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Sample records for 3075ma ocelli-hosting pillow

  1. Field and geochemical characterisitics of the Mesoarchean (~3075 ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland: Evidence for seafloor hydrothermal alteration in a supra-subduction oceanic crust

    Polat, A.; Appel, P.W.U.; Frei, Robert;

    2006-01-01

    The Mesoarchean (ca. 3075 Ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt in southern West Greenland includes variably deformed and metamorphosed pillow basalts, ultramafic flows (picrites), serpentinized ultramafic rocks, gabbros, sulphide-rich siliceous layers, and minor siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. Primary......-enriched, near-flat HREE, and HFSE (especially Nb)-depleted trace element patterns, indicating a subduction zone geochemical signature. Ultramafic pillows and cumulates display large positive initial eNd values of + 1.3 to + 5.0, consistent with a strongly depleted mantle source. Given the geological...

  2. Home-Grown Toys: The Learning Pillows.

    Kronheim, Jane K.

    1985-01-01

    A tactile toy for visually impaired children, the "learning pillow" combines a written text (story or poem) with a page-size pillow that has tactile images related to the text. Exploration of the pillow in conjunction with hearing the text stimulates a number of learning experiences. (Author/CL)

  3. Pillow seal system at the BigRIPS separator

    Highlights: • Pillow seal system has been installed for a high-intensity RI-beam facility at RIKEN. • It is aimed at facilitating remote maintenance under high residual radiation. • Local radiation shields are integrated with one of the pillow seals. • Pillow seals have been aligned to the beam axis within 1mm accuracy. • A leakage rate of 10–9 Pa m3/s has been achieved with our pillow seal system. -- Abstract: We have designed and installed a pillow seal system for the BigRIPS fragment separator at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) to facilitate remote maintenance in a radioactive environment. The pillow seal system is a device to connect a vacuum chamber and a beam tube. It allows quick attachment and detachment of vacuum connections in the BigRIPS separator and consists of a double diaphragm with a differential pumping system. The leakage rate achieved with this system is as low as 10–9 Pa m3/s. We have also designed and installed a local radiation-shielding system, integrated with the pillow seal system, to protect the superconducting magnets and to reduce the heat load on the cryogenic system. We present an overview of the pillow seal and the local shielding systems

  4. Pillow seal system at the BigRIPS separator

    Tanaka, K.; Inabe, N.; Yoshida, K.; Kusaka, K.; Kubo, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have designed and installed a pillow seal system for the BigRIPS fragment separator at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) to facilitate remote maintenance in a radioactive environment. The pillow seal system is a device to connect a vacuum chamber and a beam tube. It allows quick attachment and detachment of vacuum connections in the BigRIPS separator and consists of a double diaphragm with a differential pumping system. The leakage rate achieved with this system is as low as 10-9 Pa m3/s. We have also designed and installed a local radiation-shielding system, integrated with the pillow seal system, to protect the superconducting magnets and to reduce the heat load on the cryogenic system. We present an overview of the pillow seal and the local shielding systems.

  5. Evaluation of radiation exposure from a consumer product. A pillow

    Radiation exposure from a pillow was analyzed. According to an advertisement of the pillow, this radioactive consumer product contains enough amounts of radioactive materials to induce radiation hormesis effects. The pillow consists of the filling chips made from kneading mineral ores and the polynosic linings contains natural radioactive ores. A γ-ray analysis of the pillow using pure Ge-MCA reveals that there exist radioactivities of thorium and uranium series mixtures in it at concentration of 0.58% by the weight. The observations of a chip surface by a scanning electron microscope show that the shapes of two sides are different each other. There are lots of sharp protuberances on the outside of the chip. To determine the direct external exposures from the pillow, film badges were placed on the pillow for 210 h and 2555 h. The dose equivalents of 210 h exposure was under 0.1 mSv which is a detection limit of a γ-ray by the film badges. However, that of 2555 h exposure was over 0.1 mSv less than 0.15 mSv. Quantities of internal exposures from inhalation of the vaporized Rn were measured by a Lucas Cell. It was 79 Bq/m3. There is no necessity for anxious about being broken in health inhaling the Rn-gass. (author)

  6. A randomized, comparative trial: does pillow type alter cervico-thoracic spinal posture when side lying?

    Gordon SJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Susan J Gordon1, Karen A Grimmer-Somers2, Patricia H Trott31School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Science, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD; 2Centre for Allied Health Sciences, 3School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: Many patients ask for advice about choosing a pillow. This research was undertaken to determine if pillow type alters cervico-thoracic spine position when resting in the side-lying position.Aim: To investigate the effect of different pillow shape and content on the slope of cervico-thoracic spine segments when side lying.Materials and methods: The study was a randomized blinded comparative trial set in a laboratory that replicated a bedroom. The subjects were side sleepers aged over 18 years. Exclusion criteria were history of surgery to the cervico-thoracic spine, an injury or accident to the cervico-thoracic spine in the preceding year, or currently receiving treatment for neck symptoms. Each participant rested in a standardized side-lying position for 10 minutes on each of the trial pillows: regular shaped polyester, foam, feather, and latex pillows, and a contour shaped foam pillow. Reflective markers were placed on external occipital protuberance (EOP, C2, C4, C7, and T3, and digital images were recorded of subjects at 0 and 10 minutes on each pillow. Images were digitized using each reflective marker and the slope of each spinal segment calculated. Univariate analysis of variance models were used to investigate slope differences between pillows at 0 and 10 minutes. Significance was established at P < 0.01 to take account of chance effects from repeated measures and multiple comparisons.Results: At 0 and 10 minutes, the EOP-C2, C2-C4, and C4-C7 segmental slopes were significantly different across all pillows. Significant differences were identified when comparing the feather pillow with the latex, regular and contour foam pillows, and when

  7. Argon-40: Excess in submarine pillow basalts from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Brent, Dalrymple G.; Moore, J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Submarine pillow basalts from Kilauea Volcano contain excess radiogenic argon-40 and give anomalously high potassium-argon ages. Glassy rims of pillows show a systematic increase in radiogenic argon-40 with depth, and a pillow from a depth of 2590 meters shows a decrease in radiogenic argon-40 inward from the pillow rim. The data indicate that the amount of excess radiogenic argon-40 is a direct function of both hydrostatic pressure and rate of cooling, and that many submarine basalts are not suitable for potassium-argon dating.

  8. Petrogenesis of pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan

    Liu, Chih-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen

    2016-04-01

    The pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan have been inferred to bear Dupal signautres based on their Th/Ce ratio, linking the Baolai basalts to the South China Sea (SCS) seamounts that are characterized by Dupal Pb isotope signatures (Smith and Lewis, 2007). In this study, thirty-two Baolai basalt samples were analyzed for abundances of major and trace elements as well as Pb and Nd isotope ratios to verify their Dupal characters and to constrain their petrogenesis significance. The Baolai basalts contain 4-10 % L.O.I.. Three stages of alteration are inferred from plots of L.O.I. abundance versus concentrations major oxides as well as mineral textures and compositions. The first alteration stage was characterized by albitization that converted Ca-rich plagioclase to albite. The second alteration stage was dominated by chloritization of olivine and augite, resulting in increases in L.O.I. abundance. The last alteration stage is represented by formation of secondary calcite in vesicles and cracks. These alteration processes reflect interaction with seawater and apparently did not affect the magmatic Pb isotope composition for the low Pb concentration in seawater. Relative to the North Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL), the Baolai pillow basalts have higher 208Pb/204Pb ratios at a given 206Pb/204Pb value, showing Dupal anomaly. For their relatively higher 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the Baolai basalts are distinct from majority of the Cenozoic basalts in the Hainan-Leizhou peninsula, the Indochina peninsula, and the SCS seamounts, for which derivation from the Hainan mantle plume has been recently proposed (Wang et al., 2013). In contrast, the Baolai basalts and the Cenozoic basalts from eastern Guangdong at southeastern China have similar Pb and Nd isotope compositions, indicating derivation from similar mantle sources. However, the Baolai basalts have lower abundance ratios of Zr/Hf (40.3-45.6 versus 46.5-50.5), La/Yb (12

  9. Crop and Substrate Tests with Single Use Rooting "Pillows" for the VEGGIE Plant Growth Hardware

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Caro, Janicce; Stutte, Gary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    VEGGIE is a small plant production chamber built by ORBITEC. This chamber can be collapsed for easy stowage and deployed in orbit. It is designed for gravity independent operation, and provides 0.17 square m of crop growth area with three primary subsystems: an LED light panel, extendable transparent Teflon bellows to enclose the plants, and a wicking reservoir. VEGGIE would provide the capability for astronauts to grow fresh foods for dietary supplementation. Initial planting concepts tested with the VEGGIE included direct seeding or plug placement on the reservoir surface. These options had issues of salt accumulation and eventual toxicity if the reservoir was filled with nutrient solution, and hardware reuse was limited due to sanitation. In response a rooting packet or "pillow" concept was developed: single-use bags of media containing time release fertilizer with a wicking surface contacting the VEGGIE reservoir. Pillows being tested are small electrostatic bags with a Nitex nylon mesh side, each holding 100 mL of dry media. Six pillows fit in one VEGGIE unit; however pillow size could vary depending on crop selected. Seeds can be planted directly in pillows and planted pillows can be hydrated in space as desired. Our goals were to define optimal media and crops for an ISS mission scenario. Plant tests in pillows were performed in a controlled environment chamber set to habitat-relevant conditions, and capillary reservoir analogs were utilized. Media tested within pillows included: a commercial peat-based potting mix, arcillite (calcined clay), perlite: vermiculite, and peat-based: arcillite blends. Testing included 15 types of leafy greens, snow pea, radish, and herbs. Media performance was crop dependent, but generally plants showed the greatest growth in the peat-based: arcillite mixes. Crops with the best performance in pillows were identified, and testing is underway with select leafy greens examining plant and microbial load response to repeated harvest

  10. Analysis of the pulmonary functions of normal adults according to pillow height.

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine changes in pulmonary functions in relation to the sleeping positions of the experimental subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects for this study were twenty randomly selected males and females from K University. Measurements were taken in the supine position at three different pillow heights: 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm. Pulmonary functions (vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume) were evaluated using a Fit mate. [Results] These findings suggest that a pillow height of 5 cm makes a significant difference in vital capacity (VC). When the three pillow heights were compared, significant differences were seen between 0 cm and 5 cm, and between 5 cm and 10 cm, in terms of vital capacity for the pulmonary functions among the three positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, changing the positions of the subjects produces changes in pulmonary functions. The greatest change occurred in the 5 cm pillow height. Presumably, ventilation is affected by the body structures. The results will provide objective data to establish the most suitable positions for stroke patients when they perform respiratory exercises. PMID:26644649

  11. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of H...

  12. [Sensitisation to 'poffertjes' as a result of sleeping on a pillow containing buckwheat].

    van Ginkel, C J W

    2002-03-30

    A 19-year-old man suffered an anaphylactic reaction after eating 'poffertjes' (small Dutch pancakes). This reaction appeared to be the result of an IgE-mediated allergy to buckwheat, a principal ingredient of 'poffertjes'. It is highly likely that the patient was sensitised by sleeping on a pillow stuffed with buckwheat husk. PMID:11957384

  13. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean.

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars. PMID:21875356

  14. Analysis of the pulmonary functions of normal adults according to pillow height

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, Misuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine changes in pulmonary functions in relation to the sleeping positions of the experimental subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects for this study were twenty randomly selected males and females from K University. Measurements were taken in the supine position at three different pillow heights: 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm. Pulmonary functions (vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume) were evaluated ...

  15. A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased anesthesiologist discomfort compared to a pillow of 4 cm height during tracheal intubation in adult patients

    Hong, Hyo Ju; Kim, Sung Hoon; Hwang, Jung Won; Lee, Hyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck flexion by head elevation using an 8 to 10 cm thick pillow and head extension has been suggested to align the laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axis and facilitate tracheal intubation. Presently, the laryngeal view and discomfort for tracheal intubation were evaluated according to two different degrees of head elevation in adult patients. Methods This prospective randomized, controlled study included 50 adult patients aged 18 to 90 years. After induction of anesthesia, the Cormack Lehane grade was evaluated in 25 patients using a direct laryngoscope while the patient's head was elevated with a 4 cm pillow (4 cm group) and then an 8 cm pillow (8 cm group). In the other 25 patients, the grades were evaluated in the opposite sequence and tracheal intubation was performed. The success rate and anesthesiologist's discomfort score for tracheal intubation, and laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were assessed. Results There were no differences in the laryngeal view and success rate for tracheal intubation between the two groups. The discomfort score during tracheal intubation was higher in the 8 cm group when the patient's head was elevated 4 cm first and then 8 cm. The alignment of laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were not different between the two degrees of head elevation. Conclusions A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased the anesthesiologist discomfort, compared to a pillow of 4 cm height, during tracheal intubation in adult patients. PMID:27066204

  16. Media Effects on Lettuce Growth in "Pillows" Designed for the VEGGIE Spaceflight Growth Chamber

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; McCoy, LaShelle; Stutte, Gary; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    VEGGIE is a prototype vegetable production unit for space designed by Orbital Technologies Corporation that is being developed to fly on the International Space Station. A modular plant rooting system "pillow" is being designed to support plant growth in VEGGIE under microgravity conditions. VEGGIE pillows are small self-contained packets of media with time-release fertilizer that can wick water passively from a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in pillows and the entire root system of a plant is contained as the crop develops, preventing loss into the spacecraft cabin. This study compared five media types and three lettuce cultivars in pillows growing in a VEGGIE analog environment.. Media consisted of a peat-based potting mix (Fafard #2,Conrad Fafard Inc., Agawam, MA), and a calcined clay, (arcillite, 1-2 mm sifted, Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove IL) as well as three different blends of the two, 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70. Lettuce cultivars tested were 'Sierra', a bi-colored French crisp Batavia lettuce, 'Outredgeous', a red romaine lettuce and 'Flandria', a green butter head variety. Plants were grown for 28 days, harvested, biometric data was obtained, and tissue mineral analysis was performed. For all cultivars, lettuce plants grown in the media blends were more productive than those in the individual media types. All cultivars showed bell-shaped curves in response to increases in arcillite / decreases in Fafard #2 for leaf area, fresh, and dry mass. Plants in 100% Fafard #2 and in 100% arcillite were stunted, but only those in higher levels of Fafard #2 (70% and 100%) had reduced shoot percent moisture, possibly indicating that mechanisms causing stunting differed. Variation in tissue nutrient content are consistent with this, with Mg and Mn highest in plants grown in 100% Fafard and decreasing as the concentration of arcillite increased. Color also varied with media, especially in the 'Sierra' lettuce, with plants grown in increasing levels

  17. Nasal pillows as an alternative interface in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome initiating continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    Side-effects directly due to the nasal mask are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) commencing continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Recently, nasal pillows have been designed to overcome these issues. Limited evidence exists of the benefits and effectiveness of these devices. Twenty-one patients (19 male, 49+\\/-10years) with the established diagnosis of OSAS [apnoea\\/hypopnoea index (AHI): 52+\\/-22] and who had a successful CPAP titration were commenced on CPAP therapy (10+\\/-2cmH2O), and randomized to 4weeks of a nasal pillow (P) and a standard nasal mask (M) in a crossover design. Outcome measures were objective compliance, AHI, quality of life, Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) and CPAP side-effects. There was no difference in compliance (M versus P: 5.1+\\/-1.9h versus 5.0+\\/-1.7h; P=0.701) and AHI (2.6+\\/-2.7 versus 3.0+\\/-2.9; P=0.509). Quality of life and ESS improved with CPAP, but there was no difference in the extent of improvement between both devices. Usage of nasal pillows resulted in less reported pressure on the face and more subjects found the nasal pillow the more comfortable device. However, there was no clear overall preference for either device at the end of the study (mask=57%, pillow=43%; P=0.513). The applied CPAP pressure did not correlate with compliance, AHI and ESS. Furthermore, no differences in outcome parameters were noted comparing groups with CPAP pressure <10 and >\\/=10cm H(2) O. Nasal pillows are equally effective in CPAP therapy, but do not generally lead to improved compliance.

  18. U-series dating of pillow rim glass from recent volcanism at an Axial Volcanic Ridge

    Thomas, L. E.; van Calsteren, P. W.; Jc024 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    Visual observations using camera systems on the tethered ROV Isis deployed during the 2008 JC024 cruise to the Mid Atlantic Ridge at 45°N showed1 numerous monogenetic volcanoes that are essentially piles of lava pillows. The pillows are usually ˜1m diameter and >2m long and form mounds with average dimensions around 300m diameter, ˜150m altitude, and 0.005km3 volume. Small protrusions, 10-50cm long, which are numerous on pillows appear to be the youngest regions, were sampled using the pincers on the hydraulic arms of Isis, and returned to the surface. On the surface, any glass crust on the pillow protrusions was chiselled off using clean tools and double bagged in polythene. In the laboratory a portion of the glass was crushed in a jeweller’s roller mill and sieved using stainless steel sieves to obtain a sufficient amount of the fraction 0.125-0.250mm for hand picking, using a binocular microscope with the glass submerged in a mix of water and iso-propyl alcohol. The samples were subsequently leached using the procedure of Standish & Sims2. Samples were spiked with a mixed 229Th-236U spike and the U, Th and Ra fractions were separated and purified using standard chemistry methods. U and Th isotope ratios were determined using a Nu Instruments MC-ICPMS and Ra isotope ratios were determined using a MAT-262-RPQII TIMS instrument. The U-series data were evaluated using a MathCad program based on published4,5,6 equations. The data can be successfully modelled by assuming the ‘accepted’ mantle upwelling rate for the region of 11mm.y-1. The U-Th characteristics are mostly derived during ‘porous flow’ magma upwelling in the garnet stability zone, ranging to a depth of 60km with incipient melting starting at 70km. Above 60km depth the melt fraction will be >3% and the mantle mineralogy devoid of phases that fractionate U-Th significantly. Moreover, at melt fractions >3%, channel flow will be dominant and magma will transit to eruption on time-scales that are

  19. Reconstruction of seawater chemistry from deeply subducted oceanic crust; hydrogen and oxygen isotope of lawsonite eclogites preserving pillow structure

    Hamabata, D., VI; Masuyama, Y.; Tomiyasu, F.; Ueno, Y.; Yui, T. F.; Okamoto, K.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand evolution of life, change of seawater chemistry from Hadean, Archean to present is significant. Pillow structure is well-preserved in the Archean greenstone belt (e.g. Komiya et al., 1999). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope of rims in the pillow is useful conventional tool to decipher chemistry of Paleao-seawater from Archean to Present. However, Archean greenstone belt suffered regional metamorphism from greenschist to Amphibolite facies conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to testify the validity of pillow chemistry from recent (Phanerozoic) metamorphosed greenstone. We have systematically collected pillowed greenstone from blueschist and eclogites. Two eclogite exhibiting pillow structures were chosen for oxygen and hydrogen isotope analysis. One is from Corsica (lawsonite eclogite collected with Dr. Alberto Vidale Barbarone) and another is from Cazadero, Franciscan belt (collected by Dr. Tatsuki Tsujimori). The both are ascribed as MORB from major and trace bulk chemistry and Ca is rich in the core and Na is poor in the rims. The former exhibits garnet, omphacite, lawsonite, and glacophane. Phengite is in core of the pillow and chlorite is in the rims. In the latter, besides garnet, omphacite, epdiote and glaucophane, chlorite is recognized with phengite in the core. Glaucophane is richer in the rims from the both samples, therefore istope analysis of glaucophane was done. Mineral separation was carefully done using micro-mill, heavy liquid and isodynamic separator. 20 mg specimens were used for oxygen isotope analysis and 2mg were for hydrogen analysis. δ18O of the all analysis (7.7 to 8.3) is within the range of unaltered igneous oceanic crust and high temperature hydrothermal alteration although rims (8.3 for Franciscan and 8.0 for Corsica) are higher than cores (7.7 for Franciscan and Corsica). δD data is also consistent with hydrothermal alteration. It is relative higher in core from the Corsica and Franciscan (-45 and -56) than of the

  20. Mimo pillow--an intelligent cushion designed with maternal heart beat vibrations for comforting newborn infants.

    Chen, Wei; Oetomo, Sidarto Bambang; Tetteroo, Daniel; Versteegh, Frank; Mamagkaki, Thelxi; Pereira, Mariana Serras; Janssen, Lindy; van Meurs, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Premature infants are subject to numerous interventions ranging from a simple diaper change to surgery while residing in neonatal intensive care units. These neonates often suffer from pain, distress, and discomfort during the first weeks of their lives. Although pharmacological pain treatment often is available, it cannot always be applied to relieve a neonate from pain or discomfort. This paper describes a nonpharmacological solution, called Mimo, which provides comfort through mediation of a parent's physiological features to the distressed neonate via an intelligent pillow system embedded with sensing and actuating functions. We present the design, the implementation, and the evaluation of the prototype. Clinical tests at Máxima Medical Center in the Netherlands show that among the nine of ten infants who showed discomfort following diaper change, a shorter recovery time to baseline skin conductance analgesimeter values could be measured when the maternal heartbeat vibration in the Mimo was switched ON and in seven of these ten a shorter crying time was measured. PMID:25148673

  1. Geochemistry of pillow lavas and their clinopyroxene: ophiolitic mélanges of Nain and Ashin, northeastern Isfahan province

    Nargess Shirdashtzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nain and Ashin ophiolites are located in northeastern Isfahan province, in western Central-East Iranian Microplate. Pillow lavas are one of the most significant Cretaceous rock units. The lower partial melting degree in mantle peridotites of Ashin ophiolite, and the derived melt by melting their clinopyroxene caused a more basic (basalt and enriched nature for the Ashin pillow lavas, whereas higher partial melting degree and consequently incongruent melting of orthopyroxene and increment of silica in the ascending melt, together with aqueous fluids led to formation of more acidic (andesite – basaltic andesite and depleted melts (in trace elements in Nain ophiolite. The REE content of Nain samples have IAT chemical affinity, but the samples from Ashin show MORB characteristics. Based on petrograhic observations, lower Eu/Eu* of clinopyroxene phenocrystals of Ashin, calculated Kd of clinopyroxene together with HREE enrichment in the melt in equilibrium with clinopyroxene (especially in Ashin when compared with Nain, the plagioclase crystallization was primer and higher in comparison with clinopyroxene, especially in Ashin compared with Nain. The melt in equilibrium with clinopyroxene in Ashin was similar to MORB composition, whereas it is similar to IAT in Nain. Thus, despite the proximity of these two ophiolitic series and some field and petrographic similarities, pillow lavas from them are different from each other in both primary melt composition and the processes of differentiation and the tectonic setting.

  2. A positioning pillow to improve lumbar puncture success rate in paediatric haematology-oncology patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Kassaï Behrouz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar punctures (LPs are common in children with cancer. Although pain management during the lumbar puncture has been well standardized, dealing with stress and anxiety is not well addressed yet. Our objective was to evaluate the potential improvement of the LP success rate using a positioning pillow, to ensure maximum lumbar flexion, and allow paravertebral muscles to relax, in children who are awake, with either conscious sedation or no sedation. Methods Children aged 2–18 years undergoing LP were randomly assigned to a positioning pillow or no intervention. The primary outcome was the rate of success, i.e. achieving the LP (sampling or injection at the first attempt, without bleeding (RBC 3. The secondary outcomes included: the child's pain, assessed by a self-administered visual analogical scales (VAS for children over 6 years of age; the parents' and caregivers' perception of the child's pain; the satisfaction of the children, the parents, the caregivers and the physician. The child's cooperation and the occurrence of post-LP syndrome were also evaluated. Results 124 children (62 in each group were included. The LP pillow tended to increase the success rate of LPs (67% vs. 57%, p = 0.23, and decreased the post-LP syndromes (15% vs. 24%, p = 0.17 but the differences were not statistically significant. In children over 6-year of age (n = 72, the rate of success was significantly higher in the pillow group (58.5% vs. 41.5%, p = 0.031, with a tendency to feel less pain (median VAS 25 vs. 15 mm, p = 0.39 and being more satisfied (84.4% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.34. Conclusion Overall results do not demonstrate a benefit in using this pillow for lumbar punctures. This study results also suggest a benefit in the sub group of children over 6-year of age; this result needs confirmation. Trial Registration The trial was registered with Clinical Trials.gov (number NCT00775112.

  3. AMS radiocarbon dating of medieval textile relics: The frocks and the pillow of St. Francis of Assisi

    Since natural textiles usually originate from short-lived organisms, they can represent a useful material to date samples from historical periods with a good accuracy. In this work, we present a set of radiocarbon measurements on medieval textile relics: two woollen habits and a pillow traditionally associated with St. Francis of Assisi, the saint patron of Italy. The strategy in choosing samples for radiocarbon dating is first discussed and the procedures for measurements - performed at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of Laboratorio di Tecniche Nucleari per i Beni Culturali (LABEC), Florence - are described; AMS results for the two frocks showed that only one of them, presently kept in the church of St. Francis in Cortona, is compatible with the Saint's period of life, as is the pillow also kept in Cortona. Another frock attributed to St. Francis appears to date from at least 80 years after his death. However, the goal of these measurements was not a bare authentication/disconfirmation of the relics; they just represent an example of how scientific analysis can integrate with humanistic studies. Indeed, AMS results, combined with a thorough analysis of the textiles typologies, confirmed the historical hypotheses based on documentary studies and on tradition. The overall conclusions contributed to the decisions taken for conservation, and have as a whole enhanced the religious importance of the relics

  4. Pillow basalts of Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite: records of seafloor in the midwestern portion of Araguaia Belt

    Luciana de Jesus Penha Pamplona Miyagawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along the domain of low metamorphic grade (Midwestern portion of the Araguaia Belt, outcrop dozens mafic and/or ultramafic bodies of ophiolitic suites. An example is the Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite, in the surroundings of the city of Araguacema (Tocantins that configures a small isolated body that sustains the Morro do Agostinho and is tectonically emplaced in meta-sandstones, slates and phyllites of Couto Magalhães Formation (Tocantins Group. The Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite consists of serpentinized peridotites, basalts and ferriferous cherts. The association of basalts is characterized by a significant layer of submarine pillow lavas overlying serpentinized peridotites. The basalts were classified into massive and hialobasalts types. Massive basalts are homogenous, with intersertal texture that is essentially composed of thin laths and acicular crystals of plagioclase and clinopyroxene and present rare crystals of olivine, chalcocite and chalcopyrite. Hyalobasalt shows ultra-fast cooling features (quenching as spherulites, radial, acicular and skeletal crystals of plagioclase and clinopyroxene with forms of swallowtail. Geochemical data, including (La/Ybn and (La/Smn ratios less than 1, indicate a subalkaline-tholeiitic MORB nature of the basalts. These rocks show that during the geological evolution of Araguaia Belt, there was an oceanization stage of Araguaia Basin, with litospheric mantle’s exposure, followed by lava’s extravasation and sedimentation of cherts and banded iron formation in deep ocean environment. After sedimentary filling of the Couto Magalhães Formation (Tocantins Group, the tectonic inversion, which led to the exhumation of the ophiolitic bodies, especially along thrust surface, with fragmenting and tectonic mixing with supracrustal rocks, accompanied by regional metamorphism under conditions of low green schist facies. The Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite therefore represents a small allochthonous

  5. X-ray Analysis in Changes of Neck Pillow Height and Cervical Physiological Curvature%颈枕高度与颈椎生理曲度变化的X线分析

    曾科学; 盖娟娟; 罗凛; 刘文刚; 吴淮

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察颈枕高度的变化对颈椎生理曲度的影响。方法:从我院选取90例健康受试者,以随机方式分为舒适枕组、高枕组及低枕组各30例,均拍摄颈枕中立位侧位X线DR片,采用Bordens法测量颈椎曲度弧弦距,采用Ishihara法测量颈椎曲率指数(CCI),采用Gore法测量颈椎角(CSA),对测试结果进行统计分析。结果:舒适枕组颈椎X线均呈现生理性向前凸起状态,弧弦距均为正常范围;高枕组颈椎X线呈现生理性反张弯曲状态,弧弦距大于正常值范围;低枕头组颈椎X线呈现生理性变直,弧弦距均小于正常值范围;三组受试者测试结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:颈枕的高度与颈椎生理曲度具有密切关系,选择合适高度的颈枕对于颈生理曲度的保护具有重要意义。%Objective:To observe the effect in changes of neck pillow height on cervical physiological curvature. Methods:90 healthy people in our hospital were randomly divided into comfortable pillow group, high pillow group and low pillow group with each of 30 cases, all with cervical occipi-tal neutral position and lateral X-ray Digital Radiography, Bordens method to measure arc chord distance of cervical curvature, Ishihara method to measure cervical curvature index (CCI), Gore method to measure cervical spine angle (CSA), the test results were statistically analyzed. Results:X-ray of comfortable pillow group showed physiological forward protruding, arc chord distance in normal range;X-ray of high pillow group showed physiological contravariant bending, arc chord distance beyond normal range;X-ray of low pillow group showed physiological straight, arc chord dis-tance less than normal range;There was statistical significance in difference of test results among the three groups (P<0.05). Conclusion:There is a close relationship between neck pillow height and cervical physiological curvature, selecting the

  6. Influence of the Materials of Pillow Core on Sleeping Comfort in Lateral Position%枕芯材料对侧卧睡眠舒适性的影响研究

    侯建军; 申黎明; 宋杰; 朱宇锭

    2012-01-01

    通过侧卧时人体头、颈、臂部体压分布测试、舒适感主观评价、主客观相关性分析、材料间方差分析及纵向压力分布曲线等分析方法,研究枕芯材料变化对侧卧睡眠舒适性的影响.结果发现:枕芯材料之间方差分析p=0.005<0.01,表明所选材料间差异性显著,对体压指标及主观舒适度评价有较大影响;乳胶和荞麦皮在作为枕芯材料时弹性及透气性较好,总体舒适性较高,颈部能得到有力支撑,可缓解颈部肌肉疲劳;枕芯材料为记忆海绵、化纤和珍珠棉时,总体舒适性评价一般;充气和中药/茶叶枕舒适性评价最低,透气性较差,弹性较差.%Influences of the materials of pillow core on sleeping comfort in lateral position were examined by using body pressure measuring system, subjective evaluation on ergonomics, the correlativity of subjective and objective results, the variance analysis of materials of pillow core, the longitudinal impedance moment methods. The results of varance analysis showed that significant differences (p = 0. 005<0. 01) in body pressure distribution and subjective evaluation existed among different materials. Latex and buckwheat husks demonstrated good performance in elasticity and the air permeability, which were manifested by their supporting the neck and relieving the fatigue of neck muscles. The pillow with memory foams, chemical fibers and pearl cotton had general performance on comfort evaluation. The inflatable pillow and traditional Chinese medicine/tea pillow had poor permeability, low elasticity and lowest comfort evaluation.

  7. Tubular textures in pillow lavas from a Caledonian west Norwegian ophiolite: A combined TEM, LA-ICP-MS, and STXM study

    Fliegel, Daniel; Wirth, Richard; Simonetti, Antonio; Schreiber, Anja; Furnes, Harald; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2011-02-01

    Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, in glassy rims of pillow lavas from a Norwegian ophiolite (Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite complex (SSOC)) are described and characterized by a multimethod approach. Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, have been previously proposed to result from bioalteration. The microstructure of the titanite and the tubes is investigated using focused ion beam milling in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These indicate an assemblage of submicrometer-sized (about 500 nm) titanite single crystals with no organic film or residue in between the grains. In situ U-Pb radiometric dating of the titanite, using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS), yielded a metamorphic age of 442 ± 13 Ma. An isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometric age obtained previously for zircons from the SSOC plutonic rocks yielded a magmatic age of 443 ± 3 Ma. The overlap in ages indicates that subseafloor metamorphism, responsible for titanite formation, occurred during seafloor or subseafloor formation of the tubular alteration textures. The rare earth element contents of the titanite were determined using LA-ICP-MS and chondrite-normalized patterns are similar to those of the SSOC volcanics; hence these do not reflect hydrothermal or seawater influence. The Y/Ho ratio of ˜20-30 in the titanite is also consistent with an upper mantle-derived origin. The sum of all of the spatial resolved data reported here neither supports nor refutes a biogenic origin for the tubular textures.

  8. Development and Clinical Application of Smart Inflatable Nursing Pillow After Cervical Spine Surgery%颈椎术后智能充气护理枕的研制与临床应用

    杜雪莲; 吴惠冰; 黄铭杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application effect of smart inflatable nursing pillow after cervical spine surgery. Methods Sixty patients with cervical spine surgery were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, with 30 cases in each group. Patients in the experimental group used smart inflatable nursing pillow after surgery, while patients in the control group used cotton ring after surgery. The turning satisfaction, degree of comfort, incidence of pressure sores and wound healing situation were observed, and the effect was evaluated by periodic review of X-rays. Results Compared with the control group, the experimental group had higher turning satisfaction and degree of comfort, and lower incidence of pressure sores; all the differences were statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusions Smart inflatable nursing pillow is easy to operate. It can not only meet the treatment needs of patients with cervical spine surgery, but also increase patients' degree of comfort and reduce the complications and iatrogenic damage.%目的:探讨颈椎术后智能充气护理枕的应用效果。方法将60例颈椎术后患者随机分成试验组和对照组各30例,试验组予使用智能充气护理枕,对照组予使用棉圈,观察两组患者翻身耐受满意度、舒适度、压疮发生率以及伤口愈合情况,并定期复查X光片以了解疗效。结果试验组翻身耐受满意度、舒适度高于对照组,压疮发生率低于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论智能充气护理枕操作方便,不但能满足颈椎术后患者的治疗需求,且可增加患者的舒适度,同时减少并发症和医源性损害。

  9. Desenvolvimento de um Smart Object : Wakeme Pillow

    Rodrigues, Vítor André Correia Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    A proliferação dos smart&objects e wearables,no dia a dia dos consumidores, tem contribuído ativamente para a mudança de hábitos e comportamentos dos mesmos, dado que estes item como objectivo o bem estar e o incentivo à mudança de determinados factores dos consumidores. Daí este estudo parte de todo o conhecimento de alguns produtos tendo o intuito de criar uma solução que por uma lado possa enriquecer a experiência, oferecendo eficiência e por outro a capacidade de pers...

  10. Bionic Structure Design for Double Tauren EDM Machine Smooth Pillow Reinforcing Plate%双牛头电火花机床平滑枕筋板结构仿生设计

    牛金磊; 李锻能; 丰树礼

    2013-01-01

    By using bionic principles and methods of force structure,the internal rib structure of the key moving parts-horizontal ram of some EDM machine were designed and analyzed to ensure its structural rigidity,at the same time to make the maximum light-weight. Through the analysis of the distribution pattern of leaf veins structure,combining with the force structure of the smooth pillow member,reasonable layout form of the ribs was designed. By applying SolidWorks,the simulation structure of the entity model was es-tablished,and ANSYS finite element analysis (FEA)software was used for static analysis validation and modal analysis. The research results have an important role to ensure specific stiffness of the machine’s related moving parts,to improve accuracy and the system dy-namics performance.%利用受力结构仿生的原理和方法,对某型号电火花加工机床的关键运动部件---水平滑枕的内部筋板结构进行设计分析,在保证其结构刚度的同时,最大限度地进行轻量化。通过对叶片中叶脉结构分布规律的分析、总结,结合平滑枕部件的受力结构,设计出合理的筋板布局形式。应用SolidWorks建立结构仿真实体模型,并运用ANSYS有限元分析软件进行静力学分析和模态分析验证。研究结果对于保证机床相关运动部件的比刚度、提高机床工作精度以及系统动力学性能具有重要作用。

  11. 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的疗效%Efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of patients with cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type

    孙其斌; 张崇岳; 冀全谋; 谢永明; 陈国梁

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 神经根型颈椎病180例,随机分为生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅰ组)和垂直颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅱ组),各组90例.分别采用生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗与垂直颈椎牵引治疗,两组患者每次牵引重量均为3.0~7.0 kg,牵引时间均为20 min.牵引10次为1个疗程,2个疗程后判定疗效.结果 Ⅰ组的优效率61.1%(55/90例)和总有效率93.3%(84/90例)分别高于Ⅱ组的优效率42.2%(38/90例)和总有效率72.2%(65/90例),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效确切,较垂直牵引效果好.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type.Methods One hundred and eighty patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy were randomly divided into group Ⅰ and Ⅱ, 90 cases in each group.Patients were received the treatment with physiological type neck pillow cervical traction in the group Ⅰ ,while received vertical cervical traction in the group Ⅱ.The tractive weight was 3~7 kg and the tractive time was 20 minute in all patients every time, 10 times for a course.The efficacy was evaluated after 2 courses.Resuits The excellent effect and total effective rates in the group Ⅰ were significantly higher than those in the group Ⅱ respectively (61.1%, 55/90 cases vs 42.2%, 38/90 cases;93.3%, 84/90 cases vs 72.2%, 65/90 cases) (P < 0.05).Conclusion The efficacy of physiological type cervical traction with neck pillow is definite and superior to the vertical traction in the treatment of patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy.

  12. The Influence Factors and Nursing Interventions on the Compliance of Horizontal Position without Pillow after General Anesthesia in Thoracolumbar Disease Patients%胸腰椎疾病患者全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性的影响因素与护理干预

    吕曼

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨胸腰椎疾病患者全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性的影响因素和干预措施。方法回顾性分析我科2012年8月~12月胸腰椎疾病全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性的影响因素,根据结果进行护理干预。结果胸腰椎疾病并行全麻手术患者术后6h内不能坚持体位指导152例。其中,因麻醉状态导致依从性差65例,占42.8%,医学相关知识缺乏20例,占13.2%,患者想急迫恢复健康15例,占9.9%,对医务人员信任度差17例,占11.2%,不舒适感23例,占15.1%,家属不配合12例,占7.9%。结论通过加强护患沟通,与患者及家属建立良好的医患关系;加强麻醉未清醒期间的安全管理和心理护理;落实责任制护理,重视健康教育等方式能提高胸腰椎疾病患者全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性。%Objective To summarize the influence factors and nursing interventions on the compliance of horizontal posi-tion without pillow after general anesthesia in thoracolumbar disease patients .Methods The influence factors on the compli-ance of horizontal position without pillow after general anesthesia in thoracolumbar disease were reviewed retrospectively , based on which the nursing interventions were given to the patients .Results 152 after -general-anesthesia thoracolumbar disease patients who couldn't adhere to horizontal position were reviewed .65 cases were due to narcotism (42 .8% );20 cases were due to lack of related medical knowledge (13 .2% );15 cases were due to the urgence for recovery (9 .9% );17 cases were due to their low confidence degree with medical staff (11 .2% );23 cases were due to discomfort (15 .1% );12 cases were due to family members'non-compliance (7 .9% ) .Con-clusions Strengthening nurse-patient communication ,establishing good relationships with patients and their family mem-bers ,strengthening the safety management and the psychological nursing before anaesthesia clear

  13. Optimisation of a pillow production line applying Lean principles 

    Fookes, William

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing companies throughout the world are interested in reducing the time between a customer placing an order and them receiving the payment for that order. This premise is something that is a central characteristic for the Lean philosophy, and is one of the reasons to apply it. Today manufacturers around the world are embracing Lean techniques in order to reduce waste and increase productivity, and also increase the inventory turns, which reflects in an improvement of cash flow for th...

  14. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla; Hansen, Lars G; Nielsen, Frank; Pedersen, Søren; Osterballe, Ole; Veggerby, Chris; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2003-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  15. An overview of the lithological and geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean (ca. 3075) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland

    Polat, A.; Frei, Robert; Appel, P.W.U.;

    2008-01-01

    Ca-plagioclase and are interpreted as anorthositic cumulates of the lower oceanic crust brought to the surface by upwelling gabbroic magmas. Alternatively, the inclusions may represent the xenoliths from older (>3075 Ma) anorthositic crust onto which the Ivisaartoq magmas were emplaced as an...

  16. Noble gases in submarine pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the submarine flanks of two currently active Hawaiian volcanoes, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in 20Ne and 21Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high 3He 4He ratios. The high 20Ne 22Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO2 well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. ?? 1993.

  17. Analysis and Study of Φ Expansion Variable for the Fixed Extrusion Pillow and Sheath of 75MN Aluminium Extrusion Machine%75MN铝挤压机固定挤压垫挤压套Φ胀量分析研究

    姚河省; 高素荷; 祝伟荣

    2003-01-01

    应用有限单元法,研究目前国内设计生产的最大的铝挤压机关键部件固定挤压垫的结构特性,根据原设计方案和改进设计方案的计算结果和对已制造的36MN挤压机固定挤压垫的校核计算结果,确定出75MN铝挤压机挤压套Φ胀量.现场挤压结果表明,该固定挤压垫工作状态良好,达到了预期目标,从而证明了计算的可靠性.

  18. HOTEL INFORMATION

    2006-01-01

    China Hotel Golden Pillows Awards On April 24, 2006, Yalong Bay Mangrove Tree Resort proudly received 'Top 10 Resorts in China" at the 3nd Annual China Hotel Golden Pillows Awards. The resort has created an entirely new concept for a Chinese resort, with its South Asia architec-

  19. Three-Year-Olds Can Predict a Noun Based on an Attributive Adjective: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Tribushinina, Elena; Mak, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether three-year-olds are able to process attributive adjectives (e.g., "soft pillow") as they hear them and to predict the noun ("pillow") on the basis of the adjective meaning ("soft"). This was investigated in an experiment by means of the Visual World Paradigm. The participants saw two…

  20. CPAP Devices for Sleep Apnea

    ... CPAP nose masks. In this case, a full-face mask that covers both the nose and the mouth ... could help. Types of CPAP Devices Nasal pillows Face mask Face mask with chin strap Written by familydoctor. ...

  1. Epidural injections for back pain

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  2. Aqueous Alteration Rinds in Basalt: Mineralogic Characterization from Hand Sample to Outcrop with Hyperspectral Imaging and Implications for Mars 2020

    Greenberger, R. N.; Mustard, J. F.; Cloutis, E. A.; Mann, P.; Wilson, J. H.

    2014-07-01

    Hydrothermally altered lacustrine pillow basalts show strong gradients in mineralogy, chemistry, and redox state from interior to exterior at thick section, hand sample, and outcrop scales identified with hyperspectral imaging and elemental mapping.

  3. Neck pain or spasms -- self care

    ... it is OK: Jogging Contact sports Racquet sports Golf Dancing Weight lifting Leg lifts when lying on ... you have a firm mattress and supportive pillow. Learn to relax. Try methods such as yoga, tai ...

  4. В преддверии темных ночей

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tekstiilidisaini üliõpilaste töödest "Moonwalk" (autorid Stella Kalkun ja Luisa Aid), "RE:ME - remind me pillow" (autorid Heleri Alexandra Sits ja Signe Aasoja) ja "Volt" (autor Stella Kalkun)

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  6. Synthesis of morphotectonics and volcanics of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Mukherjee, A.D.; Iyer, S.D.

    the topographic highs, pillow and massive basalts are common while close to fracture zones, flow lavas occur. Two significant volcanic activities: one during the formation of the near-axis generated seamounts and the other in an intraplate environment...

  7. Allergic Rhinitis

    ... mulches, commercial peat moss, compost piles and leaf litter. This allergy is usually worse during humid and ... use mattress pads. Cover mattress and pillows with plastic covers. Lower the humidity in your home using ...

  8. Baby supplies you need

    ... pads to apply Vaseline. Diaper rash cream Rocking Chair with a Footstool Pillow for resting your arm ... at least) Receiving blankets (4 to 6) Hooded bath towel (2) Washcloths (4 to 6) Bathtub, one ...

  9. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    ... small pillow when lying down. Your doctor or physical therapist may teach you exercises to do at home. ... for at least 4 weeks. Your doctor or physical therapist will tell you when it is ok. Consider ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women ... elevated. Straps and pillows may be used to help the patient maintain the correct position and to ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. The ... back. Straps and pillows may be used to help you maintain the correct position and to help ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... are filled with fluid or thickened sinus membranes . help diagnose sinusitis . top of page How should I ... elevated. Straps and pillows may be used to help the patient maintain the correct position and to ...

  13. The influence of consumption vocabulary on the encoding and retrieval of haptic information

    Gaudêncio, Ana Catarina Duarte

    2010-01-01

    Sensory stimuli are often ambiguous, which makes it difficult for consumers to encode and retrieve them, and to construct their preferences. This project studies whether, in a prepurchase context, consumption vocabulary can help consumers to perceive what products are superior on haptic attributes. In an experiment with bed pillows, participants provided with evaluative criteria preferred the pillow with superior haptic attributes more often and to a larger extent than particip...

  14. Determination of radiation levels by neutrons in an accelerator for radiotherapy

    It was determined the radiation levels by neutrons due to photonuclear reactions (γ, n) which occur in the target, levelling filter, collimators and the small pillow blinding of a medical accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MeV, using thermoluminescent dosemeters UD-802AS and US-809AS. The experimental values were presented for the patient level, inside and outside of the radiation field, as well as for the small pillow. (Author)

  15. Determination of radiation levels by neutrons in an accelerator for radiotherapy; Determinacion de niveles de radiacion por neutrones en un acelerador para radioterapia

    Paredes G, L.; Salazar B, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Genis S, R. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur, Puente de Piedra 150, Col. Torriello Guerra, Tlalpan 14050, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It was determined the radiation levels by neutrons due to photonuclear reactions ({gamma}, n) which occur in the target, levelling filter, collimators and the small pillow blinding of a medical accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MeV, using thermoluminescent dosemeters UD-802AS and US-809AS. The experimental values were presented for the patient level, inside and outside of the radiation field, as well as for the small pillow. (Author)

  16. Litostratigrafi dan sedimentasi Formasi Kebo dan Formasi Butak di Pegunungan Baturagung, Jawa Tengah Bagian Selatan

    Surono Surono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no4.20081Lithologically, the Nampurejo Pillow Lava, Kebo and Butak Formations, which are dominated by volcanic rocks, spread west - eastly, along the northern foot of the Baturagung Mountains. The Nampurejo Pillow Lava, which has an Early Oligocene age, is overlain by the Late Oligocene - Early Miocene Kebo and Butak Formations successively. The Nampurejo Pillow Lava consists of basaltic pillow-lavas showing pillow structures and they are intercalated by black sandstones. The Kebo Formation comprises alternating sandstone and pebbly sandstone with intercalations of siltstone, claystone, tuff, and shale. On the other hand, the Butak For- mation is composed of polymic breccia with intercalations of sandstone, pebbly sandstone, claystone, and siltstone/shale. The three units were deposited in a deep – shallow marine basin, which was filled by volcanic prod- ucts. Compared to the lower part of the Kebo Formation, volcanic activities during the deposition of the upper part of the Kebo Formation and the Butak Formation were more active.    

  17. Gunung Api purba Watuadeg: Sumber erupsi dan posisi stratigrafi

    Sutikno Bronto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no3.20081Pillow lava flows of pyroxene basalt containing 50 wt.% SiO are exposed at Opak River, west of Watuadeg Village, Sleman - Yogyakarta. The length of flow structures is between 2 – 10 m, with diameter of 0.5 – 1.0 m and it has a glassy skin at the surface body. Flow directions vary from N70E in the northern side, through N 120E in the middle to N 150E in the southern side. About 150 m away from the river to the west, there is a small hill about 15 m high, that has a similar composition with the pillow lavas. Both lava flows and the small hill are composed of pyroxene basalt, dark grey in color, hypocrystalline vitrophyre to porphyritic texture, with fine-grained phenocrysts of pyroxene (10 % and plagioclase (25 % set in glassy groundmass. These data indicate that the small hill was the eruption source of the basaltic pillow lavas. The lavas are overlain by pumice-rich volcaniclastic rocks, composed of tuff, lapillistones and pumice breccias, that are known as the Semilir Formation. Near the contact with lavas, the volcaniclastic rocks contain some fragments of pyroxene basalt, similar composition with the pillow lavas. This fact, together with analyses of petrology, volcanology, and radiometric dating show that the basaltic pillow lavas are unconformably overlain by the Semilir Formation.  

  18. Bed with Integrated Personalized Ventilation for Minimizing Cross Infection

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jiang, Hao; Polak, Marcin

    2007-01-01

    of air to the whole room to ensure a dilution of airborne infection. Personalized ventilation has proven to be a very efficient system to protect people from cross infection because clean air is supplied direct to the breathing zone. Most designs of personalized ventilation are based on a supply jet....... The problem with those systems is the fact that the jet entrains air from the surroundings and, therefore, reduces the amount of fresh air which reaches the breathing zone. The entrainment is minimized in the system discussed here, especially when the source of clean air is located in the boundary layer close...... to the breathing zone (face). The present idea utilizes the fact that the head or the body is in natural contact with surfaces as mattresses, pillows, neck support pillows, clothing, blankets, etc., and those surfaces are designed also to be a supply opening of fresh air. A pillow and a blanket (mattress) have...

  19. Chair with Integrated Personalized Ventilation for Minimizing Cross Infection

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Bartholomaeussen, Niels Møller; Jakubowska, Ewa;

    2007-01-01

    to the whole room to ensure a dilution of airborne infection. Personalized ventilation has proven to be a very efficient system to protect people from cross infection because clean air is supplied direct to the breathing zone. Most designs of personalized ventilation are based on a supply jet. The problem...... with those systems is the fact that the jet entrains air from the surroundings and, therefore, reduces the amount of fresh air which reaches the breathing zone. The entrainment is minimized in the system discussed here, especially when the source of clean air is located in the boundary layer close...... to the breathing zone (face). The present idea utilizes the fact that the head or the body is in natural contact with surfaces as mattresses, pillows, neck support pillows, headrests, clothing, blankets, walls, etc., and those surfaces are designed also to be a supply opening of fresh air. A neck support pillow...

  20. Veggie Hardware Validation Test Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned

    Massa, Gioia D.; Dufour, Nicole F.; Smith, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Veggie hardware validation test, VEG-01, was conducted on the International Space Station during Expeditions 39 and 40 from May through June of 2014. The Veggie hardware and the VEG-01 experiment payload were launched to station aboard the SpaceX-3 resupply mission in April, 2014. Veggie was installed in an Expedite-the-Processing-of-Experiments-to-Space-Station (ExPRESS) rack in the Columbus module, and the VEG-01 validation test was initiated. Veggie installation was successful, and power was supplied to the unit. The hardware was programmed and the root mat reservoir and plant pillows were installed without issue. As expected, a small amount of growth media was observed in the sealed bags which enclosed the plant pillows when they were destowed. Astronaut Steve Swanson used the wet/dry vacuum to clean up the escaped particles. Water insertion or priming the first plant pillow was unsuccessful as an issue prevented water movement through the quick disconnect. All subsequent pillows were successfully primed, and the initial pillow was replaced with a backup pillow and successfully primed. Six pillows were primed, but only five pillows had plants which germinated. After about a week and a half it was observed that plants were not growing well and that pillow wicks were dry. This indicated that the reservoir was not supplying sufficient water to the pillows via wicking, and so the team reverted to an operational fix which added water directly to the plant pillows. Direct watering of the pillows led to a recovery in several of the stressed plants; a couple of which did not recover. An important lesson learned involved Veggie's bellows. The bellows tended to float and interfere with operations when opened, so Steve secured them to the baseplate during plant tending operations. Due to the perceived intensity of the LED lights, the crew found it challenging to both work under the lights and read crew procedures on their computer. Although the lights are not a safety

  1. Ophiolitic association of Cape Fiolent area, southwestern Crimea

    Promyslova, M. Yu.; Demina, L. I.; Bychkov, A. Yu.; Gushchin, A. I.; Koronovsky, N. V.; Tsarev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    An ophiolitic association consisting of serpentinized ultramafic rocks and serpentinite, layered mafic-ultramafic complex, gabbro and gabbrodolerite, fragments of parallel dike complex, pillow lava, black bedded chert, and jasper has been identified for the first time by authors in the Cape Fiolent area. The chemistry of pillow lavas and dolerites, including REE patterns and a wide set of other microelements, indicates suprasubduction nature of the ophiolites and their belonging to a backarc basin that has reached the stage of spreading in its evolution.

  2. Postirradiation analysis of experimental uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates

    Low-enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuel plates were irradiated to maximum burnups of 96% of 235U. Fuel plates containing 33 v/o U3Si and U3Si2 behaved very well up to this burnup. Plates containing 33 v/o U3Si-Al pillowed between 90 and 96% burnup of the fissile atoms. More highly loaded U3Si-Al plates, up to 50 v/o were found to pillow at lower burnups. Plates containing 40 v/o U3Si showed an increase swelling rate around 85% burnup. 5 refs., 10 figs

  3. Comparison of irradiation behavior of different uranium silicide dispersion fuel element designs

    Calculations of fuel swelling of U3SiAl-Al and U3Si2 were performed for various dispersion fuel element designs. Breakaway swelling criteria in the form of critical fuel volume fractions were derived with data obtained from U3SiAl-Al plate irradiations. The results of the analysis show that rod-type elements remain well below the pillowing threshold. However, tubular fuel elements, which behave essentially like plates, will likely develop pillows or blisters at around 90% 235U burnup. The U3Si2-Al compounds demonstrate stable swelling behavior throughout the entire burnup range for all fuel element designs

  4. Postirradiation analysis of experimental uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates

    Low-enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuel plates were irradiated to maximum burnups of 96% of 235U. Fuel plates containing 33 v/o U3Si and U3Si2 behaved very well up to this burnup. Plates containing 33 v/o U3 Si-Al pillowed between 90 and 96% burnup of the fissile atoms. More highly loaded U3Si Al plates, up to 50 v/o, were found to pillow at lower burnups. Plates containing 40 v/o U3Si showed an increased swelling rate around 85% burnup. (author)

  5. Modelling energy level alignment at organic interfaces and density functional theory

    Flores, F.; Ortega, J.; Vazquez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    qualitatively and semiquantitatively the barrier height formation at those interfaces. The IDIS model, governed by the organic CNL (charge neutrality level) and the interface screening includes: (a) charge transfer across the interface; (b) the "pillow'' (or Pauli) effect associated with the compression of the...

  6. Quantifying glassy and crystalline basalt partitioning in the oceanic crust

    Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2016-04-01

    The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately basaltic rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy basalts while the potential habitability of crystalline basalts are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline basalts, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing basalt fractionation: a pillow basalt with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow basalt with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.

  7. Lindane

    ... have pubic lice, apply the shampoo to the hair in your pubic area and the skin underneath. You might not ... share combs, brushes, towels, pillows, hats, scarves, or hair accessories. Be ... lice.If you have scabies or pubic lice, tell your doctor if you have a ...

  8. Aches and pains during pregnancy

    ... regularly. Wear low-heeled shoes. Sleep on your side with a pillow between your legs. Sit in a chair with good back support. Avoid standing for too long. Bend your knees when picking things up. DO NOT bend at the waist. Avoid ...

  9. Effect of Divided Attention on the Production of False Memories in the DRM Paradigm: A Study of Dichotic Listening and Shadowing

    Pimentel, Eduarda; Albuquerque, Pedro B.

    2013-01-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm comprises the study of lists in which words (e.g., bed, pillow, etc.) are all associates of a single nonstudied critical item (e.g., sleep). The probability of falsely recalling or recognising nonstudied critical items is often similar to (or sometimes higher than) the probability of correctly recalling…

  10. Snoring

    ... lose weight, change their diets, or develop regular sleeping patterns to stop snoring. It may be helpful to remove allergy triggers (stuffed animals, pets, and feather/down pillows and comforters) ... someone might have sleep apnea, the doctor will order a test to ...

  11. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.;

    2009-01-01

    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided int...

  12. Diabetic Neuropathy: What is a Total Contact Cast?

    ... You won't be able to take regular baths or showers because you have to keep the cast dry. Take sponge baths instead. Try not to go outside when the ... sitting down, put your leg up on a chair or pillow whenever possible. While you're sleeping, ...

  13. 阅读理解三则(英文)

    2008-01-01

    <正>(A)Over a third of one1s life is spent sleeping with one1s head on apillow ( 枕头). A good pillow, in its right height and composition, hasimportant effects on one1s sleep and health. There is an old way of

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... back. Straps and pillows may be used to help you maintain the correct position and to help you remain still during the exam. Many scanners ... a physician, may offer you some medication to help you tolerate the CT scanning procedure. If an ...

  15. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  16. North Kona slump: Submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai Volcano

    Lipman, P.W.; Coombs, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The North Kona slump is an elliptical region, about 20 by 60 km (1000-km2 area), of multiple, geometrically intricate benches and scarps, mostly at water depths of 2000-4500 m, on the west flank of Hualalai Volcano. Two dives up steep scarps in the slump area were made in September 2001, using the ROV Kaiko of the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), as part of a collaborative Japan-USA project to improve understanding of the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes. Both dives, at water depths of 2700-4000 m, encountered pillow lavas draping the scarp-and-bench slopes. Intact to only slightly broken pillow lobes and cylinders that are downward elongate dominate on the steepest mid-sections of scarps, while more equant and spherical pillow shapes are common near the tops and bases of scarps and locally protrude through cover of muddy sediment on bench flats. Notably absent are subaerially erupted Hualalai lava flows, interbedded hyaloclastite pillow breccia, and/or coastal sandy sediment that might have accumulated downslope from an active coastline. The general structure of the North Kona flank is interpreted as an intricate assemblage of downdropped lenticular blocks, bounded by steeply dipping normal faults. The undisturbed pillow-lava drape indicates that slumping occurred during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism. All analyzed samples of the pillow-lava drape are tholeiite, similar to published analyses from the submarine northwest rift zone of Hualalai. Relatively low sulfur (330-600 ppm) and water (0.18-0.47 wt.%) contents of glass rinds suggest that the eruptive sources were in shallow water, perhaps 500-1000-m depth. In contrast, saturation pressures calculated from carbon dioxide concentrations (100-190 ppm) indicate deeper equilibration, at or near sample sites at water depths of -3900 to -2800 m. Either vents close to the sample sites erupted mixtures of undegassed and degassed magmas, or volatiles were resorbed from vesicles during

  17. Pseudofolliculitis corporis: a new entity diagnosed by dermoscopy.

    Puhan, Manas Ranjan; Sahu, Bharati

    2015-01-01

    Pseudofolliculitis mainly affects the beard area, but it can occur in any area of hair-bearing skin when traumatic methods like shaving or plucking are used to remove the hair. It can be a simple cosmetic problem or a disturbing medical condition for which the dermatologist must be prepared. It can develop in areas of shaving or depilation and has been seen in the pubic region or the axilla, where it is common to find curly hair that emerges at an acute angle. Here, we are reporting a case of pseudofolliculitis over back, termed as pseudofolliculitis corporis. He used to put a pillow behind the back while driving and the pressure caused the pseudofolliculitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by dermoscopy, which is a simple office procedure. Patient was advised to stop using the pillow and improved with topical adapalene and clindamycin gel for 15 days. This entity has not been described in the literature. PMID:25878447

  18. Capacitance Based Moisture Sensing for Microgravity Plant Modules: Sensor Design and Considerations

    Schaber, Chad L.; Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Life support systems for growing plants in microgravity should strive for providing optimal growing conditions and increased automation. Accurately tracking soil moisture content can forward both of these aims, so an attempt was made to instrument a microgravity growth module currently in development, the VEGGIE rooting pillow, in order to monitor moisture levels. Two electrode systems for a capacitance-based moisture sensor were tested. Trials with both types of electrodes showed a linear correlation between observed capacitance and water content over certain ranges of moisture within the pillows. Overall, both types of the electrodes and the capacitance-based moisture sensor are promising candidates for tracking water levels for microgravity plant growth systems.

  19. Scanning-PIXE analysis of gold lace embroideries in a relic of St. Francis

    In this work, we describe the compositional analysis performed by scanning-mode PIXE on the metal threads of a XIII century embroidery. The precious work analysed is the pillow-case used to cover the pillow, on which - according to tradition - St. Francis of Assisi was resting his head when he died. Measurements were performed in order to characterise the embroideries of the two sides and the passementerie in the lateral hems. Several areas, each of the order of two square millimetres, were scanned with a 3 MeV proton external beam of 20 μm size on target, using the external micro-beam facility of our laboratory, with list-mode acquisition. Analysis of elemental maps and spectra from selected homogeneous sub-areas allowed us to extract the quantitative composition of the gilded tape and estimates of its thickness

  20. Postirradiation analysis of experimental uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates

    Hofman, G.L.; Neimark, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Low-enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuel plates were irradiated to maximum burnups of 96% of /sup 235/U. Fuel plates containing 33 v/o U/sub 3/Si and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ behaved very well up to this burnup. Plates containing 33 v/o U/sub 3/Si-Al pillowed between 90 and 96% burnup of the fissile atoms. More highly loaded U/sub 3/Si-Al plates, up to 50 v/o were found to pillow at lower burnups. Plates containing 40 v/o U/sub 3/Si showed an increase swelling rate around 85% burnup. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Water Content of Basalt Erupted on the ocean floor

    Moore, J.G.

    1970-01-01

    Deep sea pillow basalts dredged from the ocean floor show that vesicularity changes with composition as well as with depth. Alkalic basalts are more vesicular than tholeiitic basalts erupted at the same depth. The vesicularity data, when related to experimentally determined solubility of water in basalt, indicate that K-poor oceanic tholeiites originally contained about 0.25 percent water, Hawaiian tholeiites of intermediate K-content, about 0.5 percent water, and alkali-rich basalts, about 0.9 percent water. Analyses of fresh basalt pillows show a systematic increase of H2O+ as the rocks become more alkalic. K-poor oceanic tholeiites contain 0.06-0.42 percent H2O+, Hawaiian tholeiites, 0.31-0.60 percent H2O+, and alkali rich basalts 0.49-0.98 percent H2O+. The contents of K2O, P2O5, F, and Cl increase directly with an increase in H2O+ content such that at 1.0 weight percent H2O+, K2O is 1.58 percent, P2O5 is 0.55 percent, F is 0.07 percent, and Cl is 0.1 percent. The measured weight percent of deuterium on the rim of one Hawaiian pillow is -6.0 (relative to SMOW); this value, which is similar to other indications of magmatic water, suggests that no appreciable sea water was absorbed by the pillow during or subsequent to eruption on the ocean floor. Concentrations of volatile constituents in the alkali basalt melts relative to tholeiitic melts can be explained by varying degrees of partial melting of mantle material or by fractional crystallization of a magma batch. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Type of Mask May Impact on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence in Apneic Patients

    Borel, Jean Christian; Tamisier, Renaud; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Sapene, Marc; Martin, Francis; Stach, Bruno; Grillet, Yves; Muir, Jean François; Levy, Patrick; Series, Frederic; Pepin, Jean-Louis; ,

    2013-01-01

    Rationale In obstructive sleep apnea patients (OSA), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence is crucial to improve symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The choice of mask may influence CPAP adherence but this issue has never been addressed properly. Objective To evaluate the impact of nasal pillows, nasal and oronasal masks on CPAP adherence in a cohort of OSA. Methods Newly CPAP treated OSA participating in “Observatoire Sommeil de la Fédération de Pneumologie”, a French natio...

  3. Geochemistry of Precordillera serpentinites, western Argentina : evidence for multistage hydrothermal alteration and tectonic implications for the Neoproterozoic–early Paleozoic

    Boedo, F. L.; Escayola, M. P.; Pérez Luján, S. B.; Vujovich, Graciela; Ariza, J. P.; Naipauer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Serpentinites are a powerful tool to evaluate mantle composition and subsequent alteration processes during their tectonic emplacement. Exposures of this type of rocks can be found in the Argentine Precordillera (Cuyania terrane) and Frontal Cordillera, both located in central-western Argentina, within the Central Andes. In these regions a Neoproterozoic to Devonian mafic-ultramafic belt composed of serpentinites, metabasaltic dikes/sills, pillow lavas (with an Enriched to Normal Mid-Ocean Ri...

  4. Efectos de la atención dividida en la producción de falsos recuerdos en el paradigma DRM : un estudio con escucha dicótica y ensombrecimiento

    Pimentel, Eduarda; Albuquerque, Pedro Barbas

    2013-01-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm comprises the study of lists in which words (e.g., bed, pillow, etc.) are all associates of a single nonstudied critical item (e.g., sleep). The probability of falsely recalling or recognising nonstudied critical items is often similar to (or sometimes higher than) the probability of correctly recalling or recognising studied associates. False memories produced throughout this paradigm are usually seen as vivid, long lasting, and d...

  5. Sustainable yoga apparel

    Jason, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The two major purposes of this study are to establish whether there is an interest in sustainably regarding locally made yoga sports equipment and to create a design concept for a product line of yoga apparel which is genuinely eco-friendly. The product line consists of a yoga mat bag, straps, pillows and a bolster. Research into issues surrounding sustainability and yoga guided the design process. In order to meet user requirements, yoga classes were observed, a survey was conducted and ...

  6. Strain analysis in the Orijärvi triangle, southwestern Finland; in perspective of tectonic models

    van Stel, H; Rees, D.; Schenke, B.

    1999-01-01

    Finite strain analyses were performed in metavolcanic rocks (agglomerates and pillowed metabasalts) from the Orijärvi area, southwestern Finland. In this area, tight folding (F1) of layered metasedimentary rocks and development of a penetrative axial plane schistosity (S1) took place during an early stage in the Svecofennian orogeny. Within the domain, there is no evidence of older deformational structures or of a later deformation phase; except in narrow, late-stage shear zones that bound th...

  7. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemistry at south of Arghash (Neyshabour)

    Zahra Karimi Saeid Abadi; Seyed Ahmad Mazaheri; Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2010-01-01

    The Arghash area is located 45 km to southwest of Neyshabour. The subvolcanic rocks in the area consist of biotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende monzonite porphyry, biotite hornblende monzonite porphyry, monzodiorite porphyry and biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry units. The volcanic rocks consist of hornblende biotite dacite, biotite hornblende dacite, and andesite and pillow lava. The plutonic rocks consist of hornblen...

  8. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data

    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km2) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated (40K-40Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  9. VEG-01: Veggie Hardware Verification Testing

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gary; Hummerick, Mary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    The Veggie plant/vegetable production system is scheduled to fly on ISS at the end of2013. Since much of the technology associated with Veggie has not been previously tested in microgravity, a hardware validation flight was initiated. This test will allow data to be collected about Veggie hardware functionality on ISS, allow crew interactions to be vetted for future improvements, validate the ability of the hardware to grow and sustain plants, and collect data that will be helpful to future Veggie investigators as they develop their payloads. Additionally, food safety data on the lettuce plants grown will be collected to help support the development of a pathway for the crew to safely consume produce grown on orbit. Significant background research has been performed on the Veggie plant growth system, with early tests focusing on the development of the rooting pillow concept, and the selection of fertilizer, rooting medium and plant species. More recent testing has been conducted to integrate the pillow concept into the Veggie hardware and to ensure that adequate water is provided throughout the growth cycle. Seed sanitation protocols have been established for flight, and hardware sanitation between experiments has been studied. Methods for shipping and storage of rooting pillows and the development of crew procedures and crew training videos for plant activities on-orbit have been established. Science verification testing was conducted and lettuce plants were successfully grown in prototype Veggie hardware, microbial samples were taken, plant were harvested, frozen, stored and later analyzed for microbial growth, nutrients, and A TP levels. An additional verification test, prior to the final payload verification testing, is desired to demonstrate similar growth in the flight hardware and also to test a second set of pillows containing zinnia seeds. Issues with root mat water supply are being resolved, with final testing and flight scheduled for later in 2013.

  10. Hubungan Personal Hygiene Santri dengan Kejadian Penyakit Kulit Infeksi Skabies dan Tinjauan Sanitasi Lingkungan Pesantren Darel Hikmah Kota Pekanbaru Tahun 2011

    Frenki

    2012-01-01

    Scabies is a skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, a mite belongs to the class of Arachnida. This mite is very small and can only be seen through a microscope. Scabies is also called body lice. Scabies spreads easily either through a direct contact with the patient (sufferer) or indirect contact through clothing, bed linen, towels, pillows or mattresses. The purpose of this analytical survey study with case-control design was to analyze the relationship between personal hygiene of sant...

  11. Periorbital Edema Secondary to Positive Airway Pressure Therapy

    Dandekar, F.; Camacho, M; J. Valerio; Ruoff, C.

    2015-01-01

    Two patients developed bilateral, periorbital edema after initiating positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy with a full face mask. The periorbital edema was more pronounced in the morning and would dissipate throughout the day. This phenomenon seemed to be correlated with the direct pressure of the full face mask, which may have impaired lymphatic and venous drainage. To test this hypothesis, each patient was changed to a nasal pillow interface with subsequent improvement in the periorbital e...

  12. Effectiveness of education for control of house dust mites and cockroaches in Seoul, Korea

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, In-Yong; Lee, Jongweon; Ree, Han-Il; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of health education in reducing indoor arthropod allergens in Seoul. The mite control measures comprised the use of mite-proof mattress and pillow coverings, regular washing of potentially infested materials, maintenance of a low humidity, removal of carpets, and frequent vacuum cleaning. Cockroach control measures included trapping, application of insecticides, and protecting food. Of 201 homes enrolled in October 1999, 63 volunteers were included in a 2-year follow...

  13. Buoyancy, transport, and head loss of fibrous reactor insulation

    In the event of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a nuclear power plant, it is possible that insulation for pipes or other items inside the containment building could be dislodged by the high energy break jet. This insulation debris could affect the recirculation of water from the sump of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) by collecting on the screen surrounding this sump. To help in assessing the possible effect of detached insulation on the ECCS, buoyancy, transport, and head loss characteristics of the insulation were studied experimentally. Three types of insulation pillows with mineral wool and fiberglass cores were tested in undamaged state, with their covers opened and with the insulation core in broken-up and shredded conditions. Small samples of reflective metallic and closed cell insulations were also tested for transport and buoyancy. The buoyancy studies revealed that the insulation core material sank more rapidly in hot water than in cold, that the tested mineral wool insulation did not readily sink, but that the fiberglass insulation did and that undamaged pillows could remain afloat for several days due to trapped air pockets forming inside the pillow covers. The transport studies furnished values of the flow velocity needed (i) to initiate the movement of sunken insulation towards a screen, (ii) to bring all the insulation on the screen, and (iii) to flip the insulation vertically on the screen. The head loss studies resulted in graphs of head loss versus approach velocity for undisturbed insulation and for beds of accumulated insulation fragments

  14. Mapping lava morphology of the Galapagos Spreading Center at 92°W: fuzzy logic provides a classification of high-resolution bathymetry and backscatter

    McClinton, J. T.; White, S. M.; Sinton, J. M.; Rubin, K. H.; Bowles, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Differences in axial lava morphology along the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) can indicate variations in magma supply and emplacement dynamics due to the influence of the adjacent Galapagos hot spot. Unfortunately, the ability to discriminate fine-scale lava morphology has historically been limited to observations of the small coverage areas of towed camera surveys and submersible operations. This research presents a neuro-fuzzy approach to automated seafloor classification using spatially coincident, high-resolution bathymetry and backscatter data. The classification method implements a Sugeno-type fuzzy inference system trained by a multi-layered adaptive neural network and is capable of rapidly classifying seafloor morphology based on attributes of surface geometry and texture. The system has been applied to the 92°W segment of the western GSC in order to quantify coverage areas and distributions of pillow, lobate, and sheet lava morphology. An accuracy assessment has been performed on the classification results. The resulting classified maps provide a high-resolution view of GSC axial morphology and indicate the study area terrain is approximately 40% pillow flows, 40% lobate and sheet flows, and 10% fissured or faulted area, with about 10% of the study area unclassifiable. Fine-scale features such as eruptive fissures, tumuli, and individual pillowed lava flow fronts are also visible. Although this system has been applied to lava morphology, its design and implementation are applicable to other undersea mapping applications.

  15. Crustal structure beneath the Northern Mississippi Embayment from travel time inversion of vintage wide-angle seismic data

    Guo, L.; Magnani, M.

    2012-12-01

    The northern Mississippi Embayment (ME) in the central US is located along the southern margin of Laurentia, a region that has been shaped by a long history of tectonic and magmatic events, including episodes of continental rifting, collision and amalgamation. In the ME these events have fundamentally altered the structure and composition of the continental lithosphere, resulting in the formation and failure of the Paleozoic Reelfoot Rift, and in the emplacement of the enigmatic mafic rift pillow at lower crustal and upper mantle depths beneath the Reelfoot Rift. Because of the spatial correlation between the present, historical and prehistorical seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone and the mafic rift pillow, it has been proposed that this magmatic feature plays a key role in localizing strain in the Central US. Emerging evidence, however, shows that Quaternary deformation in the ME is not restricted to the New Madrid seismic zone, but encompasses a region beyond the presently seismogenic area, perhaps suggesting that the mafic rift pillow extends beyond its previously detected location. To test this hypothesis and to better constrain the lateral extent, dimension, and velocity structure of the mafic rift pillow in lower crust and upper mantle beneath the ME, we perform a travel time tomographic inversion using recent modeling codes on two vintage wide-angle seismic datasets available in the region. The data were acquired by the USGS in 1980 and 1991, and are the only seismic wide-angle crustal data constraining the geometry of the rift pillow. The 1980 USGS seismic refraction investigation consisted of a total of 34 900-1800 kg shots gathered in 9 locations and recorded by 100 portable seismographs along a series of profiles targeting the structure of the Reelfoot Rift north of Memphis, Tennessee. The 1991 USGS survey acquired a N-S 400 km-long seismic profile from Memphis, Tennessee to St. Louis, Missouri, and included 3 680-2260 kg shots recorded by ~200

  16. The 2008 Puipui eruption and morphology of the Northeast Lau Spreading Center between Maka and Tafu (Invited)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Rubin, K. H.; Paduan, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    An event plume was discovered in the water column between Maka and Tafu volcanoes on the Northeast Lau Spreading Center in Nov. 2008. A Rapid Response cruise in May 2009 found that eruptive activity had ceased after observations on two Jason II ROV dives and one MBARI Mapping AUV survey that mapped most of the axis and flanks at 1.5-m resolution. Jason II located a recent lava flow, which was named Puipui. The small ridge of mounds aligned along two overlapping fissures extend for 1.8 km. The pillow ridge cuts obliquely across the ridge axis. The dive observations show mainly pillow lavas near the NE end and sheet flows near the SE end. A central 340 m portion observed by Jason II as predominantly ponded lobate flows was not mapped by the AUV. The Puipui and prior eruptions produced abundant vesicular angular glass fragments, Pele’s hair, and less abundant limu o Pele pyroclasts that thinly blanket the axial plateau and cascade down the steep flanks, mixing debris from many eruptions. Electron probe analyses of 91 fragments show that 15 Puipui pyroclasts are compositionally variable (normalized 6.5-7.2% MgO, ~49.6% SiO2) and distinct from prior eruptions in the area that have lower TiO2, K2O, Na2O, and K2O; and 52.3-53.7% SiO2. Pyroclasts of all compositions are highly degassed (morphology changes dramatically over short distances. The 1 km SW end is characterized by multiple extensional faults that parallel the ridge axis. The AUV survey ends on a sheet flow with drained ponds. To the NE, Maka is a 1.2 km diameter central volcano rising 300 m above the adjacent ridge to a summit at 1515 m. The ridge axis deepens steadily to 2140 m at the NE survey end and 1900 m to the SW. Rift zones on Maka parallel the ridge axis and are constructed of overlapping lava deltas. The NW and SE flanks are smooth like those at actively erupting West Mata volcano, where such deposits are clastic eruptive debris. The lava deltas have steep margins and embayments, indicating slumping

  17. Performance prediction of high density nuclear fuel plate containing U-7%Mo/Al

    In recent several years, the Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology (PTBN) - BATAN is conducting research and development on new research reactor fuel of U-Mo/Al dispersion containing 7 g U/cm3 as a substitute for the actual U3Si2 fuel of 2.96 g.U/cm3 . The major advantages of this fuel are higher U content than the U3Si2 and easier management, i.e. reprocessing of the spent fuel, while the main drawback is the manufacture of powder that is more difficult because it is more ductile and its thermal conductivity degrade faster during in reactor service. The first difficulties have been solved by hydriding process. Performance prediction should be foreseen in order to obtain permit for irradiation testing of the new fuel. The prediction has been performed on hot spot location by taking into account some effects of fission swelling of fuel particles, formation of interfacial reaction layer, meat densification which feedback to fuel temperature and plate swelling the principal safety parameters of normal operation. The results show that at lower burnup the dominant effect is fission solid swelling but at higher burnup it is replaced by fission gas swelling. At 60% burnup (10.2 x 10⌃21 fission/cm3 ) fuel particle swelling reaches 75.79% and at total burnup swelling rises to 103.1%, which corresponds to 11.6% and 17.2% plate pillowing. The interfacial reaction layer at full burnup is 5.7 µm. Plate pillowing at 60% burnup is below the limit acceptance but plate pillowing at full burnup is beyond the limit acceptance. (author)

  18. A Particle Batch Smoother Approach to Snow Water Equivalent Estimation

    Margulis, Steven A.; Girotto, Manuela; Cortes, Gonzalo; Durand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a newly proposed data assimilation method for historical snow water equivalent SWE estimation using remotely sensed fractional snow-covered area fSCA. The newly proposed approach consists of a particle batch smoother (PBS), which is compared to a previously applied Kalman-based ensemble batch smoother (EnBS) approach. The methods were applied over the 27-yr Landsat 5 record at snow pillow and snow course in situ verification sites in the American River basin in the Sierra Nevada (United States). This basin is more densely vegetated and thus more challenging for SWE estimation than the previous applications of the EnBS. Both data assimilation methods provided significant improvement over the prior (modeling only) estimates, with both able to significantly reduce prior SWE biases. The prior RMSE values at the snow pillow and snow course sites were reduced by 68%-82% and 60%-68%, respectively, when applying the data assimilation methods. This result is encouraging for a basin like the American where the moderate to high forest cover will necessarily obscure more of the snow-covered ground surface than in previously examined, less-vegetated basins. The PBS generally outperformed the EnBS: for snow pillows the PBSRMSE was approx.54%of that seen in the EnBS, while for snow courses the PBSRMSE was approx.79%of the EnBS. Sensitivity tests show relative insensitivity for both the PBS and EnBS results to ensemble size and fSCA measurement error, but a higher sensitivity for the EnBS to the mean prior precipitation input, especially in the case where significant prior biases exist.

  19. Non-explosive magma water interaction in a continental setting: Miocene examples from the Eastern Cordillera (central Andes; NW Argentina)

    Vezzoli, Luigina; Matteini, Massimo; Hauser, Natalia; Omarini, Ricardo; Mazzuoli, Roberto; Acocella, Valerio

    2009-07-01

    The Middle-Upper Miocene Las Burras Almagro-El Toro (BAT) igneous complex within the Eastern Cordillera of the central Andes (˜24°S; NW Argentina) has revealed evidence of non-explosive interaction of andesitic magma with water or wet clastic sediments in a continental setting, including peperite generation. We describe and interpret lithofacies and emplacement mechanisms in three case studies. The Las Cuevas member (11.8 Ma) comprises facies related to: (i) andesite extruded in a subaqueous setting and generating lobe-hyaloclastite lava; and (ii) marginal parts of subaerial andesite lava dome(s) in contact with surface water, comprising fluidal lava lobes, hyaloclastite, and juvenile clasts with glassy rims. The Lampazar member (7.8 Ma) is represented by a syn-volcanic andesite intrusion and related peperite that formed within unconsolidated, water-saturated, coarse-grained volcaniclastic conglomerate and breccia. The andesite intrusion is finger-shaped and grades into intrusive pillows. Pillows are up to 2 m wide, tightly packed near the intrusion fingers, and gradually become dispersed in the host sediment ≥50 m from the parent intrusion. The Almagro A member (7.2 Ma) shows evidence of mingling between water-saturated, coarse-grained, volcaniclastic alluvial breccia and intruding andesite magma. The resulting intrusive pillows are characterized by ellipsoidal and tubular shape and concentric structure. The high-level penetration of magma in this coarse sediment was unconfined and irregular. Magma was detached in apophyses and lobes with sharp contacts and fluidal shapes, and without quench fragmentation and formation of a hyaloclastite envelope. The presence of peperite and magma water contact facies in the BAT volcanic sequence indicates the possible availability of water in the system between 11 7 Ma and suggests a depositional setting in this part of the foreland basin of the central Andes characterized by an overall topographically low coastal floodplain

  20. High-density U-Mo fuels - Latest results and reoriented qualifications programs

    As a result of unstable swelling (pillowing) experienced during tests of U-Mo dispersed in aluminum under high-power conditions in 2003, the programs to develop, qualify, and license U-Mo dispersion fuels carried out in the United States, France, Argentina, and Russia have been reoriented. During the past year, a major effort has been carried out to determine the cause(s) of the failures and to find potential remedies for the problem. The past year's activities are summarized and updated plans and schedules for the qualification of U-Mo fuels are presented. (author)

  1. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Leandro Rocha Lemos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  2. Texto e têxtil em O Livro de Travesseiro

    Andrei Cunha

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This text is a three-part reflection upon the theme of “clothing” as it is found in a literary work of Ancient Japan — on the importance of garment-making skills as a device for the production of difference in the context of the Imperial Court; on how the theme from the book resonates in the context of 20th century fashion; and on how it is brought up to date and amplified, working as a metaphor for writing, in the film adaptation of the ancient text. In The Pillow Book of Sei Shôna...

  3. Protection Against Cross Infection in Hospital Beds with Integrated Personalized Ventilation

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Polak, Marcin; Jiang, Hao;

    2008-01-01

    to supply air directly to the breathing zone when people are lying in beds, e.g. in a hospital ward. This principle, called "Personalized Ventilation" has shown to be very efficient in the protection of people from cross infection. The system supplies fresh air into the breathing zone through a pillow...... in this paper are carried out with tracer gas and two thermal manikins in the experimental SARS ward at Hong Kong University. One of the manikins is the source manikin, and the other one the target. The measurements show that a very high degree of protection can be obtained with this system. Optimum flow rate...

  4. Music, Health, Technology and Design

    2014-01-01

    Imagine that objects in your home environment – let us say a pillow, a carpet or a toy – became musical and interactive. Do you think that they could offer new ways of playing and being together? Could they even have the potential to reduce isolation and passivity and promote health and well-being for some of us? This anthology, the eighth in the Series from the Centre for Music and Health, presents a compilation of articles that explore the many intersections of music, health, technology ...

  5. Iceland as a Model for Chemical Alteration on Mars

    Bishop, Janice L.; Schiffman, P.; Murad, E.; Southard, R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Subglacial volcanic activity on Iceland has led to the formation of a variety of silicate and iron oxide-rich alteration products that may serve as a model for chemical alteration on Mars. Multiple palagonitic tuffs, altered pillow lavas, hydrothermal springs and alteration at glacial run-off streams were observed during a recent field trip in Iceland. Formation of alteration products and ferrihydrite in similar environments on Mars may have contributed to the ferric oxide-rich surface material there. The spectral and chemical properties of Icelandic alteration products and ferrihydrites are presented here.

  6. A new structural model of the Pachitea Basin, Peru: Interaction of thick-skinned tectonics and salt detached thrusting

    Witte, J.; Rebaza, J.; Westlund, D.; Stratton, M.; Alegria, C.

    2015-11-01

    We present four new structural transects, a new seismo-stratigraphic correlation, a refined structural model and new shortening rates for the Pachitea Basin (=PB), Peru. Our results are based on the integration and detailed interpretation of newly acquired industry seismic (2D, 2005 vintage), existing well data, existing and proprietary surface geology data and newly acquired aero magnetic data (2007 vintage). Our assessment confirms the presence of at least four distinct structural styles in the area, thick-skinned structures, thin-skinned detachment thrusting, salt-tectonics and localized strike-slip tectonics. Based on seismo-stratigraphic correlations we conclude that the oldest rocks carried to outcrop by the San Matias (=SM) thrust are of Jurassic age. We interpret the thin-skinned master detachment to be located in varying positions, directly below or above, autochtonous salt pillows. Timing assessment of the SM thrust sheet reveals that it has been active from at least ˜5 Ma to post-2 Ma, supporting regionally published timing data for this latitude. Positive topographic surface expressions indicate ongoing contraction along the mountain front of the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera (=EC). Across the PB we calculate between 2.6% and 5.5% for thick-skinned shortening and at least 25.5% for the thin-skinned shortening. For the SM thrust sheet we calculate a slip-rate of ˜1-1.6 mm/yr, which is in line with published slip rates on individual thrusts from around the world. Observations along the SM thrust system indicate that thin- and thick-skinned systems interact mechanically, and that they have been active intermittently. We conclude that the location of salt pillows as well as pre-existing or growing basement-involved structures helped trigger the SM thrust. Different types of salt bodies are present in the PB, autochtonous pillows, slightly thrusted pillows and allochtonous diapirs. Our results provide new insight into the structural interplay, particularly

  7. Large Plant Growth Chambers: Flying Soon on a Space Station near You!

    Massa, Gioia D.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species, and those capabilities continue to grow. The Veggie vegetable production system will be deployed to the ISS in Spring of 2014 to act as an applied research platform with goals of studying food production in space, providing the crew with a source of fresh food, allowing behavioral health and plant microbiology experimentation, and being a source of recreation and enjoyment for the crew. Veggie was conceived, designed, and constructed by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC, Madison, WI). Veggie is the largest plant growth chamber that NASA has flown to date, and is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low energy usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) light emitting diodes. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellows baseplate secured to the light cap via magnetic closures and stabilized with extensible flexible arms. The baseplate contains vents allowing air from the ISS cabin to be pulled through the plant growth area by a fan in the light cap. The baseplate holds a Veggie root mat reservoir that will supply water to plant pillows attached via elastic cords. Plant pillows are packages of growth media and seeds that will be sent to ISS dry and installed and hydrated on orbit. Pillows can be constructed in various sizes for different plant types. Watering will be via passive wicking from the root mat to the pillows. Science procedures will include photography or videography, plant thinning, pollination, harvesting, microbial sampling, water sampling, etcetera. Veggie is one of the ISS flight options currently available for research investigations on plants. The Plant Habitat (PH) is being designed and constructed through a NASA

  8. Eldorado plans second uranium refinery

    Eldorado Nuclear Ltd. intends to open a new uranium refinery at Port Granby, Ont., by 1980, thereby tripling output of uranium hexafluoride. In the 1980's, the company plans to build a third refinery in Saskatchewan. The process of producing uranium hexafluoride from crude yellowcake is explained, and improvements introduced by Eldorado are discussed. They include a continuous denitrator for producing uranium trioxide, and 'pillow block' briquetting rollers for briquetting it before it is reduced with hydrogen to uranium dioxide. (N.D.H.)

  9. Ultra-diffuse hydrothermal venting supports Fe-oxidizing bacteria and massive umber deposition at 5000 m off Hawaii

    Edwards, Katrina J.; Glazer, B T; Rouxel, O J; W. Bach; Emerson, D; Davis, R. E.; Toner, B M; Chan, C S; Tebo, B M; Staudigel, H; Moyer, C L

    2011-01-01

    A novel hydrothermal field has been discovered at the base of Lōihi Seamount, Hawaii, at 5000 mbsl. Geochemical analyses demonstrate that ‘FeMO Deep', while only 0.2 °C above ambient seawater temperature, derives from a distal, ultra-diffuse hydrothermal source. FeMO Deep is expressed as regional seafloor seepage of gelatinous iron- and silica-rich deposits, pooling between and over basalt pillows, in places over a meter thick. The system is capped by mm to cm thick hydrothermally derived iro...

  10. An oxygen isotope profile in a section of Cretaceous oceanic crust, Samail Ophiolite, Oman: Evidence for δ^(18)O buffering of the oceans by deep (>5 km) seawater-hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges

    Gregory, Robert T.; Taylor, Hugh P., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of 75 samples from the Samail ophiolite indicate that pervasive subsolidus hydrothermal exchange with seawater occurred throughout the upper 75% of this 8-km-thick oceanic crustal section; locally, the H_2O even penetrated down into the tectonized peridotite. Pillow lavas (δ^(18)O = 10.7 to 12.7) and sheeted dikes (4.9 to 11.3) are typically enriched in ^(18)O, and the gabbros (3.7 to 5.9) are depleted in ^(18)O. In the latter rocks, water/rock ≤ 0.3, and δ^(18)O_(cpx) ≈ 2.9...

  11. Magnetic characterization of synthetic titanomagnetites: Quantifying the recording fidelity of ideal synthetic analogs

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2014-01-01

    sporadic occurance of dendritic Fe3-xTixO4 structures. Magnetic measurements show their bulk characteristics fall into two groups: Ti-rich titanomagnetite samples with varying Ti content; and near-stoichiometric magnetite. The TEM technique of off-axis electron holography allowed for visualization of the...... magnetically weak larger Fe3-xTixO4 grains (x ∼ 0.6). The large grains in the pure magnetite sample are shown to be pseudo-single domain in nature. The quenching process involved in synthesis is considered similar to that of pillow basalts found at mid-ocean ridges and hence the reaction products are thought...

  12. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Høy; Permin, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out...... nursery pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys....

  13. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data; Le massif ophiolitique de Kahnuj (Makran occidental, Iran meridional): nouvelles donnees geologiques et geochronologiques

    Kananian, A. [University of Tarbiat Modarress, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, IUEM, 29 - Brest (France); Darvishzadeh, A. [University of Teheran, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzehi, M. [Geological Survey of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Whitechurch, H. [Universite Louis Pasteur, EOST, Institut de Physique du Globe, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Ricou, L.E. [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-05-01

    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km{sup 2}) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ({sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  14. The diet of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Brünnich. 1782 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in Myanmar - conflicts with local people?

    Sein Sein Win

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages.  It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves.  Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed.  Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers.  Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers. 

  15. Investigaciones paleomagnéticas en la zona Subbética.

    Freeman, R; Osete, M.L.; Vegas, R.

    1998-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio palomagnético en la parte central dc la Zona Subbética, en rocas volcánicas (pillow-lavas, material intrusivo y coladas de basaltos) y sedimentarias (calizas, margocalizas y calizas nodulosas de facies Ammonitico Rosso) de edad jurásica. Con objeto dc analizar las propiedades magnéticas de las rocas estudiadas se han determinado las curvas termomagnéticas dc los materiales volcánicos y sc han realizado experimentos sobre adquisición gradual dc rema...

  16. High-Ti type N-MORB parentage of basalts from the south Andaman ophiolite suite, India

    Rajesh K Srivastava; R Chandra; Anant Shastry

    2004-12-01

    A complete dismembered sequence of ophiolite is well exposed in the south Andaman region that mainly comprises ultramafic cumulates, serpentinite mafic plutonic and dyke rocks, pillow lava, radiolarian chert, and plagiogranite. Pillow lavas of basaltic composition occupy a major part of the Andaman ophiolite suite (AOS). These basalts are well exposed all along the east coast of southern part of the south AOS. Although these basalts are altered due to low-grade metamorphism and late hydrothermal processes, their igneous textures are still preserved. These basalts are mostly either aphyric or phyric in nature. Aphyric type exhibits intersertal or variolitic textures, whereas phyric variety shows porphyritic or sub-ophitic textures. The content of alkalies and silica classify these basalts as sub-alkaline basalts and alkaline basalts. A few samples show basaltic andesite, trachybasalt, or basanitic chemical composition. High-field strength element (HFSE) geochemistry suggests that studied basalt samples are probably derived from similar parental magmas. Al2O3/TiO2 and CaO/TiO2 ratios classify these basalts as high-Ti type basalt. On the basis of these ratios and many discriminant functions and diagrams, it is suggested that the studied basalts, associated with Andaman ophiolite suite, were derived from magma similar to N-MORB and emplaced in the mid-oceanic ridge tectonic setting.

  17. Complete preservation of ophiolite suite from south Andaman, India: A mineralchemical perspective

    Abhishek Saha; Avik Dhang; Jyotisankar Ray; Suvankar Chakraborty; David Moecher

    2010-06-01

    Field studies supplemented by petrographic analyses clearly reveal complete preservation of ophiolite suite from Port Blair (11° 39′ N: 92° 45′E) to Chiriyatapu (11° 30′ 24′′N: 92° 42′ 30′′E) stretch of South Andaman. The ophiolite suite reveals serpentinite at the base which is overlain unconformably by cumulate ultramafic–mafic members with discernible cumulus texture and igneous layering. Basaltic dykes are found to cut across the cumulate ultramafic–mafic members. The succession is capped by well exposed pillow basalts interlayered with arkosic sediments. Olivine from the basal serpentinite unit are highly magnesian (Fo80.1–86.2). All clinopyroxene analyses from cumulate pyroxenite, cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke are discriminated to be `Quad’ and are uniformly restricted to the diopside field. Composition of plagioclase in different lithomembers is systematically varying from calcic to sodic endmembers progressively from cumulate pyroxenite to pillow basalt through cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke. Plagioclase phenocrysts from basaltic dyke are found to be distinctly zoned (An60.7–An35.5) whereas groundmass plagioclase are relatively sodic (An33–An23.5). Deduced thermobarometric data from different lithomembers clearly correspond to the observed preservation of complete ophiolite suite.

  18. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants.

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely. PMID:26825249

  19. Texto e têxtil em O Livro de Travesseiro

    Andrei Cunha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This text is a three-part reflection upon the theme of “clothing” as it is found in a literary work of Ancient Japan — on the importance of garment-making skills as a device for the production of difference in the context of the Imperial Court; on how the theme from the book resonates in the context of 20th century fashion; and on how it is brought up to date and amplified, working as a metaphor for writing, in the film adaptation of the ancient text. In The Pillow Book of Sei Shônagon (Japan, 10th–11th centuries, text, textile and memory merge into an extended, web-like metaphor that is also a commentary on the status of women in Imperial Heian. The adaptation of the written work for the cinema (The Pillow Book, by Peter Greenaway, 1996 features clothes by deconstructivist Martin Margiela, adding new interpretative layers to this cluster of images, relating them to the acts of writing, weaving, reading, translating, adapting and deconstructing. The fragmentary character of Sei Shônagon’s work also resonates with fashion journalism of the 20th century. The aesthetic ideal of okashi, a concept from classical Japanese literature, resonates with 20th century conceptions of fashion, such as Diana Vreeland’s pizzazz, and with the aesthetics of modernist poetry. Clothing as a metaphor for text and the idea of clothing as text are present in those three interpretative moments.

  20. Radiometric dating of bioalteration textures in Archean basaltic metaglasses

    Full text: Direct in-situ U-Pb dating of titanite which infills tubular bioalteration textures in pillow basalt rims from the ∼ 3.35 Ga Euro basalt of the Pilbara craton, W. Australia (PWA) confirms their Archean age. A novel in situ laser ablation multi-collector-ICP-MS technique is here reported that has enabled the first radiometric age determination of an Archean biosignature. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that these tubular bioalteration textures formed by microbial etching of formerly glassy Archean lavas that were subsequently mineralized by titanite. Firstly, there are striking morphological similarities between tubular structures from both the Pilbara and Barberton (BGB) cratons and bioalteration textures in modern glasses. Secondly, x-ray mapping indicates C enriched along the margins of the tubular structures from both the BGB and PWA. Thirdly, disseminated carbonates in the BGB pillow rims have C-isotopes depleted by as much as -16 %o, which is consistent with microbial oxidation of organic matter. A pre-metamorphic age for these microtubes is indicated by their segmentation caused by metamorphic chlorite overgrowths. A laser ablation spot size of ∼ 40 μm was used to analyze titanite in the 'root zones' at the centre of microtube clusters. Thirteen analyzes upon three thin sections gave a weighted average 206Pb/238U age of 2921 ± 110 Ma. This corresponds to the oldest metamorphic episode that has affected the PWA rocks and gives a minimum, late Archean age estimate for the bioalteration. (author)

  1. Evaluation of NVE's snow station network; Subreport in R et D project 302H15 Good snow data; Evaluering av NVE sitt snoestasjonsnettverk

    Ree, Bjoerg Lirhus; Landroe, Hilde; Trondsen, Elise; Moeen, Knut M.

    2011-03-15

    NVE has measured snow water equivalent of snow pillow in forty years. Our snow station network has risen since 1997 from 6 to 25 stations. It was therefore absolutely necessary to do a review and quality assurance of NVE's snow data. This report discusses the snow data measured continuously - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Each station and the parameters it measures are described and evaluated. It is concluded in relation to whether stations should be continued or not. Stations technical solutions are well described, both of NVE's standard stations and the two test stations, Filefjell and Svarttjoernbekken. It has been o importance to bring out what problems the instruments have or may have and provide suggestions for solutions to them. Problems related to measure the water equivalent under Norwegian conditions, with the challenges and winter rain and re-freezing provides, is also reviewed. Alternatives to water equivalent measurements with a snow pillow, which is the traditional way in this country, are presented. Some of the alternative methods NVE tests out, for the others only description and our opinion is given. (Author)

  2. Rare earth element geochemistry of the Betts Cove ophiolite, Newfoundland: complexities in ophiolite formation

    The Betts Cove ophiolite includes the components of typical ocean crust: pillow lavas, sheeted dikes, gabbros, and ultramafics. However, the trace element geochemistry of basaltic rocks is unusual. Three geochemical units are recognized within the lava and dike members. Within the pillow lavas, the geochemical units correspond to stratigraphic units. Upper lavas have 'normal' TiO2 contents, heavy rare earth elements (HREE) values in the range 6 to 20 X chondrites and chondrite-normalized REE patterns with relative LREE depletion. Intermediate lavas have TiO2 contents between 0.30 and 0.50 wt%, HREE contents from 4 to 7 X chondrites and extreme relative LREE depletion. Lower lavas have anomalously low TiO2 contents and unusual convex-downwards REE patterns with REE abundances around 2 to 5 X chondrite. These geochemical differences can be explained if the three groups were derived from different mantle sources. Independent mantle sources for the three units are consistent with their different 143Nd/144Nd ratios varying at 480 m.y.B.P. from 0.51222 in a lower lava to 0.51238 in an upper lava. The results are discussed. (author)

  3. Carbonate Cements from the Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell Volcanoes, Svalbard Norway: Analogs for Martian Carbonates

    Blake, D. F.; Treiman, A. H.; Morris, R.; Bish, D.; Amundsen, H.E.F.; Steele, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell volcanic complexes erupted at 1Ma on Svalbard, Norway. Sverrefjell is a cone of cinders, pillow lavas and dikes; Sigurdfjell is elongate in outcrop and may represent a fissure eruption [1]. The lavas of both volcanos were volatile rich. The volcanos erupted under ice and were subsequently dissected by glaciation (glacial eratics are present on most of Sverrefjell, even on its summit). Eruption beneath an ice sheet is inferred, based on the presence of pillow lavas from near sea level to 1000 m above sea level. Sverrefjell contains the largest fraction of ultramafic xenoliths of any volcanic complex in the world, in places accounting for as much as 50% of the volume of the outcrop. The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfell volcanos contain carbonate cements of several varieties: (1) Amundsen [2] reported Mg-Fe-rich carbonate in sub-mm globules in basalts and ultramafic xenoliths from the volcanos. These globules are the best terrestrial analogs to the carbonate globules in the Mars meteorite ALH84001 [3]. (2) Thick (1-3 cm) coatings of carbonate cement drape the walls of vertical volcanic pipes or conduits on the flanks and near the present summit of Sverrefjell. Similar occurrences are found on Sigurdfjell. (3) Breccia-filled pipes or vents occur on Sverrefjell and Siggurdfjell in which the breccia fragments are cemented by carbonate. The fragments themselves commonly contain carbonate globules similar to those found in the basalts and ultramafic xenoliths.

  4. Volcanology of the Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California

    Portner, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Dreyer, B. M.; Martin, J. F.; Paduan, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Alarcon Rise is a ~50 km long intermediate-rate (~50mm/a) spreading center at the southern end of the Gulf of California. In Spring 2012, an MBARI-led expedition to Alarcon Rise mapped a ~1.5- 3km wide swath of the ridge axis at 1-m resolution and completed 9 dives with the ROV Doc Ricketts (Clague et al., this session). Pillow, lobate, and sheet flows occur along the entire axis. An inflated zone of the axis south of the midpoint along the Rise is dominated by a large sheet/lobate flow that erupted from en echelon fissures that extends for 8 km. This flow extends laterally away from the fissures for at least 2 km and covered nearly all prior flows and pillow mounds in its path. The middle of the segment contains a 1km across flat-topped volcano, virtually unmodified by fissures and faults, which dissect a 2.5 km across shield 5 km to the north. The NE and SW parts of the axis are characterized by more abundant pillow mounds and less voluminous sheet flows. Many of the pillow mounds, especially those in the northern third of the axis are small, steep sided mounds. Examination of sand and slit sized fractions of the basal cm of 87 cores collected by the ROV shows that basaltic pyroclasts with fluidal or bubble-wall (limu o Pele) morphologies are ubiquitous along the entire ridge. A rugged dome-like structure about 0.5x1.2kmx75m tall occurs about 9 km from the northern end of the ridge axis. Its crest is at a depth of 2330 m. Linear ridge-parallel faults and ridges cross-cut or terminate into the dome. These ridges extend several km both NE and SW along strike from the dome. Extensive sampling during two ROV dives shows that the entire dome is constructed of coarse blocky breccia and minor lineated flows of rhyolite. Dacite, andesite, and basaltic andesite flows occur on adjacent slopes to the north, south and west, and exhibit medium- to large-diameter pillow morphologies. Many of these flows and the flanks of the dome are mantled by abundant coarse- to fine

  5. Veggie: Space Vegetables for the International Space Station and Beyond

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2016-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. Veggie was designed by ORBITEC to be a compact, low mass, low power vegetable production system for astronaut crews. Veggie consists of a light cap containing red, blue, and green LEDs, an extensible transparent bellows, and a baseplate with a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in plant pillows, small growing bags that interface with the reservoir. The Veggie technology validation test, VEG-01, was initiated with the first test crop of 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce. Prior to flight, lettuce seeds were sanitized and planted in a substrate of arcillite (baked ceramic) mixed with controlled release fertilizer. Upon initiation, astronauts open the packaged plant pillows, install them in the Veggie hardware, and prime the system with water. Operations include plant thinning, watering, and photography. Plants were grown on the ISS for 33 days, harvested, and returned frozen to Earth for analysis. Ground controls were conducted at Kennedy Space Center in controlled environment chambers reproducing ISS conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and CO2. Returned plant samples were analyzed for microbial food safety and chemistry including elements, antioxidants, anthocyanins and phenolics. In addition the entire plant microbiome was sequenced, and returned plant pillows were analyzed via x-ray tomography. Food safety analyses allowed us to gain approvals for future consumption of lettuce by the flight surgeons and the payload safety office. A second crop of lettuce was grown in 2015, and the crew consumed half the produce, with the remainder frozen for later analysis. This growth test was followed by testing of a new crop in Veggie, zinnias. Zinnias were grown to test a longer duration flowering crop in preparation for tests of tomatoes and other fruiting crops in the future. Zinnias were harvested in February. Samples from the second harvest of lettuce and the

  6. Juxtaposition of adakite, boninite, high-TiO 2 and low-TiO 2 basalts in the Devonian southern Altay, Xinjiang, NW China

    Niu, Hecai; Sato, Hiroaki; Zhang, Haixiang; Ito, Jun'ichi; Yu, Xueyuan; Nagao, Takashi; Terada, Kentaro; Zhang, Qi

    2006-12-01

    We present petrographic and geochemical data on representative samples of the Devonian adakite, boninite, low-TiO 2 and high-TiO 2 basalts and associated rocks in the southern Altay areas, Xinjiang, NW China. These volcanic rocks mostly occur as tectonic blocks within suture zones between the Siberian and Junggar plates. Adakite occurs in the Suoerkuduke area ca. 40 km south of Fuyun, and actually represents a poorly-sorted massive volcaniclastic deposit, mostly consisting of a suite of hornblende andesite to pyroxene andesite. The geochemical features of the adakite suggest its generation by melting of subducted oceanic crust. Boninite occurs in the Saerbulake area ca. 20 km southwest of Fuyun, as pillowed lava or pillowed breccia. It is associated with high-TiO 2 basalt/gabbro and low-TiO 2 basalt. The boninites are metamorphosed, but contain relict clinopyroxene with Mg# (=100*Mg/(Mg+Fe)) of 90-92, and Cr 2O 3 contents of 0.5-0.7 wt% and chromian spinel with Cr/(Cr+Al) ratio of 0.84. The bulk rock compositions of the boninites are characterized by low and U-shaped REE with variable La/Yb ratios. They are classified as high-Ca boninite. The Cr-rich cpx phenocryst and Chromian spinel suggests that the boninites were formed by melting of mildly refractory mantle peridotite fluxed by a slab-derived fluid component under normal mantle potential temperature conditions. Basaltic rocks occur as massive flows, pillowed lavas, tuff breccia, lapilli tuff and blocks in tectonic mélanges. Together with gabbros, the basaltic rocks are classified into high-TiO 2 (>1.7 wt%) and low-TiO 2 (<1.5 wt%) types. They show variable trace element compositions, from MORB-type through transitional back-arc basin basalt to arc tholeiite, or within plate alkalic basalt. A notable feature of the Devonian formations in the southern Altay is the juxtaposition of volcanic rocks of various origins even within a limited area; i.e. the adakite and the boninites are associated with high-TiO 2 and

  7. Soft-sediment deformation structures in Cambrian Series 2 tidal deposits (NW Estonia): implications for identifying endogenic triggering mechanisms in ancient sedimentary record

    Põldsaar, Kairi

    2015-04-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) are documented in several horizons within silt- and sandstones of the Cambrian Series 2 (Dominopolian Stage) Tiskre Formation, and some in the below-deposited argillaceous deposits of the Lükati Formation (northern part of the Baltoscandian Palaeobasin, NW Estonia). The aim of this study was to map, describe, and analyze these deformation features, discuss their deformation mechanism and possible triggers. Load structures (simple load casts, pillows, flame structures, convoluted lamination) with varying shapes and sizes occur in the Tiskre Fm in sedimentary interfaces within medium-bedded peritidal rhythmites (siltstone-argillaceous material) as well as within up to 3 m thick slightly seaward inclined stacked sandstone sequences. Homogenized beds, dish-and-pillar structures, and severely deformed bedding are also found within these stacked units and within a large tidal runoff channel infill. Autoclastic breccias and water-escape channels are rare and occur only in small-scale -- always related to thin, horizontal tidal laminae. Profound sedimentary dykes, sand volcanoes, and thrust faults, which are often related to earthquake triggered soft sediment deformation, were not observed within the studied intervals. Deformation horizon or horizons with large flat-topped pillows often with elongated morphologies occur at or near the boundary between the Tiskre and Lükati formations. Deformation mechanisms identified in this study for the various deformation types are gravitationally unstable reversed density gradient (especially in case of load features that are related to profound sedimentary interfaces) and lateral shear stress due to sediment current drag (in case of deformation structures that not related to loading at any apparent sedimentary interface). Synsedimentary liquefaction was identified as the primary driving force in most of the observed deformation horizons. Clay thixotropy may have contributed in the

  8. Veggie ISS Validation Test Results and Produce Consumption

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Spencer, LaShelle; Smith, Trent

    2015-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system flew to the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2014. The first set of plants, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, was grown, harvested, frozen, and returned to Earth in October. Ground control and flight plant tissue was sub-sectioned for microbial analysis, anthocyanin antioxidant phenolic analysis, and elemental analysis. Microbial analysis was also performed on samples swabbed on orbit from plants, Veggie bellows, and plant pillow surfaces, on water samples, and on samples of roots, media, and wick material from two returned plant pillows. Microbial levels of plants were comparable to ground controls, with some differences in community composition. The range in aerobic bacterial plate counts between individual plants was much greater in the ground controls than in flight plants. No pathogens were found. Anthocyanin concentrations were the same between ground and flight plants, while antioxidant and phenolic levels were slightly higher in flight plants. Elements varied, but key target elements for astronaut nutrition were similar between ground and flight plants. Aerobic plate counts of the flight plant pillow components were significantly higher than ground controls. Surface swab samples showed low microbial counts, with most below detection limits. Flight plant microbial levels were less than bacterial guidelines set for non-thermostabalized food and near or below those for fungi. These guidelines are not for fresh produce but are the closest approximate standards. Forward work includes the development of standards for space-grown produce. A produce consumption strategy for Veggie on ISS includes pre-flight assessments of all crops to down select candidates, wiping flight-grown plants with sanitizing food wipes, and regular Veggie hardware cleaning and microbial monitoring. Produce then could be consumed by astronauts, however some plant material would be reserved and returned for analysis. Implementation of

  9. Preparation for the Proof of Concept Flight of the Veggie Plant Growth Chamber

    Massa, Gioia; Morrow, Robert; Hummerick, Mary; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Veggie is a small plant growth chamber designed and built by ORBITEC that will fly to the International Space Station on SpaceX-3, scheduled for the summer of 2013. Ultimately Veggie will be used for research, education and outreach, and crew recreation. We want to demonstrate the functionality of this hardware by testing a scenario that could allow the crew to grow and consume fresh vegetables. Veggie will be collapsed and transported flat in a cargo transfer bag, and deployed on orbit, where it will be installed in an EXPRESS rack. The chamber consists of three subsystems: an LED light cap, a transparent bellows, and a root mat reservoir assembly. The bellows and flexible support arms allow the distance between plants and light cap to be adjusted for different ages and types of plants. Researchers at Kennedy Space Center and ORBITEC have been working to develop the plant growth interfaces for the proof of concept flight. We have developed a rooting pillow, consisting of a small bag containing media, time release fertilizer, seeds, and a wicking surface to conduct water from the root mat reservoir. Prototype pillows have been tested and results have influenced the design of flight pillows, which will be modified for microgravity from flight-approved materials. Several studies have been conducted selecting species and comparing media types in analog systems. Water content seems to be the most important factor differentiating media types in these small growth volumes (100 mL). Media type also influenced microbial levels on plants. Since produce sanitizing agents are not currently approved for growing food crops on orbit, plants and media types having very low microbial levels are being selected. Lettuce, mizuna, and other salad greens typically have microbial counts less than 10(exp 4) colony forming units and thus are good candidates for spaceflight. As we approach flight verification testing, we will finalize species, media selection, harvesting, and microbial

  10. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    R. J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  11. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the NE Netherlands

    Raith, A. F.; Strozyk, F.; Visser, J.; Urai, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of salt structures is controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. The potassium-magnesium salts (K-Mg salts) carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than halite: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, intrasalt anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers) are much stronger than halite. These rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important control on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. In this study, we use high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, thus we are able to assess the role of extreme rheological heterogeneities on salt structure growth. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that faulting and the generation of depressions on the top Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under the influence of differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the

  12. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the northeast of the Netherlands

    A F. Raith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At the first order salt structures are controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. Rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important effect on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. The potassium–magnesium salts (K-Mg salts carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than rock salt: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers in salt are much stronger than halite. In this study, we used high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, providing an example of extreme rheological heterogeneities in salt structures. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that active faulting and the resulting depressions of the Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of the thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the K-Mg salt

  13. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the northeast of the Netherlands

    Raith, A. F.; Strozyk, F.; Visser, J.; Urai, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    At the first order salt structures are controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. Rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important effect on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. The potassium-magnesium salts (K-Mg salts) carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than rock salt: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers) in salt are much stronger than halite. In this study, we used high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, providing an example of extreme rheological heterogeneities in salt structures. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that active faulting and the resulting depressions of the Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of the thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the K-Mg salt-rich layers were

  14. A new 3-dimensional head fixation device for brain imaging

    We have developed a new head fixation device for studies of brain function. This device was designed to immobilize subject's heads during image scanning and to precisely reproduce the head position for two different imaging modalities such as MRI and PET. The device consists of a plastic frame, a pillow filled with beads of styrene foam, and a face mask of thermoplastic resin which was originally intended for application in radiotherapy. A bridge for biting was incorporated into the mask for stable fixation. The device enables immobilization of subject's heads with good reproducibility of position at the practical level. Our results indicate that this head fixation system is useful for fixation of head during activation studies using PET. (author)

  15. Risk analysis of early childhood eczema

    Bisgaard, Hans; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Hinge, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of eczema suggests the role of environmental factors triggering a genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of environmental exposures in early life and genetic predisposition on the development of eczema before age 3 years. METHODS: The...... assessments included filaggrin loss-of-function mutation; parent's atopic disease; sex; social status; previous deliveries; third trimester complications and exposures; anthropometrics at birth; month of birth; duration solely breast-fed; introduction of egg, cow's milk, and fish; time spent in day care; cat...... and dog at home; feather pillow; nicotine in infant's hair; and temperature and humidity in bedroom. RESULTS: Eczema developed in 43.5% of the infants. Filaggrin mutation (odds ratio [OR], 3.20; 95% CI, 1.46-7.02; P = .004), mother's eczema (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63; P < .0001), and father...

  16. Geologic mapping on the deep seafloor: Reconstructing lava flow emplacement and eruptive history at the Galápagos Spreading Center

    McClinton, J. T.; White, S.; Colman, A.; Sinton, J. M.; Bowles, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The deep seafloor imposes significant difficulties on data collection that require the integration of multiple data sets and the implementation of unconventional geologic mapping techniques. We combine visual mapping of geological contacts by submersible with lava flow morphology maps and relative and absolute age constraints to create a spatiotemporal framework for examining submarine lava flow emplacement at the intermediate-spreading, hotspot-affected Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC). We mapped 18 lava flow fields, interpreted to be separate eruptive episodes, within two study areas at the GSC using visual observations of superposition, surface preservation and sediment cover from submersible and towed camera surveys, augmented by high-resolution sonar surveys and sample petrology [Colman et al., Effects of variable magma supply on mid-ocean ridge eruptions: Constraints from mapped lava flow fields along the Galápagos Spreading Center; 2012 G3]. We also mapped the lava flow morphology within the majority of these eruptive units using an automated, machine-learning classification method [McClinton et al., Neuro-fuzzy classification of submarine lava flow morphology; 2012 PE&RS]. The method combines detailed geometric, acoustic, and textural attributes derived from high-resolution sonar data with visual observations and a machine-learning algorithm to classify submarine lava flow morphology as pillows, lobates, or sheets. The resulting lava morphology maps are a valuable tool for interpreting patterns in the emplacement of submarine lava flows at a mid-ocean ridge (MOR). Within our study area at 92°W, where the GSC has a relatively high magma supply, high effusion rate sheet and lobate lavas are more abundant in the oldest mapped eruptive units, while the most recent eruptions mostly consist of low effusion rate pillow lavas. The older eruptions (roughly 400yrs BP by paleomagnetic intensity) extend up to 1km off axis via prominent channels and tubes, while the

  17. U-series data of recent volcanism at an Axial Volcanic Ridge (Invited)

    van Calsteren, P. W.; Thomas, L. E.; Jc024 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    The spreading rate of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, at the area around 45°N is 11mm/y. This is appropriate scaling for mantle horizontal flow and vertical upwelling. However, the accretion of oceanic crust within the median valley graben (MVG), occurs episodically on timescales much longer than years. During the 2008 JC024 cruise various geophysical and bathymetry datasets were collected as well as photographic and video evidence and some 270 rock samples, using ship-borne instruments, a deep-towed platform TOBI and a tethered ROV Isis both in demersal mode and 'flying' at 100m above the seafloor. We1 could identify the overall 'hour-glass' shape of the MVG, the location of the AVR, 'flat-top' features and some smooth areas on either side. Overall we1 counted some 8000 conical or dome-shaped hummocks, which are arranged in lineaments, mostly parallel to the spreading axis. We1 deduced that each hummock is an individual monogenetic volcano. Smooth areas between the AVR and the median valley boundary faults may indicate sheet flows which are probably burying the subsiding hummocks. For Dive 91, we1 used a MS2000 high-resolution multi-beam bathymetry echo-sounder on Isis flying at an altitude of 100m above the seafloor; to construct a bathymetry map with a vertical resolution of 20cm and a horizontal precision of 5m over an area of ˜3km2. The high-resolution bathymetry allows us to deduce that volcano dimensions average around 300m diameter, ˜150m altitude, and 0.005km3 volume and to count ˜100 volcanoes. Visual observations using the camera systems on Isis showed that individual volcanoes are essentially piles of pillow lavas, usually ˜1m diameter and >2m long of various types, sometimes leaving >10% gaps between pillows, sometimes interlocking somewhat deformed pillows. Small protrusions, 10-50cm long, which are numerous on some pillows, could be fairly easily broken off using the pincers on the hydraulic arms of Isis, and returned to the surface. Uncertainty remains

  18. Composition and genesis of zeolitic claystones from the central Indian Ocean Basin

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.; Das, P.

    in its structure(Bonatti,1 965;Sheppard et a1., 维普资讯 http://www.cqvip.com VO1.8l NO.5 ACTA GE0L0GICA SINICA 0ct . 2007 759 o 0 l 2 3 4 ClT1 0.8 cm 卜 O O o Fig.2.Representative hand specimens(a tO t]and polished sections fg_h)of zeolitic... stage of cooling when the pillows were injected into wet sediments.Subsequently.extensive zeolitisation of fine volcanic debris occurred at relatively low temperatures from gel type cements.The average Si/ A1 ratio of the C10B samples is 3.0.which...

  19. Imaging designs of occipitocervical fusion for reversed transplantation of occipital outer plate flap%枕骨外板翻转行枕颈融合术的影像学设计

    李磊; 王文军

    2015-01-01

    Objective By analyzing and measuring adult pillow neck midline sagittal CT image data and to investigate preoperative designs of the occipital outer plate flap. Methods Ninety pillow neck sagittal CT image datas from the patients un-derwent CT examination in Hengyang Center Hospital from August to November in 2013 were conducted preoperative designs of the occipital outer plate flap by method A(through 1 cm above the midpoint of the trailing edge of the foramen magnum,the tangent of the arc-shaped diploe image)and method B(through pillow inside and outside carina midpoint,the tangent of the arc-shaped diploe image) respectively. It was determined the feasibility of methods A and B and to obtain preoperative imaging parameters of the flipping of the occipital outer plate through the measurement of relevant indicators of methods A and B. Results There was statistical significance between the flip ratio (desired flap length/maximum flap length available )according to method A or B and the maximum flip ratio(100%)(P0.05). There was statistical significance between methods A and B to flip the occipital outer plate for the same person(P<0.05). Conclusion Both methods A and B are feasible,and method B is better than A. Preoperative measurement of the pillow neck sagittal CT can provide imaging parameters for the intraoperative flip-ping of occipital outer plate.%目的:测量及分析成人枕颈部正中矢状位CT,探讨枕骨外板翻转的术前设计。方法选取2013年8~11月在衡阳市中心医院行CT检查的90例健康成人枕颈部正中矢状位CT影像资料,分别用甲法(经枕骨大孔后缘中点上方1 cm处作板障圆弧的切线)及乙法(经枕内外隆凸连线中点作板障圆弧的切线)进行枕骨外板翻转的术前设计,通过对2种设计相关指标的测量,比较甲、乙法的可行性及枕骨外板翻转的影像学参数。结果成人依据甲法或乙法的翻转比值(所需骨瓣长度/可获取最大

  20. Obtaining procedure for hydrophilic super-absorbents. The patent RO 115 805/2001

    Using ionizing and non ionizing radiation to obtain polymeric super-absorbents which have the swelling capacity between 100-800 gram/gram, mechanical resistance, 7 years of preservation in soils and an extremely reduced content in residual monomers (5 ppm) is described. It is used: - in soil management, environmental protection and work protection of radioactive, toxic, dangerous liquid substance manipulation, for treatment, recycling and storing in case of accidental spreading; - in treatment of solid waste (as mixed with polyurethane granules), as rolls, pillows or in bulk form (granules and powder), for interventions for oil and derivates recovery in case of accidental spreading on water or soil surface. We mention that these hydrophilic absorbents have been certified and licensed sanitarily for use. (author)

  1. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework. PMID:25739746

  2. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

  3. Pediculosis palpebrarum initially diagnosed as blepharitis

    J. A. Ebeigbe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pediculosis is an infestation of lice. Eyelid involvement is uncommon, but can be caused by pediculus humanus capitis (head louse, rarely by  pediculus humanus corporis (body louse and commonly by phthirus pubis (pubic louse. Signs and symptoms are similar to those of blepharitis. A diagnosis of any type of pediculosis requires the finding of live specimen of lice and/or a viable nit.The immediate and effective treatment of pediculosis palpebrarum is removal of the lice and nits manually with forceps and treating the patient withvaseline, twice daily for seven to ten days. Also, fomites such as pillow cases, bedsheets, towels and hats  need to be washed in hot water and dried. This is to avoid further spread of lice or reinfestation.

  4. Evaluation of skin colouring properties of curcuma longa extract

    J Arct

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin colouring properties of curcuma extract in cosmetic formulations. Objective measurements of the skin colour changes were done by Chromameter using the CIE LFNx01aFNx01bFNx01 colour space parameters. These measurements were correlated with the results of the sensory analysis. The observations showed permanent, visible and statistically significant changing of bFNx01 component after one application of emulsions containing 12% and 25% of turmeric extract. The change of skin color remained also after removing the emulsion. Sensory analysis indicated that the tested emulsions with curcuma extract have a significant impact on skin smoothness, spreadability, cosmetic absorption and pillow effect.

  5. Geosphere migration of radionuclides released from a rock-salt repository

    The Dutch safety assessment and evaluation study on the disposal of radioactive waste in rock-salt formations concerns possible release of radionuclides from repositories in such formations, migration of these nuclides via groundwater through the geosphere, and the effects of surface release on the biosphere. With the METROPOL computer programme radionuclide migration through the geosphere was simulated in one-dimensional models of the typical flowpaths for migration to the surface, taking into account the processes of radioactive decay and adsorption of the nuclides at the rock matrix. Typical flowpaths were obtained from two-dimensional geohydrological models of the overburden for three typical situations in the study area, i.e., bedded salt, salt pillows, and shallow salt domes. Results were expressed in terms of time-dependent surface release curves for all nuclides concerned. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Paul Anthony Brazinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ''The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  7. Development of a new antibacterial biomaterial by tetracycline immobilization on calcium-alginate beads.

    Ozseker, Emine Erdogan; Akkaya, Alper

    2016-10-20

    In recent years, increasing risk of infection, caused by resistant microorganism to antibiotics, has become the limelight discovery of new and natural antibacterial materials. Heavy metals, such as silver, copper, mercury and titanium, have antibacterial activity. Products, which improved these metals, do not have stable antibacterial property. Therefore, use of these products is restricted. The aim of this study was to immobilize tetracycline to alginate and improve an antibacterial biomaterial. For this purpose, calcium-alginate beads were formed by dropping to calcium-chloride solution and tetracycline was immobilized to beads using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide at optimum conditions. After immobilization, actualization of immobilization was investigated by analyzing ATR-FTIR spectrum and SEM images. Also, antibacterial property of obtained product was tested. Improved product demonstrated antibacterial property. It has potential for open wound, surgical drapes, bed and pillow sheath in hospitals and it may also be used for increasing human comfort in daily life. PMID:27474587

  8. Hmong Needlework: Development of Interior Decoration Patterns and Products for a Creative Economy

    Thongchue Khiatthong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the inherited embroidery techniques of the Hmong ethnic group in Northern Thailand. This intricate and valuable handicraft is used to create garments for traditional ceremonies and rituals but its general reputation for the creation of everyday items is on the wane in the face of more popular global fashions. This study investigates the possibility of creating a larger variety of product development for use in interior housing decoration, such as curtains, pillow-cases and place-mats. The researchers conclude that, with the correct development of products, systematic collection of design models and simpler needlework techniques for inheritance, Hmong embroidery can battle the Western styles for a place in the everyday life of the consumer and generate a higher earning potential for the ethnic community.

  9. A perspective on sorbents: responding to a bunker oil spill

    Some practical guidelines for the selection of sorbents for use in oil spill cleanup are provided. Sorbents may be classified as selective or oleophilic, and non-selective or universal. Oleophilic sorbents are water-repelling, i.e. they will soak up oil spills and leave water behind. Universal sorbents will soak up most liquids. Sorbents come in such forms as booms, pads, socks, pillows, and loose particulates for spills on land. A case history involving a spill of Bunker C oil in a drainage ditch was provided to illustrate the variety of sorbents that may have to be employed to contain a particular spill. Since unexpected situations during a cleanup effort are the rule more than the exception, it is wise to use a sorbent supplier company that can fulfill a variety of spill response needs

  10. Archean crustal evolution in the central Minto block, northern Quebec

    The central Minto block contains three volcano-sedimentary successions. Near Lake Qalluviartuuq, an isotopically primitive (2.83GaεNd +3.8 to +2.3) 2.83 Ga volcano-plutonic sequence comprises depleted tholeiitic basalts, anorthositic gabbro, and diorite-granodiorite that is unconformably overlain by 2.76GaεNd +1.8) calc-alkaline sequence of pillow basalts, andesites, and peridotite cut by 2.73 Ga diorite. To the west, and in inferred tectonic contact, the sediment-dominated Kogaluc sequence includes both isotopically evolved calc-alkaline rocks (2.76GaεNd +1.6 to -0.1) including 2.78GaεNd Nd 2.725GaεNd - 1. 6). (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  11. Toyz: Large datasets and astronomical images analysis framework

    Moolekamp, Fred

    2015-07-01

    Toyz is a python web framework that allows scientists to interact with large images and data sets stored on a remote server. A web application is run on the server containing the data and clients are run from web browsers on the user's computer. Toyz displays large FITS images also also renders any image format supported by Pillow (a fork of the Python Imaging Library), contains a GUI to interact with linked plots, and offers a customizable framework that allows students and researchers to create their own work spaces inside a Toyz environment. Astro-Toyz extends the features of the Toyz image viewer, allowing users to view world coordinates and align images based on their WCS.

  12. About the book by Riitta V. Lahtinen and Russ C. Palmer. The Body Story

    Salomatina I.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out by a married couple, specialists in the sphere of deafblindness (one of whom has got an Usher syndrome, is devoted to the development of means of non-verbal communication and music perception for people with double sensory defect — deafblindness. Russ Palmer is a professional musician who had lost his hearing capacity under the influence of Usher syndrome. At present together with his wife he is inventing new ways of widening the contacts with the external world for people who found themselves in the same difficult situation. The authors of the book prove that any welfare item like a pillow or a toy balloon can sometimes dramatically change the situation for better.

  13. Correction of the field distortion in embedded laser marking system

    Wang, Dongyun; Yu, Qiwei; Ye, Xinpiao

    2014-04-01

    Because of inherent and random errors, the pillow-shaped and barrel-shaped distortions are occurred in the embedded laser marking system. These seriously affect marking quality. However, the existed correcting approaches are almost all used on PC based laser marking controller. They require very high processing speeds of the processor which cannot be satisfied in the embedded controller. In order to find a suitable method, the causes of distortions were analyzed deeply. After that, a linear compensation method is put forward herein. It needs to determine two coefficients by standard process and tries to improve the marking quality by compensating the marking data before converted to voltage by digital-to-analogue converter. It is not complex as the PC based one, but can correct the distortions to some extent. Experiments show that this method can efficiently decrease the distortions and improve the marking quality.

  14. Rodingitization and carbonization processes in Triassic ultramafic cumulates and lavas, Othris Mt, Central Greece

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Magganas, Andreas; Economou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    A Triassic magmatic sequence from the south Othris region is comprised of early stage basaltic pillow lavas, as well as late stage ultramafic rocks, lava flows, high-Mg doleritic dykes and pyroclastic tuffs. The ultramafic rocks include slightly serpentinized wehrlites and lavas consisting of cumulate olivine, variably textured clinopyroxene (cumulate, quench, hollow, skeletal or blade shaped), magnesiohornblende, tremolite, phlogopite, spinel, chlorite, garnet, serpentine, calcite and devitrified glass[1]. Part of their secondary mineralogy developed due to percolation of metasomatic fluids during rodingitization and carbonization processes. In ultramafic rocks from Agia Marina and Mili, rodingitization was rather penetratively and expressed with crystallization of hydrogarnets, accompanied by secondary diopside and chlorite. Hydrogarnets are characterized by their low Ti-contents (recycling thermal carbonated seawater, leached from the rifted Triassic platform carbonates. References. [1] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Ntaflos 2012: Lithos 144-145, 177-193; [2] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Pomonis, Ntaflos 2013: Lithos 172-173, 139-157.

  15. Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan, Southern Mexico

    Viniegra-O, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1972, numerous large and giant oil fields have been discovered in the Reforma area of Chiapas and Tabasco States, southern Mexico, and on the offshore Campeche shelf west of Campeche State. The huge carbonate bank with which these discoveries are associated is called the Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan. Present trap structures are mainly fractured and faulted domal salt pillows created during the Laramide orogeny. The Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan is believed to include not just the Yucatan Peninsula, but also a part of coastal Veracruz State, where several discoveries have been made in carbonate rocks of Early to Middle Cretaceous ages in thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, which are now buried beneath the coastal plain. It is probable that large, subthrust, anticlinal structures underlie the thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, and these when drilled, may contain important hydrocarbon accumulations. (JMT)

  16. Estructura y organización de las coladas submarinas: características de las lavas almohadilladas de edad cretácica que afloran en la Cordillera Vasco- Cantábrica

    Alonso, A.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, an important submarine volcanic activity of alkaline character was developed during the upper Cretaceous. This vulcanism was related to a rift and/or transform fault in the continental crust associated to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. Pillow lava flows are noteworthy among the other volcanic materials by their volume and excellent preservation state. The lava flows are formed by the pile up of small flow-and cooling units, i.e. tubes or lava tubes, characterized by: i coarse cylindrical morphology with abundant constrictions, ii diameter less than 1 meter in a transversal section, iii smooth or striated surface, iv concentric and/or radial internal structure, and iv the branches and direction changes during the outflow. Lava flows/tubes shape and surface characteristics depend on the viscosity, effusion rate and the thickness of quenched crust during growth. The Tubes are moted directly on feeder dykes or are connected in tabular flows. The expanding and advancement of the tubes was the result of stretching or breaking of the quenched surface crust and spreading of the molten lava from the interior. Stretching features and cracks appear mainly at the flow front, but lobes of lava developed from the top and the flanks of the tubes are not uncommon. Only scarce pillowed lavas are truly isolated magma sacks separated from their sources. Related to the tabular flows and the biggest pillow lavas, some breccias were occasionally formed by the gravitational collapse of the roof of the draining tunnels.Durante el Cretácico superior se desarrolló en la Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica una importante actividad volcánica submarina de naturaleza alcalina. Este vulcanismo estuvo relacionado con el funcionamiento de un rift y/o una falla transformante en corteza continental asociado a la apertura del Atlántico Norte. Entre los productos volcánicos destacan, por su notable volumen y excelente grado de preservación, las

  17. A perfect launch viewed across Banana Creek

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery seems to burst forth from a pillow of smoke as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-92 to the International Space Station. The brilliant light from the solid rocket booster flames is reflected in nearby water. The perfect on-time liftoff occurred at 7:17 p.m. EDT, sending a crew of seven on the 100th launch in the history of the Shuttle program. Discovery carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  18. Post irradiation examinations on UMo full-sized plates - IRIS2 experiment

    IRIS2 irradiation was the last irradiation of 4 full sized plates launched by CEA for the French UMo group to test in which operating conditions the coarse porosity forms in the UMo/Al interaction product. IRIS2 consists in four plates with high uranium loading and U-7wt%Mo atomised powder irradiated up to 60 days at OSIRIS reactor in IRIS device at a peak power of 238 W.cm-2. The results show that in the tested conditions pillowing of the plate started from a fission density over 2.1021 fission.cm-3. Moreover, they show that the fission products and impurities have a key-role in the origin of the excessive plate swelling. (author)

  19. Multiple shallow level sill intrusions coupled with hydromagmatic explosive eruptions marked the initial phase of Ferrar large igneous province magmatism in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Viereck-Goette, L.; Schöner, R.; Bomfleur, B.; Schneider, J.

    2007-01-01

    Field data gathered during GANOVEX IX (2005/2006) in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, indicate that volcaniclastic deposits of phreatomagmatic eruptions (so-called Exposure Hill Type events) are intercalated with fluvial deposits of Triassic-Jurassic age at two stratigraphic levels. Abundant scoriaceous spatter (locally welded) indicates a hawaiian/strombolian component. Breccia-filled diatremes, from which volcaniclastic deposits were sourced, are rooted in sills which intruded wet sediments. The deposits are thus subaerial expressions of initial Ferrar magmatism involving intrusion of multiple shallow-level sills. Due to magma-sediment interaction abundant clastic dikes are developed that intrude the sediments and sills. All igneous components in the volcaniclastic deposits are andesitic in composition, as are the chilled margins of the sills. They are more differentiated than the basaltic andesites of the younger effusive section of Kirkpatrick plateau lavas which in northern Victoria Land start with pillow lavas and small volume lava flows from volcanic necks.

  20. MERGING TECHNICAL COMPETENCES AND HUMAN RESOURCES WITH THE AIM AT CONTRIBUTING TO TRANSFORM THE ADRIATIC AREA IN A STABLE HUB FOR A SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Marco Savoia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Vision of Europe as knowledge-based society is funded on availability and application of knowledge in all segments of European life. Universities, as key provider of knowledge, and industry, as its largest consumer, are two pillows of this vision. Academic Institutions has a double role in provisioning of knowledge: "research" for creation of new knowledge and "education" as dissemination of current knowledge. In this investigation, a four-year cross-border collaboration is described, including strategy, mechanisms and tools adopted for supporting a wider cooperation between universities and industry. Background, challenges and concepts of long-term sustainability are also presented. Furthermore, a general overview of technical outcomes and advances, provided by a research and development joint action, thanks to this international cooperation, is illustrated. A deeper description regarding these technical investigations is proposed in the following articles of this Special Issue on "Wood: an Ancient Material for a Modern Quality".

  1. A mineralogical study of the binding mechanisms in chromite briquettes

    Briquettes are made of chromite fines and a suitable binding material which are fed into a pillow-shaped mould, and pressure is applied to compact the material. The Council for Mineral Technology and Middelburg Steel and Alloys have taken out a provisional patent for the manufacturing of composite briquettes containing not only reducing agents but also fluxes, which will improve the efficiency of the reduction process. Briquettes were examined and the results were correlated with the strengths of the briquettes, which were measured in drop tests, compressive strength and abrasive resistance. The mineralogical procedures included differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and the use of the electron microprobe. The information obtained by these procedures enabled the determination of the nature of the binding mechanisms. Six different types of briquettes, with their respective binding mechanisms were studied

  2. Some recent observations on the radiation behavior of uranium silicide dispersion fuel

    Hofman, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Addition of B{sub 4}C burnable poison results in higher plate swelling in both U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and U{sub 3}Si-Al dispersion fuel plates and also decreases the blister threshold temperature of these plates. Prolonged annealing of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al fuel plates produced no blister after 696 hours at 400{degrees}C. Blister formation started between 257 hours and 327 hours at 425{degrees}C and between 115 hours and 210 hours at 450{degrees}C. Operation with breached cladding resulted in pillowing of an U{sub 3}Si-Al fuel plate due to reaction of the fuel core with coolant water. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Paul Anthony Brazinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  4. Thermal compatibility studies of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. A major issue of concern is the compatibility of the fuel with the matrix material and the dimensional stability of this fuel type. A total of 45 miniplate-type fuel plates were annealed at 4000C for up to 1981 hours. A data base for the thermal compatibility of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum was established. No modification tested of a standard fuel plate showed any significant reduction of the plate swelling. The cause of the thermal growth of silicide fuel plates was determined to be a two-step process: (1) the reaction of the uranium silicide with aluminum to form U(AlSi)3 and (2) the release of hydrogen and subsequent creep and pillowing of the fuel plate. 9 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  5. Indian Ocean-MORB-type isotopic signature of Yushigou ophiolite in North Qilian Mountains and its implications

    HOU; Qingye; ZHAO; Zhidan; ZHANG; Hongfei; ZHANG; Benren; CHEN; Yuelong

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the disputed issue concerning the tectonic affinity of the ancient ocean mantle of North Qilian Mountains (NQM), geochemical and Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic compositions of pillow basalts of the Yushigou Ophiolite (YSGO) suite from NQM have been analyzed systematically. The pillow basalts exhibit tholeiitic characteristics, with flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 0.98―1.27). They display no Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf negative anomalies, and show MORB features in 2Nb-Zr/4-Y and Ti/100-Zr-Y×3 tectonic discrimination diagrams. These results indicate that the Yushigou ophiolite is most likely to be formed in a mid-ocean ridge or mature back-arc basin. Their isotopic data show a relatively broad and enriched 87Sr/86Sr (0.70509―0.70700), restricted 143Nd/144Nd (0.512955―0.512978). Pb isotopes are in the range of 206Pb/204Pb (18.054―20.562), 207Pb/204Pb (15.537―15.743) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.068―38.530). These isotopic data imply that the basalts originated from the depleted mantle (DMM), with the involvement of enriched mantle components (mainly EMII). Geochemical comparisons between the basalts in YSGO and the MORB-type basalts of ophiolite suites occurring in the known ancient Tethyan tectonic domain indicate that the ancient oceanic mantle represented by YSGO suite forming in early Paleozoic in the North Qilian Moutains is very similar to the Tethyan mantle in both trace elements and isotopic compositions. The North Qilian Mountains should be a part of the Tethyan tectonic domain in early Paleozoic. This further implies that the Tethyan tectonic domain can be deduced to early Paleozoic in the study area, which will be helpful to discussing the tectonic affinity and evolution of the North Qilian Mountains.

  6. On the automated definition of mobile target volumes from 4D-CT images for stereotactic body radiotherapy

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) can be used to treat small lesions in the chest. A vacuum-based immobilization system is used in our clinic for SBRT, and a motion envelope is used in treatment planning. The purpose of this study is to automatically derive motion envelopes using deformable image registration of 4D-CT images, and to assess the effect of abdominal pressure on the motion envelopes. 4D-CT scans at ten phases were acquired prior to treatment for both free and restricted breathing using a vacuum-based immobilization system that includes an abdominal pressure pillow. To study the stability of the motion envelope over the course of treatment, a mid-treatment 4D-CT scan was obtained after delivery of the third fraction for two patients. The planning target volume excluding breathing motion (PTVex) was defined on the image set at full exhalation phase and transformed into all other phases using displacement maps from deformable image registration. The motion envelope was obtained as the union of PTVex masks of all phases. The ratios of the motion envelope to PTVex volume ranged from 1.3 to 2.5. When pressure was applied, the ratios were reduced by as much as 29% compared to free breathing for some patients, but increased by up to 9% for others. The abdominal pressure pillow has more motion restriction effects on the anterior/inferior region of the lung. For one of the two patients for whom the 4D-CT scan was repeated at mid-treatment, the motion envelope was reproducible. However, for the other patient the tumor location and lung motion pattern significantly changed due to changes in the anatomy surrounding the tumor during the course of treatment, indicating that an image-guided approach to SBRT may increase the efficacy of this treatment

  7. Exploring the Habitability of Ice-covered Waterworlds: The Deep-Sea Hydrothermal System of the Aurora Mount at Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean (82°54' N, 6°15W, 3900 m)

    Boetius, A.; Bach, W.; Borowski, C.; Diehl, A.; German, C. R.; Kaul, N. E.; Koehler, J.; Marcon, Y.; Mertens, C.; Molari, M.; Schlindwein, V. S. N.; Tuerke, A.; Wegener, G.

    2014-12-01

    The geographic remoteness of the ultraslow Gakkel Ridge in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean raises many questions about the nature and biogeography of its habitats. In 2001, the two-ice-breaker mission AMORE (RV POLARSTERN and USCGC HEALY) detected hydrothermal plumes and evidence for seafloor venting associated with volcanic ridges rising from the rift valley floor of 4.2 km depth (Edmonds et al., 2003; Michael et al., 2003). The AURORA expedition in July 2014 (RV POLARSTERN Cruise PS86) targeted this "Aurora" field at the SW limit of Gakkel Ridge, to investigate its habitats, communities and their energy sources. No robots can yet be deployed through ice-cover to explore such deep habitats and ice-breaking research vessels cannot hold position in the thick multiyear ice. Instead, we estimated ice-drift to predict suitable start positions, then attached POLARSTERN to a matching ice floe, to achieve the bottom trajectories that we required for targeted exploration. The Aurora mount is volcanic in origin formed from mounded pillow basalts overlain by about a meter of sediment and cut through by steep cliffs revealing basalt pillows in outcrop and in talus piles. We identified persistent plume activity in the water column above the mount at 3100-3600 m (800-300 m off-bottom of its top) characterized by anomalies in turbidity, Eh, methane, temperature, density, and elevated microbial chemoautotrophic activity. Using a towed camera-, and multisensor- platform (OFOS) we located active venting as the source of this plume together with inactive chimneys and associated craters on the SW flank of Mt.Aurora. Its dominantly filter-feeding fauna is apparently sustained by venting of energy-rich fluids and microbial transfer of this geofuel into nutrition. This communication presents first results of our recent fieldwork and experimental investigations in Summer 2014 to explore deep-sea ecosystems in ice-covered oceans.

  8. Subglacial birth of Olympus Mons and its aureoles

    The vast volcanic plains and shields of Mars, together with the thermal, spectrographic, and morphological evidence for water ice at the poles, for several percent water in Viking soil samples, for ground ice of permafrost over much of the planet, and for the existence of surface water at some time in the past, suggest that magma and water or ice may have interacted during evolution of the planet's landscape. Relatively small mesas and buttes, with and without summit craters, are remarkably similar to the table mountains of Iceland that formed by subglacial eruption during the late Quaternary period. Table mountains typically comprise foundations of pillow lava and palagonitized tuff breccias (moberg), overlain by subaerial lava flows that commonly culminated in a typical shield volcano; some table mountains, however, failed to reach the subaerial stage and thus lack the cap rock. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges composed of pillow lava and moberg. Conical knobs on steep-sided Martian plateaus are reminiscent of the small Icelandic shield volcanoes atop moberg pedestals. Candidate table mountains on Mars are especially numerous in the region between latitude 40 0N and the margin of the north polar cap, and interaction of lava with a formerly more extensive ice cap may have occurred. More significant is the possibility that Olympus Mons and the broad lobate aureole deposits around its base may have had similar subglacial beginnings. This hypothesis requires an ice cap several kilometers thick in the vicinity of this enormous shield during its initial stages of eruption. The amounts of water ice required do not appear excessive, given the limits to present knowledge of the water budget throughout the planet's history. A mechanism for localizing such ice, however, is required

  9. New slim automotive taillight using HiPerVision lamps

    Haenen, Ludo; Ansems, Johan; Schuurmans, Jelle; de Montureux, Philippe

    2002-08-01

    HiPerVision is a new automotive signaling range of lamps (clear and colored) developed by Philips. These lamps offer car life service, reduced size and - consequently - new design opportunities. HiPerVision aims at progressively replacing P21W lamps and at being an economic alternative to LEDs. All lamp dimensions are significantly smaller than P21W's. The HiPerVision 16W lamp produces less heat than the P21W lamp (9 W less dissipation at 13.5 V), what enables a reduced reflector size, the use of low cost plastic or a combination of both. With a luminous flux of 300 lm (instead of 460 lm for P21W), the legal requirements can be easily fulfilled because of the smaller dimensions and tolerances. In order to illustrate the lamps benefits, a complete automotive taillight with 4 functions was designed and made. This paper describes the reflector design process for that taillight with HiPerVision. According to a current styling trend, the reflectors are based on Pillow Shaped Facets and on a clear front lens with no optical structure. With this design method, the whole reflector area is filled with sparkling light. The basic shape of the reflector was used to optimize heat management. By changing the shape and/or number of the pillows the desired light distribution was made. The HiPerVision lamp was measured with a Luminance Goniometer. The measurements were converted to ASAP ray sets as input for accurate simulations. The legal requirements were easily met which was confirmed by actual measurements. The total depth of the complete designed taillight was 53 mm, which is small compared to existing P21W based designs. If the lamp is placed transversal the requirements are still met and the depth of the complete taillight could be reduced to 33 mm, which is comparable with a taillight based on LEDs.

  10. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

    Saikia, Ashima; Gogoi, Bibhuti; Ahmad, Mansoor; Ahmad, Talat

    2014-06-01

    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, cross-cutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  11. Geochemical characteristics of basaltic rocks from the Nain ophiolite (Central Iran); constraints on mantle wedge source evolution in an oceanic back arc basin and a geodynamical model

    Ghazi, Javad Mehdipour; Moazzen, Mohssen; Rahgoshay, Mohammad; Shafaii Moghadam, Hadi

    2012-10-01

    The Nain ophiolitic complex is situated at the north west of the Central Iran Micro-continent (CIM) block. The basaltic rocks of this complex consist of both mantle and crustal suites and include pegmatitic and isotropic gabbros, gabbroic-dibasic dykes, dyke swarm complex and pillow lavas. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of most of these rocks show LREE depletion and the primary mantle-normalized incompatible elements indicate depletion in HFSEs (Nb, Ta) and enrichment in LILEs. The rocks show characters of island arc tholeiite/mid-ocean ridge basalt magma types. Whole rock chemistry of the rocks shows that they are originated in an oceanic back arc basin, and subsequently have been enriched by slab-derived fluids. Abundances of HFSE and HREE in most of the basaltic samples, suggest a slow subduction rate. Opening of Nain-Baft Ocean, which was probably a marginal basin, occurred during Lower Jurassic. After generation of an inter-oceanic island arc in the Nain-Baft Ocean during the Late Jurassic, a second rifting phase started within the inter-ocean island arc during Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Senonian). The inter-ocean island arc was developed and formed an oceanic back arc basin, the site of generation of most of the Nain ophiolitic rocks. The Nain-Baft Ocean finally closed in Maastrichtian. According to the new tectono-magmatic evolution model proposed here, the arc volcanic-like magmas were produced at the early stage (producing gabbros, gabbroic-diabasic dykes and dyke swarm complex) and then MORB-like basalts (producing pillow lavas) were generated at the later stage of evolution of the Nain ophiolitic complex.

  12. Geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Gogher-Baft ophiolite, central Iran

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.; Chiaradia, Massimo; Rahgoshay, Mohamad

    2013-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Gogher-Baft ophiolite is one of the best preserved remnants of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithospheric within the inner Zagros ophiolite belt. The ophiolite comprises from bottom to top, harzburgites, pegmatite and isotropic gabbroic lenses within the mantle sequence, pillowed to massive basalts to dacites and pyroclastic rocks associated with blocks of pelagic limestone and radiolarite. Basaltic to dacitic sills crosscut the pyroclastic rocks. The ophiolite sequence is overlain by Turonian-Maastrichtian pelagic limestones (93.5-65.5 Ma). Mineral compositions of harzburgites are similar to those of fore-arc peridotites and overlap with abyssal peridotites. Most Gogher-Baft ophiolite magmatic rocks show supra-subduction zone affinities, except for some E-MORB type lavas. The geochemical characteristics suggest that Gogher-Baft ophiolite magmatic rocks were generated during subduction initiation. These show progressive source depletion leading to the formation of MORB to boninitic magmas. Early E-MORB-type pillow lavas may have originated by melting mantle that was not affected by subduction components as the Tethyan oceanic plate began to sink beneath Eurasia as subduction began in the Late Cretaceous. Initial ɛNd (t) values range from + 2.6 to + 9 for Gogher-Baft magmatic rocks. Samples with radiogenic Nd overlap with least radiogenic MORBs and with Oman and other Late Cretaceous Tethyan ophiolitic rocks. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7048 to 0.7057, indicating modification due to seafloor alteration. Radiogenic 207Pb/204Pb isotopic compositions (systematically above the NHRL) and less radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of sediments in the mantle source in some magmatic rocks. Our results for Gogher-Baft ophiolite and the similarity of these to other Iranian Zagros ophiolites suggest a subduction initiation setting for the generation of these magmatic rocks.

  13. Swelling of U-7Mo/Al-Si dispersion fuel plates under irradiation - Non-destructive analysis of the AFIP-1 fuel plates

    Wachs, D. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Rice, F. J.; Kraft, N. C.; Taylor, S. C.; Lillo, M.; Woolstenhulme, N.; Roth, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have proven to be a significant impediment to the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) based dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. The addition of silicon to the aluminum matrix was previously demonstrated to reduce interaction layer growth in mini-plate experiments. The AFIP-1 project involved the irradiation, in-canal examination, and post-irradiation examination of two fuel plates. The irradiation of two distinct full size, flat fuel plates (one using an Al-2wt%Si matrix and the other an Al-4043 (∼4.8 wt% Si) matrix) was performed in the INL ATR reactor in 2008-2009. The irradiation conditions were: ∼250 W/cm2 peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ∼3.5e21 f/cm3 peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the in-canal and post-irradiation non-destructive examinations that were performed on these fuel plates. It further compares additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in contemporary campaigns in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. Except for a brief indication of accelerated swelling early in the irradiation of the Al-2Si plate, the fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density through the maximum burnup.

  14. Petrology of the gabbro and sheeted basaltic intrusives at North Cape, New Zealand

    The North Cape massif consists of a semi-conformable sequence of serpentinite, gabbro, sheeted sill and dike units, and pillow lavas. Although structurally disrupted, they can be interpreted in terms of an idealised ophiolite sequence and represent the most complete sequence in the Northland Ophiolite. Their age is considered to be Late Cretaceous-Paleocene on the basis of microfossils in associated sediments. Early Miocene K-Ar ages from igneous rocks are thought to reflect the time of emplacement as a thrust sheet of oceanic crust and upper mantle. The gabbros are divided into a lower unit characterised by well-developed cumulate layering and an upper unit which is massive; the sheeted sills and dikes are quartz-diorite and microgabbro interleaved with minor pillow lava. Two phases of alteration are observed, a pervasive low-grade greenschist metamorphism attributed to sea-water interaction after formation as oceanic crust, and an overprinting zeolitic alteration which is possibly post-emplacement. Their tholeiitic nature as well as overlapping geochemical compositions suggest that the gabbros and sheeted dikes and sills represent different components of a single magmatic system related by simple fractionation processes. Several lines of evidence suggest that the magmas that formed the North Cape gabbro and sheeted intrusives have subduction-related chemical characteristics. In the gabbro, calcic plagioclase (An86-92 ) and depleted Zr and Y abundances, and in the sheeted intrusives depleted high field strength element abundances relative to typical MORB, is indicative of a subduction signature. The presence of subduction-related characteristics within the Northland Ophiolite suggests that it may have originated at a back-arc basin rather than a major ocean ridge spreading centre. (author). 64 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs

  15. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( <1 mm Arcilite, 1-2 mm of Arcilite, 1:1 <1 mm & 1-2 mm mixture and 1:1 Arcilite & Fafard mixture). Currently, 3 lettuce cultivars are being grown in 4 mixtures of media. Tests were being conducted to see which form of media has the ratio of best growth and least amount of microbes that are harmful. That is essential because a person's body becomes more susceptible to illness when they leave Earth. As a result, test must be conducted on the "pillow" system to assess the levels of microbial activity. The cultivars were tested at different stages during their growing process for microbes. Datum show that the mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.

  16. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  17. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

    Ashima Saikia; Bibhuti Gogoi; Mansoor Ahmad; Talat Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, crosscutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  18. Detection of high-silica lava flows and lava morphology at the Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California, Mexico using automated classification of the morphological-compositional relationship in AUV multibeam bathymetry and sonar backscatter

    Maschmeyer, C.; White, S. M.; Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    An automated compositional classification by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed to study volcanic processes that create high-silica lava at oceanic ridges. The objective of this research is to determine the existence of a relationship between lava morphology and composition. Researchers from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) recorded morphologic observations and collected samples for geochemical analysis during ROV dives at the Alarcon Rise in 2012 and 2015. The Alarcon Rise is a unique spreading ridge environment where composition ranges from basaltic to rhyolitic, making it an ideal location to examine the compositional-morphologic relationship of lava flows. Preliminary interpretation of field data indicates that high-silica lavas are typically associated with 3-5 m, blocky pillows at the heavily faulted north end of the Alarcon. Visual analysis of multibeam bathymetry and side-scan sonar backscatter from MBARI AUV D. Allen B. and gridded at 1 m suggests that lava flow morphology (pillow, lobate, sheet) can be distinguished by seafloor roughness. Bathymetric products used by ANFIS to quantify the morphologic-compositional relationship were slope, aspect, and bathymetric position index (BPI, a measure of local height relative to the adjacent terrain). Sonar backscatter intensity is influenced by surface roughness and previously used to distinguish lava morphology. Gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were applied to backscatter to create edge-detection filters that recognized faults and fissures. Input data are slope, aspect, bathymetric value, BPI at 100 m scale, BPI at 500 m scale, backscatter intensity, and the first principle component of backscatter GLCM. After lava morphology was classified on the Alarcon Rise map, another classification was completed to detect locations of high-silica lava. Application of an expert classifier like ANFIS to distinguish lava composition may become an important tool in oceanic

  19. The connection between iron ore formations and "mud-shrimp" colonizations around sunken wood debris and hydrothermal sediments in a Lower Cretaceous continental rift basin, Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    Jáger, Viktor; Molnár, Ferenc; Buchs, David; Koděra, Peter

    2012-09-01

    In the Early Cretaceous, the continental rift basin of the Mecsek Mts. (Hungary), was situated on the southern edge of the European plate. The opening of the North Atlantic Ocean created a dilatational regime that expanded to the southern edge of the European plate, where several extensional basins and submarine volcanoes were formed during the Early Cretaceous epoch. Permanent seaquake activity caused high swell events during which a large amount of terrestrial wood fragments entered into submarine canyons from rivers or suspended woods which had sunk into the deep seafloor. These fragments created extended wood-fall deposits which contributed large-scale flourishing of numerous burrowing thalassinid crustaceans. Twelve different thalassinid coprolite ichnospecies can be found in the Berriasian-Hauterivian volcano-sedimentary formations. According to the seladonitic crustacean burrows which associated with framboidal pyrite containing Zoophycos and Chondrites ichnofossils (i.e. a "fodinichnia" trace fossil association), the bottom water was aerobic and the pore water was anaerobic; in the latter sulfate reduction occurred. The preservation of wood fragments around thalassinid burrows can be explained by rapid sedimentation related to turbidity currents. Due to the low temperature hydrothermal circulations of seawater, large amounts of iron were released from intrusive, pillowed basaltic sills; these sills intruded into soft, water-saturated sediments containing large amounts of thalassinid excrement. In the coprolites can be found idiomorphic mineral particles originating from the basalts, and coprolites can often be found in peperitic interpillow sediments. This indicates that the life-activity of the decapoda crustaceans in many Lower Cretaceous occurrences initially preceded the first magmatic eruptions. The paroxysm of the rift volcanism took place during the Valanginian age, when some submarine volcanoes emerged above sea level, reaching a maximum height of

  20. Geology and Petrology of the Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Anthony, E. Y.; Bloomer, S. H.; Girard, G.; Ishizuka, O.; Kelley, K. A.; Manton, W. I.; Martinez, F.; Merle, S. G.; Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Ren, M.; Stern, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The southernmost Mariana convergent margin is tectonically and magmatically very active, with submarine arc volcanoes that are sub-parallel to the Malaguana-Gadao Ridge backarc spreading center at ~110km from the trench axis. This activity reflects widening of the S. Mariana Trough. Stretching formed 3 southeast-facing, broad rifts extending from the trench to an extinct arc volcano chain (~80km from the trench axis) that is mostly composed of outcrops and fragments of pillow lavas partially covered by sediments. The 3 rifts comprise the S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) and are 50-56km long and 3600 to 8200m deep, with axial valleys that narrow near the extinct arc. We studied the SEMFR using one Shinkai 6500 dive in 2008 and two Shinkai 6500 dives and 7 deep-tows in 2010. Near the trench, the SEMFR flanks are very steep and dominated by talus slopes of lava, fine-grained gabbro, diabase and peridotite, sometimes covered by thin volcaniclastic sediments. Few outcrops of pillow lavas, lava flows and volcaniclastics are observed, strongly suggesting that SEMFR morphology is dominated by faulting and landsliding. Lava outcrops are smoother and better preserved towards the extinct arc, suggesting that magmatic activity dominates that part of the rift. 40Ar-39Ar ages of 3 SEMFR lavas are 3.0-3.7Ma, so post-magmatic rifting is younger than ~3Ma. SEMFR pillow lavas are vesicular and microporphyritic with crystallite-rich glassy rinds, indicating they erupted underwater at near-liquidus conditions. In contrast, the lava flows are more crystallized and less vesicular. SEMFR lavas exhibit similar ranges in mineral composition with 2 kinds of plagioclase (An>80% and An90 and Fo<90), suggesting magma mixing. Gabbroic rocks are slightly altered and have olivine and clinopyroxene compositions similar to those of the lavas, but contain less anorthitic plagioclase with a wider range in composition (An20-70) than the lavas. One sample of the extinct arc lava is vesicular and

  1. Lava Flow Ages and Geologic Mapping on Mid-ocean Ridges

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic mapping of mid-ocean ridges has been hindered by a lack of high-resolution bathymetry and age data. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) with multibeam sonars now produce maps with 1-m resolution. MBARI has collected data since 2006 along the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges, including the 1998 eruptions in summit caldera and upper south rift zone on Axial Seamount, the 1993 and 1982-1991 eruptions on the CoAxial segment, the 1986 pillow mounds and “young sheet flow” on the north Cleft segment, the 1996 eruption on the North Gorda segment, and part of the Endeavour Ridge. The 1-m data allows identification of flow internal structure, boundaries, and emplacement sequences using superposition and abundance of fissures. Geologic maps of young volcanoes on land are constructed using the same principles, constrained by observations of flow contacts and 14C age dates on charcoal from beneath flow margins. In the deep sea, we collect sediment on top of the flows that contains planktic and benthic foraminifera that can be dated using AMS 14C dating. We sampled sediment on flows from the Axial, CoAxial, and North Cleft areas using 30-cm long pushcores deployed from remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The coring is done with collection of flow samples for chemistry and video observations to confirm contact locations and flow superposition. Cores are inserted until they hit the underlying lava and can be recovered between pillow lobes when the sediment is >~10 cm thick. We recover the basal 1 cm of sediment, sieve to recover foraminifera, and hand-pick for 14C dating. The North Gorda neovolcanic zone at ~3150 m lacks carbonate sediment and therefore ages. Ages of planktic foraminifera are marine calibrated in years before present (aBP). Benthic foraminifera are calibrated against planktic foraminifera from 5 samples. 14C ages obtained from basal sediment from over 40 sites represent minimum ages as there is probably a small amount of unrecovered basal sediment. Ages

  2. Eruption style and flow emplacement in the Submarine North Arch Volcanic Field, Hawaii

    Clague, David A.; Uto, Kozo; Satake, Kenji; Davis, Alicé S.

    The North Arch Volcanic Field covers about 24,000 km2 of seafloor north of Oahu and has an estimated volume between 1,000 and 1,250 km3. The field straddles the Hawaiian flexural arch about 250 km north of the axis of the island chain and surrounds numerous Cretaceous volcanic ridges, circular flat-topped volcanoes, and low-relief regions of sediment-covered seafloor. New SeaBeam bathymetric maps that cover about 1/3 of the flow field reveal nearly 100 volcanic structures ranging from low shields to steep cones. One shield is modified by a pit crater, approximately 1.1×1.25 km and 300 m deep. A lava flow in the SE part of the volcanic field covers about 3,600 km2, has an estimated volume of 36-72 km3, and apparently erupted from a 75-km-long NNW-trending fissure system. A 108-km-long flow advanced north in a graben parallel to the Cretaceous mid-ocean ridge that formed the crust; its surface gradient is 1.9 m/km (slope of 0.1°). Shinkai 6500 submersible dive 502 explored one of the composite volcanoes and observed and collected dense alkalic basalt sheet flows erupted after vesicular basanite pillow basalts and fragmental hyaloclastite that make up the steep-sided cone. Dive 503 collected alkalic basalt sheet flows and pillow basalt from the top 122 m of the southern wall of a pit crater that formed by collapse caused by a decrease in magma volume from a shallow storage chamber located 1-2 km below the surface. The volume change may have been caused by loss of gas bubbles from the stored magma when replenishment ceased at the end of the eruption. The surficial drapery-folded sheet flow is covered by only a few cm of sediment, indicating that it is younger than the 0.5-1.5 Ma ages previously estimated for North Arch flows and vents. The near-vent constructs and flow characteristics indicate that vigorous eruption of highly vesicular lava constructed steep-sided cones of pillow basalt and hyaloclastite whereas steady eruption of dense lava that had lost its bubbles

  3. Interpretation of 1.5-m resolution AUV bathymetry using ROV observations and samples at Davidson and Rodriguez Seamounts

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D.

    2010-12-01

    The summits and upper flanks of Rodriguez and Davidson Seamounts off California were mapped at 1.5-m resolution by the MBARI Mapping AUV. The seamounts were built by episodic eruptions on abandoned spreading ridges 10-12 and 10-15 Ma, respectively. They consist of ridges and elongate cones that parallel the old spreading axes, yet have strikingly different summit morphologies. Video observations and samples from prior ROV Tiburon dives are used to interpret the textures revealed in the AUV data, and are extrapolated to make geologic maps of the seamounts. The summit of Davidson is rugged and studded with cones of three general classes: completely smooth cones with nearly circular bases, mounds elongated into subparallel ridges, and disorganized mounds of rounded shapes. The elongated mound ridge-lines are roughly rectangular in cross-section, and smooth apron-like slopes descend below. They and the smooth cones occupy the highest points on the seamount but also occur deeper, whereas the disorganized mounds occur only deeper. Smooth, flat pockets lie between the cones. The disorganized mounds were identified as pillow lavas during ROV dives. The mounds that form ridges are blocky ’a’a-like flows, probably oriented over eruptive fissures. Lava samples vary from basalt to trachyte, and there is no correlation between the presumed fluidity of the lavas and occurrence of pillows. The smooth aprons below the blocky flows, and presumably the smooth cones, are glass-rich, volcaniclastic debris produced by explosive activity above. The debris has bedding parallel to the steep slopes, and has lithified into pavement. Pelagic sediment has accumulated between the cones. An inflated flow drained at its distal end in a valley between two ridges; collapses in the flow have drainback veneers like bath-tub rings on the inner surfaces. The summit of Rodriguez has no cones, but they dot the flanks. They are smooth with nearly circular bases and mounds elongated into ridges with

  4. Building the Volcanic Oceanic Crust One Eruption at a Time (Invited)

    Sinton, J. M.; Rubin, K. H.; White, S. M.; Colman, A.; Bowles, J. A.; Gronvold, K.

    2010-12-01

    magma supply, moderately large-volume eruptions with very low eruption rates produce steep-sided pillow mounds that locally coalesce into larger seamounts that are dominated by more mafic, porphyritic lavas apparently derived from more crystal-rich magma reservoirs. Pillow lavas dominate both areas but are less common at high magma supply. Volumes of individual eruptive units can be up to an order of magnitude greater in the low magma supply area. These results generally accord with global variations in MORB composition and poorly known eruptive characteristics, except that in this case magma supply is governed by proximity to the Galápagos hotspot, rather than spreading rate.

  5. Correction of patient positioning errors based on in-line cone beam CTs: clinical implementation and first experiences

    Häring Peter

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was the clinical implementation of a kV cone beam CT (CBCT for setup correction in radiotherapy. Patients and methods For evaluation of the setup correction workflow, six tumor patients (lung cancer, sacral chordoma, head-and-neck and paraspinal tumor, and two prostate cancer patients were selected. All patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, five of them with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. For patient fixation, a scotch cast body frame or a vacuum pillow, each in combination with a scotch cast head mask, were used. The imaging equipment, consisting of an x-ray tube and a flat panel imager (FPI, was attached to a Siemens linear accelerator according to the in-line approach, i.e. with the imaging beam mounted opposite to the treatment beam sharing the same isocenter. For dose delivery, the treatment beam has to traverse the FPI which is mounted in the accessory tray below the multi-leaf collimator. For each patient, a predefined number of imaging projections over a range of at least 200 degrees were acquired. The fast reconstruction of the 3D-CBCT dataset was done with an implementation of the Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK algorithm. For the registration of the treatment planning CT with the acquired CBCT, an automatic mutual information matcher and manual matching was used. Results and discussion Bony landmarks were easily detected and the table shifts for correction of setup deviations could be automatically calculated in all cases. The image quality was sufficient for a visual comparison of the desired target point with the isocenter visible on the CBCT. Soft tissue contrast was problematic for the prostate of an obese patient, but good in the lung tumor case. The detected maximum setup deviation was 3 mm for patients fixated with the body frame, and 6 mm for patients positioned in the vacuum pillow. Using an action level of 2 mm translational error, a target point

  6. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  7. Petrology, geochemistry, and tectonic implications of newly collected samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau

    Reagan, M.; Ishizuka, O.; Hawkins, J.; Bloomer, S.; Fryer, P.; Ishii, T.; Kelley, K.; Kimura, J.; Michibayashi, K.; Ohara, Y.; Stern, R.; Blake, B.; Colin, P.; Colin, L.

    2006-12-01

    The islands of Palau in the Western Pacific mark the southern end of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge, which is the westernmost remnant arc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system. Because it has extensive subaerial exposures of volcanic rocks, it offers an excellent opportunity for detailed geological and petrological investigation. The largest island of Palau, Babeldaob, is composed largely of volcanic materials erupted between the middle Eocene and Oligocene (Mason et al., 1956; Meijer et al., 1983; Cosca et al., 1998). Previous studies have been hampered by thick laterites but nevertheless have shown that boninites and more typical arc basalts and andesites make up these materials. These studies also suggest that early arc sequences similar to those identified along the IBM forearc to the north are also found here (Hawkins and Castillo, 1998). Road cutting and quarrying for the new "Compact Road" around Babeldaob have recently provided unprecedented exposures of the volcanic units. The scientific party for Cruise YK0612 of the R/V Yokosuka spent one day examining and sampling some of these outcrops. Here, we report geological impressions of these outcrops and preliminary petrological and geochemical data for these newly exposed volcanic rocks. The new outcrops expose volcanic conglomerates, breccias, and finer-grained sediments; lava flows, pillow lavas, dikes, and volcanic plugs. Some of the coarse sediments are massive and matrix- supported, and probably were deposited by debris flows. These are interbedded with normally graded turbidite sequences, suggesting subaqueous deposition. A quarry near the east-central coast exposed a complex of meter-scale dikes cut by fault gouge zones. Shallow dome and breccia deposits as well as a pillow lava sequence cropped out in a quarry and a road-cut respectively along the central spine of the island. Most samples are broadly basaltic to andesitic and boninitic, although hornblende andesites or dacites compose the dome and one section

  8. Faunes du Jurassique supérieur dans les séries pélagiques de l'escarpement de Malte (Mer Ionienne. Implications paléogéographiques Upper Jurassic Fauna in the Pelagic Series of the Malta Escarpment (Lonian Sea. Paleogeographic Implications

    Enay R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Au cours d'une campagne de plongée sur les escarpements qui bordent le bassin Ionien profond, des roches sédimentaires d'âge jurassique supérieur ont pu être récoltées dans l'escarpement de Malte, associées à des coulées de pillow-lavas. Les faunes d'Ammonites, typiquement mésogéennes, indiquent des âges oxfordien et tithonique. Elles peuvent correspondre à un milieu de dépôt profond. Les foraminifères recueillis dans les niveaux équivalents, riches en radiolaires, sclérites d'holothuries, fragments d'aptychus et rares Ostracodes, indiquent un âge oxfordien au sens large et un milieu de dépôt relativement profond. Cette série, relativement condensée et profonde, est comparable aux séries du même âge connues en Sicile. Elle s'oppose aux séries de calcaires de plate-forme néritiques du Trias-Lias inférieur qui constituent la base de la coupe. II y a donc eu un changement radical de milieu de sédimentation entre le Lias et le Callovo-Oxfordien, accompagné d'une distension révélée par un magmatisme important. During a diving campaing along the escarpments bordering the deep lonian Basin, Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks were gathered from the Malta escarpment, associated with pillow-lava. Typically Mesogean ammonite fauna indicate Oxfordian and Tithonian ages. They correspond to a relatively deep deposition environment. The Foraminifers gathered in the equivalent levels, which proved to be rich in radiolarians, holothuroid sclerites, aptychus fragments and sparse ostracodes, indicate an Oxfordian age and a relatively deep deposition environnent. This relatively condensed and deep series can be compared with series of the same age known in Sicily. It is opposed to the Lower Triassic-Lias neritic platform limestone series making up the bottom of the section. A radical change in sedimentation thus occured between the Lias and the Callovo-Oxfordain, accompanied by a distension revealed by extensive magmatism.

  9. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Clay Rich Volcano-Sedimentary Units from South of Elazıǧ Basin (Eastern Turkey)

    Akkoca, Dicle Bal; Bakır, Zülfü

    2016-04-01

    The investigated area covers Upper Cretaeous Elazıǧ Magmatics and Middle Eocene Maden Group in the southern of Elazıǧ. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ICP-AES, ICP-MS were performed on three sections samples belonging to Elazıǧ Magmatics (Yemişlik and Kavallı sections) and Maden Group (Alıncık section), to investigate the depositional environment of volcano-sediments. The Elazıǧ magmatic rocks are composed of diorites, monzodiorites, quartz-diorites, and tonalites, basaltic pillow-lavas, andesitic lavas, and andesitic pyroclastic rocks. The Maden Group has a complex lithology consisting of limestones, red-green clayey limestones, sandstone, agglomerate, tuffs, reddish mudstone and basaltic-andesitic pillow lavas. Yemişlik section is composed mainly of altered grey tuffites, Kavallı section is represented by brown altered sediments, intercalated with basaltic, andesitic lava flows. Reddish mudstones constiture the Alıncık section. All samples consist of clay minerals (chlorite, illite), quartz, and feldspar. Yemişlik and Kavallı sections also contain calcite. Chlorite is the dominant clay in three sections. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O contents show that Kavallı, Yemişlik and Alıncık samples are convenient with Fe shales and shales. The ratios of TiO2, Zr, Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, Y/Ni-Cr/V, Al/(Al+Fe+Mn) show dominance of neutral-basic volcanism in the area. REE concentrations of samples are normalized to chondrite values. It is determined that low light rare earth elements (LREEs) are enriched in comparison to high rare earth elements (HREEs), and the absence of Eu anomalies shows that our samples are generally mafic in composition. Rare earth elements (REE) of samples were compared with North American shale composite (NASC), European shale (ES) and Post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS). Elements are not in concurrence with these compositions. Th-Hf/3-Nb/16 tectono-magmatic discrimination diagram for samples in the study area indicate that all samples were

  10. Visual Observations and Geologic Settings of the Newly-Discovered Black Smoker Vent Sites Across the Galapagos Ridge-Hotspot Intersection

    Anderson, P.; Haymon, R.; MacDonald, K.; White, S.

    2006-12-01

    Nearly one-fifth of the global mid-ocean ridge is hotspot-affected, yet very little is known about how hotspots affect quantity and distribution of high-temperature hydrothermal vents along the ridge. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, acoustic and plume sensor surveys were conducted across the Galapagos ridge- hotspot intersection, lon. 94.5ºW- lon. 89.5ºW, to map fine scale geologic features and locate hydrothermal plumes emanating from the ridge crest. Where significant plumes were detected, the Medea fiber-optic camera sled was used successfully to find and image high-temperature vents on the seafloor. With Medea we discovered and imaged the first active and recently extinct black smokers known along the entire Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC), and documented the geologic setting of these vents. The Medea survey imaged numerous inactive vents as well as 3 active high-temperature vent fields along the ridge at 94º 04.5'W (Navidad Site), 91º56.2'W (Iguanas Site) and 91º54.3'W (Pinguinos Site). Two recently extinct vent fields also were identified at 91º23.4'-23.7'W and 91º13.8'W. All of the high-temperature vent sites that we identified along the GSC are found above relatively shallow AMC reflectors and are located in the middle 20% of ridge segments. Without exception the vent sites are located along fissures atop constructional axial volcanic ridges (AVR's) composed of relatively young pillow basalts. In some cases, the vents were associated with collapses adjacent to the fissures. The fissures appear to be eruptive sources of the pillow lavas comprising the AVR's. Video images of the chimneys show mature, cylindrical structures, up to 14m high; little diffuse flow; few animals; and some worm casts and dead clam shells, suggesting prior habitation. We conclude that distribution of the vents is controlled by magmatic processes, (i.e., by locations of shallow AMC magma reservoirs and eruptive fissures above dike intrusions), and that there is

  11. Palaeomagnetic evidence for an oceanic core complex in the Mirdita ophiolite of Albania

    Maffione, M.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are the uplifted footwalls of oceanic detachment faults that unroof upper mantle and lower crustal lithologies and expose them at the seafloor. Their common occurrence in slow and ultra-slow spreading rate oceanic crust suggests they accommodate a significant component of plate divergence, representing a newly recognised class of seafloor spreading. Numerical modelling and palaeomagnetic results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have shown that the footwalls beneath oceanic detachment faults rotate during their evolution, initiating at steep angles at depth and then "rolling-over" to their present day low angle orientations as a result of flexural isostasy during unroofing. This footwall rotation provides a means of testing whether extensional structures separating upper mantle/lower crustal rocks from upper crustal rocks in ophiolites potentially represent fossil OCCs. Here we present the results of an extensive paleomagnetic study of an inferred OCC in the Mirditata ophiolite of the Albanian Dinarides, first proposed by Tremblay et al. (2009). The western part of Mirdita ophiolite is composed of mantle sequence overlain by a thin gabbro/troctolitic sequence and MORB-like pillow lavas. The sheeted dyke complex and gabbroic sequence are missing locally, and the upper crustal volcanic sequence then rests directly on the mantle sequence in tectonic contact. This anomalous situation is directly comparable to lithostratigraphic relationships in oceanic detachment fault settings. In order to understand this tectonic contact and describe its kinematics we sampled 73 sites from ultramafic rocks, gabbros, lava flows, pillow lavas and dykes, around the Puka and Krabbi massifs between the villages of Puka and Rreshen in northern Albania. Results demonstrate that gabbroic bodies in the mantle sequence preserve a highly stable remanence that differs in direction and polarity to the serpentinized peridotite host rock. A significant

  12. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Hutchinson Mark R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints, brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period. Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of

  13. CUES – A Study Site for Measuring Snowpack Energy Balance in the Sierra Nevada

    Edward H. Bair

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement and modeling of the snowpack energy balance are critical to understanding the terrestrial water cycle. Most of the water resources in the western US come from snowmelt, yet statistical runoff models that rely on the historical record are becoming less reliable because of a changing climate. For physically based snow melt models that do not depend on past conditions, ground based measurements of the energy balance components are imperative for verification. For this purpose, the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB established the CUES snow study site (CRREL/UCSB Energy Site, http://www.snow.ucsb.edu/ at 2940 m elevation on Mammoth Mountain, California. We describe CUES, provide an overview of research, share our experience with scientific measurements, and encourage future collaborative research. Snow measurements began near the current CUES site for ski area operations in 1969. In the 1970s, researchers began taking scientific measurements. Today, CUES benefits from year round gondola access and a fiber optic internet connection. Data loggers and computers automatically record and store over 100 measurements from more than 50 instruments each minute. CUES is one of only five high altitude mountain sites in the Western US where a full suite of energy balance components are measured. In addition to measuring snow on the ground at multiple locations, extensive radiometric and meteorological measurements are recorded. Some of the more novel measurements include scans by an automated terrestrial LiDAR, passive and active microwave imaging of snow stratigraphy, microscopic imaging of snow grains, snowflake imaging with a multi-angle camera, fluxes from upward and downward looking radiometers, snow water equivalent from different types of snow pillows, snowmelt from lysimeters, and concentration of impurities in the snowpack. We

  14. Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic study of the Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex, southern Chile

    Rapalini, A. E.; Calderón, M.; Singer, S.; Hervé, F.; Cordani, U.

    2008-06-01

    A paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Late Jurassic Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex (SOC) exposed in the Magallanes fold and thrust belt in the southern Patagonian Andes (southern Chile). This complex, mainly consisting of a thick succession of pillow-lavas, sheeted dikes and gabbros, is a seafloor remnant of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin that developed along the south-western margin of South America. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization permitted the isolation of a post-folding characteristic remanence, apparently carried by fine grain (SD?) magnetite, both in the pillow-lavas and dikes. The mean "in situ" direction for the SOC is Dec: 286.9°, Inc: - 58.5°, α95: 6.9°, N: 11 (sites). Rock magnetic properties, petrography and whole-rock K-Ar ages in the same rocks are interpreted as evidence of correlation between remanence acquisition and a greenschist facies metamorphic overprint that must have occurred during latest stages or after closure and tectonic inversion of the basin in the Late Cretaceous. The mean remanence direction is anomalous relative to the expected Late Cretaceous direction from stable South America. Particularly, a declination anomaly over 50° is suggestively similar to paleomagnetically interpreted counter clockwise rotations found in thrust slices of the Jurassic El Quemado Fm. located over 100 km north of the study area in Argentina. Nevertheless, a significant ccw rotation of the whole SOC is difficult to reconcile with geologic evidence and paleogeographic models that suggest a narrow back-arc basin sub-parallel to the continental margin. A rigid-body 30° westward tilting of the SOC block around a horizontal axis trending NNW, is considered a much simpler explanation, being consistent with geologic evidence. This may have occurred as a consequence of inverse reactivation of old normal faults, which limit both the SOC exposures and the Cordillera Sarmiento to the East. The age of tilting

  15. Rocas Verdes Ophiolite Complexes in the Southernmost Andes: Remnants of the Mafic Igneous Floor of a Back-arc Basin that Rifted the South American Continental Crust in the Late Jurrassic and Early Cretaceous

    Stern, C. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Rocas Verdes are an en echelon group of late Jurassic and early Cretaceous igneous complexes in the southernmost Andes. They consist of mafic pillow lavas, dikes and gabbros interpreted as the upper portions of ophiolite complexes formed along mid-ocean-ridge-type spreading centers. When secondary metamorphic affects are accounted for, the geochemistry of mafic Rocas Verdes rocks are similar to ocean-ridge basalts (MORB). The spreading centers that generated the Rocas Verdes rifted the southwestern margin of the Gondwana continental crust, during the start of break-up in the southern Atlantic, to form the igneous floor of a back-arc basin behind a contemporaneous convergent plate boundary magmatic arc. Late Jurassic and early Cretaceous sediments from both the magmatic arc on the southwest and the continental platform on the northeast of the basin were deposited in the Rocas Verdes basin, and these sediments are interbedded with mafic pillow lavas along the margins of the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. Also, mafic dikes and gabbros intrude older pre-Andean and Andean lithologies along both flanks of the Rocas Verdes, and leucocratic country rocks are engulfed in the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. These relations indicate that the Rocas Verdes complexes formed in place and are autochthonous, having been uplifted but not obducted, which may explain the lack of exposure of the deeper ultramafic units. Zircon U/Pb ages of 150+/-1 Ma for the Larsen Harbour Formation, a southern extension of the Rocas Verdes belt on South Georgia Island, and 138+/-2 Ma for the Sarmiento complex, the northernmost in the Rocas Verdes belt, indicate that this basin may have formed by "unzipping" from the south to the north, with the southern portion beginning to form earlier and developing more extensively than the northern portion of the basin. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the Rocas Verdes basin developed in conjunction with the displacement of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening of

  16. Testing a new approach to differentiate oxidation degree from the primitive composition of titanomagnetites from oceanic basalts

    Silva, Pedro; Almeida, Francisco; Waerenborgh, João; Madureira, Pedro; Mirão, José; Henry, Bernard; Neres, Marta; Petrovsky, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Low-field magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature - χ(T) is one of the most powerful techniques to assess the main magnetic mineralogy of rocks from distinct geological settings. For the specific case of titanomagnetite solid solution, the dependence of Curie temperature (Tc) on their composition and oxidation degree imposes limits to the application of thermomagnetic methods as a tool to assess independently one of the variables, i.e., the pristine composition and/or quantification of the oxidation degree. In order to overcome this ambiguity several authors resorted to independent methods, like microprobe, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The study here presented seeks to establish a new approach able to correlate the oxidation degree with Tc variations of partially oxidized submarine basalts, only supported by the thermomagnetic analyses conducted between -190°C and 650°C. 40 thermomagnetic signatures were evaluated along cross-section profiles of four pillow-lavas, sampled from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and from the Terceira Rift (Azores plateau). For each one a lamellae with a thickness of 2 to 3 mm was collected along each centimeter of the profile. All the experiments were made using the same experimental conditions (atmosphere, heating rate). Our thermomagnetic curves of partially oxidized oceanic basalts are characterized by a peak of susceptibility between 300-350°C and 520-550°C, which mostly results from the inversion of the thermally metastable titanomaghemite into a complex multiphase intergrowth. From our experiments, we were able to obtain a good linear correlation (positive) between the amplitude of this peak and the Tc for each sample profile. Moreover, these results are well correlated with the oxidation degree determined by Mössbauer Spectroscopy analyses and with microscopic observations, which show an increase of oxidation degree towards the margins of the pillow lavas

  17. The Jocotán Ophiolite: A new ophiolite along the Jocotán fault, eastern Guatemala

    Harlow, G. E.; Flores-Reyes, K.; Sisson, V. B.; Nelson, C.; Cacao, A.

    2011-12-01

    The North American - Caribbean plate boundary traverses central Guatemala and northern Honduras, dispersed along three left lateral faults systems, which from north to south are the Chixoy-Polochic, the Motagua, and the Jocotán-Camelecón faults, with the Motagua as the present active strand. The Motagua Suture Zone (MSZ), which encompasses this area, consists of multiple paleo-convergent boundaries. It includes slices of ultramafic-mafic complexes including both antigorite (Atg) serpentinite mélanges containing high-pressure / low-temperature (HP/LT) blocks, and lizardite-chrysotile (Lzd-Ctl) serpentinites with associated pillow lavas, radiolarian chert, and marine sediments, typically labeled as ophiolites. Guatemala Suture Zone would be a preferable term to MSZ because the area extends over all three faults, not just the Motagua. The MSZ includes the Sierra de Santa Cruz ophiolite north of the east end of the Polochic fault, the Baja Verapaz ultramafic complex (considered an ophiolite in most of the literature) lies just south of the western portion of the Polochic fault and a series of Atg-serpentinite-dominant mélanges (with HP/LT blocks) that decorate both sides of the Motagua fault. In addition, there is the El Tambor Formation, south of the Motagua fault (but west of the known limit of the Jocotán fault), which contains mafic & sedimentary units and has been called an ophiolite. However, no mafic-ultramafic bodies appear on maps that cover the Jocotán fault in eastern Guatemala. Geologic mapping by one of the co-authors located a small suite of ultramafic rocks sandwiched between the Jocotán and Camotán faults in eastern Guatemala, a short distance from the town of Camotán. Outcrops exposed for 3 km along a road and in a small river consist of sheared Lzd-Ctl serpentinite, metagabbro, overturned altered pillow lavas, listwaenite and rodingite dikes, cherts and pelagic metasediments. These units represent fault slivers subparallel to the steeply

  18. CUES - A Study Site for Measuring Snowpack Energy Balance in the Sierra Nevada

    Bair, Edward; Dozier, Jeff; Davis, Robert; Colee, Michael; Claffey, Keran

    2015-09-01

    Accurate measurement and modeling of the snowpack energy balance are critical to understanding the terrestrial water cycle. Most of the water resources in the western US come from snowmelt, yet statistical runoff models that rely on the historical record are becoming less reliable because of a changing climate. For physically based snow melt models that do not depend on past conditions, ground based measurements of the energy balance components are imperative for verification. For this purpose, the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) established the “CUES” snow study site (CRREL/UCSB Energy Site, http://www.snow.ucsb.edu/) at 2940 m elevation on Mammoth Mountain, California. We describe CUES, provide an overview of research, share our experience with scientific measurements, and encourage future collaborative research. Snow measurements began near the current CUES site for ski area operations in 1969. In the 1970s, researchers began taking scientific measurements. Today, CUES benefits from year round gondola access and a fiber optic internet connection. Data loggers and computers automatically record and store over 100 measurements from more than 50 instruments each minute. CUES is one of only five high altitude mountain sites in the Western US where a full suite of energy balance components are measured. In addition to measuring snow on the ground at multiple locations, extensive radiometric and meteorological measurements are recorded. Some of the more novel measurements include scans by an automated terrestrial LiDAR, passive and active microwave imaging of snow stratigraphy, microscopic imaging of snow grains, snowflake imaging with a multi-angle camera, fluxes from upward and downward looking radiometers, snow water equivalent from different types of snow pillows, snowmelt from lysimeters, and concentration of impurities in the snowpack. We give an

  19. Correction of patient positioning errors based on in-line cone beam CTs: clinical implementation and first experiences

    The purpose of the study was the clinical implementation of a kV cone beam CT (CBCT) for setup correction in radiotherapy. For evaluation of the setup correction workflow, six tumor patients (lung cancer, sacral chordoma, head-and-neck and paraspinal tumor, and two prostate cancer patients) were selected. All patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, five of them with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). For patient fixation, a scotch cast body frame or a vacuum pillow, each in combination with a scotch cast head mask, were used. The imaging equipment, consisting of an x-ray tube and a flat panel imager (FPI), was attached to a Siemens linear accelerator according to the in-line approach, i.e. with the imaging beam mounted opposite to the treatment beam sharing the same isocenter. For dose delivery, the treatment beam has to traverse the FPI which is mounted in the accessory tray below the multi-leaf collimator. For each patient, a predefined number of imaging projections over a range of at least 200 degrees were acquired. The fast reconstruction of the 3D-CBCT dataset was done with an implementation of the Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK) algorithm. For the registration of the treatment planning CT with the acquired CBCT, an automatic mutual information matcher and manual matching was used. Bony landmarks were easily detected and the table shifts for correction of setup deviations could be automatically calculated in all cases. The image quality was sufficient for a visual comparison of the desired target point with the isocenter visible on the CBCT. Soft tissue contrast was problematic for the prostate of an obese patient, but good in the lung tumor case. The detected maximum setup deviation was 3 mm for patients fixated with the body frame, and 6 mm for patients positioned in the vacuum pillow. Using an action level of 2 mm translational error, a target point correction was carried out in 4 cases. The additional workload of the described

  20. Alkali element enrichments on the BABBs at the IODP Expedition 333 Site C0012 in the northern Shikoku Basin

    Haraguchi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Fujinaga, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Shikoku Basin is a back arc basin located westside of the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) arc, spreading was from 25 to 15 Ma. The drilling of the DSDP, ODP and IODP recovered the backarc basin basalt (BABB) of the Shikoku Basin. Site C0012, south of the Kii Peninsula, was operated during the IODP Exp 333, and BABB was recovered 100m thickness under the 520m of sediment. This BABB is divided into upper aphyric pillow (Unit 1) and lower massive flow (Unit 2) divided at the 560 mbsf, and show variable degree of alteration, clay mineral and zeolite depositions. SiO2 and MgO contents of these basalts are 47-55 and 5-8 wt%. These basalts show wide variation of enrichment of alkali elements, 2.3-7.5 and 0.4-4.2 wt% of Na2O and K2O. Na2O+K2O contents show 3.2-8.0 wt%, and 2 wt% higher trends than other BABBs in the Shikoku Basin at the same SiO2 contents. Na2O and K2O show proportional and anti-proportional trends with increasing LOI. Therefore, both alkali element enrichments in these rocks are caused by secondary mineralization, and host phase of Na2O is hydrous and that of K2O is anhydrous minerals. Secondary mineral phases was mainly identified by XRD. The identified host phases of Na are analcime and thomsonite. Analcime is observed in rocks of more than 4 wt% of Na2O. Chlorite and smectite are identified to clay minerals. This mineral assemblage indicates the high-temperature zeolite facies alteration. The host phases of K are mainly identified into K-feldspar. We assume that secondary mineralization of K-fd is associated with low-temperature albitization. Compared to the lithostratigraphy, the Na enrichment is prominent in the Unit 1 and upper 20 m of the Unit 2, and the K enrichment is prominent in lower part of the Unit 2. We consider that the Na enrichment associated with zeolite depositions occurred under high water/rock ratio with active hydrothermal circulation because of high water permeability of pillow lava, and K enrichment associated with albitization occurred

  1. Subglacial to emergent basaltic volcanism at Hlöðufell, south-west Iceland: A history of ice-confinement

    Skilling, I. P.

    2009-09-01

    Hlöðufell is a familiar 1186 m high landmark, located about 80 km northeast of Reykjavík, and 9 km south of the Langkjökull ice-cap in south-west Iceland. This is the first detailed study of this well-exposed and easily accessible subglacial to emergent basaltic volcano. Eight coherent and eleven volcaniclastic lithofacies are described and interpreted, and its evolution subdivided into four growth stages (I-IV) on the basis of facies architecture. Vents for stages I, II, and IV lie along the same fissure zone, which trends parallel to the dominant NNE-SSW volcano-tectonic axis of the Western Volcanic Zone in this part of Iceland, but the stage III vent lies to the north, and is probably responsible for the present N-S elongation of the volcano. The basal stage (I) is dominated by subglacially erupted lava mounds and ridges, which are of 240 m maximum thickness, were fed from short fissures and locally display lava tubes. Some of the stage I lavas preserve laterally extensive flat to bulbous, steep, glassy surfaces that are interpreted to have formed by direct contact with surrounding ice, and are termed ice-contact lava confinement surfaces. These surfaces preserve several distinctive structures, such as lava shelves, pillows that have one flat surface and mini-pillow (vault), and was also transported to the south by sub-ice meltwater traction currents. This cone is onlapped by a subaerial pahoehoe lava-fed delta sequence, formed during stage III, and which was most likely fed from a now buried vent(s), located somewhere in the north-central part of the mountain. A 150 m rise in lake level submerged the capping lavas, and was associated with progradation of a new pahoehoe lava-fed delta sequence, produced during stage IV, and which was fed from the present summit cone vent. The water level rise and onset of stage IV eruptions were not associated with any obviously exposed phreatomagmatic deposits, but they are most likely buried beneath stage IV delta deposits

  2. Geochemical and Geophysical Characteristics of the Balud Ophiolitic Complex (BOC, Masbate Island, Philippines: Implications for its Generation, Evolution and Emplacement

    Pearlyn C. Manalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first field, geochemical and geophysical information on the recently recognized Early Cretaceous Balud Ophiolitic Complex (BOC in the island of Masbate in the Central Philippines. Mapping of the western limb of the island revealed that only the upper crustal section of the BOC is exposed in this area. Geochemically, the pillow basalts are characterized by transitional mid-oceanic ridge basalt-island arc tholeiitic compositions. Gravity surveys yielded low Bouguer anomaly values that are consistent with the highly dismembered nature of the BOC. Short wavelength, high amplitude magnetic anomalies registered across the study area are attributed to shallow magnetic sources. This is taken to support the model that the ophiolitic complex occurs as thin crustal slivers that are not deeply-rooted in the mantle. Comparing BOC with other ophiolites in the Central Philippines, such as those in the islands of Sibuyan, Leyte and Bohol, suggests the possibility of a common or contiguous source for similarly-aged and geochemically composed crust-mantle sequences in the region.

  3. Comparisons of venus surface compositions with terrestrial ocean floor rocks

    Statistical comparison of Venera and Vega lander x-ray fluorescence spectrometer measurements of the composition of the Venus surface with an extensive database of compositional data for terrestrial ocean floor rocks indicates that the Venera 14 data matches certain tholeiitic basalts from the Kane Fracture Zone (KFZ) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22-250N) at high confidence levels. The tholeiites most similar to the Venera measurements are very primitive, low-calcium, high-alumina pillow basalts depleted in clinopyroxene, and are relatively unique to certain fracture zones in oceanic regions. If the Venera 14 analogy is valid, the implication is that certain Venus basaltic magmas have lost clinopyroxene at relatively high pressures by fractionation, perhaps within a deep source region. Comparisons of Venera 13 and Vega 2 data with oceanic rocks yield poorer matches. Venera 13 matches Loihi seamount alkali basalts, as well as potassic mafic rocks from oceanic island such as Tristan de Cunha. The best analogy to Vega 2 may be altered gabbros or basic lavas from terrestrial basic intrusions such as the Troodos ophiolite. The close similarity of a representative sample of Venera 14 material with distinctive ocean floor tholeiitic basalts suggests that deep magma storage regions exist on Venus, and that derivation of both tholeiitic and alkalic magmas from a single primitive parent may be an important process on Venus

  4. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in Imam Khomayni Hospital, Ilam, 2011-2012

    Reza Azizian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causes of hospital infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common agent of urinary tract infections. Hospital acquired infection as an old challenge has high importance in hospital infection control and Staphylococcus spp. play main role among routine pathogens. this study designed to investigate the of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus among ICU, Men and Children wards. Materials and methods: Samples collected randomly from ICU, Men and Children wards. Through 203 sampling of wall, floor, bed, pillow and blanket, 75 Staphylococcus spp. isolated. Species recognizes base on culture on Mannitol salt agar and Novobiocin susceptibility determination. Result: Among 75 positive samples, 62 (82.7%, and 13 isolates were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. 51% of bacteria isolated from ICU, 29% from children ward and 20% from men surgery ward. Staphylococcus saprophyticus comprised 87%, 82% and 73% of isolates pertaining to ICU, pediatric and men surgery wards, in a row. Conclusion: Our funding indicate there is an inappropriate instrument to deal with infection in hospital specially ICU. Regards to this issue that Staphylococcus spp. as a main pathogen which has potency to form biofilm and show high resistance to extended broad antibiotics therefore it is suggested to prepare proper guideline to cope with bacteria dissemination and resistance emergence in hospital.

  5. Rehabilitation exercise for treatment of vestibular disorder: A case study

    Avraham Feazadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo and dizziness are common symptoms in the general population. While the clinical picture is well known and widely described, there are different interpretations of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of a 56 year old woman with complains of positional vertigo for 35 consecutive years. She suffered from a sudden onset of rotatory, unilateral horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The symtoms started a day after falling from a bus, where she injured her head. Otherwise her medical history was unremarkable. She was treated with an individualized home exercise program of eye movement exercises, Brandt/Daroff exercises, and general conditioning exercises (i.e., laying on the left side from sitting on the bed, while the head rotated 45 degrees to the right, waiting for about one minue; twice a day on gradual basis, not laying on the side all the way, but to use enough pillows to lay about at 60 degrees. Four weeks from the start of physical therapy, the patient was free of symptoms, even when her neck was in the extended position.

  6. Backarc rifting, constructional volcanism and nascent disorganised spreading in the southern Havre Trough backarc rifts (SW Pacific)

    Wysoczanski, R. J.; Todd, E.; Wright, I. C.; Leybourne, M. I.; Hergt, J. M.; Adam, C.; Mackay, K.

    2010-02-01

    High resolution multibeam (EM300 and SEABEAM) data of the Southern Havre Trough (SHT), combined with observations and sample collections from the submersible Shinkai6500 and deep-tow camera, are used to develop a model for the evolution and magmatism of this backarc system. The Havre Trough and the associated Kermadec Arc are the product of westward subduction at the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. Detailed studies focus on newly discovered features including a seamount (Saito Seamount) and a deep graben (Ngatoroirangi Rift, > 4000 m water depth floored with a constructional axial volcanic ridge > 5 km in length and in excess of 200 m high), both of which are characterised by pillow and lobate flows estimated at 4000 m) spreading systems. These discontinuous spreading systems are characterised by failed rifts, rift segmentation, and propagation. Successive episodes of magmatic intrusion into thinned faulted arc basement results in defocused asymmetrical accretion. Cross-arc volcanic chains, isolated volcanoes and underlying basement plateaus are interpreted to represent a "cap" of recent extrusives. However, they may also be composed entirely of newly accreted crust and the spatially extensive basement fabric of elongated volcanic ridges may be the surface expression of pervasive dike intrusion that has thoroughly penetrated and essentially replaced the original arc crust with newly accreted intrusives.

  7. Relationship between salt diapirism and faulting in the central structural belt of the Dongying sag, Bohai Gulf basin, China

    YU Jianguo; LI Sanzhong; WANG Jinduo; TIMOTHY M Kusky; WANG Xinhong; LU Shengqiang

    2005-01-01

    Many growth faults developed in the Dongying sag of the Jiyang depression of the Bohai Gulf basin, China. These normal growth faults consist of flower-like grabens in the hanging walls of the major faults, accompanied by reverse dragging. The central structural belt is an important structural unit in the Dongying sag, and is divided into a series of small blocks by these faults. These internal blocks can be classified into five structural classes, including parallel blocks, arc-shape blocks, plume-like blocks, ring-radial blocks,and splay blocks. It is shown that these complicated block classes and the "negative flower-like" fault associations in the central structural belt resulted from regional NNW-SSE extension accompanying local salt diapirism and related reverse dragging, rather than strike-slip faulting. On the basis of the diapirism strength, diapers in the central structural belt can be divided into lower salt ridges and pillows, and blind piercing structures. Diapirs are mainly composed of some salts with a little soft mudstone and gypsum. These structures began forming during deposition of the Sha 3 member and terminated during deposition of the Guangtao formation.

  8. Magmatic activity at Islas Marias Archipelago, Gulf of California: Oceanic lithosphere with gabbroic sills versus Jurassic-Cretaceous arc components.

    Schaaf, P. E. G.; Solis-Pichardo, G.; Hernandez-Trevino, T.; Villanueva, D.; Arrieta, G. F.; Rochin, H.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Bohnel, H.; Weber, B.

    2015-12-01

    Islas Marias Archipelago consists of four islands located in the mouth of the Gulf of California. Lithologically three of them (Maria Madre, San Juanito, and Maria Cleofas) are quite similar with a 165-170 Ma metamorphic basement, 75-85 Ma intrusive and extrusive rocks, and a sedimentary sandstone cover, which according to its foraminiferous content recorded multiple uplift and subsidence events related to the opening of the Gulf. However, these units are absent on Maria Magdalena island which is positioned between the other islands. Here, instead, oceanic lithosphere with pillow lavas and gabbroic sills, intercalated with sandstones form the dominant outcrops. Their geochemical and isotopic characteristics are similar to N-MORB with epsilon Nd values around +10 and 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70290. The gabbros are not older than 22 Ma. Magdalena island was obviously uplifted separately from the other islands of the archipelago, probably along a now hidden transform fault system along the East Pacific Rise. Metamorphic and igneous rocks of the other islands can be correlated to lithologically similar units in the Los Cabos Block, Baja California, or to the continental margin units in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Jalisco states when looking at their geochemical and geochronological signatures. Paleomagnetic studies on 35 sampling sites from all 4 islands give evidence for relatively small scale tectonic movements.

  9. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope systematics and geochemical studies on metavolcanic rocks from Peddavura greenstone belt: Evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in easternmost part of Dharwar Craton, India

    M Rajamanickam; S Balakrishnan; R Bhutani

    2014-07-01

    Linear, north–south trending Peddavura greenstone belt occurs in easternmost part of the Dharwar Craton. It consists of pillowed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites (BBA) and rhyolites interlayered with ferruginous chert that were formed under submarine condition. Rhyolites were divided into type-I and II based on their REE abundances and HREE fractionation. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope studies were carried out on the rock types to understand the evolution of the Dharwar Craton. Due to source heterogeneity Sm–Nd isotope system has not yielded any precise age. Rb–Sr whole-rock isochron age of 2551 ± 19 (MSWD = 1.16) Ma for BBA group could represent time of seafloor metamorphism after the formation of basaltic rocks. Magmas representing BBA group of samples do not show evidence for crustal contamination while magmas representing type-II rhyolites had undergone variable extents of assimilation of Mesoarchean continental crust (< 3.3 Ga) as evident from their initial Nd isotope values. Trace element and Nd isotope characteristics of type I rhyolites are consistent with model of generation of their magmas by partial melting of mixed sources consisting of basalt and oceanic sediments with continental crustal components. Thus this study shows evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in Peddavura area in eastern part of Dharwar Craton.

  10. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone, SW Turkey

    Mehmet Ozcelik

    2016-03-01

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sitesin lacustrine sediments located on both sides of the FBFZ. The deformed sediments are composed of unconsolidated alternations of sands, silts and clay layers and show different morphological types. The soft sediment deformation structures include load structures, flame structures, slumps, dykes, neptuniandykes, drops and pseudonodules, intercalated layers, ball and pillow structures, minor faults and water escape structures of varying geometry and dimension. These structures are a direct response to fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization mechanism. The driving forces inferred include gravitationalinstabilities and hydraulic processes. Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the cause for these soft sediment deformations. OSL dating indicated an age ranging from 15161±744 to 17434±896 years for the soft sediment deformation structures. Geological investigations of the soft sediment deformation structures and tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main factor for deformation is past seismic activity.

  11. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia collision zone based on 40Ar-39Ar thermochronology in Ladakh, India

    Rajneesh Bhutani; Kanchan Pande; T R Venkatesan

    2004-12-01

    New 40Ar-39Ar thermochronological results from the Ladakh region in the India-Asia collision zone provide a tectono-thermal evolutionary scenario. The characteristic granodiorite of the Ladakh batholith near Leh yielded a plateau age of 46.3 ± 0.6Ma (2 ). Biotite from the same rock yielded a plateau age of 44.6 ± 0.3Ma (2 ). The youngest phase of the Ladakh batholith, the leucogranite near Himya, yielded a cooling pattern with a plateau-like age of ∼36 Ma. The plateau age of muscovite from the same rock is 29.8 ± 0.2Ma (2 ). These ages indicate post-collision tectonothermal activity, which may have been responsible for partial melting within the Ladakh batholith. Two basalt samples from Sumdo Nala have also recorded the post-collision tectono-thermal event, which lasted at least for 8MY in the suture zone since the collision, whereas in the western part of the Indus Suture, pillow lava of Chiktan showed no effect of this event and yielded an age of emplacement of 128.2 ± 2.6Ma (2 ). The available data indicate that post-collision deformation led to the crustal thickening causing an increase in temperature, which may have caused partial melting at the base of the thickened crust. The high thermal regime propagated away from the suture with time.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative characteristic ofthe population of mesenchymal cells in structural components from conotruncal region of the embryo heart on its early hystogenesis

    Dyagovets K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Character of the distribution of the mesenchymal’s cellspopulation was analysed during the early hystogenesis of the conotruncal region of the mouse embr yo heart. Conotruncalregion is the predecessor of the proximal part of the aorta and pulmonary trunk, of the aortic ruff and conus arteriosus and semilunar valves. Violation of its transformations leading to the formation of congenital heart disease,which named «conotruncal defects». The material was used embryos mice by the C57BL / 6 line, which covers the period of from 10 to 12.5th day, which corresponded to a 16-21 Teilor stages. Quantify the planar and volumetric distribution of a population of mesenchymal stem cells conotruncus’s pillows and ridges by the original method; on the basis of serial pictures of embryo heart with the use of the computer providing Photoshop Cs5, Amira of for microscopy 5.0, 3ds max 8.0, we created the three-dimensional models of structural components of the conotruncus embryonic mouse heart. During this research noted the phased settlement condensed esenchymal stem fraction first and then tapered sections, given the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the distribution of the conotruncus’s mesenchyme embryonic mouse heart.

  13. Hydrophilic superabsorbants and hydrophobic absorbents for environmental protection and minimization of industrial risks

    The superabsorbents obtained by gamma Co-60 processing with swelling capacity from 40 g/g to 500 g/g have been used for: 1. land management, 2. toxic and hazardous materials in aqueous state management in emergency situations, 3. deuterated and tritiated water accidentally spread on different surfaces. The hydrophilic absorbents obtained from rigid polyurethane reused from wastes have been used in the management of risks when oil and oil - derived materials, all in a liquid state, are spread on the soil, surface of water (rivers, lakes, sea, etc) or in work places. The absorbent capacity are at least 4 g/g and upmost 10 g/g. All absorbents hydroxylic or hydrophobic are in bulk form or in pillows (40 x 40 x 10)cm; tubes (Φ ≤ 30 cm, length ≤ 3m with fast catching/detaching systems for emergency situations. For the case of forest and wood buildings fires, ecological systems based on aqueous polymeric solutions and ester fatty acid have been prepared. (authors)

  14. Hydrophilic superabsorbents and hydrophobic absorbents for environmental protection and minimization of industrial risks

    The superabsorbents obtained by gamma Co-60 processing, with swelling capacity from 40 g/g to 500 g/g have been used in the: land management; toxic and hazardous materials in aqueous state management in emergency situations; deuterated and tritiated water accidentally released in various places. The hydrophobic absorbents obtained from rigid polyurethane retrieved from wastes have been used in the management of risks when oil and derived - petroleum materials, all in liquid state, are spread on the soil, surface of water (rivers, lakes, sea, etc.) or in work places. The absorbent capacity is at least 4 g/g and max 10 g/g. All hydrophilic and hydrophobic absorbents are in form of bulk or pillows (40 x 40 x 10) cm, tubes (Φ = 30 cm (max), Length = 3 m (max)) with fast catching/detaching systems for emergency situations. For the case of fires in forests and wood buildings ecological systems based on aqueous polymeric solutions and ester fatty acids have been prepared. (authors)

  15. Petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Cenozoic Cape Crossfire, Cape King, and No Ridge igneous complexes (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    The Meander Intrusive Group is the plutonic-subvolcanic counterpart of the McMurdo Volcanic Group, and extends along 200 km of the Ross Sea coast of Northern Victoria Land. The three largest occurrences of the Meander Intrusive Group between the Icebreaker and Borchgrevink glaciers are the Cape Crossfire, the No Ridge, and the Cape King igneous complexes. These have an area of 40-80 square km and are composed of dominant monzogabbros and monzodiorites along with minor syenites and alkali feldspar microgranites. A significant compositional gap exists between mafic and felsic facies, which show geometrical relationships varying from subhorizontal alternating layers to complex pillowing and fragmentation of the mafic into the felsic facies. Two whole rock biotite Rb-Sr internal isochrons constrain the cooling age of Cape Crossfire Igneous Complex at 31 Ma, a few million years older than No Ridge and Cape King igneous complexes. Thus, the ages of these complexes (≤ 31 Ma) are younger than the plutons and dikes (≥ 35 Ma) cropping out in the southernmost area between the Campbell and Icebreaker glaciers. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy

    Yoshikazu Takinami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy under general anesthesia. A 75-year-old man was intubated without excessive retroflexion, and his upper body was held in place by lateral body positioners with protective cushions over the chest and acromioclavicular joints. The patient’s head was maintained at the center and held on the operation table with a memory-foam pillow to prevent hyperextension of the neck. The arms, abducted 80° with the forearms supinated, were held in place on the armrests with protective cushions. The surgical position was a 20° head-down lithotomy position with the right side of the body lowered by 15°. Surgery was completed successfully with no complications, and anesthesia time was 7 h and 37 min. After surgery, however, the patient complained of numbness and hypoesthesia on the radial and ulnar side, respectively, of the right arm from the elbow to the fingertips, with the boundary running between fingers 3 and 4. Dysesthesia was observed in the right fingertips of fingers 1–3. After 3 months of silver spike point low-frequency electrotherapy, hypoesthesia improved, while dysesthesia partially improved, in the dorsal area between right fingers 1 and 2.

  17. A Survey of Bedbug (Cimex lectularius Infestation in Some Homes and Hostels in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria

    Onah Isegbe Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (χ2=61.44, df=4, P<0.05. Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%, followed by males 223 (31.6%, and females 190 (27.0%. There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (χ2=0.8, df=4, P<0.05. The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%, followed by males 538 (36.1%, and then females 496 (35.3%. The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma.

  18. High-resolution seismic analysis of the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (North German Basin): the pre-Alpine evolution

    Zöllner, H.; Reicherter, K.; Schikowsky, P.

    2008-09-01

    The pre-Alpine structural and geological evolution in the northern part of the North German Basin have been revealed on the basis of a very dense reflection seismic profile grid. The study area is situated in the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (Germany), part of the southwestern Baltic Sea. From the central part of the North German Basin to the northern basin margin in the Grimmen High area a series of high-resolution maps show the evolution from the base Zechstein to the Lower Jurassic. We present a map of basement faults affecting the pre-Zechstein. The pre-Alpine structural evolution of the region has been determined from digital mapping of post-Permian key horizons traced on the processed seismic time sections. The geological evolution of the North German Basin can be separated into four distinct periods in the Rerik study area. During Late Permian and Early Triassic evaporites and clastics were deposited. Salt movement was initiated after the deposition of the Middle Triassic Muschelkalk. Salt pillows, which were previously unmapped in the study area, are responsible for the creation of smaller subsidence centers and angular unconformities in the Late Triassic Keuper, especially in the vicinity of the fault-bounded Grimmen High. In this area, partly Lower Jurassic sediments overlie the Keuper unconformably. The change from extension to compression in the regional stress field remobilized the salt, leading to a major unconformity marked at the base of the Late Cretaceous.

  19. Pinch-and-swell structures at the Middle/Upper Muschelkalk boundary (Triassic): evidence of earthquake effects (seismites) in the Germanic Basin

    Knaust, D.

    A limestone bed with synsedimentary deformations is described from the Middle/Upper Muschelkalk boundary (Middle Triassic) of Thuringia, Germany. The deformation structures have an elongated geometry in a preferential N-S to NNW-SSE direction and are several metres across in size. They are similar to ball-and-pillow structures but differ from these by absence of significant loading into underlying beds. Their development is interpreted as a result of bed-internal deformation with bed thickening due to lateral contraction and bed thinning due to stretching. This deformation mechanism is comparable to the one producing boudinage structures, in particular pinch-and-swell structures. The deformation style and size of these structures and their widespread occurrence together with other synsedimentary deformation structures support their interpretation as earthquake-induced structures (seismites). Synsedimentary deformation structures are common features that occur in a narrow stratigraphic unit at the Middle/Upper Muschelkalk boundary in different parts of the Germanic Basin and point to tectonically influenced changes in the depositional regime and basin organization. Further examples of pinch-and-swell structures from the Lower and Upper Muschelkalk suggest that tectonics significantly influenced the sedimentation in the Germanic Basin during Middle Triassic time.

  20. LEU-plate irradiation at FRJ-2 (DIDO) under the German AF-programme

    10 LEU fuel plates (8 with uranium silicides max. U-density 6.1 g/cm3) have been irradiated at FRJ-2 (DIDO) of KFA-Juelich till end of October 1984 during 321 full power days up to max. burnup of 2.41x1027 fissions/m3 without major interruptions and troubles. PIE began recently in KFA hot cells. Visual inspections revealed no damage or greater deformation for the majority of the plates, but red/brown coloured layers (partially peeled off) on the cladding over the fuel. Aluminium (oxide) is the chief constituent of the layer with smaller portions of Ni and Fe the latter causing the red/brown colour. The major part of the layer (∼50 μm) most probably has been formed during 20 h immediately after experiment start-up under abnormal conditions of the coolant water. Gamma scanning has been completed. Dimensional measurements are under way confirming first observations of severe swelling (pillowing) of 1 plate. Density and blister testing as well as metallography and burnup analysis remain to be accomplished end of 1985/beginning of 1986. (author)

  1. History of Snake River Canyon Indicated by Revised Stratigraphy of Snake River Group Near Hagerman and King Hill, Idaho: With a Section on Paleomagnetism

    Malde, Harold E.; Cox, Allan

    1971-01-01

    A discovery that debris left by the Bonneville Flood (Melon Gravel) overlies McKinney Basalt about 200 feet above the Snake River near King Hill requires that the stratigraphy of the Snake River Group be revised. In former usage, the McKinney Basalt and its immediately older companion, the Wendell Grade Basalt, were considered on the basis of equivocal field relations to be younger than the Melon Gravel and were assigned to the Recent. These lava flows are here reclassified as Pleistocene. The Bancroft Springs Basalt, which consists of both subaerial lava and pillow lava in a former Snake River canyon, was previously separated from the McKinney but is now combined with the McKinney. Accordingly, the name Bancroft Springs Basalt is here abandoned. This revised stratigraphy is first described from geomorphic relations of the McKinney Basalt near King Hill and is then discussed in the light of drainage changes caused by local lava flows during entrenchment of the Snake River. Near King Hill, a former Snake River canyon was completely filled by McKinney Basalt at the place called Bancroft Springs, hut the depth of this lava in the next several miles of the canyon downstream (along a route that approximately coincides with the present canyon) steadily decreased. This ancestral geomorphology is inferred from the former canyon route and, also, from the continuity in gradient of the McKinney lava surface downstream from Bancroft Springs. The drainage history recorded by various lava flows and river deposits of the Snake River Group indicates that the McKinney and Wendell Grade Basalts erupted after the Snake River canyon had reached its present depth of about 500 feet. The Snake River of that time, as far downstream as Bliss, flowed approximately along its present route. The Wood River of that time, however, skirted the north flank of Gooding Butte and joined the ancestral Snake at a junction, now concealed by lava, north of the present canyon about 3 miles west of Bliss

  2. Paleomagnetism, paleogeographic origins, and uplift history of the Coast Range ophiolite at Mount Diablo, California

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Jones, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Divergent paleogeographic origins have been proposed for the Coast Range ophiolite of western California which are testable using paleomagnetic methods. Paleomagnetic data for Middle Jurassic pillow lavas and diabase sills of the Coast Range ophiolite at Mount Diablo, northern California, indicate that they contain two components of remanent magnetization. The characteristic directions have normal and reversed polarities and apparently are carried by Ti-poor magnetite. This magnetization is inferred to have been acquired during emplacement and seafloor alteration at an ancient spreading ridge. The paleolatitude calculated from its structurally corrected mean direction is 20??N ?? 9?? and agrees with the expected direction for stable North America; this result is also consistent with the concordant paleolatitude (32??N ?? 8??) recently determined for Upper Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain in southern California. In addition, clockwise vertical axis rotation of Mount Diablo (143?? ?? 11??) is indicated by the characteristic magnetization direction. An overprint component is inferred to have been acquired during uplift of Mount Diablo since the Miocene.

  3. Safety evaluation of geological disposal concepts for low and medium-level wastes in rock-salt (Pacoma project)

    In the framework of the Performance Assessment of Confinements for MLW and Alpha Waste (PACOMA) the disposal options dealing with rock-salt are studied by GSF and ECN (with subcontract to RIVM). The overall objectives of these studies are to develop and demonstrate procedures for the radiological safety assessment of a deep repository in salt formations. An essential objective is to show how far appropriate choices of the repository design parameters can improve the performances of the whole system. The research covers two waste inventories (the Dutch OPLA and the PACOMA reference inventory), two disposal techniques (conventional and solution mining) and three types of formations (salt dome, pillow and bedded salt). An important part of the research has been carried out in the socalled VEOS project within the framework of the Dutch OPLA study. The methodology used in the consequence analysis is a deterministic one. The models and calculation tools used to perform the consequence analysis are the codes: EMOS, METROPOL and BIOS. The results are expressed in terms of dose rates and doses to individuals as well as to groups. Detailed information with respect to the input data and the results obtained with the three codes is given in three annexes to this final report

  4. Reinterpretation of Mesozoic ophiolite arc, and blueschist terranes in southwestern Baja California

    Sedlock, R.L. (San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The nature and significance of disrupted Mesozoic oceanic rocks on Isla Santa Margarita and Isla Magdalena, western Baja California Sur, have been reinterpreted on the basis of detailed mapping and petrologic studies. Three structural units are recognized. (1) The upper plate consists of ophiolitic, arc, and forearc basin rocks. Ophiolitic rocks, including metamorphosed ultramafic rocks, gabbro, dikes, volcanic rocks, and chert, underwent strong contractional deformation and penetrative greenschist-facies metamorphism. Arc rocks, including gabbro, a dike and sill complex, compositionally diverse volcanic rocks, lahars, and volcaniclastic strata, lack a penetrative fabric and are weakly metamorphosed. Forearc basin rocks consist of unmetamorphosed conglomerated and rhythmically bedded siliciclastic turbidites. (2) The lower plate is a subduction complex consisting of weakly to moderately foliated and metamorphosed pillow and massive lavas, breccia, and tuff( ), interbedded red and green siliceous argillite, and rare radiolarian ribbon chert and limestone. Blueschist-facies metamorphism is indicated by lawsonite, aragonite, sodic amphibole, and sodic clino-pyroxene. (3) Serpentine-matrix melange crops out in shallowly dipping fault zones between the upper and lower plates. The structural and petrologic characteristics of the Mesozoic units, the geometry of contacts between them, and the age of extension are similar to those in the Isla Cedros-Vizcalno Peninsula region, 400 km to the northwest. The author infers that syn-subduction extension was a regional event that affected much of the western Baja forearc during the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene.

  5. Preliminary chronostratigraphy of the Tetagouche and Fournier groups in northern New Brunswick

    Seven U-Pb zircon ages of volcanic rocks from northern New Brunswick are reported and a preliminary stratigraphy of the middle Ordovician Tetagouche and Fournier groups is presented. Deposition of the Tetagouche Group started with calcareous rocks of the Vallee Lourdes Formation in the Late Arenig (>470 Ma). Quartz- and feldspar-phyric felsic volcanic rocks of the immediately overlying Nepisiquit Falls Formation yielded U-Pb zircon ages between ca. 471 and 469 Ma. These volcanic rocks are time stratigraphic equivalents of the feldspar-phyric dacites of the Spruce Lake Formation, which yielded a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 470 Ma, and tholeiitic and alkalic pillow basalts of the structurally overlying Canoe Landing Lake Formation. The final phase of rhyolitic to dacitic volcanism is marked by the emplacement of distinct quartz- and feldspar-phyric dacitic porphyries at ca. 465 Ma, thus limiting silicic volcanism to the Late Arenig and llanvim. During the Ilandeilo and Caradoc (ca. 464-457 Ma) volcanic activity in the Tetagouche Group was characterized by extrusion of alkali basalts and minor comendites, interlayered with dark shales and siltstones of the Boucher Brook Formation. Oceanic crust of the Fournier Group was also formed during this period. (author). 29 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  6. Evidence of Late Quaternary seismicity from Yunam Tso, Lahaul and Spiti, NW Himalaya, India

    Archna Bohra; B S Kotlia; Amzad H Laskar; M G Yadava

    2014-04-01

    A relict fluvio-lacustrine sediment of an 8 m thick section exposed at Kilang Sarai along Yunam river, near Baralacha La shows presence of cycloids or pseudonodules, ball and pillow structures, flame-like and pocket structures, sand dyke injections, bed dislocation/faulting and flow folds. Within this section four deformed levels of soft sediment structures have been identified which were dated ca. 25 ka BP at level 1 (∼0.4 m from the modern river level (mrl), 20.1 ka BP at level 2 (∼1.8 m mrl), 17.7 ka BP at level 3 (∼2.56 m mrl) and 12.2 ka BP at level 4 (∼4.25 m mrl)). Detailed study of these soft sediment structures allow us to demonstrate that deformation level 3 is not related to seismic trigger, but remaining three deformation levels (1, 2 and 4) are ascribed to seismic origin. From compilation of earlier palaeoseismological studies using soft sediment deformational structures (SSDS) in the palaeolake deposits in the adjoining area, suggest that the deformational events identified in the present study are regional in nature and thus tectonic process plays an important role in the evolution of landform in the Spiti region.

  7. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury.

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H

    2009-12-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides. PMID:19901817

  8. Prevalence and the Relationship between Characteristics and Parental Conditions with Risk Factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS

    Mehdi Gholamzadeh Baeis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is a disease which causes unexpected death of infants aged less than 1 year. Given the undeniable role of parents in the presence or absence of SIDS risk factors, the present study aimed to studythe prevalence and the relationship between characteristics and conditions of parent’s infants with SIDS risk factors. Materials and Methods  In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 1,021 infants aged 1 to 12 months in the health centers in Qom-Iran in 2014 were selected as the sample by stratified random sampling method. The required data were collected using an author-made questionnaire on SIDS risk factors. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS 18 at a significance level of 95%. Results 4.5% of mothers were younger than 20 years, 92.3% infants had a co-sleeping with their parents, and 35.7% of infants had a bed-sharing with their parents. 19% of infants used Soft pillow. Study findings showed that there is no significant relationship between the age of mothers and using a shared bedroom (P>0.05, while such a relationship exists between education backgrounds of parents and sharing a bedroom (P

  9. Geochronology and Geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Aoyougou Ophiolite in the North Qilian Mountains, Northwestern China

    2001-01-01

    The Aoyougou ophiolite lies in an early Palaeozoic orogenic belt of the western North Qilian Mountains, near the Aoyougou valley in Gansu Province, northwestern China. It consists of serpentinite, a cumulate sequence of gabbro and diorite, pillow and massive lavas, diabase and chert. Ages of 1840±2 Ma, 1783±2 Ma and 1784±2 Ma on three zircons from diabase, indicate an early Middle Proterozoic age. The diabases and basalts show light rare-earth element enrichment and have relatively high TiO2 contents, characteristic of ocean island basalts. All of the lavas have low MgO, Cr, Ni contents and Mg numbers indicating a more evolved character. They are believed to have been derived from a more mafic parental magma by fractionation of olivine, Cr-spinel and minor plagioclase. Based on the lava geochemistry and regional geology, the Aoyougou ophiolite was probably believed to have formed at a spreading centre in a small marginal basin. Subduction of the newly formed oceanic lithosphere in the Middle Proterozoic produced a trench-arc-basin system, which is preserved in the North Qilian Mountains.

  10. A Device and Procedure for Immobilization of Patients Receiving Limb-Preserving Radiotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and efficiency of a custom-designed immobilization device for patients with extremity soft-tissue sarcoma. The custom device consisted of a thermoplastic shell, vacuum pillow, and adaptable baseplate. The study included patients treated from January 2005 to March 2007, with 92 patients immobilized with the custom device and 98 with an established standard. Setup times for these cohorts were analyzed retrospectively for conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy techniques (IMRT). Thigh tumor setup times were analyzed independently. A subset of patients treated with IMRT was analyzed for setup error using the radiographically verified isocenter position measured daily with electronic portal imaging and cone-beam computed tomography. Mean setup time was reduced by 2.2 minutes when using the custom device for conformal treatment (p = 0.03) and by 5.8 min for IMRT of thigh tumors (p = 0.009). All other setup time comparisons were not significant. A significant systematic error reduction was seen in all directions using the custom device. Random error standard deviations favored the custom device. The custom device offers immobilization advantages. Patient setup time was reduced for conformal techniques and IMRT of thigh tumors. Positioning uncertainty was improved, permitting a reduction of the planning target volume margin by 2 to 4 mm.

  11. Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine basalts

    The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in deltaD and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between deltaD and H2O+ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between deltaD values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo low-temperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having deltaD values as low as -100. deltaD values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary deltaD values were similar to those of submarine lavas. The results are discussed. (author)

  12. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, SW Turkey

    Ozcelik, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sites in lacustrine sediments located on both sides of the FBFZ. The deformed sediments are composed of unconsolidated alternations of sands, silts and clay layers and show different morphological types. The soft sediment deformation structures include load structures, flame structures, slumps, dykes, neptunian dykes, drops and pseudonodules, intercalated layers, ball and pillow structures, minor faults and water escape structures of varying geometry and dimension. These structures are a direct response to fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization mechanism. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the cause for these soft sediment deformations. OSL dating indicated an age ranging from 15161±744 to 17434±896 years for the soft sediment deformation structures. Geological investigations of the soft sediment deformation structures and tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main factor for deformation is past seismic activity.

  13. Halocinèse précoce associée au rifting jurassique dans l'Atlas central de Tunisie (région de Majoura El Hfay)

    Tanfous Amri, Dorra; Bédir, Mourad; Soussi, Mohamed; Azaiez, Hajer; Zitouni, Lahoussine; Hédi Inoubli, M.; Ben Boubaker, Kamel

    2005-05-01

    Seismic and sequence stratigraphy analyses, petroleum-well control and surface data studies of the Majoura-El Hfay region in the Central Atlas of Tunisia had led to identify and calibrate Jurassic seismic horizons. Seismic stratigraphic sections, seismic tectonics analyses, isochron and isopach mapping of Jurassic sequences show a differentiated structuring of platform and depocentre blocks limited by deep-seated NE-SW, north-south east-west and NW-SE faults intruded by Upper Triassic salt. The early salt migration seems to have started by the platform fracturing during the Lower Liassic rifting event. These movements are fossilized by thickness variations of Jurassic horizons, aggrading and retrograding onlap and toplap structures between subsiding rim-syncline gutters and high platform flanks intruded by salt pillows and domes. The salt migration is also attested by Middle and Upper Jurassic space depocentre migrations. Around the Majoura-El Hfay study blocks bounded by master faults, Triassic salt have pierced the Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary cover in a salt diapir extrusion and salt wall structures. To cite this article: D. Tanfous Amri et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  14. Volcano-ice interactions on Mars

    Central volcanic eruptions beneath terrestrial glaciers have built steep-sided, flat-topped mountains composed of pillow lava, glassy tuff, capping flows, and cones of basalt. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges of similar compostion. In some places the products from a number of subglacial vents have combined to form widespread deposits. The morphologies of these subglacial volcanoes are distinctive enough to allow their recognition at the resolutions characteristic of Viking orbiter imagery. Analogs to terrestrial subglacial volcanoes have been identified on the northern plains and near the south polar cap of Mars. The polar feature provides probable evidence of volcanic eruptions beneath polar ice. A mixed unit of rock and ice is postulated to have overlain portions of the northern plains, with eruptions into this ground ice having produced mountains and ridges analogous to those in Iceland. Subsequent breakdown of this unit due to ice melting revealed the volcanic features. Estimated heights of these landforms indicate that the ice-rich unit once ranged from approximately 100 to 1200 m thick

  15. Experimental and Analytical Research on Resonance Phenomena of Vibrating Head with MRE Regulating Element

    Miedzińska D.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A vibratory pile hammer (VPH is a mechanical device used to drive steel piles as well as tube piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. In order to increase the stability and the efficiency of the VPH work in the over-resonance frequency, a new VPH construction was developed at the Military University of Technology. The new VPH contains a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. This system is suspended in the static parts by the adaptive variable stiffness pillows based on a smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE, whose rheological and mechanical properties can be reversibly and rapidly controlled by an external magnetic field. The work presented in the paper is a part of the modified VPH construction design process. It concerns the experimental research on the vibrations during the piling process and the analytical analyses of the gained signal. The results will be applied in the VPH control system.

  16. Comparisons of venus surface compositions with terrestrial ocean floor rocks

    Garvin, J.B.; Bryan, W.B.

    1987-10-01

    Statistical comparison of Venera and Vega lander x-ray fluorescence spectrometer measurements of the composition of the Venus surface with an extensive database of compositional data for terrestrial ocean floor rocks indicates that the Venera 14 data matches certain tholeiitic basalts from the Kane Fracture Zone (KFZ) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22-25/sup 0/N) at high confidence levels. The tholeiites most similar to the Venera measurements are very primitive, low-calcium, high-alumina pillow basalts depleted in clinopyroxene, and are relatively unique to certain fracture zones in oceanic regions. If the Venera 14 analogy is valid, the implication is that certain Venus basaltic magmas have lost clinopyroxene at relatively high pressures by fractionation, perhaps within a deep source region. Comparisons of Venera 13 and Vega 2 data with oceanic rocks yield poorer matches. Venera 13 matches Loihi seamount alkali basalts, as well as potassic mafic rocks from oceanic island such as Tristan de Cunha. The best analogy to Vega 2 may be altered gabbros or basic lavas from terrestrial basic intrusions such as the Troodos ophiolite. The close similarity of a representative sample of Venera 14 material with distinctive ocean floor tholeiitic basalts suggests that deep magma storage regions exist on Venus, and that derivation of both tholeiitic and alkalic magmas from a single primitive parent may be an important process on Venus.

  17. Paleomagnetism of the Caldwell lavas, Eastern Townships, Québec.

    M. K. SEGUIN

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty two oriented samples (97 specimens were obtained from 17
    sites in metavolcanic rocks from the Caldwell Group of the Appalachians
    of Southern Québec (longitude: 71u00'-71"30' W, latitude: 46°00'-46"10'N.
    These metavolcanics of Lower Cambrian age are massive or pillowed lavas
    of andesitic and mainly basaltic composition metamorphosed to the
    sub-greenschist facies. Magnetite and occasionally hematite are the frequent
    magnetic memory carrier.
    In order to obtain some pertinent information relative to the stability
    of the remanent magnetization component, stepwise alternating field
    demagnetization was conducted on 35% of the specimens and the others
    were demagnetized at an optimum alternating field. After AF treatment,
    the paleopole position of the tilted formation from 16 localities is 148°E,
    43°N (dp=11.3°, dm = 22.4°. After omission of 3 localities for which
    a95>30°, the new paleopole position obtained is 173°E, 26°N. This formation
    of Early Cambrian age is characterized by a reversed polarity.

  18. Photon Sail History, Engineering, and Mission Analysis. Appendix

    Matloff, Gregory L.; Taylor, Travis; Powell, Conley

    2004-01-01

    This Appendix summarizes the results of a Teledyne Brown Engineering, Inc. report to the In-Space propulsion research group of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that was authored by Taylor et al. in 2003. The subject of this report is the technological maturity, readiness, and capability of the photon solar sail to support space-exploration missions. Technological maturity for solar photon sail concepts is extremely high high for rectangular (or square) solar sail configurations due to the historical development of the rectangular design by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). L'Garde Inc., ILC Dover Inc., DLR, and many other corporations and agencies. However, future missions and mission analysis may prove that the rectangular sail design is not the best architecture for achieving mission goals. Due to the historical focus on rectangular solar sail spacecraft designs, the maturity of other architectures such as hoop-supported disks, multiple small disk arrays, parachute sails, heliogyro sails, perforated sails, multiple vane sails (such as the Planetary Society's Cosmos 1), inflated pillow sails, etc., have not reached a high level of technological readiness. (Some sail architectures are shown in Fig. A.1.) The possibilities of different sail architectures and some possible mission concepts are discussed in this Appendix.

  19. Evolución geoquímica y temporal del magmatismo básico mesozoico en las Zonas Externas de las Cordilleras Béticas

    Aguirre, L.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mesozoic basic magmatism found in the External Zones of the Betic Cordilleras (ZECB is represented either as «ophites» forming small dimension tectonic blocks intercalated in the Keuper gypsum-rich, clay sediments, or also as lava ilow bodies, most of them with pillow structures, within the Jurassic sedimentary rocks. Geochemical characteristics of these rocks indicate sorne differences between these two magmatic series. Two different chemical affinities have been carried out within the «ophites»: a with modal orthopyroxene and tholeiitic affinity; and b with modal olivine and transitionalalkaline affinity. Chemical characteristics of this last group are similar to those of the volcanic rocks from the Jurassic sediments. The field relationships found in sorne «ophite» outcrops al!ow us to deduce that the tholeiitic rocks are mostly present as extrusive rocks. However, their older whole-rock K-Ar ages range between 182 ± 9 and 187 ± 4 M.a., and do not correctly represent Upper Triassic ages. Transitional-alkaline «ophites» occur as subvolcanic rocks and their older obtained radiometric age is 137 ± 4 M.a. Al! these radiometric ages obtained may be intepreted as a result of the hybridization between the age of the Triassic magmatism and the very low- to low-grade metamorphism present in these rocks. This metamorphism is responsable for the new formed secondary paragenesis, made of prehnite + pumpel! yite + sericitie + mafic phyl!osicates. Radiometric age obtained in sorne intra-Jurassic volcanic rocks range between 155 ± 3 to 166 ± 4 M.a. These new radiometric data and field relationships are used to define the Mesozoic magmatic evolution in the ZECB. Tholeiitic magmatism was generated during an initial Triassic distensive stage. After this magmatic event, and as a consequence of an increment of the distensive regime, with important continental crust thickening, transitionalalkaline magmatism occurS. This

  20. Surface engineering of low enriched uranium-molybdenum

    Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Detavernier, C.

    2013-09-01

    Recent attempts to qualify the LEU(Mo) dispersion plate fuel with Si addition to the Al matrix up to high power and burn-up have not yet been successful due to unacceptable fuel plate swelling at a local burn-up above 60% 235U. The root cause of the failures is clearly related directly to the formation of the U(Mo)-Al(Si) interaction layer. Excessive formation of these layers around the fuel kernels severely weakens the local mechanical integrity and eventually leads to pillowing of the plate. In 2008, SCK·CEN has launched the SELENIUM U(Mo) dispersion fuel development project in an attempt to find an alternative way to reduce the interaction between U(Mo) fuel kernels and the Al matrix to a significantly low level: by applying a coating on the U(Mo) kernels. Two fuel plates containing 8gU/cc U(Mo) coated with respectively 600 nm Si and 1000 nm ZrN in a pure Al matrix were manufactured. These plates were irradiated in the BR2 reactor up to a maximum heat flux of 470 W/cm2 until a maximum local burn-up of approximately 70% 235U (˜50% plate average) was reached. Awaiting the PIE results, the advantages of applying a coating are discussed in this paper through annealing experiments and TRIM (the Transport of Ions in Matter) calculations.

  1. Escrita filmí­ca de O livro de cabeceira

    Wilton Garcia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este texto objetiva apontar alguns fragmentos do discurso intertextual no filme O livro de cabeceira, (1995, de Peter Greenaway. O presente ensaio apoia-se na intertextualidade como um procedimento teórico metodológico para refletir acerca dessa obra contemporânea, em um exercí­cio suplementar do meu trabalho de mestrado. Com isso, proponho explorar algumas redes de interstí­cios do objeto filmico, ao utilizar a noção poética como uma possibilidade de leitura. Palavras-chave cinema, imagem, intertextualidade Abstract This text aims to show some fragments of intertextual discourse in the Peter Greenaway's film Pillow Book, 1995. The present essay subscribes to the notion of intertextuality, as a theorical methodological procedure in order to think about this contemporary art-work. The essay is also a suplementary exercise of my Master degree. In doing so, I propose to explore some net of intertstate of movie, using a poetic notion, as a possibility of reading. Key words cinema, image, intertextuality

  2. A garage sale bargain: A leaking 2.2 GBq source, Phase III - The radiological cleanup

    As described in a previous paper, a private residence in Bristol, Tennessee, was extensively contaminated when the owner unknowingly handled a leaking 226Ra source of about 60 mCi. Contamination was found on both floors of the two-story house and in the yard. The most extensively contaminated area was a back porch where the owner initially opened the source containment box. Contamination was probably spread most by open-quotes trackingclose quotes by the owner, his wife, and several pet cats. One of the most contaminated objects found was a pillow, a favorite napping place for the cats, which read 25 mR h-1 at contact. Several decon techniques were tried including stripable paints, washing with various agents, etc. However, decontamination was primarily accomplished by physical removal techniques, such as removing carpeting, scraping and sanding wooden surfaces, and by disposal of contaminated objects (much to the owners' dismay). The house and the yard were cleaned up to meet the recommended guidelines for unrestricted release with the expenditure of about 550 hours of effort. The groups assisting the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health included the Department of Energy, Tennessee Valley Authority's Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Scientific Ecology Group. All of the assistance was provided at no cost to the home owner or the State of Tennessee

  3. Oxidation state of iron in mantle-derived magmas of the Icelandic rift zone

    Olivine tholeiites are mantle-derived magmas that are formed by partial melting of their deep sources and which have equilibrated with mineral assemblages at slightly different subcrustal pressure-temperature conditions prior to eruption. The minimum depth of the pre-eruptive reservoirs of these magmas is in the order of 10-15 km and their liquidus temperatures fall within the range of 1180-1240 C. Three types of primitive olivine tholeiites are exposed along the rift zones in Iceland. In the present study, the ferric/ferrous ratios of natural glasses (pillow crusts) of the three types of olivine tholeiites were obtained by Moessbauer spectrometry. This technique is particularly well suited for the analysis of high-Mg glasses since it resolves microcrystallites of olivine which contribute to ferrous iron in chemical analysis. All results fall within 10-15% Fe(III). At the liquidus temperature of these glasses, this ferric/ferrous ratio corresponds to fugacity close to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz-oxygen (FMQ) buffer with an uncertainty of less than one log unit in fO2. This result confirms that there is no significant difference in the oxidation state of the three magma types. (orig.)

  4. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemistry at south of Arghash (Neyshabour

    Zahra Karimi Saeid Abadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arghash area is located 45 km to southwest of Neyshabour. The subvolcanic rocks in the area consist of biotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende monzonite porphyry, biotite hornblende monzonite porphyry, monzodiorite porphyry and biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry units. The volcanic rocks consist of hornblende biotite dacite, biotite hornblende dacite, and andesite and pillow lava. The plutonic rocks consist of hornblende monzodiorite, hornblende monzonite, quartz monzonite, hornblende quartz monzodiorite, biotite granodiorite, hornblende granodiorite, biotite hornblende granodiorite, biotite quartz diorite and pyroxene dolerite units. Five types of alteration including propylitic, carbonate, argillic, silicification and sericitic were recognized. Those are subdivided into twelve sub-zones based on the mineral abundances and intensity of alteration. Primary pyrite, 3-4%, is found mainly as disseminated. Secondary mineralization includes limonite, hematite and jarosite. Twenty rock chip and 8 stream sediment samples were collected for geochemical exploration. The samples were analysed for Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag and Sb using Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometric (AAS method. In stream sediment samples, Cu abundance is 34-58 ppm, Zn 45-422 ppm, Pb 28-42 ppm and Ag 2-12 ppm; whereas in rock chip samples, Cu abundance is 8-1137 ppm, Zn 13-411 ppm, Pb 15-97 ppm and Ag 3-32 ppm.

  5. Strain analysis in the Orijärvi triangle, southwestern Finland; in perspective of tectonic models

    Stel, H.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Finite strain analyses were performed in metavolcanic rocks (agglomerates and pillowed metabasalts from the Orijärvi area, southwestern Finland. In this area, tight folding (F1 of layered metasedimentary rocks and development of a penetrative axial plane schistosity (S1 took place during an early stage in the Svecofennian orogeny. Within the domain, there is no evidence of older deformational structures or of a later deformation phase; except in narrow, late-stage shear zones that bound the Orijärvi triangle. During the orogenic evolution, a pervasive attenuation of the fabric in metavolcanic rocks has taken place. In order to quantify strain intensity and to investigate the relation of strain in metavolcanics and folding in metasediments, strain analyses were performed by the Rf/φ method on (subelliptical markers. Metavolcanic rocks demonstrate relatively homogeneous strain values on the outcrop scale, but strain parameters vary strongly on the scale of the study area. This variation in strain correlates with variation in rock composition; felsic metavolcanics demonstrate consistently lower strain intensities than mafic ones. Finite strain ellipsoids are prolate, indicating that the rocks underwent apparent constriction. X axes of strain are(subparallel to the regional fold axis. Constriction in the Orijärvi triangle is not in conflict with any of the current tectonic models. However, given the local structural setting, the most straightforward interpretation is that of progressive constriction by plutonic diapirism.

  6. IODP Expeditions 304 & 305 Characterize the Lithology, Structure, and Alteration of an Oceanic Core Complex

    Christopher J. MacLeod

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available More than forty years after the Mohole Project (Bascom, 1961, the goal of drilling a complete section through in situ oceanic crust remains unachieved. Deep Sea Drilling Project – Ocean Drilling Program (DSDP-ODP Hole 504B within the eastern Pacifi c (Alt et al., 1993 is the deepest hole ever drilled into ocean crust (2111 mbsf, but it failed to reach lower crustal plutonic rocks below the pillow basalts and sheeted dikes. IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 eventuallyrecovered the long-sought transition from sheeted dikes into underlying gabbros by drilling into very fast-spreading Pacifi c crust (Wilson et al., 2006. The lithology and structure of oceanic crust produced at slow-spreading ridges are heterogeneous (e.g., Cannat et al., 1997 and offer unique drilling access to lower crust and upper mantle rocks. After ODP Hole 735B penetrated 1500 m of gabbro at the Southwest Indian Ridge (Dick et al., 2000, IODP Expeditions 304 and 305 recently recovered just over 1400 m of little-deformed, gabbroic lower crust from a tectonic window along the slowspreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  7. Ultra-diffuse hydrothermal venting supports Fe-oxidizing bacteria and massive umber deposition at 5000 m off Hawaii.

    Edwards, Katrina J; Glazer, B T; Rouxel, O J; Bach, W; Emerson, D; Davis, R E; Toner, B M; Chan, C S; Tebo, B M; Staudigel, H; Moyer, C L

    2011-11-01

    A novel hydrothermal field has been discovered at the base of Lōihi Seamount, Hawaii, at 5000 mbsl. Geochemical analyses demonstrate that 'FeMO Deep', while only 0.2 °C above ambient seawater temperature, derives from a distal, ultra-diffuse hydrothermal source. FeMO Deep is expressed as regional seafloor seepage of gelatinous iron- and silica-rich deposits, pooling between and over basalt pillows, in places over a meter thick. The system is capped by mm to cm thick hydrothermally derived iron-oxyhydroxide- and manganese-oxide-layered crusts. We use molecular analyses (16S rDNA-based) of extant communities combined with fluorescent in situ hybridizations to demonstrate that FeMO Deep deposits contain living iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria related to the recently isolated strain Mariprofundus ferroxydans. Bioenergetic calculations, based on in-situ electrochemical measurements and cell counts, indicate that reactions between iron and oxygen are important in supporting chemosynthesis in the mats, which we infer forms a trophic base of the mat ecosystem. We suggest that the biogenic FeMO Deep hydrothermal deposit represents a modern analog for one class of geological iron deposits known as 'umbers' (for example, Troodos ophilolites, Cyprus) because of striking similarities in size, setting and internal structures. PMID:21544100

  8. Snow water equivalent measured with cosmic-ray neutrons: reviving a little known but highly successful field method

    Desilets, D.

    2012-12-01

    Secondary cosmic-ray neutrons are attenuated strongly by water in either solid or liquid form, suggesting a method for measuring snow water equivalent that has several advantages over alternative technologies. The cosmic-ray attenuation method is passive, portable, highly adaptable, and operates over an exceptionally large range of snow pack thicknesses. But despite promising initial observations made in the 1970s, the technique today remains practically unknown to snow hydrologists. Side-by-side measurements performed over the past several years with a snow pillow and a submerged cosmic-ray probe demonstrate that the cosmic-ray attenuation method merits consideration for a wide range of applications—especially those where alternative methods are made problematic by dense vegetation, rough terrain, deep snowpack or a lack of vehicular access. During the snow-free season, the instrumentation can be used to monitor soil moisture, thus providing another widely sought field measurement. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. With main facilities in Albuquerque, N.M., and Livermore, C.A., Sandia has major R&D responsibilities in national security, energy and environmental technologies, and economic competitiveness.

  9. Plume-proximal mid-ocean ridge origin of Zhongba mafic rocks in the western Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Southern Tibet

    He, Juan; Li, Yalin; Wang, Chengshan; Dilek, Yildirim; Wei, Yushuai; Chen, Xi; Hou, Yunling; Zhou, Aorigele

    2016-05-01

    The >2000 km-long Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) in southern Tibet includes the remnants of the Mesozoic Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, and is divided by the Zhada-Zhongba microcontinent into northern and southern branches in its western segment. Zircon U-Pb dating of a doleritic rock from the northern branch has revealed a concordant age of 160.5 ± 1.3 Ma. All of the doleritic samples from the northern branch and the pillow basalt and gabbro samples from the southern branch display consistent REE and trace element patterns similar to those of modern OIB-type rocks. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures of these OIB-type rocks from the western segment are identical with those of OIB-type and alkaline rocks from other ophiolite massifs along the central and eastern segments of the YZSZ, suggesting a common mantle plume source for their melt evolution. The enriched Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic character of the gabbroic dike rocks from the southern branch points to a mantle plume source, contaminated by subducted oceanic crust or pelagic sediments. We infer that the mafic rock associations exposed along the YZSZ represent the remnants of a Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, which was developed as part of a plume-proximal seafloor-spreading system, reminiscent of the seamount chains along-across the modern mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific Ocean.

  10. Unconstrained monitoring of long-term heart and breath rates during sleep

    An unconstrained method for the long-term monitoring of heart and breath rates during sleep is proposed. The system includes a sensor unit and a web-based network module. The sensor unit is set beneath a pillow to pick up the pressure variations from the head induced by inhalation/exhalation movements and heart pulsation during sleep. The measured pressure signal was digitized and transferred to a remote database server via the network module. A wavelet-based algorithm was employed to detect the heart and breath rates, as well as body movement, during sleep. The overall system was utilized for a total six-month trial operation delivered to a female subject. The profiles of the heart and breath rates on a beat-by-beat and daily basis were obtained. Movements during sleep were also estimated. The results show that the daily average percentage of undetectable periods (UPs) during 881.6 sleep hours over a 180 day period was 17.2%. A total of 89.2% of sleep hours had a UP of not more than 25%. The profile of the heart rate revealed a periodic property that corresponded to the female monthly menstrual cycle. Our system shows promise as a long-term unconstrained monitor for heart and breath rates, and for other physiological parameters related to the quality of sleep and the regularity of the menstrual cycle. (note)