopic quantum mechanics

    Krasnoholovets, V

    2002-01-01

    Based on the model of a "soft" cellular space and deterministic quantum mechanics developed previously, the scattering of a free moving particle by structural units of the space -- superparticles -- is studied herein. The process of energy and inert mass transmission from the moving particle to superparticles and hence the creation of elementary excitations of the space -- inertons -- are analyzed in detail. The space crystallite made up around the particle in the degenerate space is shown to play the key role in those processes. A comprehensive analysis of the nature of the origin of gravitation, the particle's gravitational potential 1/r, and the gravitational interaction between material objects is performed. It seems reasonably to say that the main idea of the work may briefly be stated in the words: No motion, no gravity.

  6. Control estructural en el desarrollo de una concentración anómala de calderas en los Andes de Neuquén: Complejo Volcánico Pino Hachado (38°30' S y 71°O

    C. Tunstall

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los complejos volcánicos más importantes de los Andes del Sur se desarrolló durante los últimos 5 Ma y está ubicado a los 38°30'S próximo a la divisoria de aguas. Este se caracteriza por la presencia de calderas y complejos dómicos los cuales están amalgamados en un plateau volcánico de 50 x 50 kilómetros. El emplazamiento de estos cuerpos está asociado con la actividad pliocena-cuaternaria de una de las ramificaciones hacia el área de retroarco del Sistema de Fallas de Liquiñe-Ofqui. Sin embargo, la coincidencia entre la geometría cuadrangular de las calderas y los controles lineares del volcanismo monogenético, con la estructura interpretada a partir del análisis de la información magnetométrica sugiere un mecanismo de efusión en el retroarco asociado a la reactivación de la estructura del basamento. La interpretación estructural basada en datos aeromagnéticos regionales constituye una buena aproximación para determinar la segmentación del basamento durante las sucesivas fases de atenuamiento cortical en la región. De esta forma la geometría final y la distribución del compejo volcánico de Pino Hachado (38°30'S-71°O, aunque relacionadas con la tectónica pliocena-cuaternaria, serían reflejo de la estructura de los depocentros jurásico-miocenos enterrados bajo espesas secuencias neógenas en el área limítrofe.

  7. Deducing A Compensation Formula of the Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor's Temperature Drift on Zero Signal%压阻式压力传感器零点温漂补偿公式的推导

    滕敏

    2011-01-01

    This article deduces a set of formulas about compensating the pressure sensor's temperature drift on zero singal. For the sake of the balance of the electric bridge, more than ten compensating methods to the bridge arms are induced into two -- the series and parallel join respectively, and thus the research has simplified the calculation of maths and complexity of compensating work. Moreover, the usage of two formulas are introduced, and have been testified in both theories and experiments.%导出一套压阻式压力传感器零点温漂的补偿公式.从电桥平衡出发,提出对电桥桥臂一串一并的十几种补偿方法归结为两种,从而简化了数学计算和补偿工作的繁杂性,并对导出的公式的使用方法,加以说明,理论和实验得到了较好的验证.

  8. Theoretical assessment of the potential to deduce microphysical characteristics of ice clouds from polarimetric radar measurements at 95 GHz; Theoretische Untersuchungen zur Ableitung mikrophysikalischer Parameter von Eiswolken aus polarimetrischen Radarmessungen bei 95 GHz

    Lemke, H.M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    2000-07-01

    The potential of polarimetric radar measurements at 95 GHz to derive microphysical cloud characteristics is assessed. Scattering by atmospheric ice crystals is calculated applying the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for single crystals of various shape, size, and orientation. The results are combined to acquire radar signals for collections of particles representing the radar volume. Expressing the particle size with respect to the radius of a volume equivalent sphere, the co-plar reflectivity is only slightly affected by particle shape variations. Thus, keeping the limitations of such an approach in mind, the simplified representation of crystals as spheres is applicable. On the other hand, the signal is strongly influenced by the particle size and the total ice water content. Polarimetric radar parameters like linear depolarisation ratio and differential reflectivity are almost independent of size and ice water content. They are predominantly affected by the crystal shape and orientation and therefore have a potential to deduce information about ice crystal habits. Unfortunately, to date such measurements are subject to technical restrictions. (orig.)

  9. Density functional theory-based simulations of sum frequency generation spectra involving methyl stretching vibrations: effect of the molecular model on the deduced molecular orientation and comparison with an analytical approach

    The knowledge of the first hyperpolarizability tensor elements of molecular groups is crucial for a quantitative interpretation of the sum frequency generation (SFG) activity of thin organic films at interfaces. Here, the SFG response of the terminal methyl group of a dodecanethiol (DDT) monolayer has been interpreted on the basis of calculations performed at the density functional theory (DFT) level of approximation. In particular, DFT calculations have been carried out on three classes of models for the aliphatic chains. The first class of models consists of aliphatic chains, containing from 3 to 12 carbon atoms, in which only one methyl group can freely vibrate, while the rest of the chain is frozen by a strong overweight of its C and H atoms. This enables us to localize the probed vibrational modes on the methyl group. In the second class, only one methyl group is frozen, while the entire remaining chain is allowed to vibrate. This enables us to analyse the influence of the aliphatic chain on the methyl stretching vibrations. Finally, the dodecanethiol (DDT) molecule is considered, for which the effects of two dielectrics, i.e. n-hexane and n-dodecane, are investigated. Moreover, DDT calculations are also carried out by using different exchange-correlation (XC) functionals in order to assess the DFT approximations. Using the DFT IR vectors and Raman tensors, the SFG spectrum of DDT has been simulated and the orientation of the methyl group has then been deduced and compared with that obtained using an analytical approach based on a bond additivity model. This analysis shows that when using DFT molecular properties, the predicted orientation of the terminal methyl group tends to converge as a function of the alkyl chain length and that the effects of the chain as well as of the dielectric environment are small. Instead, a more significant difference is observed when comparing the DFT-based results with those obtained from the analytical approach, thus indicating

  10. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the lacR, lacABCD, and lacFE genes encoding the repressor, tagatose 6-phosphate gene cluster, and sugar-specific phosphotransferase system components of the lactose operon of Streptococcus mutans.

    Rosey, E L; Stewart, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of lacRABCDF and partial nucleotide sequence of lacE from the lactose operon of Streptococcus mutans are presented. Comparison of the streptococcal lac determinants with those of Staphylococcus aureus and Lactococcus lactis indicate exceptional protein and nucleotide identity. The deduced polypeptides also demonstrate significant, but lower, sequence similarity with the corresponding lactose proteins of Lactobacillus casei. Additionally, LacR has sequence hom...

  11. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate climate cooling (°C) during the glacial expansion phases using the product GTV•ΔELA, where GTV is the vertical air temperature gradient (°C/m) and ΔELA (m) the difference in level observed between the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reconstructions for current and past glaciers. With this aim the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio-(AABR) method was used to produce reconstructions of present ELAs (2002-2010) and paleoELAs corresponding to the last glacier advance phase. The reconstructions were produced in three study areas located along a N-S transect of the western cordillera in the Central Andes: the south-western sector of the Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; Giráldez 2011); the southern slope of the Cordillera Pariaqaqa (12°S, 76°W; Quirós, 2013) and the NW, NE, SE and SW quadrants of the Nevado Coropuna (16°S, 72°W; García 2013; Úbeda 2011; Campos, 2012). The three mountains exceed 6000 m altitude, their summit areas are covered by glaciers, and on their slopes there are existing well-conserved moraines deposited by the last advances near the present front of the ice masses. Although there are no absolute dates to confirm this hypothesis, it has been assumed that the last glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which the oxygen isotopes of the Nevado Huascarán (9°S, 77°W) date to the period 1500-1890. For the Hualcán and Pariaqaqa the mean global value of the Earth's GTV (6.5°C/km) was used, considered valid for the Tropics. On the Coropuna a GTV=8.4°C/km was used, based on high resolution sensors installed in situ since 2007 (Úbeda 2011). This gradient is approaching the upper limit of the dry adiabatic gradient (9.8°C/km), as the Coropuna region is more arid than the other case study areas. The climate cooling estimates deduced from the product GTV•ΔELA were compared with the global warming shown by the 1880-2012 series, ΔT=0.85°C, and 1850/1900-2003/2012, ΔT=0.78°C. The differences are

  12. 罗非鱼源无乳链球菌S-核糖基高半胱氨酸酶基因(luxS)的克隆及其推导蛋白的三维结构预测%Cloning of Streptococcus agalactiae luxS gene from tilapia and 3D structure prediction of deduced protein

    马艳平; 李嘉彬; 郝乐; 刘振兴; 冯国清; 周结珊; 柯浩

    2013-01-01

    We have amplified, cloned and determined the sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae luxS gene from Tilapia sp. by PCR. The characteristics of the deduced luxS protein were predicted by ExPAsy software; the 3D structures of luxS and the deduced protein were established and analyzed by SWISS-Model and SwisS-PDBviewer software, respectively. The results indicate that the deduced luxS protein contains conserved active center and Zn2+ binding site, which may affect biofilm formation and regulate virulence factor. The Ramachandram plot shows that the structure of modeled luxS protein is reasonable.%利用PCR技术对罗非鱼源无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)S-核糖基高半胱氨酸酶(luxS)基因全长DNA进行了扩增、克隆和序列测定,采用ExPAsy软件包预测了推导蛋白的特性,利用SwisS-Model服务器建立了luxS 三维结构,利用SwisS-PDBviewer软件进行了蛋白质三维结构的分析.预测结果显示,罗非鱼源无乳链球菌luxS推导蛋白包括保守的酶活性中心和锌结合位点,具有影响生物被膜形成、毒力因子调控等特性功能;经拉氏构象图(Ramachandran plot)分析,所构建的luxS的空间结构合理.

  13. Characteristics of manganese nodules from sub-equatorial Indian Ocean between 4 degree 30'S and 10 degree 30'S latitudes

    Banerjee, R.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name I_J_Mar_Sci_19_17.pdf.txt stream_source_info I_J_Mar_Sci_19_17.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. Control estructural en el desarrollo de una concentración anómala de calderas en los Andes de Neuquén: Complejo Volcánico Pino Hachado (38°30' S y 71°O Structural control on the development of an anomalous concentration of calderas in the Neuquén Andes: Pino Hachado volcanic complex (38°30´S-71°W

    C. Tunstall

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los complejos volcánicos más importantes de los Andes del Sur se desarrolló durante los últimos 5 Ma y está ubicado a los 38°30'S próximo a la divisoria de aguas. Este se caracteriza por la presencia de calderas y complejos dómicos los cuales están amalgamados en un plateau volcánico de 50 x 50 kilómetros. El emplazamiento de estos cuerpos está asociado con la actividad pliocena-cuaternaria de una de las ramificaciones hacia el área de retroarco del Sistema de Fallas de Liquiñe-Ofqui. Sin embargo, la coincidencia entre la geometría cuadrangular de las calderas y los controles lineares del volcanismo monogenético, con la estructura interpretada a partir del análisis de la información magnetométrica sugiere un mecanismo de efusión en el retroarco asociado a la reactivación de la estructura del basamento. La interpretación estructural basada en datos aeromagnéticos regionales constituye una buena aproximación para determinar la segmentación del basamento durante las sucesivas fases de atenuamiento cortical en la región. De esta forma la geometría final y la distribución del compejo volcánico de Pino Hachado (38°30'S-71°O, aunque relacionadas con la tectónica pliocena-cuaternaria, serían reflejo de la estructura de los depocentros jurásico-miocenos enterrados bajo espesas secuencias neógenas en el área limítrofe.One of the most important concentrations of volcanic complexes in the entire Southern Andes, developed during the last 5 Ma, is present at 38°30´S next to the drainage divide. These volcanic features, formed calderas and domic complexes which have been amalgamated in a volcanic plateau of 50 x 50 kilometers. Its origin is associated with young activity of one of the branches of the northern intra-arc Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system, as widespread Plio-Quaternary faulting is developed east of the volcanic arc. Moreover, quadrangular geometries in the volcanic complexes, as well as widespread linear

  15. Deducing effective light transport parameters in optically thin systems

    Mazzamuto, G.; Pattelli, L.; Toninelli, C.; Wiersma, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    We present an extensive Monte Carlo study on light transport in optically thin slabs, addressing both axial and transverse propagation. We systematically characterize diffusive transport in this intermediate scattering regime, notably in terms of the spatial variance of the transmitted/reflected profile. Focusing on late, multiply scattered light, we test the validity of the prediction cast by diffusion theory that the spatial variance should grow independently of absorption and, to a first approximation, of the sample thickness and refractive index contrast. Based on a large set of simulated data, we build a freely available look-up table routine enabling reliable and precise determination of the microscopic transport parameters starting from robust observables which are independent from absolute intensity measurements. We also present the Monte Carlo software package that was developed for the purpose of this study.

  16. Extended Skyrme pseudo-potential deduced from infinite matter properties

    Davesne, D; Becker, P; Jodon, R; Meyer, J; Pastore, A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the contributions to the Equation of State for the N$\\ell$LO Skyrme pseudo-potential ($\\ell$=2,3). We show that by adding 4th and 6th order gradient terms, it is possible to fairly reproduce the spin/isospin decomposition of an equation of state obtained from \\emph{ab-initio} methods. Moreover, by inspecting the partial-wave decomposition of the equation of state, we show for the first time a possible way to add explicit constraints on the sign of the tensor terms of the Skyrme interaction.

  17. —Causality, Unintended Consequences and Deducing Shared Causes

    Steven M. Shugan

    2007-01-01

    Despite warnings against inferring causality from observed correlations or statistical dependence, some articles do. Observed correlation is neither necessary nor sufficient to infer causality as defined by the term's everyday usage. For example, a deterministic causal process creates pseudorandom numbers; yet, we observe no correlation between the numbers. Child height correlates with spelling ability because age causes both. Moreover, order is problematic—we hear train whistles before obser...

  18. Deducing Electron Properties from Hard X-ray Observations

    Kontar, E. P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A.G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G.D.; Hurford, G.J.; Kašparová, Jana; Mallik, P.C.V.; Massone, A.M.; McConnell, M.L.; Piana, M.; Prato, M.; Schmahl, E.J.; Suarez-Garcia, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, 1-4 (2011), s. 301-355. ISSN 0038-6308 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/06/P135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * flares * acceleration Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.611, year: 2011

  19. Dust-gas interaction deduced from Halley multicolour camera observations

    The dust and gas productions of Comet Halley were measured by the dust counter and the mass spectrometers on the Giotto spacecraft. These instruments give only little information about the spatial asymmetry of the activity. The asymmetry in the dust production is clearly evident from the dust jets seen in the Halley Multicolour Camera images. Since the dust is entrained by the gas, production must be similarly asymmetric. The intensity profiles along and across several dust jets are related to their source regions on the nucleus. Properties of the dust jets are investigated. A few compact, but highly active source regions on the nucleus produce most of the visible dust and can account for most of the gas produced by the comet. 2 refs

  20. Shell structure of potassium isotopes deduced from their magnetic moments

    Papuga, J; Kreim, K; Barbieri, C; Blaum, K; De Rydt, M; Duguet, T; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Kowalska, M; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Rajabali, M M; Sanchez, R; Smirnova, N; Soma, V; Yordanov, D T

    2014-01-01

    $\\textbf{Background:}$ Ground-state spins and magnetic moments are sensitive to the nuclear wave function, thus they are powerful probes to study the nuclear structure of isotopes far from stability. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Purpose:}$ Extend our knowledge about the evolution of the $1/2^+$ and $3/2^+$ states for K isotopes beyond the $N = 28$ shell gap. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Method:}$ High-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy on bunched atomic beams. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Results:}$ From measured hyperfine structure spectra of K isotopes, nuclear spins and magnetic moments of the ground states were obtained for isotopes from $N = 19$ up to $N = 32$. In order to draw conclusions about the composition of the wave functions and the occupation of the levels, the experimental data were compared to shell-model calculations using SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions. In addition, a detailed discussion about the evolution of the gap between proton $1d_{3/2}$ and $2s_{1/2}$ in the shell model and $\\textit{ab initio}$ framework is al...

  1. Deducing the symmetry of helical assemblies: Applications to membrane proteins.

    Coudray, Nicolas; Lasala, Ralph; Zhang, Zhening; Clark, Kathy M; Dumont, Mark E; Stokes, David L

    2016-08-01

    Helical reconstruction represents a convenient and powerful approach for structure determination of macromolecules that assemble into helical arrays. In the case of membrane proteins, formation of tubular crystals with helical symmetry represents an attractive alternative, especially when their small size precludes the use of single-particle analysis. An essential first step for helical reconstruction is to characterize the helical symmetry. This process is often daunting, due to the complexity of helical diffraction and to the low signal-to-noise ratio in images of individual assemblies. Furthermore, the large diameters of the tubular crystals produced by membrane proteins exacerbates the innate ambiguities that, if not resolved, will produce incorrect structures. In this report, we describe a set of tools that can be used to eliminate ambiguities and to validate the choice of symmetry. The first approach increases the signal-to-noise ratio along layer lines by incoherently summing data from multiple helical assemblies, thus producing several candidate indexing schemes. The second approach compares the layer lines from images with those from synthetic models built with the various candidate schemes. The third approach uses unit cell dimensions measured from collapsed tubes to distinguish between these candidate schemes. These approaches are illustrated with tubular crystals from a boron transporter from yeast, Bor1p, and a β-barrel channel from the outer membrane of E. coli, OmpF. PMID:27255388

  2. Deducing Electron Properties from Hard X-ray Observations

    Kontar, E. P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kašparová, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Piana, M.; Prato, M.; Schmahl, E. J.; Suarez-Garcia, E.

    2011-09-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager ( RHESSI). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processes: free-free electron-ion, free-free electron-electron, free-bound electron-ion, photoelectric absorption and Compton backscatter (albedo), using both spectroscopic and imaging techniques. This unprecedented quality of data allows for the first time inference of the angular distributions of the X-ray-emitting electrons and improved model-independent inference of electron energy spectra and emission measures of thermal plasma. Moreover, imaging spectroscopy has revealed hitherto unknown details of solar flare morphology and detailed spectroscopy of coronal, footpoint and extended sources in flaring regions. Additional attempts to measure hard X-ray polarization were not sufficient to put constraints on the degree of anisotropy of electrons, but point to the importance of obtaining good quality polarization data in the future.

  3. Deducing Electron Properties From Hard X-Ray Observations

    Kontar, E.P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kasparova, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; M. Piana; Prato, M.; Schmahl, E. J.; Suarez-Garcia, E.

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron ...

  4. The laws of thermodynamics deduced from statistical mechanics

    Diu, B.; Guthmann, C.; Lederer, D.; Roulet, B.

    Since the advent of statistical mechanics, the laws of thermodynamics are consequences of more fundamental postulates. Nevertheless, the logical link between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics is far from being precisely described in the literature, at an elementary level. The present paper tries to clarify this subject. It is necessary to recall some basic notions and results of statistical mechanics, but also the main definitions concerning thermodynamic transformations (which are partly ignored in too many cases). The laws of thermodynamics, especially the second one, are then derived and analyzed in statistical terms, and the statistical meaning of heat and work is discussed. Depuis l'avènement de la mécanique statistique, les principes de la thermodynamique sont des conséquences de postulats plus fondamentaux. Pourtant, le lien logique entre mécanique statistique et thermodynamique est loin d'etre explicité de façon précise, à un niveau élémentaire, dans la littérature. L'article que voici tente de clarifier le sujet. Il s'avère nécessaire de rappeler quelques notions et résultats de base en mécanique statistique, mais aussi les principales définitions (trop souvent ignorées pour certaines d'entre elles) relatives aux transformations thermodynamiques. Les principes de la thermodynamique, en particulier le second, sont ensuite démontrés et analysés en termes statistiques, et l'interprétation statistique de la chaleur et du travail est discutée.

  5. Vegetation density as deduced from ERTS-1 MSS response

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cuellar, J. A.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Richardson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Reflectance from vegetation increases with increasing vegetation density in the 0.75- to 1.35 micron wavelength interval. Therefore, ERTS-1 bands 6 (0.7 to 0.8 micron) and 7 (0.8 to 1.1 micron) contain information that should relate to the probable yield of crops and the animal carrying capacity of rangeland. The results of an experiment designed specifically to test the relations among leaf area index (LAI), plant population, plant cover and plant height, and the ERTS-1 MSS responses for 3 corn, 10 sorghum, and 10 cotton fields are given. Plant population was as useful as LAI for characterizing the sorghum and corn fields, and plant height was as good as LAI for characterizing cotton fields. These findings generally support the utility of ERTS-1 data for explaining variability in green biomass, harvestable forage and other indicators of productivity.

  6. Deducing effective light transport parameters in optically thin systems

    Mazzamuto, Giacomo; Toninelli, Costanza; Wiersma, Diederik

    2015-01-01

    We present an extensive Monte Carlo study on light transport in optically thin slabs, addressing both axial and transverse propagation. We completely characterize the so-called ballistic-to-diffusive transition, notably in terms of the spatial variance of the transmitted/reflected profile. We test the validity of the prediction cast by diffusion theory, that the spatial variance should grow independently of absorption and, to a first approximation, of the sample thickness and refractive index contrast. Based on a large set of simulated data, we build a freely available look-up table routine allowing reliable and precise determination of the microscopic transport parameters starting from robust observables which are independent of absolute intensity measurements. We also present the Monte Carlo software package that was developed for the purpose of this study.

  7. Symmetry of the Gap Deduced from the Phonon Renormalization

    The influence of the gap anisotropy on the superconductivity induced renormalization of q = 0 phonons is studied. An analytical expression for the shift and the broadening of the phonon lines is derived in second order of the electron-lattice coupling. The full k-dependency of the gap function is taken into account. The renormalization is calculated numerically for different anisotropies of the gap (s-wave, d-wave...) And compared to Raman experiments. The value of the hole-lattice coupling in the high-Tc materials can be estimated

  8. Permeability deduced from impedance measurements at microwave frequencies

    We present both circumferential, μphi, and parallel, μparallel, permeabilities of a Co68.15Fe4.35Si12.5B15 amorphous wire. We determined μphi from impedance measurements up to 10 GHz using a network analyzer with the wire as the central conductor of a coaxial line. We determined μparallel from impedance variations up to 1 GHz with the wire mounted as the core of a conductive loop driven by a microwave signal of a network analyzer. We report here on the design of the sample holders, on the measurements and on the methods used for their analysis, including the details of the effect of sample mounting on the results

  9. Non-linear transport equations: Properties deduced through transformation groups

    Transport equations in configuration space (linear and non-linear heat equations) and in phase space (Vlasov-Poisson systems for plasmas, beams and gravitating gases) are considered in the frame of transformation group techniques. Both self-similar and more general groups are introduced to find specially interesting solutions. Two kinds of results are obtained: time evolution of given initial situations and systematic derivation of possible scaling laws for a given mathematical model. These last results are specially interesting for extrapolating performances of Fusion Machines. (orig.)

  10. The lithosphere of Southern Africa deduced by the SAMTEX experiment

    Complete text of publication follows. The Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) is imaging the electrical structures and geometries of the continental lithosphere below Botswana, Namibia and South Africa to depths of 200+ km. Primary geometrical information can readily be obtained from lithospheric-scale MT experiments about the three-dimensional variation in conductivity, and this information can be related to formation and deformation processes. In particular, one important piece of geometrical information easily and relatively precisely (to within 10%) obtained from MT data is the depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), due to the sensitivity of conductivity to small fractions (<1%) of partial melt and/or increased water content. Over four phases of acquisition SAMTEX measurements have been made at a total of more than 700 MT sites in an area of greater than a million square kilometres, making it by far the largest-ever MT project undertaken. In particular, during Phase IV very challenging MT measurements were made in the highly-remote Central Kalahari Game Reserve, completing the coverage of Botswana. One of the most significant results from SAMTEX is the mapping of the LAB beneath the Archean cratons and bounding mobile belts of Southern Africa, particularly beneath Namibia and Botswana for which no prior lithospheric information exists. As would be expected, the electrically-defined LAB is generally shallow (150 km) beneath the mobile belts, deep (250 km) in the centres of the cratons, and transitional at the edges of cratons. Kimberlites are useful in also inferring lithospheric thickness, and diamondiferous kimberlites are located primarily where the electrical lithosphere is transitional in thickness, or where there is a change in its electrical anisotropy properties, both of which are craton edge effects. The electrical properties of the continental mantle derived from SAMTEX data can be compared with seismic ones derived from data from the South African Seismic Experiment (SASE) of the Kaapvaal Project and from regional/continental-scale investigations. Generally there is very good predictive linear agreement between seismic velocity and log(conductivity), indicative of both being influenced by the same bulk property factors, such as temperature, Mg and composition.

  11. Clusterization of water molecules as deduced from statistical mechanical approach

    Krasnoholovets, Volodymyr

    2004-12-01

    Using the methods of statistical mechanics we have shown that a homogeneous water network is unstable and spontaneously disintegrates to the nonhomogeneous state (i.e. peculiar clusters), which can be treated as an ordinary state of liquid water. The major peculiarity of the concept is that it separates the paired potential into two independent components—the attractive potential and the repulsive one, which in turn should feature a very different dependence on the distance from the particle (a water molecule in the present case). We choose the interaction potential as a combination of the ionic crystal potential and the vibratory potential associated with the elastic properties of the water system as a whole. The number ℵ of water molecules that enters a cluster is calculated as a function of several parameters, such as the dielectric constant, the mass of a water molecule, the distance between nearest molecules, and the vibrations of nearest molecules in their nodes. The number of H2O molecules that comprise a cluster is estimated as about ℵ ≈ 900, which agrees with the available experimental data.

  12. The Estonian diaspora in South-West Russia in the 1920—30s: migration results

    Stupin Yu. A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the spatial features of the settling of Russian Estonians in the Northwest region at the “zenith” of diaspora on the basis of 1920, 1926, and 1939 censuses. The author identifies the principal settling areas and points out the geographical preconditions for the rapid decline of the diaspora.

  13. Lower plate deformation at the Chile Triple Junction from the paleomagnetic record (45°30'S-46°S)

    Lagabrielle, Yves; Bourgois, Jacques; Dyment, Jerôme; Pelletier, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    During the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ) cruise, geophysical surveys were conducted between 45°S and 48°S, in the region of the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ), where the Nazca and Antarctica Plates are subducting beneath the South American Plate. Near the CTJ, the South Chile Rise (SCR), which separates the Nazca and Antarctica lower plates, consists of three spreading segments trending ~N160°, separated by a series of parallel fracture zones. The active spreading centers of the three segments consist of grabens with various widths and depths, bounded by steep fault scarps. We provide robust data showing that the SCR recorded remote and long-term effects of ridge subduction far from the subduction front. Magnetic profiles, multibeam bathymetric, and seismic data were acquired at intervals of 13 km along a N80°E direction across the SCR during the CTJ cruise of R/V L'Atalante. Deformation of the oceanic lithosphere includes (1) a segmentation of the spreading axes along strike, (2) some ridge jumps, and (3) local constriction and changes in trend of the fracture zone valleys. Off-axis volcanism is observed in places that may suggest a link with an abnormal stress field induced by ridge subduction. The tectonic and volcanic anomalies, which occurred in response to the subduction of the SCR1 axis, may be correlated with geochemical anomalies and slab fragmentation recognized by previous works.

  14. Petrography and geochemistry of magmatic units from the western cordillera of Ecuador (0 deg. 30'S): tectonic implications

    The cost and western Cordillera of Ecuador are made of accreted oceanic terranes, separated from from the continental margin by a suture zone containing tectonic slices of mafic rocks. The western Cordillera contains three distinct magmatic units. Ultramafic and mafic cumulates from the suture zone (San Juan slice) represent likely the plutonic roots of oceanic plateau basalts. The mafic cumulates are LREE(depleted and Ta and Pb enriched (primitive mantle). Their Nd and Pb isotopic compositions suggest that they derived from an enriched OIB type mantle source. Pre-Coniacian arc-tholeiites present flat REE patterns, low Pb and Th contents, and high ξNd(T=100Ma) (+7.5 to + 7.9) which are indicative of their derivation from a mantle source. These arc-tholeiites developed likely in an intra-oceanic setting. The Eocene calc-alkaline lavas differ from the arc-tholeiites because they are LREE-enriched and have lower ξNd(T=50Ma) ratios. Their high Pb and Th contents are probably related to crustal assimilation during the magmas ascent. Their Pb isotopic compositions support involvement of subducted pelagic sediments in their genesis. These lavas represent likely the remnants of a continental calc-alkaline magmatic arc. The continental-arc setting of the Eocene lavas demonstrates that these volcanic rocks postdate the accretion of the western Cordillera, upon which they rest unconformably. Therefore, the accretion of the western Cordillera may have occurred in late Paleocene times, as for part of the oceanic terranes of coastal Ecuador. Nevertheless, the occurrence of a collisional event during late Santonian-early Campanian times is strongly suggested by: the arrival of detrital quartz on oceanic series of the western Cordillera by Campanian-Maastrichtian times, a regional unconformity locally dates early Campanian, the arc-jump observed on coastal Ecuador in Santonian times, and finally a thermal event recognised in the eastern Cordillera around 85-80 Ma. (authors)

  15. Origins of short gamma-ray bursts deduced from offsets in their host galaxies revisited

    Xiao-Hong Cui; Shigehiro Nagataki; Junichi Aoi; Ren-Xin Xu

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of short Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in their host galaxies provides us with an opportunity to investigate their origins.Based on the currently observed distribution of short GRBs relative to their host galaxies,we obtain the fraction of the component that traces the mergers of binary compact objects and the one that traces star formation rate (such as massive stars) in early- and late-type host galaxies.From the analysis of projected offset distribution and only based on population synthesis and massive star models,we find that the fraction of massive stars is 0.37+0.42-0.37 with an error at the lσ level for a sample with 22 short GRBs in the literature.From these results,it is hard to accept that the origin of short GRBs with observed statistics is well described by current models using only the offset distribution.The uncertainties in observational localizations of short GRBs also strongly affect the resulting fraction.

  16. The origin of GEMS in IDPs as deduced from microstructural evolution of amorphous silicates with annealing

    Davoisne, C; Leroux, H; D'Hendecourt, L B; Jones, A; Deboffle, D

    2006-01-01

    We present laboratory studies of the micro-structural evolution of an amorphous ferro-magnesian silicate, of olivine composition, following thermal annealing under vacuum. Annealing under vacuum was performed at temperatures ranging from 870 to 1020 K. After annealing spheroidal metallic nano-particles (2-50 nm) are found within the silicate films. We interpret this microstructure in terms of a reduction of the initial amorphous silicate FeO component, because of the carbon-rich partial pressure in the furnace due to pumping mechanism. Annealing in a controlled oxygen-rich atmosphere confirms this interpretation. The observed microstructures closely resemble those of the GEMS (Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulphides) found in chondritic IDPs (Interplanetary Dust Particles). Since IDPs contain abundant carbonaceous matter, a solid-state reduction reaction may have occurred during heating in the hot inner regions of the proto-solar disc. Related to this, the presence of forsterite grains grown from the amorphou...

  17. A Model for Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Deduced from Comparative Whole Genome Analysis

    Kroth, Peter G.; Chiovitti, Anthony; Gruber, Ansgar; Martin-jezequel, Veronique; Mock, Thomas; Schnitzler Parker, Micaela; Michele S. Stanley; Kaplan, Aaron; Caron, Lise; Weber, Till; Maheswari, Uma; Armbrust, Elisabeth Virginia; Bowler, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Background:Diatoms are unicellular algae responsible for approximately 20% of global carbon fixation. Their evolution by secondary endocytobiosis resulted in a complex cellular structure and metabolism compared to algae with primary plastids.Methodology/Principal Findings:The whole genome sequence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has recently been completed. We identified and annotated genes for enzymes involved in carbohydrate pathways based on extensive EST support and comparison to ...

  18. A model for carbohydrate metabolism in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum deduced from comparative whole genome analysis.

    Peter G Kroth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diatoms are unicellular algae responsible for approximately 20% of global carbon fixation. Their evolution by secondary endocytobiosis resulted in a complex cellular structure and metabolism compared to algae with primary plastids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole genome sequence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has recently been completed. We identified and annotated genes for enzymes involved in carbohydrate pathways based on extensive EST support and comparison to the whole genome sequence of a second diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana. Protein localization to mitochondria was predicted based on identified similarities to mitochondrial localization motifs in other eukaryotes, whereas protein localization to plastids was based on the presence of signal peptide motifs in combination with plastid localization motifs previously shown to be required in diatoms. We identified genes potentially involved in a C4-like photosynthesis in P. tricornutum and, on the basis of sequence-based putative localization of relevant proteins, discuss possible differences in carbon concentrating mechanisms and CO(2 fixation between the two diatoms. We also identified genes encoding enzymes involved in photorespiration with one interesting exception: glycerate kinase was not found in either P. tricornutum or T. pseudonana. Various Calvin cycle enzymes were found in up to five different isoforms, distributed between plastids, mitochondria and the cytosol. Diatoms store energy either as lipids or as chrysolaminaran (a beta-1,3-glucan outside of the plastids. We identified various beta-glucanases and large membrane-bound glucan synthases. Interestingly most of the glucanases appear to contain C-terminal anchor domains that may attach the enzymes to membranes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we present a detailed synthesis of carbohydrate metabolism in diatoms based on the genome sequences of Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This model provides novel insights into acquisition of dissolved inorganic carbon and primary metabolic pathways of carbon in two different diatoms, which is of significance for an improved understanding of global carbon cycles.

  19. How historical seismicity in oceans can be deduced from sailors' testimonies and related to modern tectonics

    Legrand, Denis; Rouland, Daniel; Cisternas, Armando; Streng, Daniel; Gir, Roopa; Souriau, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Before seismological catalogs were routinely produced, seafarers experienced major seismic events at sea that were documented in their logs. This article analyzes some of these old records - mostly from eighteenth and nineteenth centuries - in the context of plate tectonics. Large shocks that were felt on ships are related either to earthquakes, sub-marine volcanic eruptions, or to sub-marine sliding of rocks and/or sediments. We analyze various related parameters such as the location and size of the shaking, the duration of the shock, and the associated noise. A total of 396 observations have been retained for this study, mostly located in the Atlantic Ocean, reflecting its intense maritime traffic during the period of interest. Some of the detailed accounts allow us to clearly identify the nature of the shocks, including a possible interpretation in terms of focal mechanism. Our results, when compared to historical catalogs, reveal many previously undetected large events. Macroseismic results for a few large historical events occurring near the coasts confirm the validity of our approach, but also reveal its limitations. The good locations of most of the events allow us to relate them to plate boundaries. The Romanche transform zone has deserved particular interest due to the large number of related testimonies. This study particularly illustrates that historical seismicity may be applied to oceans. The collected testimonies also show how impressive and dangerous these large earthquakes at sea are, despite the absence of S-waves.

  20. Direct oxidation of methyl radicals in OCM process deduced from correlation of product selectivities

    Zhiming Gao; Yuanyuan Ma

    2010-01-01

    Selectivity of hydrogen in reaction of oxidative coupling of methane(OCM)was evaluated over the MxOy-BaCO3(MxOy: La2O3,Sm2O3,MgO,CaO)catalysts.Correlation of product selectivities was thus discussed.From the correlation of product selectivities,it is revealed that the carbon oxides(CO and CO2)were most probably formed from the direct oxidation of methyl radicals under the conditions adopted in the present work.This is also in accordance with the OCM mechanism proposed in literature.

  1. Use of nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS to deduce selectivity of reaction in glycoside hydrolases

    Kai eDeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemically synthesized nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS probes derivatized with tetrasaccharides were used to study the reactivity of representative Clostridium thermocellum β-glucosidase, endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolase. Diagnostic patterns for reactions of these different classes of enzymes were observed. Results show sequential removal of glucose by the β-glucosidase and a progressive increase in specificity of reaction from endoglucanases to cellobiohydrolase. Time-dependent reactions of these polysaccharide-selective enzymes were modeled by numerical integration, which provides a quantitative basis to make functional distinctions among a continuum of naturally evolved catalytic properties. Consequently, our method, which combines automated protein translation with high-sensitivity and time-dependent detection of multiple products, provides a new approach to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic trees with functional measurements.

  2. On the turnaround of stratospheric ozone trends deduced from the reevaluated Umkehr record of Arosa, Switzerland

    Zanis, P.; Maillard, E.; Staehelin, J.; Zerefos, C.; Kosmidis, E.; Tourpali, K.; Wohltmann, I.

    2006-11-01

    In this work, we investigate the issue of the turnaround in ozone trends of the recently homogenized Umkehr ozone record of Arosa, Switzerland, which is the longest Umkehr data set, extending from 1956 to date, using different statistical methods. All methods show statistically significant negative ozone trends from 1970 to 1995 in the upper stratosphere (above 32.6 km) throughout the course of the year as well as in the lower stratosphere (below 23.5 km) mainly during winter to spring, which can be partially attributed to dynamical changes. Over the recent period (1996-2004) the year-round trends in the lower stratosphere become positive and are more positive during the winter to spring period. The results also show changes in upper stratospheric ozone trends after 1996, which are, however, not statistically significant at 95% if aerosol correction is applied on the retrieved data. This lack of significant trend changes during the recent period in the upper stratosphere is regionally coherent with recent results derived from upper stratospheric ozone data recorded by lidars, microwave radiometers, and satellite instruments at an adjacent location. Although the positive change in trends after 1996 both for upper and lower stratospheric ozone is in line with the reduction of the emissions of ozone-depleting substances from the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments, we recommend, because of lack of significance for the upper stratospheric trends, repeating this analysis in a few years in order to overcome ambiguous results for documentation of the turnaround of upper stratospheric ozone.

  3. Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data

    R. Reilinger

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main tectonic features of the Eastern Mediterranean region combining the recent information obtained from GPS measurements, seismicity and neotectonic studies. GPS measurements reveal that the Arabian plate moves northward with respect to Eurasia at a rate of 23 ± 1 mm/yr, 10 mm/yr of this rate is taken up by shortening in the Caucasus. The internal deformation in Eastern Anatolia by conjugate strike-slip faulting and E-W trending thrusts, including the Bitlis frontal thrust, accommodates approximately a 15 mm/yr slip rate. The Northeast Anatolian fault, which extends from the Erzincan basin to Caucasus accommodates about 8 ± 5 mm/yr of left-lateral motion. The neotectonic fault pattern in Eastern Anatolia suggests that the NE Anatolian block moves in an E-ENE direction towards the South Caspian Sea. According to the same data, the Anatolian-Aegean block is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation. However, from the residuals it appears that this solution can only be taken as a preliminary approximation. The Eulerian rotation pole indicates that slip rate along the North Anatolian fault is about 26 ± 3 mm/yr. This value is 10 mm/yr higher than slip rates obtained from geological data and historical earthquake records and it includes westward drift of the Pontides of a few millimetres/year or more. GPS measurements reveal that the East Anatolian fault accommodates an 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative motion. GPS data suggest that Central Anatolia behaves as a rigid block, but from neotectonic studies, it clearly appears that it is sliced by a number of conjugate strike-slip faults. The Isparta Angle area might be considered a major obstacle for the westward motion of the Anatolian block (Central and Eastern Anatolia. The western flank of this geological structure, the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone appears to be a major boundary with a slip rate of 15-20 mm/yr. The Western Anatolian grabens take up a total of 15 mm/yr NE-SW extension. The fact that motions in Central Anatolia relative to Eurasia, are 15-20 mm/yr while in Western Anatolia and Aegean Sea they are 30-40 mm/yr could suggest that Western Anatolia decouples from Central Anatolia and the Isparta Angle by the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone and Eski?ehir fault. It is also hypothesized that the differentiation of tectonic styles and velocities in the Anatolian-Aegean block are related to differences between the slabs lying under the Cyprus and Hellenic arcs.

  4. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein’s functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism

  5. Deducing the Energetic Cost of Protein Folding in Zinc Finger Proteins Using Designed Metallopeptides

    Zinc finger transcription factors represent the largest single class of metalloproteins in the human genome. Binding of Zn(II) to their canonical Cys4, Cys3His1, or Cys2His2 sites results in metal-induced protein folding events required to achieve their proper structure for biological activity. The thermodynamic contribution of Zn(II) in each of these coordination spheres toward protein folding is poorly understood because of the coupled nature of the metal-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Using an unstructured peptide scaffold, GGG, we have employed fluorimetry, potentiometry, and calorimetry to determine the thermodynamics of Zn(II) binding to the Cys4, Cys3His1, and Cys2His2 ligand sets with minimal interference from protein folding effects. The data show that Zn(II) complexation is entropy driven and modulated by proton release. The formation constants for Zn(II)-GGG with a Cys4, Cys3His1, or Cys2His2 site are 5.6 x 1016, 1.5 x 1015, or 2.5 x 1013 M-1, respectively. Thus, the Zn(II)-Cys4, Zn(II)-Cys3His1, and Zn(II)-Cys2His2 interactions can provide up to 22.8, 20.7, and 18.3 kcal/mol, respectively, in driving force for protein stabilization, folding, and/or assembly at pH values above the ligand pKa values. While the contributions from the three coordination motifs differ by 4.5 kcal/mol in Zn(II) affinity at pH 9.0, they are equivalent at physiological pH, ?G = -16.8 kcal/mol or a Ka = 2.0 x 1012 M-1. Calorimetric data show that this is due to proton-based enthalpy-entropy compensation between the favorable entropic term from proton release and the unfavorable enthalpic term due to thiol deprotonation. Since protein folding effects have been minimized in the GGG scaffold, these peptides possess nearly the tightest Zn(II) affinities possible for their coordination motifs. The Zn(II) affinities in each coordination motif are compared between the GGG scaffold and natural zinc finger proteins to determine the free energy required to fold the latter. Several proteins have identical Zn(II) affinities to GGG. That is, little, if any, of their Zn(II) binding energy is required to fold the protein, whereas some have affinities weakened by up to 5.7 kcal/mol; i.e., the Zn(II) binding energy is being used to fold the protein.

  6. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    C. Xiong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study five years of CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload fluxgate magnetometer (FGM data is used to investigate the characteristics of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs. We filtered the FGM data by using band-passes with four different cut-off periods to get the EPBs with different maximum spatial scale sizes in the meridional plane ranging from 76–608 km. Associated with the EPB observations at about 400 km, the typical altitude of CHAMP during the year 2000–2005, we also investigate the post-sunset equatorial vertical plasma drift data from ROCSAT-1 (Republic of China Satellite 1. Since the height of the F-layer is highly correlated with the vertical plasma drift and solar flux, we sorted the ROCSAT-1 data into different groups by F10.7. From the integrated vertical drift we have estimated the post-sunset uplift of the ionosphere. By comparing the properties of EPB occurrence for different scale sizes with the global distribution of plasma vertical uplift, we have found that EPBs reaching higher altitudes are more structured than those which are sampled by CHAMP near the top side of the depleted fluxtube. Such a result is in accord with 3-D model simulations (Aveiro and Hysell, 2010. Small-scale EPB structures are observed by CHAMP when the irregularities reach apex heights of 800 km and more. Such events are encountered primarily in the Brazilian sector during the months around November, when the post-sunset vertical plasma drift is high.

  7. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    Xiong, C.; Luhr, H.; Ma, S. Y.;

    2012-01-01

    In this study five years of CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload) fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) data is used to investigate the characteristics of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). We filtered the FGM data by using bandpasses with four different cut-off periods to get the EPBs with different...

  8. Strain patterns deduced from high-resolution airborne surveys in Namibia

    Ledru, P.; Garoeb, H.; Kamati, T.; Wackerle, R.; Martelet, G.; Truffert, C.

    2003-04-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic dataset have been acquired in the framework of a long-term programme that aims at a complete coverage of Namibia in 2008. More than half of the territory has been already flown with a 200m line spacing and 2500m tie lines, at a terrain clearance of 80 to 100 m. The contribution of the interpretation of these datasets to the definition of the strain pattern is presented. The first test zone concerns an orogenic zone, the southern zone of the Damara belt, south of Rehoboth. The different maps of the gradients of the magnetic field reduced to the pole have been used in order to define the regional strain pattern. Following up a limited field work that has characterized the geometry and kinematics of the main discontinuities, it has been shown that this zone is characterized by one single orogenic phase marked by a reverse crustal-scale shear zone system (with a down-dip stretching direction) to which regional-scale NE-SW folding is related. The anastomosed shear zone system is thus traced along more than 200 km. A provisional foliation trajectory map can be drawn, transecting the bedding in the hinges of the folds within sediments and underlined by a magnetite-rich veinlet network within the pre-tectonic granites. Moreover, this strain pattern has been extended under the superficial deposits that cover the eastern half of the studied area. Automatic structural analysis has been performed using Geosoft and ArcView/SynArc. Thus, source edge detection, search of ridges and curvature analysis provide qualitative analysis while the search of discontinuities along the horizontal gradients of the magnetic field using SynArc produces a very satisfactory statistical approach of the structural pattern. A second test zone illustrates an extensional tectonic context, i.e. the northern termination of the NNE-SSW Mesozoic aborted rift, developed synchronously with the opening of the Southern Atlantic ocean at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. A dense dolerite dyke network, poorly outcropping in this zone, is revealed. Its mapping has been performed mainly by using the ridges of the first vertical derivative of the magnetic field reduced to the pole. Up to 4 generations of dykes are differentiated, the apparent chronology suggesting a change from an initial rift to a strike slip environment, characterized by a sinistral component along the main NNE-SSW tectonic line. The magnetic maps also reveal that the emplacement of the alkaline ring complexes postdates this dolerite dyke network.

  9. Landsat-derived glacier inventory for Jotunheimen, Norway, and deduced glacier changes since the 1930s

    Andreassen, L.M.; F. Paul; Kääb, A.; Hausberg, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    A Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scene from 2003 covering the Jotunheimen and Breheimen region has been used to map the recent glacier extents using thresholded ratio images (TM3/TM5). Orthoprojected aerial photographs and glacier outlines from digital maps have been used to validate the method and control the results. We further calculated glacier changes by comparing the Landsat-derived 2003 glacier outlines with previous maps and inventories from the 1930s, 1960s and 1980s. Our results confi...

  10. Iron Fertilization in the Southern Ocean Deduced From Environmental Magnetism of Sediment Cores

    Yamazaki, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2012-12-01

    With rock-magnetic technique, biogenic magnetites in sediments can be detected utilizing the characteristics of almost no magnetostatic interactions and narrow coercivity distribution, reflecting occurrence of single-domain magnetites in a chain (e.g., Egli et al., 2010; Roberts et al., 2011). Magnetic mineral assemblages in pelagic sediments of Pacific and Indian Oceans often have two distinctive constituents; the first is characterized by non-interacting on first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams and low-coercivity (~40 mT) with small dispersion on isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) component analyses, and the second is characterized by interacting and middle-coercivity (~100 mT). The former is interpreted as biogenic magnetites and the latter is terrigenous maghemites (Yamazaki, 2009; 2012). The ratio of anhysteretic remanent magnetization susceptibility to saturation IRM reflects relative abundance of the biogenic and terrigenous components. In the Southern Ocean, magnetic mineral concentration increases in glacial periods. The variation pattern closely resembles eolian dust flux records from Antarctic ice cores, but the cause of the linkage was unclear, as the dust flux is too small for the source of terrigenous materials in the Southern Ocean. Our environmental magnetic study of late Pleistocene sediments from the south Indian Ocean revealed that biogenic magnetites are a dominant constituent of the magnetic minerals. In glacials, the abundance of both biogenic and terrigenous components increased with increased proportions of the latter. Increased ocean productivity in glacials is suggested from increased proportions of biogenic magnetites with elongated morphologies, indicative of less-oxic conditions, and increased sedimentation rates. These observations suggest that the increased magnetic concentration in glacials in the Southern Ocean may be explained by iron fertilization; the production of biogenic magnetites was enhanced associated with increased ocean productivity, which was fueled by increased eolian dust flux. In pelagic clay cores in the North Pacific, the contributions of biogenic and terrigenous components to IRM are comparative. The abundance of the terrigenous component increases in glacials, whereas the biogenic component increases in interglacials. This suggests that iron fertilization did not occur in the North Pacific; increased eolian dust flux from the Asian continent in glacials did not promote production of biogenic magnetites.

  11. Personality Theories Facilitate Integrating the Five Principles and Deducing Hypotheses for Testing

    Maddi, Salvatore R.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the original article "A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality," by Dan P. McAdams and Jennifer L. Pals (see record 2006-03947-002). In presenting their view of personality science, McAdams and Pals (April 2006) elaborated the importance of five principles for building an integrated science of…

  12. Dendroclimatic signals deduced from riparian versus upland forest interior pines in North Karelia, Finland

    Helama, Samuli; Arentoft, Birgitte W.; Collin-Haubensak, Olivier; Hyslop, Michael D.; Brandstrup, Charlotte K.; Makela, Hanna M.; Tian, QinHua; Wilson, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Radial growth of boreal tree species is only rarely studied in riparian habitats. Here we investigated chronologies of earlywood, latewood, and annual ring widths and blue intensity (BI; a surrogate to latewood density) from riparian lake shore and upland forest interior pines (Pinus sylvestris L.......) growing in boreal forest in eastern Finland. Riparian and upland chronologies were compared to examine differences in the pine growth variability and growth response to climatic variation in the two habitats. It was found that the climatic variables showing statistically significant correlations with the...... tree-ring chronologies were related to snow conditions at the start of the growing season. Deeper snowpack led to reduced upland pine growth, possibly due to delayed snowmelt and thus postponed onset of the growing season. Warm late winters were followed by increased riparian pine growth because of...

  13. Rapid N-S extension in the Mygdonian Graben (northern Greece) deduced from repeated geodetic surveys

    Martinod, Joseph; Hatzfeld, Denis; Savvaidis, Paris; Katsambalos, Kostas

    In November 1994, a geodetic network situated on the Mygdonian graben, 30 km NE of Thessaloniki, Greece, was remeasured using the GPS technique. This network was established in 1979, in the epicentral area of the 1978 earthquake (Ms=6.5), and was measured using triangulation techniques seven times between 1979 and 1989. The comparison between 1979 and 1994 data shows that this part of the Mygdonian graben experienced about 8 cm of N-S horizontal extension. Most of the extension is concentrated in a narrow (one or two kilometers) E-W zone, located on the southern boundary of the graben. Furthermore, the analysis of repeated triangulation surveys suggests a rate of extension of 5.7±1.3 mm/y, that remained constant with time between 1979 and 1994. This extension could result from long-term postseismic relaxation processes, or from continous aseismic slip within the graben.

  14. Source parameters of major earthquakes near Kiruna, Northern Sweden, deduced from synthetic seismogram computation

    The earthquakes that have occurred around Kiruna in northern Sweden have been studied in detail in order to determine their source characteristics and to understand the pattern of seismic acticity in the region. All earthquakes with magnitude greater than 3.0 (ML) that occurred during the period between 1967 and 1985 in the region bounded by 66.5 degrees - 69 degrees N and 19 degrees - 25 degrees E are studied. Relocated epicenters of the events exhibit a cluster of events in a direction NE - SW at at the western side of the region close to Kiruna, Though, the focal depths of the events are not very well constrained, the relocation results suggest that the events in this cluster might have occurred at focal depths between 15 and 25 km. At the easstern side of the region, the epicenters are roughly aligned along an elongated area trending NNW - SSE. The focal depths of the events in this area tend to be shallow and are probably in the upper crust at the depths range from 5 to 16 km. The earthquakes studied show nearly constant source radii of about 0.4 - 0.6 km over the seismic moment range 1020 to 1021 dyne-cm. Consequently, the events studied are characterized by a steadily incresing stress drop relative to increasing seismic moment. The source mechanisms obtained for the two largest earthquakes suggest that the mechanisms are dominated by the normal faultings on the near-vertical fault planes trending N - S to NE - SW. (With 26 refs.) (authors)

  15. Coseismic and Postseismic slip distribution of the 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake deduced from A Bayesian Inversion

    Chen, T.; Gong, X.

    2011-12-01

    In inversion of geodetic data for distribution of fault slip minimizing the first or second order derivatives of slip across fault plane is generally employed to smooth slips of neighboring patches.Smoothing parameter is subjective selected to determine the relative weight placed on fitting data versus smoothing the slip distribution.We use the Fully Bayesian Inversion method(Fukuda,2008)to simultaneously estimate the slip distribution and smoothing parameter objectively in a Bayesian framework. The distributed slips,the posterior probability density function and the smoothing parameter is formulated with Bayes' theorem and sampled with a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Here We will apply this method to Coseismic and Postseismic displacement data from the 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake and compare the results of this method with generally favored method.

  16. Formation des enseignants dans une perspective d'education permanente au benin

    Agboton, Sébastien; Moussa, Yaya Mede

    1994-05-01

    The history of teacher training in Benin, which provides evidence of social and cultural change, suggests that a system of lifelong education should be introduced which unites formal, non-formal and informal education, all of which already exist in embryo. The education originally given to every member of society was a continuing progression from initiate to initiator, a lifelong education that involved, among other things, knowledge of agricultural production. This traditional system was disrupted by the reorganization of teacher training after 1945. Recurrent training of teachers remained inadequate because of limited external funding for in-service training, the lack of teachers, the suspension of recruitment and the closure of teacher training colleges. The 1975 reform, through the initiative known as Operation Education and Development, envisaged links between school and social environment, allying intellectual work with production. This meant a radical change in the role of the teacher, who was confronted with technical advance and was obliged to enter a difficult continuing process of self-training. Furthermore, population growth and the restrictions imposed by the World Bank have brought about developments in both lifelong learning and apprenticeship. These two elements are brought together under an initiative known as Production Scolaire Artisanale, designed for out-of-school learners and artisans. The author concludes that the creation of a coherent system of voluntary education would be possible in a society that was itself favourably disposed to education.

  17. Tratamiento contable de los gastos financieros que superen la cantidad fiscalmente deducible (BOICAC 92/diciembre 2013)

    Rodríguez García, Ferran

    2014-01-01

    Las personas que nos dedicamos al cada vez más complejo campo de la contabilidad no vemos finalizar el "más difícil todavía". Si bien es cierto que ya nos hemos acostumbrado al, a veces, complejo entramado del efecto impositivo, no es menos cierto que en los últimos tiempos la tan recurrente crisis económica y, naturalmente, el irresponsable despilfarro previo a la misma han supuesto la introducción de determinadas normas tributarias encaminadas a intentar una mayor recaudación de impuestos...

  18. Accretion timescale and impact history of Mars deduced from the isotopic systematics of martian meteorites

    Borg, Lars E.; Brennecka, Gregory A.; Symes, Steven J. K.

    2016-02-01

    High precision Sm-Nd isotopic analyses have been completed on a suite of 11 martian basaltic meteorites in order to better constrain the age of silicate differentiation on Mars associated with the formation of their mantle sources. These data are used to evaluate the merits and disadvantages of various mathematical approaches that have been employed in previous work on this topic. Ages determined from the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of individual samples are strongly dependent on the assumed Nd isotopic composition of the bulk planet. This assumption is problematic given differences observed between the Nd isotopic composition of Earth and chondritic meteorites and the fact that these materials are both commonly used to represent bulk planetary Nd isotopic compositions. Ages determined from the slope of 146Sm-142Nd whole rock isochrons are not dependent on the assumed 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the planet, but require the sample suite to be derived from complementary, contemporaneously-formed reservoirs. In this work, we present a mathematical expression that defines the age of formation of the source regions of such a suite of samples that is based solely on the slope of a 143Nd-142Nd whole rock isochron and is also independent of any a priori assumptions regarding the bulk isotopic composition of the planet. This expression is also applicable to mineral isochrons and has been used to successfully calculate 143Nd-142Nd model crystallization ages of early refractory solids as well as lunar samples. This permits ages to be obtained using only Nd isotopic measurements without the need for 147Sm/144Nd isotope dilution determinations. When used in conjunction with high-precision Nd isotopic measurements completed on martian meteorites this expression yields an age of formation of the martian basaltic meteorite source regions of 4504 ± 6 Ma. Because the Sm-Nd model ages for the formation of martian source regions are commonly interpreted to record the age at which large scale mantle reservoirs formed during planetary differentiation associated with magma ocean solidification, the age determined here implies that magma ocean solidification occurred several tens of millions of years after the beginning of the Solar System. Recent thermal models, however, suggest that Mars-sized bodies cool rapidly in less than ∼5 Ma after accretion ceases, even in the presence of a thick atmosphere. Assuming these models are correct, an extended period of accretion is necessary to provide a mechanism to keep portions of the martian mantle partially molten until 4504 Ma. Late accretional heating of Mars could either be associated with protracted accretion occurring at a quasi-steady state or alternatively be associated with a late giant impact. If this scenario is correct, then accretion of Mars-sized bodies takes up to 60 Ma and is likely to be contemporaneous with the core formation and possibly the onset of silicate differentiation. This further challenges the concept that isotopic equilibrium is attained during primordial evolution of planets, and may help to account for geochemical evidence implying addition of material into planetary interiors after core formation was completed.

  19. Fracture mechanics data deduced from thermal-shock and related experiments with PWR pressure vessel material

    Thermal-shock experiments with steel cylinders have been conducted at ORNL to investigate the behavior of long axial inner-surface flaws during loading conditions similar to those imposed by a PWR LOCA. The scope of the three most recent experiments was dictated by results of the PWR-LOCA fracture-mechanics analysis and included: initiation and arrest of shallow and deep flaws, a series of initiation-arrest events with deep penetration of the wall, long crack jumps, arrest in a rising K1 field, and warm prestressing. For the purpose of designing the experiments and evaluating their results, the static initiation and arrest toughness curves were determined for the test cylinders, and this was done using compact specimens. The experiments demonstrated WPS and arrest in a rising K1 field and indicated that LEFM is valid for thermal-shock loading

  20. The mechanism of the acclimation of Nannochloropsis oceanica to freshwater deduced from its transcriptome profiles

    Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we compared the transcriptomes of Nannochloropsis oceanica cultured in f/2 medium prepared with sea-water and freshwater, respectively, aiming to understand the acclimation mechanism of this alga to freshwater. Differentially expressed genes were mainly assigned to the degradation of cell components, ion transportation, and ribosomal biogenesis. These findings indicate that the algal cells degrade its components (mainly amino acids and fatty acids) to yield excessive energy (ATP) to maintain cellular ion (mainly K+ and Ca2+) homeostasis, while the depletion of amino acids and ATP, and the reduction of ribosomes attenuate the protein translation and finally slow down the cell growth.

  1. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si, δ13C and δ18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem δ30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and δ30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, δ30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher δ30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the δ30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account for the loss of DSi from solution.

  2. Variscan polyphase tectonothermal record in the West Sudetes (Bohemian Massif) - deduced from Ar-Ar ages

    Marheine, D.; Kachlík, V.; Patočka, František; Maluski, H.; Zelazniewicz, A.

    La Coruňa : International Basement Tectonics Association, 2000, s. 254-257. [International Conference on Basement Tectonics /15./, Galicia 2000.. La Coruňa (ES), 04.07.2000-08.07.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR BARRANDE97008; GA AV ČR KSK1012601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : HP-LT-; HT- metamorphic rocks * tectonothermal events * Ar-Ar geochronology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  3. Ground-Motion Scaling in the Kachchh Basin, India, Deduced from

    Malagnini, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Bodin, P.; Center for Earthquake Research and Information University of Memphis; Akinci, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2004-01-01

    We studied the excitation, propagation, and site effects in the Kachchh basin of India by using ground-motion recordings from a temporary seismograph network deployed to study aftershocks of the Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake of 26 January 2001. The Kachchh basin has been proposed as a useful analog region for studying hazard in other earthquake-prone but slowly deforming regions, such as the central United States. The earthquakes we studied ranged in size from about M 2 to M 5.2, a...

  4. Complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of rat liver catalase.

    Furuta, S.; Hayashi, H; Hijikata, M; Miyazawa, S.; Osumi, T; Hashimoto, T.

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated five cDNA clones for rat liver catalase (hydrogen peroxide:hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.6). These clones overlapped with each other and covered the entire length of the mRNA, which had been estimated to be 2.4 kilobases long by blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA. Nucleotide sequencing was carried out on these five clones and the composite nucleotide sequence of catalase cDNA was determined. The 5' noncoding region contained 83 b...

  5. Fungal diversity from various marine habitats deduced through culture-independent studies

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, C.

    taxa and have phylogenetic importance (López-García et al., 2007; Le Calvez et al., 2009; Jones et al., 2011). A few studies have exclusively studied the fungal diversity from marine habitats. They have also added to the list of environmental fungal... called because it was first described during the survey at the marine, anoxic vent habitat; however studies have added a number of environmental sequences belonging to this group from all the major marine habitats (Fig. 1). It has representative...

  6. Thrust kinematics deduced by primary and secondary magnetizations in the Internal Sierras (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    Oliva, B.; Pueyo, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Central Southern Pyrenees are composed (from N to S) by the Axial Zone (made by several basement-involved nappes; (Gavarnie and Guarga), the Internal Sierras (IS) fold and thrust belt (Larra and Monte Perdido units), the Jaca piggyback basin (turbiditic and molassic) and the External Sierras. Several paleomagnetic studies have been carried out during the last decades in all units except for the IS. Different amounts of rotation were reported, usually from primary directions. This work shows paleomagnetic results derived from recent investigations in the IS. 78 sites were sampled in different thrust sheets in the Larra and Monte Perdido units. Sites were collected in Upper Cretaceous rocks; all of them were homogeneously distributed along the range strike. A N-S section through the Eocene turbiditic basin was also done (9 sites) to link our results to previous data. Stepwise thermal demagnetization every 25-50^oC was performed to unravel the NRM components. Magnetic mineralogy essays (IRM, IST and low temperature) confirm magnetite as the major magnetic carrier. Two paleomagnetic components can be distinguished; A) an intermediate direction unblocking from 350^o to 450^oC and B) a high temperature component (from 500^o -575^oC). The B component displays two polarities and a positive fold and reverse tests whereas the A component shows only reverse polarity and a pervasive negative fold test. The A component has been also found in the Eocene transect. Two major clues help to constrain the remagnetization age; on one hand the deformation age (Early-Middle Eocene in the Larra and Monte Perdido units) and, on the other hand, the age of the turbiditic rocks (Middle Eocene). Therefore the remagnetization process took place by the end of the IS thrust system configuration or in a later period. Since the rotation detected by the A and B components are similar, the rotation age can be constrained as younger than the remagnetization. All these deductions have important implications in the Pyrenean kinematics: Larra and Monte Perdido units did not undergo any significant rotation during their configuration. Therefore the cover rocks accommodated the rotation during the basement units stacking (Gavarnie and/or Guarga nappes).

  7. Active Structure Evolutions Deduced from Geomorphic and Geodetic Evidence, from Hsinchu to Taoyuan, Northwestern Taiwan

    Chen, Y.; Wang, Y.; Hou, C.; Chen, W.

    2003-12-01

    As we know, Taiwan fault-and-thrust belt is built up by the arc-continent collision that is related to polarity flipping of subduction. The flipping boundary, delineated from Hsinchu to Hualien, divides the mountain belt into northern as well as southern part. Looking at the current tectonic configuration surrounding Taiwan, the northern one corresponds to the Ryukyu arc-trench system and has recently been influenced by back-arc rifting of Okinawa Trough (OT), which reactivated during Quaternary. As a consequence, the stress currently executing in northern Taiwan must be different from the southern Taiwan, manifesting to different neotectonic features. It is governed by the extensional stress transferred from OT. Basins, such as Taipei and Ilan, are the evidence to confirm this point. Along the western Taiwan located to the south of Taipei basin is the Taoyuan-Hsinchu area, where the landscape is still characterized by those previously produced under compression. In Taoyuan, two subparallel blind fault-related folds with axes trending NNE were developed due to the reactivation of preexisting normal fault system in continental margin. The entire system remained active until later than 30 ka. To the Hsinchu, the neotectonics is characterized by another two duplex systems (each one is composed of a thrust and its related anticline). The structural orientation is similar to of the Taoyuan. There are two main drainages, i,e.,Touchien and Fengshan rivers, flow across and separate Taoyuan and Hsinchu. Evident linear scarps and lineations have been developed aside oblique to the above-mentioned orientations of compression structures but roughly following the flowing direction. We interpret that they are generated by wrench fault systems tearing apart the original structures to accommodate the recently adjusted stress field. As recognized by the relevant geomorphic evidence, they are suggested as strike-slip faults with possibly normal dip-slip component. The newly accomplished dataset derived from geodetic network shows that except for the Hsincheng fault nearly no detectable contraction occurs across the major structures in the study area. The most surprising phenomenon is that the Fengshan river geodetically plays a major boundary. The northern crust (Taoyuan) is moving due east relatively to the southern crust (Hsinchu) in a rate of ca. 2 cm/yr. This represents that the Fengshan river is currently a right-lateral strike-slip fault, confirming the former strike-slip suggested by geomorphic features. To probe the other details, more stations and precise measurements are needed in the future.

  8. General formula to deduce the space charge tune spread from a quadrupolar pick-up measurement

    Metral, Elias

    2016-01-01

    In 1966, W. Hardt derived the oscillation frequencies obtained in the presence of space charge forces and gradients errors for elliptical beams. Since then, a simple formula is usually used to relate the shift of the quadrupolar mode (obtained from the quadrupolar pick-up) and the space charge tune spread, depending only on the ratio between the two transverse equilibrium beam sizes. However, this formula is not always valid, in particular for machines running close to the coupling resonance Qx = Qy with almost round beams. A new general formula is presented, giving the space charge tune spread as a function of i) the measured shift of the quadrupolar mode, ii) the ratio between the two transverse equilibrium beam sizes and iii) the distance between the two transverse tunes.

  9. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures.

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K; Haglund, Ellinor; Schug, Alexander; Onuchic, José N

    2015-12-28

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein's functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism. PMID:26723626

  10. High-frequency Earth rotation variations deduced from altimetry-based ocean tides

    Madzak, Matthias; Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Bosch, Wolfgang; Hagedoorn, Jan

    2016-06-01

    A model of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is constructed based on altimetry-measured tidal heights from a multi-mission empirical ocean tide solution. Barotropic currents contributing to relative angular momentum changes are estimated for nine major tides in a global inversion algorithm that solves the two-dimensional momentum equations on a regular 0.5° grid with a heavily weighted continuity constraint. The influence of 19 minor tides is accounted for by linear admittance interpolation of ocean tidal angular momentum, although the assumption of smooth admittance variations with frequency appears to be a doubtful concept for semi-diurnal mass terms in particular. A validation of the newly derived model based on post-fit corrections to polar motion and universal time (Δ UT1) from the analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations shows a variance reduction for semi-diurnal Δ UT1 residuals that is significant at the 0.05 level with respect to the conventional ERP model. Improvements are also evident for the explicitly modeled K_1 , Q_1 , and K_2 tides in individual ERP components, but large residuals of more than 15 μ as remain at the principal lunar frequencies of O_1 and M_2 . We attribute these shortcomings to uncertainties in the inverted relative angular momentum changes and, to a minor extent, to violation of mass conservation in the empirical ocean tide solution. Further dedicated hydrodynamic modeling efforts of these anomalous constituents are required to meet the accuracy standards of modern space geodesy.

  11. Volcanic and glacial evolution of Chachani-Nocarane complex (Southern Peru) deduced from the geomorphologic map.

    Alcalá, J.; Zamorano, J. J.; Palacios, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Chachani-Nocarane (16°11'S; 71°31'W; 6.057 m asl) is a large volcanic complex located in the western Central-Andean Cordillera, South of Peru. The date of the last eruption is not known and there are no registers of recent volcanic activity. The complex is shaped by glacial forms belonging to different phases, and periglacial forms (several generations of rock glaciers) which alternate with volcanic forms. The aim of this research is to establish the glacio-volcanic evolution of the volcanic complex Chachani-Nocarane. In order to do so, a detailed 1:20.000 scale geomorphological map was elaborated by integrating the following techniques: interpretation of the 1:35.000 scale aerial photographs (Instituto Geográfico Nacional de Perú, 1956) and the analysis of satellite images (Mrsid; NASA, 2000). Finally, the cartography was corrected though field work campaigns. Through the geomorphologic analysis of the landforms and their relative position, we have identified twelve phases, seven volcanic and five glacial phases. The most ancient volcanic phase is locate to the north area of the study area and correspond with Nocarane and Chingana volcanoes, alignment NW-SE. Above those ensemble the rest of the large delimited geomorphological units overlap. The most recent is located to the SW and consists of a complex series of domes, lava cones and voluminous lavas. Within the glacial phases, the most ancient one is related to the Last Glacial Maximum during the Pleistocene. Over this period, glaciers formed moraines from 3150 to 3600 m asl. The most recent glacier pulsation corresponds to the Little Ice Age (LIA). The moraines related to that event are the closest to the summits, located between 5.100 and 5.300 m asl, and they represent the last trace of glacial activity on the volcanic complex. Currently, this tropical mountain does not have glaciers. The only solid-state water reserves are found in the form of permafrost, as shown by various generations of rock glaciers placed in the upper part of the mountain, between 4.300 and 5.400 m asl in Nevado Nocarane and between 4.350 and 5.100 m asl in Nevado Chachani. Most of the delimited rock glaciers were formed under vertical walls where the supply of detritus material is significant. The generation of rock glaciers found at a higher altitude presents geomorphological indicators of current activity. Research funded by CGL2009-7343 project, Government of Spain.

  12. Velocity-Autocorrelation Function in Liquids, Deduced from Neutron Incoherent Scattering Results

    Carneiro, Kim

    1976-01-01

    The Fourier transform p(ω) of the velocity-autocorrelation function is derived from neutron incoherent scattering results, obtained from the two liquids Ar and H2. The quality and significance of the results are discussed with special emphasis on the long-time t-3/2 tail, found in computer...

  13. Ionospheric storm characteristics deduced from satellite radio beacon observations at three European stations

    Faraday rotation observations carried out at the stations Neustrelitz (53.30 N, 13.10 E), Graz (47.10 N, 15.50 E) and Florence (43.00 N, 10.70 E) by receiving the VHF beacon of the geostationary satellite SIRIO have been used to analyze more than hundred storm periods mainly on a statistical basis. Additionally, total electron content data obtained from differential Doppler measurements at NNSS satellite signals and vertical sounding data of the stations Dourbes (50.10 N, 4.60 E) and Rome (41.80 N, 12.50 E) are included in this analysis. The average response of the ionosphere shows an extended positive phase in winter whereas a well pronounced negative phase is typical for summer conditions. It is evident that the positive phase in electron content occurs in all seasons on the first storm day. The more pronounced storm effects in electron content than in f0 F2 indicate the important role of the upper ionosphere during storms. Further hints have been found for perturbations propagating equatorwards with seasonal dependent velocities accompanied by wind induced uplifting and mass transport of O2 and N2 leading to an enhanced loss of plasma. Immediately after SSC an eastward directed electric field is assumed to lift up the ionospheric plasma into regions of reduced loss. In general the storm associated percentage deviations of ionospheric electron content, F2 layer critical frequency, slab thickness as well as F2 layer height increase with enhanced geomagnetic activity

  14. Observing chaos: Deducing and tracking the state of a chaotic system from limited observation

    A method is proposed whereby the full state vector of a chaotic system can be reconstructed and tracked using only the time series of a single observed scalar. It is assumed that an accurate mathematical description of the system is available. Noise effects on the procedure are investigated using as an example a kicked mechanical system which results in a four-dimensional dissipative map

  15. An embrittlement rate effect deduced from HFIR that may impact LWR vessel support life expectancy

    Recent results from the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure-vessel-material surveillance program indicate that embrittlement rates of the several ferritic carbon steels are substantially greater than were anticipated. The apparent reason is that the fast neutron flux in the HFIR vessel is much less than that in materials testing reactors (factor of ≅ 10-4); that is, there is a fluence-rate effect. It was soon realized that these results may significantly impact the life expectancy for supports of some light-water reactor (LWR) vessels because the temperature and fast-neutron fluxes associated with supports are about the same as for the HFIR vessel. A preliminary evaluation of LWR supports was conducted by estimating the increases in the nil-ductility transition temperatures (NDTT) of supports in several LWR plants. An analysis based on the HFIR data predicts much higher ΔNDTTs than one based on materials-testing-reactor data. This result, combined with assumptions regarding loading conditions and flaws, provides a basis for concerns about support integrity. (orig.)

  16. An embrittlement rate effect deduced from HFIR that may impact LWR vessel support life expectancy

    The high-flux isotope reactor (HFIR) is a high-performance, light-water cooled, low-temperature (50-70 degrees C) research reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that began operation in 1965. Recent results from the HFIR pressure-vessel-material surveillance program indicate that the embrittlement rates of the several ferritic carbon steels are substantially greater than were anticipated, and the apparent reason is that the fast neutron flux in the HFIR vessel is much less than that in materials testing reactors (factor of ∼10-4): that is, there is a fluence-rate effect. It was soon realized that these results may significantly impact the life expectancy for supports of some light-water reactor vessels because the temperatures and fast-neutron fluxes associated with supports, which are located in the cavity between the vessel wall and biological shield, are about the same as for the HFIR vessel. To evaluate the impact, a study was initiated. Results of the study are discussed

  17. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K.; Haglund, Ellinor; Onuchic, José N., E-mail: jonuchic@rice.edu [Center for Theoretical Biological Physics and Department of Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Schug, Alexander [Steinbuch Centre for Computing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein’s functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism.

  18. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K.; Haglund, Ellinor; Schug, Alexander; Onuchic, José N.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein's functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism.

  19. Growth patterns of fossil vertebrates as deduced from bone microstructure: case studies from India

    S Ray; D Mukherjee; S Bandyopadhyay

    2009-11-01

    Bone microstructure is affected by ontogeny, phylogeny, biomechanics and environments. These aspects of life history of an extinct animal, especially its growth patterns, may be assessed as fossil bone generally maintains its histological integrity. Recent studies on the bone histology of fossil vertebrates from India encompass different types of temnospondyls and dicynodonts from different Permian and Triassic horizons. The examined taxa show that they had distinct bone histology and varied growth patterns. The Early Triassic trematosaurids had an overall fast growth, which contrasts with that of the Middle and Late Triassic temnospondyl taxa examined. The dicynodonts on the other hand, were characterized by an overall fast growth with periodic interruptions, variable growth rates dependent on ontogeny and indeterminate growth strategy. A comparative study encompassing several neotherapsid genera including the dicynodonts shows significant evolutionary trends towards determinate growth strategy and reduced developmental plasticity.

  20. The optical luminosity function of gamma-ray bursts deduced from ROTSE-III observations

    We present the optical luminosity function (LF) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) estimated from a uniform sample of 58 GRBs from observations with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment III (ROTSE-III). Our GRB sample is divided into two sub-samples: detected afterglows (18 GRBs) and those with upper limits (40 GRBs). We derive R-band fluxes for these two sub-samples 100 s after the onset of the burst. The optical LFs at 100 s are fitted by assuming that the co-moving GRB rate traces the star formation rate. While fitting the optical LFs using Monte Carlo simulations, we take into account the detection function of ROTSE-III. We find that the cumulative distribution of optical emission at 100 s is well described by an exponential rise and power-law decay, a broken power law,and Schechter LFs. A single power-law (SPL) LF, on the other hand, is ruled out with high confidence.

  1. The Ionospheric Bubble Index deduced from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm

    Park, Jaeheung; Noja, Max; Stolle, Claudia;

    2013-01-01

    . This product called L2-IBI is generated from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm, and gives information as to whether a Swarm magnetic field observation is affected by EPBs. We validate the performance of the L2-IBI product by using magnetic field and plasma measurements from the CHAMP...

  2. Crustal deformation deduced from gravity and geodetic data of the high Dam area, Aswan, Egypt

    Complete text of publication follows. The High Dam area in Aswan, Egypt has been subject to various geophysical and geodetic studies, due to its importance for some vital projects. Micro-gravity measurements were established for studying the stability of the road connecting the High and Old Aswan dams. In addition, the micro-gravity measurements were accompanied by the GPS and precise leveling measurements, in order to determine the accurate height of the observation points. Profile of 10 km length joins the High and Old Aswan dams was established to study the recent vertical movements in this road. Four campaigns from 2001 to 2006 were performed for collecting the micro-gravity measurements, precise leveling and GPS data. The stability study of this road, as depicted from the previous techniques is the main target of this paper. The accuracy of micro-gravity campaigns is about 5 microGal. The geodetic results indicated lower rates of vertical displacement. The subsidence of small area from the profile has been detected from the precise leveling contemporary to the negative gravity anomaly which it has been observed in the same part from the profile. The gravity results agree well with the precise leveling and GPS data and due to the stability of the road close to the High and Old Aswan dams.

  3. Aerosol-Precipitation Responses Deduced from Ship tracks as Observed by CloudSat

    Christensen, M.; Stephens, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    Ship tracks, produced from the exhaust plumes of ocean going vessels were analyzed using the 94-GHZ cloud profiling radar on the CloudSat satellite to examine the precipitation response of marine stratocumulus to changes in aerosol concentration. Ship tracks provide an ideal laboratory to study this response because the regions of clouds that are heavily contaminated by pollution can be separated from adjacent regions of clouds formed in the clean marine boundary layer. Several hundred ship tracks, coinciding with the radar and lidar observations from CloudSat and Calipso, were identified in MODIS imagery. The results demonstrate that, aerosol plumes from ships tend to decrease the spatial extent of rainfall (rain cover fraction) and intensity compared to the nearby pristine clouds. However, there were a substantial fraction of cases (30%), which exhibited increased rainfall. The sign and strength of the precipitation response was strongly tied to the mesoscale structure of the clouds. When the clouds exhibited closed cellular structures, liquid water amount, rainfall (-63%), and rain cover fraction significantly decreased (-55%). These reductions in rainfall were primarily associated with the decrease in rain cover fraction over the ship track domain. The opposite occurred in the open cell regime. Ship plumes ingested into this regime resulted in deeper, wetter, rainier, and brighter clouds, where rainfall increased by 88% primarily due to changes in intensity and to a lesser extent rain cover fraction. Microphysical changes almost always led to significantly smaller droplet radii in ship tracks, even when precipitation was increased. On the other hand, macrophysical changes (liquid water path) varied in magnitude and sign, and typically followed the direction of the precipitation response. The results presented here underline the need to consider the mesoscale structure of stratocumulus when examining the cloud dynamic response to changes in aerosol concentration.

  4. Decadal variability in core surface flows deduced from geomagnetic observatory monthly means

    Whaler, K. A.; Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris

    2016-01-01

    less favourable for studying the field generated by dynamo action in the core. We remove external field predictions, including a new way of characterising the magnetospheric ring current, from the data and then calculate revised monthly means using robust methods. The geomagnetic secular variation (SV...

  5. Late Quaternary changes in paleoproductivity and hydrography in the Azores region deduced from coccolithophore assemblages

    Schwab, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Marine sediment cores provide the opportunity to study past climatic changes, which is essential to understand the ongoing and future climate change. Within this context, the North Atlantic Ocean is one of the best-studied areas. However, most of these studies focus on the continental margins and shelfs, where thick piles of sediment allow a detailed reconstruction of past environmental changes. In contrast, little is known about the low- to midlatitude open ocean areas, which would be crucia...

  6. Structural and temporal requirements for geomagnetic field reversal deduced from lava flows.

    Singer, Brad S; Hoffman, Kenneth A; Coe, Robert S; Brown, Laurie L; Jicha, Brian R; Pringle, Malcolm S; Chauvin, Annick

    2005-03-31

    Reversals of the Earth's magnetic field reflect changes in the geodynamo--flow within the outer core--that generates the field. Constraining core processes or mantle properties that induce or modulate reversals requires knowing the timing and morphology of field changes that precede and accompany these reversals. But the short duration of transitional field states and fragmentary nature of even the best palaeomagnetic records make it difficult to provide a timeline for the reversal process. 40Ar/39Ar dating of lavas on Tahiti, long thought to record the primary part of the most recent 'Matuyama-Brunhes' reversal, gives an age of 795 +/- 7 kyr, indistinguishable from that of lavas in Chile and La Palma that record a transition in the Earth's magnetic field, but older than the accepted age for the reversal. Only the 'transitional' lavas on Maui and one from La Palma (dated at 776 +/- 2 kyr), agree with the astronomical age for the reversal. Here we propose that the older lavas record the onset of a geodynamo process, which only on occasion would result in polarity change. This initial instability, associated with the first of two decreases in field intensity, began approximately 18 kyr before the actual polarity switch. These data support the claim that complete reversals require a significant period for magnetic flux to escape from the solid inner core and sufficiently weaken its stabilizing effect. PMID:15800621

  7. Identification of widespread pollution in the southern hemisphere deduced from satellite analyses

    Vertical profiles of ozone obtained from ozonesondes in Brazzaville, Congo (4 degree S, 15 degree E), and Ascension Island (98 degree S, 15 degree W) show that large quantities of tropospheric ozone are present over southern Africa and the adjacent eastern tropical South Atlantic Ocean. The origin of this pollution is widespread biomass burning in Africa. These measurements support satellite-derived tropospheric ozone data that demonstrate that ozone originating from the region is transported throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere. Seasonally high levels of carbon monoxide and methane observed at middle- and high-latitude stations in Africa, Australia, and Antarctica likely reflect the effects of this distant biomass burning. These data suggest that even the most remote regions on this planet may be significantly more polluted than previously believed

  8. Deducing software process improvement areas from a Cocomo II-based productivity measurement.

    De Rore, L.; M. SNOECK; Poels, G; Dedene, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the SMEF2006 conference, we presented our experiences with the set-up of a measurement environment using the COCOMO II-model for software development projects in a company in the banking and insurance area. The set-up was part of a larger research project on managing efficiency aspects of software factory systems. One year of measurements later, a database of 22 projects is obtained. In this paper we will present our conclusions and findings after these first measurement results. The effor...

  9. Fishing for biodiversity: Novel methanopterin-linked C1 transfergenes deduced from the Sargasso Sea metagenome

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Nercessian, Olivier; Lapidus, Alla; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2004-07-01

    The recently generated database of microbial genes from anoligotrophic environment populated by a calculated 1,800 of major phylotypes (the Sargasso Sea metagenome) presents a great source for expanding local databases of genes indicative of a specific function. In this paper we analyze the Sargasso Sea metagenome in terms of the presence of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer genes that are signature for methylotrophy. We conclude that more than 10 phylotypes possessing genes of interest are present in this environment, and a few of these are relatively abundant species. The sequences representative of the major phylotypes do not appear to belong to any known microbial group capable of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer. Instead, they separate from all known sequences on phylogenetic trees, pointing towards their affiliation with a novel microbial phylum. These data imply a broader distribution of methanopterin-linked functions in the microbial world than previously known.

  10. Phase lag deduced information in photo-thermal actuation for nano-mechanical systems characterization

    Bijster, R. J. F., E-mail: roy.bijster@tno.nl; Vreugd, J. de [Department of Optomechatronics, TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands); Sadeghian, H. [Department of Optomechatronics, TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands); Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-08-18

    In photo-thermal actuation, heat is added locally to a micro-cantilever by means of a laser. A fraction of the irradiation is absorbed, yielding thermal stresses and deformations in the structure. Harmonic modulation of the laser power causes the cantilever to oscillate. Moreover, a phase lag is introduced which is very sensitive to the spot location and the cantilever properties. This phase lag is theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. Combined with thermo-mechanical properties of the cantilever and its geometry, the location of the laser spot, the thermal diffusivity, and the layer thicknesses of the cantilever can be extracted.

  11. Comparison of CSC method and the B-net method for deducing smoothness condition

    Renhong Wang; Kai Qu

    2009-01-01

    The first author of this paper established an approach to study the multivariate spline over arbitrary partition,and presented the so-called conformality method of smoothing cofactor (the CSC method).Farin introduced the B-net method which is suitable for studying the multivariate spline over simplex partitions.This paper indicates that the smoothness conditions obtained in terms of the B-net method can be derived by the CSC method for the spline spaces over simplex partitions,and the CSC method is more capable in some sense than the B-net method in studying the multivariate spline.

  12. Electronic structure of quasicrystals deduced from Auger and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    Specific features in the electronic structure of Al-transition metal quasicrystals are analysed by a combination of Auger and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. We first demonstrate that different degrees of asymmetry in the transition metals' 2p core-level lineshape observed across different types of surface structure correspond to variations in the density of states at the Fermi level, DOS(EF). Using this effect, we explore the controversial issue of whether the quasicrystalline, decagonal AlNiCo system is electronically stabilized. We find strong evidence for the presence of a reduced DOS(EF) in this system, as expected for electronically stabilized compounds, and as observed in the quasicrystalline, icosahedral AlPdMn and AlCuFe alloys. Finally, qualitative information on the nature of the electronic states in quasiperiodic structures extracted from the core-valence-valence Auger lines are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Temporal Changes in Eruption Dynamics at Tungurahua Volcano Deduced from Infrasonic Measurements, June 2009

    Parmigiani, A.; Chojnicki, K. N.; Parcheta, C. E.; Christensen, B.; Marcillo, O. E.; Johnson, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    Tungurahua volcano (1.45S, 78.43W, 5023m), located in the heart of the Andes and within Ecuador's Eastern Cordillera, is the most active populated volcano in the region. Since 1999 Tungurahua has affected the communities on its western flanks with a continuous cycle of Strombolian and Vulcanian activity (VEI 0 and 1) that climaxed on August 16th, 2006 with a VEI 2 event. Continuous tracking of Tungurahua eruptive activity presents a challenge as inclement weather often prevents direct observation of eruptive activity and strong volcanic tremor often masks seismic signals associated with explosive events. Infrasound signals have thus proven invaluable in identifying explosive activity and estimating erupted flux at Tungurahua. During a 10-day-long campaign in June 2009, two temporary arrays (a seismo-acoustic array at 6 km and an acoustic array at 11.5 km) were installed to provide insight into temporal changes in eruption dynamics and near-vent conditions. During the deployment interval, explosive activity was dominated by impulsive infrasonic events. Time-lapse camera footage confirmed Strombolian-style eruptions associated with 77 impulsive events, recorded at an average rate of 8 explosions per day. Columns with variable ash content rose from 2-6 km above the crater rim and incandescent blocks were seen to rise up to 800 meters in altitude during some events. Corresponding infrasonic waveforms had peak pressures as great as 74 Pa at 6 km from the vent and the primary pulses lasted 6-10s. Waveform shapes often displayed high levels of self-similarity in contrast to their seismic counterparts, which persisted up to 40-50s and were emergent and dis-similar. Acoustic array beam-forming and semblance analyses have been employed to decompose the infrasonic wave field, verify volcano acoustic sources, construct a volcano acoustic catalogue, and identify apparent variations in the lateral position of the vent(s). The ratio of elastic energy propagated into the atmosphere relative to energy into the earth is also studied and shown to be variable, suggesting a narrow, dynamic conduit whose geometry and/or eruption mechanism changes between eruption pulses. Finally, mass flux is determined from infrasound N-waves at the beginning of the most vigorous cannon-shot eruptions. This analysis provides insight into the volume of gas that is explosively released at the onset of a discrete explosion.

  14. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.;

    1992-01-01

    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior of...

  15. Light elements burning reaction rates at stellar temperatures as deduced by the Trojan Horse measurements

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Sergi, M. L.

    2015-02-01

    Experimental nuclear astrophysics aims at determining the reaction rates for astrophysically relevant reactions at their Gamow energies. For charged-particle induced reactions, the access to these energies is usually hindered, in direct measurements, by the presence of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting particles or by electron screening effects, which make hard the determination of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor of interest for astrophysical codes. The use of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) appears as one of the most suitable tools for investigating nuclear processes of interest for astrophysics. Here, in view of the recent TH measurements, the main destruction channels for deuterium (2H ), for the two lithium 6,7Li isotopes, for the 9Be and the one for the two boron 10,11B isotopes will be discussed.

  16. Properties of post-shock solar wind deduced from geomagnetic indices responses after sudden impulses

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shock plays a key role in causing the global dynamic changes of the geospace environment. For the perspective of Solar-Terrestrial relationship, it will be of great importance to estimate the properties of post-shock solar wind simply and accurately. Motivated by this, we performed a statistical analysis of IP shocks during 1998-2008, focusing on the significantly different responses of two well-used geomagnetic indices (SYMH and AL) to the passive of two types of IP shocks. For the IP shocks with northward IMF (91 cases), the SYMH index keeps on the high level after the sudden impulses (SI) for a long time. Meanwhile, the change of AL index is relative small, with an mean value of only -29 nT. However, for the IP shocks with southward IMF (92 cases), the SYMH index suddenly decreases at a certain rate after SI, and the change of AL index is much significant, of -316 nT. Furthermore, the change rate of SYMH index after SI is found to be linearly correlated with the post-shock reconnection ...

  17. Decadal variability in core surface flows deduced from geomagnetic observatory monthly means

    Whaler, K. A.; Olsen, N.; Finlay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    Monthly means of the magnetic field measurements at ground observatories are a key data source for studying temporal changes of the core magnetic field. However, when they are calculated in the usual way, contributions of external (magnetospheric and ionospheric) origin may remain, which make them less favourable for studying the field generated by dynamo action in the core. We remove external field predictions, including a new way of characterising the magnetospheric ring current, from the data and then calculate revised monthly means using robust methods. The geomagnetic secular variation (SV) is calculated as the first annual differences of these monthly means, which also removes the static crustal field. SV time series based on revised monthly means are much less scattered than those calculated from ordinary monthly means, and their variances and correlations between components are smaller. On the annual to decadal timescale, the SV is generated primarily by advection in the fluid outer core. We demonstrate the utility of the revised monthly means by calculating models of the core surface advective flow between 1997 and 2013 directly from the SV data. One set of models assumes flow that is constant over three months; such models exhibit large and rapid temporal variations. For models of this type, less complex flows achieve the same fit to the SV derived from revised monthly means than those from ordinary monthly means. However, those obtained from ordinary monthly means are able to follow excursions in SV that are likely to be external field contamination rather than core signals. Having established that we can find models that fit the data adequately, we then assess how much temporal variability is required. Previous studies have suggested that the flow is consistent with torsional oscillations (TO), solid body-like oscillations of fluid on concentric cylinders with axes aligned along the Earth's rotation axis. TO have been proposed to explain decadal timescale changes in the length-of-day. We invert for flow models where the only temporal changes are consistent with TO, but such models have an unacceptably large data misfit. However, if we relax the TO constraint to allow a little more temporal variability, we can fit the data as well as with flows assumed constant over three months, demonstrating that rapid SV changes can be reproduced by rather small flow changes. Although the flow itself changes slowly, its time derivative can be locally (temporally and spatially) large, in particular when and where core surface secular acceleration peaks. Spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the flows are not well resolved, and many of them are strongly correlated. Averaging functions, a measure of our ability to determine the flow at a given location from the data distribution available, are poor approximations to the ideal, even when centred on points of the core surface below areas of high observatory density. Both resolution and averaging functions are noticeably worse for the toroidal flow component, which dominates the flow, than the poloidal flow component, except around the magnetic equator where averaging functions for both components are poor.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of the green alga Volvox carteri deduced from small-subunit ribosomal RNA comparisons.

    Rausch, H; Larsen, N; Schmitt, R

    1989-09-01

    The 1788-nucleotide sequence of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) coding region from the chlorophyte Volvox carteri was determined. The secondary structure bears features typical of the universal model of srRNA, including about 40 helices and a division into four domains. Phylogenetic relationships to 17 other eukaryotes, including two other chlorophytes, were explored by comparing srRNA sequences. Similarity values and the inspection of phylogenetic trees derived by distance matrix methods revealed a close relationship between V. carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results are consistent with the view that these Volvocales, and the third green alga, Nanochlorum eucaryotum, are more closely related to higher plants than to any other major eukaryotic group, but constitute a distinct lineage that has long been separated from the line leading to the higher plants. PMID:2506359

  19. The optical luminosity function of gamma-ray bursts deduced from ROTSE-III observations

    Cui, X. H.; Wu, X. F.; Wei, J. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yuan, F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Zheng, W. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Liang, E. W. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Akerlof, C. W.; McKay, T. A. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ashley, M. C. B. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Flewelling, H. A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Göǧüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, 34956 İstanbul (Turkey); Güver, T. [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Istanbul University Science Faculty, 34119 Istanbul (Turkey); Kızıloǧlu, Ü. [Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Pandey, S. B. [ARIES, Manora Peak, Nainital 263129, Uttarakhand (India); Rykoff, E. S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Rujopakarn, W. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Schaefer, B. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wheeler, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Yost, S. A., E-mail: xhcui@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fang.yuan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zwk@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, College of St. Benedict, St. John' s University, Collegeville, MN 56321 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We present the optical luminosity function (LF) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) estimated from a uniform sample of 58 GRBs from observations with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment III (ROTSE-III). Our GRB sample is divided into two sub-samples: detected afterglows (18 GRBs) and those with upper limits (40 GRBs). We derive R-band fluxes for these two sub-samples 100 s after the onset of the burst. The optical LFs at 100 s are fitted by assuming that the co-moving GRB rate traces the star formation rate. While fitting the optical LFs using Monte Carlo simulations, we take into account the detection function of ROTSE-III. We find that the cumulative distribution of optical emission at 100 s is well described by an exponential rise and power-law decay, a broken power law,and Schechter LFs. A single power-law (SPL) LF, on the other hand, is ruled out with high confidence.

  20. Novel scenarios for sustainable waterway sediments management deduced from a decision-support tool

    Lemiere, Bruno; Michel, Pascale; Alary, Claire; Haouche, Laurence; Brequel, Hervé; Jacob, Jérome; Gineys, Nathalie; Laboudigue, Agnès; Laboudigue, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    International audience Introduction: Sediments accumulating in waterways represent a triple threat: for fluvial navigation, for flooding hazards, and for their pollutant contents. Waterways dredging releases millions of m3 of sediments, from which a large part is contaminated or even polluted enough to be considered as hazardous waste. Temporary or final storage on land is no longer a sustainable option. Methods: The GeDSeT decision support tool (DST) aims to provide sediment management op...

  1. Investigations for deducing wall thickness of aluminium shell casting using three dimensional printing

    R. Singh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of the present study is to verify the feasibility of decreasing the shell thickness in rapid shell castingbased upon ‘three dimensional printing’ technology in order to evaluate the dimensional accuracy for aluminumcastings. Rapid prototyping has been in evidence for the past twenty years and is being widely used in diverseareas, from the building of aesthetic and functional prototypes to the production of tools and moulds fortechnological prototypesDesign/methodology/approach: Further consistency with the tolerance grades of the castings has been checkedas per IT grades along with mechanical properties of the aluminium castings. Starting from the identification ofcomponent/ 87benchmark, technological prototypes are produced with different shell thicknesses. Measurementson a coordinate measuring machine allowed calculating the dimensional tolerances of the castings produced.Findings: The research proved that the shell thickness having value less than the recommended one is moresuitable from dimensional accuracy and economic point of view. The result indicates that at 5 mm shellthickness, hardness of the casting is improved by 3.79%. Further production cost and production time has beenreduced by 54.6% and 55.4% respectively in comparison to 12 mm recommended shell thickness.Practical implications: The analysis procedure is better for proof of concept and for the new product, for whichthe cost of production for dies and other tooling is more.Originality/value: The 3DP technique at different shell thicknesses (12 mm to 2 mm provided satisfactoryresults, limited at present to the field of light alloys. This process ensures rapid production of pre-seriestechnological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time.

  2. Active tectonics of the Caucasus/Caspian region : Deduced from GPS, neotectonic, gravity and seismically date

    Full text : The Caucasus and Caspian sea are historically among the most seismically active regions on earth. These earthquakes had caused thousands of deaths and great economic distress following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Future earthquakes in the Caucasus and Caspian sea must be considered and planned for in order to limit their impact on the people, ecology and infrastructure of the region. The geodynamic and earthquake activity in the Caucasus/Caspian region is due to the ongoing collision of the Arabian and African plates with Eurasia. Major problems persist because of the complexity of the region and the need for more detailed studies of both existing data and new data relevant to active tectonics. The Global Positioning System consists of a constellation of 24 satellites, a control segment operated by the US Department of Defence and the end user. The GPS measurement date have been analysed using the GAMIT/GLOBK software. There are number of questions that are critical to the earthquake hazard in Azerbaijan. It was proposed to acquire under this project and it will be incorporated other existing data to help develop realistic models for active tectonics and earthquakes hazards.

  3. Historical record of concentrations of atmospheric trace components deduced from a glacier in the Alps

    A 109 m ice core from a high-alpine glacier (Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa massif, 4440 m a.s.l., Switzerland) was used to reconstruct the history of atmospheric trace components. Concentrations of the anions chloride, nitrate, sulfate and the cations sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium and calcium were measured with 2.5-5.0 cm resolution in the top 70 m of a 109 m long of the ice core. Dating of the ice core was performed using stratigraphic markers such as historically known Saharan dust events, the atomic bomb horizon and volcanic eruptions and supplemented with the 210Pb nuclear dating. The record covers the time period from about 1755-1981. The concentrations of nitrate and sulfate show an exponential increase from 1930 and 1870 until 1965, respectively. The factors of increase were 2.3±0.3 and 5.8±0.9, respectively. The chloride concentrations remained constant during this period. A good agreement between the concentrations of sulfate, which were corrected for the contribution of seasalt and mineral dust and the European SO2-emissions was found for the last 100 years. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium did not show a trend. The concentrations of ammonium increased exponentially between 1870 and 1960 by a factor of 2.2±0.4. The different sources of the trace components were identified using correlation analysis. Sodium and chloride originated from seasalt, magnesium and calcium from geologic erosion. For both, the industrial and pre-industrial period, the dominant source of ammonium and nitrate was conversion of the gaseous precursors NH3 and HNO3. Sulfate concentrations in the industrial period originated from the anthropogenically emitted SO2, whereas in the pre-industrial period the geologic source dominated. The Colle Gnifetti accumulates mainly summer snow, and therefore, several test drillings were performed to find a new site with higher accumulation rate. (author) figs., 17 tabs., 50 refs

  4. Evaluating woody material transport and deposition in alpine rivers and deducing risk mitigation approaches

    Mazzorana, B.; Zischg, A.; Hübl, J.; Largiader, A.

    2009-04-01

    The impact levels of recent flashflood events in Switzerland and Western Austria in 2005 have significantly been accentuated by a considerable amount of transported woody material. As a consequence, either protection measures or bridges suffered considerable damage. Furthermore, cross-sectional obstructions due to woody material entrapment caused unexpected floodplain inundations resulting in severe damage to elements at risk. Until now, these woody material transport phenomena are neither sufficiently taken into account nor systematically considered, leading to a decrease in prediction accuracy during the procedure of hazard mapping. To close this gap, a procedure is proposed that (1) allows for the estimation of woody material recruitment from wood covered bankslopes and floodplains within the perimeter of the considered extreme flood event; and (2) permits the analysis of, the disposition for woody material entrainment and transport to selected critical configurations along the channel. The proposed procedure had been implemented into an ArcGIS-environment and provided indications for potential accentuation of flood hazards due to the transport of woody material. Results from a case study suggested the general applicability of the concept. The computational results can be used to devise effective risk mitigation strategies that comprise: (1) selective woody material volume reduction within the source areas, (2) thinning measures to increase the elasticity of the forest structure, (3) preventive interception of transported woody material and (4) redesign of the critical configurations.

  5. Upper crustal resistivity structure around earthquake swarm deduced from dense AMT/MT observations

    Complete text of publication follows. Investigation of the electrical structure around a seismic active region is an important issue to discuss what control the seismicity. The southeastern flank of the Ontake volcano, which is located in central Japan, is one of the most interesting fields to be explored. In this area, earthquake swarm activity has been continuously observed since 1976. Additionally, a large earthquake with the depth about 2km and a magnitude of 6.8 occurred in 1984 in the swarm region. Recent study of seismic tomography investigated by dense seismic network (Noda et al., 2007) found out low velocity anomalies beneath earthquake clusters. In order to delineate the detailed physical properties of the upper crust surrounding the seismogenic zone compared with fine velocity structure, we plan to image lateral heterogeneity of subsurface electrical structure. Here, we report on new audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquired in 2008 at 34 sites. Our data are complemented with 34 broad-band MT sites of previous investigations (Kasaya et al., 2002; Iio et al., 2000). As a consequence of the preliminary two-dimensional inversion, conductive zone was found along the fault plane of the 1984 Earthquake. This electrical image was consistent, in principle, with previous broad-band MT studies. Additionally, several patches of conductor were also revealed at shallower depths. In this presentation, we will introduce dense AMT/MT data and discuss lateral heterogeneity on electrical resistivity comparing with the seismicity and velocity structure.

  6. Phase lag deduced information in photo-thermal actuation for nano-mechanical systems characterization

    In photo-thermal actuation, heat is added locally to a micro-cantilever by means of a laser. A fraction of the irradiation is absorbed, yielding thermal stresses and deformations in the structure. Harmonic modulation of the laser power causes the cantilever to oscillate. Moreover, a phase lag is introduced which is very sensitive to the spot location and the cantilever properties. This phase lag is theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. Combined with thermo-mechanical properties of the cantilever and its geometry, the location of the laser spot, the thermal diffusivity, and the layer thicknesses of the cantilever can be extracted.

  7. Influence of the growth process on some laws deduced from percolation theory

    A brutal application of the percolation theory to some physical problems can lead to erroneous interpretation of the experimental results. Among these problems, the influence of the growth process on the percolation laws is studied. The behaviour of nsub(s)(t), the number of clusters of size s, at time t, is analyzed and linked to a macroscopic property of the system for a comparison to experimental laws. (author)

  8. Numbers of Electrons in Solar Flares as Deduced from Microwave and X-Ray Bursts

    YU Xing-Feng; YAO Jin-Xing

    2001-01-01

    We discuss whether the numbers of x-ray and radio-produced electrons in solar flares are the same. The number of radio-produced electrons that is estimated with an inhomogeneous source increases by a factor of 103 - 104because of the inhomogeneity and the decreased magnetic field (B = 120 G) of the radio source. The number of x-ray-produced electrons decreases by a factor of 10 - 30 due to the increase of the number density of ions (3 × 1010 cm-3). These are the reasons why the number of radio-produced electrons is approximately equal tothat of x-ray-produced electrons in the 1981 April 27 burst.

  9. The static properties of nuclei can be deduced from the dynamics of a single quark

    Kosyakov, B P; Vronskii, M A

    2016-01-01

    We show that the static properties of a nucleus could arise from a single quark moving in a mean field due to all other constituents of this nucleus. The resulting model provides a way for determining nuclear sizes characteristic of the liquid drop model and reasonably accurate values of magnetic moments of different nuclei.

  10. Evolutionary relationships among members of the Bromoviridae deduced from whole proteome analysis.

    Codoñer, F M; Elena, S F

    2006-02-01

    Many molecular phylogenies of viruses build upon the analysis of single genes. The study of whole-genomes, however, might yield more reliable information to infer tree topologies and a better approach for drawing the evolutionary history of virus families. In this study, we apply a novel comparative proteomic approach to seek whether incorporating information from the entire proteome would support the actual taxonomy of the family Bromoviridae. Our results suggest that the current taxonomic classification should be modified in several aspects to account for the genomic properties of the Bromoviridae. These differences are: i) Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is a true Ilarvirus instead of constituting an independent genus; ii) Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) should be considered as a member of the Bromoviridae; and iii) the genus Ilarvirus should be divided into fewer phylogenetic subgroups than suggested by antigenic differences. PMID:16172839

  11. Organised structures in wall turbulence as deduced from stability theory-based methods

    P K Sen; S V Veeravalli; P W Carpenter; G Joshi; P S Josan

    2007-02-01

    In earlier work, we have explored the relevance of hydrodynamic stability theory to fully developed turbulent wall flows. Using an extended Orr-Summerfeld Equation, based on an anisotropic eddy-viscosity model, it was shown that there exists a wide range of unstable wave numbers (wall modes), which mimic some of the key features of turbulent wall flows. Here we present experimental confirmation for the same. There is good qualitative and quantitative agreement between theory and experiment. Once the dominant coherent structure is obtained from stability theory, control of turbulence would be the next logical step. As shown, the use of a compliant wall shows considerable promise. We also present some theoretical work for bypass transition (Klebanoff/K-modes), wherein the receptivity of a laminar boundary layer to a vortex sheet in the freestream has been studied. Further, it is shown that triadic interaction between K-modes, 2D TS waves and 3D TS waves can lead to rapid algebraic growth. A similar mechanism seems to carry over to inner wall structures in wall turbulence and perhaps this is the “root cause” for sustenance of turbulence.

  12. Identification of Widespread Pollution in the Southern Hemisphere Deduced from Satellite Analyses

    Fishman, J.; Fakhruzzaman, K.; Cros, B.; Nganga, D.

    1991-06-01

    Vertical profiles of ozone obtained from ozonesondes in Brazzaville, Congo (4^circS, 15^circE), and Ascension Island (8^circS, 15^circW) show that large quantities of tropospheric ozone are present over southern Africa and the adjacent eastern tropical South Atlantic Ocean. The origin of this pollution is widespread biomass burning in Africa. These measurements support satellite-derived tropospheric ozone data that demonstrate that ozone originating from this region is transported throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere. Seasonally high levels of carbon monoxide and methane observed at middle- and high-latitude stations in Africa, Australia, and Antarctica likely reflect the effects of this distant biomass burning. These data suggest that even the most remote regions on this planet may be significantly more polluted than previously believed.

  13. The radial profile of the inner heliospheric magnetic field as deduced from Faraday rotation observations

    Mancuso, S

    2013-01-01

    Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of the polarized emission from extragalactic radio sources occulted by the coronal plasma were used to infer the radial profile of the inner heliospheric magnetic field near solar minimum activity. By inverting LASCO/SOHO polarized brightness (pB) data taken during the days of observations on May 1997, we retrieved the electron density distribution along the lines of sight to the sources, thus allowing to disentangle the two plasma properties that contribute to the observed RMs. By comparing the observed RM values to those theoretically predicted by a power-law model of the radial component of the coronal magnetic field, using a best-fitting procedure, we found that the radial component of the inner heliospheric magnetic field can be nicely approximated by a power-law of the form B_r = 3.76 r^{-2.29} G in a range of heights from about 5 to 14 solar radii. Finally, our analysis suggests that the radial computation of the potential field source surface (PFSS) model from the Wilco...

  14. Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences

    Hori, Hiroshi; Lim, Byung-Lak; OSAWA, Syozo

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land pl...

  15. The verification of lightning location accuracy in Finland deduced from lightning strikes to trees

    Mäkelä, Antti; Mäkelä, Jakke; Haapalainen, Jussi; Porjo, Niko

    2016-05-01

    We present a new method to determine the ground truth and accuracy of lightning location systems (LLS), using natural lightning strikes to trees. Observations of strikes to trees are being collected with a Web-based survey tool at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Since the Finnish thunderstorms tend to have on average a low flash rate, it is often possible to identify from the LLS data unambiguously the stroke that caused damage to a given tree. The coordinates of the tree are then the ground truth for that stroke. The technique has clear advantages over other methods used to determine the ground truth. Instrumented towers and rocket launches measure upward-propagating lightning. Video and audio records, even with triangulation, are rarely capable of high accuracy. We present data for 36 quality-controlled tree strikes in the years 2007-2008. We show that the average inaccuracy of the lightning location network for that period was 600 m. In addition, we show that the 50% confidence ellipse calculated by the lightning location network and used operationally for describing the location accuracy is physically meaningful: half of all the strikes were located within the uncertainty ellipse of the nearest recorded stroke. Using tree strike data thus allows not only the accuracy of the LLS to be estimated but also the reliability of the uncertainty ellipse. To our knowledge, this method has not been attempted before for natural lightning.

  16. Light elements burning reaction rates at stellar temperatures as deduced by the Trojan Horse measurements

    Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Puglia, S. M. R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    Experimental nuclear astrophysics aims at determining the reaction rates for astrophysically relevant reactions at their Gamow energies. For charged-particle induced reactions, the access to these energies is usually hindered, in direct measurements, by the presence of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting particles or by electron screening effects, which make hard the determination of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor of interest for astrophysical codes. The use of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) appears as one of the most suitable tools for investigating nuclear processes of interest for astrophysics. Here, in view of the recent TH measurements, the main destruction channels for deuterium ({sup 2}H), for the two lithium {sup 6,7}Li isotopes, for the {sup 9}Be and the one for the two boron {sup 10,11}B isotopes will be discussed.

  17. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.; Kjems, Jørgen; Ott, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior of...... the possibility of two spectral dimensions characterizing the fracton modes. Our data imply important differences between the physical mechanisms dominating the low-temperature behavior of aerogels and dense glasses, respectively. From our analysis we also conclude that the low-temperature properties...

  18. Palaeoclimatic trends deduced from the hydrochemistry of a Triassic sandstone aquifer, U.K

    A detailed geochemical study (elemental, isotopic and dissolved inert gases) of unconfined and confined sections of the Triassic non-marine sandstone aquifer in Eastern England has been undertaken. Aspects of the recharge history of this aquifer over the past 40 000 years are revealed by examination of the data. (orig./HK)

  19. Surface currents in the Caribbean Sea as deduced from Lagrangian observations

    Molinari, Robert L.; Spillane, Michael; Brooks, Irving; Atwood, Donald; Duckett, Carol

    1981-07-01

    The results of a satellite tracked drifting buoy experiment conducted in the Caribbean Sea from October 1975 through June 1976 are presented. The buoy trajectories suggest that the Aves Rise, Beata Ridge, and Nicaraguan Rise are regions where considerable mesoscale variability occurs in the surface flow. The variability is in the form of current deflections; small diameter eddies ranging in size from 20 to 100 km; large amplitude meanders, with amplitudes greater than 150 km; and large diameter eddies, with diameters greater than 200 km which form on and near these rises and ridges. In the central Caribbean, where the topographic relief is not as dramatic, the flow is predominantly zonal. Intensifications in the surface flow occur off the coast of Colombia, south of the Nicaraguan Rise, and south of the Yucatan Strait.

  20. Surface currents in the Caribbean Sea as deduced from lagrangian observations

    Molinari, R.L.; Spillane, M.; Brooks, I.; Atwood, D.; Duckett, C.

    1981-07-20

    The results of a satellite tracked drifting buoy experiment conducted in the Caribbean Sea from October 1975 through June 1976 are presented. The buoy trajectories suggest that the Aves Rise, Beata Ridge, and Nicaraguan Rise are regions where considerable mesoscale variability occurs in the surface flow. The variability is in the form of current deflections; small diameter eddies ranging in size from 20 to 100 km; large amplitude meanders, with amplitudes greater than 150 km; and large diameter eddies, with diameters greater than 200 km which form on and near these rises and ridges. In the central Caribbean, where the topographic relief is not as dramatic, the flow is predominantly zonal. Intensifications in the surface flow occur off the coast of Colombia, south of the Nicaraguan Rise, and south of the Yucatan Strait.

  1. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Gopalakrishnan, Anantharaman; Modenese, Luca; Phillips, Andrew T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a “muscle synergy” based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings) and their control signals (termed synergy controls) have traditionally been derived by the factorizati...

  2. Deducing Shape of Anisotropic Particles in Solution from Light Scattering: Spindles and Nanorods

    Tsuper, Ilona; Terrano, Daniel; Streletzky, Kiril A.; Dement'eva, Olga V.; Semyonov, Sergey A.; Rudoy, Victor M.

    Depolarized Dynamic Light Scattering (DDLS) enables to measure rotational and translational diffusion of nanoparticles suspended in solution. The particle size, shape, diffusion, and interactions can then be inferred from the DDLS data using various models of diffusion. Incorporating the technique of DDLS to analyze the dimensions of easily imaged elongated particles, such as Iron (III) oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) Spindles and gold Nanorods, allows testing of the models for rotational and translational diffusion of elongated particles in solution. This, in turn, can help to better interpret DDLS data on hard-to-image anisotropic wet systems such as micelles, microgels, and protein complexes. This study focused on FeOOH Spindles and gold nanorod particles. The light scattering results on FeOOH analyzed using the basic model of non-interacting prolate ellipsoids yielded dimensions within 17% of the SEM measured dimensions. The dimensions of gold nanorod obtained from the straight cylinder model of DDLS data provided results within 25% of the sizes that were obtained from TEM. The nanorod DDLS data was also analyzed by a spherocylinder model.

  3. Lower mantle thermal structure deduced from seismic tomography, mineral physics and numerical modelling

    Cadek, O.; Yuen, D. A.; Steinbach, V.; Chopelas, A.; Matyska, C.

    1994-01-01

    The long-wavelength thermal anomalies in the lower mantle have been mapped out using several seismic tomographic models in conjunction with thermodynamic parameters derived from high-pressure mineral physics experiments. These parameters are the depth variations of thermal expansivity and of the proportionality factor between changes in density and seismic velocity. The giant plume-like structures in the lower mantle under the Pacific Ocean and Africa have outer fringes with thermal anomalies around 300-400 K, but very high temperatures are found in the center of the plumes near the base of the core-mantle boundary. These extreme values can exceed +1500 K and may reflect large hot thermal anomalies in the lower mantle, which are supported by recent measurements of high melting temperatures of perovskite and iron. Extremely cold anomalies, around -1500 K, are found for anomalies in the deep mantle around the Pacific rim and under South America. Numerical simulations show that large negative thermal anomalies in the mid-lower mantle have modest magnitudes of around -500 K. correlation pattern exists between the present-day locations of cold masses in the lower mantle and the sites of past subduction since the Cretaceous. Results from correlation analysis show that the slab mass-flux in the lower mantle did not conform to a steady-state nature but exhibited time-dependent behavior.

  4. Deducing Wild 2 Components with a Statistical Dataset of Olivine in Chondrite Matrix

    Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, M. E.; Le, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A preliminary exam of the Wild 2 olivine yielded a major element distribution that is strikingly similar to those for aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, and CR) [1], in which FeO-rich olivine is preferentially altered. With evidence lacking for large-scale alteration in Wild 2, the mechanism for this apparent selectivity is poorly understood. We use a statistical approach to explain this distribution in terms of relative contributions from different chondrite forming regions. Samples and Analyses: We have made a particular effort to obtain the best possible analyses of both major and minor elements in Wild 2 olivine and the 5-30 micrometer population in chondrite matrix. Previous studies of chondrite matrix either include larger isolated grains (not found in the Wild 2 collection) or lack minor element abundances. To overcome this gap in the existing data, we have now compiled greater than 10(exp 3) EPMA analyses of matrix olivine in CI, CM, CR, CH, Kakangari, C2-ungrouped, and the least equilibrated CO, CV, LL, and EH chondrites. Also, we are acquiring TEM/EDXS analyses of the Wild 2 olivine with 500s count times, to reduce relative errors of minor elements with respect to those otherwise available. Results: Using our Wild 2 analyses and those from [2], the revised major element distribution is more similar to anhydrous IDPs than previous results, which were based on more limited statistics (see figure below). However, a large frequency peak at Fa(sub 0-1) still persists. All but one of these grains has no detectable Cr, which is dissimilar to the Fa(sub 0-1) found in the CI and CM matrices. In fact, Fa(sub 0-1) with strongly depleted Cr content is a composition that appears to be unique to Kakangari and enstatite (highly reduced) chondrites. We also note the paucity of Fa(sub greater than 58), which would typically indicate crystallization in a more oxidizing environment [3]. We conclude that, relative to the bulk of anhydrous IDPs, Wild 2 may have received a larger contribution from the Kakangari and/or enstatite chondrite forming regions. Alternatively, Wild 2 may have undergone accretion in an anomalously reducing region, marked by nebular condensation of this atypical forsterite. In [4], a similar conclusion was reached with an Fe-XANES study. We will also use similar lines of reasoning, and our previous conclusions in [5], to constrain the relative contributions of silicates that appear to have been radially transported from different ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite forming regions to the Kuiper Belt. In addition, the widespread depletion of Cr in these FeO-rich (Fa(sub greater than 20)) fragments is consistent with mild thermal metamorphism in Wild 2.

  5. Crustal Thermal Properties of the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey) Deduced from Spectral Analysis of Magnetic Data

    MADEN, NAFİZ

    2009-01-01

    The Pontides can be divided tectonically into three main sectors: Eastern, Central, and Western Pontides. Each of these represents an amalgamated tectonic mosaic consisting of remnants of oceanic, continental, and island arc segments. The Eastern and the Western Pontides meet in the Central Pontides, where they are structurally mixed and form a tectonic knot. The Central Pontides of northern Turkey is one of the best exposed segments of the southern margin of Eurasia adjacent to the Tethys Oc...

  6. Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data

    R. Reilinger; Barka, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the main tectonic features of the Eastern Mediterranean region combining the recent information obtained from GPS measurements, seismicity and neotectonic studies. GPS measurements reveal that the Arabian plate moves northward with respect to Eurasia at a rate of 23 ± 1 mm/yr, 10 mm/yr of this rate is taken up by shortening in the Caucasus. The internal deformation in Eastern Anatolia by conjugate strike-slip faulting and E-W trending thrusts, including the Bitlis frontal t...

  7. Electrodynamics of an omega-band as deduced from optical and magnetometer data

    H. Vanhamäki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate an omega-band event that took place above northern Scandinavia around 02:00–02:30 UT on 9 March 1999. In our analysis we use ground based magnetometer, optical and riometer measurements together with satellite based optical images. The optical and riometer data are used to estimate the ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductances, while ionospheric equivalent currents are obtained from the magnetometer measurements. These data sets are used as input in a local KRM calculation, which gives the ionospheric potential electric field as output, thus giving us a complete picture of the ionospheric electrodynamic state during the omega-band event.

    The overall structure of the electric field and field-aligned current (FAC provided by the local KRM method are in good agreement with previous studies. Also the E×B drift velocity calculated from the local KRM solution is in good qualitative agreement with the plasma velocity measured by the Finnish CUTLASS radar, giving further support for the new local KRM method. The high-resolution conductance estimates allow us to discern the detailed structure of the omega-band current system. The highest Hall and Pedersen conductances, ~50 and ~25 S, respectively, are found at the edges of the bright auroral tongue. Inside the tongue, conductances are somewhat smaller, but still significantly higher than typical background values. The electric field shows a converging pattern around the tongues, and the field strength drops from ~40 mV/m found at optically dark regions to ~10 mV/m inside the areas of enhanced conductivity. Downward FAC flow in the dark regions, while upward currents flow inside the auroral tongue. Additionally, sharp conductance gradients at the edge of an auroral tongue are associated with narrow strips of intense FACs, so that a strip of downward current flows at the eastern (leading edge and a similar strip of upward current is present at the western (trailing edge. The Joule heating follows the electric field pattern, so that it is diminished inside the bright auroral tongue.

  8. Pu236(n,f) , Pu237(n,f) , and Pu238(n,f) cross sections deduced from (p,t) , (p,d) , and (p,p') surrogate reactions

    Hughes, R. O. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Beausang, C. W. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Ross, T. J. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Casperson, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cooper, N. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gell, K. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Good, E. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Humby, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); McCleskey, M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Saastimoinen, A. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tarlow, T. D. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Thompson, I. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f) and Pu238(n,f) cross sections have been inferred by utilizing the surrogate ratio method. Targets of Pu239 and U235 were bombarded with 28.5-MeV protons, and the light ion recoils, as well as fission fragments, were detected using the STARS detector array at the K150 Cyclotron at the Texas A&M cyclotron facility. The (p, tf) reaction on Pu239 and U235 targets was used to deduce the σ (Pu236(n,f))/σ(U232(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu236(n,f) cross section was subsequently determined for En=0.5–7.5 MeV. Similarly, the (p,df) reaction on the same two targets was used to deduce the σ(Pu237(n,f))/σ(U233(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu237(n,f) cross section was extracted in the energy range En=0.5–7 MeV. The Pu238(n,f) cross section was also deduced by utilizing the (p,p') reaction channel on the same targets. There is good agreement with the recent ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated cross section data for Pu238(n,f) in the range En=0.5–10.5 MeV and for Pu237(n,f) in the range En=0.5–7 MeV; however, the Pu236(n,f) cross section deduced in the present work is higher than the evaluation between 2 and 7 MeV.

  9. Two-proton decay of the isobaric analogue state of 31Ar

    Mukha, I.; Axelsson, L.; Äystö, J.; Bergmann, U. C.; Borge, M. J. G.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshøj, P.; Jading, Y.; Jonson, B.; Jokinen, A.; Martel, I.; Oinonen, M.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Petersen, B.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M. H.; Tengblad, O.; Wenander, F.; Isolde Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    We have studied several two proton branches in the β-decay of 31Ar, the most intensive ones proceeding through the isobaric analogue state (IAS) in 31Cl. The energy and angular correlations of the two protons originating from the IAS have been measured. An indication of non-isotropic emission has been observed in the p+p+ 29P branch. The energy spectra of protons from the IAS 2p-branches seem to be continuous, which is difficult to explain by a sequential emission through a few intermediate levels in 30S. The model of non-sequential or democratic three-particle decay gives the best fit to the present data favoring the IAS spin-parity {5}/{2 +}.

  10. Upper-plate fault activity in the Coastal Forearc of nothern Chile (~23°30'S): Paleoseismology, neotectonic implications and relation with the subduction cycle

    Cortes Aranda, Joaquin,

    2012-01-01

    The tectonic evolution of northern Chile is controlled by the convergence between the Nazca and South America plates. This convergence is responsible for elastic strain accumulation close to the interplate contact zone. The elastic deformation is almost completely released during subduction zone earthquakes. However, part of the deformation induced by the convergence is permanently transferred to the upper-plate. This is manifested by the existence of upper-plate faults, some of them accommod...

  11. Clockwise block rotations along the eastern border of the Cordillera de Domeyko, Northern Chile (22°45' 23°30'S)

    Arriagada, César; Roperch, Pierrick; Mpodozis, Constantino

    2000-11-01

    We report new paleomagnetic results from a study of 38 sites in Cretaceous to Early Tertiary red beds and volcanic rocks belonging to the Purilactis Group, which outcrop along the western border of the Salar de Atacama Basin. After detailed thermal demagnetization, characteristic directions were determined for 32 units. In most cases, red bed sediments from the lower members of the Purilactis Group have a well-defined normal polarity magnetization probably carried by hematite forming an early diagenetic cement. A large decrease in the dispersion of the paleomagnetic directions upon tilt correction demonstrates that this magnetization is a pre-tectonic magnetization. We interpret the dominant occurrence of the normal polarity direction as evidence for acquisition of the magnetization during the Cretaceous normal polarity superchron. Large deviations of the paleomagnetic declinations from the expected ones for stable South America provides new evidence for clockwise tectonic rotations associated with Tertiary deformation in the Cordillera de Domeyko. These data confirm that clockwise tectonic rotations are one of the most significant structural characteristics of the north Chilean Andes. This study, however, indicates spatial variation in the magnitude of the rotation with rotations >60° in the Cerro Totola area. These rotations have occurred in conjunction with transpressional deformation that affected large tracts of the Cordillera de Domeyko during Eocene deformation. The systematic observation of clockwise rotations contemporaneous with sinistral displacements in the Cordillera de Domeyko can be explained by shear-traction at the base of the brittle crust.

  12. PRESSURE - WATER and Other Data from UNKNOWN From TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 19850101 to 19861231 (NODC Accession 8700222)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains TOGA data from 1985 to 1986 from the French IGOSS data center collected in the Tropical Pacific ocean. The data contains temperature...

  13. Origin of volcanism on the flanks of the Pacific-Antarctic ridge between 41°30'S and 52°S

    Briais, Anne; Ondréas, Hélène; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Dosso, Laure; Hamelin, Cédric; Guillou, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    20 pages; 12142 words; 6 figures; 3 tables International audience Non-hotspot, intraplate volcanism is a common feature near the East Pacific Rise or Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Volcanic ridges and seamount chains, tens to hundreds of kilometers long, are asymmetrically distributed about the ridge axis, most volcanic features occurring on the Pacific plate. Their origins remain controversial. We have analyzed off-axis volcanic ridges near the Pacific-Antarctic ridge from bathymetry, backsc...

  14. Psychosocial predictors of eating habits among adults in their mid-30s: The Oslo Youth Study follow-up 1991–1999

    Tell Grethe S; Lien Nanna; Kvaavik Elisabeth; Klepp Knut-Inge

    2005-01-01

    Background The predictive value of the psychosocial constructs of Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) on subsequent dietary habits has not been previously investigated in a multivariate approach that includes demographic factors and past dietary behaviour among adults. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent TPB constructs, including intention, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and perceived social norms, measured at age 25 predicted ...

  15. Psychosocial predictors of eating habits among adults in their mid-30s: The Oslo Youth Study follow-up 1991–1999

    Tell Grethe S

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predictive value of the psychosocial constructs of Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB on subsequent dietary habits has not been previously investigated in a multivariate approach that includes demographic factors and past dietary behaviour among adults. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent TPB constructs, including intention, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and perceived social norms, measured at age 25 predicted four eating behaviours (intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, total fat and added sugar eight years later. Methods Two hundred and forty men and 279 women that participated in the Oslo Youth Study were followed from 1991 to 1999 (mean age 25 and 33 years, respectively. Questionnaires at baseline (1991 included the constructs of the TPB and dietary habits, and at follow-up (1999 questionnaires included demographic factors and diet. For the assessment of diet, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ with a few food items was used at baseline while an extensive semi-quantitative FFQ was used at follow-up. Results Among men, attitudes, subjective norms and previous eating behaviour were significant predictors of fruit and vegetable intake, while education and past eating behaviour were predictive of whole grain intake in multivariate analyses predicting dietary intake at follow-up. For women, perceived behavioural control, perceived social norms and past behaviour were predictive of fruit and vegetable intake, while subjective norms, education and past eating behaviour were predictive of whole grain intake. For total fat intake, intention was predictive for men and perceived behavioural control for women. Household income and past consumption of sugar-rich foods were significant predictors of added sugar intake among men, while past intake of sugar-rich foods was a significant predictor of added sugar intake among women. Conclusion After adjusting for potential confounding factors, all psychosocial factors assessed among young adults appeared predictive of one or more eating behaviours reported eight years later. Results point to the influence of psychosocial factors on future eating behaviours and the potential for interventions targeting such factors.

  16. The antibiotic Furvina® targets the P-site of 30S ribosomal subunits and inhibits translation initiation displaying start codon bias

    Fabbretti, Attilio; Brandi, Letizia; Petrelli, Dezemona; Pon, Cynthia L.; Castañedo, Nilo R.; Medina, Ricardo; Gualerzi, Claudio O.

    2012-01-01

    Furvina®, also denominated G1 (MW 297), is a synthetic nitrovinylfuran [2-bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl)-furan] antibiotic with a broad antimicrobial spectrum. An ointment (Dermofural®) containing G1 as the only active principle is currently marketed in Cuba and successfully used to treat dermatological infections. Here we describe the molecular target and mechanism of action of G1 in bacteria and demonstrate that in vivo G1 preferentially inhibits protein synthesis over RNA, DNA and cell wal...

  17. Quinine, Malaria, and the Cinchona Bureau: Marketing Practices and Knowledge Circulation in a Dutch Transoceanic Cinchona-Quinine Enterprise (1920s-30s).

    Van Der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we will show how a Dutch pharmaceutical consortium of cinchona producers and quinine manufacturers was able to capitalize on one of the first international public health campaigns to fight malaria, thereby promoting the sale of quinine, an antimalarial medicine. During the 1920s and 1930s, the international markets for quinine were controlled by this Dutch consortium, which was a transoceanic cinchona-quinine enterprise centered in the Cinchona Bureau in the Netherlands. We will argue that during the interwar period, the Cinchona Bureau became the decision-making center of this Dutch cinchona-quinine pharmaceutical enterprise and monopolized the production and trade of an essential medicine. In addition, we will argue that capitalizing on the international public health campaign in the fight against malaria by the Dutch cinchona-quinine enterprise via the Cinchona Bureau can be regarded as an early example of corporate colonization of public health by a private pharmaceutical consortium. Furthermore, we will show how commercial interests prevailed over scientific interests within the Dutch cinchona-quinine consortium, thus interfering with and ultimately curtailing the transoceanic circulation of knowledge in the Dutch empire. PMID:26054829

  18. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF APPROACHES TO THE STUDY BRITAIN AND GERMAN NAVAL ANTAGONISM IN WORKS OF LIBERAL AND CONSERVATIVE GERMAN HISTORIANS IN 20-30s. IN XX CENTURY

    A. A. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the author researches the liberal and conservative German historians devoted to questions of the British-German sea rivalry before World War I, published in the period of the 20th - the 30th of the XX century. The special attention is paid to A. Tirpitz, E. Kehr, G. Halgarten, G. Hertsfeld, H. Fenris, B. Mikhalik and G. Erdbryuger analytical works to whom authors presented the original judgments regarding a perspective of a military marinism of the beginning of last century. The importance of scientific activity above the specified historians is, first of all, that it proceeded in the period of rough shocks of post-war German society. This circumstance very promoted emergence of cardinally opposite historiographic schools, with "set" of belief which occupied one of the leading provisions in the German historiography of naval rivalry for the next decades. Relevance of the researches presented in works of authors is determined not only original statement of questions, generalization of the saved-up material by the studied problem, but also input in a scientific turn of new archival materials. The contribution of each of scientists to the developed subject is estimated, and also the factors promoting formation of the developed theses and providing them success in work are represented.

  19. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF APPROACHES TO THE STUDY BRITAIN AND GERMAN NAVAL ANTAGONISM IN WORKS OF LIBERAL AND CONSERVATIVE GERMAN HISTORIANS IN 20-30s. IN XX CENTURY

    A. A. Popov

    2016-01-01

    In article the author researches the liberal and conservative German historians devoted to questions of the British-German sea rivalry before World War I, published in the period of the 20th - the 30th of the XX century. The special attention is paid to A. Tirpitz, E. Kehr, G. Halgarten, G. Hertsfeld, H. Fenris, B. Mikhalik and G. Erdbryuger analytical works to whom authors presented the original judgments regarding a perspective of a military marinism of the beginning of last century. The im...

  20. In your 20s it's quantity, in your 30s it's quality: the prognostic value of social activity across 30 years of adulthood.

    Carmichael, Cheryl L; Reis, Harry T; Duberstein, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Life span development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes & Carstensen, 2003; Baltes, 1997), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age 20 and age 30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age 50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age 20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age 30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow. PMID:25774426

  1. Young Adults in Changing Welfare States.Prolonged Transitions and Delayed Entries for Under-30s in Finland, Sweden and Germany in the '90s

    Helena Laaksonen

    2000-01-01

    The paper compares young adults' position in the '90s in three European welfare states: Finland, Sweden and Germany. Finland and Sweden, which represent the Nordic welfare state model, experienced deep recession at the beginning of the decade. This caused high youth unemployment and low labour force participation compared to the earlier decade, when the model aimed at inclusion of all citizens in the labour market. In Germany, which represents the Central-European model of welfare, the reunif...

  2. Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the Regional Impact History of the SPA Basin from Impact-Melt Rocks

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken (SPA) basin is the stratigraphically oldest identifiable lunar basin and is therefore one of the most important targets for absolute age-dating to help understand whether ancient lunar bombardment history smoothly declined or was punctuated by a cataclysm. A feasible near-term approach to this problem is to robotically collect a sample from near the center of the basin, where vertical and lateral mixing provided by post-basin impacts ensures that such a sample will be composed of small rock fragments from SPA itself, from local impact craters, and from faraway giant basins. The range of ages, intermediate spikes in the age distribution, and the oldest ages are all part of the definition of the absolute age and impact history recorded within the SPA basin.

  3. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 (melanotransferrin) deduced from the mRNA sequence

    p97 is a cell-surface glycoprotein that is present in most human melanomas but only in trace amounts in normal adult tissues. To determine the structure of this tumor-associated antigen and to identify its functional domains, the authors have purified and cloned p97 mRNA and determined its nucleotide sequence. The mRNA encodes a 738-residue precursor, which contains the previously determined N-terminal amino acid sequence of p97. After removal of a 19-residue signal peptide, the mature p97 molecule comprises extracellular domains of 342 and 352 residues and a C-terminal 25-residue stretch of predominantly uncharged and hydrophobic amino acids, which we believe acts as a membrane anchor. Each extracellular domain contains 14 cysteine residues, which form seven intradomain disulfide bridges, and one or two potential N-glycosylation sites. Protease digestion studies show that the three major antigenic determinants of p97 are present on the N-terminal domain. The domains are strikingly homologous to each other (46% amino acid sequence homology) and to the corresponding domains of human serum transferrin (39% homology). Conservation of disulfide bridges and of amino acids thought to compose the iron binding pockets suggests that p97 is also related to transferrin in tertiary structure and function. They propose that p97 be renamed melanotransferrin to denote its original identification in melanoma cells and its evolutionary relationship to serotransferrin and lactotransferrin, the other members of the transferrin superfamily

  4. Heterogeneity in pre-monsoon aerosol types over the Arabian Sea deduced from ship-borne measurements of spectral AODs

    D. G. Kaskaoutis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ship-borne sunphotometer measurements obtained in the Arabian Sea (AS in the pre-monsoon season (18 April–10 May 2006 during a cruise campaign (ICARB have been used to retrieve the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD; τ and the Ångström wavelength exponent (α. The continents surrounding the AS produce natural and anthropogenic aerosols that have distinctive influences on α and its spectral distribution. The α values were estimated by means of the least-squares method over the spectral bands 340–1020 nm and 340–870 nm. The spectral distribution of AOD in logarithmic co-ordinates could be fit using a 2nd order polynomial with higher accuracy in the wavelength band 340–1020 nm than in the 340–870 nm band. A polynomial fit analytically parameterizes the observed wavelength dependencies of AOD with least errors in spectral variation of α and yields accurate estimates of the coefficients (a1 and a2. The coarse-mode (positive curvature in the lnτλ vs. lnλ aerosols are mainly depicted in the Northern part of the AS closely associated with the nearby arid areas while fine-mode aerosols are mainly observed over the far and coastal AS regions. In the study period the mean AOD at 500 nm is 0.25±0.11 and the α340-1020 is 0.90±0.19. The α340-870 exhibits similar values (0.92±0.18, while significant differences revealed for the constant terms of the polynomial fit (a1 and a2 proportionally to the wavelength band used for their determination. Observed day-to-day variability in the aerosol load and optical properties are direct consequence of the local winds and air-mass trajectories along with the position of the ship.

  5. The radiated energy budget of chromospheric plasma in a major solar flare deduced from multi-wavelength observations

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be >2 × 1031 erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304 Å and H I (Lyα) at 1216 Å by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600 Å and 1700 Å by SDO/AIA, and the white light continuum at 4504 Å, 5550 Å, and 6684 Å, along with the Ca II H line at 3968 Å using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these instruments amounted to ∼3 × 1030 erg; about 15% of the total nonthermal energy. The Lyα line was found to dominate the measured radiative losses. Parameters of both the driving electron distribution and the resulting chromospheric response are presented in detail to encourage the numerical modeling of flare heating for this event, to determine the depth of the solar atmosphere at which these line and continuum processes originate, and the mechanism(s) responsible for their generation.

  6. Friction weakening in granular flows deduced from seismic records at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    Levy, Clara; Mangeney, Anne; Bonilla, Fabian; Hibert, Clément; Calder, Eliza S.; Smith, Patrick J.

    2015-11-01

    Accurate modeling of rockfalls and pyroclastic flows is still an open issue, partly due to a lack of measurements related to their dynamics. Using seismic data from the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and granular flow modeling, we show that the power laws relating the seismic energy Es to the seismic duration ts and relating the loss of potential energy ΔEp to the flow duration tf are very similar, like the power laws observed at Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island. Observations showing that tf≃ts suggest a constant ratio Es/ΔEp≃10-5. This similarity in these two power laws can be obtained only when the granular flow model uses a friction coefficient that decreases with the volume transported. Furthermore, with this volume-dependent friction coefficient, the simulated force applied by the flow to the ground correlates well with the seismic energy, highlighting the signature of this friction weakening effect in seismic data.

  7. Ionospheric variations in the period range of days to tens of days deduced from HF doppler observation

    The HF Doppler frequency variation of the ionosphere corresponds to ionospheric phase path change, which should be ascribed to traveling ionospheric disturbance, solar flares (UV and X-ray), magnetic pulsation, geomagnetic sudden commencement as well as sudden impulse. Therefore, the HF Doppler variation may possibly be a manifestation of solar-terrestrial activity. In this paper, the results of the spectral analysis of ionospheric variation in the period ranging from a few days to tens of days observed by the HFD method in nearly the whole year of 1986 are reported. For the purpose of comparison, the spectral analysis has been done on the of F2 data and the horizontal component data of the geomagnetic field, which were obtained during the same observation period. The present study is the first long period study concerning the spectral features of HFD variation. The observation and the data, the spectral analysis and the results are reported. The most important factor for dealing with HFD records is the frequency stability of the observation system. The HFD observation detected surely ionospheric variation in the period of 3 - 13 days and 16 - 21 days. (K.I.)

  8. Ionospheric variations in the period range of days to tens of days deduced from HF doppler observation

    Shibata, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Okuzawa, Takashi (University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)); Ogawa, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    The HF Doppler frequency variation of the ionosphere corresponds to ionospheric phase path change, which should be ascribed to traveling ionospheric disturbance, solar flares (UV and X-ray), magnetic pulsation, geomagnetic sudden commencement as well as sudden impulse. Therefore, the HF Doppler variation may possibly be a manifestation of solar-terrestrial activity. In this paper, the results of the spectral analysis of ionospheric variation in the period ranging from a few days to tens of days observed by the HFD method in nearly the whole year of 1986 are reported. For the purpose of comparison, the spectral analysis has been done on the of F2 data and the horizontal component data of the geomagnetic field, which were obtained during the same observation period. The present study is the first long period study concerning the spectral features of HFD variation. The observation and the data, the spectral analysis and the results are reported. The most important factor for dealing with HFD records is the frequency stability of the observation system. The HFD observation detected surely ionospheric variation in the period of 3 - 13 days and 16 - 21 days. (K.I.).

  9. Ionospheric variations in the period range of days to tens of days deduced from HF Doppler observation

    Shibata, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Okuzawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Toshio

    Ionospheric variations in the period range of a few days to tens of days observed by the HF Doppler (HFD) method for the entire year of 1986 have been investigated by a spectrum analysis. The crystal oscillator employed has a stability of up 5 x 10 to the -9th/day at the primary stage of 5 MHz. The present method was shown to be capable of detecting ionospheric variations in the period range of both 3 to about 13 days and 16 to about 21 days. It is suggested that a 27-day period was not observed in both the HFD and the foF2 spectra due to minimum solar activity.

  10. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe)

    Hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 was isolated from either/ethanol or chloroform/methanol extracts of mammalian pulmonary surfactant. Automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer showed the major N-terminus of the human low molecular weight protein to be Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Try-Cys-Trp-Leu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Leu-. Because of the N-terminal phenylalanine, the surfactant protein was designated SPL(Phe). Antiserum generated against hydrophobic surfactant protein(s) from bovine pulmonary surfactant recognized protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 in immunoblot analysis and was used to screen a λgt11 expression library constructed from adult human lung poly(A)+ RNA. This resulted in identification of a 1.4-kilobase cDNA clone that was shown to encode the N-terminus of the surfactant polypeptide SPL(Phe) (Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-) within an open reading frame for a larger protein. Expression of a fused β-galactosidase-SPL (Phe) gene in Escherichia coli yielded an immunoreactive M/sub r/ 34,000 fusion peptide. Hybrid-arrested translation with the cDNA and immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled in vitro translation products of human poly(A)+ RNA with a surfactant polyclonal antibody resulted in identification of a M/sub r/ 40,000 precursor protein. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from human lung detected a 2.0-kilobase RNA that was more abundant in adult lung than in fetal lung. These proteins, and specifically SPL(Phe), may therefore be useful for synthesis of replacement surfactants for treatment of hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants or of other surfactant-deficient states

  11. Structural and Temporal Requirements for Geomagnetic Field Reversal Deduced From 40Ar/39Ar Dated Lava Flows

    Singer, B. S.; Hoffman, K. A.; Coe, R. S.; Brown, L. L.; Jicha, B. R.; Pringle, M. S.; Chauvin, A.

    2004-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating of lavas on Tahiti, long thought to record the primary part of the Matuyama-Bruhnes (M-B) reversa1, gives an age of 795+/- 7 ka, indistinguishable from that of transitional lavas in Chile and La Palma, but older than the accepted age for the reversal. Only the transitional lavas on Maui and one from La Palma (dated at 776 +/- 2 ka), agree with the astronomical age for the M-B reversal. Virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) associated with the Tahitian and Chilean lavas cluster near Australia, as do VGPs recorded on Tahiti during the Big Lost and Punaruu events, two apparently unsuccessful reversals. These findings, suggestive of a recurring, mantle-held flux pattern at the outer core surface during reversal attempts, are also theoretically equivalent to the situation that would arise today if the axial dipole were to continue to weaken and vanish. Hence, we propose that the 795 ka lavas record the onset of a dynamo process--one which only on occasion would result in polarity change. This initial instability, associated with the first of two decreases in field intensity, began 18 kyrs prior to the actual polarity switch. These data may provide the first observational support to the claim that complete reversals require a significant interval of time for magnetic flux to escape from the solid inner core and sufficiently weaken its stabilizing effect.

  12. Least-squares analysis of clock frequency comparison data to deduce optimized frequency and frequency ratio values

    Margolis, H S

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented for analysing over-determined sets of clock frequency comparison data involving standards based on a number of different reference transitions. This least-squares adjustment procedure, which is based on the method used by CODATA to derive a self-consistent set of values for the fundamental physical constants, can be used to derive optimized values for the frequency ratios of all possible pairs of reference transitions. It is demonstrated to reproduce the frequency values recommended by the International Committee for Weights and Measures, when using the same input data used to derive those values. The effects of including more recently published data in the evaluation is discussed and the importance of accounting for correlations between the input data is emphasised.

  13. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe).

    Glasser, S W; Korfhagen, T R; Weaver, T.; Pilot-Matias, T; Fox, J L; Whitsett, J A

    1987-01-01

    Hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein of Mr 6000-14,000 was isolated from ether/ethanol or chloroform/methanol extracts of mammalian pulmonary surfactant. Automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer showed the major N-terminus of the human low molecular weight protein to be Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Tyr-Cys-Trp-Leu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Leu-. Because of the N-terminal phenylalanine, the surfactant protein was designated SPL(Phe). Antiserum generated against hydrophobic surfactant protein(s) ...

  14. Phylogenetic relationships between Sarcocystis species from reindeer and other Sarcocystidae deduced from ssu rRNA gene sequences

    Dahlgren, S.S.; Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Gjerde, B.

    2008-01-01

    Six Sarcocystis species from reindeer (S. grueneri, S. rangi, S. tarandivulpes, S. hardangeri, S. rangiferi and S. tarandi) have previously been genetically characterised. The aim of this study was to identify possible definitive hosts for S. hardangeri, S. rangiferi and S. tarandi by including the...... six species in phylogenetic analyses of the Sarcocystidae, and also to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the species from reindeer and those from other hosts. The study also aimed at revealing whether the inclusion of six Sarcocystis species from the same intermediate host would have...... any effect on previously inferred phylogenetic relationships within the Sarcocystidae. The complete small subunit (ssu) rRNA gene sequences of all six Sarcocystis species from reindeer were used in the phylogenetic analyses along with ssu rRNA gene sequences of 85 other members of the Coccidea. Trees...

  15. Towards the kinetics of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration of modern Arctica islandica shell material

    Casella, Laura A.; Griesshaber, Erika; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang W.

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at paleo-environment reconstructions. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium as they form local chemical environments for physiologic processes such as biological mineralization of their hard tissues. This disequilibrium is not sustained after death and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration with the surrounding environment: diagenesis. To understand transformation during diagenesis we performed laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments on Arctica islandica shells at four different temperatures between 100 °C and 175 °C treated in simulated meteoric and burial waters, respectively. We investigated, relative to unaltered shells, the kinetics of Arctica islandica bioaragonite to calcite transition as well as microstructural- and nanostructural characteristics of the altered shells with X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, high-resolution SEM and EBSD. At hydrothermal treatment at 100 °C bioaragonite - although metastable at 1 bar - does not transform to calcite, even in meteoric fluids and over a time period of 28 days. We noted a drastic recrystallization from the initial fine-grained fractal microstructure and pronounced axial texture to a new and still fine-grained microstructure with an almost randomized orientation distribution. At 175 °C the transformation to coarse-grained calcite is complete after 8 days. Calcite formation starts after a passive incubation period of 4 days; after 6 days the aragonite is almost completely transformed. In solutions simulating meteoric water the grain size of the newly formed calcite reaches 100-150 μm, while in burial fluids the calcite reaches sizes in the 1mm range during 28 days of alteration. Phase transformation proceeds where the hydrothermal fluid is in contact with the aragonite: at shell surfaces, around pores and in growth lines. Our observations lead us to the following conclusions: Surprisingly, we do not only observe transformation of nominally metastable bioaragonite to calcite, we also observe recrystallization of bioaragonite to aragonite and biocalcite to calcite. All these types of recrystallization significantly reduce the crystallographic preferred orientation, which is characteristic for the original biological hard tissue. The newly formed crystals do not nucleate epitaxially on the original material, and this causes the randomized crystallographic orientation after diagenetic overprinting. The driving force for recrystallization is due to internal stresses caused by organic matrices and interface energies related to the nanoscale fabric of the biomineral. The pores left behind by decomposed organic matrix apparently serve as nucleation sites for newly formed mineral.

  16. LGM and Late Glacial glacier advances in the Cordillera Real and Cochabamba (Bolivia) deduced from 10Be surface exposure dating

    Zech, R.; Kull, Ch.; Kubik, P. W.; Veit, H.

    2007-10-01

    Surface exposure dating (SED) is an innovative tool already being widely applied for moraine dating and for Late Quaternary glacier and climate reconstruction. Here we present exposure ages of 28 boulders from the Cordillera Real and the Cordillera Cochabamba, Bolivia. Our results indicate that the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Eastern Cordilleras occurred at ~22-25 ka and was thus synchronous to the global temperature minimum. We were also able to date several Late Glacial moraines to ~11-13 ka, which likely document lower temperatures and increased precipitation ("Coipasa" humid phase). Additionally, we recognize the existence of older Late Glacial moraines re-calculated to ~15 ka from published cosmogenic nuclide data. Those may coincide with the cold Heinrich 1 event in the North Atlantic region and the pronounced "Tauca" humid phase. We conclude that (i) exposure ages in the tropical Andes may have been overestimated so far due to methodological uncertainties, and (ii) although precipitation plays an important role for glacier mass balances in the tropical Andes, it becomes the dominant forcing for glaciation only in the drier and thus more precipitation-sensitive regions farther west and south.

  17. LGM and Late Glacial glacier advances in the Cordillera Real and Cochabamba (Bolivia deduced from 10Be surface exposure dating

    H. Veit

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface exposure dating (SED is an innovative tool already being widely applied for moraine dating and for Late Quaternary glacier and climate reconstruction. Here we present exposure ages of 28 boulders from the Cordillera Real and the Cordillera Cochabamba, Bolivia. Our results indicate that the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in the Eastern Cordilleras occurred at ~22–25 ka and was thus synchronous to the global temperature minimum. We were also able to date several Late Glacial moraines to ~11–13 ka, which likely document lower temperatures and increased precipitation ("Coipasa" humid phase. Additionally, we recognize the existence of older Late Glacial moraines re-calculated to ~15 ka from published cosmogenic nuclide data. Those may coincide with the cold Heinrich 1 event in the North Atlantic region and the pronounced "Tauca" humid phase. We conclude that (i exposure ages in the tropical Andes may have been overestimated so far due to methodological uncertainties, and (ii although precipitation plays an important role for glacier mass balances in the tropical Andes, it becomes the dominant forcing for glaciation only in the drier and thus more precipitation-sensitive regions farther west and south.

  18. Towards a molecular phylogeny of the Euglenozoa: analyses of ribosomal DNA sequences and deduced secondary structure elements

    Pärschke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To shed light on the disputed molecular phylogeny of Euglenozoa, SSU rDNA sequences of an uncultured Peranema sp. (wild) and cultured Ploeotia edaphica (CCAP 1265/2) were isolated and a database was created containing a great many euglenozoan SSU rDNA sequences. Additionally, new LSU rDNA sequences were isolated from diplonemid Rhynchopus euleeides (ATCC 50226) and Diplonema ambulator (ATCC 50223) as well as of phagotrophic euglenids Entosiphon sulcatum (CCAP 1220/1B), Notosolenus ostium (wil...

  19. Ecological Effects of Remote Smallsand Descending on Urban Area: Deduced from the "Mud- Snow" in Changchun City

    Wu Donghui; Hu Ke; Wang Yun; Yang Deming; Zhao Wei; Chen Shan

    2000-01-01

    A serious sandstorm occurred in North China from April 5 to April 7, 2000, while the remote smallsand decending took place in even larger area to the far northeast China. In Chanchun city, smallsand descending with snow provides the best samples to conduct a quantitative research on the possible impacts of city- ecology. In the 253km2 urban district area of Changchun city, smallsands accumulated up to more than 3000t on April 7, according to the calculation of four "mud- snow" samples. After naturally melting in room temperature, two samples are taken to do quarantine of "invasion bacteria". As a preliminary result, the individual amount of bacterium in 1 ml sample water is up to 8.9 × 104 or 1.05 × 105, and it is estimated that there are 640 million "invasion bacterium" individuals in one square meter. This study proves that other than the obvious environmental effects of sandstorm, the urban micro- ecosystem is very possible under threat by the "invasion bacterium" accompanied by remote descending smallsand.

  20. Two-phase Neogene extension of the northwestern Basin and Range deduced from thermochronology of a single sample

    Colgan, J. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Reiners, P. W.

    2007-12-01

    We use a combination of apatite 4He/3He, (U-Th)/He, and fission-track thermochronology to date slip on the Surprise Valley Fault in northeastern California by analyzing a single granitic boulder from a conglomerate lens near the base of the adjacent Warner Range. Apatite from this sample yielded a fission-track age of 11.6 ± 1.4 Ma and a (U-Th)/He age of 3.12 ± 0.2 Ma. Regional geologic relationships indicate that this sample was buried to a depth of about 3.3 km prior to exhumation during slip on the Surprise Valley Fault. Apatite fission-track data indicate that the sample was fully reset (>120°C) prior to exhumation, which began sometime after 14 Ma. A single aliquot of nine apatite grains was step-heated for 4He/3He analysis; modeling of the resulting 4He distribution indicates cooling from >80°C to ~20°C between 3 and 1 Ma. Internally consistent time-temperature (t-T) solutions to the combined 4He/3He, (U-Th)/He, and fission-track data require two periods of cooling, consistent with non-continuous slip on the Surprise Valley Fault. Early cooling and fault slip took place between 14 and 8 Ma, and was followed by a more recent pulse of cooling at about 3 Ma. This timing is consistent with both local geologic relationships and with the regional timing of faulting along the western margin of the Basin and Range. These data demonstrate the resolving power of combined fission-track, (U-Th)/He, and 4He/3He thermochronometric data to extract high-resolution and ultra low temperature t-T information from a single sample close to the earth's surface.

  1. Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE

    M. Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated trend analysis of water vapour in the lower midlatitude stratosphere from the Boulder balloon-borne NOAA frostpoint hygrometer measurements and from the Halogen Occulation Experiment (HALOE. Two corrections for instrumental bias are applied to homogenise the frostpoint data series, and a quality assessment of all soundings after 1991 is presented. Linear trend estimates based on the corrected data for the period 1980–2000 are up to 40% lower than previously reported. Vertically resolved trends and variability are calculated with a multi regression analysis including the quasi-biennal oscillation and equivalent latitude as explanatory variables. In the range of 380 to 640 K potential temperature (≈14 to 25 km, the frostpoint data from 1981 to 2006 show positive linear trends between 0.3±0.3 and 0.7±0.1%/yr. The same dataset shows trends between −0.2±0.3 and 1.0±0.3%/yr for the period 1992 to 2005. HALOE data over the same time period suggest negative trends ranging from −1.1±0.2 to −0.1±0.1%/yr. In the lower stratosphere, a rapid drop of water vapour is observed in 2000/2001 with little change since. At higher altitudes, the transition is more gradual, with slowly decreasing concentrations between 2001 and 2007. This pattern is consistent with a change induced by a drop of water concentrations at entry into the stratosphere. Previously noted differences in trends and variability between frostpoint and HALOE remain for the homogenised data. Due to uncertainties in reanalysis temperatures and stratospheric transport combined with uncertainties in observations, no quantitative inference about changes of water entering the stratosphere in the tropics could be made with the mid latitude measurements analysed here.

  2. Effect of the glacial rebound on elevation changes deduced from the ice core records in Greenland ice sheet

    2013-01-01

    It is important to investigate the behavior of the Greenland ice sheet in Quaternary for elucidating the future sea-level rise due to glacial melting. In order to reconstruct the elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet throughout the Holocene, δ18O data obtained from ice cores were recently used (Vinther et al., 2009). Vinther et al. (2009) also indicated that the Greenland ice sheet elevation changes inferred from ice core records show a significantly greater elevation reduction than th...

  3. A Comparative Study of the Least Squares Method and the Genetic Algorithm in Deducing Peak Ground Acceleration Attenuation Relationships

    Ching-Yun Kao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering applications, the development of attenuation relationships in a seismic hazard analysis is a useful way to plan for earthquake hazard mitigation. However, finding an optimal solution is difficult using traditional mathematical methods because of the nonlinearity of many relationships. Furthermore, using unweighted regression analysis in which each recording carries an equal weight is often problematic because of the non-uniform distribution of the data with respect to distance. In this study, the least squares method (LSM and a genetic algorithm (GA were employed as optimization methods for an attenuation model to compare the robustness and prediction accuracy of the two methods. Different (equal and unequal weights of each recording were used to compare the adaptability of the weighting for practical application. The unequal weights of each recording were defined as functions of the hypocentral distance or the shortest distance from a station to the fault on the _ surface. Finally, regression analysis of horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA attenuation model in southwest Taiwan was shown.

  4. Fishing for biodiversity: Novel methanopterin-linked C1 transfer genes deduced from the Sargasso Sea metagenome

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Nercessian, Olivier; Lapidus, Alla; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    The recently generated database of microbial genes from an oligotrophic environment populated by a calculated 1,800 of major phylotypes (the Sargasso Sea metagenome) presents a great source for expanding local databases of genes indicative of a specific function. In this paper we analyze the Sargasso Sea metagenome in terms of the presence of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer genes that are signature for methylotrophy. We conclude that more than 10 phylotypes possessing genes of interest ...

  5. A simulation code to estimate / deduce local toroidal rotation profiles in TJ-II plasmas from chord-integrated measurements

    An absolute calibrated spectroscopic system has been developed to measure chord-averaged toroidal rotation of protons and impurity ions from a single view; at present that system has been upgraded to measure profiles on a shot to shot basis. The interpretation of the chord-averaged measurements is difficult because of the strong three-dimensional structure of TJ-II stellarator. A local model capable of reconstructing the averaged emission of spectral lines has been developed to infer the local information. The procedure, similar to the one used in a previous work in the TJ-I tokamak, was implemented on a numerical code, that starting from given analytical profiles of local emissivity, ion temperature (estimated with charge- exchange neutral analyzer) and toroidal rotation simulates the chord-averaged emission spectra along a selected line of sight. In addition, the code is able to separate the toroidal and poloidal velocity contribution taking into account the TJ-II magnetic topology. Simulations of actual cases and its comparison with experimental results obtained in toroidal scans performed in TJ-II plasmas will be presented. (author)

  6. Codon usage, genetic code and phylogeny of Dictyostelium discoideum mitochondrial DNA as deduced from a 7.3-kb region.

    Angata, K; Kuroe, K; Yanagisawa, K; Tanaka, Y

    1995-02-01

    We have sequenced a region (7,376-bp) of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA (54 kb) of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. From the DNA and amino-acid sequence comparisons with known sequences, genes for ATPase subunit 9 (ATP9), cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1, 3 and 6 (ND1, ND3 and ND6), small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) and seven tRNAs (Arg, Asn, Cys, Lys, f-Met, Met and Pro) have been identified. The sequenced region of the mtDNA has a high average A + T-content (70.8%). The A + T-content of protein-genes (73.6%) is considerably higher than that of RNA genes (61.3%). Even with the strong AT-bias, the genetic code employed is most probably the universal one. All seven tRNAs are able to form typical clover leaf structures. The molecular phylogenetic trees of CYTB and SSU rRNA suggest that D. discoideum is closer to green plants than to animals and fungi. PMID:7736610

  7. Collective aspects deduced from time-dependent microscopic mean-field with pairing: application to the fission process

    Tanimura, Yusuke; Scamps, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Given a set of collective variables, a method is proposed to obtain the associated conjugated collective momenta and masses starting from a microscopic time-dependent mean-field theory. The construction of pairs of conjugated variables is the first step to bridge microscopic and macroscopic approaches. The method is versatile and can be applied to study a large class of nuclear processes. An illustration is given here with the fission of $^{258}$Fm. Using the quadrupole moment and eventually higher-order multipole moments, the associated collective masses are estimated along the microscopic mean-field evolution. When more than one collective variable are considered, it is shown that the off-diagonal matrix elements of the inertia play a crucial role. Using the information on the quadrupole moment and associated momentum, the collective evolution is studied. It is shown that dynamical effects beyond the adiabatic limit are important. Nuclei formed after fission tend to stick together for longer time leading to...

  8. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe)

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 was isolated from either/ethanol or chloroform/methanol extracts of mammalian pulmonary surfactant. Automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer showed the major N-terminus of the human low molecular weight protein to be Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Try-Cys-Trp-Leu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Leu-. Because of the N-terminal phenylalanine, the surfactant protein was designated SPL(Phe). Antiserum generated against hydrophobic surfactant protein(s) from bovine pulmonary surfactant recognized protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 in immunoblot analysis and was used to screen a lambdagt11 expression library constructed from adult human lung poly(A)/sup +/ RNA. This resulted in identification of a 1.4-kilobase cDNA clone that was shown to encode the N-terminus of the surfactant polypeptide SPL(Phe) (Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-) within an open reading frame for a larger protein. Expression of a fused ..beta..-galactosidase-SPL (Phe) gene in Escherichia coli yielded an immunoreactive M/sub r/ 34,000 fusion peptide. Hybrid-arrested translation with the cDNA and immunoprecipitation of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled in vitro translation products of human poly(A)/sup +/ RNA with a surfactant polyclonal antibody resulted in identification of a M/sub r/ 40,000 precursor protein. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from human lung detected a 2.0-kilobase RNA that was more abundant in adult lung than in fetal lung. These proteins, and specifically SPL(Phe), may therefore be useful for synthesis of replacement surfactants for treatment of hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants or of other surfactant-deficient states.

  9. Ore formation at the Kupol epithermal gold-silver deposit in northeastern Russia deduced from fluid inclusion study

    Volkov, A. V.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Savva, N. E.; Sidorov, A. A.; Bayankin, M. A.; Uyutnov, K. V.; Kolova, E. E.

    2012-07-01

    The Kupol epithermal gold-silver deposit-the largest of this type of mineralization in northeastern Russia-is situated in the outer zone of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt. The results of thermobarogeochemical study of fluid inclusions in quartz from ore veins at the Kupol deposit are compared with the data on the Dvoinoi and Arykvaam deposits. The study of aqueous extracts from fluid inclusions revealed that the chemical compositions of ore-forming fluids at the Dvoinoi and Kupol deposits are similar in most elements. The only substantial difference is that fluids from the Kupol deposit are considerably enriched in sulfate, as is characteristic of the alunite-subtype of epithermal high-sulfidation mineralization. The salinity of aqueous solutions filling inclusions in amethyst and quartz from ore veins at the Kupol and Dvoinoi deposits is two-three times higher than the salinity of fluid inclusions from the barren veins at the Arykvaam occurrence. The data obtained support the hypothesis put forward earlier that fumaroles and solfataras played a part in ore deposition at the Kupol deposit.

  10. A point defect model for the general and pitting corrosion on iron-oxide-electrolyte interface deduced from current oscillations

    Pagitsas, M; Sazou, D

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the passive-active oscillatory region of the Fe-0.75 M H sub 2 SO sub 4 system, perturbed by adding small amounts of halide species, allow the distinction between pitting and general corrosion. Complex periodic and aperiodic current oscillations characterize pitting corrosion whereas monoperiodic oscillations of a relaxation type indicate general corrosion. A point defect model (PDM) is considered for the microscopic description of the growth and breakdown of the iron oxide film. The physicochemical processes leading to different types of corrosion can be clarified in terms of the PDM. Occupation of an anion vacancy by a halide ion results in the localized attack of the passive oxide and pitting corrosion. On the other hand, the formation of surface soluble iron complexes is related to the uniform dissolution of the passive oxide and general corrosion.

  11. Distribution of star formation rates during the rapid assembly of NGC 1399 as deduced from its globular cluster system

    Schulz, C; Kroupa, P; Pflamm-Altenburg, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) share many properties with globular clusters (GCs) and are found in similar environments. A large sample of UCDs and GCs around NGC 1399, the central giant elliptical of the Fornax galaxy cluster, is used to infer their formation history and also that of NGC 1399. We assumed that all GCs and UCDs in our sample are star clusters (SCs) and used them as tracers of past star formation activities. After correcting our GC/UCD sample for mass loss, we interpreted their overall mass function to be a superposition of SC populations that formed coevally during different times. The SC masses of each population were distributed according to the embedded cluster mass function (ECMF), a pure power law with the slope $-\\beta$ and a stellar upper mass limit, $M_{\\mathrm{max}}$, which depended on the star formation rate (SFR). We decomposed the observed GC/UCD mass function into individual SC populations and converted $M_{\\mathrm{max}}$ of each SC population to an SFR. The overall distribut...

  12. Philospical Thought Deduced by Central Dogma%"中心法则”演绎的哲学思维

    蔡卫斌; 汪炳华; 洪嘉玲

    2001-01-01

    科学思维的过程就是假说演变为理论的过程.假说是理论产生的根源,是科学发展的动力."中心法则”作为现代分子生物学和分子遗传学的基本理论,它的产生、修正与发展演绎了一个假说向理论升华的过程,从中人们可以理解许多哲学思想和方法在科学研究中的应用.

  13. Effects of the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse as deduced from total electron content measurements at the GPS network

    Afraimovich, E L; Lesyuta, O S

    2000-01-01

    We present the results derived from measuring fundamental parameters of the ionospheric response to the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse. Our study is based on using the data from about 70 GPS stations located in the neighbourhood of the eclipse totality phase in Europe. The eclipse period was characterized by a low level of geomagnetic disturbance (Dst - variation from -10 to -20 nT), which alleviated significantly the problem of detecting the ionospheric response to the eclipse. Our analysis revealed a well-defined effect of a decrease (depression) of the total electron content (TEC) for all GPS stations. The delay between minimum TEC values with respect to the totality phase near the eclipse path increased gradually from 4 min in Greenwich longitude (10:40 UT, LT) to 8 min at the longitude 16 degrees (12:09 LT). The depth and duration of the TEC depression were found to be 0.2-0.3 TECU and 60 min, respectively. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with earlier measurements and theore...

  14. Mechanism of activation of particulate guanylate cyclase by atrial natriuretic peptide as deduced from radiation inactivation analysis

    The interaction between the receptor (Rc) for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the effector enzyme particulate guanylate cyclase (GC) has been studied by radiation inactivation. Irradiation of bovine lung membranes produced an increase in GC activity at low radiation doses followed by a dose-dependent reduction at higher doses. This deviation from linearity in the inactivation curve disappeared when lung membranes were pretreated with ANP. Essentially identical results were also obtained with adrenal membranes. Based on these radiation inactivation data, the following dissociative mechanism of activation of particulate guanylate cyclase by ANP has been proposed: Rc.GC(inactive) + ANP----Rc.ANP + GC(active)

  15. Cross-border groundwater management: The contribution of deep groundwater to quaternary basins deduced from isotope data

    In the frame of an EU Interregional IIIa project we investigated to what extent the interregional Upper Jurassic karst aquifer, which underlies parts of southern Germany and the area around Schaffhausen in Switzerland, contributes to the water budget of shallow Quaternary basins on both sides of the border. Because the differentiation between mixing end members based on chemical parameters is ambiguous, isotope tracers were emphasized. Proportion and spatial occurrence of deep karst water were determined based on 3H, 85Kr, 39Ar and 14C.The data were interpreted based on a 3D-hydrogeological setup which was completely re-evaluated using reprocessed seismic profiles. The reviewed scientific results provide the basis for sustainable groundwater protection and resource management overcoming national borders as the groundwater does. (author)

  16. A comprehensive model of postseismic deformation of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake deduced from GPS observations in northern Sumatra

    Gunawan, Endra; Sagiya, Takeshi; Ito, Takeo; Kimata, Fumiaki; Tabei, Takao; Ohta, Yusaku; Meilano, Irwan; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Agustan; Nurdin, Irwandi; Sugiyanto, Didik

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the postseismic deformation of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) using 5 years of Global Positioning System (GPS) data located in northern Sumatra. Continuous GPS data from northern Sumatra suggest that the relaxation time in the vertical displacement is longer than horizontal displacements. This implies that there are multiple physical mechanisms that control the postseismic deformation, which refer to afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. In this study, we introduce an analysis strategy of postseismic deformation to simultaneously calculate multiple mechanisms of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. The afterslip inversion results indicate that the distribution of the afterslip and the coseismic slip are compensatory of each other. Also, afterslip has a limited contribution to vertical deformation in northern Sumatra. In our rheology model, we use a gravitational Maxwell viscoelastic response and the result indicates that the elastic layer thickness is 65 ± 5 km and the Maxwell viscosity is 8.0 ± 1.0 × 1018 Pa s. We find that afterslip plus Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation are appropriate to explain the deformation in northern Sumatra. We also find that our rheology model reproduces the long-term features of the GPS time series in Thailand. Applying our rheology model to the data in Andaman Islands our afterslip estimation is located at the down-dip part of the plate boundary. Finally, we showed that our rheology model is applicable to the GPS datasets of postseismic deformation of the 2004 SAE located in northern Sumatra, Thailand, and Andaman-Nicobar, respectively.

  17. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil in Mongolia

    Y. Igarashi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent climate change, especially during the 2000s, may be the primary reason for the expansion of the Asian dust source region. The change in the dust source region was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s, but there are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air (before the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011. Radionuclides in the atmosphere are therefore carried mainly by wind-blown dust from surface soil, that is, aeolian dust. Asian dust carries traces of 90Sr, 137Cs, and other anthropogenic radionuclides; the heaviest deposition occurs in spring and has been recorded in Japan since the early 1990s. The composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in atmospheric depositions would be affected by a change in the dust source. Previous studies of atmospheric deposition at long-term monitoring sites (e.g. in Tsukuba, Japan have detected changes in the 137Cs/90Sr ratio and in the specific activity of the radionuclides. These changes in the composition of observed atmospheric depositions are supposed to reflect changes in the climatic conditions of the dust source region. To investigate this dust source change, we conducted a field survey of radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs in surface soil samples in September 2007 in the eastern and southern regions of Mongolia, where dust storms have occurred more frequently since 2000. The specific activities of both radionuclides as well as the 137Cs/90Sr ratio in the surface soil were well correlated with annual average precipitation in the Mongolian desert-steppe zone. Higher specific activities and a higher 137Cs/90Sr ratio were found in grassland regions that experienced greater precipitation. These findings suggest that the increased specific activities and the activity ratio detected in atmospheric depositions in Japan during years with frequent Asian dust transport events in the 2000s are a sign of grassland degradation.

  18. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil in Mongolia

    Igarashi, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; D. Jugder

    2011-01-01

    Recent climate change, especially during the 2000s, may be the primary reason for the expansion of the Asian dust source region. The change in the dust source region was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s, but there are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air (before the Fukushima nu...

  19. Direction and timing of uplift propagation in the Peruvian Andes deduced from molecular phylogenetics of highland biotaxa

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    Physical paleoaltimetric methods are increasingly used to estimate the amount and timing of surface uplift in orogens. Because the rise of mountains creates new ecosystems and triggers evolutionary changes, biological data may also be used to assess the development and timing of regional surface uplift. Here we apply this idea to the Peruvian Andes through a molecular phylogeographic and phylochronologic analysis of Globodera pallida, a potato parasite nematode that requires cool temperatures and thus thrives above 2.0-2.5 km in these tropical highlands. The Peruvian populations of this species exhibit a clear evolutionary pattern with deeper, more ancient lineages occurring in Andean southern Peru and shallower, younger lineages occurring progressively northwards. Genetically diverging G. pallida populations thus progressively colonized highland areas as these were expanding northwards, demonstrating that altitude in the Peruvian Andes was acquired longitudinally from south to north, i.e. in the direction of decreasing orogenic volume. This phylogeographic structure is recognized in other, independent highland biotaxa, and point to the Central Andean Orocline (CAO) as the region where high altitudes first emerged. Moreover, molecular clocks relative to Andean taxa, including the potato-tomato group, consistently estimate that altitudes high enough to induce biotic radiation were first acquired in the Early Miocene. After calibration by geological and biological tie-points and intervals, the phylogeny of G. pallida is used as a molecular clock, which estimates that the 2.0-2.5 km threshold elevation range was reached in the Early Miocene in southernmost Peru, in the Middle and Late Miocene in the Abancay segment (NW southern Peru), and from the latest Miocene in central and northern Peru. Although uncertainties attached to phylochronologic ages are significantly larger than those derived from geochronological methods, these results are fairly consistent with coeval geological phenomena along the Peruvian Andes. They strongly suggest that orogenic volume initially developed in the CAO during most of the Miocene until a breakthrough in the latest Miocene allowed the northward propagation of crustal thickening into central and northern Peru, possibly by ductile crustal flow from the CAO. Such a combined phylogeographic and phylochronologic approach to regional uplift opens perspectives to estimate the direction(s) and timing of acquisition of altitude over other Cenozoic orogens.

  20. The structure of hadronic flavours and weak interactions as deduced from quantum gravity and its GUT extension

    In QG and its GUT extension, the valence parts of quarks are called ''quanta''. It is argued why flavoured quanta should be multiple-quanta structures entirely made of ordinary up- and down-quanta. In fact, corresponding 3-quanta structures are presented to satisfy all we need. The existence and structure of additional quark generations is predicted. It is shown that, after resolving all flavours into these 3-quanta structures based on QG, weak interactions of all kind are conserving all their quantum numbers absolutely. ''Broken'' quantum numbers do not exist. This is exemplified by analyzing various weak decay modes of baryons, mesons, and the weak bosons. Thus, not only the ordinary beta-decay of baryons, mesons, and the weak bosons is scrutinized, but also purely non-leptonic and mixed modes. All this is based on the fundamental indivisibility of a particle into a valence and a separate non-valence part in QG, denied by quantum field theories. For more information on QG and GUT see www.q-grav.com.

  1. Multi-scale Holocene Asian monsoon variability deduced from a twin-stalagmite record in southwestern China

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Yongjin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, Richard Lawrence; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Liu, Dianbing; Shao, Qingfeng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Zhenqiu; Wang, Quan

    2016-07-01

    We present two isotopic (δ18O and δ13C) sequences of a twin-stalagmite from Zhuliuping Cave, southwestern China, with 230Th dates from 14.6 to 4.6 ka. The stalagmite δ18O record characterizes orbital- to decadal-scale variability of Asian summer monsoon (ASM) intensity, with the Holocene optimum period (HOP) between 9.8 and 6.8 ka BP which is reinforced by its co-varying δ13C data. The large multi-decadal scale amplitude of the cave δ18O indicates its high sensitivity to climate change. Four centennial-scale weak ASM events during the early Holocene are centered at 11.2, 10.8, 9.1 and 8.2 ka. They can be correlated to cold periods in the northern high latitudes, possibly resulting from rapid dynamics of atmospheric circulation associated with North Atlantic cooling. The 8.2 ka event has an amplitude more than two-thirds that of the Younger Dryas (YD), and is significantly stronger than other cave records in the Asia monsoon region, likely indicating a more severe dry climate condition at the cave site. At the end of the YD event, the δ13C record lags the δ18O record by 300-500 yr, suggesting a multi-centennial slow response of vegetation and soil processes to monsoon enhancement.

  2. Global characteristics of the cold plasma in the equatorial plasmapause region as deduced from the geos 1 mutual impedance probe

    Thermal plasma parameters derived by the muntal impedance experiment on GEOS are described. The experiment is well suited to the measurement of the electron density and temperature of the outer plasmasphere (when kT/sub e//N/sub e/3). This investigation of the whole set of data supplied by GEOS 1 (4-4, while T/sub e/ stands around 10,000 0K or less. The intermediate region, situated next to the plasmasphere and above it, is always present in the day sector, where the ionospheric source plays a leading part. In that zone, the plasma parameters, poorly known up to now, exhibit N/sub e/ values approx.2 to 20 cm-3, together with T/sub e/ values of 20,000 0K on the average, dispersed over a 5,000 to 100,000 0K range during disturbances. In the night sector, the intermediate region is seen only during the recovery phase. The region of depleted density is observed at the higher L values in the night and morning MTL sectors. There, plasmas out of Maxwellian equilibrium are seen under disturbed conditions. The dynamic response of the thermal plasma parameters to temporal variations of the a/sub m/ index of magnetic activity follows a known scenario as concerns N/sub e/, making apparent a night-to-day, MTL dependent time delay. As concerns T/sub e/, the dynamical study reveals striking features, such as the persistance of the T/sub e/ modifications into the dusk sector, the interpretation of which remains to be clarified

  3. Primary structure of bovine pituitary secretory protein I (chromogranin A) deduced from the cDNA sequence

    Secretory protein I (SP-I), also referred to as chromogranin A, is an acidic glycoprotein that has been found in every tissue of endocrine and neuroendocrine origin examined but never in exocrine or epithelial cells. Its co-storage and co-secretion with peptide hormones and neurotransmitters suggest that it has an important endocrine or secretory function. The authors have isolated cDNA clones from a bovine pituitary λgt11 expression library using an antiserum to parathyroid SP-I. The largest clone (SP4B) hybridized to a transcript of 2.1 kilobases in RNA from parathyroid, pituitary, and adrenal medulla. Immunoblots of bacterial lysates derived from SP4B lysognes demonstrated specific antibody binding to an SP4B/β-galactosidase fusion protein (160 kDa) with a cDNA-derived component of 46 kDa. Radioimmunoassay of the bacterial lystates with SP-I antiserum yielded parallel displacement curves of 125I-labeled SP-I by the SP4B lysate and authentic SP-I. SP4B contains a cDNA of 1614 nucleotides that encodes a 449-amino acid protein (calculated mass, 50 kDa). The nucleotide sequences of the pituitary SP-I cDNA and adrenal medullary SP-I cDNAs are nearly identical. Analysis of genomic DNA suggests that pituitary, adrenal, and parathyroid SP-I are products of the same gene

  4. Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the Regional Impact History of the SPA Basin from Impact Melt Rocks

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is an important target for absolute age-dating. Vertical and lateral impact mixing ensures that regolith within SPA will contain rock fragments from SPA itself, local impact craters, and faraway giant basins. About 20% of the regolith at any given site is foreign [1, 2], but much of this material will be cold ejecta, not impact melt. We calculated the fraction of contributed impact melt using scaling laws to estimate the amount and provenance of impact melt, demonstrating that SPA melt is the dominant impact melt rock (>70%) likely to be present. We also constructed a statistical model to illustrate how many randomly-selected impact-melt fragments would need to be dated, and with what accuracy, to confidently reproduce the impact history of a site. A detailed impact history becomes recognizable after a few hundred to a thousand randomly-selected marbles, however, it will be useful to have more information (e.g. compositional, mineralogical, remote sensing) to group fragments. These exercises show that SPA melt has a high probability of being present in a scoop sample and that dating of a few hundred to a thousand impact-melt fragments will yield the impact history of the SPA basin.

  5. Deducing the Orientation of the Semimajor Axis of the Eta Carinae Binary System from X-ray Observations

    Soker, Amit Kashi Noam

    2009-01-01

    We study the usage of the X-ray light curve, column density toward the hard X-ray source, and emission measure (density square times volume), of the massive binary system Eta Carinae to determine the orientation of its semi-major axis. The source of the hard X-ray emission is the shocked secondary wind. We argue that, by itself, the observed X-ray flux cannot teach us much about the orientation of the semi-major axis. Minor adjustment of some unknown parameters of the binary system allows to fit theX-ray light curve with almost any inclination angle and orientation. The column density and X-ray emission measure, on the other hand, impose strong constrains on the orientation. We improve our previous calculations and show that the column density is more compatible with an orientation where for most of the time the secondary - the hotter, less massive star - is behind the primary star. The secondary comes closer to the observer only for a short time near periastron passage. The ten-week X-ray deep minimum, which...

  6. Direction and timing of uplift propagation in the Peruvian Andes deduced from molecular phylogenetics of highland biotaxa

    Picard, D; Sempéré, Thierry; Plantard, O.

    2008-01-01

    Physical paleoaltimetric methods are increasingly used to estimate the amount and timing of surface uplift in orogens. Because the rise of mountains creates new ecosystems and triggers evolutionary changes biological data may also be used to assess the development and timing of regional surface uplift. Here we apply this idea to the Peruvian Andes through a molecular phylogeographic and phylochronologic analysis of Globodera pallida. a potato parasite nematode that requires cool temperatures ...

  7. Quantification of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from fossil carbonate shells and laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments

    Griesshaber, Erika; Casella, Laura; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at reconstructions of past climate dynamics and environmental change. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and create local chemical environments where physiologic processes such as biomineralization takes place. After the death of the organism the former physiologic disequilibrium conditions are not sustained any more and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration according to the surrounding environment: diagenesis. With increasing diagenetic alteration, the biogenic structure and fingerprint fades away and is replaced by inorganic features. Thus, recrystallization of organism-specific microstructure is a clear indicator for diagenetic overprint. Microstructural data, which mirror recrystallization, are of great value for interpreting geochemical proxies for paleo-environment reconstruction. Despite more than a century of research dealing with carbonate diagenesis, many of the controlling processes and factors are only understood in a qualitative manner. One of the main issues is that diagenetically altered carbonates are usually present as the product of a complex preceding diagenetic pathway with an unknown number of intermediate steps. In this contribution we present and discuss laboratory based alteration experiments with the aim to investigate time-series data sets in a controlled manner. We conducted hydrothermal alteration experiments with modern Arctica islandica (bivalvia) and Notosaria nigricans (brachiopoda) in order to mimic diagenetic overprint. We explore first the potential of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements together with statistical data evaluation as a tool to quantify diagenetic alteration of carbonate skeletons. Subsequently, we compare microstructural patterns obtained from experimentally altered shell material with those of fossil specimens that have undergone variable degrees of diagenetic overprint. We intend to come up with a process-oriented understanding of alteration parameters and products as the change in microstructure, texture and mineral phase needs a careful action when it comes to the interpretation of paleoclimate reconstruction data.

  8. 1012 - 1015 eV interaction deduced from energy spectra of gamma-ray and hadrons at airplane altitude

    The present paper deals with the latest results of the spectral measurements of high energy cosmic ray performed on an airplane with an emulsion chamber. The hadronic component together with the gamma-ray component were observed in the region of gamma energy not smaller than 30 GeV and gamma energy sum not larger than 40 TeV. It was observed that the integral spectra of hadronic showers showed less steep power than those obtained at mountain stations. On the other hand, the integral spectra of gamma-ray in the energy region from 40 GeV to 40 TeV showed steeper power than those of hadronic component. The zenith angle distributions of hadrons and gamma-ray were inspected, and it was confirmed that the observed distributions were well reproduced by the theoretical curves with the appropriate attenuation length. (Yoshimori, M.)

  9. Trend and lifetime of sulfur hexafluoride at mid-latitudes deduced from ACE-FTS occultation measurements

    Mahieu, Emmanuel; Duchatelet, Pierre; Zander, Rodolphe; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Alex; Boone, Chris D.; Kaley A. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the strongest greenhouse gases on a per molecule basis, with a global warming potential of 22800 (100-yr horizon). This is an extremely stable gas in the atmosphere, which results in a very long lifetime, with large uncertainties. The value adopted by IPCC is 3200 years, but some studies suggest shorter lifetimes, as low as 800 years. Surface concentrations are now about 7 ppt, with reported trends indicating a steady and strong increase of 0.3 ppt/yr. Most...

  10. Rupture parameters of the 21 May 2003, Mw 6.8, Zemmouri (Northern Algeria) earthquake deduced from InSAR

    Belabbes, S.; Wicks, C.; Meghraoui, M.; Cakir, Z.

    2007-12-01

    We study the surface deformation associated with the 21 May, 2003 (Mw=6.8) Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake, the strongest seismic event felt in the region since 1716. Global and NEIC focal mechanism solutions of the mainshock indicate reverse faulting with a ~N60E trending rupture dipping ~ 45° SE. The earthquake epicenter relocated along the shoreline caused an average 0.50 m coastal uplift along ~50-km-long coastline. We mapped the coseismic surface displacement field caused by the earthquake using the ENVISAT ASAR (IS2) and RADARSAT standard beam (ST5) data. We were able to obtain coseismic interferograms from both the ascending and descending orbits of ENVISAT satellite. The RADARSAT data proved useful only in the descending mode. While the two RADARSAT interferograms cover the entire area of coastal uplift, ENVISAT data cover only the western half of the epicentral zone. Although the InSAR coherence in the epicenter area is poor, deformation fringes are observed along the coast in different patches. In the Boumerdes area, the maximum deformation is indicated by the high gradient of fringes visible in all interferograms in agreement with field measurements (tape, DGPS and leveling). To constrain the earthquake rupture parameters, we model the interferograms and uplift measurements using elastic dislocations on triangular fault patches in an elastic and homogeneous half space. We invert the coseismic slip using a curved surface constructed from triangular elements using Poly3Dinv program that uses a damped least square minimization. The fault rupture is 65-km-long and dips ~40° to the south with a smooth change in strike north of Boumerdes from N 60°-65° to N 95°-105°.

  11. The response of the ionosphere to faint and bright solar flares as deduced from global GPS network data

    Leonovich, L. A.; Grechnev, V. V.; Altynsev, A. T.; Afraimovich, E. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results derived from analysing the ionosphere response to faint and bright solar flares are presented. The analysis used technology of a global detection of ionospheric effects from solar flares as developed by the authors, on the basis of phase measurements of the Total Electron Content (TEC) in the ionosphere using an international GPS network. The essence of the method is that use is made of appropriate filtering and a coherent processing of variations in the TEC which is determined from G...

  12. Seismic velocity structure around the shallow megathrust zone of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake deduced from onshore and offshore seismic observations

    Yamamoto, Y.; Obana, K.; Machida, Y.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Suzuki, K.; Ito, Y.; Hino, R.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Murai, Y.; Sato, T.; Uehira, K.; Yakiwara, H.; Hirata, K.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Suetsugu, D.

    2012-12-01

    The coseismic rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake has been estimated to be over the wide region from the coastline to near the Japan Trench. Several kinds of studies, such as tsunami source inversion [e.g., Fujii et al., 2011], coseismic slip inversion [e.g., Ide et al., 2011], submarine topography change [Fujiwara et al., 2011] and seafloor displacement observation [Sato et al., 2011; Ito et al., 2011; Kido et al., 2011], share the common feature that the largest coseismic slip occurred at the shallow plate boundary in close vicinity to the Japan Trench. However, the structural image just beneath the largest coseismic slip area was unclear since the observation areas of previous ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) in this region were limited and there were few OBSs near the Japan Trench [e.g., Yamamoto et al., 2011]. To understand the relationship between the coseismic rupture behavior and structural heterogeneities, it is necessary to know the seismic velocity structure around the plate boundary near the trench axis. After the occurrence of the 2011 earthquake, some National Universities (Hokkaido, Tohoku, Chiba, Tokyo, Kyushu, and Kagoshima), JAMSTEC, and Meteorological Research Institute together have conducted the aftershock observations along the landward slope of the Japan Trench to obtain detail hypocenter distribution [Shinohara et al., 2012]. Tohoku University has performed the other OBS observation off Miyagi prefecture from 2010 to 2011. During this observation, a sequence of foreshocks, the mainshock, and aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake were recorded [Suzuki et al., 2012]. In addition, JAMSTEC has conducted the aftershock observation at outer slope of Japan Trench, around the epicenter of a Mw 7.6 earthquake that occurred about 40 minutes after the 2011 mainshock, from May to June in 2011[Obana et al., 2012]. In this study, we attempt to obtain the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure around the largest coseismic slip zone of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake by combining these OBS dataset and land seismic data. From our preliminary results, we could recognize the relatively low Vs and high Vp/Vs oceanic crust at landward side of the mainshock location. There is a possibility that the location of the mainshock is controlled by heterogeneous distribution of fluid in the oceanic crust. In addition, the velocity of uppermost slab mantle from 143° E to the trench axis showed low Vp, Vp/Vs (~1.70) and high Vs (> 5.0 km/s). This feature might reflect the existence of strongly anisotropy in the slab mantle or indicate the locally orthopyroxene enrichment. However, the spatial resolution around the plate boundary and upper plate in the vicinity of the Japan Trench is not enough to discuss the detail structure. We will show more reliable velocity image by adding the ray-paths which pass through around the Japan Trench.

  13. Evolution of tissue-specific keratins as deduced from novel cDNA sequences of the lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus.

    Schaffeld, Michael; Bremer, Miriam; Hunzinger, Christian; Markl, Jürgen

    2005-03-01

    Lungfishes are possibly the closest extant relatives of the land vertebrates (tetrapods). We report here the cDNA and predicted amino acid sequences of 13 different keratins (ten type I and three type II) of the lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus. These keratins include the orthologs of human K8 and K18. The lungfish keratins were also identified in tissue extracts using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, keratin blot binding assays and immunoblotting. The identified keratin spots were analyzed by peptide mass fingerprinting which assigned seven sequences (inclusively Protopterus K8 and K18) to their respective protein spot. The peptide mass fingerprints also revealed the fact that the major epidermal type I and type II keratins of this lungfish have not yet been sequenced. Nevertheless, phylogenetic trees constructed from multiple sequence alignments of keratins from lungfish and distantly related vertebrates such as lamprey, shark, trout, frog, and human reveal new insights into the evolution of K8 and K18, and unravel a variety of independent keratin radiation events. PMID:15819414

  14. Two millennia of forest history deduced from closed depressions in the Lorrain plain (North-eastern, France)

    Etienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frederic; Dupouey, Jean Luc; Dambrine, Etienne

    2010-05-01

    Recent archaeological surveys and ecological investigations in large "ancient" forests have shown that these areas had been often cultivated during the Roman or Medieval periods, and that this former land use is still deeply influencing present soil properties and plant biodiversity. This new perspective has boosted the research for sediment archives describing the state of forests across the archaeological and historical periods, especially in low altitude forest. Closed depressions (CD) or small hollows (over 30 000 CDs) are found in many silty plains of North-Western Europe (north-eastern France, Luxemburg and Belgium). They are defined as small (100 to 400 m²) closed wetlands, mostly supplied by rainwater. Their origin is debated. Recent coring campaigns in CDs of Lorraine (north-eastern France), 3 to 5 meters thick sediment cores were retrieved. It opened the way for palynological and pedological reconstruction of former landscapes. Here we present a sediment analysis of four peaty CDs (Assenoncourt, Römersberg, Sarrebourg and St Jean), located in different low altitude beech (Fagus) and oak (Quercus) forests, on silty clay soils, 50km from Nancy. As the oldest available map (Naudins, dated from 1728 to 1739) indicated forest boundaries similar to the present ones, these forests were considered as ancient forests. The sedimentation begins during the second Iron Age or Roman period. By this time, pollen analyses show an open landscape (70% of Non Arboreal Pollen), composed mostly by grassland (Plantago major/media, Poaceae and Asteraceae) and cropland (Cerealia-type, Centaurea cyanus). Around the 5th century AD, coinciding with the collapse of the Roman Empire, the pollen sequences describe rapid afforestation by Betula and Corylus, and later Carpinus forest. From the 8th century AD, Carpinus decreases in favour of Quercus which may reflect an anthropogenic clearing. From the 10th to the 14th century AD, croplands expand again with cultivation of hemp (Cannabis-type) and rye (Secale-type). From the 15th to the 19th century AD, pollen diagrams are similar at three sites and differ from the fourth. At Assenoncourt, St Jean and Römersberg, the contribution of Quercus, Carpinus and Fagus remains almost constant: 40%, 10% and 10%. This pattern may be related to short rotation forestry management applied in order to provide fuel wood to the local salt industry. At the fourth site (Sarrebourg), pollen assemblage varies with successive Quercus and Carpinus phases, following a natural sylvicultural evolution. Finally, the present-day forest extension took place during the 19th century with the replacement of wood by coal in the salt industry and the recent collapse of this salt industry during the 20th century. This study confirms, in the context of low altitude forests with heavy soils, what had been observed on shallow calcareous soils of the Lorrain plateau. Most of our state forests, that were thought to be "very ancient" or "immemorial" forest, have been managed for agriculture in the deep past. Because agriculture lands were often limed, fertilized, and eroded, this former agriculture use may to a large extent explain present soil properties and, as a consequence, present biodiversity.

  15. Long-distance HF propagation modes deduced from the simultaneous observation by chirp sounder and ISS-b

    Ichinose, M.; Fujii, S.; Nozaki, K.; Igi, S.

    1982-06-01

    Chirp oblique sounding data and ionospheric data gathered by the ISS-b satellite were analyzed to characterize the propagation modes between West Germany and Japan. Hourly ionograms were generated from November 1978 to May 1979 using chirp sounder operating in the 4-30 MHz range, and ionospheric conditions were measured each time the ISS-b orbit crossed the circuit. Propagation times were quantified for each frequency step by entering the measured ionosphere parameters into a parabolic model for the F2 layer. Simulations were performed for 3- to 5-hop propagation modes and compared with empirical data, showing that the MOF exceeds a theoretical MUF by 1 MHz.

  16. Tectonics of the baikal rift deduced from volcanism and sedimentation: a review oriented to the Baikal and Hovsgol lake systems.

    Ivanov, Alexei V; Demonterova, Elena I

    2009-01-01

    As known from inland sedimentary records, boreholes, and geophysical data, the initiation of the Baikal rift basins began as early as the Eocene. Dating of volcanic rocks on the rift shoulders indicates that volcanism started later, in the Early Miocene or probably in the Late Oligocene. Prominent tectonic uplift took place at about 20 Ma, but information (from both sediments and volcanics) on the initial stage of the rifting is scarce and incomplete. A comprehensive record of sedimentation derived from two stacked boreholes drilled at the submerged Akademichesky ridge indicates that the deep freshwater Lake Baikal existed for at least 8.4 Ma, while the exact formation of the lake in its roughly present-day shape and volume is unknown. Four important events of tectonic/environmental changes at about approximately 7, approximately 5, approximately 2.5, and approximately 0.1 Ma are seen in that record. The first event probably corresponds to a stage of rift propagation from the historical center towards the wings of the rift system. Rifting in the Hovsgol area was initiated at about this time. The event of ~5 Ma is a likely candidate for the boundary between slow and fast stages of rifting. It is reflected in a drastic change of sedimentation rate due to isolation of the Akademichesky ridge from the central and northern Lake Baikal basins. The youngest event of 0.1 Ma is reflected by the (87)0Sr/ (86)Sr ratio increase in Lake Baikal waters and probably related to an increasing rate of mountain growth (and hence erosion) resulting from glacial rebounding. The latter is responsible for the reorganization of the outflow pattern with the termination of the paleo-Manzurka outlet and the formation of the Angara outlet. The event of approximately 2.5 Ma is reflected in the decrease of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Na/Al ratios in Lake Baikal waters. We suggest that it is associated with a decrease of the dust load due to a reorganization of the atmospheric circulations in Mainland Asia. All these tectonic and climatic events could (and actually did) influence the biota of Lake Baikal. The Hovsgol rift basin was shaped to its recent form between 5.5 and 0.4 Ma. However, freshwater Lake Hovsgol appeared only in the latest pre-Holocene time as a result of meltwater inflow and increase of atmospheric precipitations during the Bølling-Allerød warming. Prior to this, a significantly smaller, saline outflow-free precursor of Lake Hovsgol existed. It explains why two, now connected, lakes of similar water chemistry within similar climatic and tectonic conditions differ so much in their biodiversity. PMID:19198772

  17. Paleoceanographic environment of Japan Sea deduced from chemical and isotopic features of Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary rocks

    Chemical and isotopic analyses (Sr isotopic ratio, major element, trace element, rare earth element, total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur contents) of rock samples collected from middle Miocene to early Pliocene sedimentary rocks, Oga Peninsula, northern Japan were performed to elucidate the paleoceanographic environment of Japan Sea. The rocks studied include shale from Nishikurosawa, Onnagawa, and Funakawa formations in stratigraphically ascending order. The Onnagawa sedimentary rocks in the lower (ca. 12.6-11.4 Ma), middle (ca. 10.5-9.0 Ma), and upper (ca. 8.3-7.0 Ma) horizons are characterized by high Mo/Al, P/Al, and Ba/Al ratios and total organic carbon content. Positive Eu anomaly, K/Ti ratio and 87Sr/86Sr ratio are also high in the same horizons. These geochemical variations imply that high primary productivity, and reducing condition of deep paleoocean, and formation of petroleum source rocks were caused by an upwelling of deep seawater. The upwelling of deep seawater is considered to have been influenced by strong winds from the Asian continent, which was related to the uplift of Himalayan and Tibetan regions. (author)

  18. Chromospheric evaporation flows and density changes deduced from Hinode/EIS during an M1.6 flare

    Gömöry, P.; Veronig, A. M.; Su, Y.; Temmer, M.; Thalmann, J. K.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We study the response of the solar atmosphere during a GOES M1.6 flare using spectroscopic and imaging observations. In particular, we examine the evolution of the mass flows and electron density together with the energy input derived from hard X-ray (HXR) in the context of chromospheric evaporation. Methods: We analyzed high-cadence sit-and-stare observations acquired with the Hinode/EIS spectrometer in the Fe xiii 202.044 Å (log T = 6.2) and Fe xvi 262.980 Å (log T = 6.4) spectral lines to derive temporal variations of the line intensity, Doppler shifts, and electron density during the flare. We combined these data with HXR measurements acquired with RHESSI to derive the energy input to the lower atmosphere by flare-accelerated electrons. Results: During the flare impulsive phase, we observe no significant flows in the cooler Fe xiii line but strong upflows, up to 80-150 km s-1, in the hotter Fe xvi line. The largest Doppler shifts observed in the Fe xvi line were co-temporal with the sharp intensity peak. The electron density obtained from a Fe xiii line pair ratio exhibited fast increase (within two minutes) from the pre-flare level of 5.01 × 109 cm-3 to 3.16 × 1010 cm-3 during the flare peak. The nonthermal energy flux density deposited from the coronal acceleration site to the lower atmospheric layers during the flare peak was found to be 1.34 × 1010 erg s-1 cm-2 for a low-energy cut-off that was estimated to be 16 keV. During the decline flare phase, we found a secondary intensity and density peak of lower amplitude that was preceded by upflows of ~15 km s-1 that were detected in both lines. The flare was also accompanied by a filament eruption that was partly captured by the EIS observations. We derived Doppler velocities of 250-300 km s-1 for the upflowing filament material. Conclusions: The spectroscopic results for the flare peak are consistent with the scenario of explosive chromospheric evaporation, although a comparatively low value of the nonthermal energy flux density was determined for this phase of the flare. This outcome is discussed in the context of recent hydrodynamic simulations. It provides observational evidence that the response of the atmospheric plasma strongly depends on the properties of the electron beams responsible for the heating, in particular the steepness of the energy distribution. The secondary peak of line intensity and electron density detected during the decline phase is interpreted as a signature of flare loops being filled by expanding hot material that is due to chromospheric evaporation. A movie is available at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Deducing L_{fermion} at M_{GUT} using Low Energy Data or Towards a Theory of Fermion Masses

    Raby, S

    1993-01-01

    In the last 20 years we have accumulated an enormous amount of data on elementary particles and their interactions. This data serves two purposes: to fix the phenomenological parameters of the Standard Model [SM] and to verify that the SM is an excellent description of nature. It is our goal to understand the origin of these many arbitrary parameters. In this talk we consider a supersymmetric [SUSY] SO(10) grand unified theory [GUT]. We present a straightforward procedure, incorporating a general operator analysis, which allows us to use low energy data to determine the fermionic sector of the theory at the GUT scale.

  20. Concept model of the formation process of humic acid-kaolin complexes deduced by trichloroethylene sorption experiments and various characterizations.

    Zhu, Xiaojing; He, Jiangtao; Su, Sihui; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Fei

    2016-05-01

    To explore the interactions between soil organic matter and minerals, humic acid (HA, as organic matter), kaolin (as a mineral component) and Ca(2+) (as metal ions) were used to prepare HA-kaolin and Ca-HA-kaolin complexes. These complexes were used in trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption experiments and various characterizations. Interactions between HA and kaolin during the formation of their complexes were confirmed by the obvious differences between the Qe (experimental sorbed TCE) and Qe_p (predicted sorbed TCE) values of all detected samples. The partition coefficient kd obtained for the different samples indicated that both the organic content (fom) and Ca(2+) could significantly impact the interactions. Based on experimental results and various characterizations, a concept model was developed. In the absence of Ca(2+), HA molecules first patched onto charged sites of kaolin surfaces, filling the pores. Subsequently, as the HA content increased and the first HA layer reached saturation, an outer layer of HA began to form, compressing the inner HA layer. As HA loading continued, the second layer reached saturation, such that an outer-third layer began to form, compressing the inner layers. In the presence of Ca(2+), which not only can promote kaolin self-aggregation but can also boost HA attachment to kaolin, HA molecules were first surrounded by kaolin. Subsequently, first and second layers formed (with inner layer compression) via the same process as described above in the absence of Ca(2+), except that the second layer continued to load rather than reach saturation, within the investigated conditions, because of enhanced HA aggregation caused by Ca(2+). PMID:26933902

  1. Vertical crustal movements as deduced from temporal gravity variations and its correlation to seismic hazards in Egypt

    Issawy, E. A.; Mrlina, Jan; Radwan, A. H.

    Houten: EAGE, 2013, We-01-15/1-We-01-15/5. ISBN 978-90-73834-48-4. [EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2013 /75./. London (GB), 10.06.2013-13.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : crustal movements * seismo-active areas * geodynamical model Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  2. The electron-phonon coupling constant λ (acoustic) of YBaCuO deduced from the photoresistive response

    Laser pulses were applied to granular, and c-axis oriented, YBa2Cu3Ox films current-biased in a resistive state, and the decay of the transient voltage was monitored as a function of time. At low enough temperatures and fluences (∼1 nJ per cm2 per pulse), the decay rate follows a T3-dependence characteristic of electron energy loss to acoustic phonons. Above about 7 K, the response time of 300 angstrom films stays constant at 2.4 nsec, in agreement with the bolometric response observed by others. In the range of dominant electron-phonon interaction, the response time contains direct information about the coupling constant λ, via a formula derived by P.B. Allen. However, as in ultrasonic attenuation, the limitation of the electron mean free path must be taken into account. A support for this procedure is the approximate proportionality of the relaxation time upon the room temperature resistivity, i.e. the electron mean free path. The authors thus obtain a value of λ appropriate to the acoustic mode interaction

  3. Accuracy of the Approximation Function Deduced from the Fixed 3-Points Calibration Delivered with the Cernox™ Sensor

    Balle, C; Fortescue-Beck, E; Vauthier, N

    2013-01-01

    The cernox™ sensor is delivered with a 3-point resistance versus temperature cal-ibration that permits the construction of an individual interpolation table by using the data in the CERN thermometer database. For instance at the 4.2 K point, the individual calibration and the manufacturer data are within +/-0.1 K for 99.39% of a sample population of about 5700 sensors. Preliminary results also indicate that accuracies of 0.1 K and 1 K can be obtained below respectively 5 K and 77 K.

  4. MODERN CLIMATIC SIGNALS DEDUCED FROM STABLE ISOTOPE IN SHELLS IN XINGCUO LAKE SEDIMENTS,EAST TIBETAN PLATEAU, CHINA

    2001-01-01

    Xingcuo lake, a closed one, is situated in eastern Tibetan Plateau. There are abundant snail shells Gyraulus sibirica in its sediments. Here we display the determining results of δ13C, δ18O in shell Gyraulus sibirica continuously preserved in Xincuo Lake sediments in the recent 50 years. And by coupling the indexes of δ13C, δ18O and instrumental meteorological data in its basin to build relative function relations among them, we probe quantitatively climatic signals recorded in those indexes. The results show that there are remarkable relations between δ13C proxy and precipitation,δ18O proxy and air temperature, of which correlative coefficient was 0. 89 and 0. 71, respectively. Besides, we also demonstrated that average variation between δ13C proxy and precipitation (dδ13C/dP) was 0. 027‰/mm and 1.64‰/℃ for δ18O and air temperature (dδ18O/dT).

  5. Strain localization analysis deduced from a large strain elastic-plastic self-consistent model for multiphase steels

    FRANZ, Gérald; ABED-MERAIM, Farid; BEN ZINEB, Tarak; LEMOINE, Xavier; Berveiller, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of microstructures and deformation mechanisms on the ductility of materials, the criterion based on bifurcation theory first proposed by Rice is applied to elastic-plastic tangent moduli derived from a large strain micromechanical model combined with a self-consistent scale transition scheme. This approach takes into account several microstructural aspects for polycrystalline aggregates: initial and induced textures, dislocation densities, softening mechanis...

  6. Ellipticity loss analysis for tangent moduli deduced from a large strain elastic–plastic self-consistent model

    FRANZ, Gérald; ABED-MERAIM, Farid; Lorrain, Jean-Paul; BEN ZINEB, Tarak; LEMOINE, Xavier; Berveiller, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of microstructures and deformation mechanisms on the ductility of materials, the criterion first proposed by Rice is applied to elastic–plastic tangent moduli derived from a large strain micromechanical model combined with a self-consistent scale-transition technique. This approach takes into account several microstructural aspects for polycrystalline aggregates: initial and induced textures, dislocation densities as well as softening mechanisms such that th...

  7. Geochronological constaints on the evolution of the Witwatersrand basin, as deduced from single zircon U/Pb ion microprobe studies

    The economic importance of the Witwatersrand Supergroup has resulted in this basin being one of the most extensively studied of its kind. The Witwatersrand basin has traditionally been grouped together with the underlying Dominion Group and the overlying Ventersdorp Supergroup into the so-called Witwatersrand triad. The present study has sought, by means of single zircon U-Pb age determinations using ion microprobe SHRIMP, to establish a precise and accurate chronostratigraphy for the Witwatersrand triad. 4 refs., 2 figs

  8. The radiated energy budget of chromospheric plasma in a major solar flare deduced from multi-wavelength observations

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kerr, Graham S.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Dennis, Brian R.; Allred, Joel C.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Ireland, Jack, E-mail: r.milligan@qub.ac.uk [Solar Physics Laboratory (Code 671), Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be >2 × 10{sup 31} erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304 Å and H I (Lyα) at 1216 Å by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600 Å and 1700 Å by SDO/AIA, and the white light continuum at 4504 Å, 5550 Å, and 6684 Å, along with the Ca II H line at 3968 Å using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these instruments amounted to ∼3 × 10{sup 30} erg; about 15% of the total nonthermal energy. The Lyα line was found to dominate the measured radiative losses. Parameters of both the driving electron distribution and the resulting chromospheric response are presented in detail to encourage the numerical modeling of flare heating for this event, to determine the depth of the solar atmosphere at which these line and continuum processes originate, and the mechanism(s) responsible for their generation.

  9. The Radiated Energy Budget of Chromospheric Plasma in a Major Solar Flare Deduced From Multi-Wavelength Observations

    Milligan, Ryan O; Dennis, Brian R; Hudson, Hugh S; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Allred, Joel C; Chamberlin, Phillip C; Ireland, Jack; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be $>2\\times10^{31}$ erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304\\AA\\ and H I (Ly$\\alpha$) at 1216\\AA\\ by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600\\AA\\ and 1700\\AA\\ by SDO/AIA, and the WL continuum at 4504\\AA, 5550\\AA, and 6684\\AA, along with the Ca II H line at 3968\\AA\\ using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these in...

  10. Secular crustal deformation and interplate coupling of the Japanese Islands as deduced from continuous GPS array, 1996 2001

    El-Fiky, Gamal; Kato, Teruyuki

    2006-08-01

    Data from the nation-wide GPS continuous tracking network that has been operated by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan since April 1996 were used to study crustal deformation in the Japanese Islands. We first extracted site coordinate from daily SINEX files for the period from April 1, 1996 to February 24, 2001. Since raw time series of station coordinates include coseismic and postseismic displacements as well as seasonal variation, we model each time series as a combination of linear and trigonometric functions and jumps for episodic events. Estimated velocities were converted into a kinematic reference frame [Heki, K., 1996. Horizontal and vertical crustal movements from three-dimensional very long baseline interferometry kinematic reference frame: implication for reversal timescale revision. J. Geophys. Res., 101: 3187-3198.] to discuss the crustal deformation relative to the stable interior of the Eurasian plate. A Least-Squares Prediction technique has been used to segregate the signal and noise in horizontal as well as vertical velocities. Estimated horizontal signals (horizontal displacement rates) were then differentiated in space to calculate principal components of strain. Dilatations, maximum shear strains, and principal axes of strain clearly portray tectonic environments of the Japanese Islands. On the other hand, the interseismic vertical deformation field of the Japanese islands is derived for the same GPS data interval. The GPS vertical velocities are combined with 31 year tide gage records to estimate absolute vertical velocity. The results of vertical deformation show that (1) the existence of clear uplift of about 6 mm/yr in Shikoku and Kii Peninsula, whereas pattern of subsidence is observed in the coast of Kyushu district. This might reflect strong coupling between the Philippine Sea plate and overriding plate at the Nankai Trough and weak coupling off Kyushu, (2) no clear vertical deformation pattern exists along the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. This might be due to the long distance between the plate boundary (Japan trench) and overriding plate where GPS sites are located, (3) significant uplift is observed in the southwestern part of Hokkaido and in northeastern Tohoku along the Japan Sea coast. This is possibly due to the viscoelastic rebound of the 1983 Japan Sea ( Mw 7.7) and the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki ( Mw 7.8) earthquakes and/or associated with distributed compression of incipient subduction there. We then estimate the elastic deformation of the Japanese Islands caused by interseismic loading of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subduction plates. The elastic models account for most of the observed horizontal velocity field if the subduction movement of the Philippine Sea Plate is 100% locked and if that of the Pacific Plate is 70% locked. However, the best fit for vertical velocity ranges from 80% to 100% coupling factor in southwestern Japan and only 50% in northeastern Japan. Since horizontal data does not permit the separation of rigid plate motion and interplate coupling because horizontal velocities include both contributions, we used the vertical velocities to discriminate between them. So, we can say there is strong interplate coupling (80%-100%) over the Nankaido subduction zone, whereas it is about 50% only over the Kurile-Japan trench.

  11. Atmospheric emissions of N2O deduced from long-term observations at the Mediterranean Island of Lampedusa

    Artuso, Florinda; Piacentino, Salvatore; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Disarra, Alcide; Meloni, Daniela; Monteleone, Francesco; Chamard, Paolo; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third principal long-lived greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted by human activities, as it has been assessed by the last Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report. It is produced both naturally and anthropogenically. Natural sources include microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification in soils and water. Use of nitrate and ammonium fertilizers increased noteworthy the emission of N2O from soils. Other anthropogenic sources of N2O are fuel combustion and waste management activities. Its mixing ratio in the atmosphere has considerably risen during the past two centuries as demonstrated by analyses of polar ice cores. Long-term observations of GHG atmospheric concentration are crucial in the investigation of global climate changes and are essential for the prediction of their future trends. For this reason a number of global monitoring studies aimed at determining trends and distribution in the tropospheric abundance of N2O and other GHGs have been carried out during the last years. Scarce information on the magnitude and distribution of N2O emissions is available in the Mediterranean area. In this work we present and analyse long-term N2O records measured at the remote site of Lampedusa Island, located in the middle of the Mediterranean basin. Lampedusa is part of the majors GHG global monitoring programs such as the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), established by the World Meteorological Organization, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) networks. Monitoring of the atmospheric mixing ratio of N2O has been started in Lampedusa in 1996 on a weekly basis but also continuous measurements have been carried out since October 2005. Weekly records are analyzed and the linear trend line has been used to evaluate the annual growth rate. In agreement with data reported by the IPCC 4th Assessment Report, the mean N2O value recorded at Lampedusa in this period is 319.6±0.6 ppb. This finding remarks the representativeness of Lampedusa on global and regional scale. Atmospheric N2O levels have linearly risen at a growth rate of about 0.8 ppb yr-1 and reached in 2008 a mean mixing ratio of 322.5 ppb. Our data mirror the N2O pattern recorded at other global stations located in the Northern Hemisphere. Constraining of source and sink distribution of N2O has been carried out through transport studies and backward trajectory analysis. Records of N2O have been combined with an airmass back-trajectory analysis with the aim to identify possible source regions that lead to elevated N2O mixing ratio at Lampedusa. Results have been compared with the European Environment Agency (EEA) emission database. Preliminary trajectory analysis results show high emissions from Western Europe that are confirmed by the EEA database and can be attributed to fossil fuel combustion and the enhanced microbial production caused by the expansion of the fertilized agricultural lands in this area. The contribution from Northern Africa and Eastern Europe seems to be very low. However N2O emissions from the marine geographical area (Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea) are elevated confirming the results of recent studies demonstrating that the North Atlantic Ocean is a considerable N2O source.

  12. Formation age and geomorphologic history of the Lonar impact crater deduced from in- situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    Nakamura, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Goto, K.; Komatsu, G.; Kumar, P.; Matsuzaki, H.; Matsui, T.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering is a dominant surface modification process on planetary surfaces. In the inner solar system, the large majority of impacts occur on bodies covered by primitive igneous rocks. However, most of the impacts remaining on Earth surface are on different rock types than that of the inner planet and hence geologic knowledge derived from Earth's surface cannot be translated readily. The Lonar crater is a 1.88-km-diameter crater located on the Deccan basaltic traps in India (ca. 65 Ma), and is one of a few craters on Earth bombarded directly on basaltic lava flows. Thus, the Lonar crater provides a rare opportunity to study impact structures on the basaltic surfaces of other terrestrial planets and the Moon. Since the ages of terrestrial impact structures is a key to understand geomorphological processes after the impact, various dating methods have been applied to the Lonar Crater such as fission track (Storzer and Koeberl, 2004), radiocarbon (Maloof, 2010), thermoluminescence (Sengupta et al., 1997), and 40Ar/39Ar (Jourdan et al., 2011). Yet, a large discrepancy between these methods ranging from ca. 1.79 to 570 ka has been resulted. Here we report surface exposure ages based on in-situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in order to obtain a precise age of the Lonar crater formation as well as to study the geomorphologic evolution. The samples are collected from the topographic highs on the rim of the crater and from the ejecta blanket. Exposure ages together with newly obtained radiocarbon age of pre-impact soil indicate much younger ages than that of obtained from 40Ar/39Ar method. This suggests the potential bias because of inherited 40Ar in impact glass. Systematically young exposure age from the rim samples compared to the samples from the ejecta blanket indicate that the rim of the Lonar crater is being actively eroded. Spatial distributions of geomorphic ages observed from the Lonar creator is not the same as the pattern reported from the well-studied Barringer crater in Arizona (Nishiizumi et al, 1991, Phillips et al., 1991), highlighting the different geomorphologic processes of the two craters due to the different climatic and lithologic settings between the two.

  13. Interhemispheric differences and solar cycle effects of the high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns deduced from Cluster EDI observations

    Förster, Matthias; Haaland, Stein

    2015-04-01

    Here, we present a study of ionospheric convection at high latitudes that is based on satellite measurements of the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on-board the Cluster satellites, which were obtained over a full solar cycle (2001-2013). The mapped drift measurements are covering both hemispheres and a variety of different solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The large amount of data allows us to perform more detailed statistical studies. We show that flow patterns and polar cap potentials can differ between the two hemispheres on statistical average for a given IMF orientation. In particular, during southward directed IMF conditions, and thus enhanced energy input from the solar wind, we find that the southern polar cap has a higher cross polar cap potential. We also find persistent north-south asymmetries which cannot be explained by external drivers alone. Much of these asymmetries can probably be explained by significant differences in the strength and configuration of the geomagnetic field between the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Since the ionosphere is magnetically connected to the magnetosphere, this difference will also be reflected in the magnetosphere in the form of different feedback from the two hemispheres. Consequently, local ionospheric conditions and the geomagnetic field configuration are important for north-south asymmetries in large regions of geospace. The average convection is higher during periods with high solar activity. Although local ionospheric conditions may play a role, we mainly attribute this to higher geomagnetic activity due to enhanced solar wind - magnetosphere interactions.

  14. Local and Catchment-Scale Water Storage Changes in Northern Benin Deduced from Gravity Monitoring at Various Time-Scales

    Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage changes (WSC) are investigated by the mean of gravity monitoring in Djougou, northern Benin, in the frame of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project. In this area, WSC are 1) part of the control system for evapotranspiration (ET) processes, a key variable of the West-African monsoon cycle and 2) the state variable for resource management, a critical issue in storage-poor hard rock basement contexts such as in northern Benin. We show the advantages of gravity monitoring for analyzing different processes in the water cycle involved at various time and space scales, using the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rain, soil moisture, water table level, ET ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared at all frequencies to hydrological data and to hydrological models calibrated on these data. Discrepancies are analyzed to discuss the pros and cons of each approach. Fast gravity changes (a few hours) are significant when rain events occur, and involve different contributions: rainfall itself, runoff, fast subsurface water redistribution, screening effect of the gravimeter building and local topography. We investigate these effects and present the statistical results of a set of rain events recorded with the SG installed in Djougou since July 2010. The intermediate time scale of gravity changes (a few days) is caused by ET and both vertical and horizontal water redistribution. The integrative nature of gravity measurements does not allow to separate these different contributions, and the screening from the shelter reduces our ability to retrieve ET values. Also, atmospheric corrections are critical at such frequencies, and deserve some specific attention. However, a quick analysis of gravity changes following rain events shows that the values are in accordance with expected ET values (up to about 5mm/day). Seasonal WSC are analyzed since 2008 using FG5 absolute gravity measurements four times a year and since 2010 using the continuous SG time series. They can reach up to 12 microGal (≈270mm) and show a clear interannual variability, as can be expected from rainfall variability in the area. This data set allows some estimates of an average specific yield for the local aquifer, together with a scaling factor for Magnetic Resonance Soundings-derived water content.

  15. Correlation between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the field-aligned current regions deduced from DE 2 observations

    Satellite observational have shown high correlation between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the high-latitude field-aligned current regions. The high correlation has been interpreted by two models. In the first, the Static model, the observed perturbations are regarded as being static spatial variations, and the ratio of the orthogonal magnetic and electric field components ΔBz/Ex represents the height-integrated ionospheric Pedersen conductivity ΣP. In the second, Alfven wave model, the observed perturbations are interpreted as being Doppler-shifted Alfven waves, and the inverse of the ratio gives the Alfven wave velocity VA. In this paper the authors investigate changes of this ratio with spatial scale length, using the DE 2 observations. The ratio ΔBz/Ex is found to change little with scale length for variations of scale lengths longer than 64 km, or 8.0 s in time. While for variations of smaller scale lengths, which are obtained using numerical filters with cutoff periods shorter than 4.0 s, the same ratio shows a significant dependence on scale length. The calculated ratios are nearly equal to ΣP based on an ionospheric model for long-wavelength structures and to 1/VA for short-wavelength variations. The transition from the former to the latter usually begins around 4.0-8.0 s on the time scale. On the dayside the correlation between ΔBz and Ex is generally high, and the transition is clearly seen. Thus the static model is applicable to variations of scale lengths greater than 8.0 s (or 64 km); while the Alfven wave effect becomes increasingly dominant for scale lengths less than 4.0 s (or 32 km). For scale lengths below about 5 km (∼0.6 s) the short-circuiting effect at ionospheric altitudes higher than the altitudes at which the horizontal Pedersen closure current usually flows becomes appreciable

  16. Vegetation history of Central Chukotka deduced from permafrost paleoenvironmental records of the El'gygytgyn Impact Crater

    A. A. Andreev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Frozen sediments from three cores bored in permafrost surrounding of the El'gygytgyn Impact Crater Lake have been studied for pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, plant macrofossils, and rhizopods. The palynological study of the cores contributes to a higher resolution of time intervals presented in a poor temporal resolution in the lacustrine sediments; namely the Allerød and succeeding periods. Moreover, permafrost records better reflect local environmental changes, thus, allowing more reliable reconstruction of the local paleoenvironments. The new data confirm that shrub tundra with dwarf birch, shrub alder and willow dominated in the lake surroundings during the Allerød warming. Younger Dryas pollen assemblages reflect abrupt changes to grass-sedge-herb dominated environments reflecting significant climate deterioration. Low shrub tundra with dwarf birch and willow dominate the lake vicinity at the onset of the Holocene. The founds of larch seeds indicate its local presence around 11 000 cal. yr BP and, thus a northward shift of treeline by about 100 km during the early Holocene thermal optimum. Forest tundra with larch and shrub alder stands grew in the area during the early Holocene. After ca. 3500 cal. yr BP similar-to-modern plant communities became common in the lake vicinity.

  17. Deducing composition and incident electron spectra from ground-based auroral optical measurements: A study of auroral red line processes

    We conclude from a study of the production and loss of O(1D) in auroras that the ''traditional'' sources, direct electron impact excitation of atomic oxygen and dissociative recombination of molecular oxygen ions, can account for most of the O I 6300-A emission rate. In a specific application of the model to the comprehensive observation of an auroral event by Sharp et al. (1979), we show that there is no compelling need for the reaction N(2D)+O2→NO+O(1D). We also present a study of the sensitivity of the red line emission rate to a wide variety of input conditions. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  18. Paleosandstorm characteristics and lake evolution history deduced from investigation on lacustrine sediments--The case of Hongjiannao Lake, Shaanxi Province

    SHEN Ji; WANG Yong; YANG Xiangdong; ZHANG Enlou; YANG Bao; JI Junfeng

    2005-01-01

    Sediment cores from desert lakes serve as good records of the frequency and intensity of sandstorms in history. By multi-proxy analysis of grain-size, magnetic susceptibility, TOC and Rb/Sr ratio, the paleosandstorm characteristics and lake evolution history in Yulin Area for the past 80 years. are discussed in this article. It is revealed that Hongjiannao Lake formed in about 1928 A.D. and in its initial stage sandstorms were prevalent with three extremes taking place in 1936 A.D., 1939 A.D. and 1941 A.D.. During the expansion period of 1952―1960 A.D., inflow waters to the lake increased sharply and a lot more weathered materials were carried into the lake. The frequency and intensity of sandstorms have reduced a lot since 1960s and the "double peaks" feature of the grain-size frequency curve has changed into the "single peak" feature. Study on the catchment ecology of the lake shows that the occurrence of sandstorms has been effectively restrained by the forest plantation and water and soil conservation.

  19. Following the Viterbi Path to Deduce Flagellar Actin-Interacting Proteins of Leishmania spp.: Report on Cofilins and Twinfilins

    Pacheco, Ana Carolina L.; Araújo, Fabiana F.; Kamimura, Michel T.; Medeiros, Sarah R.; Viana, Daniel A.; Oliveira, Fátima de Cássia E.; Filho, Raimundo Araújo; Costa, Marcília P.; Oliveira, Diana M.

    2007-11-01

    For performing vital cellular processes, such as motility, eukaryotic cells rely on the actin cytoskeleton, whose structure and dynamics are tightly controlled by a large number of actin-interacting (AIP) or actin-related/regulating (ARP) proteins. Trypanosomatid protozoa, such as Leishmania, rely on their flagellum for motility and sensory reception, which are believed to allow parasite migration, adhesion, invasion and even persistence on mammalian host tissues to cause disease. Actin can determine cell stiffness and transmit force during mechanotransduction, cytokinesis, cell motility and other cellular shape changes, while the identification and analyses of AIPs can help to improve understanding of their mechanical properties on physiological architectures, such as the present case regarding Leishmania flagellar apparatus. This work conveniently apply bioinformatics tools in some refined pattern recognition techniques (such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) through the Viterbi algorithm/path) in order to improve the recognition of actin-binding/interacting activity through identification of AIPs in genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes of Leishmania species. We here report cofilin and twinfilin as putative components of the flagellar apparatus, a direct bioinformatics contribution in the secondary annotation of Leishmania and trypanosomatid genomes.

  20. Crust and mantle lithospheric structure of the Iberian Peninsula deduced from potential field modeling and thermal analysis

    Torne, Montserrat; Fernàndez, Manel; Vergés, Jaume; Ayala, Conxi; Salas, Maria Carolina; Jimenez-Munt, Ivone; Buffett, Grant George; Díaz, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the lithospheric structure of the Iberian Peninsula and lateral crustal density variations using a three-step approach. First the crustal and mantle lithosphere thicknesses are calculated from joint geoid and elevation modeling combined with thermal analysis further constrained by seismic data. We then compute the 3D gravity effect of the resulting lithospheric structure to separate the measured Bouguer anomaly into its regional and local components. Finally we invert the residual gravity anomalies to highlight lateral average crustal density variations and discuss them in terms of crustal structures. Our results show that for the majority of the study area the crustal thickness does correlate with the regional topography pattern. The highest topography - above 1500 m - shows thicknesses above 44 km with local values up to 48 km. Crustal thicknesses in the range of 36-40 km are obtained in the uplifted Alpine areas while a thinner crust is observed in sedimentary basins and in the Iberian Massif (30 to 35 km) with the exception of SW Iberia region where the crust thins from 30 to 28 km. Thick lithosphere - above 140 km - is found along the Pyrenees, the Cantabrian Mountains, the Iberian Chain and in the Betics while the thinnest lithosphere is found in SW Iberia (90 km). 3D inversion of residual anomalies show that for the majority of the area the average density of the crust is in the range of 2810 ± 10 kg m- 3. The denser crust is found in the NW and SW regions of the Iberian Massif (+ 30 kg m- 3 on average) and locally in the Pyrenees (above + 70 kg m- 3), NW of the Iberian Chain (+ 15 kg m- 3 on average) and in the southern Internal Betics (+ 70 kg m-3). The least dense crust is found in the central and western Betic Chain (- 30 kg m- 3 on average) and in sedimentary basin depocenters.

  1. Chromospheric evaporation flows and density changes deduced from Hinode/EIS during an M1.6 flare

    Gömöry, P; Su, Y; Temmer, M; Thalmann, J K

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed high-cadence sit-and-stare observations acquired with the Hinode/EIS spectrometer and HXR measurements acquired with RHESSI during an M-class flare. During the flare impulsive phase, we observe no significant flows in the cooler Fe XIII line but strong upflows, up to 80-150 km/s, in the hotter Fe XVI line. The largest Doppler shifts observed in the Fe XVI line were co-temporal with the sharp intensity peak. The electron density obtained from a Fe XIII line pair ratio exhibited fast increase (within two minutes) from the pre-flare level of 5.01x10^(9) cm^(-3) to 3.16x10^(10) cm^(-3) during the flare peak. The nonthermal energy flux density deposited from the coronal acceleration site to the lower atmospheric layers during the flare peak was found to be 1.34x10^(10) erg/s/cm^(2) for a low-energy cut-off that was estimated to be 16 keV. During the decline flare phase, we found a secondary intensity and density peak of lower amplitude that was preceded by upflows of 15 km/s that were detected in both ...

  2. Chromospheric evaporation flows and density changes deduced from Hinode/EIS during an M1.6 flare

    Gömöry, P.; Veronig, A. M.; Su, Y.; Temmer, M.; Thalmann, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed high-cadence sit-and-stare observations acquired with the Hinode/EIS spectrometer and HXR measurements acquired with RHESSI during an M-class flare. During the flare impulsive phase, we observe no significant flows in the cooler Fe XIII line but strong upflows, up to 80-150 km/s, in the hotter Fe XVI line. The largest Doppler shifts observed in the Fe XVI line were co-temporal with the sharp intensity peak. The electron density obtained from a Fe XIII line pair ratio exhibited fas...

  3. Microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of 4 He superfluid helium deduced by maximum entropy method

    This thesis presents a microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of superfluid helium (4 He), model developed by means of the Maximum Entropy Method (Maxent). In the chapter 1, it is demonstrated the necessity to developing a microscopic model for the fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium, starting from to show a brief overview of the theories and experiments developed in order to explain the behavior of the superfluid helium. On the other hand, it is presented the Morozov heuristic method for the construction of the non-linear hydrodynamic fluctuating of simple fluid. Method that will be generalized for the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium. Besides, it is presented a brief summary of the content of the thesis. In the chapter 2, it is reproduced the construction of a Generalized Fokker-Planck equation, (GFP), for a distribution function associated with the coarse grained variables. Function defined with aid of a nonequilibrium statistical operator ρhutFP that is evaluated as Wigneris function through ρCG obtained by Maxent. Later this equation of GFP is reduced to a non-linear local FP equation from considering a slow and Markov process in the coarse grained variables. In this equation appears a matrix Dmn defined with a nonequilibrium coarse grained statistical operator ρhutCG, matrix elements are used in the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamics equations of the superfluid helium. In the chapter 3, the Lagrange multipliers are evaluated for to determine ρhutCG by means of the local equilibrium statistical operator ρhutl-tilde with the hypothesis that the system presents small fluctuations. Also are determined the currents associated with the coarse grained variables and furthermore are evaluated the matrix elements Dmn but with aid of a quasi equilibrium statistical operator ρhutqe instead of the local equilibrium operator ρhutl-tilde. Matrix elements that lead to the local transport coefficients for the superfluid helium, by means of a generalization of the Green-Kubo fluctuation-dissipation relation, in analogy with the results present in the Appendix A, obtained with a local equilibrium statistical operator ρhutl-tilde. Specified the Lagrange multipliers, the currents and the local transport coefficients, a non-linear local FP equation is determined for the superfluid helium in the Fourier space. Starting with such FP equation their associated non-linear equations of the Langevin type are built, where the random forces that appear are of multiplicative type. Forces that are expressed as the product of Gaussian random variables and local variablesin such way that the variances of the random variables are independent of the local variables. Finally, applying the Fourier inverse transformed to the non-linear equations of the Langevin type in the space of Fourier, the equations of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic are built for the superfluid helium in the configuration space. Lastly, in the chapter 4, it is presented a discussion of the results and the conclusions of this thesis. (Author)

  4. Structural evolution of lamprophyric dikes in Lailai, northeastern coast of Taiwan, deduced from mesoscopic structures in dikes and country rocks

    You, Cian-Siang; Huang, Wen-Jeng; Lo, Wei; Wang, Tzu-Bin; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Lamprophyric dikes are standing in right-stepping en echelon up to 2.3 meters high within the Oligocene Tatungshan formation on the Lai-Lai wave-cut platform in the northeastern coast of Taiwan. The marine platform composed mainly of argillite is the extension of Hsuehshan range, which has the tallest peak of 3,886 m high in Taiwan. The dikes formed at depth in the late Miocene of 9±1.1 Ma ago are exposed on the marine platform nowadays due to the exhumation and Penglai orogeny resulting from the collision of Eurasian plate and Philippine Sea plate, which began in Pleistocene of 5-6 Ma ago. In consequence, folds, faults, joints and other structures are associated with them. In this study, the distribution of the dikes and fractures were mapped by conducting accurate surveys with a total station theodolite and orthorectifying aerial images taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle in different elevations. Electrical resistivity exploration was performed to decipher the arrangement of the dikes underground and the characteristics of the faults. The associated mesoscopic structures were delineated by mapping at a scale of 1: 40 in the field. We infer that the dikes was formed at depth of approximately 2.4 kilometers according to the thickness of overlaying sedimentary rocks formed from late Oligocene to late Miocene. Thus, it excludes the possibility that fractures existed before the lamprophyric magma intruded into the country rocks. Our observations help restore the original status of the current 19 dike segments. We conclude that the lamprophyric magma forcedly and vertically intruded into the Oligocene rocks and the direction change of maximum principle stress at depth of 2.4 kilometers resulted in three or more right-stepping en-echelon dikes.

  5. Geometry of duskside equatorial current during magnetic storm main phase as deduced from magnetospheric and low-altitude observations

    S. Dubyagin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a coordinated study of the moderate magnetic storm on 22 July 2009. The THEMIS and GOES observations of magnetic field in the inner magnetosphere were complemented by energetic particle observations at low altitude by the six NOAA POES satellites. Observations in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit revealed a relatively thin (half-thickness of less than 1 RE and intense current sheet in the dusk MLT sector during the main phase of the storm. The total westward current (integrated along the z-direction on the duskside at r ~ 6.6 RE was comparable to that in the midnight sector. Such a configuration cannot be adequately described by existing magnetic field models with predefined current systems (error in B > 60 nT. At the same time, low-altitude isotropic boundaries (IB of > 80 keV protons in the dusk sector were shifted ~ 4° equatorward relative to the IBs in the midnight sector. Both the equatorward IB shift and the current strength on the duskside correlate with the Sym-H* index. These findings imply a close relation between the current intensification and equatorward IB shift in the dusk sector. The analysis of IB dispersion revealed that high-energy IBs (E > 100 keV always exhibit normal dispersion (i.e., that for pitch angle scattering on curved field lines. Anomalous dispersion is sometimes observed in the low-energy channels (~ 30–100 keV. The maximum occurrence rate of anomalous dispersion was observed during the main phase of the storm in the dusk sector.

  6. Longitudinal (UT effect in the onset of auroral disturbances over two solar cycles as deduced from the AE-index

    L. A. Hajkowicz

    Full Text Available Statistical study on the universal time variations in the mean hourly auroral electrojet index (AE-index has been undertaken for a 21 y period over two solar cycles (1957–1968 and 1978–1986. The analysis, applied to isolated auroral substorm onsets (inferred from rapid variations in the AE-index and to the bulk of the AE data, indicates that the maximum in auroral activity is largely confined to 09–18 UT, with a distinct minimum at 03–06 UT. The diurnal effect was clearly present throughout all seasons in the first cycle but was mainly limited to northern winter in the second cycle. Severe storms (AE > 1000 nT tended to occur between 9–18 UT irrespective of the seasons whereas all larger magnetic disturbances (AE > 500 nT tended to occur in this time interval mostly in winter. On the whole the diurnal trend was strong in winter, intermediate at equinox and weak in summer. The implication of this study is that Eastern Siberia, Japan and Australia are mostly at night, during the period of maximum auroral activity whereas Europe and Eastern America are then mostly at daytime. The minimum of auroral activity coincides with near-midnight conditions in Eastern America. It appears that the diurnal UT distribution in the AE-index reflects a diurnal change between interplanetary magnetic field orientation and the Earth's magnetic dipole inclination.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; storms and substorms.

  7. Heterogeneidades texturales y composicionales en productos piroclásticos de la erupción de 1960 del sistema Cordón Caulle (40°30'S, 72°10'O Textural and compositional heterogeneities in pyroclastic products from 1960 Cordón Caulle eruption (40º30'S, 72º10'W

    Romina Daga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los depósitos de cenizas volcánicas son excelentes marcadores estratigráficos y cronológicos ya que pueden ser dispersados a cientos de kilómetros de su fuente. Sin embargo, su correlación puede ser problemática. Si bien la mayoría de los estudios basan estas correlaciones en análisis geoquímicos de roca total, las partículas volcánicas juveniles poseen gran heterogeneidad en cuanto a la forma de los fragmentos, textura y composición de la matriz y las fases minerales. Trabajos previos en niveles volcánicos identificados en una secuencia del lago Nahuel Huapi permitieron identificar los productos de la erupción del año 1960 del Sistema Cordón Caulle, presentando una gran variabilidad en el tipo de partículas volcánicas juveniles identificadas, como pómez blanca, marrón, escorias y trizas vítreas, con variaciones en la composición de roca total de cada tipo de partícula. Con esta información como base, en el presente trabajo se presentan los primeros análisis morfológicos, texturales y composicionales de los diferentes productos juveniles con el objeto de identificar el origen de las variaciones morfológicas y de geoquímica de roca total de las mismas. Los resultados permitieron asociar dichas diferencias a variaciones en el contenido de cristales y tamaño, forma y distribución de vesículas. Dicha variación, a su vez, fue relacionada a procesos de fraccionamiento previos a la erupción de 1960 del Sistema Cordón Caulle, generando información de valiosa utilidad para el uso de estos niveles como marcadores cronoestratigráficos.Volcanic ash deposits are excellent stratigraphical and chronological markers as they can be dispersed hundreds of kilometers from its source, but sometimes the correlation with the source can be problematic. While most of the studies support these correlations in whole rock geochemical analyses, juvenile volcanic particles have great heterogeneity in fragment shapes, texture, and groundmass and mineral phases composition. Previous works on volcanic deposits identified in a lacustrine sedimentary sequence of lake Nahuel Huapi allowed the identification of products from the 1960 Cordón Caulle volcanic complex eruption, showing high variability in the juvenile volcanic particles, like white and brown pumice, scoria and glass shards, with variation in the whole rock composition. With this information as a background, this paper presents the first morphological, textural and compositional analyses of different juvenile products in order to identify the origin of morphological and whole rock geochemical variations. The results allowed the association of such differences with variations in crystal content and size, shape and distribution of vesicles. Such variations, in turn, were related to processes of fractionation previous to the 1960 Cordón Caulle eruption, thus providing valuable information to use these layers as chronostratigraphic markers.

  8. Geología y evolución tectónica del frente cordilleranoa los 36º30'S: bloques de Vihuin-Huaca y Puntilla de Huincán. Mendoza

    Bruno J Galarza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En el sur de la provincia deMendoza, en el ámbito del sector externo de la faja plegada y corrida deMalargüe, entre los 70º00'O y 69º40'O, se desarrolla una serie de estructurasque involucran al basamento pre-jurásico en la deformación. Este sector secaracteriza por la presencia de tres fallas principales. La más occidental esel corrimiento Yihuín Huaca asociado al ascenso de la sierra homónima, uncorrimiento de vergencia este y rumbo NNE con participación de basamento, queafecta a unidades miocenas en superficie. El segundo es el corrimiento Calmuco,de vergencia opuesta al Yihuín Huaca y rumbo N, el que en superficie emplaza alGrupo Neuquén sobre volcanitas miocenas. Entre estas dos fallas se conforma lazona triangular de Laguna Blanca. Al este del corrimiento Calmuco se ubican dosanticlinales que afectan en superficie a sedimentitas de los Grupos Neuquén yMalargüe y a volcanitas del Grupo Palauco. La tercera falla es el corrimientoEl Zampal, de vergencia este, el cual pone en superficie las evaporitas de laFormación Huitrín. Fallas secundarias que involucran al basamento tienen escasaexpresión superficial. La mayoría de las fallas secundarias no involucran elbasamento, siendo su despegue la Formación Huitrín y generando anticlinales ysinclinales muy apretados, fallados y replegados. La zona triangular de LagunaBlanca está ubicada en el suroeste de la zona de estudio. En ella seidentificaron una serie de anticlinales y sinclinales, generados por lacontribución de corrimientos secundarios de vergencia este, por la presencia deintrusivos de Molle en las capas mesozoicas y por la disolución de evaporitasde la Formación Huitrín en el sinclinal Laguna Blanca. Al norte se ubica laestructura de Puntilla de Huincán, que se trata de un rasgo de rumbo norte queinvolucra al basamento, con una extensión de más de 50 km. Este elementoestructural está acentuado por el emplazamiento de intrusivos en capas delGrupo Mendoza y unidades posteriores. A toda esta estructuración se le atribuyeuna edad miocena superior, acotada por i la presencia de volcanitas del GrupoMolle de edad miocena media a superior, involucradas en la deformación, y porvolcanitas sin deformar que las cubren de edad pliocenas a cuaternarias, y iila edad basal de las secuencias sinorogénicas acumuladas inmediatamente al esteen el valle del río Grande correspondiente a 18 Ma. Se propone una relacióngenética entre el arribo a esta zona del arco volcánico mioceno acotado entre19 y 17 Ma en el marco de un ciclo de somerización de la losa oceánicasubducida y el desarrollo de transiciones frágiles dúctiles en este sector queconformaron el decollement de las principales estructuras de basamento.De todas formas la determinación del carácter sinorogénico de las secuenciasdel Cretácico Superior en la zona identifica a la Puntilla de Huincán como unrasgo mesozoico.

  9. PHYTOPLANKTON - WET WEIGHT and Other Data from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS and Other Platforms From TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) and Others from 19680101 to 19840613 (NODC Accession 9000066)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Chinese National Oceanographic Data Center provided NODC with 13 tapes of CTD, XBT, station data, chlorophyll, primary productivity and vessel report data...

  10. Zooplankton data collected from DAVID STARR JORDAN in TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from net casts; 07 November 1970 to 13 February 1973 (NODC Accession 9500133)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected during the La Jolla laboratory's (NMFS) Skipjack program from the early 1970's are attached. There were five cruises: Cromwell 51 (8...

  11. Pressure and other data from XIANG YANG HONG 05 in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 17 November 1986 to 01 March 1987 (NODC Accession 8800075)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the second TOGA cruise between the South Sea Branch of the State Oceanographic Administration of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and...

  12. Heterogeneidades texturales y composicionales en productos piroclásticos de la erupción de 1960 del sistema Cordón Caulle (40°30'S, 72°10'O

    Romina Daga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los depósitos de cenizas volcánicas son excelentes marcadores estratigráficos y cronológicos ya que pueden ser dispersados a cientos de kilómetros de su fuente. Sin embargo, su correlación puede ser problemática. Si bien la mayoría de los estudios basan estas correlaciones en análisis geoquímicos de roca total, las partículas volcánicas juveniles poseen gran heterogeneidad en cuanto a la forma de los fragmentos, textura y composición de la matriz y las fases minerales. Trabajos previos en niveles volcánicos identificados en una secuencia del lago Nahuel Huapi permitieron identificar los productos de la erupción del año 1960 del Sistema Cordón Caulle, presentando una gran variabilidad en el tipo de partículas volcánicas juveniles identificadas, como pómez blanca, marrón, escorias y trizas vítreas, con variaciones en la composición de roca total de cada tipo de partícula. Con esta información como base, en el presente trabajo se presentan los primeros análisis morfológicos, texturales y composicionales de los diferentes productos juveniles con el objeto de identificar el origen de las variaciones morfológicas y de geoquímica de roca total de las mismas. Los resultados permitieron asociar dichas diferencias a variaciones en el contenido de cristales y tamaño, forma y distribución de vesículas. Dicha variación, a su vez, fue relacionada a procesos de fraccionamiento previos a la erupción de 1960 del Sistema Cordón Caulle, generando información de valiosa utilidad para el uso de estos niveles como marcadores cronoestratigráficos.

  13. PRESSURE - WATER and Other Data from XIANG YANG HONG 14 and Other Platforms From TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 19851212 to 19890529 (NODC Accession 9000012)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were submitted by Mr. Hou Wenfeng of National Oceanographic Data Center. They contain marine meteorological and weather observations obtained as part of...

  14. Light transmission and other data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the TOGA area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 09 January 1992 to 30 August 1992 (NODC Accession 9700034)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Light transmission and other data were collected using transmissometer casts from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean. Data were submitted by...

  15. Determinación del área inmediata afectada por el desagote de la laguna Navarrete, Provincia de Neuquén (36°30'S-71°O

    I.M. Penna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la alta densidad de avalanchas de roca distribuidas en el norte neuquino y su asociación con cuencas lacustres entre los 36°-38°S y 70°-71°O, son escasos los registros de desagotes catastróficos por colapso de diques naturales, pese a que éste sería el estadio final más probable en su evolución. El presente trabajo está orientado a la delimitación del área inmediatamente afectada por la ruptura del dique natural Navarrete (175 millones de metros cúbicos generado por la obstrucción, por parte de una avalancha de rocas, del tramo medio del arroyo Colorado (afluente del arroyo Pichi-Neuquén en tiempos postglaciarios no determinados. La dispersión del aluvión de ruptura desde su área fuente, se determina primeramente basándose en evidencias geomorfológicas y luego a partir del análisis sedimentario de la matriz de los depósitos de aluvión y su comparación con los del arroyo Colorado. Debido al área considerada, próxima a la boca de rotura del dique natural, las variaciones son poco significativas, si bien pueden reconocerse diferencias en la distribución de frecuencias en la matriz de los depósitos de aluvión y del arroyo en el punto de muestreo más distante al dique.

  16. Variations in the polar cap area during intervals of substorm activity on 20-21 March 1990 deduced from AMIE convection patterns

    J. R. Taylor

    Full Text Available The dynamic behaviour of the northern polar cap area is studied employing Northern Hemisphere electric potential patterns derived by the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE procedure. The rate of change in area of the polar cap, which can be defined as the region of magnetospheric field lines open to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, has been calculated during two intervals when the IMF had an approximately constant southward component (1100–2200 UT, 20 March 1990 and 1300–2100 UT, 21 March 1990. The estimates of the polar cap area are based on the approximation of the polar cap boundary by the flow reversal boundary. The change in the polar cap area is then compared to the predicted expansion rate based on a simple application of Faraday's Law. Furthermore, timings of magnetospheric substorms are also related to changes in the polar cap area. Once the convection electric field reconfigures following a southward turning of the IMF, the growth rate of the observed polar cap boundary is consistent with that predicted by Faraday's Law. A delay of typically 20 min to 50 min is observed between a substorm expansion phase onset and a reduction in the polar cap area. Such a delay is consistent with a synthesis between the near Earth neutral line and current disruption models of magnetospheric substorms in which the dipolarisation in the magnetotail may act as a trigger for reconnection. These delays may represent a propagation time between near geosynchronous orbit dipolarisation and subsequent reconnection further down tail. We estimate, from these delays, that the neutral X line occurs between ~35RE and ~75RE downstream in the tail.

  17. Structural basis of regulation and substrate specificity of protein kinase CK2 deduced from the modeling of protein-protein interactions

    Srinivasan N

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein Kinase Casein Kinase 2 (PKCK2 is an ubiquitous Ser/Thr kinase expressed in all eukaryotes. It phosphorylates a number of proteins involved in various cellular processes. PKCK2 holoenzyme is catalytically active tetramer, composed of two homologous or identical and constitutively active catalytic (α and two identical regulatory (β subunits. The tetramer cannot phosphorylate some substrates that can be phosphorylated by PKCK2α in isolation. The present work explores the structural basis of this feature using computational analysis and modeling. Results We have initially built a model of PKCK2α bound to a substrate peptide with a conformation identical to that of the substrates in the available crystal structures of other kinases complexed with the substrates/ pseudosubstrates. In this model however, the fourth acidic residue in the consensus pattern of the substrate, S/T-X-X-D/E where S/T is the phosphorylation site, did not result in interaction with the active form of PKCK2α and is highly solvent exposed. Interaction of the acidic residue is observed if the substrate peptide adopts conformations as seen in β turn, α helix, or 310 helices. This type of conformation is observed and accommodated well by PKCK2α in calmodulin where the phosphorylation site is at the central helix. PP2A carries sequence patterns for PKCK2α phosphorylation. While the possibility of PP2A being phosphorylated by PKCK2 has been raised in the literature we use the model of PP2A to generate a model of PP2A-PKCK2α complex. PKCK2β undergoes phosphorylation by holoenzyme at the N-terminal region, and is accommodated very well in the limited space available at the substrate-binding site of the holoenzyme while the space is insufficient to accommodate the binding of PP2A or calmodulin in the holoenzyme. Conclusion Charge and shape complimentarity seems to play a role in substrate recognition and binding to PKCK2α, along with the consensus pattern. The detailed conformation of the substrate peptide binding to PKCK2 differs from the conformation of the substrate/pseudo substrate peptide that is bound to other kinases in the crystal structures reported. The ability of holoenzyme to phosphorylate substrate proteins seems to depend on the accessibility of the P-site in limited space available in holoenzyme.

  18. Combination of Radar Altimeter and In-Situ Measurements to deduce Rating-Curves at Some Virtual Stations in the Ungauged Amazon and Orinoco Basins

    Leon, J.; Seyler, F.; Calmant, S.; Bonnet, M.

    2008-12-01

    In the last two years, virtual gauged stations have been proposed to increase the density of hydrological network in ungauged or very poorly monitored basins (Leon, 2006). In spatial hydrology a virtual station is considered as any crossing of water body surface (i.e., large rivers) by radar altimeter satellite tracks. The main objective of this study is to review the usefulness of altimetric data presenting rating curves obtained for some virtual stations at the poorly gauged basins of Caqueta (Colombian Amazon basin), Uaupes and Upper Negro (Brazilian Amazon basin) and Upper Orinoco. Rating curve parameters at virtual stations are estimated by fitting with a power law distribution the temporal series of water surface altitude derived from ENVISAT satellite measurements and modeled discharges. The applied methodology (Leon et al. 2006a) allows the ellipsoidal height of effective zero flow to be estimated. This parameter is a good proxy of the mean water depth from which the river bed slope can be computed. These quantities combined with rating-curve parameters are highly valuable for understanding hydrological behaviour, especially at ungauged basins where hydrodynamical studies had always been prevented by the lack of in-situ data. The results obtained allow to propose a new insight into the hydrological behaviour of the region shared by Colombia, Brazil and Venezuela, which is very difficult to access, and then very poorly known.

  19. Mean vertical wind in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region (80–120 km deduced from the WINDII observations on board UARS

    V. Fauliot

    Full Text Available The WINDII interferometer placed on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite measures temperature and wind from the O(1S green-line emission in the Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere. It is a remote-sensing instrument providing the horizontal wind components. In this study, the vertical winds are derived using the continuity equation. Mean wind annually averaged at equinoxes and solstices is shown. Ascendance and subsidence to the order of 1–2 cm s–1 present a seasonal occurrence at the equator and tropics. Zonal Coriolis acceleration and adiabatic heating and cooling rate associated to the mean meridional and vertical circulations are evaluated. The line emission rate measured together with the horizontal wind shows structures in altitude and latitude correlated with the meridional and vertical wind patterns. The effect of wind advection is discussed.

  20. Characteristics of ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks in the Beysehir ophiolitic mélange (Central Taurides, Turkey), deduced from whole rock and mineral chemistry

    Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Delaloye, Michel F.

    2006-04-01

    Small outcrops of the metamorphic rocks of the Beysehir ophiolite appear to the west of Gencek and to the south of Durak (South of Beysehir Lake) in the Central Tauride Belt in Turkey. Amphibolitic rocks in the ophiolitic mélange have an igneous origin. Protoliths of these rocks were probably alkali basalts, gabbros or some ultramafic cumulates, such as pyroxenite. The amphibolites of the Beysehir Ophiolite can be divided into four groups: (1) amphibole+garnet+plagioclase±epidote (as secondary minerals)±opaque such as ilmenite±accessory minerals such as sphene and apatite; (2) amphibole+pyroxene+plagioclase±epidote±accessory minerals such as sphene, apatite±chlorite, calcite (as secondary mineral); (3) amphibole±plagioclase±opaque±accessory minerals; (4) amphibole+plagioclase±epidote±biotite and muscovite±opaque±accessory minerals. These metamorphic rocks show mainly granoblastic, grano-nematoblastic, porphyroblastic and/or poikiloblastic textures. All amphiboles in the amphibolites are calcic and cluster in the range from magnesio-hastingsite, pargasite to actinolite. Amphibole compositions are characterized by SiO 2=(38.02-54.3%), Al 2O 3=(1.5-12.8), FeO=(10.03-14.67%), K 2O=(0.2-1.8%), MgO=(5.5-15.7), Mg*=(0.3-0.8). The amphibolites show an alkaline to subalkaline character. However, the primitive mantle normalized incompatible trace element diagram shows close similarity with the typical ocean island basalt (OIB) pattern. The Rock/Chondrite normalized REE diagram of the amphibolites also confirms their OIB signature. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams based on the immobile trace elements suggest a mostly within-plate alkali basalt (WPB) environment. Beysehir ophiolitic mélange contains amphibolites from ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks, but the matrix of the Beysehir ophiolitic mélange is not metamorphosed. Blocks of metamorphic rocks and the ophiolitic rocks may have been incorporated into the ophiolitic mélange in an oceanic environment during the Late Cretaceous by tectonic forces.

  1. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and lidar data - Case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland

    Magnússon, E.; Muñoz-Cobo Belart, J.; Pálsson, F.; Ágústsson, H.; Crochet, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe how recent high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) can be used to extract glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne lidar in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high-resolution lidar DEM. The lidar DEM was also used to estimate errors of the extracted photogrammetric DEMs in ice- and snow-free areas, at nunataks and outside the glacier margin. The derived errors of each DEM were used to constrain a spherical semivariogram model, which along with the derived errors in ice- and snow-free areas were used as inputs into 1000 sequential Gaussian simulations (SGSims). The simulations were used to estimate the possible bias in the entire glaciated part of the DEM and the 95 % confidence level of this bias. This results in bias correction varying in magnitude between 0.03 m (in 1975) and 1.66 m (in 1946) and uncertainty values between ±0.21 m (in 2005) and ±1.58 m (in 1946). Error estimation methods based on more simple proxies would typically yield 2-4 times larger error estimates. The aerial photographs used were acquired between late June and early October. An additional seasonal bias correction was therefore estimated using a degree-day model to obtain the volume change between the start of 2 glaciological years (1 October). This correction was largest for the 1960 DEM, corresponding to an average elevation change of -3.5 m or approx. three-quarters of the volume change between the 1960 and the 1975 DEMs. The total uncertainty of the derived mass balance record is dominated by uncertainty in the volume changes caused by uncertainties of the SGSim bias correction, the seasonal bias correction and the interpolation of glacier surface where data are lacking. The record shows a glacier-wide mass balance rate of Ḃ = -0.26 ± 0.04 m w.e. a-1 for the entire study period (1946-2011). We observe significant decadal variability including periods of mass gain, peaking in 1985-1994 with Ḃ = 0.27 ± 0.11 m w.e. a-1. There is a striking difference when Ḃ is calculated separately for the western and eastern halves of Drangajökull, with a reduction of eastern part on average ˜ 3 times faster than the western part. Our study emphasizes the need for applying rigorous geostatistical methods for obtaining uncertainty estimates of geodetic mass balance, the importance of seasonal corrections of DEMs from glaciers with high mass turnover and the risk of extrapolating mass balance record from one glacier to another even over short distances.

  2. Primitive Extracellular Lipid Components on the Surface of the Charophytic Alga Klebsormidium flaccidum and Their Possible Biosynthetic Pathways as Deduced from the Genome Sequence

    Kondo, Satoshi; Hori, Koichi; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Kobayashi, Atsuko; Kato, Tsubasa; Yuno-Ohta, Naoko; Nobusawa, Takashi; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Klebsormidium flaccidum is a charophytic alga living in terrestrial and semiaquatic environments. K. flaccidum grows in various habitats, such as low-temperature areas and under desiccated conditions, because of its ability to tolerate harsh environments. Wax and cuticle polymers that contribute to the cuticle layer of plants are important for the survival of land plants, as they protect against those harsh environmental conditions and were probably critical for the transition from aquatic microorganism to land plants. Bryophytes, non-vascular land plants, have similar, but simpler, extracellular waxes and polyester backbones than those of vascular plants. The presence of waxes in terrestrial algae, especially in charophytes, which are the closest algae to land plants, could provide clues in elucidating the mechanism of land colonization by plants. Here, we compared genes involved in the lipid biosynthetic pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana to the K. flaccidum and the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genomes, and identified wax-related genes in both algae. A simple and easy extraction method was developed for the recovery of the surface lipids from K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Although these algae have wax components, their surface lipids were largely different from those of land plants. We also investigated aliphatic substances in the cell wall fraction of K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Many of the fatty acids were determined to be lipophilic monomers in K. flaccidum, and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed that their possible binding mode was distinct from that of A. thaliana. Thus, we propose that K. flaccidum has a cuticle-like hydrophobic layer composed of lipids and glycoproteins, with a different composition from the cutin polymer typically found in land plant cuticles.

  3. Late Quaternary paleoceanographic features as deduced from calcium carbonate and faunal changes of planktonic foraminifers in core samples from northeastern Arabian Sea

    Rao, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Singh, A.D.

    . This faunal affinity suggests that changes in near-surface water temperatures during the last glacial period did not induce major alterations in the fauna and the fact that sea surface temperatures were slightly warmer in the Arabian Sea during Last Glacial...

  4. Formation of highly oxidized multifunctional compounds: autoxidation of peroxy radicals formed in the ozonolysis of alkenes - deduced from structure-product relationships

    Mentel, T. F.; Springer, M.; Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Pullinen, I.; Kurtén, T.; Rissanen, M.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.

    2015-06-01

    It has been postulated that secondary organic particulate matter plays a pivotal role in the early growth of newly formed particles in forest areas. The recently detected class of extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOC) provides the missing organic vapors and possibly contributes a significant fraction to atmospheric SOA (secondary organic aerosol). The sequential rearrangement of peroxy radicals and subsequent O2 addition results in ELVOC which are highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM). Key for efficiency of such HOM in early particle growth is that their formation is induced by one attack of the oxidant (here O3), followed by an autoxidation process involving molecular oxygen. Similar mechanisms were recently observed and predicted by quantum mechanical calculations e.g., for isoprene. To assess the atmospheric importance and therewith the potential generality, it is crucial to understand the formation pathway of HOM. To elucidate the formation path of HOM as well as necessary and sufficient structural prerequisites of their formation we studied homologous series of cycloalkenes in comparison to two monoterpenes. We were able to directly observe highly oxidized multifunctional peroxy radicals with 8 or 10 O atoms by an Atmospheric Pressure interface High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (APi-TOF-MS) equipped with a NO3--chemical ionization (CI) source. In the case of O3 acting as an oxidant, the starting peroxy radical is formed on the so-called vinylhydroperoxide path. HOM peroxy radicals and their termination reactions with other peroxy radicals, including dimerization, allowed for analyzing the observed mass spectra and narrowing down the likely formation path. As consequence, we propose that HOM are multifunctional percarboxylic acids, with carbonyl, hydroperoxy, or hydroxy groups arising from the termination steps. We figured that aldehyde groups facilitate the initial rearrangement steps. In simple molecules like cycloalkenes, autoxidation was limited to both terminal C atoms and two further C atoms in the respective α positions. In more complex molecules containing tertiary H atoms or small, constrained rings, even higher oxidation degrees were possible, either by simple H shift of the tertiary H atom or by initialization of complex ring-opening reactions.

  5. A 16 ka climate record deduced from δ13C and C/N ratio in Qinghai Lake sediments, northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of multi-proxy analysis on TOC, TN, C/N, organic δ13C and grain size, sediment record from Qinghai Lake provides evidences of stepwise-patterned climatic change since 16 ka BP.Results show that Qinghai Lake underwent six environmental stages. From 16.2 to 14.3 ka BP and from 4.0 to 2.1 ka BP, the organic δ13C value was controlled by the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Relative higher organic δ13C values occurred between 14.3 to 10.4 ka BP indicative of water hardness decrease resulted from melting ice water, corresponding to two intervals of C/N peak values to the Bo1ing and Allerod warm periods in Europe respectively. From 10.4 ka BP, Qinghai Lake entered the Holocene and the climate was warm and a little dry. The Megathermal appeared at about 6.7 ka BP when the vegetation around the lake transformed into a forest. Between 6.3 ka BP and 4.0 ka BP, the temperature decreased and δ13C value was controlled by the expansion of C3 plants and the retreat of C4 plants in river catchment.Since 4.0 ka BP, the climate gradually became cold and dry. From 2.1 ka BP, the cold-dry climate and human activity resulted in an abrupt increase in C/N with deceased δ13C value; meanwhile, many coarse grains appeared in sediments.

  6. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the relationship between anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil and precipitation in Mongolia

    Y. Igarashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asian dust source region may be expanding primarily as a result of recent climate change, especially during the 2000s. This change was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s. There are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air, so the radionuclides in the atmosphere are mainly carried by dust from wind-blown surface soil, that is, aeolian dust. Asian dust carries 90Sr, 137Cs, and other anthropogenic radionuclides; the heaviest deposition occurs in spring and has been recorded in Japan since the early 1990s. The composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in atmospheric depositions would be affected by a change in the dust source. Previous studies of atmospheric depositions at long-term monitoring sites (e.g. in Tsukuba, Japan have detected changes in the 137Cs/90Sr ratio and in the specific activity of the radionuclides. These changes in the composition of observed atmospheric depositions should be a reflection for a change in the climatic conditions of the dust source region. To investigate this dust source change, a field survey for radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs in surface soil samples was conducted in September 2007 in the eastern and southern regions of Mongolia, where dust storms have occurred more frequently since 2000. It was found that specific activities of both radionuclides as well as the 137Cs/90Sr ratio in the surface soil correlated well with annual average precipitation in the Mongolian desert-steppe zone. The higher specific activities and the higher 137Cs/90Sr ratio were found in the grassland region with the greater precipitation. This finding suggests that the increased specific activities and the activity ratio detected in the atmospheric depositions in Japan during years of the frequent Asian dust transport event since 2000 should be a sign of grassland degradation.

  7. Some comments on 'Variations of the earth's albedo deduced from the ashen light of the moon', by Heinz Hilbrecht and Gerd Kueveler

    Hunt, G. E.

    1985-08-01

    It is acknowledged that studies of the possible variations of the earth's albedo are an important part of investigations of climate variations, but the approach adopted by Hilbrecht and Kueveler (1985) and the results presented are not sufficiently accurate for this purpose. Based on consideration of the earth's radiation budget, in terms of the solar constant, the albedo as determined from satellite measurements, and the radiation emitted to space, it is considered unlikely that the ashen light studies can produce values of albedo suitable for climate investigations.

  8. Soil Research Concepts that will Underpin European Soil Sustainability. Soil sustainability in Europe as deduced from investigation of the Critical Zone

    Kristín Vala Ragnarsdóttir 1954; Mankasingh, Utra

    2010-01-01

    SoilCritZone, an FP6 Specific Support Action, organised a series of four workshops to discuss the future of soil research in Europe. These workshops included participants from the European, African, Chinese and US soil communities. In these workshops the community formulated research questions based on four Working Groups: 1) Soil Degradation, 2) Weathering, 3) Biodiversity and Cross-cutting Issues, and 4) Modelling the Life Cycle of Soils. The outcomes of the Working Groups from Workshop ...

  9. On the variations in the photospheric magnetic field in the vicinity of a solar flare as deduced from SDO/HMI measurements of the magnetic field vector

    Fainshtein, V G; Rudenko, G V; Anfinogentov, S A

    2016-01-01

    We have considered temporal variations in the absolute value, radial and traverse components of magnetic induction, as well as those in the inclination angles between field lines and the radial direction from the solar center in the vicinity of the solar flare on June 7, 2011 in the active region NOAA 11238. Our study has revealed that there appeared a relatively homogeneous region with a decreased absolute value of magnetic induction which extended along the future solar-flare ribbons, and with a neutral line, in the middle immediately before the solar flare onset in its future center. After the flare onset during approximately 40 minutes, this region revealed an increase in the absolute value of magnetic induction and traverse component of the magnetic field, and, at the same time, a 25-30 degree rise in the inclination angles between field lines and the radial direction from the solar center, as well as in the azimuth angle. Henceforward, the increased values of these magnetic field characteristics were ob...

  10. Assessment of adaptive evolution between wheat and rice as deduced from full-length common wheat cDNA sequence data and expression patterns

    Hayashizaki Yoshihide

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an allopolyploid plant that harbors a huge, complex genome. Therefore, accumulation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for wheat is becoming particularly important for functional genomics and molecular breeding. We prepared a comprehensive collection of ESTs from the various tissues that develop during the wheat life cycle and from tissues subjected to stress. We also examined their expression profiles in silico. As full-length cDNAs are indispensable to certify the collected ESTs and annotate the genes in the wheat genome, we performed a systematic survey and sequencing of the full-length cDNA clones. This sequence information is a valuable genetic resource for functional genomics and will enable carrying out comparative genomics in cereals. Results As part of the functional genomics and development of genomic wheat resources, we have generated a collection of full-length cDNAs from common wheat. By grouping the ESTs of recombinant clones randomly selected from the full-length cDNA library, we were able to sequence 6,162 independent clones with high accuracy. About 10% of the clones were wheat-unique genes, without any counterparts within the DNA database. Wheat clones that showed high homology to those of rice were selected in order to investigate their expression patterns in various tissues throughout the wheat life cycle and in response to abiotic-stress treatments. To assess the variability of genes that have evolved differently in wheat and rice, we calculated the substitution rate (Ka/Ks of the counterparts in wheat and rice. Genes that were preferentially expressed in certain tissues or treatments had higher Ka/Ks values than those in other tissues and treatments, which suggests that the genes with the higher variability expressed in these tissues is under adaptive selection. Conclusion We have generated a high-quality full-length cDNA resource for common wheat, which is essential for continuation of the ongoing curation and annotation of the wheat genome. The data for each clone's expression in various tissues and stress treatments and its variability in wheat and rice as a result of their diversification are valuable tools for functional genomics in wheat and for comparative genomics in cereals.

  11. The mechanism of myrmekite formation deduced from steady-diffusion modeling based on petrography: Case study of the Okueyama granitic body, Kyushu, Japan

    Yuguchi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Tadao

    2008-12-01

    Myrmekite is an intergrowth texture consisting of vermicular quartz and albitic plagioclase (Ab 93An 7 in this study), typically occurring between K-feldspar and plagioclase. It occurs ubiquitously in both metamorphic and granitic rocks; however, its genesis has been an enigma. This paper describes myrmekite's petrography and discusses its genesis from the Okueyama granitic body (OKG), which is a young (14 Ma) granite in Southwest Japan with no evidence of deformation after solidification. The genesis of a newly observed texture, the 'reaction rim', will be also discussed in relation to myrmekite. The reaction rim is an albite layer (Ab 95An 5) with no vermicular quartz between K-feldspar and plagioclase, and it occasionally makes a composite texture with myrmekite. Both myrmekite and the reaction rim are accompanied by a diffusive boundary layer (Olg-layer) with a mean composition of oligoclase (Ab 75An 25) in the rim of neighboring plagioclase rim. The overall reactions in an open system for the formation of myrmekite and that for the reaction rim are derived based on the following two models: 1) one based on the assumption of conservation of solid volume with arbitrarily specified closure components, and 2) the other based on the assumption of closure of AlO 3/2 together with an arbitrarily specified volume factor. Steady diffusion modeling in an open system based on the overall reaction thus derived defines the stability field of myrmekite and of the reaction rim in terms of the ratios of phenomenological coefficients ( L-ratios). The steady diffusion models for the above two models have essentially the same features. Myrmekite is stable for large values (> 10) of LAlAl/ LCaCa, for moderate values of LAlAl/ LSiSi, and for only small values (vs. LAlAl/ LNaNa, and its dependence on LAlAl/ LSiSi is stronger than that of myrmekite. The reaction rim is stable only for large values of LAlAl/ LCaCa, which is consistent with the case of myrmekite. Exchange cycles for myrmekite and the reaction rim show that the essential formation mechanism is albitization of K-feldspar: KAlSi 3O 8 + NaO 1/2 = NaAlSi 3O 8 + KO 1/2, which is coupled with albitization of plagioclase via diffusive transport of NaO 1/2 and SiO 2: CaAl 2Si 2O 8 + NaO 1/2 + SiO 2 = NaAlSi 3O 8 + CaO + AlO 3/2. Formation of myrmekite requires more SiO 2 than development of the reaction rim; some of the SiO 2 is given by decomposition of K-feldspar and some is supplied from the environment to the boundary between K-feldspar and plagioclase.

  12. 利用样条函数导出数值积分公式%Deducing the Numerical Integration Formula by Spline Function

    张辉; 陈建军

    2010-01-01

    利用样条函数导出数值积分公式是一种新的数值积分公式的构造方法.利用样条函数可以近似地表达被积函数,推导出Simpson求积公式.通过一定的方法可以对Simpson公式的精度加以检测.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of Drosophila melanogaster species group deduced from spacer regions of histone gene H2A-H2B.

    Yang, Yong; Zhang, Ya-ping; Qian, Yuan-huai; Zeng, Qing-tao

    2004-02-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the spacer region of the histone gene H2A-H2B from 36 species of Drosophila melanogaster species group were determined. The phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods by using Drosophila pseudoobscura as the out group. Our results show that the melanogaster species group clustered in three main lineages: (1). montium subgroup; (2). ananassae subgroup; and (3). the seven oriental subgroups, among which the montium subgroup diverged first. In the third main lineage, suzukii and takahashii subgroups formed a clade, while eugracilis, melanogaster, elegans, ficusphila, and rhopaloa subgroups formed another clade. The bootstrap values at subgroup levels are high. The phylogenetic relationships of these species subgroups derived from our data are very different from those based on some other DNA data and morphology data. PMID:14715225

  14. The primary composition beyond 10 to the 5th power GeV as deduced from high energy hadrons and muons in air showers

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    1985-01-01

    Data obtained from a large set of air shower simulation calculations with use of highly refined hadronic interaction and shower simulation model are presented, in an attempt to solve the problem of primary chemical composition beyond 100,000 GeV total energy. It is rated that high energy hadrons in air showers offer a rather unique primary mass signature and show that the interpretation of high energy muon data is much more ambiguous. Predictions are compared with experimental data.

  15. Organic fraction of the total carbon burial flux deduced from carbon isotopes across the Permo-Triassic boundary at Meishan,Zhejiang Province,China

    HUANG Junhua; LUO Genming; BAI Xiao; TANG Xinyan

    2007-01-01

    By combining the carbon cycle model with the records of carbonate and organic (kerogen) carbon isotope,this paper presents the calculation of the fraction of organic carbon burial (forg) of beds 23-40 at the global boundary stratotype section and point (GSSP) of the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan,Zhejiang Province.The resulting calculation produces two episodes of forg maxima observed to occur at beds 23-24 and 27-29,which respectively corresponds to the two episodic anoxic events indicated by the flourish of green sulfur bacteria.Two episodic forg minima occurred at beds 25-26 and 32-34,generally coincident with the flourish of cyanobacteria (bed 26 and upper part of beds 29 to 34) as shown by the high value of 2-melthyhopnoanes.It appears that the forg is related to the redox conditions,with greater forg values observed under the reductive condition.The relationship between forg and the total organic carbon (TOC) content was complex.The forg value was low at some beds with a high TOC content (such as bed 26),while high observed at some beds with a low TOC content (e.g.bed 27).This association infers the important contribution of primary productivity to the TOC content.The original organic burial could be thus calculated through the configuration of the function of the primary productivity and forg,which can be used to correct the residual TOC measured today.This investigation indicates that compiling the organic-inorganic carbon isotopes with the carbon cycle model favors to understand the fraction of organic carbon burial,providing information for the reconstruction of the coupling among biota,environments and organic burial.

  16. Interseismic and coseismic surface deformation deduced from space geodetic observations : with inferences on seismic hazard, tectonic processes, earthquake complexity, and slip distribution

    Bos, A.G. (Annemarie Gerredina)

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis I am concerned with modeling the kinematics of surface deformation using space geodetic observations in order to advance insight in both interseismic and coseismic surface response. To model the surface deformation field I adopt the method of Spakman and Nyst (2002) which resolves the velocity (displacement) field and the motion (slip) on the fault simultaneously. The methods allows the determination of the localization of deformation near slipping faults and provides a complet...

  17. Hypothetical review: thymic aberrations and type-I interferons; attempts to deduce autoimmunizing mechanisms from unexpected clues in monogenic and paraneoplastic syndromes.

    Meager, A; Peterson, P; Willcox, N

    2008-10-01

    In sporadic autoimmune disorders, dendritic cells are increasingly being incriminated as agents provocateurs. However, the mechanisms and any 'danger signals' that induce them to autoimmunize remain enigmatic. Here, we focus on unexpected clues from two prototypic/ highly informative autoimmune syndromes, acquired thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis and the monogenic autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS1), caused by mutations in the AutoImmune Regulator (AIRE). Both involve the thymus, and in both we find early, persistent, highly prevalent and high-titre neutralizing autoantibodies against type-I interferons, regardless of the exact AIRE genotype or the characteristically variable clinical phenotype in APS1. Thus these key innateadaptive immune intermediaries are now implicated in APS1 and paraneoplastic myasthenia as well as in systemic lupus erythematosus and other sporadic autoimmune disorders. The currently accepted notion that autoimmunization proceeds automatically (by 'default') does not explain how, when or where autoimmune responses are initiated against which targets in APS1, or whether exogenous or internal danger signals are involved, or predict whether the primary auto-immunogenic targets are AIRE-dependent. As the parallels between these syndromes must hold novel clues to these puzzles, they demand explanations. To unify these and other findings, we propose that autoimmunization occurs centrally in aberrant thymic environments rendered 'dangerous' by AIRE-deficiency (possibly by excess undegraded nucleic acids/dead cell debris). The ensuing autoreactivity focuses early on the locally abundant type I interferons and then on other peripheral tissue autoantigens that are still expressed despite the absence of AIRE. These ideas raise numerous questions that others may already have the materials to address. PMID:18727623

  18. An embrittlement rate effect deduced from HFIR [High Flux Isotope Reactor] that may impact LWR [light water reactor] vessel support life expectancy

    Data from the HFIR pressure vessel surveillance program indicate an embrittlement rate effect that may have a significant impact on the life expectancy of some PWR vessel supports. However, the necessity for extensive extrapolation of the HFIR data and the correlation of data with neutron energies only above 0.1 MeV introduce substantial uncertainties. Furthermore, it is premature to state what the effect of embrittlement is on the life expectancy of the vessel supports. There is, however, sufficient evidence of an embrittlement rate effect to justify a continuing effort to obtain more definitive answers

  19. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the relationship between anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil and precipitation in Mongolia

    Igarashi, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; D. Jugder

    2011-01-01

    The Asian dust source region may be expanding primarily as a result of recent climate change, especially during the 2000s. This change was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s. There are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air, so the radionuclides in the atmosphere are mainly carried ...

  20. Variations in the chorus source location deduced from fluctuations of the ambient magnetic field: Comparison of Cluster data and the backward wave oscillator model

    Kozelov, B. V.; Demekhov, A. G.; Titova, E. E.; Trakhtengerts, V. Y.; Santolík, Ondřej; Macúšová, Eva; Gurnett, D. A.; Pickett, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, A6 (2008), A06216/1-A06216/10. ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301120601 Grant ostatní: NSF(US) 0307319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : chorus emissions * backward-wave oscillator model * VLF chorus * BWO model * wave-particle interaction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2008

  1. Primitive Extracellular Lipid Components on the Surface of the Charophytic Alga Klebsormidium flaccidum and Their Possible Biosynthetic Pathways as Deduced from the Genome Sequence.

    Kondo, Satoshi; Hori, Koichi; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Kobayashi, Atsuko; Kato, Tsubasa; Yuno-Ohta, Naoko; Nobusawa, Takashi; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Klebsormidium flaccidum is a charophytic alga living in terrestrial and semiaquatic environments. K. flaccidum grows in various habitats, such as low-temperature areas and under desiccated conditions, because of its ability to tolerate harsh environments. Wax and cuticle polymers that contribute to the cuticle layer of plants are important for the survival of land plants, as they protect against those harsh environmental conditions and were probably critical for the transition from aquatic microorganism to land plants. Bryophytes, non-vascular land plants, have similar, but simpler, extracellular waxes and polyester backbones than those of vascular plants. The presence of waxes in terrestrial algae, especially in charophytes, which are the closest algae to land plants, could provide clues in elucidating the mechanism of land colonization by plants. Here, we compared genes involved in the lipid biosynthetic pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana to the K. flaccidum and the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genomes, and identified wax-related genes in both algae. A simple and easy extraction method was developed for the recovery of the surface lipids from K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Although these algae have wax components, their surface lipids were largely different from those of land plants. We also investigated aliphatic substances in the cell wall fraction of K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Many of the fatty acids were determined to be lipophilic monomers in K. flaccidum, and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed that their possible binding mode was distinct from that of A. thaliana. Thus, we propose that K. flaccidum has a cuticle-like hydrophobic layer composed of lipids and glycoproteins, with a different composition from the cutin polymer typically found in land plant cuticles. PMID:27446179

  2. Crystal-field potentials of PrFe2Si2 and PrFe2Ge2 as deduced from inelastic neutron scattering and specific heat measurements

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments and specific heat measurements have been performed on polycrystalline samples of PrFe2X2 (X=Si, Ge), a tetragonal intermetallic system showing a low-temperature antiferromagnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice, with no local magnetic moment on the iron site. The temperature variation of the specific heat, and the values of the magnetic entropy, indicate for both compounds a crystal-field energy level scheme characterized by two closely spaced singlets, split by about 1 meV for X=Ge and by about 2.5 meV for X=Si, with the other levels positioned above 7 meV. These conclusions are confirmed by the observation of only one excitation peak in the magnetic neutron scattering response in this energy range. In the paramagnetic phase, the inelastic peak is centred at 2.4(1) meV for X=Si and at 0.8(1) meV for X=Ge. Below TN, the peak position shifts to 2.8(1) meV for X=Si, and to 2.7(1) meV for X=Ge. The experimental findings are explained by a crystal- and molecular-field model with two low-lying singlets, coupled by exchange in the ordered phase. The different size of the molecular field in the two compounds, with respect to the crystal-field splitting of the low-lying singlets, causes the large difference in the ordered moments of the Pr3+ ions (1.41 μB for Si and 2.75 μB for Ge). The asymmetric shape of the peaks in the neutron scattering function has been attributed to the presence of two branches of magnetic excitons in these crystal-field systems showing manifestly Van Vleck-induced antiferromagnetism of singlet-singlet type. (authors)or)

  3. Spinal cord myelitis: prognostic factors and validity of ERD over a wide range of dose per fraction deduced from compiled retrospective clinical data

    The aim of the present study was to correlate prognostic factors with spinal cord myelitis and test the role of ERD for probability of myelitis for lesser than conventional, conventional and higher than conventional dose per fraction

  4. Late Holocene shorelines deduced from tidal notches on both sides of the Ionian Thrust (Greece) : Fiscardo Peninsula (Cephalonia) and Ithaca Island.

    Evelpidou, N.; Karkani, A.; Kázmér, Miklós; Pirazzoli, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Fossil shorelines produced by recent co-seismic movements were identified throughasubmarine survey along the coasts of Ithaca and Fiscardo (Greece).In both areas a tidal notch-slightly submerged below present Mean Sea Level (MSL) was observed at various sites. This “modern” notch is known to have been submerged by the global sea-level rise during the 19th and 20th centuries. The depth after tide and air-pressure correction of the vertex of the “modern” notch (that owes its submergence to the ...

  5. Deformation history during chain building deduced by outcrop structural analysis: The case of the Sicilian fold-and-thrust belt (Central Mediterranean)

    Napoli, G.; Nigro, F.; Favara, R.; Renda, P.; Salvaggio, G.

    2015-11-01

    The Sicilian fold-and-thrust belt is located in the central Mediterranean area, and it represents the south-eastern arcuate segment of the Apennine-Maghrebide orogen. The tectonic evolution of the Sicilian belt is documented after outcrop analysis of small-scale structural features carried out throughout the region. Results are consistent with the following four main deformation stages having affected the study area, from the oldest to the youngest: (i) multilayer weakening; (ii) folding-and-thrusting, (iii) extension, and (iv) renewed thrusting. The first deformation stage included three different substages (layer-parallel shortening, bed-parallel simple shear and fold nucleation), the second one by both thrusting and fold amplification and tightening. The third deformation stage involved re-activation of the pre-existing mechanical discontinuities and formation of low-to-high angle normal faults. Out-of-sequence thrusting postdated the aforementioned extensional stage, and formed the latest orogenic deformation stage that affected the Sicilian belt.

  6. Diurnal and seasonal variations of hmF2 deduced from digitalionosonde over New Delhi and its comparison with IRI 2001

    V. K. Vohra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using digital ionosonde observations at a low mid-latitude station, New Delhi (28.6°N, 77.2°E, dip 42.4°N, we have derived hourly monthly values of hmF2 (the real height corresponding to the peak electron density in the F2-region, employing both the Dudeney (1983 and Bilitza (1990 empirical formulations for the period from January 2001 to August 2002. The diurnal and seasonal variations of hmF2 are analyzed. Further, to assess the predictability of the latest available model, International Reference Ionosphere, (IRI-2001, we have obtained the median values of hmF2 derived from M(3000F2 for each hour during different seasons and compare these with the model. Our results show that both the Dudeney (1983 and Bilitza (1990 formulations reveal more or less a similar diurnal trend of hmF2, with higher values around midnight and lower during sunrise, in all the seasons. It is also noted that the hmF2 shows a larger variability around midnight than by daytime, in all the seasons. Further, the study shows that median values of observed hmF2, using both formulations, are somewhat larger than those predicted by the IRI, in all seasons and at all local times. During summer, the IRI values agree comparatively well with the observations, especially during daytime. Major discrepancies occur when the IRI underestimates observed hmF2 for local times from about 14:00 LT to 18:00 LT and 04:00 LT to 05:00 LT during winter and equinox, where the percentage deviation of the observed hmF2 values with respect to the IRI model varies from 15 to 25%. The difference between the model and observations, outside this time period, remains less than 20% during all the seasons. Key words. Ionosphere (modelling and forecasting; equatorial ionosphere

  7. Spatial heterogeneity of the structure and stress field in Hyuga-nada region, southwest Japan, deduced from onshore and offshore seismic observations

    Uehira, K.; Yakiwara, H.; Yamada, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Nakao, S.; Kobayashi, R.; Goto, K.; Miyamachi, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Hino, R.; Goda, M.; Shimizu, H.

    2010-12-01

    In Hyuga-nada region, the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian (EU) plate (the southwest Japan arc) along the Nankai trough at a rate of about 5 cm per year. The seismic activity in the boundary between the PHS and the Eurasian (EU) plates varies spatially along the Nankai trough. Especially the region from off coast of Shikoku to the Bungo channel and Hyuga-nada has large variation of seismicity. Although usual microearthquake activity is active in Hyuga-nada, it is inactive near Shikoku. On the other hand, although the great earthquake (M>8) has occurred repeatedly in near Shikoku at intervals of about 100 years, in Hyuga-nada, smaller earthquakes (M7 class) has occurred at intervals of about dozens of years, and so plate coupling varies dozens of kilometers specially. Big earthquakes (M7 class) have occurred in the north region from latitude 31.6 degrees north, but it has not occurred in the south region from latitude 31.6 degrees north. The largest earthquake ever recorded in Hyuga-nada region is the 1968 Hyuga-nada earthquake (Mw 7.5). And microseismicity varies spatially. It is important to understand seismic activity, stress field, and structure in such region in order to understand seismic cycle. We performed extraordinary seismic observation in and around Hyuga-nada region. More than 20 pop-up type OBSs were deployed above hypocentral region of Hyuga-nada using Nagasaki-maru and several data loggers were deployed in order to compensate a regular seismic network on land. We detected earthquakes more than 2 times of JMA. Seismic activity in source region of the 1961 Hyuga-nada Earthquake (M7.0) is low, but around its source region, seismic activity is very high. In order to obtain a 3D seismic velocity structure and precise hypocenter distribution and focal mechanisms around the Hyuga-nada region, we used Double-Difference (DD) Tomography method developed by Zhang and Thurber (2003). We could detect the structure of subduction of Kyushu-Palau Ridge at low seismicity area. We estimated the stress filed using a stress tensor inversion method by polarity of first arrivals from earthquakes [Horiuchi et al. (1995)], and we found that there is a good correlation between the slip distribution at large earthquakes and the angle between maximum principal axis and the plate boundary in northern part of Hyuga-nada region [Uehira et al. (2007)]. Because the shear stress of plate boundary is large on the subducted Kyushu-Palau Ridge, we suspected that it might be caused the strong interplate coupling. We also found a subducted seamount in the southwest margin of source region of the 1968 Hyuga-nada earthquake (Mw 7.5). This may acts as a barrier.

  8. The relationship between seismic velocity structure and the seismic coupling in the Hyuga-nada region, southwest Japan, deduced from onshore and offshore seismic observations

    Uehira, K.; Yakiwara, H.; Yamada, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Nakao, S.; Kobayashi, R.; Goto, K.; Miyamachi, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Hino, R.; Goda, M.; Shimizu, H.

    2011-12-01

    In Hyuga-nada region, the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian (EU) plate (the southwest Japan arc) along the Nankai trough at a rate of about 5 cm per year. Big earthquakes (M7 class) have occurred in the north region from latitude 31.6 degrees north, but it has not occurred in the south region from latitude 31.6 degrees north. The largest earthquake ever recorded in Hyuga-nada region is the 1968 Hyuga-nada earthquake (Mw 7.5). And microseismicity varies spatially. There are non-seismic slip events in Hyuga-nada region. For example, the after-slips associated with events for 19 October 1996 and 3 December 1996 were observed (Yagi et al., 2001), and in the same region, the slow-slip events were also observed by GPS measurements (GSI, 2011). We performed extraordinary seismic observations for 75 days from April to July 2006, for 73 days from April to July 2008, and for 77 days from April to July 2009. About 25 pop-up type ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed above hypocentral region in Hyuga-nada using Nagasaki-maru. And three data loggers were deployed on land in order to compensate a regular seismic network. We used these data and permanent stations for this analysis. In order to obtain precise hypocenter distribution, focal mechanisms, and a 3D seismic velocity structure around the Hyuga-nada region, we used Double-Difference (DD) Tomography method developed by Zhang and Thurber (2003). In northern part of Hyuga-nada, Vp/Vs ratio is high along the upper part of PHS slab, and this layer is interpreted as the subducting oceanic crust. On the other hand, Vp/Vs ratio is about 1.73 in southern part of Hyuga-nada, and this is interpreted as the subducted Kyushu-Palau Ridge, old island arc, which is made by granitic rock. More over, there is a difference of Poisson's ratio at mantle wedge. This value is high (> 0.3) in northern part of Hyuga-nada. The high Poisson's mantle wedge is suggesting that the zone probably corresponds to a serpentinized wedge mantle. This region correlates with that of the after-slips and slow-slip events. This results is consistent with weak plate coupling. In southern part of Hyuga-nada, Poisson's ratio at mantle wedge is about 0.25. Uehira et al. (2007) was estimated that plate coupling is strong in southern part of Hyuga-nada, so, this result is consistent with this estimation.

  9. Astrophysical Impact of the Updated 9Be(p,α)6Li and 10B(p,α)7Be Reaction Rates As Deduced By THM

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2015-10-01

    The complete understanding of the stellar abundances of lithium, beryllium, and boron represents one of the most interesting open problems in astrophysics. These elements are largely used to probe stellar structure and mixing phenomena in different astrophysical scenarios, such as pre-main-sequence or main-sequence stars. Their different fragility against (p,α) burning reactions allows one to investigate different depths of the stellar interior. Such fusion mechanisms are triggered at temperatures between T ≈ (2-5) × {10}6 K, thus defining a corresponding Gamow energy between ≈ 3-10 keV, where S(E)-factor measurements need to be performed to get reliable reaction rate evaluations. The Trojan Horse Method is a well defined procedure to measure cross sections at Gamow energies overcoming the uncertainties due to low-energy S(E)-factor extrapolation as well as electron screening effects. Taking advantage of the {\\mathtt{THM}} measure of the 9Be(p,α)6Li and 10B(p,α)7Be cross sections, the corresponding reaction rates have been calculated and compared with the evaluations by the NACRE collaboration, widely used in the literature. The impact on surface abundances of the updated 9Be and 10B (p,α) burning rates is discussed for pre-MS stars.

  10. Variation of electron and ion density distribution along Earth's magnetic field line deduced from whistler mode (wm) sounding of image/rpi satellite below altitude 5000 km

    Hazra, Susmita

    This thesis provides a detailed survey and analysis of whistler mode (WM) echoes observed by IMAGE/RPI satellite during the years 2000-2005 below the altitude of 5000 km. Approximately 2500 WM echoes have been observed by IMAGE during this period. This includes mostly specularly reflected whistler mode (SRWM) echoes and ~400 magnetospherically reflected whistler mode (MRWM) echoes. Stanford 2D raytracing simulations and the diffusive equilibrium density model have been applied to 82 cases of MRWM echoes, observed during August-December of the year 2005 below 5000 km to determine electron and ion density measurements along Earth's magnetic field line. These are the first results of electron and ion density measurements from WM sounding covering L-shells ~1.6-4, a wide range of geomagnetic conditions (Kp 0+ to 7), and during solar minima (F10.2~70-120) in the altitude range 90 km to 4000 km. The electron and ion density profiles obtained from this analysis were compared with in situ measurements on IMAGE (passive recording; electron density (Ne)), DMSP (~850 km; Ne and ions), CHAMP (~350 km; Ne), Alouette (~500-2000 km; Ne and ions), ISIS-1, 2 (~600-3500 km; Ne, ions), AE (~130-2000 km; ions) satellites, bottom side sounding from nearby ionosonde stations (Ne), and those by GCPM (Global Core Plasma Model), IRI-2012 (International Reference Ionosphere). Based on this analysis it is found that: (1) Ne shows a decreasing trend from L-shell 1.6 to 4 on both the day and night sides of the plasmasphere up to altitude ~1000 km, which is also confirmed by the GCPM and IRI-2012 model. (2) Above ~2000 km altitude, GCPM underestimates Ne by ~30-90% relative to RPI passive measurements, WM sounding results. (3) Below 1500 km, the Ne is higher at day side than night side MLT (Magnetic Local Time). Above this altitude, significant MLT dependence of electron density is not seen. (4) Ion densities from WM sounding measurements are within 10-35% of those from the Alouette, AE, and DMSP satellites. (5) The effective ion mass in the day side is more than two times higher than night side below altitude ~500 km. (6) The O+/H+ and O+/(H ++He+) transition heights at day side are ~300-500 km higher than night side; the transition heights from the IRI-2012 model lie within the uncertainty limit of WM sounding for night side, but for day side (L-shell>2.5) they are 200 km higher than WM uncertainty limits. (7) foF2 (F2 peak plasma densities) from ionosonde stations and the IRI-2012 model are ~1.5-3 MHz higher than those from WM sounding during daytime. These measurements are very important as the ion density profile along geomagnetic field lines is poorly known. They can lead to a better understanding of global cold plasma distribution inside the plasmasphere at low altitude and thereby bridge the gap between high topside ionosphere and plasmasphere measurements. These results will provide important guidance for the design of future space-borne sounders in terms of frequency and virtual range, in order to adequately cover ion density measurements at low altitudes and wide range of MLTs, solar and geophysical conditions.

  11. The individual and common repertoire of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators of Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium efficiens, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium jeikeium deduced from the complete genome sequences

    Kalinowski Jörn

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Corynebacterium includes Gram-positive microorganisms of great biotechnologically importance, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum and Corynebacterium efficiens, as well as serious human pathogens, such as Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium jeikeium. Although genome sequences of the respective species have been determined recently, the knowledge about the repertoire of transcriptional regulators and the architecture of global regulatory networks is scarce. Here, we apply a combination of bioinformatic tools and a comparative genomic approach to identify and characterize a set of conserved DNA-binding transcriptional regulators in the four corynebacterial genomes. Results A collection of 127 DNA-binding transcriptional regulators was identified in the C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 genome, whereas 103 regulators were detected in C. efficiens YS-314, 63 in C. diphtheriae NCTC 13129 and 55 in C. jeikeium K411. According to amino acid sequence similarities and protein structure predictions, the DNA-binding transcriptional regulators were grouped into 25 regulatory protein families. The common set of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators present in the four corynebacterial genomes consists of 28 proteins that are apparently involved in the regulation of cell division and septation, SOS and stress response, carbohydrate metabolism and macroelement and metal homeostasis. Conclusion This work describes characteristic features of a set of conserved DNA-binding transcriptional regulators present within the corynebacterial core genome. The knowledge on the physiological function of these proteins should not only contribute to our understanding of the regulation of gene expression but will also provide the basis for comprehensive modeling of transcriptional regulatory networks of these species.

  12. Oceanographic parameters in continental margin of the State of Ceará (northeastern Brazil) deduced from C and O isotopes in foraminifers.

    Marques, Wanessa S; Menor, Eldemar de A; Sial, Alcides N; Manso, Valdir A V; Freire, Satander S

    2007-03-01

    Specimens of Recent foraminifera of Amphistegina radiata, Peneroplis planatus and Globigerinoides ruber, from fifty samples of surface sediments of the continental margin of the State of Ceará, Brazil, have been analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopes to investigate oceanographic parameters and determine the values of delta18O of the oceanic water. From a comparison between values of delta18O obtained for ocean water using the linear equations by (Craig and Gordon 1965) and the one by Wolff et al. (1998), it became evident that the former yielded a more reliable value (0.2 per thousand SMOW) than the latter. Lower values of delta18O for the ocean water in this continental margin resulted from continental water influence. Values of 18O (-0.3 per thousand to -1.5 per thousand PDB for benthic foraminifera and -0.6 per thousand to -2.4 per thousand PDB for planktic foraminifera), attest to a variation of temperatures of oceanic water masses, in average, between 20 to 22 degrees C in deep water and 24 to 27 degrees C, in surface water. Values of delta13C from +3.2% to -0.2 per thousand PDB (benthic foraminifera) reflect a variation in the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) in the continental margin and indicate that the environments of bacteriological decomposition of organic matter are not continuous along the investigated area. PMID:17401482

  13. Oceanographic parameters in continental margin of the State of Ceará (northeastern Brazil deduced from C and O isotopes in foraminifers

    Wanessa S. Marques

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Recent foraminifera of Amphistegina radiata, Peneroplis planatus and Globigerinoides ruber, from fifty samples of surface sediments of the continental margin of the State of Ceará, Brazil, have been analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopes to investigate oceanographic parameters and determine the values of delta18O of the oceanic water. From a comparison between values of delta18O obtained for ocean water using the linear equations by (Craig and Gordon 1965 and the one by Wolff et al. (1998, it became evident that the former yielded a more reliable value (0.2‰ SMOW than the latter. Lower values of delta18O for the ocean water in this continental margin resulted from continental water influence. Values of 18O (-0.3‰ to -1.5‰ PDB for benthic foraminifera and -0.6‰ to -2.4‰ PDB for planktic foraminifera, attest to a variation of temperatures of oceanic water masses, in average, between 20 to 22ºC in deep water and 24 to 27ºC, in surface water. Values of delta13C from +3.2‰ to -0.2‰ PDB (benthic foraminifera reflect a variation in the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU in the continental margin and indicate that the environments of bacteriological decomposition of organic matter are not continuous along the investigated area.Amphistegina radiata, Peneroplis planatus e Globigerinoides ruber, presentes em cinqüenta amostras de sedimentos superficiais da margem continental do Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram analisados quanto à composição isotópica do Oxigênio e Carbono para investigar parâmetros oceanográficos, e um possível valor de delta18O do oceano. Foi feita uma comparação entre as equações lineares de Craig e Gordon (1965 e de Wolff et al. (1998, e verificou-se que a primeira equação foi mais apropriada para o cálculo de delta18O do oceano, na área estudada, encontrando-se um valor de 0,2‰ SMOW. Os menores valores de delta18O estão associados à desembocadura dos rios, refletindo a influência continental. Valores de delta18O de -0,3‰ a -1,5‰ PDB (bentônicos e -0,6‰ a -2,4‰ PDB (planctônicos, em toda a área, indicam variação na temperatura das massas de água entre 20 a 22ºC, nas águas de fundo, e entre 24 a 27ºC nas águas de superfície em média. Valores de delta13C de +3,2‰ a -0,2‰ PDB (bentônicos, em toda a área, indicam variação na distribuição da Utilização Aparente do Oxigênio (AOU na margem continental, e indicam que os ambientes de decomposição bacteriológica da matéria orgânica não são contínuos ao longo da área de estudo.

  14. Systematics of nuclear charge distributions in the region 40 <= A <= 100 deduced from elastic electron scattering, muonic X-ray and optical isotope shift measurements

    The nuclear charge distribution and nuclear charge distribution differences have been investigated by 300 MeV elastic electron scattering. Muonic X-ray measurements yield complementary information to electron scattering results. Both experimental data are analysed in an almost model independent way. Prelimanary data from the Lf sub(7/2) proton and neutron shell measured at LAMPF and from the Sr-Mo region, measured at SIN show the same systematic behaviour as previous results in the Ni-region. (orig./AH)

  15. Response of Eyjafjallajökull, Torfajökull and Tindfjallajökull ice caps in Iceland to regional warming, deduced by remote sensing

    Gudmundsson, Sverrir; Björnsson, Helgi; Magnússon, Eyjólfur;

    2011-01-01

    were compiled using aerial photographs from 1979 to 1984, airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images obtained in 1998 and two image pairs from the SPOT 5 satellite's high-resolution stereoscopic (HRS) instrument acquired in 2004. The ice-free part of the accurate DEM from 1998 was used as a...... w. eq. during the earlier period (1980s through 1998) to −1.8 to −1.5 m yr−1 w. eq. for the more recent period (1998–2004). The declining mass balance is consistent with increased temperature over the two periods. The low mass balance and the small accumulation area ratio of Tindfjallajökull and...

  16. Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance choleragen ADP-ribosyltransferase activity: nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of an ADP-ribosylation factor cDNA.

    Price, S R; Nightingale, M.; Tsai, S C; Williamson, K. C.; Adamik, R; H. C. Chen; Moss, J; M. Vaughan

    1988-01-01

    Three (two soluble and one membrane) guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) that enhance ADP-ribosylation of the Gs alpha stimulatory subunit of the adenylyl cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) complex by choleragen have recently been purified from bovine brain. To further define the structure and function of these ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), we isolated a cDNA clone (lambda ARF2B) from a bovine retinal library by screening with a mixed heptadecanucleotide probe whose sequence was based on th...

  17. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM)

    MacAlady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  18. Location and characteristics of the reconnection X line deduced from low-altitude satellite and ground-based observations: 1. Theory

    Lockwood, Mike

    1995-01-01

    A method for estimating both the Alfvén speed and the field-aligned flow of the magnetosheath at the magnetopause reconnection site is presented. The method employs low-altitude cusp ion observations and requires the identification of a feature in the cusp ion spectra near the low-energy cutoff which will often be present for a low-latitude dayside reconnection site. The appearance of these features in data of limited temporal, energy, and pitch angle resolution is illustrated by using model ...

  19. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the aerosol content in Cairo (Egypt) as deduced from the comparison of MODIS aerosol retrievals with direct AERONET measurements

    El-Metwally, M.; Alfaro, S. C.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Zakey, A. S.; Chatenet, B.

    2010-07-01

    As this is the case in many megacities of the developing countries, the atmospheric aerosol load is usually particularly large over the Cairo (Egypt) conurbation. However, being the result of a combination of meteorological factors and of the activity of various particle sources, some of which are seasonal, this load is variable in time. The objective of this study is to document this variability at the intra- and inter-annual scales. For this we use the qualitative Aerosol Absorption Index (AAI) derived from Aura-OMI (the ultimate version of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, TOMS) and the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from the radiance measurements performed between 2000 and 2008 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) implemented aboard either the Terra or the Aqua satellites. In the sense that AOD maxima are always obtained in April and in October at the peaks of the desert dust and biomass burning periods, respectively, the results yielded by these two methods are in good qualitative agreement with those of direct sunphotometer observations performed in Cairo for more than one year (from end of October 2004 to the end of March 2006). However, a quantitative comparison of the MODIS and AERONET products for their common period of measurements reveals that MODIS tends to overestimate systematically the AOD and underestimate the aerosol's Ångström exponent. We propose an empirical method for correcting the AOD retrieved by MODIS at 550 nm and match it with the sunphotometer values. When applied to the whole MODIS dataset, the effect of this correction is to smooth the inter-annual differences. As a result, the month-to-month variations of the AOD can be described by the same pattern independently of the year in the period of study (from 2000 to 2008). The monthly averaged AOD obtained by this method is minimal (0.24 ± 0.04 at 550 nm) from December to February because of the washing out of airborne particles by rain events more frequent in winter. Conversely, the AOD increases in summer because particle accumulation is favored in this season by the absence of precipitations and by atmospheric stability. However, AOD maxima are obtained in April (0.38 ± 0.02) and in October (0.36 ± 0.03) when particles produced outside of the city by natural processes (wind-erosion of desert surfaces) or by human activities (burning of agricultural wastes in the Nile Delta) are transported by prevailing winds and contribute significantly to the enhancement of the city's aerosol burden.

  20. NHE1 inhibition by amiloride- and benzoylguanidine-type compounds. Inhibitor binding loci deduced from chimeras of NHE1 homologues with endogenous differences in inhibitor sensitivity

    Pedersen, Stine F; King, Scott A; Nygaard, Eva B;

    2007-01-01

    NHE1). Although highly homologous to the amiloride- and HOE-sensitive human NHE1 (hNHE1), AtNHE1 is insensitive to HOE-type and PaNHE1 to both amiloride- and HOE-type compounds. Here we generated chimeras to "knock in" amiloride and HOE sensitivity to PaNHE1, and we thereby identified several NHE1...

  1. Systematics of radii and nuclear charge distributions deduced from elastic electron scattering, muonic X-ray and optical isotope shift measurements

    Emrich, H J; Höhn, M; Kaser, K; Mallot, M; Miska, H; Robert-Tissot, B; Rychel, D; Schaller, L; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Shera, B; Sieberling, H G; Steffen, R; Wohlfahrt, H D; Yamazaki, Y

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear charge distribution and nuclear charge distribution differences have been investigated by 350 MeV elastic electron scattering at the Institut fur Kernphysik, Universitat Mainz. Muonic X-ray measurements yield complementary information to electron scattering results. Both experimental data are analysed in an almost model independent way. Muonic X-ray measurements have been performed for the region /sup 40/Ca up to /sup 100/Mo. (18 refs).

  2. Day-to-day thermosphere parameter variation as deduced from Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar observations during March 16-22, 1990 magnetic storm period

    A. V. Mikhailov

    Full Text Available A self-consistent method for day-time F2-region modelling was applied to the analysis of Millstone Hill incoherent scatter observations during the storm period of March 16-22, 1990. The method allows us to calculate in a self-consistent way neutral composition, temperature and meridional wind as well as the ionized species height distribution. Theoretically calculated Ne(h profiles fit the observed daytime ones with great accuracy in the whole range of heights above 150 km for both quiet and disturbed days. The overall increase in Tex by 270 K from March 16 to March 22 reflects the increase of solar activity level during the period in question. A 30% decrease in [O] and a two-fold increase in [N2] are calculated for the disturbed day of March 22 relative to quiet time prestorm conditions. Only a small reaction to the first geomagnetic disturbance on March 18 and the initial phase of the second storm on March 20 was found in [O] and [N2] variations. The meridional neutral wind inferred from plasma vertical drift clearly demonstrates the dependence on the geomagnetic activity level being more equatorward on disturbed days. Small positive F2-layer storm effects on March 18 and 20 are totally attributed to the decrease in the northward neutral wind but not to changes in neutral composition. A moderate (by a factor of 1.5 O/N2 ratio decrease relative to the MSIS-83 model prediction is required to describe the observed NmF2 decrease on the most disturbed day of March 22, but virtually no change of this ratio is needed for March 21.

  3. Primitive extracellular lipid components on the surface of the charophytic alga Klebsormidium flaccidum and their possible biosynthetic pathways as deduced from the genome sequence

    Satoshi eKondo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Klebsormidium flaccidum is a charophytic alga living in terrestrial and semiaquatic environments. K. flaccidum grows in various habitats, such as low-temperature areas and under desiccated conditions, because of its ability to tolerate harsh environments. Wax and cuticle polymers that contribute to the cuticle layer of plants are important for the survival of land plants, as they protect against those harsh environmental conditions and were probably critical for the transition from aquatic microorganism to land plants. Bryophytes, non-vascular land plants, have similar, but simpler, extracellular waxes and polyester backbones than those of vascular plants. The presence of waxes in terrestrial algae, especially in charophytes, which are the closest algae to land plants, could provide clues in elucidating the mechanism of land colonization by plants. Here, we compared genes involved in the lipid biosynthetic pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana to the K. flaccidum and the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genomes, and identified wax-related genes in both algae. A simple and easy extraction method was developed for the recovery of the surface lipids from K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Although these algae have wax components, their surface lipids were largely different from those of land plants. We also investigated aliphatic substances in the cell wall fraction of K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Many of the fatty acids were determined to be lipophilic monomers in K. flaccidum, and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed that their possible binding mode was distinct from that of A. thaliana. Thus, we propose that K. flaccidum has a cuticle-like hydrophobic layer composed of lipids and glycoproteins, with a different composition from the cutin polymer typically found in land plant cuticles.

  4. Dependence of the polar cap structure on parameters of the interplanetary medium based on penetration deduced from solar cosmic ray electrons

    The structure of the polar cap boundaries is studied, based on the penetration of solar cosmic ray electrons (E > 30 keV) measured by the low altitude satellite Intercosmos-17. The boundary location is discussed in connection with parameters of the interplanetary medium, such as the solar wind density N, the velocity V, the characteristic solar wind pressure (proportional to NV2) and the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component. From the data obtained during four events, during which solar cosmic ray electrons (SCRE) were present in interplanetary space, we can derive how the boundary of electron penetration in the dayside sector is controlled by the solar wind pressure and by Bz. In the evening-midnight-morning sector electrons are seen in two regions: in the polar cap on field lines belonging to the geomagnetic lobe and on field lines of the plasmasheet. When a geomagnetic substorm is in progress, the boundaries of these two regions are not only controlled by parameters of the solar wind and the IMF, but also by the phase of the substorm

  5. Coastal evolution of a Holocene barrier spit (Bug peninsula/NW-Rügen deduced from geological structure and relative sea-level

    Michael Naumann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Die an der südwestlichen Ostseeküste gelegene Halbinsel Bug/NW Rügen wurde untersucht, um die Entwicklung von Haken und Nehrungen unter dem Einfluss des holozänen Meeresspiegelanstiegs zu studieren. Als Datengrundlage dienten 25 Sedimentkerne, sowie sieben Georadar- und sechs Sedimentecholotprofile, aus denen sechs Lithofaziestypen abgeleitet wurden. Danach besteht die Nehrung aus einer durchschnittlich 10 m mächtigen holozänen Sedimentfolge, die auf pleistozäner Basis aus Geschiebemergel und (glazi-fluviolimnischen Feinsanden lagert. Obwohl keine absoluten Altersdaten gewonnen wurden, kann die Sedimentabfolge mit der lokalen relativen Meeresspiegelkurve problemlos korreliert und eine Modellvorstellung für die Nehrungsentwicklung geschlussfolgert werden. Die marine Inundation des Untersuchungsgebietes erfolgte um 7.000 BC während der Littorina-Transgression. In diesem Stadium stieg der Meeresspiegel rapide an und generierte einen schnell wachsenden Akkumulationsraum, in dem feinklastisches Material an oder unter der Wellenbasis akkumulierte und zu einem Reliefausgleich beitrug. Akkumulative Küstenformen bildeten sich nur in geringem Maße, da der Akkumulationsraum schneller wuchs als er durch das aus der Küstenerosion stammende Material aufgefüllt werden konnte. In dem Maße, indem der Meeresspiegelanstieg sich verlangsamte, gewann die Akkumulation an Bedeutung und der Hauptteil der Nehrung wurde innerhalb von rund zweitausend Jahren landfest. Entsprechend dem Verlauf von Strandwällen auf seiner heutigen Oberfläche lassen sich zwei Entwicklungsphasen aushalten, die von unterschiedlichen wellenenergetischen, erosiven und overwash-Prozessen bestimmt werden. Gegenwärtig besitzt die Nehrung ein Volumen von 66,4 Mio m³, woraus sich auf einen Rückgang des benachbarten Kliffs von rund 2000 m schließen lässt. Obwohl die Nehrung entwicklungsmäßig in ihrem Reifestadium angelangt zu sein scheint, deuten einige Merkmale auf zunehmende Instabilität hin. Im nördlichen Bereich verhindern Küstenschutzmaßnahmen einen Nehrungsdurchbruch und beginnende Auflösung. Im Süden haben Fahrwasserbaggerungen eine weitere Längenzunahme und das Zusammenwachsen mit Haken von Hiddensee verhindert. Ohne diese Maßnahmen würde die Nehrung durch Seegattbildung und zunehmende Erosion im Norden und Seegattschließung und zunehmende Uferprogradation im Süden eine neue Gestalt annehmen.

  6. Response of Eyjafjallajökull, Torfajökull and Tindfjallajökull ice caps in Iceland to regional warming, deduced by remote sensing

    Jørgen Dall

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We assess the volume change and mass balance of three ice caps in southern Iceland for two periods, 1979–1984 to 1998 and 1998 to 2004, by comparing digital elevation models (DEMs. The ice caps are Eyjafjallajökull (ca. 81 km2, Tindfjallajökull (ca. 15 km2 and Torfajökull (ca. 14 km2. The DEMs were compiled using aerial photographs from 1979 to 1984, airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images obtained in 1998 and two image pairs from the SPOT 5 satellite's high-resolution stereoscopic (HRS instrument acquired in 2004. The ice-free part of the accurate DEM from 1998 was used as a reference map for co-registration and correction of the vertical offset of the other DEMs. The average specific mass balance was estimated from the mean elevation difference between glaciated areas of the DEMs. The glacier mass balance declined significantly between the two periods: from −0.2 to 0.2 m yr−1 w. eq. during the earlier period (1980s through 1998 to −1.8 to −1.5 m yr−1 w. eq. for the more recent period (1998–2004. The declining mass balance is consistent with increased temperature over the two periods. The low mass balance and the small accumulation area ratio of Tindfjallajökull and Torfajökull indicate that they will disappear if the present-day climate continues. The future lowering rate of Eyjafjallajökull will, however, be influenced by the 2010 subglacial eruption in the Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

  7. Evolution of vertebrate IgM: complete amino acid sequence of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum mu chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    Fellah, J S; Wiles, M V; Charlemagne, J; Schwager, J

    1992-10-01

    cDNA clones coding for the constant region of the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) mu heavy immunoglobulin chain were selected from total spleen RNA, using a cDNA polymerase chain reaction technique. The specific 5'-end primer was an oligonucleotide homologous to the JH segment of Xenopus laevis mu chain. One of the clones, JHA/3, corresponded to the complete constant region of the axolotl mu chain, consisting of a 1362-nucleotide sequence coding for a polypeptide of 454 amino acids followed in 3' direction by a 179-nucleotide untranslated region and a polyA+ tail. The axolotl C mu is divided into four typical domains (C mu 1-C mu 4) and can be aligned with the Xenopus C mu with an overall identity of 56% at the nucleotide level. Percent identities were particularly high between C mu 1 (59%) and C mu 4 (71%). The C-terminal 20-amino acid segment which constitutes the secretory part of the mu chain is strongly homologous to the equivalent sequences of chondrichthyans and of other tetrapods, including a conserved N-linked oligosaccharide, the penultimate cysteine and the C-terminal lysine. The four C mu domains of 13 vertebrate species ranging from chondrichthyans to mammals were aligned and compared at the amino acid level. The significant number of mu-specific residues which are conserved into each of the four C mu domains argues for a continuous line of evolution of the vertebrate mu chain. This notion was confirmed by the ability to reconstitute a consistent vertebrate evolution tree based on the phylogenic parsimony analysis of the C mu 4 sequences. PMID:1382992

  8. Phylogeny of immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes: structure of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum upsilon chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    Fellah, J S; Kerfourn, F; Wiles, M V; Schwager, J; Charlemagne, J

    1993-01-01

    An RNA polymerase chain reaction strategy was used to amplify and clone a cDNA segment encoding for the complete constant part of the axolotl IgY heavy (C upsilon) chain. C upsilon is 433 amino acids long and organized into four domains (C upsilon 1-C upsilon 4); each has the typical internal disulfide bond and invariant tryptophane residues. Axolotl C upsilon is most closely related to Xenopus C upsilon (40% identical amino acid residues) and C upsilon 1 shares 46.4% amino acid residues among these species. The presence of additional cysteines in C upsilon 1 and C upsilon 2 domains is consistent with an additional intradomain S-S bond similar to that suggested for Xenopus C upsilon and C chi, and for the avian C upsilon and the human C epsilon. C upsilon 4 ends with the Gly-Lys dipeptide characteristic of secreted mammalian C gamma 3, human C epsilon 4, and avian and anuran C upsilon 4, and contains the consensus [G/GT(AA)] nucleotide splice signal sequence for joining C upsilon 4 to the transmembrane region. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of an ancestral structural relationship between amphibian, avian upsilon chains, and mammalian epsilon chains. However, these molecules have different biological properties: axolotl IgY is secretory Ig, anuran and avian IgY behave like mammalian IgG, and mammalian IgE is implicated in anaphylactic reactions. PMID:8344718

  9. Tropospheric NO2 column densities deduced from zenith-sky DOAS measurements in Shanghai, China, and their application to satellite validation

    L. M. Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Zenith-sky scattered sunlight observations using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS technique were carried out in Shanghai, China (31.3° N, 121.5° E since December 2006. At this polluted urban site, the measurement provided NO2 total columns in the daytime. Here, we present a new method to extract time series of tropospheric vertical column densities (VCD of NO2 from these observations. The derived tropospheric NO2 VCD is an important quantity for the estimation of emissions and for the validation of satellite observations. Our method makes use of assumptions on the relative NO2 height profiles and on the diurnal variation of the stratospheric NO2 VCD. The influence of these parameters on the retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCD is discussed; for a polluted site like Shanghai, the accuracy of our method is estimated to be <20% for solar zenith angle (SZA lower than 85°. From simultaneously performed long-path DOAS measurement, the NO2 surface concentration at the same site was observed and the corresponding tropospheric NO2 VCD was estimated using the assumed seasonal NO2 profiles in the planetary boundary layer (PBL. By making a comparison between the tropospheric NO2 VCD from zenith-sky and long-path DOAS measurements, it was found that the former provided more realistic information about total tropospheric pollution than the latter, so it's more suitable for satellite data validation than the in situ measurement. A comparison between the tropospheric NO2 VCD from ground-based zenith-sky measurement and SCIAMACHY was also made. Satellite validation for a strongly polluted area is highly needed, but exhibits also a great challenge. Our comparison showed good agreement, considering in particular the different spatial resolutions between the two measurements.

  10. Recent crustal deformation of İzmir, Western Anatolia and surrounding regions as deduced from repeated GPS measurements and strain field

    Aktuğ, Bahadır; Kılıçoğlu, Ali

    2006-07-01

    To investigate contemporary neotectonic deformation in İzmir, Western Anatolia and in its neighborhood, a relatively dense Global Positioning System (GPS) monitoring network was established in 2001. Combination of three spatially dense GPS campaigns in 2001, 2003 and 2004 with temporally dense campaigns between 1992 and 2004 resulted in a combined velocity field representing active deformation rate in the region. We computed horizontal and vertical velocity fields with respect to Earth-centered, Earth-fixed ITRF2000, to Eurasia and to Anatolia as well. The rates of principal and shear strains along with rigid-body rotation rates were derived from velocity field. Results show east-west shortening between Karaburun Peninsula and northern part of İzmir Bay together with the extension of İzmir Bay in accordance with general extension regime of Western Anatolia and Eastern Agea. East-west shortening and north-south extension of Karaburun Peninsula are closely related to right-lateral faulting and a clockwise rotation. There exists a block in the middle of the peninsula with a differential motion at a rate of 3-5 ± 1 mm/year and 5-6 ± 1 mm/year to the east and south, respectively. As is in Western Anatolia, north-south extension is dominant in almost all parts of the region despite the fact that they exhibit significantly higher rates in the middle of the peninsula. Extensional rates along Tuzla Fault lying nearly perpendicular to İzmir Bay and in its west are maximum in the region with an extension rate of 300-500 ± 80-100 nanostrain/year and confirm its active state. Extensional rates in other parts of the region are at level of 50-150 nanostrain/year as expected in the other parts of Western Anatolia.

  11. Roman lead and copper mining in Germany : their origin and development through time, deduced from lead and copper isotope provenance studies

    Durali-Müller, Soodabeh

    2006-01-01

    The present work was devised to address the systematic analysis of samples from a range of Roman non-ferrous metal artefacts from different archaeological contexts and sites in the Roman provinces of Germania Superior. One of the focal points of this study is the provenancing of different lead objects from five important Roman settlements between 15 BC and the beginning of fourth century AD. For this purpose, measurements were made on lead and copper ore samples from the Siegerland, Eifel, Hu...

  12. Planetary period oscillations in Saturn's magnetosphere: Further comments on the relationship between post-equinox properties deduced from magnetic field and Saturn kilometric radiation measurements

    Cowley, S. W. H.; Provan, G.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the planetary period oscillations (PPOs) observed by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's magnetosphere, in particular the relationship between the properties of the PPOs in the post-equinox interval as observed in magnetic field data by Andrews et al. (2012) and Provan et al. (2013, 2014) and in Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) emissions by Fischer et al. (2014, 2015), whose results are somewhat discrepant. We show that differences in the reported PPO periods, a fundamental property which should be essentially identical in the two data sets, can largely be accounted for by the phenomenon of dual modulation of the SKR emissions in polarization-separated data, in which the modulation associated with one hemisphere is also present in the other. Misidentification of the modulations results in a reported reversal in the SKR periods in the initial post-equinox interval, south for north and vice versa, relative to the magnetic oscillations whose hemispheric origin is more securely identified through the field component phase relations. Dual modulation also results in the apparent occurrence of phase-locked common periods in the northern and southern SKR data during later intervals during which two separate periods are clearly discerned in the magnetic data through beat modulations in both phase and amplitude. We further show that the argument of Fischer et al. (2015) concerning the phase relation between the magnetic field oscillations and the SKR modulations is erroneous, the phase difference between them revealing the local time (LT) of the upward field-aligned current of the PPO current system at times of SKR modulation maxima. Furthermore, this LT is found to vary significantly over the Cassini mission from dawn, to dusk, and to noon, depending on the LT of apoapsis where the spacecraft spends most time. These variations are consistent with the view that the SKR modulation is fundamentally a rotating system like the magnetic perturbations, though complicated by the strong LT asymmetry in the strength of the sources, and rule out a mainly clock-like (strobe) modulation as argued by Fischer et al. (2015), for which no physical mechanism is suggested. We also elucidate the nature of the magnetic periods, criticized by Fischer et al. (2015), which have previously been derived in ∼100-200 day post-equinox intervals between abrupt changes in PPO properties, and further show that their argument that the magnetic phase data provide evidence for the occurrence of common phase-locked magnetic oscillations in some intervals is fallacious. The most important consequence of our results, however, is that they demonstrate the essential compatibility of the post-equinox magnetic field and SKR data, despite the contrary results published to date. They also show that due to the dual modulation effect in polarization-separated SKR data, analysis and interpretation may contain more subtleties than previously realized. Joint examination of the combined magnetic and SKR data clearly provides greater insight and enhanced confidence compared with analyses of these data sets individually.

  13. Abnormal vibrations of Cd atoms in ZnxCd1-xTe as deduced from PIXE-RBS channeling experiments

    The structure and dynamics of sublattices of the semiconducting crystals CdTe and ZnxCd1-xTe (x = 0.1, 0.3) were studied by performing combined RBS-PIXE-channeling experiments. The crystals were bombarded with 200 keV protons in a direction almost parallel to the crystallographic axis. By comparing the PIXE angular scans obtained for the Cd, Te (and Zn) sublattices measured at 298 and 126 K and the weighted RBS, it was possible to obtain information about the displacements of different constituents in the mixed crystals studied. 1 reference; 1 figure

  14. The albinism of the feral Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) is determined by a missense mutation in a highly conserved position of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene deduced protein.

    Utzeri, V J; Bertolini, F; Ribani, A; Schiavo, G; Dall'Olio, S; Fontanesi, L

    2016-02-01

    A feral donkey population (Equus asinus), living in the Asinara National Park (an island north-west of Sardinia, Italy), includes a unique white albino donkey subpopulation or colour morph that is a major attraction of this park. Disrupting mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene are known to cause recessive albinisms in humans (oculocutaneous albinism Type 1; OCA1) and other species. In this study, we analysed the donkey TYR gene as a strong candidate to identify the causative mutation of the albinism of these donkeys. The TYR gene was sequenced from 13 donkeys (seven Asinara white albino and six coloured animals). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. A missense mutation (c.604C>G; p.His202Asp) in a highly conserved amino acid position (even across kingdoms), which disrupts the first copper-binding site (CuA) of functional protein, was identified in the homozygous condition (G/G or D/D) in all Asinara white albino donkeys and in the albino son of a trio (the grey parents had genotype C/G or H/D), supporting the recessive mode of inheritance of this mutation. Genotyping 82 donkeys confirmed that Asinara albino donkeys had genotype G/G whereas all other coloured donkeys had genotype C/C or C/G. Across-population association between the c.604C>G genotypes and the albino coat colour was highly significant (P = 6.17E-18). The identification of the causative mutation of the albinism in the Asinara white donkeys might open new perspectives to study the dynamics of this putative deleterious allele in a feral population and to manage this interesting animal genetic resource. PMID:26763160

  15. Sub-surface structure of La Soufrière of Guadeloupe lava dome deduced from a ground-based magnetic survey

    Bouligand, Claire; Coutant, Olivier; Glen, Jonathan M. G.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present the analysis and interpretation of a new ground magnetic survey acquired at the Soufrière volcano on Guadeloupe Island. Observed short-wavelength magnetic anomalies are compared to those predicted assuming a constant magnetization within the sub-surface. The good correlation between modeled and observed data over the summit of the dome indicates that the shallow sub-surface displays relatively constant and high magnetization intensity. In contrast, the poor correlation at the base of the dome suggests that the underlying material is non- to weakly-magnetic, consistent with what is expected for a talus comprised of randomly oriented and highly altered and weathered boulders. The new survey also reveals a dipole anomaly that is not accounted for by a constant magnetization in the sub-surface and suggests the existence of material with decreased magnetization beneath the Soufrière lava dome. We construct simple models to constrain its dimensions and propose that this body corresponds to hydrothermally altered material within and below the dome. The very large inferred volume for such material may have implications on the stability of the dome.

  16. Terrestrial environmental changes around the Gulf of Aden over the last 210 kyr deduced from the sediment n-alkane record: Implications for the dispersal of Homo sapiens

    Isaji, Yuta; Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Murayama, Masafumi; Tamaki, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-chain (C25-C36) n-alkanes and pollen grains in sediments from the Gulf of Aden covering the last 212 kyr to reconstruct the surrounding terrestrial environment, a critical region for the dispersal of Homo sapiens. Substantial increases in the flux of n-alkanes during 200-185, 120-95, and 70-50 ka were interpreted to indicate enhanced vegetation biomass in the Arabian Peninsula and the northern part of the Horn of Africa or increase in lithogenic material inputs. Periods of enhanced n-alkane flux occurred during or immediately after pluvial episodes, indicating that the increased precipitation may have induced substantially enhanced vegetation biomass, creating favorable conditions for Homo sapiens. Additionally, vegetation may have increased due to moderate precipitation unrecorded by speleothems or in accordance with the lowering of sea level, indicating that the dispersal might have been possible even after the shift to an arid environment indicated by the speleothems.

  17. Determination of the Total Solar Modulation Factors in the Heliosphere For Cosmic Ray Protons and Electrons by Comparing Interstellar Spectra Deduced from Voyager Measurements and PAMELA Spectra of These Particles at the Earth

    Webber, W R

    2016-01-01

    We have determined the interstellar spectra of cosmic ray protons and electrons from a few MeV to ~10 GeV. These interstellar spectra are based on Voyager data and a normalization of specific galactic propagation model calculations of both protons and electrons to PAMELA data at the Earth at 10 GeV, where the solar modulation is small. These resulting interstellar spectra are then compared with spectra of protons and electrons measured at lower energies at the Earth by PAMELA in 2009. The total amount of modulation at lower rigidities (energies) is found to be nearly the same at the same rigidity for both protons and electrons and ranges in magnitude from a factor ~400 at 0.1 GV for electrons, to a factor ~15 at 0.44 GV (100 MeV for protons), to a factor ~3.3 at 1 GV for both components. The magnitude of this total modulation of both components are the same to within + 10% from ~0.3 to ~3 GV in rigidity. The observed total modulation for protons can be matched quite closely using a simple spherically symmetri...

  18. Dose-Fractionation Sensitivity of Prostate Cancer Deduced From Radiotherapy Outcomes of 5,969 Patients in Seven International Institutional Datasets: α/β = 1.4 (0.9–2.2) Gy

    Purpose: There are reports of a high sensitivity of prostate cancer to radiotherapy dose fractionation, and this has prompted several trials of hypofractionation schedules. It remains unclear whether hypofractionation will provide a significant therapeutic benefit in the treatment of prostate cancer, and whether there are different fractionation sensitivities for different stages of disease. In order to address this, multiple primary datasets have been collected for analysis. Methods and Materials: Seven datasets were assembled from institutions worldwide. A total of 5969 patients were treated using external beams with or without androgen deprivation (AD). Standard fractionation (1.8–2.0 Gy per fraction) was used for 40% of the patients, and hypofractionation (2.5–6.7 Gy per fraction) for the remainder. The overall treatment time ranged from 1 to 8 weeks. Low-risk patients comprised 23% of the total, intermediate-risk 44%, and high-risk 33%. Direct analysis of the primary data for tumor control at 5 years was undertaken, using the Phoenix criterion of biochemical relapse–free survival, in order to calculate values in the linear-quadratic equation of k (natural log of the effective target cell number), α (dose-response slope using very low doses per fraction), and the ratio α/β that characterizes dose-fractionation sensitivity. Results: There was no significant difference between the α/β value for the three risk groups, and the value of α/β for the pooled data was 1.4 (95% CI = 0.9–2.2) Gy. Androgen deprivation improved the bNED outcome index by about 5% for all risk groups, but did not affect the α/β value. Conclusions: The overall α/β value was consistently low, unaffected by AD deprivation, and lower than the appropriate values for late normal-tissue morbidity. Hence the fractionation sensitivity differential (tumor/normal tissue) favors the use of hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules for all risk groups, which is also very beneficial logistically in limited-resource settings.

  19. Exchanges of Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000. II. A Three-Dimensional Tracer Inversion Model to Deduce Regional Fluxes

    Piper, Stephen C; Keeling, Charles D.; HEIMANN Martin; Stewart, Elisabeth F

    2001-01-01

    A three-dimensional tracer inversion model is described that couples atmospheric CO2 transport with prescribed and adjustable source/sink components of the global car- bon cycle to predict atmospheric CO2 concentration and 13C/12C isotopic ratio taking account of exchange fluxes of atmospheric CO2 with the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans. Industrial CO2 emissions are prescribed from fuel production data. Transport of CO2 is prescribed by a model, TM2, that employs 9 vertical levels from ...

  20. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and LiDAR data – case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland

    E. Magnússon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe how recent high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs can be used as constraints for extracting glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne LiDAR in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high resolution LiDAR DEM (2 m × 2 m cell size and vertical accuracy Ḃ = −0.250 ± 0.040 m w.e. a−1 for the entire study period (1946–2011. We observe significant decadal variability including positive periods, peaking in 1985–1994 with Ḃ = 0.26 ± 0.11 m w.e. a−1. There is a striking difference if Ḃ is calculated separately for the western and eastern halves of Drangajökull, with a reduction of eastern part on average ~ 3 times faster than the western part. Our study emphasises the need of applying rigorous geostatistical methods for obtaining uncertainty estimates of geodetic mass balance, the importance of seasonal corrections of DEMs from glaciers with high mass turnover and the risk of extrapolating mass balance record from one glacier to another even over short distances.

  1. Microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of {sup 4} He superfluid helium deduced by maximum entropy method; Modelo microscopico para la hidrodinamica fluctuante no lineal del {sup 4}He superfluido deducido mediante el metodo de maxima entropia

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1998-10-01

    This thesis presents a microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of superfluid helium ({sup 4} He), model developed by means of the Maximum Entropy Method (Maxent). In the chapter 1, it is demonstrated the necessity to developing a microscopic model for the fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium, starting from to show a brief overview of the theories and experiments developed in order to explain the behavior of the superfluid helium. On the other hand, it is presented the Morozov heuristic method for the construction of the non-linear hydrodynamic fluctuating of simple fluid. Method that will be generalized for the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium. Besides, it is presented a brief summary of the content of the thesis. In the chapter 2, it is reproduced the construction of a Generalized Fokker-Planck equation, (GFP), for a distribution function associated with the coarse grained variables. Function defined with aid of a nonequilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub FP} that is evaluated as Wigneris function through {rho}{sub CG} obtained by Maxent. Later this equation of GFP is reduced to a non-linear local FP equation from considering a slow and Markov process in the coarse grained variables. In this equation appears a matrix D{sub mn} defined with a nonequilibrium coarse grained statistical operator {rho}hut{sub CG}, matrix elements are used in the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamics equations of the superfluid helium. In the chapter 3, the Lagrange multipliers are evaluated for to determine {rho}hut{sub CG} by means of the local equilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub l}-tilde with the hypothesis that the system presents small fluctuations. Also are determined the currents associated with the coarse grained variables and furthermore are evaluated the matrix elements D{sub mn} but with aid of a quasi equilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub qe} instead of the local equilibrium operator {rho}hut{sub l}-tilde. Matrix elements that lead to the local transport coefficients for the superfluid helium, by means of a generalization of the Green-Kubo fluctuation-dissipation relation, in analogy with the results present in the Appendix A, obtained with a local equilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub l}-tilde. Specified the Lagrange multipliers, the currents and the local transport coefficients, a non-linear local FP equation is determined for the superfluid helium in the Fourier space. Starting with such FP equation their associated non-linear equations of the Langevin type are built, where the random forces that appear are of multiplicative type. Forces that are expressed as the product of Gaussian random variables and local variablesin such way that the variances of the random variables are independent of the local variables. Finally, applying the Fourier inverse transformed to the non-linear equations of the Langevin type in the space of Fourier, the equations of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic are built for the superfluid helium in the configuration space. Lastly, in the chapter 4, it is presented a discussion of the results and the conclusions of this thesis. (Author)

  2. Glacier changes since Local Last Glacial Maximum in the South-West slope of Nevado Hualcán, Cordillera Blanca, Peru, deduced from moraine mapping and GIS-based analysis

    Giráldez, Claudia; Palacios, David; Haeberli, Wilfried; Úbeda, Jose; Schauwecker, Simone; Torres, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Anticipating and assessing hazards and risks associated with the shrinking of surface and subsurface ice in cold mountain chains is facilitated by empirical-quantitative data on present and past rates of change, as well as by a general understanding of related landforms and landscape evolution through time. Rock/ice avalanches and devastating outburst floods from glacial lakes indeed constitute a major cause of severe damage in populated mountain areas such as the Cordillera Blanca whose combination of tectonic, topographic and glaciological characteristics make it a threatened region. This study focuses on the Río Chucchún catchment above the city of Carhuaz, which was recently affected by a flood/debris flow from a rock/ice avalanche impacting a recently grown lake (Laguna 513). Traces left by past glaciations strongly affect the current geomorphodinamic behaviour of the catchment. For instance, a prominent sediment-filled glacial overdeepening behind Younger Dryas (YD) moraines (Pampa de Shonquil) with its retention function strongly influenced the chain of processes initiated by the outburst of Laguna 513. The aim of this study is to reconstruct earlier glacial phases in the SW slope of Nevado Hualcán (Río Chucchún catchment), in order to compile quantitative information on surface areas and Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs). To do so, glacier stages were assigned to five different glacial phases, through photointerpretation and moraine cartography: 2003; 1962; Hualcán-I-LIA (15th to 18th centuries); Hualcán-II-YD (~12,5 ka BP); and Hualcán-III-LLGM (~34 to 21 ka BP). Glacial stages Hualcán-I-LIA, Hualcán-II-YD and Hualcán-III-LLGM present relative dating based on previous studies from different authors in the Peruvian Andes. Once glaciers were delimited, their surface areas and Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) were calculated. For ELA estimation three different methods were used: the mid-range elevation, the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR), and the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio (AABR). The results show a decrease in surface area with respect to Hualcán-III-LLGM of 16% for Hualcán-II-YD; 50% for Hualcán-I-LIA; and 74% for 2003. With respect to 2003, ELAs shifted ~520 m since the Local Last Glacial Maximum (LLGM), ~470 m since a marked late-glacial stage (YD?), ~130 m since the Little Ice Age (LIA) and about ~100 m since 1962. If the changes are exclusively attributed to temperature effects, warming since LLGM can be estimated at some 3°C and since the maximum glacier extent of LIA at about 0.8°C. Such values are rather close to mean global temperature change during the corresponding intervals. Most of the ELA shift since LIA appears to have taken place during recent decades characterized by very rapid glacier shrinkage, although air temperature does not seem to have risen considerably during the last 30 years. These results along with other environmental and social approaches will contribute to a better understanding of impacts from climate change and glacier shrinkage in order to develop adaptation, mitigation and disaster risk reduction strategies in the Peruvian Andes.

  3. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and LiDAR data - case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland

    Magnússon, E.; Belart, J. M. C.; Pálsson, F.; Ágústsson, H.; Crochet, P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we describe how recent high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can be used as constraints for extracting glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne LiDAR in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high resolution LiDAR DEM (2 m × 2 m cell size and vertical accuracy LiDAR DEM was also used to estimate errors of the extracted photogrammetric DEMs in ice and snow free areas, at nunataks and outside the glacier margin. The derived errors of each DEM were used to constrain a spherical variogram model, which along with the derived errors in ice and snow free areas were used as inputs into 1000 Sequential Gaussian Simulations (SGSim). The simulations were used to estimate the possible bias in the entire glaciated part of the DEM. The derived bias correction, varying in magnitude between DEMs from 0.03 to 1.66 m (1946 DEM) was then applied. The simulation results were also used to calculate the 95 % confidence level of this bias, resulting in values between ±0.21 m (in 2005) and ±1.58 m (in 1946). Error estimation methods based on more simple proxies would typically yield 2-4 times larger error estimates. The aerial photographs used were acquired between late June and early October. An additional bias correction was therefore estimated using a degree day model to obtain the volume change between the start of two hydrological years (1 October). This correction corresponds to an average elevation change of ~ -3 m in the worst case for 1960, or about ~ 2/3 of volume change between the 1960 and the 1975 DEMs. The total uncertainty of the derived mass balance record is mostly due to uncertainty of the SGSim bias correction, the uncertainty of the seasonal bias correction and the uncertainty of the interpolated glacier surface where data is lacking. The record shows a glacier-wide mass balance rate of Ḃ = -0.250 ± 0.040 m w.e. a-1 for the entire study period (1946-2011). We observe significant decadal variability including positive periods, peaking in 1985-1994 with Ḃ = 0.26 ± 0.11 m w.e. a-1. There is a striking difference if Ḃ is calculated separately for the western and eastern halves of Drangajökull, with a reduction of eastern part on average ~ 3 times faster than the western part. Our study emphasises the need of applying rigorous geostatistical methods for obtaining uncertainty estimates of geodetic mass balance, the importance of seasonal corrections of DEMs from glaciers with high mass turnover and the risk of extrapolating mass balance record from one glacier to another even over short distances.

  4. Mass balance of Langjökull ice cap in Iceland during different climate settings; deduced from multi-temporal DEḾ s from 1936 to 2008, and in situ mass balance measurements 1997-2009

    Palsson, Finnur; Gudmundsson, Sverrir; Björnsson, Helgi; Berthier, Etienne; Haraldsson, Hannes

    2010-05-01

    We describe the mass balance of Langjökull ice cap ( 920 km2, 190 km3) during several time intervals that span most of the 20th century until present, hence for different climate conditions. Langjökull located in midwest Iceland is highly sensitive to climate change, with an elevation range 460 - 1440 m a.s.l., zero balance ELA of 960 m and a zero balance mass turnover of 1.75 m/yr w. eq.. Since 1997 the mass balance of Langjökull has been monitored by conventional mass balance measurements at 22 sites on the glacier, and from this data digital maps of the winter, summer and annual balance have been produced for every glaciological year. The mass balance was also assessed from estimation of ice volume changes by comparing several DEM's: from 1936 and 1945-46 (from digitized contour lines of revised published maps based on aerial photographs and geodetic survey), 1986 (from digitized contour lines of maps based on aerial photographs and point measurements from an inertial navigation system), 1997 (from D-GPS surface profile survey, about 1 km between lines) and 2004 (SPOT5-HRG). The accuracy of the SPOT5-HRG DEM was estimated to be within 2 m in elevation by analyzing the residue of the DEM and an ensemble of points and profile elevation data surveyed by kinematic GPS, both on and in near vicinity of the ice cap. The SPOT5-HRG DEM was used as a reference map for both co-registration and to improve the accuracy and details of the older maps. The difference between the 1997-2004 net balance estimated by volume change and in situ measurements is negligible (~10 cm w. eq. ). During the two extremely warm periods 1936-1946 and 1997-2008 the mass balance was similar; -1.6 and -1.4 m/yr w. eq., respectively. The colder climate 1946-1986 and cooler yet in 1986-1997 resulted in mass balance close to zero; -0.3 and -0.2 m/yr w. eq., respectively.

  5. The Grenvillian Namaqua-Natal fold belt adjacent to the Kaapvaal Craton: 1. Distribution of Mesoproterozoic collisional terranes deduced from results of regional surveys and selected profiles in the western and southern parts of the fold belt

    Colliston, W. P.; Schoch, A. E.; Cole, J.

    2014-12-01

    Sixteen tectonic terranes of the Namaqua-Natal metamorphic complex are distinguished (the Aggeneys, Agulhas, Bladgrond, Gamka, Grootdrink, Grünau, Fraserburg, Upington, Margate, Mossel, Mzumbe, Okiep, Olifantshoek, Steinkopf, Pofadder, and Tugela terranes). Evidence obtained from field investigations in the outcrop regions of Namaqualand and Natal are correlated with the geophysical data, enabling recognition of terrane suboutcrops in the regions covered by Phanerozoic deposits in the south. This is illustrated by nine selected profiles over the western and southern parts of the metamorphic complex. Four terranes that have not been observed in outcrop are postulated (Agulhas, Fraserburg, Gamka and Mossel terranes) and may represent extensions of some of the Natal terranes (Mzumbe and Margate terranes). The depth to Moho is generally about 40 km, diminishing dramatically at the present continental edge to as little as 15 km. Listric thrust ramps may originate on rises of the gently undulating topography of the Moho zone. Zones of thrusting and later shearing often exploit older structures and fabrics. The terranes that participated in the Grenvillian Namaqua-Natal Orogeny exhibit a dichotomy of vergences regionally. Those that moved to the northeast and north accreted onto the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton before becoming part of the Kalahari Craton. Terranes with vergences to the south and southwest were amalgamated onto other Archaean cratons. All of the composite cratons took part in the assembly of Rodinia.

  6. Pre- and post-earthquake surficial deformation of the Wenchuan earthquake, deduced from InSAR data analyses%藉由InSAR资料分析汶川地震:震前及震后地表变形

    陈锟山; 王志添

    2010-01-01

    @@ Capability of mapping surface deformation offered by satellite radar interferometry has been successfully demonstrated and applied since early 90s, from short to long terms measuring and tracing of deformation patterns up to centimeter scale, both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  7. Activité des failles de la plaque supérieure dans l'avant-arc côtier du nord du Chili (~23°30'S) : Paléosismologie, implications néotectoniques et relation avec le cycle de subduction

    Cortes Aranda, Joaquin,

    2012-01-01

    L'évolution tectonique du nord du Chili est contrôlée par la convergence des plaques Nazca et Amérique du Sud. Ce processus entraîne des déformations élastiques qui s'accumulent à proximité de la zone de contact inter-plaque. Celles-ci sont en grande partie relâchées à l'occasion des méga-séismes de subduction, dont la période de retour est légèrement supérieure au siècle. Cependant, une partie de la déformation due à la convergence est transférée de façon permanente au sein de la Plaque Sud-...

  8. O Passado como Nacao: Imagens do Imperio nas Falas Reacionarias dos Anos 30 e 40 do Seculo XX: Uma Pequena Arqueologia do Debate Publico e Privado (The Past as Nation: Images of the Empire in the Reactionary Words of the 30s and 40s in the 20th Century: A Small Archaeology of the Public Debate versus the Private One).

    de Freitas, Marcos Cezar

    1998-01-01

    Suggests an archaeology of the public debate versus the private one in Brazil through analysis of the reactionary speech of a religious leader, Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha, which produced innumerable representations of the Brazilian Empire. (PA)

  9. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 05 March 1981 to 19 March 1981 (NODC Accession 8100629)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the...

  10. Physical and chemical data from CTD, current meter, and buoy casts from the XIANG YANG HONG 14 and NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 25 January 1987 to 24 October 1987 (NODC Accession 8700356)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using current meter, CTD, and buoy casts in the TOGA area of the Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER and R/V...

  11. Beta decay of 31Ar

    A complete study of 31Ar beta decay has been made by high-resolution charged-particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Beta-delayed radiation was detected by an array of three charged-particle detectors and a large-volume germanium detector. Fifteen new energy levels were discovered in 31Cl. The beta-strength distribution, measured to 14.5 MeV, is compared with a shell-model calculation in the full sd space. The quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength and the isospin impurity of the IAS in 31Cl are discussed. (orig.)

  12. An Inspection of the Music Dissemination Activities by the Young Men’s Christian Association of China——With the 1920 s-30 s Southern Areas as the Center%中国基督教青年会音乐传播活动考察——以20世纪二三十年代南方地区为中心

    郭常英; 岳鹏星

    2012-01-01

    During the decades of 1920s to 1930s,the Young Men's Christian Association of China(YMCA) made great effort in organizing a big amount of music activities among the masses to build itself up and to serve the society.These activities play a prominent role in the dissemination history of Western music culture because different varieties of music activities began early in history,spread widely in different regions and made great influence.Although music dissemination is not the main purpose of the YMCA of China,these music activities coincided with and compensated the local school music education,promoted the eradication of music illiteracy,enriched the contents of modern Chinese music,and ultimately helped to bring about the wide spread of music events in the South.%20世纪二三十年代,在中国基督教青年会的本体建设和"社会服务"活动中,有大量群众性的音乐活动。其起始时间之早、活动内容之多、遍及地域之广、产生影响之大,在西方音乐文化传播历史上地位独特。虽然青年会所从事的音乐文化传播不是青年会活动的主要工作目的,但其在中国南方各地的传播所产生的音乐普及效应,与当时当地学校音乐教育形成了呼应与补充,不仅是十分有益的社会音乐扫盲活动,其各种音乐活动形式也丰富了中国近代音乐文化的内容,带动了音乐文化活动在南方各地的广泛开展。

  13. Исследование «пещерного города» Эски-Кермен в 20-е — 30-е годы XX века / The research of the Eski-Kermen “cave town” in the 20's and 30's of the 20th century

    N.A. Abramova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Целью исследования стало освещение малоизученных моментов истории изучения «пещерного города» Эски-Кермен. В предлагаемой вашему вниманию статье пойдет речь об исследовании этого памятника истории и культуры, проведенного экспедицией ГАИМК, а также других научных организаций АН СССР в 20-е-30-е гг. XX в. Особое внимание было уделено выявлению роли археологов в изучении Эски-Кермена. По-новому была освещена роль Н. Л. Эрнста, В. П. и П. П. Бабенчиковых, Н. И. Репникова, Е. В. Веймарна, а также В. И. Равдоникаса. Выводы, сделанные этими исследователями, предопределили подходы к изучению древностей Эски-Кермена. The aim of the study was poorly studied lighting highlights the history of the study of Eski-Kermen “cave town”. In offering you article will talk about the study of historical and cultural monuments, the expedition of the State Academy of the History of Material Culture, as well as other scientific organizations of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the 20th-30th years of XX c. Particular attention was paid to identifying the role of archeology in the study of Eski-Kermen. In the new role it was highlighted of N. L. Ernst, V. P. and P. P. Babenchikov, N. I. Repnikov, E. V. Veymarn, and V. I. Ravdonikas. The conclusions of these researchers determined the approaches to the study of antiquities of Eski-Kermen.

  14. 从中西体育舞蹈历史演绎谈我国体育舞蹈的发展%Discussing the Development of Sport Dance in Our Country from the Deducing of the History of Chinese and Western Sport Dance

    黄欣加; 张敏杰; 熊晓正

    2006-01-01

    体育舞蹈是一项新兴的体育运动项目,经过了漫长的演绎和发展过程.从"社交"发展为"竞技",将单一的舞种发展为摩登舞(Modern Dancing)、拉丁舞(Latin American Dancing)和集体舞(Formation Dancing)三大类.由于其不断地更新、发展,展现了强烈的时代气息,受到世界各国热衷者的欢迎、喜爱和追求.本文从体育舞蹈的内涵、演进及在我国各阶段的发展进行阐述,就体育舞蹈进入奥运提出参考性建议.

  15. The Research of Portfolio Efficiency of Stock Market Investment Strategies---Based on the Large Sample Properties Probability Deduced%证券市场投资策略组合效率研究--基于大样本性质下的概率推导

    卓纮畾; 杨超杰; 孔英

    2013-01-01

    The market believes the combination of fundamental analysis and technical analysis strategy can ef-fectively improve theaccuracy of the analysis , and pastresearch of the efficiency of strategyportfolio is relativelyva-cant.This paper is base on noise theory and the positive feedback theory ,and make a use of probability theory to proof that a combination of strategies in a large sample properties difficult to improve the analysis accuracy effective -ly.The research also indicate that the probability of improvement of thecombinationodds isnotamonotonic functiono -fsinglestrategy`sodds.That is , the strategy portfolio ’ s odds may not be effectively improve by the single strategy which with higher odds.%市场认为将基本面分析和技术分析策略进行组合能有效提高分析准确度,而以往对于策略间组合的效率研究相对空缺。以技术分析流派噪音理论以及行为金融正反馈模型为理论基础,结合概率论的推导证明,在大样本性质下策略的组合难以有效提高分析准确度,且认为组合胜算得到提高的概率并非所使用策略胜算的单调函数,即胜算越高的策略进行组合,其产生的策略组合未必能有效提高分析准确率。

  16. Is it possible to deduce the ground state OH density from relative optical emission intensities of the OH(A 2Σ+-X 2Πi) transition in atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas?—An analysis of self-absorption

    Du, Yanjun; Peng, Zhimin; Ding, Yanjun; Sadeghi, Nader; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2016-08-01

    The measurement of absolute densities of reactive species and radicals such as OH is of growing interest for many plasma applications. In this paper, we extend the use of a self-absorption model for atomic emission spectroscopy to molecular emission spectroscopy. The proposed analysis of self-absorbed molecular emission spectra is a simple and inexpensive method to determine OH(X) densities and rotational temperatures compared to laser induced fluorescence. We compare the recorded absolute OH density in a non-equilibrium diffuse atmospheric-pressure RF glow discharge by this method with broadband UV absorption considering a number of rotational lines with J‧  ⩽  6.5, the detection limit of the line integrated OH(X) density with this method is of the order of 2  ×  1019 m‑2. The accuracy of the density is sensitive to the rotational temperature of the OH(A) state and the non-equilibrium rotational population distribution.

  17. "Propuestas de solución a la problemática de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil, constituidas como asociaciones civiles, que cuentan con autorización para recibir donativos deducibles para efectos del impuesto sobre la renta"

    Calderón Arreola, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Para nadie es desconocido el hecho de que en nuestro país existen profundas desigualdades entre los diversos sectores que integran la población mexicana. México se caracteriza por ser un país lleno de contrastes pues, mientras que por un lado la cadena estadounidense de noticias CNBC proclamaba el día 03 de julio de 207 al mexicano Carlos Slim como el hombre más rico del mundo, por el otro, Daniel Broyce, representante del Banco Mundial en México señalaba meses antes que "los niveles de pobre...

  18. NMR investigations of protein-carbohydrate interactions : Studies on the relevance of Trp/Tyr variations in lectin binding sites as deduced from titration microcalorimetry and NMR studies on hevein domains. Determination of the NMR structure of the complex between pseudohevein and N,N ',N ''-triacetylchitotriose

    Asensio, JL; Siebert, HC; von der Lieth, CW; Laynez, J; Bruix, M; Soedjanaamadja, UM; Beintema, JJ; Canada, FJ; Gabius, HJ; Jimenez-Barbero, J

    2000-01-01

    Model studies on lectins and their interactions with carbohydrate ligands in solution are essential to gain insights into the driving forces for complex formation and to optimize programs for computer simulations. The specific interaction of pseudohevein with N,N',N"-triacetylchitotriose has been an

  19. 三水盆地古近系湖相沉积岩的氧、碳同位素地球化学记录及其环境意义%Palaeogene Environmental Changes Deduced from Stable Isotopic Data from Bulk Carbonates in the Sanshui Basin, South China

    刘春莲; Franz T Fürsich; 白雁; 杨小强; 李国强

    2004-01-01

    三水盆地古近系莘庄组顶部至土布心组红岗段的全岩碳酸盐稳定同位素分析结果表明其形成期间经历了多次环境变迁.根据碳酸盐氧、碳同位素比值及其相互关系的变化,可识别三次海水入侵期.其时δ18O值大幅度向正值漂移.而由于受有机质降解的影响,相应时期的δ13C均表现为低值.在不直接受海洋影响的湖相沉积阶段,δ18O与δ13C的相关程度虽然未达到典型的封闭型湖泊水平,但仍呈现一定的正相关变化(r = 0.65),表明其湖水滞留时间较长.而频繁出现的石膏薄层沉积也指示湖盆的封闭性较好.这些均表明这一时期的三水盆地可能是一周期性封闭型湖泊.其稳定同位素组成主要受制于蒸发量/降雨量平衡的变化.而δ13C比值往往还受有机质活动的控制,更多的是反映有机质生产力、埋藏与降解率.

  20. Deduceing from Abstract to Concrete to explore the adaptation art from the Review 1942 to the Movie 1942%从抽象到具象的演绎--由小说《温故1942》到电影《1942》的改编策略

    黄鑫迪

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most anticipated movie, 1942 won the experts and audience ’s high praise.Besides its great box office, it also become the masterpiece of the disaster moive trilogy directed by FENG Xiaogang .Actually the moive was filmed on Review 1942 which was written by writer LIU Zhenyun.From an investigative novel consisted of chaos clues and abstract images to a compact narrative movie with specific figures, the creator made great efforts to adapt the mood and interest , the characters and plot layers , and the narra-tive rhythm and rhyme, at last it made a successful transition of different art forms between novel and movie .%  电影《1942》作为冯小刚灾难片三部曲之一,是2012年度最令人热捧的电影,除了票房大卖外,更赢得业内专家和广大观众的一致好评。而影片蓝本是刘震云的《温故1942》,从线索杂乱、人物形象抽象的调查体小说到叙事紧凑、人物具象的电影,创作者着力在改编的情调与趣味、人物性格与层次、叙事节奏与韵律等方面下足功夫,实现了小说和电影这两种不同艺术形式之间的成功转换。

  1. List of Participating Institutions: Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-operation and Peace = Liste des establissements participants: Systeme des ecoles associees appliquant un programme d'education pour la cooperation internationale et la paix = Lista de Instituciones Participantes: Plan de Escuelas Asociadas en la Educacion para la Cooperacion Internacional y la Paz.

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A list of participating institutions at the Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-Operation and Peace, December 31, 1985 is presented. A total of 1,970 institutions in 94 countries participated, including 47 nursery schools, 556 primary schools, 1,123 secondary schools, and 248 teacher training institutions. Addresses of…

  2. Manuel d'Education Speciale a l'Usage des Parents: le droit de votre enfant a une education dans l'Etat de New York (Parent's Guide to Special Education: Your Child's Right to an Education in New York State).

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    Written in French, this guide provides information to help parents of special needs children in New York become active partners in the planning and implementation of special education programs for their child. Part 1 of the guide provides in-depth information related to the special education process in New York public schools. A historical view of…

  3. Backangle anomaly in scattering of {alpha} -particles from {sup 28} Si at low energies[25.55.Ci; 25.70.Ef; Nuclear reactions 28 Si( {alpha},{alpha})28 Si; E{alpha}=3.0 -7.8 MeV; Measured {sigma}(E{alpha},{theta}); {theta}lab=30 deg. -175 deg.; Deduced Regge-pole parameters; Natural target

    Coban, A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Abdelmonem, M.S.; Aksoy, A.; Naqvi, A.A

    2000-09-25

    In order to resolve the differences in the literature on the existence of quasi-molecular states in the {alpha} -{sup 28} Si system, excitation functions were measured for the scattering of {alpha} -particles from {sup 28} Si in the incident energy range E{sub lab}=3 -7.8 MeV. An angular distribution measurement was carried out in the angular range {theta}{sub lab}=30 deg. -174.5 deg. for every potential resonance observed in the excitation functions. Data was analysed using a Regge-pole formalism by coherently adding specific resonances to an underlying diffraction term calculated by a strong absorption model. Furthermore, the usual compound elastic contribution was incoherently added to the direct interaction part of the cross section. The 6.8 MeV resonance was confirmed with J=3 and some evidence was observed for a J=1 resonance around 6.0 MeV.

  4. The individual and common repertoire of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators of Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium efficiens, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium jeikeium deduced from the complete genome sequences

    Kalinowski Jörn; Brinkrolf Karina; Brune Iris; Pühler Alfred; Tauch Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Corynebacterium includes Gram-positive microorganisms of great biotechnologically importance, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum and Corynebacterium efficiens, as well as serious human pathogens, such as Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium jeikeium. Although genome sequences of the respective species have been determined recently, the knowledge about the repertoire of transcriptional regulators and the architecture of global regulatory networks is sca...

  5. Deducing of Uncooled Bolometer Responsivity Considered Considering Self-heat Effect in a Voltage Supply Circuit%电压偏置下考虑了自热效应的非致冷红外测辐射热计响应率的推导

    余荣

    2007-01-01

    非致冷红外测辐射热计是一种有源器件,工作时器件的自热效应不容忽略.从理论上推导出在电压偏置下考虑了自热效应的非致冷红外测辐射热计响应率的计算公式.

  6. Isobaric multiplet mass equation in the $A=31$ $T = 3/2$ quartets

    Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Liddick, S N; Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bardayan, D W; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Fry, C; Glassman, B E; Langer, C; Larson, N R; McNeice, E I; Meisel, Z; Ong, W; O'Malley, P D; Pain, S D; Prokop, C J; Schwartz, S B; Suchyta, S; Thompson, P; Walters, M; Xu, X

    2016-01-01

    The observed mass excesses of analog nuclear states with the same mass number $A$ and isospin $T$ can be used to test the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME), which has, in most cases, been validated to a high degree of precision. A recent measurement [Kankainen et al., Phys. Rev. C 93 041304(R) (2016)] of the ground-state mass of $^{31}$Cl led to a substantial breakdown of the IMME for the lowest $A = 31, T = 3/2$ quartet. The second-lowest $A = 31, T = 3/2$ quartet is not complete, due to uncertainties associated with the identity of the $^{31}$S member state. Using a fast $^{31}$Cl beam implanted into a plastic scintillator and a high-purity Ge $\\gamma$-ray detection array, $\\gamma$ rays from the $^{31}$Cl$(\\beta\\gamma)$$^{31}$S sequence were measured. Shell-model calculations using USDB and the recently-developed USDE interactions were performed for comparison. Isospin mixing between the $^{31}$S isobaric analog state (IAS) at 6279.0(6) keV and a nearby state at 6390.2(7) keV was observed. The second ...

  7. Study of quadrupole moments of superdeformed bands in sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 Gd 21.60.Cs; 23.20.Lv; 27.60.+j; Nuclear reactions: 114Cd(36S,5n); E=182 MeV; measured E gamma,I gamma; Doppler-shift attenuation; gamma gamma gamma-coin; 145Gd deduced superdeformed bands quadrupole moments, sidefeeding times, configurations; Compton-suppressed Ge-detector array

    Rzaca-Urban, T; Lieder, R M; Urban, W; Rejmund, M; Marcinkowska, Z; Marcinkowski, R; Utzelman, S; Jeldtoft-Jensen, H; Gast, W; Jaeger, H; Bazzacco, D; Lunardi, S; Medina, N H; Menegazzo, R; Pavan, P; Petrache, C M; Alvarez, C R; De Angelis, G; Napoli, D R; Zhu, L; Dewald, A; Kasemann, S

    2000-01-01

    Mean lifetimes have been measured for superdeformed bands of sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 Gd with the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The extracted quadrupole moments of the yrast and first excited superdeformed bands are Q sub 0 =11.8+-0.8 eb and Q sub 0 =13.2+-1.0 eb, respectively. The configuration assignments based on the quadrupole moments are pi 6 sup 1 pi[404]9/2 nu[514]9/2 nu 7 sup 0 for the yrast superdeformed band and pi 6 sup 2 nu[642]5/2 nu 7 sup 0 for the first excited superdeformed band between the two known crossings.

  8. The heavy-ion nuclear potential: determination of a systematic behavior at the region of surface interaction distances 25.60.Bx; 24.10.Ht; 24.10.-i; 21.60.-n; 120Sn(16O,16O)120Sn,138Ba(16O,16O)138Ba,208Pb(16O,16O)208Pb; Measured elastic scattering cross sections; Deduced optical potentials; Double-folding calculations with microscopic densities

    Silva, C P; Anjos, R M; Carlson, B V; Chamon, L C; Chatterjee, A; Gasques, L R; Gomes, P R S; Kailas, S; Lubian, J; Mahata, K; Muri, C; Pereira, D; Rao, M N; Rossi, E S; Santo, M A E; Santra, S B; Shrivastava, A; Singh, P

    2001-01-01

    Precise elastic scattering differential cross sections have been measured for the sup 1 sup 6 O+ sup 1 sup 2 sup 0 Sn, sup 1 sup 3 sup 8 Ba, sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb systems at sub-barrier energies. The corresponding 'experimental' nuclear potentials have been determined at interaction distances larger than the Coulomb barrier radii. These experimental potentials have been compared with our earlier results for other systems, and with theoretical calculations based on the double-folding and liquid-drop models. We have shown that the nuclear potentials have a systematic behavior at the surface region. The present results for the sup 1 sup 6 O+ sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb system are used to extend earlier studies of the dispersion relation to sub-barrier energies.

  9. The physics of a thunderstorm

    The salient facts concerning the dynamical, physical and electrical properties of a thunderstorm, and of the detailed structure and associated electric field-changes of lightning flashes, are marshalled to deduce the criteria for a satisfactory quantitative theory of charge generation and separation leading to the growth of electric fields strong enough to initiate and to sustain lightning activity. A quantitative theory is presented of how charges are generated and separated when supercooled cloud droplets make grazing contact with the undersides of hail pellets (graupel) polarized initially by the Earth's fine-weather electric field. The rebounding droplets acquire a positive charge and are carried by the convective updraught towards the top of the cloud, while the hail pellets carrying a net negative charge fall towards cloud base. This creates a vertical dipole field which increases the polarizing charges on the hail pellets and so accelerates the rates of charge generation and separation, and so reinforces the vertical electrical field, which grows exponentially until insulation of the air breaks down and triggers a lightning flash. It is demonstrated that a thunderstorm cell, 2 km in diameter, producing small hail falling at 30 mm h-1 can produce vertical electric fields of ∼5000 V cm-1 in about 10 min involving the separation of ∼50 C of charge, enough to initiate a lightning flash which, on average, neutralizes about 20 C. As long as the hail persists, it continues to generate and separate sufficient charge to produce a succession of lightning flashes at about 30 s intervals. More frequent discharges at say 10 s intervals would require high rates of hail production in larger cells but are more likely to be produced by large multi-cellular storms sustained by strong convective currents for perhaps several hours

  10. Effect of cold-rolling on pitting corrosion of 304 austenitic stainless steel

    Full text of publication follows: This paper deals with a not very often investigated topic on relation between cold-working and stainless steels localized corrosion resistance. It is devoted to the study of the cold-rolling effects on the pitting corrosion behavior of a 304 stainless steel grade in chloride containing aqueous electrolytes. It focus particularly on the analysis of metastable pitting transients observed at Open Circuit Potential using an experimental protocol including two identical working electrodes connected through a zero-impedance. As received the used specimens were heat-treated at 1100 C for 30 s and cold-rolled at 10%, 20%, 30% up to a final reduction pass of 70% inducing a large amount of α'-martensite. Then, current-potential fluctuations measurements were performed at OCP in NaCl 0.1 M + FeCl3 2.10-4 M containing aqueous solution during 24 h from the immersion time. As expected, a detrimental effect on corrosion behavior induced by cold rolling has been confirmed. Surprisingly, this is a nonlinear effect as a function of cold-rolling rate which controverts the hypothesis that strain induced martensite is the principal factor to explain this kind of sensibilizing. In particular, the results show a maximum of the metastable pits initiation frequency at 20% of cold-rolling rate. Moreover, the passive film/electrochemical double layer resistance and capacity deduced from the transients study show an analog nonlinear behavior. So, the transfer resistance show a minimum around 10-20% of cold-rolling rate where one can assume an increase of the electrons transfer kinetics through the interface. Conversely, the interfacial capacity is the highest at 20% of cold-rolling rate. Finally, It is expected a combined effect of the cold-rolled induced martensite and the dislocations arrangement via the mechano-chemical theory discussed by Gutman. (authors)

  11. El Impuesto sobre Sociedades - Tema 5

    Andrés Aucejo, Eva

    2008-01-01

    El Impuesto sobre Sociedades: Hecho imponible. Sujeto pasivo. Imputación temporal de ingresos y gastos. Régimen de transparencia fiscal. La base imponible: Ingresos computables, partidas deducibles y no deducibles. Reinversión de beneficios extraordinarios.

  12. Transverse electric conductivity in quantum collisional plasma in Mermin approach

    Latyshev, A. V.; Yushkanov, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Formulas for transversal electric conductivity and dielectric permeability of quantum collisional plasma are deduced. The kinetic equation for a density matrix in relaxation approaching in momentum space is used. It is shown, that when Planck's constant tends to zero, these deduced formulas pass in classical expressions and when frequency of electron collision tends to zero (i.e. plasma passes in collisionless plasma), the deduced formulas pass in deduced earlier by Lindhard. It is shown also...

  13. Two-proton emission in the decay of 31Ar

    Several beta-delayed two-proton branches were observed in the decay of 31Ar, the most intense ones proceeding through the isobaric analogue state (IAS) in 31Cl. The mechanism of the two-proton emission is studied via the energy and angular distributions of the two protons. Simultaneous emission of the two protons fits the present data well, sequential decays might also describe them. Independent of the decay mechanism, a spin of 5/2 for the IAS is suggested. An improved limit on the direct two-proton emission from the ground state of 31Ar is presented. (orig.)

  14. Sizeable beta-strength in {sup 31}Ar (β3p) decay

    Koldste, G.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Blank, B. [Centre d' Études Nucléaire de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Bordeaux I, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Borge, M.J.G.; Briz, J.A.; Carmona-Gallardo, M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Fraile, L.M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Universidad Complutense, CEI Moncloa, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Fynbo, H.O.U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Giovinazzo, J. [Centre d' Études Nucléaire de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Bordeaux I, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Johansen, J.G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jokinen, A. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, FIN-40351 Jyväskylä (Finland); Jonson, B. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Kurturkian-Nieto, T. [Centre d' Études Nucléaire de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Bordeaux I, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Nilsson, T. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Perea, A.; Pesudo, V. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-10-07

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode β-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow–Teller strength distribution from the decay of {sup 31}Ar revealing that as much as 30% of the strength resides in the β3p-decay mode. A simplified description of how the main decay modes evolve as the excitation energy increases in {sup 31}Cl is provided.

  15. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.;

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as...... much as 30% of the strength resides in the beta-3p decay mode. A simplified description of how the main decay modes evolve as the excitation energy increases in 31Cl is provided....

  16. Search for β -2 He, β - p α and β - 3p in the proton-rich nucleus 31Ar

    The allowed decay modes of 31 Ar from the isobaric analog state of 31 Cl are investigated by means of a new silicon detector telescope. The data recorded by this detector are compared to Monte-Carlo simulations, and lead to the observation of β-delayed 2 protons emission with no indication of a β-2 He process, and to strong evidences of β -delayed 3 protons radioactivity observed here for the first time. None of the others possible decay modes (β-p, β-α and β-pα) is observed

  17. La diferenciación geográfica de la población humana arcaica de la costa norte de Chile (5000-3000 AP) a partir del análisis estadístico de rasgos métricos y no métricos del cráneo The spatial structure of the archaic human population of the north coast of Chile (5000-3000 BP) deduced by the statistical analysis of skull metric and not metric traits

    JOSÉ A. COCILOVO; HÉCTOR H. VARELA; SILVIA QUEVEDO; VIVIAN STANDEN; MARÍA A. COSTA-JUNQUEIRA

    2004-01-01

    La determinación de la unidad o diversidad de los grupos humanos arcaicos constituye un paso importante para comprender el poblamiento antiguo de la costa norte de Chile e inferir los factores microevolutivos que operaron en el pasado. En el presente trabajo se evalúan las diferencias morfológicas entre distintas muestras del Período Arcaico Tardío de la costa de Arica y Norte Semiárido. Para ello, se empleó la información derivada del relevamiento de rasgos métricos (177 individuos no deform...

  18. New superfield extension of Boussinesq and its (x, t) interchanged equation from odd Poisson Bracket

    A new superfield extension of the Boussinesq equation and its corresponding (x, t) interchanged variant are deduced from the odd Poisson-Bracket-formalism, which is similar to the antibracket of Batalin and Vilkovisky. In the former case we obtain the equation deduced by Figueroa-O'Farrill et al. from a different approach. In each case we have deduced the bi-Hamiltonian structure and some basic symmetries associated with them. (orig.)

  19. Improvements to the on-line mass separator, RAMA, and the beta-delayed charged-particle emission of proton-rich sd shell nuclei

    Ognibene, T.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

    1996-03-01

    To overcome the extreme difficulties encountered in the experimental decay studies of proton drip line nuclei, several techniques have been utilized, including a helium-jet transport system, particle identification detectors and mass separation. Improvements to the ion source/extraction region of the He-jet coupled on-line Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) and its target/ion source coupling resulted in significant increases in RAMA efficiencies and its mass resolution, as well as reductions in the overall transit time. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, the decays of {sup 31}Cl, {sup 27}P and {sup 28}P, with half-lives of 150 msec, 260 msec and 270.3 msec, respectively, were examined using a he-jet and low-energy gas {Delta}E-gas {Delta}E-silicon E detector telescopes. Total beta-delayed proton branches of 0.3% and 0.07% in {sup 31}Cl and {sub 27}P, respectively, were estimated. Several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to the decay of {sup 31}Cl were shown to be from the decay of {sup 25}Si. In {sup 27}P, two proton groups at 459 {+-} 14 keV and 610 {+-} 11 keV, with intensities of 7 {+-} 3% and 92 {+-} 4% relative to the main (100%) group were discovered. The Gamow-Teller component of the preceding beta-decay of each observed proton transition was compared to results from shell model calculations. Finally, a new proton transition was identified, following the {beta}-decay of {sup 28}P, at 1,444 {+-} 12 keV with a 1.7 {+-} 0.5% relative intensity to the 100% group. Using similar low-energy detector telescopes and the mass separator TISOL at TRIUMF, the 109 msec and 173 msec activities, {sup 17}Ne and {sup 33}Ar, were studied. A new proton group with energy 729 {+-} 15 keV was observed following the beta-decay of {sup 17}Ne. Several discrepancies between earlier works as to the energies, intensities and assignments of several proton transitions from {sup 17}Ne and {sup 33}Ar were resolved.

  20. Improvements to the on-line mass separator, RAMA, and the beta-delayed charged-particle emission of proton-rich sd shell nuclei

    To overcome the extreme difficulties encountered in the experimental decay studies of proton drip line nuclei, several techniques have been utilized, including a helium-jet transport system, particle identification detectors and mass separation. Improvements to the ion source/extraction region of the He-jet coupled on-line Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) and its target/ion source coupling resulted in significant increases in RAMA efficiencies and its mass resolution, as well as reductions in the overall transit time. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, the decays of 31Cl, 27P and 28P, with half-lives of 150 msec, 260 msec and 270.3 msec, respectively, were examined using a he-jet and low-energy gas ΔE-gas ΔE-silicon E detector telescopes. Total beta-delayed proton branches of 0.3% and 0.07% in 31Cl and 27P, respectively, were estimated. Several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to the decay of 31Cl were shown to be from the decay of 25Si. In 27P, two proton groups at 459 ± 14 keV and 610 ± 11 keV, with intensities of 7 ± 3% and 92 ± 4% relative to the main (100%) group were discovered. The Gamow-Teller component of the preceding beta-decay of each observed proton transition was compared to results from shell model calculations. Finally, a new proton transition was identified, following the β-decay of 28P, at 1,444 ± 12 keV with a 1.7 ± 0.5% relative intensity to the 100% group. Using similar low-energy detector telescopes and the mass separator TISOL at TRIUMF, the 109 msec and 173 msec activities, 17Ne and 33Ar, were studied. A new proton group with energy 729 ± 15 keV was observed following the beta-decay of 17Ne. Several discrepancies between earlier works as to the energies, intensities and assignments of several proton transitions from 17Ne and 33Ar were resolved

  1. Electronic tunneling currents at optical frequencies

    Faris, S. M.; Fan, B.; Gustafson, T. K.

    1975-01-01

    Rectification characteristics of nonsuperconducting metal-barrier-metal junctions as deduced from electronic tunneling theory have been observed experimentally for optical frequency irradiation of the junction.

  2. AcEST: BP917139 [AcEST

    Full Text Available tein S2 OS=Pseudomonas syri... 30 3.7 sp|A1AXW9|RS2_RUTMC 30S ribosomal protein S2 OS=Ruthia magnifica... 30...G +I +++H+ Sbjct: 10 LKAGCHFGHQTR------YWNPKMGKYIFGARNKIHI 40 >sp|A1AXW9|RS2_RUTMC 30S ribosomal protein S2

  3. Lean body mass and muscle function in head and neck cancer patients and healthy individuals - results from the DAHANCA 25 study

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne; Johansen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Overgaard, Jens; Overgaard, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    m max gait speed, 30 s chair rise, 30 s arm curl, stair climb) from HNSCC patients from the DAHANCA 25 trials and data from 24 healthy individuals were included. Results. Lean body mass and maximal muscle strength were significantly associated according to the gender and age-adjusted linear...

  4. Effects of Early and Late Rest Intervals on Performance and Overnight Consolidation of a Keyboard Sequence

    Cash, Carla Davis

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-six nonmusicians practiced a five-element key-press sequence on a digital piano, repeating the sequence as quickly and accurately as possible during twelve 30-s practice blocks alternating with 30-s pauses. Twelve learners rested for 5 min between Blocks 3 and 4, another 12 learners rested for 5 min between Blocks 9 and 10, and the…

  5. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  6. 一种新型不对称三足四胺席夫碱锌(Ⅱ)配合物的合成、结构及杀菌性能研究%Synthesis,Crystal Structure and Biocidal Study of a New Schiff-base Zn (Ⅱ) Complex Derived from Asymmetrical Tripodal Tetraamine

    高健; 陈军; 许兴友; 李树安; 杨绪杰; 陆路德; 汪信

    2004-01-01

    A new tripodal complex [ZnL](ClO4)2 (C26H31Cl2N7O8Zn) was synthesized by Schiff base condensation of 2-aminoethyl-bi (3-aminopropyl)amine with 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde in the presence of Zn2+ and characterized by Xray diffraction and ES mass spectral analysis. It crystallized in the Monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a=1.088 5(4) nm, b=1.614 6(6) nm, c=1.783 0(5) nm,β=94.405(2)°. Z=4, R1=0.092 9, wR2=0.175 8. Zn atom rendered six-coordinate in a trigonal antiprism geometry. The complex was valued for its antimicrobial activity against bacterial strands using the agar diffusion method. It was found to be active against the four test bacterial organisms.

  7. AcEST: BP917731 [AcEST

    Full Text Available YMU001_000104_G01 113 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000104_G01. BP9177...31 CL2673Contig1 Show BP917731 Clone id YMU001_000104_G01 Library YMU01 Length 113 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000104_G01. Accession BP917731 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9177...ration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP917731|Adiantum capill

  8. Freeze out temperature on light projectile induced reaction

    Murata, J. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Haga, M.; Haseno, M. [and others

    1997-05-01

    Nuclear temperature was deduced for 12GeV proton induced target multi-fragmentation reactions on Au, Tm, Sm, Ag targets. Using isotope yield ratios, clear target mass dependence was obtained for high-multiplicity events. Deduced temperatures for light targets have higher value than those for heavy targets. (author)

  9. Materials for District Heating Pipes

    Nielsen, Lars Valentin

    A model for the thermal conductivity of closed cell polyurethane foam is deduced for foams with density lower than 120 kg/m3.......A model for the thermal conductivity of closed cell polyurethane foam is deduced for foams with density lower than 120 kg/m3....

  10. Light-particle emission from the fissioning nuclei sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 Ba, sup 1 sup 8 sup 8 Pt and sup 2 sup 6 sup 6 sup , sup 2 sup 7 sup 2 sup , sup 2 sup 7 sup 8 110: theoretical predictions and experimental results 24.75.+i; 25.85.-w; 25.60.Pj; 25.70.-z; Nuclear reactions 98Mo(28Si ,X) , E=166,187,204 MeV; 107Ag(19F ,X) , E=128,148 MeV; 154Sm(34S ,X) , E=160,203 MeV; 172Yb(16O ,X) , E=138 MeV; 208Pb(58Ni ,X) , (64Ni ,X) , 232Th(40Ca ,X) , 238U(40Ar ,X) , E=66 -186 MeV; Calculated fusion, fission sigma(L) , prefission particle multiplicities; Deduced entrance channel effects; Comparisons with data

    Pomorski, K; Surowiec, A; Kowal, M; Bartel, J; Dietrich, K G; Richert, J; Schmitt, C; Benoit, B; De Goes-Brennard, E; Donadille, L; Badimon, C

    2000-01-01

    We present a comparison of our model treating fission dynamics in conjunction with light-particle ( n,p,alpha ) evaporation with the available experimental data for the nuclei sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 Ba, sup 1 sup 8 sup 8 Pt and three isotopes of the element Z=110 . The dynamics of the symmetric fission process is described through the solution of a classical Langevin equation for a single collective variable characterizing the nuclear deformation along the fission path. A microscopic approach is used to evaluate the emission rates for prefission light particles. Entrance-channel effects are taken into account by generating an initial spin distribution of the compound nucleus formed by the fusion of two deformed nuclei with different relative orientations.

  11. Research on the stability, controllability and observability for fractional order LTI systems

    WANG Zhen-bin; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2006-01-01

    The state space representations of fractional order linear time-invariant (LTI ) systems are introduced, and their solution formulas are deduced by means of Laplace transform. The stability condition of fractional order LTI systems is given, and its proof is deduced by means of using linear non-singularity transform and the derivative property of Mittag-Leffler function. The controllability condition of fractional order LTI systems is given, and its proof is deduced by means of using its characteristic polynomial and the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. The observability condition of fractional order LTI systems is given, and its proof is deduced by means of their solution formulas. Finally an example is given to prove the correctness of the stability, controllability, and observability conditions mentioned above. s are deduced by means of Laplace transform. Their stability, controllability and observability conditions are given as well as their proofs.

  12. Reliability of Arm Curl and Chair Stand tests for assessing muscular endurance in older people

    Boneth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the test-retest reliability and level of agreement between measures of the 30 second (30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test in a sample of older adults from Bucaramanga. Materials and methods: a study of evaluation of diagnostic technology was done. Both tests were administered by the same evaluator to 111 adults older than 59 year-old (70,4 ± 7,3, on two occasions, with an interval of time between measures of 4 to 8 days. In the analysis, test-retest reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC= 2,1 with their confidence interval 95% (CI 95% respective. The agreement level was established by the Bland and Altman method. Results: the test-retest reproducibility of the 30-s Arm Curl test was very good ICC= 0,88 and to the Chair Stand test was good ICC= 0,78. The agreement was very good for both tests of muscle endurance. The CI 95% were between -3,8 and 3,2 stands to 30-s Chair Stand test and between -3,1 and 2,8 curls to 30-s Arm Curl test. Conclusion: the 30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test have good reliability and agreement to assess muscle endurance in older adults functionally independent.

  13. AcEST: DK949829 [AcEST

    Full Text Available OS=Brucella canis (... 24 5.3 sp|Q57CX7|RS2_BRUAB 30S ribosomal protein S2 OS=Brucella abortus... 24 5.3 sp|...Q2YRJ1|RS2_BRUA2 30S ribosomal protein S2 OS=Brucella abortus... 24 5.3 sp|O67809|RS2_AQUAE 30S ribosomal pr...QTVPLLHQALKLVSDTVA 64 >sp|Q6FZN0|RS2_BARQU 30S ribosomal protein S2 OS=Bartonella quintana GN=rpsB PE=3 SV=1 Length = 257 Scor...somal protein S2 OS=Bartonella tribo... 25 2.5 sp|Q6FZN0|RS2_BARQU 30S ribosomal protein S2 OS=Barto...sp|Q6G5C9|RS2_BARHE 30S ribosomal protein S2 OS=Bartonella hense... 25 6.7 sp|A7HMF2|RS2_FERNB 30S ribosomal

  14. Declining Trends in Blood Pressure Levels and Prevalence of Hypertention in Atomic Bomb Survivors in Nagasaki, Japan, 1971-1991

    Honda, Y; Nakashima, H; Katayama, T

    1994-01-01

    The annual trends in blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension classified by JNC-5 were investigated. This survey was conducted retrospectively in a large cohort of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (78, 323 persons in 1971) over 20 years. In the age-sex specific groups from the 30's to the 90's, the levels of mean SBP decreased in the latter 10 years compared to the former 10 years except in males in the 30's and the mean DBP decreased except in both sexes in the 30's. The annual tre...

  15. AcEST: DK961581 [AcEST

    Full Text Available 81 Tissue type prothallia with plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sp...Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST39A01NGRL0010_I11, 5' (601 letters) Datab.... Query= DK961581|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST39A01NGRL0010_I11, 5' (601 letters) Datab...sp|Q1XDD6|RRP3_PORYE Probable 30S ribosomal protein 3, chloropla... 100 1e-20 sp|P51351|RRP3_PORPU Probable ...30S ribosomal protein 3, chloropla... 100 1e-20 sp|Q5N172|RRP3_SYNP6 Probable 30S

  16. New procedure calculation of photon-induced Kβ/Kα intensity ratios for elements 16S to 92U

    A. Kahoul

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the measured Kβ/Kα intensity ratio values published in the literature from 1980 to 2011 have been reported. The weighted- and unweighted-mean values of the experimental data were fitted by the analytical function to deduce new semiempirical and empirical intensity ratios in the atomic range of 16 ≤ Z ≤ 92. The semi-empirical intensity ratios were then deduced by fitting the experimental data normalized to their corresponding theoretical values and the experimental data were directly fitted to deduce the empirical ones. The results were compared with the other theoretical and experimental values reported in the literature.

  17. Stability analysis of dynamic thin shells

    Lobo, F S N; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Crawford, Paulo

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the stability of generic spherically symmetric thin shells to linearized perturbations around static solutions. We include the momentum flux term in the conservation identity, deduced from the ''ADM'' constraint and the Lanczos equations. Following the Ishak-Lake analysis, we deduce a master equation which dictates the stable equilibrium configurations. Considering the transparency condition, we study the stability of thin shells around black holes, showing that our analysis is in agreement with previous results. Applying the analysis to traversable wormhole geometries, by considering specific choices for the form function, we deduce stability regions, and find that the latter may be significantly increased by considering appropriate choices for the redshift function.

  18. Lie symmetry and its generation of conserved quantity of Appell equation in a dynamical system of the relative motion with Chetaev-type nonholonomic constraints

    Wang Xiao-Xiao; Han Yue-Lin; Zhang Mei-Ling; Jia Li-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Lie symmetry and conserved quantity deduced from Lie symmetry of Appell equations in a dynamical system of relative motion with Chetaev-type nonholonomic constraints are studied.The differential equations of motion of the Appell equation for the system,the definition and criterion of Lie symmetry,the condition and the expression of generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced from Lie symmetry for the system are obtained.The condition and the expression of Hojman conserved quantity deduced from special Lie symmetry for the system under invariable time are further obtained.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  19. Hydrometric stations of Comacchio wetland: Hydrological data from January 1 1992 until December 31 1993

    This report presents the results of the first processing of the data recorded hourly in 1992-93 by ten hydrometric stations of the Comacchio wetland (Italy) within the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) project for the integrated study of it. It can be deduced that the Comacchio wetland hydraulic management calendar for this period is similar to the ones deduced from the processing of the data registrated in the previous years. On this basis the water budget on one year and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the wetland deduced from the data registrated until march 1992 have remained basically the same also in the monitoring period considered here

  20. Stability analysis of dynamic thin shells

    We analyse the stability of generic spherically symmetric thin shells to linearized perturbations around static solutions. We include the momentum flux term in the conservation identity, deduced from the 'ADM' constraint and the Lanczos equations. Following the Ishak-Lake analysis, we deduce a master equation which dictates the stable equilibrium configurations. Considering the transparency condition, we study the stability of thin shells around black holes, showing that our analysis is in agreement with previous results. Applying the analysis to traversable wormhole geometries, by considering specific choices for the form function, we deduce stability regions and find that the latter may be significantly increased by considering appropriate choices for the redshift function