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Sample records for 3075ma ocelli-hosting pillow

  1. Field and geochemical characterisitics of the Mesoarchean (~3075 ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland: Evidence for seafloor hydrothermal alteration in a supra-subduction oceanic crust

    Polat, A.; Appel, P.W.U.; Frei, Robert;

    2006-01-01

    The Mesoarchean (ca. 3075 Ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt in southern West Greenland includes variably deformed and metamorphosed pillow basalts, ultramafic flows (picrites), serpentinized ultramafic rocks, gabbros, sulphide-rich siliceous layers, and minor siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. Primary......-enriched, near-flat HREE, and HFSE (especially Nb)-depleted trace element patterns, indicating a subduction zone geochemical signature. Ultramafic pillows and cumulates display large positive initial eNd values of + 1.3 to + 5.0, consistent with a strongly depleted mantle source. Given the geological...

  2. Home-Grown Toys: The Learning Pillows.

    Kronheim, Jane K.

    1985-01-01

    A tactile toy for visually impaired children, the "learning pillow" combines a written text (story or poem) with a page-size pillow that has tactile images related to the text. Exploration of the pillow in conjunction with hearing the text stimulates a number of learning experiences. (Author/CL)

  3. Pillow seal system at the BigRIPS separator

    Highlights: • Pillow seal system has been installed for a high-intensity RI-beam facility at RIKEN. • It is aimed at facilitating remote maintenance under high residual radiation. • Local radiation shields are integrated with one of the pillow seals. • Pillow seals have been aligned to the beam axis within 1mm accuracy. • A leakage rate of 10–9 Pa m3/s has been achieved with our pillow seal system. -- Abstract: We have designed and installed a pillow seal system for the BigRIPS fragment separator at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) to facilitate remote maintenance in a radioactive environment. The pillow seal system is a device to connect a vacuum chamber and a beam tube. It allows quick attachment and detachment of vacuum connections in the BigRIPS separator and consists of a double diaphragm with a differential pumping system. The leakage rate achieved with this system is as low as 10–9 Pa m3/s. We have also designed and installed a local radiation-shielding system, integrated with the pillow seal system, to protect the superconducting magnets and to reduce the heat load on the cryogenic system. We present an overview of the pillow seal and the local shielding systems

  4. Pillow seal system at the BigRIPS separator

    Tanaka, K.; Inabe, N.; Yoshida, K.; Kusaka, K.; Kubo, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have designed and installed a pillow seal system for the BigRIPS fragment separator at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) to facilitate remote maintenance in a radioactive environment. The pillow seal system is a device to connect a vacuum chamber and a beam tube. It allows quick attachment and detachment of vacuum connections in the BigRIPS separator and consists of a double diaphragm with a differential pumping system. The leakage rate achieved with this system is as low as 10-9 Pa m3/s. We have also designed and installed a local radiation-shielding system, integrated with the pillow seal system, to protect the superconducting magnets and to reduce the heat load on the cryogenic system. We present an overview of the pillow seal and the local shielding systems.

  5. Evaluation of radiation exposure from a consumer product. A pillow

    Radiation exposure from a pillow was analyzed. According to an advertisement of the pillow, this radioactive consumer product contains enough amounts of radioactive materials to induce radiation hormesis effects. The pillow consists of the filling chips made from kneading mineral ores and the polynosic linings contains natural radioactive ores. A γ-ray analysis of the pillow using pure Ge-MCA reveals that there exist radioactivities of thorium and uranium series mixtures in it at concentration of 0.58% by the weight. The observations of a chip surface by a scanning electron microscope show that the shapes of two sides are different each other. There are lots of sharp protuberances on the outside of the chip. To determine the direct external exposures from the pillow, film badges were placed on the pillow for 210 h and 2555 h. The dose equivalents of 210 h exposure was under 0.1 mSv which is a detection limit of a γ-ray by the film badges. However, that of 2555 h exposure was over 0.1 mSv less than 0.15 mSv. Quantities of internal exposures from inhalation of the vaporized Rn were measured by a Lucas Cell. It was 79 Bq/m3. There is no necessity for anxious about being broken in health inhaling the Rn-gass. (author)

  6. A randomized, comparative trial: does pillow type alter cervico-thoracic spinal posture when side lying?

    Gordon SJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Susan J Gordon1, Karen A Grimmer-Somers2, Patricia H Trott31School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Science, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD; 2Centre for Allied Health Sciences, 3School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: Many patients ask for advice about choosing a pillow. This research was undertaken to determine if pillow type alters cervico-thoracic spine position when resting in the side-lying position.Aim: To investigate the effect of different pillow shape and content on the slope of cervico-thoracic spine segments when side lying.Materials and methods: The study was a randomized blinded comparative trial set in a laboratory that replicated a bedroom. The subjects were side sleepers aged over 18 years. Exclusion criteria were history of surgery to the cervico-thoracic spine, an injury or accident to the cervico-thoracic spine in the preceding year, or currently receiving treatment for neck symptoms. Each participant rested in a standardized side-lying position for 10 minutes on each of the trial pillows: regular shaped polyester, foam, feather, and latex pillows, and a contour shaped foam pillow. Reflective markers were placed on external occipital protuberance (EOP, C2, C4, C7, and T3, and digital images were recorded of subjects at 0 and 10 minutes on each pillow. Images were digitized using each reflective marker and the slope of each spinal segment calculated. Univariate analysis of variance models were used to investigate slope differences between pillows at 0 and 10 minutes. Significance was established at P < 0.01 to take account of chance effects from repeated measures and multiple comparisons.Results: At 0 and 10 minutes, the EOP-C2, C2-C4, and C4-C7 segmental slopes were significantly different across all pillows. Significant differences were identified when comparing the feather pillow with the latex, regular and contour foam pillows, and when

  7. Argon-40: Excess in submarine pillow basalts from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Brent, Dalrymple G.; Moore, J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Submarine pillow basalts from Kilauea Volcano contain excess radiogenic argon-40 and give anomalously high potassium-argon ages. Glassy rims of pillows show a systematic increase in radiogenic argon-40 with depth, and a pillow from a depth of 2590 meters shows a decrease in radiogenic argon-40 inward from the pillow rim. The data indicate that the amount of excess radiogenic argon-40 is a direct function of both hydrostatic pressure and rate of cooling, and that many submarine basalts are not suitable for potassium-argon dating.

  8. Petrogenesis of pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan

    Liu, Chih-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen

    2016-04-01

    The pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan have been inferred to bear Dupal signautres based on their Th/Ce ratio, linking the Baolai basalts to the South China Sea (SCS) seamounts that are characterized by Dupal Pb isotope signatures (Smith and Lewis, 2007). In this study, thirty-two Baolai basalt samples were analyzed for abundances of major and trace elements as well as Pb and Nd isotope ratios to verify their Dupal characters and to constrain their petrogenesis significance. The Baolai basalts contain 4-10 % L.O.I.. Three stages of alteration are inferred from plots of L.O.I. abundance versus concentrations major oxides as well as mineral textures and compositions. The first alteration stage was characterized by albitization that converted Ca-rich plagioclase to albite. The second alteration stage was dominated by chloritization of olivine and augite, resulting in increases in L.O.I. abundance. The last alteration stage is represented by formation of secondary calcite in vesicles and cracks. These alteration processes reflect interaction with seawater and apparently did not affect the magmatic Pb isotope composition for the low Pb concentration in seawater. Relative to the North Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL), the Baolai pillow basalts have higher 208Pb/204Pb ratios at a given 206Pb/204Pb value, showing Dupal anomaly. For their relatively higher 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the Baolai basalts are distinct from majority of the Cenozoic basalts in the Hainan-Leizhou peninsula, the Indochina peninsula, and the SCS seamounts, for which derivation from the Hainan mantle plume has been recently proposed (Wang et al., 2013). In contrast, the Baolai basalts and the Cenozoic basalts from eastern Guangdong at southeastern China have similar Pb and Nd isotope compositions, indicating derivation from similar mantle sources. However, the Baolai basalts have lower abundance ratios of Zr/Hf (40.3-45.6 versus 46.5-50.5), La/Yb (12

  9. Crop and Substrate Tests with Single Use Rooting "Pillows" for the VEGGIE Plant Growth Hardware

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Caro, Janicce; Stutte, Gary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    VEGGIE is a small plant production chamber built by ORBITEC. This chamber can be collapsed for easy stowage and deployed in orbit. It is designed for gravity independent operation, and provides 0.17 square m of crop growth area with three primary subsystems: an LED light panel, extendable transparent Teflon bellows to enclose the plants, and a wicking reservoir. VEGGIE would provide the capability for astronauts to grow fresh foods for dietary supplementation. Initial planting concepts tested with the VEGGIE included direct seeding or plug placement on the reservoir surface. These options had issues of salt accumulation and eventual toxicity if the reservoir was filled with nutrient solution, and hardware reuse was limited due to sanitation. In response a rooting packet or "pillow" concept was developed: single-use bags of media containing time release fertilizer with a wicking surface contacting the VEGGIE reservoir. Pillows being tested are small electrostatic bags with a Nitex nylon mesh side, each holding 100 mL of dry media. Six pillows fit in one VEGGIE unit; however pillow size could vary depending on crop selected. Seeds can be planted directly in pillows and planted pillows can be hydrated in space as desired. Our goals were to define optimal media and crops for an ISS mission scenario. Plant tests in pillows were performed in a controlled environment chamber set to habitat-relevant conditions, and capillary reservoir analogs were utilized. Media tested within pillows included: a commercial peat-based potting mix, arcillite (calcined clay), perlite: vermiculite, and peat-based: arcillite blends. Testing included 15 types of leafy greens, snow pea, radish, and herbs. Media performance was crop dependent, but generally plants showed the greatest growth in the peat-based: arcillite mixes. Crops with the best performance in pillows were identified, and testing is underway with select leafy greens examining plant and microbial load response to repeated harvest

  10. [Sensitisation to 'poffertjes' as a result of sleeping on a pillow containing buckwheat].

    van Ginkel, C J W

    2002-03-30

    A 19-year-old man suffered an anaphylactic reaction after eating 'poffertjes' (small Dutch pancakes). This reaction appeared to be the result of an IgE-mediated allergy to buckwheat, a principal ingredient of 'poffertjes'. It is highly likely that the patient was sensitised by sleeping on a pillow stuffed with buckwheat husk. PMID:11957384

  11. Analysis of the pulmonary functions of normal adults according to pillow height.

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine changes in pulmonary functions in relation to the sleeping positions of the experimental subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects for this study were twenty randomly selected males and females from K University. Measurements were taken in the supine position at three different pillow heights: 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm. Pulmonary functions (vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume) were evaluated using a Fit mate. [Results] These findings suggest that a pillow height of 5 cm makes a significant difference in vital capacity (VC). When the three pillow heights were compared, significant differences were seen between 0 cm and 5 cm, and between 5 cm and 10 cm, in terms of vital capacity for the pulmonary functions among the three positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, changing the positions of the subjects produces changes in pulmonary functions. The greatest change occurred in the 5 cm pillow height. Presumably, ventilation is affected by the body structures. The results will provide objective data to establish the most suitable positions for stroke patients when they perform respiratory exercises. PMID:26644649

  12. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of H...

  13. Analysis of the pulmonary functions of normal adults according to pillow height

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, Misuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine changes in pulmonary functions in relation to the sleeping positions of the experimental subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects for this study were twenty randomly selected males and females from K University. Measurements were taken in the supine position at three different pillow heights: 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm. Pulmonary functions (vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume) were evaluated ...

  14. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean.

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars. PMID:21875356

  15. A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased anesthesiologist discomfort compared to a pillow of 4 cm height during tracheal intubation in adult patients

    Hong, Hyo Ju; Kim, Sung Hoon; Hwang, Jung Won; Lee, Hyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck flexion by head elevation using an 8 to 10 cm thick pillow and head extension has been suggested to align the laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axis and facilitate tracheal intubation. Presently, the laryngeal view and discomfort for tracheal intubation were evaluated according to two different degrees of head elevation in adult patients. Methods This prospective randomized, controlled study included 50 adult patients aged 18 to 90 years. After induction of anesthesia, the Cormack Lehane grade was evaluated in 25 patients using a direct laryngoscope while the patient's head was elevated with a 4 cm pillow (4 cm group) and then an 8 cm pillow (8 cm group). In the other 25 patients, the grades were evaluated in the opposite sequence and tracheal intubation was performed. The success rate and anesthesiologist's discomfort score for tracheal intubation, and laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were assessed. Results There were no differences in the laryngeal view and success rate for tracheal intubation between the two groups. The discomfort score during tracheal intubation was higher in the 8 cm group when the patient's head was elevated 4 cm first and then 8 cm. The alignment of laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were not different between the two degrees of head elevation. Conclusions A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased the anesthesiologist discomfort, compared to a pillow of 4 cm height, during tracheal intubation in adult patients. PMID:27066204

  16. Media Effects on Lettuce Growth in "Pillows" Designed for the VEGGIE Spaceflight Growth Chamber

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; McCoy, LaShelle; Stutte, Gary; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    VEGGIE is a prototype vegetable production unit for space designed by Orbital Technologies Corporation that is being developed to fly on the International Space Station. A modular plant rooting system "pillow" is being designed to support plant growth in VEGGIE under microgravity conditions. VEGGIE pillows are small self-contained packets of media with time-release fertilizer that can wick water passively from a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in pillows and the entire root system of a plant is contained as the crop develops, preventing loss into the spacecraft cabin. This study compared five media types and three lettuce cultivars in pillows growing in a VEGGIE analog environment.. Media consisted of a peat-based potting mix (Fafard #2,Conrad Fafard Inc., Agawam, MA), and a calcined clay, (arcillite, 1-2 mm sifted, Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove IL) as well as three different blends of the two, 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70. Lettuce cultivars tested were 'Sierra', a bi-colored French crisp Batavia lettuce, 'Outredgeous', a red romaine lettuce and 'Flandria', a green butter head variety. Plants were grown for 28 days, harvested, biometric data was obtained, and tissue mineral analysis was performed. For all cultivars, lettuce plants grown in the media blends were more productive than those in the individual media types. All cultivars showed bell-shaped curves in response to increases in arcillite / decreases in Fafard #2 for leaf area, fresh, and dry mass. Plants in 100% Fafard #2 and in 100% arcillite were stunted, but only those in higher levels of Fafard #2 (70% and 100%) had reduced shoot percent moisture, possibly indicating that mechanisms causing stunting differed. Variation in tissue nutrient content are consistent with this, with Mg and Mn highest in plants grown in 100% Fafard and decreasing as the concentration of arcillite increased. Color also varied with media, especially in the 'Sierra' lettuce, with plants grown in increasing levels

  17. Nasal pillows as an alternative interface in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome initiating continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    Side-effects directly due to the nasal mask are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) commencing continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Recently, nasal pillows have been designed to overcome these issues. Limited evidence exists of the benefits and effectiveness of these devices. Twenty-one patients (19 male, 49+\\/-10years) with the established diagnosis of OSAS [apnoea\\/hypopnoea index (AHI): 52+\\/-22] and who had a successful CPAP titration were commenced on CPAP therapy (10+\\/-2cmH2O), and randomized to 4weeks of a nasal pillow (P) and a standard nasal mask (M) in a crossover design. Outcome measures were objective compliance, AHI, quality of life, Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) and CPAP side-effects. There was no difference in compliance (M versus P: 5.1+\\/-1.9h versus 5.0+\\/-1.7h; P=0.701) and AHI (2.6+\\/-2.7 versus 3.0+\\/-2.9; P=0.509). Quality of life and ESS improved with CPAP, but there was no difference in the extent of improvement between both devices. Usage of nasal pillows resulted in less reported pressure on the face and more subjects found the nasal pillow the more comfortable device. However, there was no clear overall preference for either device at the end of the study (mask=57%, pillow=43%; P=0.513). The applied CPAP pressure did not correlate with compliance, AHI and ESS. Furthermore, no differences in outcome parameters were noted comparing groups with CPAP pressure <10 and >\\/=10cm H(2) O. Nasal pillows are equally effective in CPAP therapy, but do not generally lead to improved compliance.

  18. U-series dating of pillow rim glass from recent volcanism at an Axial Volcanic Ridge

    Thomas, L. E.; van Calsteren, P. W.; Jc024 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    Visual observations using camera systems on the tethered ROV Isis deployed during the 2008 JC024 cruise to the Mid Atlantic Ridge at 45°N showed1 numerous monogenetic volcanoes that are essentially piles of lava pillows. The pillows are usually ˜1m diameter and >2m long and form mounds with average dimensions around 300m diameter, ˜150m altitude, and 0.005km3 volume. Small protrusions, 10-50cm long, which are numerous on pillows appear to be the youngest regions, were sampled using the pincers on the hydraulic arms of Isis, and returned to the surface. On the surface, any glass crust on the pillow protrusions was chiselled off using clean tools and double bagged in polythene. In the laboratory a portion of the glass was crushed in a jeweller’s roller mill and sieved using stainless steel sieves to obtain a sufficient amount of the fraction 0.125-0.250mm for hand picking, using a binocular microscope with the glass submerged in a mix of water and iso-propyl alcohol. The samples were subsequently leached using the procedure of Standish & Sims2. Samples were spiked with a mixed 229Th-236U spike and the U, Th and Ra fractions were separated and purified using standard chemistry methods. U and Th isotope ratios were determined using a Nu Instruments MC-ICPMS and Ra isotope ratios were determined using a MAT-262-RPQII TIMS instrument. The U-series data were evaluated using a MathCad program based on published4,5,6 equations. The data can be successfully modelled by assuming the ‘accepted’ mantle upwelling rate for the region of 11mm.y-1. The U-Th characteristics are mostly derived during ‘porous flow’ magma upwelling in the garnet stability zone, ranging to a depth of 60km with incipient melting starting at 70km. Above 60km depth the melt fraction will be >3% and the mantle mineralogy devoid of phases that fractionate U-Th significantly. Moreover, at melt fractions >3%, channel flow will be dominant and magma will transit to eruption on time-scales that are

  19. Reconstruction of seawater chemistry from deeply subducted oceanic crust; hydrogen and oxygen isotope of lawsonite eclogites preserving pillow structure

    Hamabata, D., VI; Masuyama, Y.; Tomiyasu, F.; Ueno, Y.; Yui, T. F.; Okamoto, K.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand evolution of life, change of seawater chemistry from Hadean, Archean to present is significant. Pillow structure is well-preserved in the Archean greenstone belt (e.g. Komiya et al., 1999). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope of rims in the pillow is useful conventional tool to decipher chemistry of Paleao-seawater from Archean to Present. However, Archean greenstone belt suffered regional metamorphism from greenschist to Amphibolite facies conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to testify the validity of pillow chemistry from recent (Phanerozoic) metamorphosed greenstone. We have systematically collected pillowed greenstone from blueschist and eclogites. Two eclogite exhibiting pillow structures were chosen for oxygen and hydrogen isotope analysis. One is from Corsica (lawsonite eclogite collected with Dr. Alberto Vidale Barbarone) and another is from Cazadero, Franciscan belt (collected by Dr. Tatsuki Tsujimori). The both are ascribed as MORB from major and trace bulk chemistry and Ca is rich in the core and Na is poor in the rims. The former exhibits garnet, omphacite, lawsonite, and glacophane. Phengite is in core of the pillow and chlorite is in the rims. In the latter, besides garnet, omphacite, epdiote and glaucophane, chlorite is recognized with phengite in the core. Glaucophane is richer in the rims from the both samples, therefore istope analysis of glaucophane was done. Mineral separation was carefully done using micro-mill, heavy liquid and isodynamic separator. 20 mg specimens were used for oxygen isotope analysis and 2mg were for hydrogen analysis. δ18O of the all analysis (7.7 to 8.3) is within the range of unaltered igneous oceanic crust and high temperature hydrothermal alteration although rims (8.3 for Franciscan and 8.0 for Corsica) are higher than cores (7.7 for Franciscan and Corsica). δD data is also consistent with hydrothermal alteration. It is relative higher in core from the Corsica and Franciscan (-45 and -56) than of the

  20. Mimo pillow--an intelligent cushion designed with maternal heart beat vibrations for comforting newborn infants.

    Chen, Wei; Oetomo, Sidarto Bambang; Tetteroo, Daniel; Versteegh, Frank; Mamagkaki, Thelxi; Pereira, Mariana Serras; Janssen, Lindy; van Meurs, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Premature infants are subject to numerous interventions ranging from a simple diaper change to surgery while residing in neonatal intensive care units. These neonates often suffer from pain, distress, and discomfort during the first weeks of their lives. Although pharmacological pain treatment often is available, it cannot always be applied to relieve a neonate from pain or discomfort. This paper describes a nonpharmacological solution, called Mimo, which provides comfort through mediation of a parent's physiological features to the distressed neonate via an intelligent pillow system embedded with sensing and actuating functions. We present the design, the implementation, and the evaluation of the prototype. Clinical tests at Máxima Medical Center in the Netherlands show that among the nine of ten infants who showed discomfort following diaper change, a shorter recovery time to baseline skin conductance analgesimeter values could be measured when the maternal heartbeat vibration in the Mimo was switched ON and in seven of these ten a shorter crying time was measured. PMID:25148673

  1. Geochemistry of pillow lavas and their clinopyroxene: ophiolitic mélanges of Nain and Ashin, northeastern Isfahan province

    Nargess Shirdashtzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nain and Ashin ophiolites are located in northeastern Isfahan province, in western Central-East Iranian Microplate. Pillow lavas are one of the most significant Cretaceous rock units. The lower partial melting degree in mantle peridotites of Ashin ophiolite, and the derived melt by melting their clinopyroxene caused a more basic (basalt and enriched nature for the Ashin pillow lavas, whereas higher partial melting degree and consequently incongruent melting of orthopyroxene and increment of silica in the ascending melt, together with aqueous fluids led to formation of more acidic (andesite – basaltic andesite and depleted melts (in trace elements in Nain ophiolite. The REE content of Nain samples have IAT chemical affinity, but the samples from Ashin show MORB characteristics. Based on petrograhic observations, lower Eu/Eu* of clinopyroxene phenocrystals of Ashin, calculated Kd of clinopyroxene together with HREE enrichment in the melt in equilibrium with clinopyroxene (especially in Ashin when compared with Nain, the plagioclase crystallization was primer and higher in comparison with clinopyroxene, especially in Ashin compared with Nain. The melt in equilibrium with clinopyroxene in Ashin was similar to MORB composition, whereas it is similar to IAT in Nain. Thus, despite the proximity of these two ophiolitic series and some field and petrographic similarities, pillow lavas from them are different from each other in both primary melt composition and the processes of differentiation and the tectonic setting.

  2. A positioning pillow to improve lumbar puncture success rate in paediatric haematology-oncology patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Kassaï Behrouz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar punctures (LPs are common in children with cancer. Although pain management during the lumbar puncture has been well standardized, dealing with stress and anxiety is not well addressed yet. Our objective was to evaluate the potential improvement of the LP success rate using a positioning pillow, to ensure maximum lumbar flexion, and allow paravertebral muscles to relax, in children who are awake, with either conscious sedation or no sedation. Methods Children aged 2–18 years undergoing LP were randomly assigned to a positioning pillow or no intervention. The primary outcome was the rate of success, i.e. achieving the LP (sampling or injection at the first attempt, without bleeding (RBC 3. The secondary outcomes included: the child's pain, assessed by a self-administered visual analogical scales (VAS for children over 6 years of age; the parents' and caregivers' perception of the child's pain; the satisfaction of the children, the parents, the caregivers and the physician. The child's cooperation and the occurrence of post-LP syndrome were also evaluated. Results 124 children (62 in each group were included. The LP pillow tended to increase the success rate of LPs (67% vs. 57%, p = 0.23, and decreased the post-LP syndromes (15% vs. 24%, p = 0.17 but the differences were not statistically significant. In children over 6-year of age (n = 72, the rate of success was significantly higher in the pillow group (58.5% vs. 41.5%, p = 0.031, with a tendency to feel less pain (median VAS 25 vs. 15 mm, p = 0.39 and being more satisfied (84.4% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.34. Conclusion Overall results do not demonstrate a benefit in using this pillow for lumbar punctures. This study results also suggest a benefit in the sub group of children over 6-year of age; this result needs confirmation. Trial Registration The trial was registered with Clinical Trials.gov (number NCT00775112.

  3. AMS radiocarbon dating of medieval textile relics: The frocks and the pillow of St. Francis of Assisi

    Since natural textiles usually originate from short-lived organisms, they can represent a useful material to date samples from historical periods with a good accuracy. In this work, we present a set of radiocarbon measurements on medieval textile relics: two woollen habits and a pillow traditionally associated with St. Francis of Assisi, the saint patron of Italy. The strategy in choosing samples for radiocarbon dating is first discussed and the procedures for measurements - performed at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of Laboratorio di Tecniche Nucleari per i Beni Culturali (LABEC), Florence - are described; AMS results for the two frocks showed that only one of them, presently kept in the church of St. Francis in Cortona, is compatible with the Saint's period of life, as is the pillow also kept in Cortona. Another frock attributed to St. Francis appears to date from at least 80 years after his death. However, the goal of these measurements was not a bare authentication/disconfirmation of the relics; they just represent an example of how scientific analysis can integrate with humanistic studies. Indeed, AMS results, combined with a thorough analysis of the textiles typologies, confirmed the historical hypotheses based on documentary studies and on tradition. The overall conclusions contributed to the decisions taken for conservation, and have as a whole enhanced the religious importance of the relics

  4. Pillow basalts of Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite: records of seafloor in the midwestern portion of Araguaia Belt

    Luciana de Jesus Penha Pamplona Miyagawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along the domain of low metamorphic grade (Midwestern portion of the Araguaia Belt, outcrop dozens mafic and/or ultramafic bodies of ophiolitic suites. An example is the Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite, in the surroundings of the city of Araguacema (Tocantins that configures a small isolated body that sustains the Morro do Agostinho and is tectonically emplaced in meta-sandstones, slates and phyllites of Couto Magalhães Formation (Tocantins Group. The Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite consists of serpentinized peridotites, basalts and ferriferous cherts. The association of basalts is characterized by a significant layer of submarine pillow lavas overlying serpentinized peridotites. The basalts were classified into massive and hialobasalts types. Massive basalts are homogenous, with intersertal texture that is essentially composed of thin laths and acicular crystals of plagioclase and clinopyroxene and present rare crystals of olivine, chalcocite and chalcopyrite. Hyalobasalt shows ultra-fast cooling features (quenching as spherulites, radial, acicular and skeletal crystals of plagioclase and clinopyroxene with forms of swallowtail. Geochemical data, including (La/Ybn and (La/Smn ratios less than 1, indicate a subalkaline-tholeiitic MORB nature of the basalts. These rocks show that during the geological evolution of Araguaia Belt, there was an oceanization stage of Araguaia Basin, with litospheric mantle’s exposure, followed by lava’s extravasation and sedimentation of cherts and banded iron formation in deep ocean environment. After sedimentary filling of the Couto Magalhães Formation (Tocantins Group, the tectonic inversion, which led to the exhumation of the ophiolitic bodies, especially along thrust surface, with fragmenting and tectonic mixing with supracrustal rocks, accompanied by regional metamorphism under conditions of low green schist facies. The Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite therefore represents a small allochthonous

  5. X-ray Analysis in Changes of Neck Pillow Height and Cervical Physiological Curvature%颈枕高度与颈椎生理曲度变化的X线分析

    曾科学; 盖娟娟; 罗凛; 刘文刚; 吴淮

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察颈枕高度的变化对颈椎生理曲度的影响。方法:从我院选取90例健康受试者,以随机方式分为舒适枕组、高枕组及低枕组各30例,均拍摄颈枕中立位侧位X线DR片,采用Bordens法测量颈椎曲度弧弦距,采用Ishihara法测量颈椎曲率指数(CCI),采用Gore法测量颈椎角(CSA),对测试结果进行统计分析。结果:舒适枕组颈椎X线均呈现生理性向前凸起状态,弧弦距均为正常范围;高枕组颈椎X线呈现生理性反张弯曲状态,弧弦距大于正常值范围;低枕头组颈椎X线呈现生理性变直,弧弦距均小于正常值范围;三组受试者测试结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:颈枕的高度与颈椎生理曲度具有密切关系,选择合适高度的颈枕对于颈生理曲度的保护具有重要意义。%Objective:To observe the effect in changes of neck pillow height on cervical physiological curvature. Methods:90 healthy people in our hospital were randomly divided into comfortable pillow group, high pillow group and low pillow group with each of 30 cases, all with cervical occipi-tal neutral position and lateral X-ray Digital Radiography, Bordens method to measure arc chord distance of cervical curvature, Ishihara method to measure cervical curvature index (CCI), Gore method to measure cervical spine angle (CSA), the test results were statistically analyzed. Results:X-ray of comfortable pillow group showed physiological forward protruding, arc chord distance in normal range;X-ray of high pillow group showed physiological contravariant bending, arc chord distance beyond normal range;X-ray of low pillow group showed physiological straight, arc chord dis-tance less than normal range;There was statistical significance in difference of test results among the three groups (P<0.05). Conclusion:There is a close relationship between neck pillow height and cervical physiological curvature, selecting the

  6. Influence of the Materials of Pillow Core on Sleeping Comfort in Lateral Position%枕芯材料对侧卧睡眠舒适性的影响研究

    侯建军; 申黎明; 宋杰; 朱宇锭

    2012-01-01

    通过侧卧时人体头、颈、臂部体压分布测试、舒适感主观评价、主客观相关性分析、材料间方差分析及纵向压力分布曲线等分析方法,研究枕芯材料变化对侧卧睡眠舒适性的影响.结果发现:枕芯材料之间方差分析p=0.005<0.01,表明所选材料间差异性显著,对体压指标及主观舒适度评价有较大影响;乳胶和荞麦皮在作为枕芯材料时弹性及透气性较好,总体舒适性较高,颈部能得到有力支撑,可缓解颈部肌肉疲劳;枕芯材料为记忆海绵、化纤和珍珠棉时,总体舒适性评价一般;充气和中药/茶叶枕舒适性评价最低,透气性较差,弹性较差.%Influences of the materials of pillow core on sleeping comfort in lateral position were examined by using body pressure measuring system, subjective evaluation on ergonomics, the correlativity of subjective and objective results, the variance analysis of materials of pillow core, the longitudinal impedance moment methods. The results of varance analysis showed that significant differences (p = 0. 005<0. 01) in body pressure distribution and subjective evaluation existed among different materials. Latex and buckwheat husks demonstrated good performance in elasticity and the air permeability, which were manifested by their supporting the neck and relieving the fatigue of neck muscles. The pillow with memory foams, chemical fibers and pearl cotton had general performance on comfort evaluation. The inflatable pillow and traditional Chinese medicine/tea pillow had poor permeability, low elasticity and lowest comfort evaluation.

  7. Tubular textures in pillow lavas from a Caledonian west Norwegian ophiolite: A combined TEM, LA-ICP-MS, and STXM study

    Fliegel, Daniel; Wirth, Richard; Simonetti, Antonio; Schreiber, Anja; Furnes, Harald; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2011-02-01

    Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, in glassy rims of pillow lavas from a Norwegian ophiolite (Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite complex (SSOC)) are described and characterized by a multimethod approach. Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, have been previously proposed to result from bioalteration. The microstructure of the titanite and the tubes is investigated using focused ion beam milling in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These indicate an assemblage of submicrometer-sized (about 500 nm) titanite single crystals with no organic film or residue in between the grains. In situ U-Pb radiometric dating of the titanite, using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS), yielded a metamorphic age of 442 ± 13 Ma. An isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometric age obtained previously for zircons from the SSOC plutonic rocks yielded a magmatic age of 443 ± 3 Ma. The overlap in ages indicates that subseafloor metamorphism, responsible for titanite formation, occurred during seafloor or subseafloor formation of the tubular alteration textures. The rare earth element contents of the titanite were determined using LA-ICP-MS and chondrite-normalized patterns are similar to those of the SSOC volcanics; hence these do not reflect hydrothermal or seawater influence. The Y/Ho ratio of ˜20-30 in the titanite is also consistent with an upper mantle-derived origin. The sum of all of the spatial resolved data reported here neither supports nor refutes a biogenic origin for the tubular textures.

  8. Development and Clinical Application of Smart Inflatable Nursing Pillow After Cervical Spine Surgery%颈椎术后智能充气护理枕的研制与临床应用

    杜雪莲; 吴惠冰; 黄铭杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application effect of smart inflatable nursing pillow after cervical spine surgery. Methods Sixty patients with cervical spine surgery were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, with 30 cases in each group. Patients in the experimental group used smart inflatable nursing pillow after surgery, while patients in the control group used cotton ring after surgery. The turning satisfaction, degree of comfort, incidence of pressure sores and wound healing situation were observed, and the effect was evaluated by periodic review of X-rays. Results Compared with the control group, the experimental group had higher turning satisfaction and degree of comfort, and lower incidence of pressure sores; all the differences were statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusions Smart inflatable nursing pillow is easy to operate. It can not only meet the treatment needs of patients with cervical spine surgery, but also increase patients' degree of comfort and reduce the complications and iatrogenic damage.%目的:探讨颈椎术后智能充气护理枕的应用效果。方法将60例颈椎术后患者随机分成试验组和对照组各30例,试验组予使用智能充气护理枕,对照组予使用棉圈,观察两组患者翻身耐受满意度、舒适度、压疮发生率以及伤口愈合情况,并定期复查X光片以了解疗效。结果试验组翻身耐受满意度、舒适度高于对照组,压疮发生率低于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论智能充气护理枕操作方便,不但能满足颈椎术后患者的治疗需求,且可增加患者的舒适度,同时减少并发症和医源性损害。

  9. Desenvolvimento de um Smart Object : Wakeme Pillow

    Rodrigues, Vítor André Correia Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    A proliferação dos smart&objects e wearables,no dia a dia dos consumidores, tem contribuído ativamente para a mudança de hábitos e comportamentos dos mesmos, dado que estes item como objectivo o bem estar e o incentivo à mudança de determinados factores dos consumidores. Daí este estudo parte de todo o conhecimento de alguns produtos tendo o intuito de criar uma solução que por uma lado possa enriquecer a experiência, oferecendo eficiência e por outro a capacidade de pers...

  10. Bionic Structure Design for Double Tauren EDM Machine Smooth Pillow Reinforcing Plate%双牛头电火花机床平滑枕筋板结构仿生设计

    牛金磊; 李锻能; 丰树礼

    2013-01-01

    By using bionic principles and methods of force structure,the internal rib structure of the key moving parts-horizontal ram of some EDM machine were designed and analyzed to ensure its structural rigidity,at the same time to make the maximum light-weight. Through the analysis of the distribution pattern of leaf veins structure,combining with the force structure of the smooth pillow member,reasonable layout form of the ribs was designed. By applying SolidWorks,the simulation structure of the entity model was es-tablished,and ANSYS finite element analysis (FEA)software was used for static analysis validation and modal analysis. The research results have an important role to ensure specific stiffness of the machine’s related moving parts,to improve accuracy and the system dy-namics performance.%利用受力结构仿生的原理和方法,对某型号电火花加工机床的关键运动部件---水平滑枕的内部筋板结构进行设计分析,在保证其结构刚度的同时,最大限度地进行轻量化。通过对叶片中叶脉结构分布规律的分析、总结,结合平滑枕部件的受力结构,设计出合理的筋板布局形式。应用SolidWorks建立结构仿真实体模型,并运用ANSYS有限元分析软件进行静力学分析和模态分析验证。研究结果对于保证机床相关运动部件的比刚度、提高机床工作精度以及系统动力学性能具有重要作用。

  11. 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的疗效%Efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of patients with cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type

    孙其斌; 张崇岳; 冀全谋; 谢永明; 陈国梁

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 神经根型颈椎病180例,随机分为生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅰ组)和垂直颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅱ组),各组90例.分别采用生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗与垂直颈椎牵引治疗,两组患者每次牵引重量均为3.0~7.0 kg,牵引时间均为20 min.牵引10次为1个疗程,2个疗程后判定疗效.结果 Ⅰ组的优效率61.1%(55/90例)和总有效率93.3%(84/90例)分别高于Ⅱ组的优效率42.2%(38/90例)和总有效率72.2%(65/90例),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效确切,较垂直牵引效果好.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type.Methods One hundred and eighty patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy were randomly divided into group Ⅰ and Ⅱ, 90 cases in each group.Patients were received the treatment with physiological type neck pillow cervical traction in the group Ⅰ ,while received vertical cervical traction in the group Ⅱ.The tractive weight was 3~7 kg and the tractive time was 20 minute in all patients every time, 10 times for a course.The efficacy was evaluated after 2 courses.Resuits The excellent effect and total effective rates in the group Ⅰ were significantly higher than those in the group Ⅱ respectively (61.1%, 55/90 cases vs 42.2%, 38/90 cases;93.3%, 84/90 cases vs 72.2%, 65/90 cases) (P < 0.05).Conclusion The efficacy of physiological type cervical traction with neck pillow is definite and superior to the vertical traction in the treatment of patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy.

  12. The Influence Factors and Nursing Interventions on the Compliance of Horizontal Position without Pillow after General Anesthesia in Thoracolumbar Disease Patients%胸腰椎疾病患者全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性的影响因素与护理干预

    吕曼

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨胸腰椎疾病患者全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性的影响因素和干预措施。方法回顾性分析我科2012年8月~12月胸腰椎疾病全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性的影响因素,根据结果进行护理干预。结果胸腰椎疾病并行全麻手术患者术后6h内不能坚持体位指导152例。其中,因麻醉状态导致依从性差65例,占42.8%,医学相关知识缺乏20例,占13.2%,患者想急迫恢复健康15例,占9.9%,对医务人员信任度差17例,占11.2%,不舒适感23例,占15.1%,家属不配合12例,占7.9%。结论通过加强护患沟通,与患者及家属建立良好的医患关系;加强麻醉未清醒期间的安全管理和心理护理;落实责任制护理,重视健康教育等方式能提高胸腰椎疾病患者全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性。%Objective To summarize the influence factors and nursing interventions on the compliance of horizontal posi-tion without pillow after general anesthesia in thoracolumbar disease patients .Methods The influence factors on the compli-ance of horizontal position without pillow after general anesthesia in thoracolumbar disease were reviewed retrospectively , based on which the nursing interventions were given to the patients .Results 152 after -general-anesthesia thoracolumbar disease patients who couldn't adhere to horizontal position were reviewed .65 cases were due to narcotism (42 .8% );20 cases were due to lack of related medical knowledge (13 .2% );15 cases were due to the urgence for recovery (9 .9% );17 cases were due to their low confidence degree with medical staff (11 .2% );23 cases were due to discomfort (15 .1% );12 cases were due to family members'non-compliance (7 .9% ) .Con-clusions Strengthening nurse-patient communication ,establishing good relationships with patients and their family mem-bers ,strengthening the safety management and the psychological nursing before anaesthesia clear

  13. Optimisation of a pillow production line applying Lean principles 

    Fookes, William

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing companies throughout the world are interested in reducing the time between a customer placing an order and them receiving the payment for that order. This premise is something that is a central characteristic for the Lean philosophy, and is one of the reasons to apply it. Today manufacturers around the world are embracing Lean techniques in order to reduce waste and increase productivity, and also increase the inventory turns, which reflects in an improvement of cash flow for th...

  14. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla; Hansen, Lars G; Nielsen, Frank; Pedersen, Søren; Osterballe, Ole; Veggerby, Chris; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2003-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  15. An overview of the lithological and geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean (ca. 3075) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland

    Polat, A.; Frei, Robert; Appel, P.W.U.;

    2008-01-01

    Ca-plagioclase and are interpreted as anorthositic cumulates of the lower oceanic crust brought to the surface by upwelling gabbroic magmas. Alternatively, the inclusions may represent the xenoliths from older (>3075 Ma) anorthositic crust onto which the Ivisaartoq magmas were emplaced as an...

  16. Noble gases in submarine pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the submarine flanks of two currently active Hawaiian volcanoes, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in 20Ne and 21Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high 3He 4He ratios. The high 20Ne 22Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO2 well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. ?? 1993.

  17. Analysis and Study of Φ Expansion Variable for the Fixed Extrusion Pillow and Sheath of 75MN Aluminium Extrusion Machine%75MN铝挤压机固定挤压垫挤压套Φ胀量分析研究

    姚河省; 高素荷; 祝伟荣

    2003-01-01

    应用有限单元法,研究目前国内设计生产的最大的铝挤压机关键部件固定挤压垫的结构特性,根据原设计方案和改进设计方案的计算结果和对已制造的36MN挤压机固定挤压垫的校核计算结果,确定出75MN铝挤压机挤压套Φ胀量.现场挤压结果表明,该固定挤压垫工作状态良好,达到了预期目标,从而证明了计算的可靠性.

  18. HOTEL INFORMATION

    2006-01-01

    China Hotel Golden Pillows Awards On April 24, 2006, Yalong Bay Mangrove Tree Resort proudly received 'Top 10 Resorts in China" at the 3nd Annual China Hotel Golden Pillows Awards. The resort has created an entirely new concept for a Chinese resort, with its South Asia architec-

  19. Three-Year-Olds Can Predict a Noun Based on an Attributive Adjective: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Tribushinina, Elena; Mak, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether three-year-olds are able to process attributive adjectives (e.g., "soft pillow") as they hear them and to predict the noun ("pillow") on the basis of the adjective meaning ("soft"). This was investigated in an experiment by means of the Visual World Paradigm. The participants saw two…

  20. Allergic Rhinitis

    ... mulches, commercial peat moss, compost piles and leaf litter. This allergy is usually worse during humid and ... use mattress pads. Cover mattress and pillows with plastic covers. Lower the humidity in your home using ...

  1. Baby supplies you need

    ... pads to apply Vaseline. Diaper rash cream Rocking Chair with a Footstool Pillow for resting your arm ... at least) Receiving blankets (4 to 6) Hooded bath towel (2) Washcloths (4 to 6) Bathtub, one ...

  2. Epidural injections for back pain

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  3. Aqueous Alteration Rinds in Basalt: Mineralogic Characterization from Hand Sample to Outcrop with Hyperspectral Imaging and Implications for Mars 2020

    Greenberger, R. N.; Mustard, J. F.; Cloutis, E. A.; Mann, P.; Wilson, J. H.

    2014-07-01

    Hydrothermally altered lacustrine pillow basalts show strong gradients in mineralogy, chemistry, and redox state from interior to exterior at thick section, hand sample, and outcrop scales identified with hyperspectral imaging and elemental mapping.

  4. Neck pain or spasms -- self care

    ... it is OK: Jogging Contact sports Racquet sports Golf Dancing Weight lifting Leg lifts when lying on ... you have a firm mattress and supportive pillow. Learn to relax. Try methods such as yoga, tai ...

  5. В преддверии темных ночей

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tekstiilidisaini üliõpilaste töödest "Moonwalk" (autorid Stella Kalkun ja Luisa Aid), "RE:ME - remind me pillow" (autorid Heleri Alexandra Sits ja Signe Aasoja) ja "Volt" (autor Stella Kalkun)

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women ... elevated. Straps and pillows may be used to help the patient maintain the correct position and to ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. The ... back. Straps and pillows may be used to help you maintain the correct position and to help ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... are filled with fluid or thickened sinus membranes . help diagnose sinusitis . top of page How should I ... elevated. Straps and pillows may be used to help the patient maintain the correct position and to ...

  10. CPAP Devices for Sleep Apnea

    ... CPAP nose masks. In this case, a full-face mask that covers both the nose and the mouth ... could help. Types of CPAP Devices Nasal pillows Face mask Face mask with chin strap Written by familydoctor. ...

  11. Synthesis of morphotectonics and volcanics of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Mukherjee, A.D.; Iyer, S.D.

    the topographic highs, pillow and massive basalts are common while close to fracture zones, flow lavas occur. Two significant volcanic activities: one during the formation of the near-axis generated seamounts and the other in an intraplate environment...

  12. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    ... small pillow when lying down. Your doctor or physical therapist may teach you exercises to do at home. ... for at least 4 weeks. Your doctor or physical therapist will tell you when it is ok. Consider ...

  13. The influence of consumption vocabulary on the encoding and retrieval of haptic information

    Gaudêncio, Ana Catarina Duarte

    2010-01-01

    Sensory stimuli are often ambiguous, which makes it difficult for consumers to encode and retrieve them, and to construct their preferences. This project studies whether, in a prepurchase context, consumption vocabulary can help consumers to perceive what products are superior on haptic attributes. In an experiment with bed pillows, participants provided with evaluative criteria preferred the pillow with superior haptic attributes more often and to a larger extent than particip...

  14. Determination of radiation levels by neutrons in an accelerator for radiotherapy

    It was determined the radiation levels by neutrons due to photonuclear reactions (γ, n) which occur in the target, levelling filter, collimators and the small pillow blinding of a medical accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MeV, using thermoluminescent dosemeters UD-802AS and US-809AS. The experimental values were presented for the patient level, inside and outside of the radiation field, as well as for the small pillow. (Author)

  15. Determination of radiation levels by neutrons in an accelerator for radiotherapy; Determinacion de niveles de radiacion por neutrones en un acelerador para radioterapia

    Paredes G, L.; Salazar B, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Genis S, R. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur, Puente de Piedra 150, Col. Torriello Guerra, Tlalpan 14050, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It was determined the radiation levels by neutrons due to photonuclear reactions ({gamma}, n) which occur in the target, levelling filter, collimators and the small pillow blinding of a medical accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MeV, using thermoluminescent dosemeters UD-802AS and US-809AS. The experimental values were presented for the patient level, inside and outside of the radiation field, as well as for the small pillow. (Author)

  16. Gunung Api purba Watuadeg: Sumber erupsi dan posisi stratigrafi

    Sutikno Bronto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no3.20081Pillow lava flows of pyroxene basalt containing 50 wt.% SiO are exposed at Opak River, west of Watuadeg Village, Sleman - Yogyakarta. The length of flow structures is between 2 – 10 m, with diameter of 0.5 – 1.0 m and it has a glassy skin at the surface body. Flow directions vary from N70E in the northern side, through N 120E in the middle to N 150E in the southern side. About 150 m away from the river to the west, there is a small hill about 15 m high, that has a similar composition with the pillow lavas. Both lava flows and the small hill are composed of pyroxene basalt, dark grey in color, hypocrystalline vitrophyre to porphyritic texture, with fine-grained phenocrysts of pyroxene (10 % and plagioclase (25 % set in glassy groundmass. These data indicate that the small hill was the eruption source of the basaltic pillow lavas. The lavas are overlain by pumice-rich volcaniclastic rocks, composed of tuff, lapillistones and pumice breccias, that are known as the Semilir Formation. Near the contact with lavas, the volcaniclastic rocks contain some fragments of pyroxene basalt, similar composition with the pillow lavas. This fact, together with analyses of petrology, volcanology, and radiometric dating show that the basaltic pillow lavas are unconformably overlain by the Semilir Formation.  

  17. Litostratigrafi dan sedimentasi Formasi Kebo dan Formasi Butak di Pegunungan Baturagung, Jawa Tengah Bagian Selatan

    Surono Surono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no4.20081Lithologically, the Nampurejo Pillow Lava, Kebo and Butak Formations, which are dominated by volcanic rocks, spread west - eastly, along the northern foot of the Baturagung Mountains. The Nampurejo Pillow Lava, which has an Early Oligocene age, is overlain by the Late Oligocene - Early Miocene Kebo and Butak Formations successively. The Nampurejo Pillow Lava consists of basaltic pillow-lavas showing pillow structures and they are intercalated by black sandstones. The Kebo Formation comprises alternating sandstone and pebbly sandstone with intercalations of siltstone, claystone, tuff, and shale. On the other hand, the Butak For- mation is composed of polymic breccia with intercalations of sandstone, pebbly sandstone, claystone, and siltstone/shale. The three units were deposited in a deep – shallow marine basin, which was filled by volcanic prod- ucts. Compared to the lower part of the Kebo Formation, volcanic activities during the deposition of the upper part of the Kebo Formation and the Butak Formation were more active.    

  18. Bed with Integrated Personalized Ventilation for Minimizing Cross Infection

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jiang, Hao; Polak, Marcin

    2007-01-01

    of air to the whole room to ensure a dilution of airborne infection. Personalized ventilation has proven to be a very efficient system to protect people from cross infection because clean air is supplied direct to the breathing zone. Most designs of personalized ventilation are based on a supply jet....... The problem with those systems is the fact that the jet entrains air from the surroundings and, therefore, reduces the amount of fresh air which reaches the breathing zone. The entrainment is minimized in the system discussed here, especially when the source of clean air is located in the boundary layer close...... to the breathing zone (face). The present idea utilizes the fact that the head or the body is in natural contact with surfaces as mattresses, pillows, neck support pillows, clothing, blankets, etc., and those surfaces are designed also to be a supply opening of fresh air. A pillow and a blanket (mattress) have...

  19. Chair with Integrated Personalized Ventilation for Minimizing Cross Infection

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Bartholomaeussen, Niels Møller; Jakubowska, Ewa;

    2007-01-01

    to the whole room to ensure a dilution of airborne infection. Personalized ventilation has proven to be a very efficient system to protect people from cross infection because clean air is supplied direct to the breathing zone. Most designs of personalized ventilation are based on a supply jet. The problem...... with those systems is the fact that the jet entrains air from the surroundings and, therefore, reduces the amount of fresh air which reaches the breathing zone. The entrainment is minimized in the system discussed here, especially when the source of clean air is located in the boundary layer close...... to the breathing zone (face). The present idea utilizes the fact that the head or the body is in natural contact with surfaces as mattresses, pillows, neck support pillows, headrests, clothing, blankets, walls, etc., and those surfaces are designed also to be a supply opening of fresh air. A neck support pillow...

  20. Veggie Hardware Validation Test Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned

    Massa, Gioia D.; Dufour, Nicole F.; Smith, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Veggie hardware validation test, VEG-01, was conducted on the International Space Station during Expeditions 39 and 40 from May through June of 2014. The Veggie hardware and the VEG-01 experiment payload were launched to station aboard the SpaceX-3 resupply mission in April, 2014. Veggie was installed in an Expedite-the-Processing-of-Experiments-to-Space-Station (ExPRESS) rack in the Columbus module, and the VEG-01 validation test was initiated. Veggie installation was successful, and power was supplied to the unit. The hardware was programmed and the root mat reservoir and plant pillows were installed without issue. As expected, a small amount of growth media was observed in the sealed bags which enclosed the plant pillows when they were destowed. Astronaut Steve Swanson used the wet/dry vacuum to clean up the escaped particles. Water insertion or priming the first plant pillow was unsuccessful as an issue prevented water movement through the quick disconnect. All subsequent pillows were successfully primed, and the initial pillow was replaced with a backup pillow and successfully primed. Six pillows were primed, but only five pillows had plants which germinated. After about a week and a half it was observed that plants were not growing well and that pillow wicks were dry. This indicated that the reservoir was not supplying sufficient water to the pillows via wicking, and so the team reverted to an operational fix which added water directly to the plant pillows. Direct watering of the pillows led to a recovery in several of the stressed plants; a couple of which did not recover. An important lesson learned involved Veggie's bellows. The bellows tended to float and interfere with operations when opened, so Steve secured them to the baseplate during plant tending operations. Due to the perceived intensity of the LED lights, the crew found it challenging to both work under the lights and read crew procedures on their computer. Although the lights are not a safety

  1. Comparison of irradiation behavior of different uranium silicide dispersion fuel element designs

    Calculations of fuel swelling of U3SiAl-Al and U3Si2 were performed for various dispersion fuel element designs. Breakaway swelling criteria in the form of critical fuel volume fractions were derived with data obtained from U3SiAl-Al plate irradiations. The results of the analysis show that rod-type elements remain well below the pillowing threshold. However, tubular fuel elements, which behave essentially like plates, will likely develop pillows or blisters at around 90% 235U burnup. The U3Si2-Al compounds demonstrate stable swelling behavior throughout the entire burnup range for all fuel element designs

  2. Postirradiation analysis of experimental uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates

    Low-enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuel plates were irradiated to maximum burnups of 96% of 235U. Fuel plates containing 33 v/o U3Si and U3Si2 behaved very well up to this burnup. Plates containing 33 v/o U3 Si-Al pillowed between 90 and 96% burnup of the fissile atoms. More highly loaded U3Si Al plates, up to 50 v/o, were found to pillow at lower burnups. Plates containing 40 v/o U3Si showed an increased swelling rate around 85% burnup. (author)

  3. Postirradiation analysis of experimental uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates

    Low-enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuel plates were irradiated to maximum burnups of 96% of 235U. Fuel plates containing 33 v/o U3Si and U3Si2 behaved very well up to this burnup. Plates containing 33 v/o U3Si-Al pillowed between 90 and 96% burnup of the fissile atoms. More highly loaded U3Si-Al plates, up to 50 v/o were found to pillow at lower burnups. Plates containing 40 v/o U3Si showed an increase swelling rate around 85% burnup. 5 refs., 10 figs

  4. Ophiolitic association of Cape Fiolent area, southwestern Crimea

    Promyslova, M. Yu.; Demina, L. I.; Bychkov, A. Yu.; Gushchin, A. I.; Koronovsky, N. V.; Tsarev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    An ophiolitic association consisting of serpentinized ultramafic rocks and serpentinite, layered mafic-ultramafic complex, gabbro and gabbrodolerite, fragments of parallel dike complex, pillow lava, black bedded chert, and jasper has been identified for the first time by authors in the Cape Fiolent area. The chemistry of pillow lavas and dolerites, including REE patterns and a wide set of other microelements, indicates suprasubduction nature of the ophiolites and their belonging to a backarc basin that has reached the stage of spreading in its evolution.

  5. Snoring

    ... lose weight, change their diets, or develop regular sleeping patterns to stop snoring. It may be helpful to remove allergy triggers (stuffed animals, pets, and feather/down pillows and comforters) ... someone might have sleep apnea, the doctor will order a test to ...

  6. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.;

    2009-01-01

    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided int...

  7. Diabetic Neuropathy: What is a Total Contact Cast?

    ... You won't be able to take regular baths or showers because you have to keep the cast dry. Take sponge baths instead. Try not to go outside when the ... sitting down, put your leg up on a chair or pillow whenever possible. While you're sleeping, ...

  8. 阅读理解三则(英文)

    2008-01-01

    <正>(A)Over a third of one1s life is spent sleeping with one1s head on apillow ( 枕头). A good pillow, in its right height and composition, hasimportant effects on one1s sleep and health. There is an old way of

  9. Lindane

    ... have pubic lice, apply the shampoo to the hair in your pubic area and the skin underneath. You might not ... share combs, brushes, towels, pillows, hats, scarves, or hair accessories. Be ... lice.If you have scabies or pubic lice, tell your doctor if you have a ...

  10. Aches and pains during pregnancy

    ... regularly. Wear low-heeled shoes. Sleep on your side with a pillow between your legs. Sit in a chair with good back support. Avoid standing for too long. Bend your knees when picking things up. DO NOT bend at the waist. Avoid ...

  11. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... back. Straps and pillows may be used to help you maintain the correct position and to help you remain still during the exam. Many scanners ... a physician, may offer you some medication to help you tolerate the CT scanning procedure. If an ...

  13. Modelling energy level alignment at organic interfaces and density functional theory

    Flores, F.; Ortega, J.; Vazquez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    qualitatively and semiquantitatively the barrier height formation at those interfaces. The IDIS model, governed by the organic CNL (charge neutrality level) and the interface screening includes: (a) charge transfer across the interface; (b) the "pillow'' (or Pauli) effect associated with the compression of the...

  14. Quantifying glassy and crystalline basalt partitioning in the oceanic crust

    Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2016-04-01

    The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately basaltic rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy basalts while the potential habitability of crystalline basalts are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline basalts, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing basalt fractionation: a pillow basalt with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow basalt with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.

  15. Effect of Divided Attention on the Production of False Memories in the DRM Paradigm: A Study of Dichotic Listening and Shadowing

    Pimentel, Eduarda; Albuquerque, Pedro B.

    2013-01-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm comprises the study of lists in which words (e.g., bed, pillow, etc.) are all associates of a single nonstudied critical item (e.g., sleep). The probability of falsely recalling or recognising nonstudied critical items is often similar to (or sometimes higher than) the probability of correctly recalling…

  16. North Kona slump: Submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai Volcano

    Lipman, P.W.; Coombs, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The North Kona slump is an elliptical region, about 20 by 60 km (1000-km2 area), of multiple, geometrically intricate benches and scarps, mostly at water depths of 2000-4500 m, on the west flank of Hualalai Volcano. Two dives up steep scarps in the slump area were made in September 2001, using the ROV Kaiko of the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), as part of a collaborative Japan-USA project to improve understanding of the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes. Both dives, at water depths of 2700-4000 m, encountered pillow lavas draping the scarp-and-bench slopes. Intact to only slightly broken pillow lobes and cylinders that are downward elongate dominate on the steepest mid-sections of scarps, while more equant and spherical pillow shapes are common near the tops and bases of scarps and locally protrude through cover of muddy sediment on bench flats. Notably absent are subaerially erupted Hualalai lava flows, interbedded hyaloclastite pillow breccia, and/or coastal sandy sediment that might have accumulated downslope from an active coastline. The general structure of the North Kona flank is interpreted as an intricate assemblage of downdropped lenticular blocks, bounded by steeply dipping normal faults. The undisturbed pillow-lava drape indicates that slumping occurred during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism. All analyzed samples of the pillow-lava drape are tholeiite, similar to published analyses from the submarine northwest rift zone of Hualalai. Relatively low sulfur (330-600 ppm) and water (0.18-0.47 wt.%) contents of glass rinds suggest that the eruptive sources were in shallow water, perhaps 500-1000-m depth. In contrast, saturation pressures calculated from carbon dioxide concentrations (100-190 ppm) indicate deeper equilibration, at or near sample sites at water depths of -3900 to -2800 m. Either vents close to the sample sites erupted mixtures of undegassed and degassed magmas, or volatiles were resorbed from vesicles during

  17. Scanning-PIXE analysis of gold lace embroideries in a relic of St. Francis

    In this work, we describe the compositional analysis performed by scanning-mode PIXE on the metal threads of a XIII century embroidery. The precious work analysed is the pillow-case used to cover the pillow, on which - according to tradition - St. Francis of Assisi was resting his head when he died. Measurements were performed in order to characterise the embroideries of the two sides and the passementerie in the lateral hems. Several areas, each of the order of two square millimetres, were scanned with a 3 MeV proton external beam of 20 μm size on target, using the external micro-beam facility of our laboratory, with list-mode acquisition. Analysis of elemental maps and spectra from selected homogeneous sub-areas allowed us to extract the quantitative composition of the gilded tape and estimates of its thickness

  18. Pseudofolliculitis corporis: a new entity diagnosed by dermoscopy.

    Puhan, Manas Ranjan; Sahu, Bharati

    2015-01-01

    Pseudofolliculitis mainly affects the beard area, but it can occur in any area of hair-bearing skin when traumatic methods like shaving or plucking are used to remove the hair. It can be a simple cosmetic problem or a disturbing medical condition for which the dermatologist must be prepared. It can develop in areas of shaving or depilation and has been seen in the pubic region or the axilla, where it is common to find curly hair that emerges at an acute angle. Here, we are reporting a case of pseudofolliculitis over back, termed as pseudofolliculitis corporis. He used to put a pillow behind the back while driving and the pressure caused the pseudofolliculitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by dermoscopy, which is a simple office procedure. Patient was advised to stop using the pillow and improved with topical adapalene and clindamycin gel for 15 days. This entity has not been described in the literature. PMID:25878447

  19. Capacitance Based Moisture Sensing for Microgravity Plant Modules: Sensor Design and Considerations

    Schaber, Chad L.; Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Life support systems for growing plants in microgravity should strive for providing optimal growing conditions and increased automation. Accurately tracking soil moisture content can forward both of these aims, so an attempt was made to instrument a microgravity growth module currently in development, the VEGGIE rooting pillow, in order to monitor moisture levels. Two electrode systems for a capacitance-based moisture sensor were tested. Trials with both types of electrodes showed a linear correlation between observed capacitance and water content over certain ranges of moisture within the pillows. Overall, both types of the electrodes and the capacitance-based moisture sensor are promising candidates for tracking water levels for microgravity plant growth systems.

  20. Postirradiation analysis of experimental uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates

    Hofman, G.L.; Neimark, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Low-enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuel plates were irradiated to maximum burnups of 96% of /sup 235/U. Fuel plates containing 33 v/o U/sub 3/Si and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ behaved very well up to this burnup. Plates containing 33 v/o U/sub 3/Si-Al pillowed between 90 and 96% burnup of the fissile atoms. More highly loaded U/sub 3/Si-Al plates, up to 50 v/o were found to pillow at lower burnups. Plates containing 40 v/o U/sub 3/Si showed an increase swelling rate around 85% burnup. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Sustainable yoga apparel

    Jason, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The two major purposes of this study are to establish whether there is an interest in sustainably regarding locally made yoga sports equipment and to create a design concept for a product line of yoga apparel which is genuinely eco-friendly. The product line consists of a yoga mat bag, straps, pillows and a bolster. Research into issues surrounding sustainability and yoga guided the design process. In order to meet user requirements, yoga classes were observed, a survey was conducted and ...

  2. Type of Mask May Impact on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence in Apneic Patients

    Borel, Jean Christian; Tamisier, Renaud; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Sapene, Marc; Martin, Francis; Stach, Bruno; Grillet, Yves; Muir, Jean François; Levy, Patrick; Series, Frederic; Pepin, Jean-Louis; ,

    2013-01-01

    Rationale In obstructive sleep apnea patients (OSA), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence is crucial to improve symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The choice of mask may influence CPAP adherence but this issue has never been addressed properly. Objective To evaluate the impact of nasal pillows, nasal and oronasal masks on CPAP adherence in a cohort of OSA. Methods Newly CPAP treated OSA participating in “Observatoire Sommeil de la Fédération de Pneumologie”, a French natio...

  3. Geochemistry of Precordillera serpentinites, western Argentina : evidence for multistage hydrothermal alteration and tectonic implications for the Neoproterozoic–early Paleozoic

    Boedo, F. L.; Escayola, M. P.; Pérez Luján, S. B.; Vujovich, Graciela; Ariza, J. P.; Naipauer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Serpentinites are a powerful tool to evaluate mantle composition and subsequent alteration processes during their tectonic emplacement. Exposures of this type of rocks can be found in the Argentine Precordillera (Cuyania terrane) and Frontal Cordillera, both located in central-western Argentina, within the Central Andes. In these regions a Neoproterozoic to Devonian mafic-ultramafic belt composed of serpentinites, metabasaltic dikes/sills, pillow lavas (with an Enriched to Normal Mid-Ocean Ri...

  4. Periorbital Edema Secondary to Positive Airway Pressure Therapy

    Dandekar, F.; Camacho, M; J. Valerio; Ruoff, C.

    2015-01-01

    Two patients developed bilateral, periorbital edema after initiating positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy with a full face mask. The periorbital edema was more pronounced in the morning and would dissipate throughout the day. This phenomenon seemed to be correlated with the direct pressure of the full face mask, which may have impaired lymphatic and venous drainage. To test this hypothesis, each patient was changed to a nasal pillow interface with subsequent improvement in the periorbital e...

  5. Effectiveness of education for control of house dust mites and cockroaches in Seoul, Korea

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, In-Yong; Lee, Jongweon; Ree, Han-Il; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of health education in reducing indoor arthropod allergens in Seoul. The mite control measures comprised the use of mite-proof mattress and pillow coverings, regular washing of potentially infested materials, maintenance of a low humidity, removal of carpets, and frequent vacuum cleaning. Cockroach control measures included trapping, application of insecticides, and protecting food. Of 201 homes enrolled in October 1999, 63 volunteers were included in a 2-year follow...

  6. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data

    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km2) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated (40K-40Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  7. Hubungan Personal Hygiene Santri dengan Kejadian Penyakit Kulit Infeksi Skabies dan Tinjauan Sanitasi Lingkungan Pesantren Darel Hikmah Kota Pekanbaru Tahun 2011

    Frenki

    2012-01-01

    Scabies is a skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, a mite belongs to the class of Arachnida. This mite is very small and can only be seen through a microscope. Scabies is also called body lice. Scabies spreads easily either through a direct contact with the patient (sufferer) or indirect contact through clothing, bed linen, towels, pillows or mattresses. The purpose of this analytical survey study with case-control design was to analyze the relationship between personal hygiene of sant...

  8. Strain analysis in the Orijärvi triangle, southwestern Finland; in perspective of tectonic models

    van Stel, H; Rees, D.; Schenke, B.

    1999-01-01

    Finite strain analyses were performed in metavolcanic rocks (agglomerates and pillowed metabasalts) from the Orijärvi area, southwestern Finland. In this area, tight folding (F1) of layered metasedimentary rocks and development of a penetrative axial plane schistosity (S1) took place during an early stage in the Svecofennian orogeny. Within the domain, there is no evidence of older deformational structures or of a later deformation phase; except in narrow, late-stage shear zones that bound th...

  9. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemistry at south of Arghash (Neyshabour)

    Zahra Karimi Saeid Abadi; Seyed Ahmad Mazaheri; Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2010-01-01

    The Arghash area is located 45 km to southwest of Neyshabour. The subvolcanic rocks in the area consist of biotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende monzonite porphyry, biotite hornblende monzonite porphyry, monzodiorite porphyry and biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry units. The volcanic rocks consist of hornblende biotite dacite, biotite hornblende dacite, and andesite and pillow lava. The plutonic rocks consist of hornblen...

  10. Water Content of Basalt Erupted on the ocean floor

    Moore, J.G.

    1970-01-01

    Deep sea pillow basalts dredged from the ocean floor show that vesicularity changes with composition as well as with depth. Alkalic basalts are more vesicular than tholeiitic basalts erupted at the same depth. The vesicularity data, when related to experimentally determined solubility of water in basalt, indicate that K-poor oceanic tholeiites originally contained about 0.25 percent water, Hawaiian tholeiites of intermediate K-content, about 0.5 percent water, and alkali-rich basalts, about 0.9 percent water. Analyses of fresh basalt pillows show a systematic increase of H2O+ as the rocks become more alkalic. K-poor oceanic tholeiites contain 0.06-0.42 percent H2O+, Hawaiian tholeiites, 0.31-0.60 percent H2O+, and alkali rich basalts 0.49-0.98 percent H2O+. The contents of K2O, P2O5, F, and Cl increase directly with an increase in H2O+ content such that at 1.0 weight percent H2O+, K2O is 1.58 percent, P2O5 is 0.55 percent, F is 0.07 percent, and Cl is 0.1 percent. The measured weight percent of deuterium on the rim of one Hawaiian pillow is -6.0 (relative to SMOW); this value, which is similar to other indications of magmatic water, suggests that no appreciable sea water was absorbed by the pillow during or subsequent to eruption on the ocean floor. Concentrations of volatile constituents in the alkali basalt melts relative to tholeiitic melts can be explained by varying degrees of partial melting of mantle material or by fractional crystallization of a magma batch. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Efectos de la atención dividida en la producción de falsos recuerdos en el paradigma DRM : un estudio con escucha dicótica y ensombrecimiento

    Pimentel, Eduarda; Albuquerque, Pedro Barbas

    2013-01-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm comprises the study of lists in which words (e.g., bed, pillow, etc.) are all associates of a single nonstudied critical item (e.g., sleep). The probability of falsely recalling or recognising nonstudied critical items is often similar to (or sometimes higher than) the probability of correctly recalling or recognising studied associates. False memories produced throughout this paradigm are usually seen as vivid, long lasting, and d...

  12. VEG-01: Veggie Hardware Verification Testing

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gary; Hummerick, Mary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    The Veggie plant/vegetable production system is scheduled to fly on ISS at the end of2013. Since much of the technology associated with Veggie has not been previously tested in microgravity, a hardware validation flight was initiated. This test will allow data to be collected about Veggie hardware functionality on ISS, allow crew interactions to be vetted for future improvements, validate the ability of the hardware to grow and sustain plants, and collect data that will be helpful to future Veggie investigators as they develop their payloads. Additionally, food safety data on the lettuce plants grown will be collected to help support the development of a pathway for the crew to safely consume produce grown on orbit. Significant background research has been performed on the Veggie plant growth system, with early tests focusing on the development of the rooting pillow concept, and the selection of fertilizer, rooting medium and plant species. More recent testing has been conducted to integrate the pillow concept into the Veggie hardware and to ensure that adequate water is provided throughout the growth cycle. Seed sanitation protocols have been established for flight, and hardware sanitation between experiments has been studied. Methods for shipping and storage of rooting pillows and the development of crew procedures and crew training videos for plant activities on-orbit have been established. Science verification testing was conducted and lettuce plants were successfully grown in prototype Veggie hardware, microbial samples were taken, plant were harvested, frozen, stored and later analyzed for microbial growth, nutrients, and A TP levels. An additional verification test, prior to the final payload verification testing, is desired to demonstrate similar growth in the flight hardware and also to test a second set of pillows containing zinnia seeds. Issues with root mat water supply are being resolved, with final testing and flight scheduled for later in 2013.

  13. Mapping lava morphology of the Galapagos Spreading Center at 92°W: fuzzy logic provides a classification of high-resolution bathymetry and backscatter

    McClinton, J. T.; White, S. M.; Sinton, J. M.; Rubin, K. H.; Bowles, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Differences in axial lava morphology along the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) can indicate variations in magma supply and emplacement dynamics due to the influence of the adjacent Galapagos hot spot. Unfortunately, the ability to discriminate fine-scale lava morphology has historically been limited to observations of the small coverage areas of towed camera surveys and submersible operations. This research presents a neuro-fuzzy approach to automated seafloor classification using spatially coincident, high-resolution bathymetry and backscatter data. The classification method implements a Sugeno-type fuzzy inference system trained by a multi-layered adaptive neural network and is capable of rapidly classifying seafloor morphology based on attributes of surface geometry and texture. The system has been applied to the 92°W segment of the western GSC in order to quantify coverage areas and distributions of pillow, lobate, and sheet lava morphology. An accuracy assessment has been performed on the classification results. The resulting classified maps provide a high-resolution view of GSC axial morphology and indicate the study area terrain is approximately 40% pillow flows, 40% lobate and sheet flows, and 10% fissured or faulted area, with about 10% of the study area unclassifiable. Fine-scale features such as eruptive fissures, tumuli, and individual pillowed lava flow fronts are also visible. Although this system has been applied to lava morphology, its design and implementation are applicable to other undersea mapping applications.

  14. Buoyancy, transport, and head loss of fibrous reactor insulation

    In the event of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a nuclear power plant, it is possible that insulation for pipes or other items inside the containment building could be dislodged by the high energy break jet. This insulation debris could affect the recirculation of water from the sump of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) by collecting on the screen surrounding this sump. To help in assessing the possible effect of detached insulation on the ECCS, buoyancy, transport, and head loss characteristics of the insulation were studied experimentally. Three types of insulation pillows with mineral wool and fiberglass cores were tested in undamaged state, with their covers opened and with the insulation core in broken-up and shredded conditions. Small samples of reflective metallic and closed cell insulations were also tested for transport and buoyancy. The buoyancy studies revealed that the insulation core material sank more rapidly in hot water than in cold, that the tested mineral wool insulation did not readily sink, but that the fiberglass insulation did and that undamaged pillows could remain afloat for several days due to trapped air pockets forming inside the pillow covers. The transport studies furnished values of the flow velocity needed (i) to initiate the movement of sunken insulation towards a screen, (ii) to bring all the insulation on the screen, and (iii) to flip the insulation vertically on the screen. The head loss studies resulted in graphs of head loss versus approach velocity for undisturbed insulation and for beds of accumulated insulation fragments

  15. Crustal structure beneath the Northern Mississippi Embayment from travel time inversion of vintage wide-angle seismic data

    Guo, L.; Magnani, M.

    2012-12-01

    The northern Mississippi Embayment (ME) in the central US is located along the southern margin of Laurentia, a region that has been shaped by a long history of tectonic and magmatic events, including episodes of continental rifting, collision and amalgamation. In the ME these events have fundamentally altered the structure and composition of the continental lithosphere, resulting in the formation and failure of the Paleozoic Reelfoot Rift, and in the emplacement of the enigmatic mafic rift pillow at lower crustal and upper mantle depths beneath the Reelfoot Rift. Because of the spatial correlation between the present, historical and prehistorical seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone and the mafic rift pillow, it has been proposed that this magmatic feature plays a key role in localizing strain in the Central US. Emerging evidence, however, shows that Quaternary deformation in the ME is not restricted to the New Madrid seismic zone, but encompasses a region beyond the presently seismogenic area, perhaps suggesting that the mafic rift pillow extends beyond its previously detected location. To test this hypothesis and to better constrain the lateral extent, dimension, and velocity structure of the mafic rift pillow in lower crust and upper mantle beneath the ME, we perform a travel time tomographic inversion using recent modeling codes on two vintage wide-angle seismic datasets available in the region. The data were acquired by the USGS in 1980 and 1991, and are the only seismic wide-angle crustal data constraining the geometry of the rift pillow. The 1980 USGS seismic refraction investigation consisted of a total of 34 900-1800 kg shots gathered in 9 locations and recorded by 100 portable seismographs along a series of profiles targeting the structure of the Reelfoot Rift north of Memphis, Tennessee. The 1991 USGS survey acquired a N-S 400 km-long seismic profile from Memphis, Tennessee to St. Louis, Missouri, and included 3 680-2260 kg shots recorded by ~200

  16. The 2008 Puipui eruption and morphology of the Northeast Lau Spreading Center between Maka and Tafu (Invited)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Rubin, K. H.; Paduan, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    An event plume was discovered in the water column between Maka and Tafu volcanoes on the Northeast Lau Spreading Center in Nov. 2008. A Rapid Response cruise in May 2009 found that eruptive activity had ceased after observations on two Jason II ROV dives and one MBARI Mapping AUV survey that mapped most of the axis and flanks at 1.5-m resolution. Jason II located a recent lava flow, which was named Puipui. The small ridge of mounds aligned along two overlapping fissures extend for 1.8 km. The pillow ridge cuts obliquely across the ridge axis. The dive observations show mainly pillow lavas near the NE end and sheet flows near the SE end. A central 340 m portion observed by Jason II as predominantly ponded lobate flows was not mapped by the AUV. The Puipui and prior eruptions produced abundant vesicular angular glass fragments, Pele’s hair, and less abundant limu o Pele pyroclasts that thinly blanket the axial plateau and cascade down the steep flanks, mixing debris from many eruptions. Electron probe analyses of 91 fragments show that 15 Puipui pyroclasts are compositionally variable (normalized 6.5-7.2% MgO, ~49.6% SiO2) and distinct from prior eruptions in the area that have lower TiO2, K2O, Na2O, and K2O; and 52.3-53.7% SiO2. Pyroclasts of all compositions are highly degassed (morphology changes dramatically over short distances. The 1 km SW end is characterized by multiple extensional faults that parallel the ridge axis. The AUV survey ends on a sheet flow with drained ponds. To the NE, Maka is a 1.2 km diameter central volcano rising 300 m above the adjacent ridge to a summit at 1515 m. The ridge axis deepens steadily to 2140 m at the NE survey end and 1900 m to the SW. Rift zones on Maka parallel the ridge axis and are constructed of overlapping lava deltas. The NW and SE flanks are smooth like those at actively erupting West Mata volcano, where such deposits are clastic eruptive debris. The lava deltas have steep margins and embayments, indicating slumping

  17. A Particle Batch Smoother Approach to Snow Water Equivalent Estimation

    Margulis, Steven A.; Girotto, Manuela; Cortes, Gonzalo; Durand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a newly proposed data assimilation method for historical snow water equivalent SWE estimation using remotely sensed fractional snow-covered area fSCA. The newly proposed approach consists of a particle batch smoother (PBS), which is compared to a previously applied Kalman-based ensemble batch smoother (EnBS) approach. The methods were applied over the 27-yr Landsat 5 record at snow pillow and snow course in situ verification sites in the American River basin in the Sierra Nevada (United States). This basin is more densely vegetated and thus more challenging for SWE estimation than the previous applications of the EnBS. Both data assimilation methods provided significant improvement over the prior (modeling only) estimates, with both able to significantly reduce prior SWE biases. The prior RMSE values at the snow pillow and snow course sites were reduced by 68%-82% and 60%-68%, respectively, when applying the data assimilation methods. This result is encouraging for a basin like the American where the moderate to high forest cover will necessarily obscure more of the snow-covered ground surface than in previously examined, less-vegetated basins. The PBS generally outperformed the EnBS: for snow pillows the PBSRMSE was approx.54%of that seen in the EnBS, while for snow courses the PBSRMSE was approx.79%of the EnBS. Sensitivity tests show relative insensitivity for both the PBS and EnBS results to ensemble size and fSCA measurement error, but a higher sensitivity for the EnBS to the mean prior precipitation input, especially in the case where significant prior biases exist.

  18. Non-explosive magma water interaction in a continental setting: Miocene examples from the Eastern Cordillera (central Andes; NW Argentina)

    Vezzoli, Luigina; Matteini, Massimo; Hauser, Natalia; Omarini, Ricardo; Mazzuoli, Roberto; Acocella, Valerio

    2009-07-01

    The Middle-Upper Miocene Las Burras Almagro-El Toro (BAT) igneous complex within the Eastern Cordillera of the central Andes (˜24°S; NW Argentina) has revealed evidence of non-explosive interaction of andesitic magma with water or wet clastic sediments in a continental setting, including peperite generation. We describe and interpret lithofacies and emplacement mechanisms in three case studies. The Las Cuevas member (11.8 Ma) comprises facies related to: (i) andesite extruded in a subaqueous setting and generating lobe-hyaloclastite lava; and (ii) marginal parts of subaerial andesite lava dome(s) in contact with surface water, comprising fluidal lava lobes, hyaloclastite, and juvenile clasts with glassy rims. The Lampazar member (7.8 Ma) is represented by a syn-volcanic andesite intrusion and related peperite that formed within unconsolidated, water-saturated, coarse-grained volcaniclastic conglomerate and breccia. The andesite intrusion is finger-shaped and grades into intrusive pillows. Pillows are up to 2 m wide, tightly packed near the intrusion fingers, and gradually become dispersed in the host sediment ≥50 m from the parent intrusion. The Almagro A member (7.2 Ma) shows evidence of mingling between water-saturated, coarse-grained, volcaniclastic alluvial breccia and intruding andesite magma. The resulting intrusive pillows are characterized by ellipsoidal and tubular shape and concentric structure. The high-level penetration of magma in this coarse sediment was unconfined and irregular. Magma was detached in apophyses and lobes with sharp contacts and fluidal shapes, and without quench fragmentation and formation of a hyaloclastite envelope. The presence of peperite and magma water contact facies in the BAT volcanic sequence indicates the possible availability of water in the system between 11 7 Ma and suggests a depositional setting in this part of the foreland basin of the central Andes characterized by an overall topographically low coastal floodplain

  19. Performance prediction of high density nuclear fuel plate containing U-7%Mo/Al

    In recent several years, the Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology (PTBN) - BATAN is conducting research and development on new research reactor fuel of U-Mo/Al dispersion containing 7 g U/cm3 as a substitute for the actual U3Si2 fuel of 2.96 g.U/cm3 . The major advantages of this fuel are higher U content than the U3Si2 and easier management, i.e. reprocessing of the spent fuel, while the main drawback is the manufacture of powder that is more difficult because it is more ductile and its thermal conductivity degrade faster during in reactor service. The first difficulties have been solved by hydriding process. Performance prediction should be foreseen in order to obtain permit for irradiation testing of the new fuel. The prediction has been performed on hot spot location by taking into account some effects of fission swelling of fuel particles, formation of interfacial reaction layer, meat densification which feedback to fuel temperature and plate swelling the principal safety parameters of normal operation. The results show that at lower burnup the dominant effect is fission solid swelling but at higher burnup it is replaced by fission gas swelling. At 60% burnup (10.2 x 10⌃21 fission/cm3 ) fuel particle swelling reaches 75.79% and at total burnup swelling rises to 103.1%, which corresponds to 11.6% and 17.2% plate pillowing. The interfacial reaction layer at full burnup is 5.7 µm. Plate pillowing at 60% burnup is below the limit acceptance but plate pillowing at full burnup is beyond the limit acceptance. (author)

  20. Iceland as a Model for Chemical Alteration on Mars

    Bishop, Janice L.; Schiffman, P.; Murad, E.; Southard, R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Subglacial volcanic activity on Iceland has led to the formation of a variety of silicate and iron oxide-rich alteration products that may serve as a model for chemical alteration on Mars. Multiple palagonitic tuffs, altered pillow lavas, hydrothermal springs and alteration at glacial run-off streams were observed during a recent field trip in Iceland. Formation of alteration products and ferrihydrite in similar environments on Mars may have contributed to the ferric oxide-rich surface material there. The spectral and chemical properties of Icelandic alteration products and ferrihydrites are presented here.

  1. A new structural model of the Pachitea Basin, Peru: Interaction of thick-skinned tectonics and salt detached thrusting

    Witte, J.; Rebaza, J.; Westlund, D.; Stratton, M.; Alegria, C.

    2015-11-01

    We present four new structural transects, a new seismo-stratigraphic correlation, a refined structural model and new shortening rates for the Pachitea Basin (=PB), Peru. Our results are based on the integration and detailed interpretation of newly acquired industry seismic (2D, 2005 vintage), existing well data, existing and proprietary surface geology data and newly acquired aero magnetic data (2007 vintage). Our assessment confirms the presence of at least four distinct structural styles in the area, thick-skinned structures, thin-skinned detachment thrusting, salt-tectonics and localized strike-slip tectonics. Based on seismo-stratigraphic correlations we conclude that the oldest rocks carried to outcrop by the San Matias (=SM) thrust are of Jurassic age. We interpret the thin-skinned master detachment to be located in varying positions, directly below or above, autochtonous salt pillows. Timing assessment of the SM thrust sheet reveals that it has been active from at least ˜5 Ma to post-2 Ma, supporting regionally published timing data for this latitude. Positive topographic surface expressions indicate ongoing contraction along the mountain front of the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera (=EC). Across the PB we calculate between 2.6% and 5.5% for thick-skinned shortening and at least 25.5% for the thin-skinned shortening. For the SM thrust sheet we calculate a slip-rate of ˜1-1.6 mm/yr, which is in line with published slip rates on individual thrusts from around the world. Observations along the SM thrust system indicate that thin- and thick-skinned systems interact mechanically, and that they have been active intermittently. We conclude that the location of salt pillows as well as pre-existing or growing basement-involved structures helped trigger the SM thrust. Different types of salt bodies are present in the PB, autochtonous pillows, slightly thrusted pillows and allochtonous diapirs. Our results provide new insight into the structural interplay, particularly

  2. Large Plant Growth Chambers: Flying Soon on a Space Station near You!

    Massa, Gioia D.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species, and those capabilities continue to grow. The Veggie vegetable production system will be deployed to the ISS in Spring of 2014 to act as an applied research platform with goals of studying food production in space, providing the crew with a source of fresh food, allowing behavioral health and plant microbiology experimentation, and being a source of recreation and enjoyment for the crew. Veggie was conceived, designed, and constructed by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC, Madison, WI). Veggie is the largest plant growth chamber that NASA has flown to date, and is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low energy usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) light emitting diodes. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellows baseplate secured to the light cap via magnetic closures and stabilized with extensible flexible arms. The baseplate contains vents allowing air from the ISS cabin to be pulled through the plant growth area by a fan in the light cap. The baseplate holds a Veggie root mat reservoir that will supply water to plant pillows attached via elastic cords. Plant pillows are packages of growth media and seeds that will be sent to ISS dry and installed and hydrated on orbit. Pillows can be constructed in various sizes for different plant types. Watering will be via passive wicking from the root mat to the pillows. Science procedures will include photography or videography, plant thinning, pollination, harvesting, microbial sampling, water sampling, etcetera. Veggie is one of the ISS flight options currently available for research investigations on plants. The Plant Habitat (PH) is being designed and constructed through a NASA

  3. Eldorado plans second uranium refinery

    Eldorado Nuclear Ltd. intends to open a new uranium refinery at Port Granby, Ont., by 1980, thereby tripling output of uranium hexafluoride. In the 1980's, the company plans to build a third refinery in Saskatchewan. The process of producing uranium hexafluoride from crude yellowcake is explained, and improvements introduced by Eldorado are discussed. They include a continuous denitrator for producing uranium trioxide, and 'pillow block' briquetting rollers for briquetting it before it is reduced with hydrogen to uranium dioxide. (N.D.H.)

  4. High-density U-Mo fuels - Latest results and reoriented qualifications programs

    As a result of unstable swelling (pillowing) experienced during tests of U-Mo dispersed in aluminum under high-power conditions in 2003, the programs to develop, qualify, and license U-Mo dispersion fuels carried out in the United States, France, Argentina, and Russia have been reoriented. During the past year, a major effort has been carried out to determine the cause(s) of the failures and to find potential remedies for the problem. The past year's activities are summarized and updated plans and schedules for the qualification of U-Mo fuels are presented. (author)

  5. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Leandro Rocha Lemos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  6. Texto e têxtil em O Livro de Travesseiro

    Andrei Cunha

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This text is a three-part reflection upon the theme of “clothing” as it is found in a literary work of Ancient Japan — on the importance of garment-making skills as a device for the production of difference in the context of the Imperial Court; on how the theme from the book resonates in the context of 20th century fashion; and on how it is brought up to date and amplified, working as a metaphor for writing, in the film adaptation of the ancient text. In The Pillow Book of Sei Shôna...

  7. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data; Le massif ophiolitique de Kahnuj (Makran occidental, Iran meridional): nouvelles donnees geologiques et geochronologiques

    Kananian, A. [University of Tarbiat Modarress, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, IUEM, 29 - Brest (France); Darvishzadeh, A. [University of Teheran, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzehi, M. [Geological Survey of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Whitechurch, H. [Universite Louis Pasteur, EOST, Institut de Physique du Globe, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Ricou, L.E. [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-05-01

    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km{sup 2}) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ({sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  8. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Høy; Permin, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out...... nursery pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys....

  9. The diet of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Brünnich. 1782 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in Myanmar - conflicts with local people?

    Sein Sein Win

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages.  It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves.  Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed.  Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers.  Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers. 

  10. Protection Against Cross Infection in Hospital Beds with Integrated Personalized Ventilation

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Polak, Marcin; Jiang, Hao;

    2008-01-01

    to supply air directly to the breathing zone when people are lying in beds, e.g. in a hospital ward. This principle, called "Personalized Ventilation" has shown to be very efficient in the protection of people from cross infection. The system supplies fresh air into the breathing zone through a pillow...... in this paper are carried out with tracer gas and two thermal manikins in the experimental SARS ward at Hong Kong University. One of the manikins is the source manikin, and the other one the target. The measurements show that a very high degree of protection can be obtained with this system. Optimum flow rate...

  11. Music, Health, Technology and Design

    2014-01-01

    Imagine that objects in your home environment – let us say a pillow, a carpet or a toy – became musical and interactive. Do you think that they could offer new ways of playing and being together? Could they even have the potential to reduce isolation and passivity and promote health and well-being for some of us? This anthology, the eighth in the Series from the Centre for Music and Health, presents a compilation of articles that explore the many intersections of music, health, technology ...

  12. Ultra-diffuse hydrothermal venting supports Fe-oxidizing bacteria and massive umber deposition at 5000 m off Hawaii

    Edwards, Katrina J.; Glazer, B T; Rouxel, O J; W. Bach; Emerson, D; Davis, R. E.; Toner, B M; Chan, C S; Tebo, B M; Staudigel, H; Moyer, C L

    2011-01-01

    A novel hydrothermal field has been discovered at the base of Lōihi Seamount, Hawaii, at 5000 mbsl. Geochemical analyses demonstrate that ‘FeMO Deep', while only 0.2 °C above ambient seawater temperature, derives from a distal, ultra-diffuse hydrothermal source. FeMO Deep is expressed as regional seafloor seepage of gelatinous iron- and silica-rich deposits, pooling between and over basalt pillows, in places over a meter thick. The system is capped by mm to cm thick hydrothermally derived iro...

  13. An oxygen isotope profile in a section of Cretaceous oceanic crust, Samail Ophiolite, Oman: Evidence for δ^(18)O buffering of the oceans by deep (>5 km) seawater-hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges

    Gregory, Robert T.; Taylor, Hugh P., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of 75 samples from the Samail ophiolite indicate that pervasive subsolidus hydrothermal exchange with seawater occurred throughout the upper 75% of this 8-km-thick oceanic crustal section; locally, the H_2O even penetrated down into the tectonized peridotite. Pillow lavas (δ^(18)O = 10.7 to 12.7) and sheeted dikes (4.9 to 11.3) are typically enriched in ^(18)O, and the gabbros (3.7 to 5.9) are depleted in ^(18)O. In the latter rocks, water/rock ≤ 0.3, and δ^(18)O_(cpx) ≈ 2.9...

  14. Magnetic characterization of synthetic titanomagnetites: Quantifying the recording fidelity of ideal synthetic analogs

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2014-01-01

    sporadic occurance of dendritic Fe3-xTixO4 structures. Magnetic measurements show their bulk characteristics fall into two groups: Ti-rich titanomagnetite samples with varying Ti content; and near-stoichiometric magnetite. The TEM technique of off-axis electron holography allowed for visualization of the...... magnetically weak larger Fe3-xTixO4 grains (x ∼ 0.6). The large grains in the pure magnetite sample are shown to be pseudo-single domain in nature. The quenching process involved in synthesis is considered similar to that of pillow basalts found at mid-ocean ridges and hence the reaction products are thought...

  15. Investigaciones paleomagnéticas en la zona Subbética.

    Freeman, R; Osete, M.L.; Vegas, R.

    1998-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio palomagnético en la parte central dc la Zona Subbética, en rocas volcánicas (pillow-lavas, material intrusivo y coladas de basaltos) y sedimentarias (calizas, margocalizas y calizas nodulosas de facies Ammonitico Rosso) de edad jurásica. Con objeto dc analizar las propiedades magnéticas de las rocas estudiadas se han determinado las curvas termomagnéticas dc los materiales volcánicos y sc han realizado experimentos sobre adquisición gradual dc rema...

  16. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants.

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely. PMID:26825249

  17. Texto e têxtil em O Livro de Travesseiro

    Andrei Cunha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This text is a three-part reflection upon the theme of “clothing” as it is found in a literary work of Ancient Japan — on the importance of garment-making skills as a device for the production of difference in the context of the Imperial Court; on how the theme from the book resonates in the context of 20th century fashion; and on how it is brought up to date and amplified, working as a metaphor for writing, in the film adaptation of the ancient text. In The Pillow Book of Sei Shônagon (Japan, 10th–11th centuries, text, textile and memory merge into an extended, web-like metaphor that is also a commentary on the status of women in Imperial Heian. The adaptation of the written work for the cinema (The Pillow Book, by Peter Greenaway, 1996 features clothes by deconstructivist Martin Margiela, adding new interpretative layers to this cluster of images, relating them to the acts of writing, weaving, reading, translating, adapting and deconstructing. The fragmentary character of Sei Shônagon’s work also resonates with fashion journalism of the 20th century. The aesthetic ideal of okashi, a concept from classical Japanese literature, resonates with 20th century conceptions of fashion, such as Diana Vreeland’s pizzazz, and with the aesthetics of modernist poetry. Clothing as a metaphor for text and the idea of clothing as text are present in those three interpretative moments.

  18. Radiometric dating of bioalteration textures in Archean basaltic metaglasses

    Full text: Direct in-situ U-Pb dating of titanite which infills tubular bioalteration textures in pillow basalt rims from the ∼ 3.35 Ga Euro basalt of the Pilbara craton, W. Australia (PWA) confirms their Archean age. A novel in situ laser ablation multi-collector-ICP-MS technique is here reported that has enabled the first radiometric age determination of an Archean biosignature. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that these tubular bioalteration textures formed by microbial etching of formerly glassy Archean lavas that were subsequently mineralized by titanite. Firstly, there are striking morphological similarities between tubular structures from both the Pilbara and Barberton (BGB) cratons and bioalteration textures in modern glasses. Secondly, x-ray mapping indicates C enriched along the margins of the tubular structures from both the BGB and PWA. Thirdly, disseminated carbonates in the BGB pillow rims have C-isotopes depleted by as much as -16 %o, which is consistent with microbial oxidation of organic matter. A pre-metamorphic age for these microtubes is indicated by their segmentation caused by metamorphic chlorite overgrowths. A laser ablation spot size of ∼ 40 μm was used to analyze titanite in the 'root zones' at the centre of microtube clusters. Thirteen analyzes upon three thin sections gave a weighted average 206Pb/238U age of 2921 ± 110 Ma. This corresponds to the oldest metamorphic episode that has affected the PWA rocks and gives a minimum, late Archean age estimate for the bioalteration. (author)

  19. Evaluation of NVE's snow station network; Subreport in R et D project 302H15 Good snow data; Evaluering av NVE sitt snoestasjonsnettverk

    Ree, Bjoerg Lirhus; Landroe, Hilde; Trondsen, Elise; Moeen, Knut M.

    2011-03-15

    NVE has measured snow water equivalent of snow pillow in forty years. Our snow station network has risen since 1997 from 6 to 25 stations. It was therefore absolutely necessary to do a review and quality assurance of NVE's snow data. This report discusses the snow data measured continuously - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Each station and the parameters it measures are described and evaluated. It is concluded in relation to whether stations should be continued or not. Stations technical solutions are well described, both of NVE's standard stations and the two test stations, Filefjell and Svarttjoernbekken. It has been o importance to bring out what problems the instruments have or may have and provide suggestions for solutions to them. Problems related to measure the water equivalent under Norwegian conditions, with the challenges and winter rain and re-freezing provides, is also reviewed. Alternatives to water equivalent measurements with a snow pillow, which is the traditional way in this country, are presented. Some of the alternative methods NVE tests out, for the others only description and our opinion is given. (Author)

  20. High-Ti type N-MORB parentage of basalts from the south Andaman ophiolite suite, India

    Rajesh K Srivastava; R Chandra; Anant Shastry

    2004-12-01

    A complete dismembered sequence of ophiolite is well exposed in the south Andaman region that mainly comprises ultramafic cumulates, serpentinite mafic plutonic and dyke rocks, pillow lava, radiolarian chert, and plagiogranite. Pillow lavas of basaltic composition occupy a major part of the Andaman ophiolite suite (AOS). These basalts are well exposed all along the east coast of southern part of the south AOS. Although these basalts are altered due to low-grade metamorphism and late hydrothermal processes, their igneous textures are still preserved. These basalts are mostly either aphyric or phyric in nature. Aphyric type exhibits intersertal or variolitic textures, whereas phyric variety shows porphyritic or sub-ophitic textures. The content of alkalies and silica classify these basalts as sub-alkaline basalts and alkaline basalts. A few samples show basaltic andesite, trachybasalt, or basanitic chemical composition. High-field strength element (HFSE) geochemistry suggests that studied basalt samples are probably derived from similar parental magmas. Al2O3/TiO2 and CaO/TiO2 ratios classify these basalts as high-Ti type basalt. On the basis of these ratios and many discriminant functions and diagrams, it is suggested that the studied basalts, associated with Andaman ophiolite suite, were derived from magma similar to N-MORB and emplaced in the mid-oceanic ridge tectonic setting.

  1. Complete preservation of ophiolite suite from south Andaman, India: A mineralchemical perspective

    Abhishek Saha; Avik Dhang; Jyotisankar Ray; Suvankar Chakraborty; David Moecher

    2010-06-01

    Field studies supplemented by petrographic analyses clearly reveal complete preservation of ophiolite suite from Port Blair (11° 39′ N: 92° 45′E) to Chiriyatapu (11° 30′ 24′′N: 92° 42′ 30′′E) stretch of South Andaman. The ophiolite suite reveals serpentinite at the base which is overlain unconformably by cumulate ultramafic–mafic members with discernible cumulus texture and igneous layering. Basaltic dykes are found to cut across the cumulate ultramafic–mafic members. The succession is capped by well exposed pillow basalts interlayered with arkosic sediments. Olivine from the basal serpentinite unit are highly magnesian (Fo80.1–86.2). All clinopyroxene analyses from cumulate pyroxenite, cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke are discriminated to be `Quad’ and are uniformly restricted to the diopside field. Composition of plagioclase in different lithomembers is systematically varying from calcic to sodic endmembers progressively from cumulate pyroxenite to pillow basalt through cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke. Plagioclase phenocrysts from basaltic dyke are found to be distinctly zoned (An60.7–An35.5) whereas groundmass plagioclase are relatively sodic (An33–An23.5). Deduced thermobarometric data from different lithomembers clearly correspond to the observed preservation of complete ophiolite suite.

  2. Carbonate Cements from the Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell Volcanoes, Svalbard Norway: Analogs for Martian Carbonates

    Blake, D. F.; Treiman, A. H.; Morris, R.; Bish, D.; Amundsen, H.E.F.; Steele, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell volcanic complexes erupted at 1Ma on Svalbard, Norway. Sverrefjell is a cone of cinders, pillow lavas and dikes; Sigurdfjell is elongate in outcrop and may represent a fissure eruption [1]. The lavas of both volcanos were volatile rich. The volcanos erupted under ice and were subsequently dissected by glaciation (glacial eratics are present on most of Sverrefjell, even on its summit). Eruption beneath an ice sheet is inferred, based on the presence of pillow lavas from near sea level to 1000 m above sea level. Sverrefjell contains the largest fraction of ultramafic xenoliths of any volcanic complex in the world, in places accounting for as much as 50% of the volume of the outcrop. The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfell volcanos contain carbonate cements of several varieties: (1) Amundsen [2] reported Mg-Fe-rich carbonate in sub-mm globules in basalts and ultramafic xenoliths from the volcanos. These globules are the best terrestrial analogs to the carbonate globules in the Mars meteorite ALH84001 [3]. (2) Thick (1-3 cm) coatings of carbonate cement drape the walls of vertical volcanic pipes or conduits on the flanks and near the present summit of Sverrefjell. Similar occurrences are found on Sigurdfjell. (3) Breccia-filled pipes or vents occur on Sverrefjell and Siggurdfjell in which the breccia fragments are cemented by carbonate. The fragments themselves commonly contain carbonate globules similar to those found in the basalts and ultramafic xenoliths.

  3. Rare earth element geochemistry of the Betts Cove ophiolite, Newfoundland: complexities in ophiolite formation

    The Betts Cove ophiolite includes the components of typical ocean crust: pillow lavas, sheeted dikes, gabbros, and ultramafics. However, the trace element geochemistry of basaltic rocks is unusual. Three geochemical units are recognized within the lava and dike members. Within the pillow lavas, the geochemical units correspond to stratigraphic units. Upper lavas have 'normal' TiO2 contents, heavy rare earth elements (HREE) values in the range 6 to 20 X chondrites and chondrite-normalized REE patterns with relative LREE depletion. Intermediate lavas have TiO2 contents between 0.30 and 0.50 wt%, HREE contents from 4 to 7 X chondrites and extreme relative LREE depletion. Lower lavas have anomalously low TiO2 contents and unusual convex-downwards REE patterns with REE abundances around 2 to 5 X chondrite. These geochemical differences can be explained if the three groups were derived from different mantle sources. Independent mantle sources for the three units are consistent with their different 143Nd/144Nd ratios varying at 480 m.y.B.P. from 0.51222 in a lower lava to 0.51238 in an upper lava. The results are discussed. (author)

  4. Volcanology of the Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California

    Portner, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Dreyer, B. M.; Martin, J. F.; Paduan, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Alarcon Rise is a ~50 km long intermediate-rate (~50mm/a) spreading center at the southern end of the Gulf of California. In Spring 2012, an MBARI-led expedition to Alarcon Rise mapped a ~1.5- 3km wide swath of the ridge axis at 1-m resolution and completed 9 dives with the ROV Doc Ricketts (Clague et al., this session). Pillow, lobate, and sheet flows occur along the entire axis. An inflated zone of the axis south of the midpoint along the Rise is dominated by a large sheet/lobate flow that erupted from en echelon fissures that extends for 8 km. This flow extends laterally away from the fissures for at least 2 km and covered nearly all prior flows and pillow mounds in its path. The middle of the segment contains a 1km across flat-topped volcano, virtually unmodified by fissures and faults, which dissect a 2.5 km across shield 5 km to the north. The NE and SW parts of the axis are characterized by more abundant pillow mounds and less voluminous sheet flows. Many of the pillow mounds, especially those in the northern third of the axis are small, steep sided mounds. Examination of sand and slit sized fractions of the basal cm of 87 cores collected by the ROV shows that basaltic pyroclasts with fluidal or bubble-wall (limu o Pele) morphologies are ubiquitous along the entire ridge. A rugged dome-like structure about 0.5x1.2kmx75m tall occurs about 9 km from the northern end of the ridge axis. Its crest is at a depth of 2330 m. Linear ridge-parallel faults and ridges cross-cut or terminate into the dome. These ridges extend several km both NE and SW along strike from the dome. Extensive sampling during two ROV dives shows that the entire dome is constructed of coarse blocky breccia and minor lineated flows of rhyolite. Dacite, andesite, and basaltic andesite flows occur on adjacent slopes to the north, south and west, and exhibit medium- to large-diameter pillow morphologies. Many of these flows and the flanks of the dome are mantled by abundant coarse- to fine

  5. Soft-sediment deformation structures in Cambrian Series 2 tidal deposits (NW Estonia): implications for identifying endogenic triggering mechanisms in ancient sedimentary record

    Põldsaar, Kairi

    2015-04-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) are documented in several horizons within silt- and sandstones of the Cambrian Series 2 (Dominopolian Stage) Tiskre Formation, and some in the below-deposited argillaceous deposits of the Lükati Formation (northern part of the Baltoscandian Palaeobasin, NW Estonia). The aim of this study was to map, describe, and analyze these deformation features, discuss their deformation mechanism and possible triggers. Load structures (simple load casts, pillows, flame structures, convoluted lamination) with varying shapes and sizes occur in the Tiskre Fm in sedimentary interfaces within medium-bedded peritidal rhythmites (siltstone-argillaceous material) as well as within up to 3 m thick slightly seaward inclined stacked sandstone sequences. Homogenized beds, dish-and-pillar structures, and severely deformed bedding are also found within these stacked units and within a large tidal runoff channel infill. Autoclastic breccias and water-escape channels are rare and occur only in small-scale -- always related to thin, horizontal tidal laminae. Profound sedimentary dykes, sand volcanoes, and thrust faults, which are often related to earthquake triggered soft sediment deformation, were not observed within the studied intervals. Deformation horizon or horizons with large flat-topped pillows often with elongated morphologies occur at or near the boundary between the Tiskre and Lükati formations. Deformation mechanisms identified in this study for the various deformation types are gravitationally unstable reversed density gradient (especially in case of load features that are related to profound sedimentary interfaces) and lateral shear stress due to sediment current drag (in case of deformation structures that not related to loading at any apparent sedimentary interface). Synsedimentary liquefaction was identified as the primary driving force in most of the observed deformation horizons. Clay thixotropy may have contributed in the

  6. Veggie ISS Validation Test Results and Produce Consumption

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Spencer, LaShelle; Smith, Trent

    2015-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system flew to the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2014. The first set of plants, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, was grown, harvested, frozen, and returned to Earth in October. Ground control and flight plant tissue was sub-sectioned for microbial analysis, anthocyanin antioxidant phenolic analysis, and elemental analysis. Microbial analysis was also performed on samples swabbed on orbit from plants, Veggie bellows, and plant pillow surfaces, on water samples, and on samples of roots, media, and wick material from two returned plant pillows. Microbial levels of plants were comparable to ground controls, with some differences in community composition. The range in aerobic bacterial plate counts between individual plants was much greater in the ground controls than in flight plants. No pathogens were found. Anthocyanin concentrations were the same between ground and flight plants, while antioxidant and phenolic levels were slightly higher in flight plants. Elements varied, but key target elements for astronaut nutrition were similar between ground and flight plants. Aerobic plate counts of the flight plant pillow components were significantly higher than ground controls. Surface swab samples showed low microbial counts, with most below detection limits. Flight plant microbial levels were less than bacterial guidelines set for non-thermostabalized food and near or below those for fungi. These guidelines are not for fresh produce but are the closest approximate standards. Forward work includes the development of standards for space-grown produce. A produce consumption strategy for Veggie on ISS includes pre-flight assessments of all crops to down select candidates, wiping flight-grown plants with sanitizing food wipes, and regular Veggie hardware cleaning and microbial monitoring. Produce then could be consumed by astronauts, however some plant material would be reserved and returned for analysis. Implementation of

  7. Preparation for the Proof of Concept Flight of the Veggie Plant Growth Chamber

    Massa, Gioia; Morrow, Robert; Hummerick, Mary; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Veggie is a small plant growth chamber designed and built by ORBITEC that will fly to the International Space Station on SpaceX-3, scheduled for the summer of 2013. Ultimately Veggie will be used for research, education and outreach, and crew recreation. We want to demonstrate the functionality of this hardware by testing a scenario that could allow the crew to grow and consume fresh vegetables. Veggie will be collapsed and transported flat in a cargo transfer bag, and deployed on orbit, where it will be installed in an EXPRESS rack. The chamber consists of three subsystems: an LED light cap, a transparent bellows, and a root mat reservoir assembly. The bellows and flexible support arms allow the distance between plants and light cap to be adjusted for different ages and types of plants. Researchers at Kennedy Space Center and ORBITEC have been working to develop the plant growth interfaces for the proof of concept flight. We have developed a rooting pillow, consisting of a small bag containing media, time release fertilizer, seeds, and a wicking surface to conduct water from the root mat reservoir. Prototype pillows have been tested and results have influenced the design of flight pillows, which will be modified for microgravity from flight-approved materials. Several studies have been conducted selecting species and comparing media types in analog systems. Water content seems to be the most important factor differentiating media types in these small growth volumes (100 mL). Media type also influenced microbial levels on plants. Since produce sanitizing agents are not currently approved for growing food crops on orbit, plants and media types having very low microbial levels are being selected. Lettuce, mizuna, and other salad greens typically have microbial counts less than 10(exp 4) colony forming units and thus are good candidates for spaceflight. As we approach flight verification testing, we will finalize species, media selection, harvesting, and microbial

  8. Veggie: Space Vegetables for the International Space Station and Beyond

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2016-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. Veggie was designed by ORBITEC to be a compact, low mass, low power vegetable production system for astronaut crews. Veggie consists of a light cap containing red, blue, and green LEDs, an extensible transparent bellows, and a baseplate with a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in plant pillows, small growing bags that interface with the reservoir. The Veggie technology validation test, VEG-01, was initiated with the first test crop of 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce. Prior to flight, lettuce seeds were sanitized and planted in a substrate of arcillite (baked ceramic) mixed with controlled release fertilizer. Upon initiation, astronauts open the packaged plant pillows, install them in the Veggie hardware, and prime the system with water. Operations include plant thinning, watering, and photography. Plants were grown on the ISS for 33 days, harvested, and returned frozen to Earth for analysis. Ground controls were conducted at Kennedy Space Center in controlled environment chambers reproducing ISS conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and CO2. Returned plant samples were analyzed for microbial food safety and chemistry including elements, antioxidants, anthocyanins and phenolics. In addition the entire plant microbiome was sequenced, and returned plant pillows were analyzed via x-ray tomography. Food safety analyses allowed us to gain approvals for future consumption of lettuce by the flight surgeons and the payload safety office. A second crop of lettuce was grown in 2015, and the crew consumed half the produce, with the remainder frozen for later analysis. This growth test was followed by testing of a new crop in Veggie, zinnias. Zinnias were grown to test a longer duration flowering crop in preparation for tests of tomatoes and other fruiting crops in the future. Zinnias were harvested in February. Samples from the second harvest of lettuce and the

  9. Juxtaposition of adakite, boninite, high-TiO 2 and low-TiO 2 basalts in the Devonian southern Altay, Xinjiang, NW China

    Niu, Hecai; Sato, Hiroaki; Zhang, Haixiang; Ito, Jun'ichi; Yu, Xueyuan; Nagao, Takashi; Terada, Kentaro; Zhang, Qi

    2006-12-01

    We present petrographic and geochemical data on representative samples of the Devonian adakite, boninite, low-TiO 2 and high-TiO 2 basalts and associated rocks in the southern Altay areas, Xinjiang, NW China. These volcanic rocks mostly occur as tectonic blocks within suture zones between the Siberian and Junggar plates. Adakite occurs in the Suoerkuduke area ca. 40 km south of Fuyun, and actually represents a poorly-sorted massive volcaniclastic deposit, mostly consisting of a suite of hornblende andesite to pyroxene andesite. The geochemical features of the adakite suggest its generation by melting of subducted oceanic crust. Boninite occurs in the Saerbulake area ca. 20 km southwest of Fuyun, as pillowed lava or pillowed breccia. It is associated with high-TiO 2 basalt/gabbro and low-TiO 2 basalt. The boninites are metamorphosed, but contain relict clinopyroxene with Mg# (=100*Mg/(Mg+Fe)) of 90-92, and Cr 2O 3 contents of 0.5-0.7 wt% and chromian spinel with Cr/(Cr+Al) ratio of 0.84. The bulk rock compositions of the boninites are characterized by low and U-shaped REE with variable La/Yb ratios. They are classified as high-Ca boninite. The Cr-rich cpx phenocryst and Chromian spinel suggests that the boninites were formed by melting of mildly refractory mantle peridotite fluxed by a slab-derived fluid component under normal mantle potential temperature conditions. Basaltic rocks occur as massive flows, pillowed lavas, tuff breccia, lapilli tuff and blocks in tectonic mélanges. Together with gabbros, the basaltic rocks are classified into high-TiO 2 (>1.7 wt%) and low-TiO 2 (<1.5 wt%) types. They show variable trace element compositions, from MORB-type through transitional back-arc basin basalt to arc tholeiite, or within plate alkalic basalt. A notable feature of the Devonian formations in the southern Altay is the juxtaposition of volcanic rocks of various origins even within a limited area; i.e. the adakite and the boninites are associated with high-TiO 2 and

  10. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the northeast of the Netherlands

    Raith, A. F.; Strozyk, F.; Visser, J.; Urai, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    At the first order salt structures are controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. Rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important effect on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. The potassium-magnesium salts (K-Mg salts) carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than rock salt: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers) in salt are much stronger than halite. In this study, we used high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, providing an example of extreme rheological heterogeneities in salt structures. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that active faulting and the resulting depressions of the Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of the thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the K-Mg salt-rich layers were

  11. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    R. J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  12. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the NE Netherlands

    Raith, A. F.; Strozyk, F.; Visser, J.; Urai, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of salt structures is controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. The potassium-magnesium salts (K-Mg salts) carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than halite: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, intrasalt anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers) are much stronger than halite. These rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important control on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. In this study, we use high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, thus we are able to assess the role of extreme rheological heterogeneities on salt structure growth. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that faulting and the generation of depressions on the top Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under the influence of differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the

  13. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the northeast of the Netherlands

    A F. Raith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At the first order salt structures are controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. Rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important effect on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. The potassium–magnesium salts (K-Mg salts carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than rock salt: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers in salt are much stronger than halite. In this study, we used high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, providing an example of extreme rheological heterogeneities in salt structures. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that active faulting and the resulting depressions of the Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of the thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the K-Mg salt

  14. Rodingitization and carbonization processes in Triassic ultramafic cumulates and lavas, Othris Mt, Central Greece

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Magganas, Andreas; Economou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    A Triassic magmatic sequence from the south Othris region is comprised of early stage basaltic pillow lavas, as well as late stage ultramafic rocks, lava flows, high-Mg doleritic dykes and pyroclastic tuffs. The ultramafic rocks include slightly serpentinized wehrlites and lavas consisting of cumulate olivine, variably textured clinopyroxene (cumulate, quench, hollow, skeletal or blade shaped), magnesiohornblende, tremolite, phlogopite, spinel, chlorite, garnet, serpentine, calcite and devitrified glass[1]. Part of their secondary mineralogy developed due to percolation of metasomatic fluids during rodingitization and carbonization processes. In ultramafic rocks from Agia Marina and Mili, rodingitization was rather penetratively and expressed with crystallization of hydrogarnets, accompanied by secondary diopside and chlorite. Hydrogarnets are characterized by their low Ti-contents (recycling thermal carbonated seawater, leached from the rifted Triassic platform carbonates. References. [1] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Ntaflos 2012: Lithos 144-145, 177-193; [2] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Pomonis, Ntaflos 2013: Lithos 172-173, 139-157.

  15. Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan, Southern Mexico

    Viniegra-O, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1972, numerous large and giant oil fields have been discovered in the Reforma area of Chiapas and Tabasco States, southern Mexico, and on the offshore Campeche shelf west of Campeche State. The huge carbonate bank with which these discoveries are associated is called the Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan. Present trap structures are mainly fractured and faulted domal salt pillows created during the Laramide orogeny. The Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan is believed to include not just the Yucatan Peninsula, but also a part of coastal Veracruz State, where several discoveries have been made in carbonate rocks of Early to Middle Cretaceous ages in thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, which are now buried beneath the coastal plain. It is probable that large, subthrust, anticlinal structures underlie the thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, and these when drilled, may contain important hydrocarbon accumulations. (JMT)

  16. Estructura y organización de las coladas submarinas: características de las lavas almohadilladas de edad cretácica que afloran en la Cordillera Vasco- Cantábrica

    Alonso, A.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, an important submarine volcanic activity of alkaline character was developed during the upper Cretaceous. This vulcanism was related to a rift and/or transform fault in the continental crust associated to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. Pillow lava flows are noteworthy among the other volcanic materials by their volume and excellent preservation state. The lava flows are formed by the pile up of small flow-and cooling units, i.e. tubes or lava tubes, characterized by: i coarse cylindrical morphology with abundant constrictions, ii diameter less than 1 meter in a transversal section, iii smooth or striated surface, iv concentric and/or radial internal structure, and iv the branches and direction changes during the outflow. Lava flows/tubes shape and surface characteristics depend on the viscosity, effusion rate and the thickness of quenched crust during growth. The Tubes are moted directly on feeder dykes or are connected in tabular flows. The expanding and advancement of the tubes was the result of stretching or breaking of the quenched surface crust and spreading of the molten lava from the interior. Stretching features and cracks appear mainly at the flow front, but lobes of lava developed from the top and the flanks of the tubes are not uncommon. Only scarce pillowed lavas are truly isolated magma sacks separated from their sources. Related to the tabular flows and the biggest pillow lavas, some breccias were occasionally formed by the gravitational collapse of the roof of the draining tunnels.Durante el Cretácico superior se desarrolló en la Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica una importante actividad volcánica submarina de naturaleza alcalina. Este vulcanismo estuvo relacionado con el funcionamiento de un rift y/o una falla transformante en corteza continental asociado a la apertura del Atlántico Norte. Entre los productos volcánicos destacan, por su notable volumen y excelente grado de preservación, las

  17. Risk analysis of early childhood eczema

    Bisgaard, Hans; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Hinge, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of eczema suggests the role of environmental factors triggering a genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of environmental exposures in early life and genetic predisposition on the development of eczema before age 3 years. METHODS: The...... assessments included filaggrin loss-of-function mutation; parent's atopic disease; sex; social status; previous deliveries; third trimester complications and exposures; anthropometrics at birth; month of birth; duration solely breast-fed; introduction of egg, cow's milk, and fish; time spent in day care; cat...... and dog at home; feather pillow; nicotine in infant's hair; and temperature and humidity in bedroom. RESULTS: Eczema developed in 43.5% of the infants. Filaggrin mutation (odds ratio [OR], 3.20; 95% CI, 1.46-7.02; P = .004), mother's eczema (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63; P < .0001), and father...

  18. Geologic mapping on the deep seafloor: Reconstructing lava flow emplacement and eruptive history at the Galápagos Spreading Center

    McClinton, J. T.; White, S.; Colman, A.; Sinton, J. M.; Bowles, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The deep seafloor imposes significant difficulties on data collection that require the integration of multiple data sets and the implementation of unconventional geologic mapping techniques. We combine visual mapping of geological contacts by submersible with lava flow morphology maps and relative and absolute age constraints to create a spatiotemporal framework for examining submarine lava flow emplacement at the intermediate-spreading, hotspot-affected Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC). We mapped 18 lava flow fields, interpreted to be separate eruptive episodes, within two study areas at the GSC using visual observations of superposition, surface preservation and sediment cover from submersible and towed camera surveys, augmented by high-resolution sonar surveys and sample petrology [Colman et al., Effects of variable magma supply on mid-ocean ridge eruptions: Constraints from mapped lava flow fields along the Galápagos Spreading Center; 2012 G3]. We also mapped the lava flow morphology within the majority of these eruptive units using an automated, machine-learning classification method [McClinton et al., Neuro-fuzzy classification of submarine lava flow morphology; 2012 PE&RS]. The method combines detailed geometric, acoustic, and textural attributes derived from high-resolution sonar data with visual observations and a machine-learning algorithm to classify submarine lava flow morphology as pillows, lobates, or sheets. The resulting lava morphology maps are a valuable tool for interpreting patterns in the emplacement of submarine lava flows at a mid-ocean ridge (MOR). Within our study area at 92°W, where the GSC has a relatively high magma supply, high effusion rate sheet and lobate lavas are more abundant in the oldest mapped eruptive units, while the most recent eruptions mostly consist of low effusion rate pillow lavas. The older eruptions (roughly 400yrs BP by paleomagnetic intensity) extend up to 1km off axis via prominent channels and tubes, while the

  19. U-series data of recent volcanism at an Axial Volcanic Ridge (Invited)

    van Calsteren, P. W.; Thomas, L. E.; Jc024 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    The spreading rate of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, at the area around 45°N is 11mm/y. This is appropriate scaling for mantle horizontal flow and vertical upwelling. However, the accretion of oceanic crust within the median valley graben (MVG), occurs episodically on timescales much longer than years. During the 2008 JC024 cruise various geophysical and bathymetry datasets were collected as well as photographic and video evidence and some 270 rock samples, using ship-borne instruments, a deep-towed platform TOBI and a tethered ROV Isis both in demersal mode and 'flying' at 100m above the seafloor. We1 could identify the overall 'hour-glass' shape of the MVG, the location of the AVR, 'flat-top' features and some smooth areas on either side. Overall we1 counted some 8000 conical or dome-shaped hummocks, which are arranged in lineaments, mostly parallel to the spreading axis. We1 deduced that each hummock is an individual monogenetic volcano. Smooth areas between the AVR and the median valley boundary faults may indicate sheet flows which are probably burying the subsiding hummocks. For Dive 91, we1 used a MS2000 high-resolution multi-beam bathymetry echo-sounder on Isis flying at an altitude of 100m above the seafloor; to construct a bathymetry map with a vertical resolution of 20cm and a horizontal precision of 5m over an area of ˜3km2. The high-resolution bathymetry allows us to deduce that volcano dimensions average around 300m diameter, ˜150m altitude, and 0.005km3 volume and to count ˜100 volcanoes. Visual observations using the camera systems on Isis showed that individual volcanoes are essentially piles of pillow lavas, usually ˜1m diameter and >2m long of various types, sometimes leaving >10% gaps between pillows, sometimes interlocking somewhat deformed pillows. Small protrusions, 10-50cm long, which are numerous on some pillows, could be fairly easily broken off using the pincers on the hydraulic arms of Isis, and returned to the surface. Uncertainty remains

  20. Composition and genesis of zeolitic claystones from the central Indian Ocean Basin

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.; Das, P.

    in its structure(Bonatti,1 965;Sheppard et a1., 维普资讯 http://www.cqvip.com VO1.8l NO.5 ACTA GE0L0GICA SINICA 0ct . 2007 759 o 0 l 2 3 4 ClT1 0.8 cm 卜 O O o Fig.2.Representative hand specimens(a tO t]and polished sections fg_h)of zeolitic... stage of cooling when the pillows were injected into wet sediments.Subsequently.extensive zeolitisation of fine volcanic debris occurred at relatively low temperatures from gel type cements.The average Si/ A1 ratio of the C10B samples is 3.0.which...

  1. Imaging designs of occipitocervical fusion for reversed transplantation of occipital outer plate flap%枕骨外板翻转行枕颈融合术的影像学设计

    李磊; 王文军

    2015-01-01

    Objective By analyzing and measuring adult pillow neck midline sagittal CT image data and to investigate preoperative designs of the occipital outer plate flap. Methods Ninety pillow neck sagittal CT image datas from the patients un-derwent CT examination in Hengyang Center Hospital from August to November in 2013 were conducted preoperative designs of the occipital outer plate flap by method A(through 1 cm above the midpoint of the trailing edge of the foramen magnum,the tangent of the arc-shaped diploe image)and method B(through pillow inside and outside carina midpoint,the tangent of the arc-shaped diploe image) respectively. It was determined the feasibility of methods A and B and to obtain preoperative imaging parameters of the flipping of the occipital outer plate through the measurement of relevant indicators of methods A and B. Results There was statistical significance between the flip ratio (desired flap length/maximum flap length available )according to method A or B and the maximum flip ratio(100%)(P0.05). There was statistical significance between methods A and B to flip the occipital outer plate for the same person(P<0.05). Conclusion Both methods A and B are feasible,and method B is better than A. Preoperative measurement of the pillow neck sagittal CT can provide imaging parameters for the intraoperative flip-ping of occipital outer plate.%目的:测量及分析成人枕颈部正中矢状位CT,探讨枕骨外板翻转的术前设计。方法选取2013年8~11月在衡阳市中心医院行CT检查的90例健康成人枕颈部正中矢状位CT影像资料,分别用甲法(经枕骨大孔后缘中点上方1 cm处作板障圆弧的切线)及乙法(经枕内外隆凸连线中点作板障圆弧的切线)进行枕骨外板翻转的术前设计,通过对2种设计相关指标的测量,比较甲、乙法的可行性及枕骨外板翻转的影像学参数。结果成人依据甲法或乙法的翻转比值(所需骨瓣长度/可获取最大

  2. Obtaining procedure for hydrophilic super-absorbents. The patent RO 115 805/2001

    Using ionizing and non ionizing radiation to obtain polymeric super-absorbents which have the swelling capacity between 100-800 gram/gram, mechanical resistance, 7 years of preservation in soils and an extremely reduced content in residual monomers (5 ppm) is described. It is used: - in soil management, environmental protection and work protection of radioactive, toxic, dangerous liquid substance manipulation, for treatment, recycling and storing in case of accidental spreading; - in treatment of solid waste (as mixed with polyurethane granules), as rolls, pillows or in bulk form (granules and powder), for interventions for oil and derivates recovery in case of accidental spreading on water or soil surface. We mention that these hydrophilic absorbents have been certified and licensed sanitarily for use. (author)

  3. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework. PMID:25739746

  4. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

  5. Pediculosis palpebrarum initially diagnosed as blepharitis

    J. A. Ebeigbe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pediculosis is an infestation of lice. Eyelid involvement is uncommon, but can be caused by pediculus humanus capitis (head louse, rarely by  pediculus humanus corporis (body louse and commonly by phthirus pubis (pubic louse. Signs and symptoms are similar to those of blepharitis. A diagnosis of any type of pediculosis requires the finding of live specimen of lice and/or a viable nit.The immediate and effective treatment of pediculosis palpebrarum is removal of the lice and nits manually with forceps and treating the patient withvaseline, twice daily for seven to ten days. Also, fomites such as pillow cases, bedsheets, towels and hats  need to be washed in hot water and dried. This is to avoid further spread of lice or reinfestation.

  6. Evaluation of skin colouring properties of curcuma longa extract

    J Arct

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin colouring properties of curcuma extract in cosmetic formulations. Objective measurements of the skin colour changes were done by Chromameter using the CIE LFNx01aFNx01bFNx01 colour space parameters. These measurements were correlated with the results of the sensory analysis. The observations showed permanent, visible and statistically significant changing of bFNx01 component after one application of emulsions containing 12% and 25% of turmeric extract. The change of skin color remained also after removing the emulsion. Sensory analysis indicated that the tested emulsions with curcuma extract have a significant impact on skin smoothness, spreadability, cosmetic absorption and pillow effect.

  7. Geosphere migration of radionuclides released from a rock-salt repository

    The Dutch safety assessment and evaluation study on the disposal of radioactive waste in rock-salt formations concerns possible release of radionuclides from repositories in such formations, migration of these nuclides via groundwater through the geosphere, and the effects of surface release on the biosphere. With the METROPOL computer programme radionuclide migration through the geosphere was simulated in one-dimensional models of the typical flowpaths for migration to the surface, taking into account the processes of radioactive decay and adsorption of the nuclides at the rock matrix. Typical flowpaths were obtained from two-dimensional geohydrological models of the overburden for three typical situations in the study area, i.e., bedded salt, salt pillows, and shallow salt domes. Results were expressed in terms of time-dependent surface release curves for all nuclides concerned. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Paul Anthony Brazinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ''The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  9. Development of a new antibacterial biomaterial by tetracycline immobilization on calcium-alginate beads.

    Ozseker, Emine Erdogan; Akkaya, Alper

    2016-10-20

    In recent years, increasing risk of infection, caused by resistant microorganism to antibiotics, has become the limelight discovery of new and natural antibacterial materials. Heavy metals, such as silver, copper, mercury and titanium, have antibacterial activity. Products, which improved these metals, do not have stable antibacterial property. Therefore, use of these products is restricted. The aim of this study was to immobilize tetracycline to alginate and improve an antibacterial biomaterial. For this purpose, calcium-alginate beads were formed by dropping to calcium-chloride solution and tetracycline was immobilized to beads using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide at optimum conditions. After immobilization, actualization of immobilization was investigated by analyzing ATR-FTIR spectrum and SEM images. Also, antibacterial property of obtained product was tested. Improved product demonstrated antibacterial property. It has potential for open wound, surgical drapes, bed and pillow sheath in hospitals and it may also be used for increasing human comfort in daily life. PMID:27474587

  10. Hmong Needlework: Development of Interior Decoration Patterns and Products for a Creative Economy

    Thongchue Khiatthong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the inherited embroidery techniques of the Hmong ethnic group in Northern Thailand. This intricate and valuable handicraft is used to create garments for traditional ceremonies and rituals but its general reputation for the creation of everyday items is on the wane in the face of more popular global fashions. This study investigates the possibility of creating a larger variety of product development for use in interior housing decoration, such as curtains, pillow-cases and place-mats. The researchers conclude that, with the correct development of products, systematic collection of design models and simpler needlework techniques for inheritance, Hmong embroidery can battle the Western styles for a place in the everyday life of the consumer and generate a higher earning potential for the ethnic community.

  11. A perspective on sorbents: responding to a bunker oil spill

    Some practical guidelines for the selection of sorbents for use in oil spill cleanup are provided. Sorbents may be classified as selective or oleophilic, and non-selective or universal. Oleophilic sorbents are water-repelling, i.e. they will soak up oil spills and leave water behind. Universal sorbents will soak up most liquids. Sorbents come in such forms as booms, pads, socks, pillows, and loose particulates for spills on land. A case history involving a spill of Bunker C oil in a drainage ditch was provided to illustrate the variety of sorbents that may have to be employed to contain a particular spill. Since unexpected situations during a cleanup effort are the rule more than the exception, it is wise to use a sorbent supplier company that can fulfill a variety of spill response needs

  12. Archean crustal evolution in the central Minto block, northern Quebec

    The central Minto block contains three volcano-sedimentary successions. Near Lake Qalluviartuuq, an isotopically primitive (2.83GaεNd +3.8 to +2.3) 2.83 Ga volcano-plutonic sequence comprises depleted tholeiitic basalts, anorthositic gabbro, and diorite-granodiorite that is unconformably overlain by 2.76GaεNd +1.8) calc-alkaline sequence of pillow basalts, andesites, and peridotite cut by 2.73 Ga diorite. To the west, and in inferred tectonic contact, the sediment-dominated Kogaluc sequence includes both isotopically evolved calc-alkaline rocks (2.76GaεNd +1.6 to -0.1) including 2.78GaεNd Nd 2.725GaεNd - 1. 6). (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Toyz: Large datasets and astronomical images analysis framework

    Moolekamp, Fred

    2015-07-01

    Toyz is a python web framework that allows scientists to interact with large images and data sets stored on a remote server. A web application is run on the server containing the data and clients are run from web browsers on the user's computer. Toyz displays large FITS images also also renders any image format supported by Pillow (a fork of the Python Imaging Library), contains a GUI to interact with linked plots, and offers a customizable framework that allows students and researchers to create their own work spaces inside a Toyz environment. Astro-Toyz extends the features of the Toyz image viewer, allowing users to view world coordinates and align images based on their WCS.

  14. About the book by Riitta V. Lahtinen and Russ C. Palmer. The Body Story

    Salomatina I.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out by a married couple, specialists in the sphere of deafblindness (one of whom has got an Usher syndrome, is devoted to the development of means of non-verbal communication and music perception for people with double sensory defect — deafblindness. Russ Palmer is a professional musician who had lost his hearing capacity under the influence of Usher syndrome. At present together with his wife he is inventing new ways of widening the contacts with the external world for people who found themselves in the same difficult situation. The authors of the book prove that any welfare item like a pillow or a toy balloon can sometimes dramatically change the situation for better.

  15. A mineralogical study of the binding mechanisms in chromite briquettes

    Briquettes are made of chromite fines and a suitable binding material which are fed into a pillow-shaped mould, and pressure is applied to compact the material. The Council for Mineral Technology and Middelburg Steel and Alloys have taken out a provisional patent for the manufacturing of composite briquettes containing not only reducing agents but also fluxes, which will improve the efficiency of the reduction process. Briquettes were examined and the results were correlated with the strengths of the briquettes, which were measured in drop tests, compressive strength and abrasive resistance. The mineralogical procedures included differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and the use of the electron microprobe. The information obtained by these procedures enabled the determination of the nature of the binding mechanisms. Six different types of briquettes, with their respective binding mechanisms were studied

  16. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Paul Anthony Brazinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  17. Thermal compatibility studies of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. A major issue of concern is the compatibility of the fuel with the matrix material and the dimensional stability of this fuel type. A total of 45 miniplate-type fuel plates were annealed at 4000C for up to 1981 hours. A data base for the thermal compatibility of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum was established. No modification tested of a standard fuel plate showed any significant reduction of the plate swelling. The cause of the thermal growth of silicide fuel plates was determined to be a two-step process: (1) the reaction of the uranium silicide with aluminum to form U(AlSi)3 and (2) the release of hydrogen and subsequent creep and pillowing of the fuel plate. 9 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  18. Some recent observations on the radiation behavior of uranium silicide dispersion fuel

    Hofman, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Addition of B{sub 4}C burnable poison results in higher plate swelling in both U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and U{sub 3}Si-Al dispersion fuel plates and also decreases the blister threshold temperature of these plates. Prolonged annealing of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al fuel plates produced no blister after 696 hours at 400{degrees}C. Blister formation started between 257 hours and 327 hours at 425{degrees}C and between 115 hours and 210 hours at 450{degrees}C. Operation with breached cladding resulted in pillowing of an U{sub 3}Si-Al fuel plate due to reaction of the fuel core with coolant water. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A perfect launch viewed across Banana Creek

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery seems to burst forth from a pillow of smoke as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-92 to the International Space Station. The brilliant light from the solid rocket booster flames is reflected in nearby water. The perfect on-time liftoff occurred at 7:17 p.m. EDT, sending a crew of seven on the 100th launch in the history of the Shuttle program. Discovery carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  20. Multiple shallow level sill intrusions coupled with hydromagmatic explosive eruptions marked the initial phase of Ferrar large igneous province magmatism in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Viereck-Goette, L.; Schöner, R.; Bomfleur, B.; Schneider, J.

    2007-01-01

    Field data gathered during GANOVEX IX (2005/2006) in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, indicate that volcaniclastic deposits of phreatomagmatic eruptions (so-called Exposure Hill Type events) are intercalated with fluvial deposits of Triassic-Jurassic age at two stratigraphic levels. Abundant scoriaceous spatter (locally welded) indicates a hawaiian/strombolian component. Breccia-filled diatremes, from which volcaniclastic deposits were sourced, are rooted in sills which intruded wet sediments. The deposits are thus subaerial expressions of initial Ferrar magmatism involving intrusion of multiple shallow-level sills. Due to magma-sediment interaction abundant clastic dikes are developed that intrude the sediments and sills. All igneous components in the volcaniclastic deposits are andesitic in composition, as are the chilled margins of the sills. They are more differentiated than the basaltic andesites of the younger effusive section of Kirkpatrick plateau lavas which in northern Victoria Land start with pillow lavas and small volume lava flows from volcanic necks.

  1. MERGING TECHNICAL COMPETENCES AND HUMAN RESOURCES WITH THE AIM AT CONTRIBUTING TO TRANSFORM THE ADRIATIC AREA IN A STABLE HUB FOR A SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Marco Savoia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Vision of Europe as knowledge-based society is funded on availability and application of knowledge in all segments of European life. Universities, as key provider of knowledge, and industry, as its largest consumer, are two pillows of this vision. Academic Institutions has a double role in provisioning of knowledge: "research" for creation of new knowledge and "education" as dissemination of current knowledge. In this investigation, a four-year cross-border collaboration is described, including strategy, mechanisms and tools adopted for supporting a wider cooperation between universities and industry. Background, challenges and concepts of long-term sustainability are also presented. Furthermore, a general overview of technical outcomes and advances, provided by a research and development joint action, thanks to this international cooperation, is illustrated. A deeper description regarding these technical investigations is proposed in the following articles of this Special Issue on "Wood: an Ancient Material for a Modern Quality".

  2. A new 3-dimensional head fixation device for brain imaging

    We have developed a new head fixation device for studies of brain function. This device was designed to immobilize subject's heads during image scanning and to precisely reproduce the head position for two different imaging modalities such as MRI and PET. The device consists of a plastic frame, a pillow filled with beads of styrene foam, and a face mask of thermoplastic resin which was originally intended for application in radiotherapy. A bridge for biting was incorporated into the mask for stable fixation. The device enables immobilization of subject's heads with good reproducibility of position at the practical level. Our results indicate that this head fixation system is useful for fixation of head during activation studies using PET. (author)

  3. Correction of the field distortion in embedded laser marking system

    Wang, Dongyun; Yu, Qiwei; Ye, Xinpiao

    2014-04-01

    Because of inherent and random errors, the pillow-shaped and barrel-shaped distortions are occurred in the embedded laser marking system. These seriously affect marking quality. However, the existed correcting approaches are almost all used on PC based laser marking controller. They require very high processing speeds of the processor which cannot be satisfied in the embedded controller. In order to find a suitable method, the causes of distortions were analyzed deeply. After that, a linear compensation method is put forward herein. It needs to determine two coefficients by standard process and tries to improve the marking quality by compensating the marking data before converted to voltage by digital-to-analogue converter. It is not complex as the PC based one, but can correct the distortions to some extent. Experiments show that this method can efficiently decrease the distortions and improve the marking quality.

  4. Post irradiation examinations on UMo full-sized plates - IRIS2 experiment

    IRIS2 irradiation was the last irradiation of 4 full sized plates launched by CEA for the French UMo group to test in which operating conditions the coarse porosity forms in the UMo/Al interaction product. IRIS2 consists in four plates with high uranium loading and U-7wt%Mo atomised powder irradiated up to 60 days at OSIRIS reactor in IRIS device at a peak power of 238 W.cm-2. The results show that in the tested conditions pillowing of the plate started from a fission density over 2.1021 fission.cm-3. Moreover, they show that the fission products and impurities have a key-role in the origin of the excessive plate swelling. (author)

  5. Geochemical characteristics of basaltic rocks from the Nain ophiolite (Central Iran); constraints on mantle wedge source evolution in an oceanic back arc basin and a geodynamical model

    Ghazi, Javad Mehdipour; Moazzen, Mohssen; Rahgoshay, Mohammad; Shafaii Moghadam, Hadi

    2012-10-01

    The Nain ophiolitic complex is situated at the north west of the Central Iran Micro-continent (CIM) block. The basaltic rocks of this complex consist of both mantle and crustal suites and include pegmatitic and isotropic gabbros, gabbroic-dibasic dykes, dyke swarm complex and pillow lavas. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of most of these rocks show LREE depletion and the primary mantle-normalized incompatible elements indicate depletion in HFSEs (Nb, Ta) and enrichment in LILEs. The rocks show characters of island arc tholeiite/mid-ocean ridge basalt magma types. Whole rock chemistry of the rocks shows that they are originated in an oceanic back arc basin, and subsequently have been enriched by slab-derived fluids. Abundances of HFSE and HREE in most of the basaltic samples, suggest a slow subduction rate. Opening of Nain-Baft Ocean, which was probably a marginal basin, occurred during Lower Jurassic. After generation of an inter-oceanic island arc in the Nain-Baft Ocean during the Late Jurassic, a second rifting phase started within the inter-ocean island arc during Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Senonian). The inter-ocean island arc was developed and formed an oceanic back arc basin, the site of generation of most of the Nain ophiolitic rocks. The Nain-Baft Ocean finally closed in Maastrichtian. According to the new tectono-magmatic evolution model proposed here, the arc volcanic-like magmas were produced at the early stage (producing gabbros, gabbroic-diabasic dykes and dyke swarm complex) and then MORB-like basalts (producing pillow lavas) were generated at the later stage of evolution of the Nain ophiolitic complex.

  6. Geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Gogher-Baft ophiolite, central Iran

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.; Chiaradia, Massimo; Rahgoshay, Mohamad

    2013-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Gogher-Baft ophiolite is one of the best preserved remnants of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithospheric within the inner Zagros ophiolite belt. The ophiolite comprises from bottom to top, harzburgites, pegmatite and isotropic gabbroic lenses within the mantle sequence, pillowed to massive basalts to dacites and pyroclastic rocks associated with blocks of pelagic limestone and radiolarite. Basaltic to dacitic sills crosscut the pyroclastic rocks. The ophiolite sequence is overlain by Turonian-Maastrichtian pelagic limestones (93.5-65.5 Ma). Mineral compositions of harzburgites are similar to those of fore-arc peridotites and overlap with abyssal peridotites. Most Gogher-Baft ophiolite magmatic rocks show supra-subduction zone affinities, except for some E-MORB type lavas. The geochemical characteristics suggest that Gogher-Baft ophiolite magmatic rocks were generated during subduction initiation. These show progressive source depletion leading to the formation of MORB to boninitic magmas. Early E-MORB-type pillow lavas may have originated by melting mantle that was not affected by subduction components as the Tethyan oceanic plate began to sink beneath Eurasia as subduction began in the Late Cretaceous. Initial ɛNd (t) values range from + 2.6 to + 9 for Gogher-Baft magmatic rocks. Samples with radiogenic Nd overlap with least radiogenic MORBs and with Oman and other Late Cretaceous Tethyan ophiolitic rocks. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7048 to 0.7057, indicating modification due to seafloor alteration. Radiogenic 207Pb/204Pb isotopic compositions (systematically above the NHRL) and less radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of sediments in the mantle source in some magmatic rocks. Our results for Gogher-Baft ophiolite and the similarity of these to other Iranian Zagros ophiolites suggest a subduction initiation setting for the generation of these magmatic rocks.

  7. Swelling of U-7Mo/Al-Si dispersion fuel plates under irradiation - Non-destructive analysis of the AFIP-1 fuel plates

    Wachs, D. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Rice, F. J.; Kraft, N. C.; Taylor, S. C.; Lillo, M.; Woolstenhulme, N.; Roth, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have proven to be a significant impediment to the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) based dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. The addition of silicon to the aluminum matrix was previously demonstrated to reduce interaction layer growth in mini-plate experiments. The AFIP-1 project involved the irradiation, in-canal examination, and post-irradiation examination of two fuel plates. The irradiation of two distinct full size, flat fuel plates (one using an Al-2wt%Si matrix and the other an Al-4043 (∼4.8 wt% Si) matrix) was performed in the INL ATR reactor in 2008-2009. The irradiation conditions were: ∼250 W/cm2 peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ∼3.5e21 f/cm3 peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the in-canal and post-irradiation non-destructive examinations that were performed on these fuel plates. It further compares additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in contemporary campaigns in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. Except for a brief indication of accelerated swelling early in the irradiation of the Al-2Si plate, the fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density through the maximum burnup.

  8. Indian Ocean-MORB-type isotopic signature of Yushigou ophiolite in North Qilian Mountains and its implications

    HOU; Qingye; ZHAO; Zhidan; ZHANG; Hongfei; ZHANG; Benren; CHEN; Yuelong

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the disputed issue concerning the tectonic affinity of the ancient ocean mantle of North Qilian Mountains (NQM), geochemical and Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic compositions of pillow basalts of the Yushigou Ophiolite (YSGO) suite from NQM have been analyzed systematically. The pillow basalts exhibit tholeiitic characteristics, with flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 0.98―1.27). They display no Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf negative anomalies, and show MORB features in 2Nb-Zr/4-Y and Ti/100-Zr-Y×3 tectonic discrimination diagrams. These results indicate that the Yushigou ophiolite is most likely to be formed in a mid-ocean ridge or mature back-arc basin. Their isotopic data show a relatively broad and enriched 87Sr/86Sr (0.70509―0.70700), restricted 143Nd/144Nd (0.512955―0.512978). Pb isotopes are in the range of 206Pb/204Pb (18.054―20.562), 207Pb/204Pb (15.537―15.743) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.068―38.530). These isotopic data imply that the basalts originated from the depleted mantle (DMM), with the involvement of enriched mantle components (mainly EMII). Geochemical comparisons between the basalts in YSGO and the MORB-type basalts of ophiolite suites occurring in the known ancient Tethyan tectonic domain indicate that the ancient oceanic mantle represented by YSGO suite forming in early Paleozoic in the North Qilian Moutains is very similar to the Tethyan mantle in both trace elements and isotopic compositions. The North Qilian Mountains should be a part of the Tethyan tectonic domain in early Paleozoic. This further implies that the Tethyan tectonic domain can be deduced to early Paleozoic in the study area, which will be helpful to discussing the tectonic affinity and evolution of the North Qilian Mountains.

  9. On the automated definition of mobile target volumes from 4D-CT images for stereotactic body radiotherapy

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) can be used to treat small lesions in the chest. A vacuum-based immobilization system is used in our clinic for SBRT, and a motion envelope is used in treatment planning. The purpose of this study is to automatically derive motion envelopes using deformable image registration of 4D-CT images, and to assess the effect of abdominal pressure on the motion envelopes. 4D-CT scans at ten phases were acquired prior to treatment for both free and restricted breathing using a vacuum-based immobilization system that includes an abdominal pressure pillow. To study the stability of the motion envelope over the course of treatment, a mid-treatment 4D-CT scan was obtained after delivery of the third fraction for two patients. The planning target volume excluding breathing motion (PTVex) was defined on the image set at full exhalation phase and transformed into all other phases using displacement maps from deformable image registration. The motion envelope was obtained as the union of PTVex masks of all phases. The ratios of the motion envelope to PTVex volume ranged from 1.3 to 2.5. When pressure was applied, the ratios were reduced by as much as 29% compared to free breathing for some patients, but increased by up to 9% for others. The abdominal pressure pillow has more motion restriction effects on the anterior/inferior region of the lung. For one of the two patients for whom the 4D-CT scan was repeated at mid-treatment, the motion envelope was reproducible. However, for the other patient the tumor location and lung motion pattern significantly changed due to changes in the anatomy surrounding the tumor during the course of treatment, indicating that an image-guided approach to SBRT may increase the efficacy of this treatment

  10. Exploring the Habitability of Ice-covered Waterworlds: The Deep-Sea Hydrothermal System of the Aurora Mount at Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean (82°54' N, 6°15W, 3900 m)

    Boetius, A.; Bach, W.; Borowski, C.; Diehl, A.; German, C. R.; Kaul, N. E.; Koehler, J.; Marcon, Y.; Mertens, C.; Molari, M.; Schlindwein, V. S. N.; Tuerke, A.; Wegener, G.

    2014-12-01

    The geographic remoteness of the ultraslow Gakkel Ridge in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean raises many questions about the nature and biogeography of its habitats. In 2001, the two-ice-breaker mission AMORE (RV POLARSTERN and USCGC HEALY) detected hydrothermal plumes and evidence for seafloor venting associated with volcanic ridges rising from the rift valley floor of 4.2 km depth (Edmonds et al., 2003; Michael et al., 2003). The AURORA expedition in July 2014 (RV POLARSTERN Cruise PS86) targeted this "Aurora" field at the SW limit of Gakkel Ridge, to investigate its habitats, communities and their energy sources. No robots can yet be deployed through ice-cover to explore such deep habitats and ice-breaking research vessels cannot hold position in the thick multiyear ice. Instead, we estimated ice-drift to predict suitable start positions, then attached POLARSTERN to a matching ice floe, to achieve the bottom trajectories that we required for targeted exploration. The Aurora mount is volcanic in origin formed from mounded pillow basalts overlain by about a meter of sediment and cut through by steep cliffs revealing basalt pillows in outcrop and in talus piles. We identified persistent plume activity in the water column above the mount at 3100-3600 m (800-300 m off-bottom of its top) characterized by anomalies in turbidity, Eh, methane, temperature, density, and elevated microbial chemoautotrophic activity. Using a towed camera-, and multisensor- platform (OFOS) we located active venting as the source of this plume together with inactive chimneys and associated craters on the SW flank of Mt.Aurora. Its dominantly filter-feeding fauna is apparently sustained by venting of energy-rich fluids and microbial transfer of this geofuel into nutrition. This communication presents first results of our recent fieldwork and experimental investigations in Summer 2014 to explore deep-sea ecosystems in ice-covered oceans.

  11. Subglacial birth of Olympus Mons and its aureoles

    The vast volcanic plains and shields of Mars, together with the thermal, spectrographic, and morphological evidence for water ice at the poles, for several percent water in Viking soil samples, for ground ice of permafrost over much of the planet, and for the existence of surface water at some time in the past, suggest that magma and water or ice may have interacted during evolution of the planet's landscape. Relatively small mesas and buttes, with and without summit craters, are remarkably similar to the table mountains of Iceland that formed by subglacial eruption during the late Quaternary period. Table mountains typically comprise foundations of pillow lava and palagonitized tuff breccias (moberg), overlain by subaerial lava flows that commonly culminated in a typical shield volcano; some table mountains, however, failed to reach the subaerial stage and thus lack the cap rock. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges composed of pillow lava and moberg. Conical knobs on steep-sided Martian plateaus are reminiscent of the small Icelandic shield volcanoes atop moberg pedestals. Candidate table mountains on Mars are especially numerous in the region between latitude 40 0N and the margin of the north polar cap, and interaction of lava with a formerly more extensive ice cap may have occurred. More significant is the possibility that Olympus Mons and the broad lobate aureole deposits around its base may have had similar subglacial beginnings. This hypothesis requires an ice cap several kilometers thick in the vicinity of this enormous shield during its initial stages of eruption. The amounts of water ice required do not appear excessive, given the limits to present knowledge of the water budget throughout the planet's history. A mechanism for localizing such ice, however, is required

  12. New slim automotive taillight using HiPerVision lamps

    Haenen, Ludo; Ansems, Johan; Schuurmans, Jelle; de Montureux, Philippe

    2002-08-01

    HiPerVision is a new automotive signaling range of lamps (clear and colored) developed by Philips. These lamps offer car life service, reduced size and - consequently - new design opportunities. HiPerVision aims at progressively replacing P21W lamps and at being an economic alternative to LEDs. All lamp dimensions are significantly smaller than P21W's. The HiPerVision 16W lamp produces less heat than the P21W lamp (9 W less dissipation at 13.5 V), what enables a reduced reflector size, the use of low cost plastic or a combination of both. With a luminous flux of 300 lm (instead of 460 lm for P21W), the legal requirements can be easily fulfilled because of the smaller dimensions and tolerances. In order to illustrate the lamps benefits, a complete automotive taillight with 4 functions was designed and made. This paper describes the reflector design process for that taillight with HiPerVision. According to a current styling trend, the reflectors are based on Pillow Shaped Facets and on a clear front lens with no optical structure. With this design method, the whole reflector area is filled with sparkling light. The basic shape of the reflector was used to optimize heat management. By changing the shape and/or number of the pillows the desired light distribution was made. The HiPerVision lamp was measured with a Luminance Goniometer. The measurements were converted to ASAP ray sets as input for accurate simulations. The legal requirements were easily met which was confirmed by actual measurements. The total depth of the complete designed taillight was 53 mm, which is small compared to existing P21W based designs. If the lamp is placed transversal the requirements are still met and the depth of the complete taillight could be reduced to 33 mm, which is comparable with a taillight based on LEDs.

  13. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

    Saikia, Ashima; Gogoi, Bibhuti; Ahmad, Mansoor; Ahmad, Talat

    2014-06-01

    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, cross-cutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  14. Detection of high-silica lava flows and lava morphology at the Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California, Mexico using automated classification of the morphological-compositional relationship in AUV multibeam bathymetry and sonar backscatter

    Maschmeyer, C.; White, S. M.; Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    An automated compositional classification by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed to study volcanic processes that create high-silica lava at oceanic ridges. The objective of this research is to determine the existence of a relationship between lava morphology and composition. Researchers from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) recorded morphologic observations and collected samples for geochemical analysis during ROV dives at the Alarcon Rise in 2012 and 2015. The Alarcon Rise is a unique spreading ridge environment where composition ranges from basaltic to rhyolitic, making it an ideal location to examine the compositional-morphologic relationship of lava flows. Preliminary interpretation of field data indicates that high-silica lavas are typically associated with 3-5 m, blocky pillows at the heavily faulted north end of the Alarcon. Visual analysis of multibeam bathymetry and side-scan sonar backscatter from MBARI AUV D. Allen B. and gridded at 1 m suggests that lava flow morphology (pillow, lobate, sheet) can be distinguished by seafloor roughness. Bathymetric products used by ANFIS to quantify the morphologic-compositional relationship were slope, aspect, and bathymetric position index (BPI, a measure of local height relative to the adjacent terrain). Sonar backscatter intensity is influenced by surface roughness and previously used to distinguish lava morphology. Gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were applied to backscatter to create edge-detection filters that recognized faults and fissures. Input data are slope, aspect, bathymetric value, BPI at 100 m scale, BPI at 500 m scale, backscatter intensity, and the first principle component of backscatter GLCM. After lava morphology was classified on the Alarcon Rise map, another classification was completed to detect locations of high-silica lava. Application of an expert classifier like ANFIS to distinguish lava composition may become an important tool in oceanic

  15. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

    Ashima Saikia; Bibhuti Gogoi; Mansoor Ahmad; Talat Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, crosscutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  16. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( <1 mm Arcilite, 1-2 mm of Arcilite, 1:1 <1 mm & 1-2 mm mixture and 1:1 Arcilite & Fafard mixture). Currently, 3 lettuce cultivars are being grown in 4 mixtures of media. Tests were being conducted to see which form of media has the ratio of best growth and least amount of microbes that are harmful. That is essential because a person's body becomes more susceptible to illness when they leave Earth. As a result, test must be conducted on the "pillow" system to assess the levels of microbial activity. The cultivars were tested at different stages during their growing process for microbes. Datum show that the mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.

  17. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  18. Petrology of the gabbro and sheeted basaltic intrusives at North Cape, New Zealand

    The North Cape massif consists of a semi-conformable sequence of serpentinite, gabbro, sheeted sill and dike units, and pillow lavas. Although structurally disrupted, they can be interpreted in terms of an idealised ophiolite sequence and represent the most complete sequence in the Northland Ophiolite. Their age is considered to be Late Cretaceous-Paleocene on the basis of microfossils in associated sediments. Early Miocene K-Ar ages from igneous rocks are thought to reflect the time of emplacement as a thrust sheet of oceanic crust and upper mantle. The gabbros are divided into a lower unit characterised by well-developed cumulate layering and an upper unit which is massive; the sheeted sills and dikes are quartz-diorite and microgabbro interleaved with minor pillow lava. Two phases of alteration are observed, a pervasive low-grade greenschist metamorphism attributed to sea-water interaction after formation as oceanic crust, and an overprinting zeolitic alteration which is possibly post-emplacement. Their tholeiitic nature as well as overlapping geochemical compositions suggest that the gabbros and sheeted dikes and sills represent different components of a single magmatic system related by simple fractionation processes. Several lines of evidence suggest that the magmas that formed the North Cape gabbro and sheeted intrusives have subduction-related chemical characteristics. In the gabbro, calcic plagioclase (An86-92 ) and depleted Zr and Y abundances, and in the sheeted intrusives depleted high field strength element abundances relative to typical MORB, is indicative of a subduction signature. The presence of subduction-related characteristics within the Northland Ophiolite suggests that it may have originated at a back-arc basin rather than a major ocean ridge spreading centre. (author). 64 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs

  19. The connection between iron ore formations and "mud-shrimp" colonizations around sunken wood debris and hydrothermal sediments in a Lower Cretaceous continental rift basin, Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    Jáger, Viktor; Molnár, Ferenc; Buchs, David; Koděra, Peter

    2012-09-01

    In the Early Cretaceous, the continental rift basin of the Mecsek Mts. (Hungary), was situated on the southern edge of the European plate. The opening of the North Atlantic Ocean created a dilatational regime that expanded to the southern edge of the European plate, where several extensional basins and submarine volcanoes were formed during the Early Cretaceous epoch. Permanent seaquake activity caused high swell events during which a large amount of terrestrial wood fragments entered into submarine canyons from rivers or suspended woods which had sunk into the deep seafloor. These fragments created extended wood-fall deposits which contributed large-scale flourishing of numerous burrowing thalassinid crustaceans. Twelve different thalassinid coprolite ichnospecies can be found in the Berriasian-Hauterivian volcano-sedimentary formations. According to the seladonitic crustacean burrows which associated with framboidal pyrite containing Zoophycos and Chondrites ichnofossils (i.e. a "fodinichnia" trace fossil association), the bottom water was aerobic and the pore water was anaerobic; in the latter sulfate reduction occurred. The preservation of wood fragments around thalassinid burrows can be explained by rapid sedimentation related to turbidity currents. Due to the low temperature hydrothermal circulations of seawater, large amounts of iron were released from intrusive, pillowed basaltic sills; these sills intruded into soft, water-saturated sediments containing large amounts of thalassinid excrement. In the coprolites can be found idiomorphic mineral particles originating from the basalts, and coprolites can often be found in peperitic interpillow sediments. This indicates that the life-activity of the decapoda crustaceans in many Lower Cretaceous occurrences initially preceded the first magmatic eruptions. The paroxysm of the rift volcanism took place during the Valanginian age, when some submarine volcanoes emerged above sea level, reaching a maximum height of

  20. Interpretation of 1.5-m resolution AUV bathymetry using ROV observations and samples at Davidson and Rodriguez Seamounts

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D.

    2010-12-01

    The summits and upper flanks of Rodriguez and Davidson Seamounts off California were mapped at 1.5-m resolution by the MBARI Mapping AUV. The seamounts were built by episodic eruptions on abandoned spreading ridges 10-12 and 10-15 Ma, respectively. They consist of ridges and elongate cones that parallel the old spreading axes, yet have strikingly different summit morphologies. Video observations and samples from prior ROV Tiburon dives are used to interpret the textures revealed in the AUV data, and are extrapolated to make geologic maps of the seamounts. The summit of Davidson is rugged and studded with cones of three general classes: completely smooth cones with nearly circular bases, mounds elongated into subparallel ridges, and disorganized mounds of rounded shapes. The elongated mound ridge-lines are roughly rectangular in cross-section, and smooth apron-like slopes descend below. They and the smooth cones occupy the highest points on the seamount but also occur deeper, whereas the disorganized mounds occur only deeper. Smooth, flat pockets lie between the cones. The disorganized mounds were identified as pillow lavas during ROV dives. The mounds that form ridges are blocky ’a’a-like flows, probably oriented over eruptive fissures. Lava samples vary from basalt to trachyte, and there is no correlation between the presumed fluidity of the lavas and occurrence of pillows. The smooth aprons below the blocky flows, and presumably the smooth cones, are glass-rich, volcaniclastic debris produced by explosive activity above. The debris has bedding parallel to the steep slopes, and has lithified into pavement. Pelagic sediment has accumulated between the cones. An inflated flow drained at its distal end in a valley between two ridges; collapses in the flow have drainback veneers like bath-tub rings on the inner surfaces. The summit of Rodriguez has no cones, but they dot the flanks. They are smooth with nearly circular bases and mounds elongated into ridges with

  1. Geology and Petrology of the Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Anthony, E. Y.; Bloomer, S. H.; Girard, G.; Ishizuka, O.; Kelley, K. A.; Manton, W. I.; Martinez, F.; Merle, S. G.; Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Ren, M.; Stern, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The southernmost Mariana convergent margin is tectonically and magmatically very active, with submarine arc volcanoes that are sub-parallel to the Malaguana-Gadao Ridge backarc spreading center at ~110km from the trench axis. This activity reflects widening of the S. Mariana Trough. Stretching formed 3 southeast-facing, broad rifts extending from the trench to an extinct arc volcano chain (~80km from the trench axis) that is mostly composed of outcrops and fragments of pillow lavas partially covered by sediments. The 3 rifts comprise the S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) and are 50-56km long and 3600 to 8200m deep, with axial valleys that narrow near the extinct arc. We studied the SEMFR using one Shinkai 6500 dive in 2008 and two Shinkai 6500 dives and 7 deep-tows in 2010. Near the trench, the SEMFR flanks are very steep and dominated by talus slopes of lava, fine-grained gabbro, diabase and peridotite, sometimes covered by thin volcaniclastic sediments. Few outcrops of pillow lavas, lava flows and volcaniclastics are observed, strongly suggesting that SEMFR morphology is dominated by faulting and landsliding. Lava outcrops are smoother and better preserved towards the extinct arc, suggesting that magmatic activity dominates that part of the rift. 40Ar-39Ar ages of 3 SEMFR lavas are 3.0-3.7Ma, so post-magmatic rifting is younger than ~3Ma. SEMFR pillow lavas are vesicular and microporphyritic with crystallite-rich glassy rinds, indicating they erupted underwater at near-liquidus conditions. In contrast, the lava flows are more crystallized and less vesicular. SEMFR lavas exhibit similar ranges in mineral composition with 2 kinds of plagioclase (An>80% and An90 and Fo<90), suggesting magma mixing. Gabbroic rocks are slightly altered and have olivine and clinopyroxene compositions similar to those of the lavas, but contain less anorthitic plagioclase with a wider range in composition (An20-70) than the lavas. One sample of the extinct arc lava is vesicular and

  2. Lava Flow Ages and Geologic Mapping on Mid-ocean Ridges

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic mapping of mid-ocean ridges has been hindered by a lack of high-resolution bathymetry and age data. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) with multibeam sonars now produce maps with 1-m resolution. MBARI has collected data since 2006 along the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges, including the 1998 eruptions in summit caldera and upper south rift zone on Axial Seamount, the 1993 and 1982-1991 eruptions on the CoAxial segment, the 1986 pillow mounds and “young sheet flow” on the north Cleft segment, the 1996 eruption on the North Gorda segment, and part of the Endeavour Ridge. The 1-m data allows identification of flow internal structure, boundaries, and emplacement sequences using superposition and abundance of fissures. Geologic maps of young volcanoes on land are constructed using the same principles, constrained by observations of flow contacts and 14C age dates on charcoal from beneath flow margins. In the deep sea, we collect sediment on top of the flows that contains planktic and benthic foraminifera that can be dated using AMS 14C dating. We sampled sediment on flows from the Axial, CoAxial, and North Cleft areas using 30-cm long pushcores deployed from remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The coring is done with collection of flow samples for chemistry and video observations to confirm contact locations and flow superposition. Cores are inserted until they hit the underlying lava and can be recovered between pillow lobes when the sediment is >~10 cm thick. We recover the basal 1 cm of sediment, sieve to recover foraminifera, and hand-pick for 14C dating. The North Gorda neovolcanic zone at ~3150 m lacks carbonate sediment and therefore ages. Ages of planktic foraminifera are marine calibrated in years before present (aBP). Benthic foraminifera are calibrated against planktic foraminifera from 5 samples. 14C ages obtained from basal sediment from over 40 sites represent minimum ages as there is probably a small amount of unrecovered basal sediment. Ages

  3. Eruption style and flow emplacement in the Submarine North Arch Volcanic Field, Hawaii

    Clague, David A.; Uto, Kozo; Satake, Kenji; Davis, Alicé S.

    The North Arch Volcanic Field covers about 24,000 km2 of seafloor north of Oahu and has an estimated volume between 1,000 and 1,250 km3. The field straddles the Hawaiian flexural arch about 250 km north of the axis of the island chain and surrounds numerous Cretaceous volcanic ridges, circular flat-topped volcanoes, and low-relief regions of sediment-covered seafloor. New SeaBeam bathymetric maps that cover about 1/3 of the flow field reveal nearly 100 volcanic structures ranging from low shields to steep cones. One shield is modified by a pit crater, approximately 1.1×1.25 km and 300 m deep. A lava flow in the SE part of the volcanic field covers about 3,600 km2, has an estimated volume of 36-72 km3, and apparently erupted from a 75-km-long NNW-trending fissure system. A 108-km-long flow advanced north in a graben parallel to the Cretaceous mid-ocean ridge that formed the crust; its surface gradient is 1.9 m/km (slope of 0.1°). Shinkai 6500 submersible dive 502 explored one of the composite volcanoes and observed and collected dense alkalic basalt sheet flows erupted after vesicular basanite pillow basalts and fragmental hyaloclastite that make up the steep-sided cone. Dive 503 collected alkalic basalt sheet flows and pillow basalt from the top 122 m of the southern wall of a pit crater that formed by collapse caused by a decrease in magma volume from a shallow storage chamber located 1-2 km below the surface. The volume change may have been caused by loss of gas bubbles from the stored magma when replenishment ceased at the end of the eruption. The surficial drapery-folded sheet flow is covered by only a few cm of sediment, indicating that it is younger than the 0.5-1.5 Ma ages previously estimated for North Arch flows and vents. The near-vent constructs and flow characteristics indicate that vigorous eruption of highly vesicular lava constructed steep-sided cones of pillow basalt and hyaloclastite whereas steady eruption of dense lava that had lost its bubbles

  4. Faunes du Jurassique supérieur dans les séries pélagiques de l'escarpement de Malte (Mer Ionienne. Implications paléogéographiques Upper Jurassic Fauna in the Pelagic Series of the Malta Escarpment (Lonian Sea. Paleogeographic Implications

    Enay R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Au cours d'une campagne de plongée sur les escarpements qui bordent le bassin Ionien profond, des roches sédimentaires d'âge jurassique supérieur ont pu être récoltées dans l'escarpement de Malte, associées à des coulées de pillow-lavas. Les faunes d'Ammonites, typiquement mésogéennes, indiquent des âges oxfordien et tithonique. Elles peuvent correspondre à un milieu de dépôt profond. Les foraminifères recueillis dans les niveaux équivalents, riches en radiolaires, sclérites d'holothuries, fragments d'aptychus et rares Ostracodes, indiquent un âge oxfordien au sens large et un milieu de dépôt relativement profond. Cette série, relativement condensée et profonde, est comparable aux séries du même âge connues en Sicile. Elle s'oppose aux séries de calcaires de plate-forme néritiques du Trias-Lias inférieur qui constituent la base de la coupe. II y a donc eu un changement radical de milieu de sédimentation entre le Lias et le Callovo-Oxfordien, accompagné d'une distension révélée par un magmatisme important. During a diving campaing along the escarpments bordering the deep lonian Basin, Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks were gathered from the Malta escarpment, associated with pillow-lava. Typically Mesogean ammonite fauna indicate Oxfordian and Tithonian ages. They correspond to a relatively deep deposition environment. The Foraminifers gathered in the equivalent levels, which proved to be rich in radiolarians, holothuroid sclerites, aptychus fragments and sparse ostracodes, indicate an Oxfordian age and a relatively deep deposition environnent. This relatively condensed and deep series can be compared with series of the same age known in Sicily. It is opposed to the Lower Triassic-Lias neritic platform limestone series making up the bottom of the section. A radical change in sedimentation thus occured between the Lias and the Callovo-Oxfordain, accompanied by a distension revealed by extensive magmatism.

  5. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Clay Rich Volcano-Sedimentary Units from South of Elazıǧ Basin (Eastern Turkey)

    Akkoca, Dicle Bal; Bakır, Zülfü

    2016-04-01

    The investigated area covers Upper Cretaeous Elazıǧ Magmatics and Middle Eocene Maden Group in the southern of Elazıǧ. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ICP-AES, ICP-MS were performed on three sections samples belonging to Elazıǧ Magmatics (Yemişlik and Kavallı sections) and Maden Group (Alıncık section), to investigate the depositional environment of volcano-sediments. The Elazıǧ magmatic rocks are composed of diorites, monzodiorites, quartz-diorites, and tonalites, basaltic pillow-lavas, andesitic lavas, and andesitic pyroclastic rocks. The Maden Group has a complex lithology consisting of limestones, red-green clayey limestones, sandstone, agglomerate, tuffs, reddish mudstone and basaltic-andesitic pillow lavas. Yemişlik section is composed mainly of altered grey tuffites, Kavallı section is represented by brown altered sediments, intercalated with basaltic, andesitic lava flows. Reddish mudstones constiture the Alıncık section. All samples consist of clay minerals (chlorite, illite), quartz, and feldspar. Yemişlik and Kavallı sections also contain calcite. Chlorite is the dominant clay in three sections. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O contents show that Kavallı, Yemişlik and Alıncık samples are convenient with Fe shales and shales. The ratios of TiO2, Zr, Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, Y/Ni-Cr/V, Al/(Al+Fe+Mn) show dominance of neutral-basic volcanism in the area. REE concentrations of samples are normalized to chondrite values. It is determined that low light rare earth elements (LREEs) are enriched in comparison to high rare earth elements (HREEs), and the absence of Eu anomalies shows that our samples are generally mafic in composition. Rare earth elements (REE) of samples were compared with North American shale composite (NASC), European shale (ES) and Post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS). Elements are not in concurrence with these compositions. Th-Hf/3-Nb/16 tectono-magmatic discrimination diagram for samples in the study area indicate that all samples were

  6. Visual Observations and Geologic Settings of the Newly-Discovered Black Smoker Vent Sites Across the Galapagos Ridge-Hotspot Intersection

    Anderson, P.; Haymon, R.; MacDonald, K.; White, S.

    2006-12-01

    Nearly one-fifth of the global mid-ocean ridge is hotspot-affected, yet very little is known about how hotspots affect quantity and distribution of high-temperature hydrothermal vents along the ridge. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, acoustic and plume sensor surveys were conducted across the Galapagos ridge- hotspot intersection, lon. 94.5ºW- lon. 89.5ºW, to map fine scale geologic features and locate hydrothermal plumes emanating from the ridge crest. Where significant plumes were detected, the Medea fiber-optic camera sled was used successfully to find and image high-temperature vents on the seafloor. With Medea we discovered and imaged the first active and recently extinct black smokers known along the entire Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC), and documented the geologic setting of these vents. The Medea survey imaged numerous inactive vents as well as 3 active high-temperature vent fields along the ridge at 94º 04.5'W (Navidad Site), 91º56.2'W (Iguanas Site) and 91º54.3'W (Pinguinos Site). Two recently extinct vent fields also were identified at 91º23.4'-23.7'W and 91º13.8'W. All of the high-temperature vent sites that we identified along the GSC are found above relatively shallow AMC reflectors and are located in the middle 20% of ridge segments. Without exception the vent sites are located along fissures atop constructional axial volcanic ridges (AVR's) composed of relatively young pillow basalts. In some cases, the vents were associated with collapses adjacent to the fissures. The fissures appear to be eruptive sources of the pillow lavas comprising the AVR's. Video images of the chimneys show mature, cylindrical structures, up to 14m high; little diffuse flow; few animals; and some worm casts and dead clam shells, suggesting prior habitation. We conclude that distribution of the vents is controlled by magmatic processes, (i.e., by locations of shallow AMC magma reservoirs and eruptive fissures above dike intrusions), and that there is

  7. Palaeomagnetic evidence for an oceanic core complex in the Mirdita ophiolite of Albania

    Maffione, M.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are the uplifted footwalls of oceanic detachment faults that unroof upper mantle and lower crustal lithologies and expose them at the seafloor. Their common occurrence in slow and ultra-slow spreading rate oceanic crust suggests they accommodate a significant component of plate divergence, representing a newly recognised class of seafloor spreading. Numerical modelling and palaeomagnetic results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have shown that the footwalls beneath oceanic detachment faults rotate during their evolution, initiating at steep angles at depth and then "rolling-over" to their present day low angle orientations as a result of flexural isostasy during unroofing. This footwall rotation provides a means of testing whether extensional structures separating upper mantle/lower crustal rocks from upper crustal rocks in ophiolites potentially represent fossil OCCs. Here we present the results of an extensive paleomagnetic study of an inferred OCC in the Mirditata ophiolite of the Albanian Dinarides, first proposed by Tremblay et al. (2009). The western part of Mirdita ophiolite is composed of mantle sequence overlain by a thin gabbro/troctolitic sequence and MORB-like pillow lavas. The sheeted dyke complex and gabbroic sequence are missing locally, and the upper crustal volcanic sequence then rests directly on the mantle sequence in tectonic contact. This anomalous situation is directly comparable to lithostratigraphic relationships in oceanic detachment fault settings. In order to understand this tectonic contact and describe its kinematics we sampled 73 sites from ultramafic rocks, gabbros, lava flows, pillow lavas and dykes, around the Puka and Krabbi massifs between the villages of Puka and Rreshen in northern Albania. Results demonstrate that gabbroic bodies in the mantle sequence preserve a highly stable remanence that differs in direction and polarity to the serpentinized peridotite host rock. A significant

  8. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Hutchinson Mark R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints, brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period. Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of

  9. Building the Volcanic Oceanic Crust One Eruption at a Time (Invited)

    Sinton, J. M.; Rubin, K. H.; White, S. M.; Colman, A.; Bowles, J. A.; Gronvold, K.

    2010-12-01

    magma supply, moderately large-volume eruptions with very low eruption rates produce steep-sided pillow mounds that locally coalesce into larger seamounts that are dominated by more mafic, porphyritic lavas apparently derived from more crystal-rich magma reservoirs. Pillow lavas dominate both areas but are less common at high magma supply. Volumes of individual eruptive units can be up to an order of magnitude greater in the low magma supply area. These results generally accord with global variations in MORB composition and poorly known eruptive characteristics, except that in this case magma supply is governed by proximity to the Galápagos hotspot, rather than spreading rate.

  10. Correction of patient positioning errors based on in-line cone beam CTs: clinical implementation and first experiences

    Häring Peter

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was the clinical implementation of a kV cone beam CT (CBCT for setup correction in radiotherapy. Patients and methods For evaluation of the setup correction workflow, six tumor patients (lung cancer, sacral chordoma, head-and-neck and paraspinal tumor, and two prostate cancer patients were selected. All patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, five of them with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. For patient fixation, a scotch cast body frame or a vacuum pillow, each in combination with a scotch cast head mask, were used. The imaging equipment, consisting of an x-ray tube and a flat panel imager (FPI, was attached to a Siemens linear accelerator according to the in-line approach, i.e. with the imaging beam mounted opposite to the treatment beam sharing the same isocenter. For dose delivery, the treatment beam has to traverse the FPI which is mounted in the accessory tray below the multi-leaf collimator. For each patient, a predefined number of imaging projections over a range of at least 200 degrees were acquired. The fast reconstruction of the 3D-CBCT dataset was done with an implementation of the Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK algorithm. For the registration of the treatment planning CT with the acquired CBCT, an automatic mutual information matcher and manual matching was used. Results and discussion Bony landmarks were easily detected and the table shifts for correction of setup deviations could be automatically calculated in all cases. The image quality was sufficient for a visual comparison of the desired target point with the isocenter visible on the CBCT. Soft tissue contrast was problematic for the prostate of an obese patient, but good in the lung tumor case. The detected maximum setup deviation was 3 mm for patients fixated with the body frame, and 6 mm for patients positioned in the vacuum pillow. Using an action level of 2 mm translational error, a target point

  11. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  12. Petrology, geochemistry, and tectonic implications of newly collected samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau

    Reagan, M.; Ishizuka, O.; Hawkins, J.; Bloomer, S.; Fryer, P.; Ishii, T.; Kelley, K.; Kimura, J.; Michibayashi, K.; Ohara, Y.; Stern, R.; Blake, B.; Colin, P.; Colin, L.

    2006-12-01

    The islands of Palau in the Western Pacific mark the southern end of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge, which is the westernmost remnant arc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system. Because it has extensive subaerial exposures of volcanic rocks, it offers an excellent opportunity for detailed geological and petrological investigation. The largest island of Palau, Babeldaob, is composed largely of volcanic materials erupted between the middle Eocene and Oligocene (Mason et al., 1956; Meijer et al., 1983; Cosca et al., 1998). Previous studies have been hampered by thick laterites but nevertheless have shown that boninites and more typical arc basalts and andesites make up these materials. These studies also suggest that early arc sequences similar to those identified along the IBM forearc to the north are also found here (Hawkins and Castillo, 1998). Road cutting and quarrying for the new "Compact Road" around Babeldaob have recently provided unprecedented exposures of the volcanic units. The scientific party for Cruise YK0612 of the R/V Yokosuka spent one day examining and sampling some of these outcrops. Here, we report geological impressions of these outcrops and preliminary petrological and geochemical data for these newly exposed volcanic rocks. The new outcrops expose volcanic conglomerates, breccias, and finer-grained sediments; lava flows, pillow lavas, dikes, and volcanic plugs. Some of the coarse sediments are massive and matrix- supported, and probably were deposited by debris flows. These are interbedded with normally graded turbidite sequences, suggesting subaqueous deposition. A quarry near the east-central coast exposed a complex of meter-scale dikes cut by fault gouge zones. Shallow dome and breccia deposits as well as a pillow lava sequence cropped out in a quarry and a road-cut respectively along the central spine of the island. Most samples are broadly basaltic to andesitic and boninitic, although hornblende andesites or dacites compose the dome and one section

  13. CUES - A Study Site for Measuring Snowpack Energy Balance in the Sierra Nevada

    Bair, Edward; Dozier, Jeff; Davis, Robert; Colee, Michael; Claffey, Keran

    2015-09-01

    Accurate measurement and modeling of the snowpack energy balance are critical to understanding the terrestrial water cycle. Most of the water resources in the western US come from snowmelt, yet statistical runoff models that rely on the historical record are becoming less reliable because of a changing climate. For physically based snow melt models that do not depend on past conditions, ground based measurements of the energy balance components are imperative for verification. For this purpose, the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) established the “CUES” snow study site (CRREL/UCSB Energy Site, http://www.snow.ucsb.edu/) at 2940 m elevation on Mammoth Mountain, California. We describe CUES, provide an overview of research, share our experience with scientific measurements, and encourage future collaborative research. Snow measurements began near the current CUES site for ski area operations in 1969. In the 1970s, researchers began taking scientific measurements. Today, CUES benefits from year round gondola access and a fiber optic internet connection. Data loggers and computers automatically record and store over 100 measurements from more than 50 instruments each minute. CUES is one of only five high altitude mountain sites in the Western US where a full suite of energy balance components are measured. In addition to measuring snow on the ground at multiple locations, extensive radiometric and meteorological measurements are recorded. Some of the more novel measurements include scans by an automated terrestrial LiDAR, passive and active microwave imaging of snow stratigraphy, microscopic imaging of snow grains, snowflake imaging with a multi-angle camera, fluxes from upward and downward looking radiometers, snow water equivalent from different types of snow pillows, snowmelt from lysimeters, and concentration of impurities in the snowpack. We give an

  14. Correction of patient positioning errors based on in-line cone beam CTs: clinical implementation and first experiences

    The purpose of the study was the clinical implementation of a kV cone beam CT (CBCT) for setup correction in radiotherapy. For evaluation of the setup correction workflow, six tumor patients (lung cancer, sacral chordoma, head-and-neck and paraspinal tumor, and two prostate cancer patients) were selected. All patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, five of them with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). For patient fixation, a scotch cast body frame or a vacuum pillow, each in combination with a scotch cast head mask, were used. The imaging equipment, consisting of an x-ray tube and a flat panel imager (FPI), was attached to a Siemens linear accelerator according to the in-line approach, i.e. with the imaging beam mounted opposite to the treatment beam sharing the same isocenter. For dose delivery, the treatment beam has to traverse the FPI which is mounted in the accessory tray below the multi-leaf collimator. For each patient, a predefined number of imaging projections over a range of at least 200 degrees were acquired. The fast reconstruction of the 3D-CBCT dataset was done with an implementation of the Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK) algorithm. For the registration of the treatment planning CT with the acquired CBCT, an automatic mutual information matcher and manual matching was used. Bony landmarks were easily detected and the table shifts for correction of setup deviations could be automatically calculated in all cases. The image quality was sufficient for a visual comparison of the desired target point with the isocenter visible on the CBCT. Soft tissue contrast was problematic for the prostate of an obese patient, but good in the lung tumor case. The detected maximum setup deviation was 3 mm for patients fixated with the body frame, and 6 mm for patients positioned in the vacuum pillow. Using an action level of 2 mm translational error, a target point correction was carried out in 4 cases. The additional workload of the described

  15. Alkali element enrichments on the BABBs at the IODP Expedition 333 Site C0012 in the northern Shikoku Basin

    Haraguchi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Fujinaga, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Shikoku Basin is a back arc basin located westside of the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) arc, spreading was from 25 to 15 Ma. The drilling of the DSDP, ODP and IODP recovered the backarc basin basalt (BABB) of the Shikoku Basin. Site C0012, south of the Kii Peninsula, was operated during the IODP Exp 333, and BABB was recovered 100m thickness under the 520m of sediment. This BABB is divided into upper aphyric pillow (Unit 1) and lower massive flow (Unit 2) divided at the 560 mbsf, and show variable degree of alteration, clay mineral and zeolite depositions. SiO2 and MgO contents of these basalts are 47-55 and 5-8 wt%. These basalts show wide variation of enrichment of alkali elements, 2.3-7.5 and 0.4-4.2 wt% of Na2O and K2O. Na2O+K2O contents show 3.2-8.0 wt%, and 2 wt% higher trends than other BABBs in the Shikoku Basin at the same SiO2 contents. Na2O and K2O show proportional and anti-proportional trends with increasing LOI. Therefore, both alkali element enrichments in these rocks are caused by secondary mineralization, and host phase of Na2O is hydrous and that of K2O is anhydrous minerals. Secondary mineral phases was mainly identified by XRD. The identified host phases of Na are analcime and thomsonite. Analcime is observed in rocks of more than 4 wt% of Na2O. Chlorite and smectite are identified to clay minerals. This mineral assemblage indicates the high-temperature zeolite facies alteration. The host phases of K are mainly identified into K-feldspar. We assume that secondary mineralization of K-fd is associated with low-temperature albitization. Compared to the lithostratigraphy, the Na enrichment is prominent in the Unit 1 and upper 20 m of the Unit 2, and the K enrichment is prominent in lower part of the Unit 2. We consider that the Na enrichment associated with zeolite depositions occurred under high water/rock ratio with active hydrothermal circulation because of high water permeability of pillow lava, and K enrichment associated with albitization occurred

  16. CUES – A Study Site for Measuring Snowpack Energy Balance in the Sierra Nevada

    Edward H. Bair

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement and modeling of the snowpack energy balance are critical to understanding the terrestrial water cycle. Most of the water resources in the western US come from snowmelt, yet statistical runoff models that rely on the historical record are becoming less reliable because of a changing climate. For physically based snow melt models that do not depend on past conditions, ground based measurements of the energy balance components are imperative for verification. For this purpose, the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB established the CUES snow study site (CRREL/UCSB Energy Site, http://www.snow.ucsb.edu/ at 2940 m elevation on Mammoth Mountain, California. We describe CUES, provide an overview of research, share our experience with scientific measurements, and encourage future collaborative research. Snow measurements began near the current CUES site for ski area operations in 1969. In the 1970s, researchers began taking scientific measurements. Today, CUES benefits from year round gondola access and a fiber optic internet connection. Data loggers and computers automatically record and store over 100 measurements from more than 50 instruments each minute. CUES is one of only five high altitude mountain sites in the Western US where a full suite of energy balance components are measured. In addition to measuring snow on the ground at multiple locations, extensive radiometric and meteorological measurements are recorded. Some of the more novel measurements include scans by an automated terrestrial LiDAR, passive and active microwave imaging of snow stratigraphy, microscopic imaging of snow grains, snowflake imaging with a multi-angle camera, fluxes from upward and downward looking radiometers, snow water equivalent from different types of snow pillows, snowmelt from lysimeters, and concentration of impurities in the snowpack. We

  17. Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic study of the Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex, southern Chile

    Rapalini, A. E.; Calderón, M.; Singer, S.; Hervé, F.; Cordani, U.

    2008-06-01

    A paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Late Jurassic Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex (SOC) exposed in the Magallanes fold and thrust belt in the southern Patagonian Andes (southern Chile). This complex, mainly consisting of a thick succession of pillow-lavas, sheeted dikes and gabbros, is a seafloor remnant of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin that developed along the south-western margin of South America. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization permitted the isolation of a post-folding characteristic remanence, apparently carried by fine grain (SD?) magnetite, both in the pillow-lavas and dikes. The mean "in situ" direction for the SOC is Dec: 286.9°, Inc: - 58.5°, α95: 6.9°, N: 11 (sites). Rock magnetic properties, petrography and whole-rock K-Ar ages in the same rocks are interpreted as evidence of correlation between remanence acquisition and a greenschist facies metamorphic overprint that must have occurred during latest stages or after closure and tectonic inversion of the basin in the Late Cretaceous. The mean remanence direction is anomalous relative to the expected Late Cretaceous direction from stable South America. Particularly, a declination anomaly over 50° is suggestively similar to paleomagnetically interpreted counter clockwise rotations found in thrust slices of the Jurassic El Quemado Fm. located over 100 km north of the study area in Argentina. Nevertheless, a significant ccw rotation of the whole SOC is difficult to reconcile with geologic evidence and paleogeographic models that suggest a narrow back-arc basin sub-parallel to the continental margin. A rigid-body 30° westward tilting of the SOC block around a horizontal axis trending NNW, is considered a much simpler explanation, being consistent with geologic evidence. This may have occurred as a consequence of inverse reactivation of old normal faults, which limit both the SOC exposures and the Cordillera Sarmiento to the East. The age of tilting

  18. Rocas Verdes Ophiolite Complexes in the Southernmost Andes: Remnants of the Mafic Igneous Floor of a Back-arc Basin that Rifted the South American Continental Crust in the Late Jurrassic and Early Cretaceous

    Stern, C. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Rocas Verdes are an en echelon group of late Jurassic and early Cretaceous igneous complexes in the southernmost Andes. They consist of mafic pillow lavas, dikes and gabbros interpreted as the upper portions of ophiolite complexes formed along mid-ocean-ridge-type spreading centers. When secondary metamorphic affects are accounted for, the geochemistry of mafic Rocas Verdes rocks are similar to ocean-ridge basalts (MORB). The spreading centers that generated the Rocas Verdes rifted the southwestern margin of the Gondwana continental crust, during the start of break-up in the southern Atlantic, to form the igneous floor of a back-arc basin behind a contemporaneous convergent plate boundary magmatic arc. Late Jurassic and early Cretaceous sediments from both the magmatic arc on the southwest and the continental platform on the northeast of the basin were deposited in the Rocas Verdes basin, and these sediments are interbedded with mafic pillow lavas along the margins of the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. Also, mafic dikes and gabbros intrude older pre-Andean and Andean lithologies along both flanks of the Rocas Verdes, and leucocratic country rocks are engulfed in the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. These relations indicate that the Rocas Verdes complexes formed in place and are autochthonous, having been uplifted but not obducted, which may explain the lack of exposure of the deeper ultramafic units. Zircon U/Pb ages of 150+/-1 Ma for the Larsen Harbour Formation, a southern extension of the Rocas Verdes belt on South Georgia Island, and 138+/-2 Ma for the Sarmiento complex, the northernmost in the Rocas Verdes belt, indicate that this basin may have formed by "unzipping" from the south to the north, with the southern portion beginning to form earlier and developing more extensively than the northern portion of the basin. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the Rocas Verdes basin developed in conjunction with the displacement of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening of

  19. The Jocotán Ophiolite: A new ophiolite along the Jocotán fault, eastern Guatemala

    Harlow, G. E.; Flores-Reyes, K.; Sisson, V. B.; Nelson, C.; Cacao, A.

    2011-12-01

    The North American - Caribbean plate boundary traverses central Guatemala and northern Honduras, dispersed along three left lateral faults systems, which from north to south are the Chixoy-Polochic, the Motagua, and the Jocotán-Camelecón faults, with the Motagua as the present active strand. The Motagua Suture Zone (MSZ), which encompasses this area, consists of multiple paleo-convergent boundaries. It includes slices of ultramafic-mafic complexes including both antigorite (Atg) serpentinite mélanges containing high-pressure / low-temperature (HP/LT) blocks, and lizardite-chrysotile (Lzd-Ctl) serpentinites with associated pillow lavas, radiolarian chert, and marine sediments, typically labeled as ophiolites. Guatemala Suture Zone would be a preferable term to MSZ because the area extends over all three faults, not just the Motagua. The MSZ includes the Sierra de Santa Cruz ophiolite north of the east end of the Polochic fault, the Baja Verapaz ultramafic complex (considered an ophiolite in most of the literature) lies just south of the western portion of the Polochic fault and a series of Atg-serpentinite-dominant mélanges (with HP/LT blocks) that decorate both sides of the Motagua fault. In addition, there is the El Tambor Formation, south of the Motagua fault (but west of the known limit of the Jocotán fault), which contains mafic & sedimentary units and has been called an ophiolite. However, no mafic-ultramafic bodies appear on maps that cover the Jocotán fault in eastern Guatemala. Geologic mapping by one of the co-authors located a small suite of ultramafic rocks sandwiched between the Jocotán and Camotán faults in eastern Guatemala, a short distance from the town of Camotán. Outcrops exposed for 3 km along a road and in a small river consist of sheared Lzd-Ctl serpentinite, metagabbro, overturned altered pillow lavas, listwaenite and rodingite dikes, cherts and pelagic metasediments. These units represent fault slivers subparallel to the steeply

  20. Testing a new approach to differentiate oxidation degree from the primitive composition of titanomagnetites from oceanic basalts

    Silva, Pedro; Almeida, Francisco; Waerenborgh, João; Madureira, Pedro; Mirão, José; Henry, Bernard; Neres, Marta; Petrovsky, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Low-field magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature - χ(T) is one of the most powerful techniques to assess the main magnetic mineralogy of rocks from distinct geological settings. For the specific case of titanomagnetite solid solution, the dependence of Curie temperature (Tc) on their composition and oxidation degree imposes limits to the application of thermomagnetic methods as a tool to assess independently one of the variables, i.e., the pristine composition and/or quantification of the oxidation degree. In order to overcome this ambiguity several authors resorted to independent methods, like microprobe, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The study here presented seeks to establish a new approach able to correlate the oxidation degree with Tc variations of partially oxidized submarine basalts, only supported by the thermomagnetic analyses conducted between -190°C and 650°C. 40 thermomagnetic signatures were evaluated along cross-section profiles of four pillow-lavas, sampled from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and from the Terceira Rift (Azores plateau). For each one a lamellae with a thickness of 2 to 3 mm was collected along each centimeter of the profile. All the experiments were made using the same experimental conditions (atmosphere, heating rate). Our thermomagnetic curves of partially oxidized oceanic basalts are characterized by a peak of susceptibility between 300-350°C and 520-550°C, which mostly results from the inversion of the thermally metastable titanomaghemite into a complex multiphase intergrowth. From our experiments, we were able to obtain a good linear correlation (positive) between the amplitude of this peak and the Tc for each sample profile. Moreover, these results are well correlated with the oxidation degree determined by Mössbauer Spectroscopy analyses and with microscopic observations, which show an increase of oxidation degree towards the margins of the pillow lavas

  1. Subglacial to emergent basaltic volcanism at Hlöðufell, south-west Iceland: A history of ice-confinement

    Skilling, I. P.

    2009-09-01

    Hlöðufell is a familiar 1186 m high landmark, located about 80 km northeast of Reykjavík, and 9 km south of the Langkjökull ice-cap in south-west Iceland. This is the first detailed study of this well-exposed and easily accessible subglacial to emergent basaltic volcano. Eight coherent and eleven volcaniclastic lithofacies are described and interpreted, and its evolution subdivided into four growth stages (I-IV) on the basis of facies architecture. Vents for stages I, II, and IV lie along the same fissure zone, which trends parallel to the dominant NNE-SSW volcano-tectonic axis of the Western Volcanic Zone in this part of Iceland, but the stage III vent lies to the north, and is probably responsible for the present N-S elongation of the volcano. The basal stage (I) is dominated by subglacially erupted lava mounds and ridges, which are of 240 m maximum thickness, were fed from short fissures and locally display lava tubes. Some of the stage I lavas preserve laterally extensive flat to bulbous, steep, glassy surfaces that are interpreted to have formed by direct contact with surrounding ice, and are termed ice-contact lava confinement surfaces. These surfaces preserve several distinctive structures, such as lava shelves, pillows that have one flat surface and mini-pillow (vault), and was also transported to the south by sub-ice meltwater traction currents. This cone is onlapped by a subaerial pahoehoe lava-fed delta sequence, formed during stage III, and which was most likely fed from a now buried vent(s), located somewhere in the north-central part of the mountain. A 150 m rise in lake level submerged the capping lavas, and was associated with progradation of a new pahoehoe lava-fed delta sequence, produced during stage IV, and which was fed from the present summit cone vent. The water level rise and onset of stage IV eruptions were not associated with any obviously exposed phreatomagmatic deposits, but they are most likely buried beneath stage IV delta deposits

  2. Geochronology and Geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Aoyougou Ophiolite in the North Qilian Mountains, Northwestern China

    2001-01-01

    The Aoyougou ophiolite lies in an early Palaeozoic orogenic belt of the western North Qilian Mountains, near the Aoyougou valley in Gansu Province, northwestern China. It consists of serpentinite, a cumulate sequence of gabbro and diorite, pillow and massive lavas, diabase and chert. Ages of 1840±2 Ma, 1783±2 Ma and 1784±2 Ma on three zircons from diabase, indicate an early Middle Proterozoic age. The diabases and basalts show light rare-earth element enrichment and have relatively high TiO2 contents, characteristic of ocean island basalts. All of the lavas have low MgO, Cr, Ni contents and Mg numbers indicating a more evolved character. They are believed to have been derived from a more mafic parental magma by fractionation of olivine, Cr-spinel and minor plagioclase. Based on the lava geochemistry and regional geology, the Aoyougou ophiolite was probably believed to have formed at a spreading centre in a small marginal basin. Subduction of the newly formed oceanic lithosphere in the Middle Proterozoic produced a trench-arc-basin system, which is preserved in the North Qilian Mountains.

  3. A Device and Procedure for Immobilization of Patients Receiving Limb-Preserving Radiotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and efficiency of a custom-designed immobilization device for patients with extremity soft-tissue sarcoma. The custom device consisted of a thermoplastic shell, vacuum pillow, and adaptable baseplate. The study included patients treated from January 2005 to March 2007, with 92 patients immobilized with the custom device and 98 with an established standard. Setup times for these cohorts were analyzed retrospectively for conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy techniques (IMRT). Thigh tumor setup times were analyzed independently. A subset of patients treated with IMRT was analyzed for setup error using the radiographically verified isocenter position measured daily with electronic portal imaging and cone-beam computed tomography. Mean setup time was reduced by 2.2 minutes when using the custom device for conformal treatment (p = 0.03) and by 5.8 min for IMRT of thigh tumors (p = 0.009). All other setup time comparisons were not significant. A significant systematic error reduction was seen in all directions using the custom device. Random error standard deviations favored the custom device. The custom device offers immobilization advantages. Patient setup time was reduced for conformal techniques and IMRT of thigh tumors. Positioning uncertainty was improved, permitting a reduction of the planning target volume margin by 2 to 4 mm.

  4. Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine basalts

    The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in deltaD and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between deltaD and H2O+ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between deltaD values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo low-temperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having deltaD values as low as -100. deltaD values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary deltaD values were similar to those of submarine lavas. The results are discussed. (author)

  5. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, SW Turkey

    Ozcelik, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sites in lacustrine sediments located on both sides of the FBFZ. The deformed sediments are composed of unconsolidated alternations of sands, silts and clay layers and show different morphological types. The soft sediment deformation structures include load structures, flame structures, slumps, dykes, neptunian dykes, drops and pseudonodules, intercalated layers, ball and pillow structures, minor faults and water escape structures of varying geometry and dimension. These structures are a direct response to fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization mechanism. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the cause for these soft sediment deformations. OSL dating indicated an age ranging from 15161±744 to 17434±896 years for the soft sediment deformation structures. Geological investigations of the soft sediment deformation structures and tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main factor for deformation is past seismic activity.

  6. Halocinèse précoce associée au rifting jurassique dans l'Atlas central de Tunisie (région de Majoura El Hfay)

    Tanfous Amri, Dorra; Bédir, Mourad; Soussi, Mohamed; Azaiez, Hajer; Zitouni, Lahoussine; Hédi Inoubli, M.; Ben Boubaker, Kamel

    2005-05-01

    Seismic and sequence stratigraphy analyses, petroleum-well control and surface data studies of the Majoura-El Hfay region in the Central Atlas of Tunisia had led to identify and calibrate Jurassic seismic horizons. Seismic stratigraphic sections, seismic tectonics analyses, isochron and isopach mapping of Jurassic sequences show a differentiated structuring of platform and depocentre blocks limited by deep-seated NE-SW, north-south east-west and NW-SE faults intruded by Upper Triassic salt. The early salt migration seems to have started by the platform fracturing during the Lower Liassic rifting event. These movements are fossilized by thickness variations of Jurassic horizons, aggrading and retrograding onlap and toplap structures between subsiding rim-syncline gutters and high platform flanks intruded by salt pillows and domes. The salt migration is also attested by Middle and Upper Jurassic space depocentre migrations. Around the Majoura-El Hfay study blocks bounded by master faults, Triassic salt have pierced the Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary cover in a salt diapir extrusion and salt wall structures. To cite this article: D. Tanfous Amri et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  7. Volcano-ice interactions on Mars

    Central volcanic eruptions beneath terrestrial glaciers have built steep-sided, flat-topped mountains composed of pillow lava, glassy tuff, capping flows, and cones of basalt. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges of similar compostion. In some places the products from a number of subglacial vents have combined to form widespread deposits. The morphologies of these subglacial volcanoes are distinctive enough to allow their recognition at the resolutions characteristic of Viking orbiter imagery. Analogs to terrestrial subglacial volcanoes have been identified on the northern plains and near the south polar cap of Mars. The polar feature provides probable evidence of volcanic eruptions beneath polar ice. A mixed unit of rock and ice is postulated to have overlain portions of the northern plains, with eruptions into this ground ice having produced mountains and ridges analogous to those in Iceland. Subsequent breakdown of this unit due to ice melting revealed the volcanic features. Estimated heights of these landforms indicate that the ice-rich unit once ranged from approximately 100 to 1200 m thick

  8. Experimental and Analytical Research on Resonance Phenomena of Vibrating Head with MRE Regulating Element

    Miedzińska D.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A vibratory pile hammer (VPH is a mechanical device used to drive steel piles as well as tube piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. In order to increase the stability and the efficiency of the VPH work in the over-resonance frequency, a new VPH construction was developed at the Military University of Technology. The new VPH contains a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. This system is suspended in the static parts by the adaptive variable stiffness pillows based on a smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE, whose rheological and mechanical properties can be reversibly and rapidly controlled by an external magnetic field. The work presented in the paper is a part of the modified VPH construction design process. It concerns the experimental research on the vibrations during the piling process and the analytical analyses of the gained signal. The results will be applied in the VPH control system.

  9. Comparisons of venus surface compositions with terrestrial ocean floor rocks

    Garvin, J.B.; Bryan, W.B.

    1987-10-01

    Statistical comparison of Venera and Vega lander x-ray fluorescence spectrometer measurements of the composition of the Venus surface with an extensive database of compositional data for terrestrial ocean floor rocks indicates that the Venera 14 data matches certain tholeiitic basalts from the Kane Fracture Zone (KFZ) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22-25/sup 0/N) at high confidence levels. The tholeiites most similar to the Venera measurements are very primitive, low-calcium, high-alumina pillow basalts depleted in clinopyroxene, and are relatively unique to certain fracture zones in oceanic regions. If the Venera 14 analogy is valid, the implication is that certain Venus basaltic magmas have lost clinopyroxene at relatively high pressures by fractionation, perhaps within a deep source region. Comparisons of Venera 13 and Vega 2 data with oceanic rocks yield poorer matches. Venera 13 matches Loihi seamount alkali basalts, as well as potassic mafic rocks from oceanic island such as Tristan de Cunha. The best analogy to Vega 2 may be altered gabbros or basic lavas from terrestrial basic intrusions such as the Troodos ophiolite. The close similarity of a representative sample of Venera 14 material with distinctive ocean floor tholeiitic basalts suggests that deep magma storage regions exist on Venus, and that derivation of both tholeiitic and alkalic magmas from a single primitive parent may be an important process on Venus.

  10. Paleomagnetism of the Caldwell lavas, Eastern Townships, Québec.

    M. K. SEGUIN

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty two oriented samples (97 specimens were obtained from 17
    sites in metavolcanic rocks from the Caldwell Group of the Appalachians
    of Southern Québec (longitude: 71u00'-71"30' W, latitude: 46°00'-46"10'N.
    These metavolcanics of Lower Cambrian age are massive or pillowed lavas
    of andesitic and mainly basaltic composition metamorphosed to the
    sub-greenschist facies. Magnetite and occasionally hematite are the frequent
    magnetic memory carrier.
    In order to obtain some pertinent information relative to the stability
    of the remanent magnetization component, stepwise alternating field
    demagnetization was conducted on 35% of the specimens and the others
    were demagnetized at an optimum alternating field. After AF treatment,
    the paleopole position of the tilted formation from 16 localities is 148°E,
    43°N (dp=11.3°, dm = 22.4°. After omission of 3 localities for which
    a95>30°, the new paleopole position obtained is 173°E, 26°N. This formation
    of Early Cambrian age is characterized by a reversed polarity.

  11. Photon Sail History, Engineering, and Mission Analysis. Appendix

    Matloff, Gregory L.; Taylor, Travis; Powell, Conley

    2004-01-01

    This Appendix summarizes the results of a Teledyne Brown Engineering, Inc. report to the In-Space propulsion research group of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that was authored by Taylor et al. in 2003. The subject of this report is the technological maturity, readiness, and capability of the photon solar sail to support space-exploration missions. Technological maturity for solar photon sail concepts is extremely high high for rectangular (or square) solar sail configurations due to the historical development of the rectangular design by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). L'Garde Inc., ILC Dover Inc., DLR, and many other corporations and agencies. However, future missions and mission analysis may prove that the rectangular sail design is not the best architecture for achieving mission goals. Due to the historical focus on rectangular solar sail spacecraft designs, the maturity of other architectures such as hoop-supported disks, multiple small disk arrays, parachute sails, heliogyro sails, perforated sails, multiple vane sails (such as the Planetary Society's Cosmos 1), inflated pillow sails, etc., have not reached a high level of technological readiness. (Some sail architectures are shown in Fig. A.1.) The possibilities of different sail architectures and some possible mission concepts are discussed in this Appendix.

  12. Evolución geoquímica y temporal del magmatismo básico mesozoico en las Zonas Externas de las Cordilleras Béticas

    Aguirre, L.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mesozoic basic magmatism found in the External Zones of the Betic Cordilleras (ZECB is represented either as «ophites» forming small dimension tectonic blocks intercalated in the Keuper gypsum-rich, clay sediments, or also as lava ilow bodies, most of them with pillow structures, within the Jurassic sedimentary rocks. Geochemical characteristics of these rocks indicate sorne differences between these two magmatic series. Two different chemical affinities have been carried out within the «ophites»: a with modal orthopyroxene and tholeiitic affinity; and b with modal olivine and transitionalalkaline affinity. Chemical characteristics of this last group are similar to those of the volcanic rocks from the Jurassic sediments. The field relationships found in sorne «ophite» outcrops al!ow us to deduce that the tholeiitic rocks are mostly present as extrusive rocks. However, their older whole-rock K-Ar ages range between 182 ± 9 and 187 ± 4 M.a., and do not correctly represent Upper Triassic ages. Transitional-alkaline «ophites» occur as subvolcanic rocks and their older obtained radiometric age is 137 ± 4 M.a. Al! these radiometric ages obtained may be intepreted as a result of the hybridization between the age of the Triassic magmatism and the very low- to low-grade metamorphism present in these rocks. This metamorphism is responsable for the new formed secondary paragenesis, made of prehnite + pumpel! yite + sericitie + mafic phyl!osicates. Radiometric age obtained in sorne intra-Jurassic volcanic rocks range between 155 ± 3 to 166 ± 4 M.a. These new radiometric data and field relationships are used to define the Mesozoic magmatic evolution in the ZECB. Tholeiitic magmatism was generated during an initial Triassic distensive stage. After this magmatic event, and as a consequence of an increment of the distensive regime, with important continental crust thickening, transitionalalkaline magmatism occurS. This

  13. Surface engineering of low enriched uranium-molybdenum

    Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Detavernier, C.

    2013-09-01

    Recent attempts to qualify the LEU(Mo) dispersion plate fuel with Si addition to the Al matrix up to high power and burn-up have not yet been successful due to unacceptable fuel plate swelling at a local burn-up above 60% 235U. The root cause of the failures is clearly related directly to the formation of the U(Mo)-Al(Si) interaction layer. Excessive formation of these layers around the fuel kernels severely weakens the local mechanical integrity and eventually leads to pillowing of the plate. In 2008, SCK·CEN has launched the SELENIUM U(Mo) dispersion fuel development project in an attempt to find an alternative way to reduce the interaction between U(Mo) fuel kernels and the Al matrix to a significantly low level: by applying a coating on the U(Mo) kernels. Two fuel plates containing 8gU/cc U(Mo) coated with respectively 600 nm Si and 1000 nm ZrN in a pure Al matrix were manufactured. These plates were irradiated in the BR2 reactor up to a maximum heat flux of 470 W/cm2 until a maximum local burn-up of approximately 70% 235U (˜50% plate average) was reached. Awaiting the PIE results, the advantages of applying a coating are discussed in this paper through annealing experiments and TRIM (the Transport of Ions in Matter) calculations.

  14. Escrita filmí­ca de O livro de cabeceira

    Wilton Garcia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este texto objetiva apontar alguns fragmentos do discurso intertextual no filme O livro de cabeceira, (1995, de Peter Greenaway. O presente ensaio apoia-se na intertextualidade como um procedimento teórico metodológico para refletir acerca dessa obra contemporânea, em um exercí­cio suplementar do meu trabalho de mestrado. Com isso, proponho explorar algumas redes de interstí­cios do objeto filmico, ao utilizar a noção poética como uma possibilidade de leitura. Palavras-chave cinema, imagem, intertextualidade Abstract This text aims to show some fragments of intertextual discourse in the Peter Greenaway's film Pillow Book, 1995. The present essay subscribes to the notion of intertextuality, as a theorical methodological procedure in order to think about this contemporary art-work. The essay is also a suplementary exercise of my Master degree. In doing so, I propose to explore some net of intertstate of movie, using a poetic notion, as a possibility of reading. Key words cinema, image, intertextuality

  15. A garage sale bargain: A leaking 2.2 GBq source, Phase III - The radiological cleanup

    As described in a previous paper, a private residence in Bristol, Tennessee, was extensively contaminated when the owner unknowingly handled a leaking 226Ra source of about 60 mCi. Contamination was found on both floors of the two-story house and in the yard. The most extensively contaminated area was a back porch where the owner initially opened the source containment box. Contamination was probably spread most by open-quotes trackingclose quotes by the owner, his wife, and several pet cats. One of the most contaminated objects found was a pillow, a favorite napping place for the cats, which read 25 mR h-1 at contact. Several decon techniques were tried including stripable paints, washing with various agents, etc. However, decontamination was primarily accomplished by physical removal techniques, such as removing carpeting, scraping and sanding wooden surfaces, and by disposal of contaminated objects (much to the owners' dismay). The house and the yard were cleaned up to meet the recommended guidelines for unrestricted release with the expenditure of about 550 hours of effort. The groups assisting the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health included the Department of Energy, Tennessee Valley Authority's Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Scientific Ecology Group. All of the assistance was provided at no cost to the home owner or the State of Tennessee

  16. Oxidation state of iron in mantle-derived magmas of the Icelandic rift zone

    Olivine tholeiites are mantle-derived magmas that are formed by partial melting of their deep sources and which have equilibrated with mineral assemblages at slightly different subcrustal pressure-temperature conditions prior to eruption. The minimum depth of the pre-eruptive reservoirs of these magmas is in the order of 10-15 km and their liquidus temperatures fall within the range of 1180-1240 C. Three types of primitive olivine tholeiites are exposed along the rift zones in Iceland. In the present study, the ferric/ferrous ratios of natural glasses (pillow crusts) of the three types of olivine tholeiites were obtained by Moessbauer spectrometry. This technique is particularly well suited for the analysis of high-Mg glasses since it resolves microcrystallites of olivine which contribute to ferrous iron in chemical analysis. All results fall within 10-15% Fe(III). At the liquidus temperature of these glasses, this ferric/ferrous ratio corresponds to fugacity close to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz-oxygen (FMQ) buffer with an uncertainty of less than one log unit in fO2. This result confirms that there is no significant difference in the oxidation state of the three magma types. (orig.)

  17. Backarc rifting, constructional volcanism and nascent disorganised spreading in the southern Havre Trough backarc rifts (SW Pacific)

    Wysoczanski, R. J.; Todd, E.; Wright, I. C.; Leybourne, M. I.; Hergt, J. M.; Adam, C.; Mackay, K.

    2010-02-01

    High resolution multibeam (EM300 and SEABEAM) data of the Southern Havre Trough (SHT), combined with observations and sample collections from the submersible Shinkai6500 and deep-tow camera, are used to develop a model for the evolution and magmatism of this backarc system. The Havre Trough and the associated Kermadec Arc are the product of westward subduction at the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. Detailed studies focus on newly discovered features including a seamount (Saito Seamount) and a deep graben (Ngatoroirangi Rift, > 4000 m water depth floored with a constructional axial volcanic ridge > 5 km in length and in excess of 200 m high), both of which are characterised by pillow and lobate flows estimated at 4000 m) spreading systems. These discontinuous spreading systems are characterised by failed rifts, rift segmentation, and propagation. Successive episodes of magmatic intrusion into thinned faulted arc basement results in defocused asymmetrical accretion. Cross-arc volcanic chains, isolated volcanoes and underlying basement plateaus are interpreted to represent a "cap" of recent extrusives. However, they may also be composed entirely of newly accreted crust and the spatially extensive basement fabric of elongated volcanic ridges may be the surface expression of pervasive dike intrusion that has thoroughly penetrated and essentially replaced the original arc crust with newly accreted intrusives.

  18. Relationship between salt diapirism and faulting in the central structural belt of the Dongying sag, Bohai Gulf basin, China

    YU Jianguo; LI Sanzhong; WANG Jinduo; TIMOTHY M Kusky; WANG Xinhong; LU Shengqiang

    2005-01-01

    Many growth faults developed in the Dongying sag of the Jiyang depression of the Bohai Gulf basin, China. These normal growth faults consist of flower-like grabens in the hanging walls of the major faults, accompanied by reverse dragging. The central structural belt is an important structural unit in the Dongying sag, and is divided into a series of small blocks by these faults. These internal blocks can be classified into five structural classes, including parallel blocks, arc-shape blocks, plume-like blocks, ring-radial blocks,and splay blocks. It is shown that these complicated block classes and the "negative flower-like" fault associations in the central structural belt resulted from regional NNW-SSE extension accompanying local salt diapirism and related reverse dragging, rather than strike-slip faulting. On the basis of the diapirism strength, diapers in the central structural belt can be divided into lower salt ridges and pillows, and blind piercing structures. Diapirs are mainly composed of some salts with a little soft mudstone and gypsum. These structures began forming during deposition of the Sha 3 member and terminated during deposition of the Guangtao formation.

  19. Magmatic activity at Islas Marias Archipelago, Gulf of California: Oceanic lithosphere with gabbroic sills versus Jurassic-Cretaceous arc components.

    Schaaf, P. E. G.; Solis-Pichardo, G.; Hernandez-Trevino, T.; Villanueva, D.; Arrieta, G. F.; Rochin, H.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Bohnel, H.; Weber, B.

    2015-12-01

    Islas Marias Archipelago consists of four islands located in the mouth of the Gulf of California. Lithologically three of them (Maria Madre, San Juanito, and Maria Cleofas) are quite similar with a 165-170 Ma metamorphic basement, 75-85 Ma intrusive and extrusive rocks, and a sedimentary sandstone cover, which according to its foraminiferous content recorded multiple uplift and subsidence events related to the opening of the Gulf. However, these units are absent on Maria Magdalena island which is positioned between the other islands. Here, instead, oceanic lithosphere with pillow lavas and gabbroic sills, intercalated with sandstones form the dominant outcrops. Their geochemical and isotopic characteristics are similar to N-MORB with epsilon Nd values around +10 and 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70290. The gabbros are not older than 22 Ma. Magdalena island was obviously uplifted separately from the other islands of the archipelago, probably along a now hidden transform fault system along the East Pacific Rise. Metamorphic and igneous rocks of the other islands can be correlated to lithologically similar units in the Los Cabos Block, Baja California, or to the continental margin units in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Jalisco states when looking at their geochemical and geochronological signatures. Paleomagnetic studies on 35 sampling sites from all 4 islands give evidence for relatively small scale tectonic movements.

  20. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope systematics and geochemical studies on metavolcanic rocks from Peddavura greenstone belt: Evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in easternmost part of Dharwar Craton, India

    M Rajamanickam; S Balakrishnan; R Bhutani

    2014-07-01

    Linear, north–south trending Peddavura greenstone belt occurs in easternmost part of the Dharwar Craton. It consists of pillowed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites (BBA) and rhyolites interlayered with ferruginous chert that were formed under submarine condition. Rhyolites were divided into type-I and II based on their REE abundances and HREE fractionation. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope studies were carried out on the rock types to understand the evolution of the Dharwar Craton. Due to source heterogeneity Sm–Nd isotope system has not yielded any precise age. Rb–Sr whole-rock isochron age of 2551 ± 19 (MSWD = 1.16) Ma for BBA group could represent time of seafloor metamorphism after the formation of basaltic rocks. Magmas representing BBA group of samples do not show evidence for crustal contamination while magmas representing type-II rhyolites had undergone variable extents of assimilation of Mesoarchean continental crust (< 3.3 Ga) as evident from their initial Nd isotope values. Trace element and Nd isotope characteristics of type I rhyolites are consistent with model of generation of their magmas by partial melting of mixed sources consisting of basalt and oceanic sediments with continental crustal components. Thus this study shows evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in Peddavura area in eastern part of Dharwar Craton.

  1. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone, SW Turkey

    Mehmet Ozcelik

    2016-03-01

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sitesin lacustrine sediments located on both sides of the FBFZ. The deformed sediments are composed of unconsolidated alternations of sands, silts and clay layers and show different morphological types. The soft sediment deformation structures include load structures, flame structures, slumps, dykes, neptuniandykes, drops and pseudonodules, intercalated layers, ball and pillow structures, minor faults and water escape structures of varying geometry and dimension. These structures are a direct response to fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization mechanism. The driving forces inferred include gravitationalinstabilities and hydraulic processes. Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the cause for these soft sediment deformations. OSL dating indicated an age ranging from 15161±744 to 17434±896 years for the soft sediment deformation structures. Geological investigations of the soft sediment deformation structures and tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main factor for deformation is past seismic activity.

  2. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia collision zone based on 40Ar-39Ar thermochronology in Ladakh, India

    Rajneesh Bhutani; Kanchan Pande; T R Venkatesan

    2004-12-01

    New 40Ar-39Ar thermochronological results from the Ladakh region in the India-Asia collision zone provide a tectono-thermal evolutionary scenario. The characteristic granodiorite of the Ladakh batholith near Leh yielded a plateau age of 46.3 ± 0.6Ma (2 ). Biotite from the same rock yielded a plateau age of 44.6 ± 0.3Ma (2 ). The youngest phase of the Ladakh batholith, the leucogranite near Himya, yielded a cooling pattern with a plateau-like age of ∼36 Ma. The plateau age of muscovite from the same rock is 29.8 ± 0.2Ma (2 ). These ages indicate post-collision tectonothermal activity, which may have been responsible for partial melting within the Ladakh batholith. Two basalt samples from Sumdo Nala have also recorded the post-collision tectono-thermal event, which lasted at least for 8MY in the suture zone since the collision, whereas in the western part of the Indus Suture, pillow lava of Chiktan showed no effect of this event and yielded an age of emplacement of 128.2 ± 2.6Ma (2 ). The available data indicate that post-collision deformation led to the crustal thickening causing an increase in temperature, which may have caused partial melting at the base of the thickened crust. The high thermal regime propagated away from the suture with time.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative characteristic ofthe population of mesenchymal cells in structural components from conotruncal region of the embryo heart on its early hystogenesis

    Dyagovets K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Character of the distribution of the mesenchymal’s cellspopulation was analysed during the early hystogenesis of the conotruncal region of the mouse embr yo heart. Conotruncalregion is the predecessor of the proximal part of the aorta and pulmonary trunk, of the aortic ruff and conus arteriosus and semilunar valves. Violation of its transformations leading to the formation of congenital heart disease,which named «conotruncal defects». The material was used embryos mice by the C57BL / 6 line, which covers the period of from 10 to 12.5th day, which corresponded to a 16-21 Teilor stages. Quantify the planar and volumetric distribution of a population of mesenchymal stem cells conotruncus’s pillows and ridges by the original method; on the basis of serial pictures of embryo heart with the use of the computer providing Photoshop Cs5, Amira of for microscopy 5.0, 3ds max 8.0, we created the three-dimensional models of structural components of the conotruncus embryonic mouse heart. During this research noted the phased settlement condensed esenchymal stem fraction first and then tapered sections, given the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the distribution of the conotruncus’s mesenchyme embryonic mouse heart.

  4. Hydrophilic superabsorbants and hydrophobic absorbents for environmental protection and minimization of industrial risks

    The superabsorbents obtained by gamma Co-60 processing with swelling capacity from 40 g/g to 500 g/g have been used for: 1. land management, 2. toxic and hazardous materials in aqueous state management in emergency situations, 3. deuterated and tritiated water accidentally spread on different surfaces. The hydrophilic absorbents obtained from rigid polyurethane reused from wastes have been used in the management of risks when oil and oil - derived materials, all in a liquid state, are spread on the soil, surface of water (rivers, lakes, sea, etc) or in work places. The absorbent capacity are at least 4 g/g and upmost 10 g/g. All absorbents hydroxylic or hydrophobic are in bulk form or in pillows (40 x 40 x 10)cm; tubes (Φ ≤ 30 cm, length ≤ 3m with fast catching/detaching systems for emergency situations. For the case of forest and wood buildings fires, ecological systems based on aqueous polymeric solutions and ester fatty acid have been prepared. (authors)

  5. Hydrophilic superabsorbents and hydrophobic absorbents for environmental protection and minimization of industrial risks

    The superabsorbents obtained by gamma Co-60 processing, with swelling capacity from 40 g/g to 500 g/g have been used in the: land management; toxic and hazardous materials in aqueous state management in emergency situations; deuterated and tritiated water accidentally released in various places. The hydrophobic absorbents obtained from rigid polyurethane retrieved from wastes have been used in the management of risks when oil and derived - petroleum materials, all in liquid state, are spread on the soil, surface of water (rivers, lakes, sea, etc.) or in work places. The absorbent capacity is at least 4 g/g and max 10 g/g. All hydrophilic and hydrophobic absorbents are in form of bulk or pillows (40 x 40 x 10) cm, tubes (Φ = 30 cm (max), Length = 3 m (max)) with fast catching/detaching systems for emergency situations. For the case of fires in forests and wood buildings ecological systems based on aqueous polymeric solutions and ester fatty acids have been prepared. (authors)

  6. Petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Cenozoic Cape Crossfire, Cape King, and No Ridge igneous complexes (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    The Meander Intrusive Group is the plutonic-subvolcanic counterpart of the McMurdo Volcanic Group, and extends along 200 km of the Ross Sea coast of Northern Victoria Land. The three largest occurrences of the Meander Intrusive Group between the Icebreaker and Borchgrevink glaciers are the Cape Crossfire, the No Ridge, and the Cape King igneous complexes. These have an area of 40-80 square km and are composed of dominant monzogabbros and monzodiorites along with minor syenites and alkali feldspar microgranites. A significant compositional gap exists between mafic and felsic facies, which show geometrical relationships varying from subhorizontal alternating layers to complex pillowing and fragmentation of the mafic into the felsic facies. Two whole rock biotite Rb-Sr internal isochrons constrain the cooling age of Cape Crossfire Igneous Complex at 31 Ma, a few million years older than No Ridge and Cape King igneous complexes. Thus, the ages of these complexes (≤ 31 Ma) are younger than the plutons and dikes (≥ 35 Ma) cropping out in the southernmost area between the Campbell and Icebreaker glaciers. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy

    Yoshikazu Takinami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy under general anesthesia. A 75-year-old man was intubated without excessive retroflexion, and his upper body was held in place by lateral body positioners with protective cushions over the chest and acromioclavicular joints. The patient’s head was maintained at the center and held on the operation table with a memory-foam pillow to prevent hyperextension of the neck. The arms, abducted 80° with the forearms supinated, were held in place on the armrests with protective cushions. The surgical position was a 20° head-down lithotomy position with the right side of the body lowered by 15°. Surgery was completed successfully with no complications, and anesthesia time was 7 h and 37 min. After surgery, however, the patient complained of numbness and hypoesthesia on the radial and ulnar side, respectively, of the right arm from the elbow to the fingertips, with the boundary running between fingers 3 and 4. Dysesthesia was observed in the right fingertips of fingers 1–3. After 3 months of silver spike point low-frequency electrotherapy, hypoesthesia improved, while dysesthesia partially improved, in the dorsal area between right fingers 1 and 2.

  8. A Survey of Bedbug (Cimex lectularius Infestation in Some Homes and Hostels in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria

    Onah Isegbe Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (χ2=61.44, df=4, P<0.05. Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%, followed by males 223 (31.6%, and females 190 (27.0%. There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (χ2=0.8, df=4, P<0.05. The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%, followed by males 538 (36.1%, and then females 496 (35.3%. The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma.

  9. High-resolution seismic analysis of the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (North German Basin): the pre-Alpine evolution

    Zöllner, H.; Reicherter, K.; Schikowsky, P.

    2008-09-01

    The pre-Alpine structural and geological evolution in the northern part of the North German Basin have been revealed on the basis of a very dense reflection seismic profile grid. The study area is situated in the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (Germany), part of the southwestern Baltic Sea. From the central part of the North German Basin to the northern basin margin in the Grimmen High area a series of high-resolution maps show the evolution from the base Zechstein to the Lower Jurassic. We present a map of basement faults affecting the pre-Zechstein. The pre-Alpine structural evolution of the region has been determined from digital mapping of post-Permian key horizons traced on the processed seismic time sections. The geological evolution of the North German Basin can be separated into four distinct periods in the Rerik study area. During Late Permian and Early Triassic evaporites and clastics were deposited. Salt movement was initiated after the deposition of the Middle Triassic Muschelkalk. Salt pillows, which were previously unmapped in the study area, are responsible for the creation of smaller subsidence centers and angular unconformities in the Late Triassic Keuper, especially in the vicinity of the fault-bounded Grimmen High. In this area, partly Lower Jurassic sediments overlie the Keuper unconformably. The change from extension to compression in the regional stress field remobilized the salt, leading to a major unconformity marked at the base of the Late Cretaceous.

  10. Pinch-and-swell structures at the Middle/Upper Muschelkalk boundary (Triassic): evidence of earthquake effects (seismites) in the Germanic Basin

    Knaust, D.

    A limestone bed with synsedimentary deformations is described from the Middle/Upper Muschelkalk boundary (Middle Triassic) of Thuringia, Germany. The deformation structures have an elongated geometry in a preferential N-S to NNW-SSE direction and are several metres across in size. They are similar to ball-and-pillow structures but differ from these by absence of significant loading into underlying beds. Their development is interpreted as a result of bed-internal deformation with bed thickening due to lateral contraction and bed thinning due to stretching. This deformation mechanism is comparable to the one producing boudinage structures, in particular pinch-and-swell structures. The deformation style and size of these structures and their widespread occurrence together with other synsedimentary deformation structures support their interpretation as earthquake-induced structures (seismites). Synsedimentary deformation structures are common features that occur in a narrow stratigraphic unit at the Middle/Upper Muschelkalk boundary in different parts of the Germanic Basin and point to tectonically influenced changes in the depositional regime and basin organization. Further examples of pinch-and-swell structures from the Lower and Upper Muschelkalk suggest that tectonics significantly influenced the sedimentation in the Germanic Basin during Middle Triassic time.

  11. LEU-plate irradiation at FRJ-2 (DIDO) under the German AF-programme

    10 LEU fuel plates (8 with uranium silicides max. U-density 6.1 g/cm3) have been irradiated at FRJ-2 (DIDO) of KFA-Juelich till end of October 1984 during 321 full power days up to max. burnup of 2.41x1027 fissions/m3 without major interruptions and troubles. PIE began recently in KFA hot cells. Visual inspections revealed no damage or greater deformation for the majority of the plates, but red/brown coloured layers (partially peeled off) on the cladding over the fuel. Aluminium (oxide) is the chief constituent of the layer with smaller portions of Ni and Fe the latter causing the red/brown colour. The major part of the layer (∼50 μm) most probably has been formed during 20 h immediately after experiment start-up under abnormal conditions of the coolant water. Gamma scanning has been completed. Dimensional measurements are under way confirming first observations of severe swelling (pillowing) of 1 plate. Density and blister testing as well as metallography and burnup analysis remain to be accomplished end of 1985/beginning of 1986. (author)

  12. History of Snake River Canyon Indicated by Revised Stratigraphy of Snake River Group Near Hagerman and King Hill, Idaho: With a Section on Paleomagnetism

    Malde, Harold E.; Cox, Allan

    1971-01-01

    A discovery that debris left by the Bonneville Flood (Melon Gravel) overlies McKinney Basalt about 200 feet above the Snake River near King Hill requires that the stratigraphy of the Snake River Group be revised. In former usage, the McKinney Basalt and its immediately older companion, the Wendell Grade Basalt, were considered on the basis of equivocal field relations to be younger than the Melon Gravel and were assigned to the Recent. These lava flows are here reclassified as Pleistocene. The Bancroft Springs Basalt, which consists of both subaerial lava and pillow lava in a former Snake River canyon, was previously separated from the McKinney but is now combined with the McKinney. Accordingly, the name Bancroft Springs Basalt is here abandoned. This revised stratigraphy is first described from geomorphic relations of the McKinney Basalt near King Hill and is then discussed in the light of drainage changes caused by local lava flows during entrenchment of the Snake River. Near King Hill, a former Snake River canyon was completely filled by McKinney Basalt at the place called Bancroft Springs, hut the depth of this lava in the next several miles of the canyon downstream (along a route that approximately coincides with the present canyon) steadily decreased. This ancestral geomorphology is inferred from the former canyon route and, also, from the continuity in gradient of the McKinney lava surface downstream from Bancroft Springs. The drainage history recorded by various lava flows and river deposits of the Snake River Group indicates that the McKinney and Wendell Grade Basalts erupted after the Snake River canyon had reached its present depth of about 500 feet. The Snake River of that time, as far downstream as Bliss, flowed approximately along its present route. The Wood River of that time, however, skirted the north flank of Gooding Butte and joined the ancestral Snake at a junction, now concealed by lava, north of the present canyon about 3 miles west of Bliss

  13. Paleomagnetism, paleogeographic origins, and uplift history of the Coast Range ophiolite at Mount Diablo, California

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Jones, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Divergent paleogeographic origins have been proposed for the Coast Range ophiolite of western California which are testable using paleomagnetic methods. Paleomagnetic data for Middle Jurassic pillow lavas and diabase sills of the Coast Range ophiolite at Mount Diablo, northern California, indicate that they contain two components of remanent magnetization. The characteristic directions have normal and reversed polarities and apparently are carried by Ti-poor magnetite. This magnetization is inferred to have been acquired during emplacement and seafloor alteration at an ancient spreading ridge. The paleolatitude calculated from its structurally corrected mean direction is 20??N ?? 9?? and agrees with the expected direction for stable North America; this result is also consistent with the concordant paleolatitude (32??N ?? 8??) recently determined for Upper Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain in southern California. In addition, clockwise vertical axis rotation of Mount Diablo (143?? ?? 11??) is indicated by the characteristic magnetization direction. An overprint component is inferred to have been acquired during uplift of Mount Diablo since the Miocene.

  14. Safety evaluation of geological disposal concepts for low and medium-level wastes in rock-salt (Pacoma project)

    In the framework of the Performance Assessment of Confinements for MLW and Alpha Waste (PACOMA) the disposal options dealing with rock-salt are studied by GSF and ECN (with subcontract to RIVM). The overall objectives of these studies are to develop and demonstrate procedures for the radiological safety assessment of a deep repository in salt formations. An essential objective is to show how far appropriate choices of the repository design parameters can improve the performances of the whole system. The research covers two waste inventories (the Dutch OPLA and the PACOMA reference inventory), two disposal techniques (conventional and solution mining) and three types of formations (salt dome, pillow and bedded salt). An important part of the research has been carried out in the socalled VEOS project within the framework of the Dutch OPLA study. The methodology used in the consequence analysis is a deterministic one. The models and calculation tools used to perform the consequence analysis are the codes: EMOS, METROPOL and BIOS. The results are expressed in terms of dose rates and doses to individuals as well as to groups. Detailed information with respect to the input data and the results obtained with the three codes is given in three annexes to this final report

  15. Reinterpretation of Mesozoic ophiolite arc, and blueschist terranes in southwestern Baja California

    Sedlock, R.L. (San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The nature and significance of disrupted Mesozoic oceanic rocks on Isla Santa Margarita and Isla Magdalena, western Baja California Sur, have been reinterpreted on the basis of detailed mapping and petrologic studies. Three structural units are recognized. (1) The upper plate consists of ophiolitic, arc, and forearc basin rocks. Ophiolitic rocks, including metamorphosed ultramafic rocks, gabbro, dikes, volcanic rocks, and chert, underwent strong contractional deformation and penetrative greenschist-facies metamorphism. Arc rocks, including gabbro, a dike and sill complex, compositionally diverse volcanic rocks, lahars, and volcaniclastic strata, lack a penetrative fabric and are weakly metamorphosed. Forearc basin rocks consist of unmetamorphosed conglomerated and rhythmically bedded siliciclastic turbidites. (2) The lower plate is a subduction complex consisting of weakly to moderately foliated and metamorphosed pillow and massive lavas, breccia, and tuff( ), interbedded red and green siliceous argillite, and rare radiolarian ribbon chert and limestone. Blueschist-facies metamorphism is indicated by lawsonite, aragonite, sodic amphibole, and sodic clino-pyroxene. (3) Serpentine-matrix melange crops out in shallowly dipping fault zones between the upper and lower plates. The structural and petrologic characteristics of the Mesozoic units, the geometry of contacts between them, and the age of extension are similar to those in the Isla Cedros-Vizcalno Peninsula region, 400 km to the northwest. The author infers that syn-subduction extension was a regional event that affected much of the western Baja forearc during the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene.

  16. Preliminary chronostratigraphy of the Tetagouche and Fournier groups in northern New Brunswick

    Seven U-Pb zircon ages of volcanic rocks from northern New Brunswick are reported and a preliminary stratigraphy of the middle Ordovician Tetagouche and Fournier groups is presented. Deposition of the Tetagouche Group started with calcareous rocks of the Vallee Lourdes Formation in the Late Arenig (>470 Ma). Quartz- and feldspar-phyric felsic volcanic rocks of the immediately overlying Nepisiquit Falls Formation yielded U-Pb zircon ages between ca. 471 and 469 Ma. These volcanic rocks are time stratigraphic equivalents of the feldspar-phyric dacites of the Spruce Lake Formation, which yielded a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 470 Ma, and tholeiitic and alkalic pillow basalts of the structurally overlying Canoe Landing Lake Formation. The final phase of rhyolitic to dacitic volcanism is marked by the emplacement of distinct quartz- and feldspar-phyric dacitic porphyries at ca. 465 Ma, thus limiting silicic volcanism to the Late Arenig and llanvim. During the Ilandeilo and Caradoc (ca. 464-457 Ma) volcanic activity in the Tetagouche Group was characterized by extrusion of alkali basalts and minor comendites, interlayered with dark shales and siltstones of the Boucher Brook Formation. Oceanic crust of the Fournier Group was also formed during this period. (author). 29 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  17. Evidence of Late Quaternary seismicity from Yunam Tso, Lahaul and Spiti, NW Himalaya, India

    Archna Bohra; B S Kotlia; Amzad H Laskar; M G Yadava

    2014-04-01

    A relict fluvio-lacustrine sediment of an 8 m thick section exposed at Kilang Sarai along Yunam river, near Baralacha La shows presence of cycloids or pseudonodules, ball and pillow structures, flame-like and pocket structures, sand dyke injections, bed dislocation/faulting and flow folds. Within this section four deformed levels of soft sediment structures have been identified which were dated ca. 25 ka BP at level 1 (∼0.4 m from the modern river level (mrl), 20.1 ka BP at level 2 (∼1.8 m mrl), 17.7 ka BP at level 3 (∼2.56 m mrl) and 12.2 ka BP at level 4 (∼4.25 m mrl)). Detailed study of these soft sediment structures allow us to demonstrate that deformation level 3 is not related to seismic trigger, but remaining three deformation levels (1, 2 and 4) are ascribed to seismic origin. From compilation of earlier palaeoseismological studies using soft sediment deformational structures (SSDS) in the palaeolake deposits in the adjoining area, suggest that the deformational events identified in the present study are regional in nature and thus tectonic process plays an important role in the evolution of landform in the Spiti region.

  18. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury.

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H

    2009-12-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides. PMID:19901817

  19. Prevalence and the Relationship between Characteristics and Parental Conditions with Risk Factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS

    Mehdi Gholamzadeh Baeis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is a disease which causes unexpected death of infants aged less than 1 year. Given the undeniable role of parents in the presence or absence of SIDS risk factors, the present study aimed to studythe prevalence and the relationship between characteristics and conditions of parent’s infants with SIDS risk factors. Materials and Methods  In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 1,021 infants aged 1 to 12 months in the health centers in Qom-Iran in 2014 were selected as the sample by stratified random sampling method. The required data were collected using an author-made questionnaire on SIDS risk factors. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS 18 at a significance level of 95%. Results 4.5% of mothers were younger than 20 years, 92.3% infants had a co-sleeping with their parents, and 35.7% of infants had a bed-sharing with their parents. 19% of infants used Soft pillow. Study findings showed that there is no significant relationship between the age of mothers and using a shared bedroom (P>0.05, while such a relationship exists between education backgrounds of parents and sharing a bedroom (P

  20. Milestone 5 test report. Task 5, subtask 5.2: Tile to foam strength tests

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes work that has been performed to date on the strength of a cryotank insulation system using Rohacell foam and TUFI-coated AETB-12 ceramic tiles directly bonded to a simulated graphite-epoxy tank wall. Testing utilized a custom specimen design which consists of a long tensile specimen with eccentric loading to induce curvature similar to the curvature expected due to 'pillowing' of the tank when pressurized. A finite element model was constructed to predict the specific element strains in the test article, and to assist with design of the test specimen to meet the specific goals of curvature and laminate strain. The results indicate that the heat treated 3.25-pcf density Rohacell foam does not provide sufficient strength for the induced stresses due to curvature and stress concentration at the RTV bondline to the TUFI tile. The test was repeated using higher density non-heat treated Rohacell foam (6.9 pcf) without foam failure. The finite element model was shown to predict specimen behavior, and validation of the model was successful. It is pertinent to mention that the analyses described herein accurately predicted the failure of the heat treated foams and based on this analysis method it is expected that the untreated 3.25 pcf Rohacell foam will be successful.

  1. Accuracy of positioning the cervical spine for radiation therapy and the relationship to GTV, CTV and PTV.

    Kippenes, Hege; Gavin, Patrick R; Sande, Ronald D; Rogers, Dennis; Sweet, Vaughn

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of a rigid positioning device for repositioning the cervical spine accurately and precisely during conformal radiation therapy of dogs. Fifteen purpose bred research dogs in a radiation therapy study were included. The dogs were positioned using a head holder and a deflatable pillow attached to the treatment table. Port films were reviewed retrospectively, and repositioning precision was recorded by measurements in three orthogonal planes of the head, 2nd cervical vertebra and 1st thoracic spinous process. Mean treatment position was compared to the planning position for a measurement of systematic set-up error. Mean interfraction position variation of the 2nd cervical vertebra was 0.2, 0.1 and 0.2 cm for the ventrodorsal, caudocranial and laterolateral directions respectively, and the average systematic set up error was 0.2, 0.1 and 0.2 cm for the ventrodorsal, caudocranial and laterolateral directions respectively. Knowledge of the magnitude of reposition errors should be included when determining the margins around the tumor. PMID:14703256

  2. Air lifted and propelled vehicle

    Jones, T.E.; Johnson, R.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a vehicle which rides on air cushion and which is propelled by air, comprising: upper deck means, having a bottom edge which defines the periphery of an area; a thin, flexible sheet located below the upper deck means, extending beneath the bottom edge and secured beneath the bottom edge for defining a plenum that is defined by and closed off by the upper deck means and the sheet. The deck means is shaped within the area defined by its bottom edge for causing the plenum to always be an open space and the upper deck means is rigid enough to maintain that open condition of the plenum; the sheet being secured in a manner permitting the sheet to pillow when air is pressurized in the plenum; and the sheet being perforated below the upper deck means for permitting exit of air from the plenum at a controllable rate through the perforations; the sheet having a large plurality of the perforations dispersed over most of its area below the upper deck means; each of the perforations being a hole.

  3. Interpretation results of the western Algerian Atlas Megaregional Project

    Bertagne, A.J.; Smith, N.G. [CGG American Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gouri, A. [Sonatrach, Boumerdes (Algeria)

    1995-08-01

    The International Megaregional Project is a worldwide project involving the compilation and interpretation of long regional seismic lines which cross several basins with the same transect. The goal of the project is to synthesize the current geologic knowledge of the areas traversed and to identify new areas of exploration interest. The international Megaregional framework which has been established serves as a focus for the geologic efforts and seismic data compilation. This project is conducted with the cooperation of a consortium of multinational oil companies as well as Sonatrach and CGG. Megaregional lines can provide new insights into: (1) what is and is not basement, (2) maturation history and migration pathways, (3) regional structure, and (4) regional stratigraphy. The lines can thereby lead to the development of new exploration concepts. The poster session discusses the interpretation of a seismic segment that traverses the Saharan Atlas, Hauts Plateaux, Telagh Basin, Cheliff Basin and terminates in the deep Mediterranean. The line shows the complex history of the area and varying thicknesses of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. After the Hercynian Orogeny, during the Triassic, crust was extended and thinned slightly. During the Jurassic and Cretaceous, salt flowage resulted in the formation of pillows and extensional faults. This was locally followed by tectonic overprinting in the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic (Alpine Orogeny). Although the tectonic history of the area is complex, selected parts of the western Algerian Atlas may be prospective.

  4. Investigation of uranium potential of Precambrian metasedimentary rocks, central Laramie Range, Wyoming. Final report

    This study is directed toward evaluation of potential uraniferous quartz-pebble conglomerate occurrences or strata-bound uranium occurrences in the Laramie Range. Geologic investigations pursuant to that evaluation provide that metasediments in the central Laramie Range constitute an Archean greenstone belt which overlies remobilized granite-gneiss basement terrane of the Archean Wyoming Province. This greenstone belt is formed of branching arcuate, synformal keels of supracrustal rocks infolded and enveloped by granitic domes. The stratigraphic succession of the belt is a triad formed of lower mafic-ultramafic rocks including komatiites, middle mafic volcanics including pillow basalts, and an upper metasedimentary sequence composed of boulder paraconglomerates, graywackes, marbles, quartzites, pelites, thin quartz-pebble conglomerates and thin, banded iron formation. Because the metasedimentary sequence does not contain a thick, mature clastic wedge, a thick fluvial section, basal quartz-pebble conglomerates, or significant geochemical or radiometric anomalies and because the sequence is structurally complex and regionally of amphibolite facies metamorphic rank, the potential for uraniferous fossil placers is considered nil. Occurrences of other types may be indicated by radiometric and geochemical anomalies discovered over sheared zones within the granite-gneiss terrane and small radiometric anomalies over a coarse-grained phase of granite located north of the greenstone belt

  5. The Neoproterozoic Malani magmatism of the northwestern Indian shield: Implications for crust-building processes

    Kamal K Sharma

    2004-12-01

    Malani is the largest event of anorogenic felsic magmatism (covering ∼50,000km2) in India. This magmatic activity took place at ∼750Ma post-dating the Erinpura granite (850 Ma) and ended prior to Marwar Supergroup (680 Ma) sedimentation. Malani eruptions occurred mostly on land, but locally sub-aqueous conditions are shown by the presence of conglomerate, grits and pillow lava. The Malani rocks do not show any type of regional deformation effects. The Malanis are characterised by bimodal volcanism with a dominant felsic component, followed by granitic plutonism and a terminal dyke phase. An angular unconformity between Malani lavas and basement is observed, with the presence of conglomerate at Sindreth, Diri, and Kankani. This indicates that the crust was quite stable and peneplained prior to the Malani activity. Similarly, the absence of any thrust zone, tectonic m´elange and tectonised contact of the Malanis with the basement goes against a plate subduction setting for their genesis. After the closure of orogenic cycles in the Aravalli craton of the northwestern shield, this anorogenic intraplate magmatic activity took place in a cratonic rift setting under an extensional tectonic regime.

  6. Description of a Simple Method of Stoma Protection During Prone Positioning.

    Mackert, Gina A; Reid, Christopher M; Dobke, Marek K; Tenenhaus, Mayer

    2016-06-01

    Surgeries conducted with the patient in the prone position are frequent and can be lengthy. Abdominal stomas and su- prapubic catheters require protection for the complete duration of the procedure to avoid complications such as stomal ischemia, bleeding, or mucocutaneous separation. Standard protection strategies such as pillows and wedges can eas- ily fail. In the course of managing several patients who had sustained ostomy complications following surgery in a prone position, a simple method of stoma protection was devised. Instead of discarding the foam headrest typically used dur- ing induction by anesthesia staff, this device is placed with its central recess over the stoma and secured to the patient's abdominal wall with gentle tape just before turning the patient into a prone position. This method, used in more than 80 patients, has been found to effectively relieve pressure, and no complications have been observed. The foam shape also enables unobstructed drainage of fluids, facilitating collection and preventing leakage and contamination of the surgical field. Because the device is widely used by anesthesia, it is readily available and does not add any extra cost. PMID:27356146

  7. Unconstrained monitoring of long-term heart and breath rates during sleep

    An unconstrained method for the long-term monitoring of heart and breath rates during sleep is proposed. The system includes a sensor unit and a web-based network module. The sensor unit is set beneath a pillow to pick up the pressure variations from the head induced by inhalation/exhalation movements and heart pulsation during sleep. The measured pressure signal was digitized and transferred to a remote database server via the network module. A wavelet-based algorithm was employed to detect the heart and breath rates, as well as body movement, during sleep. The overall system was utilized for a total six-month trial operation delivered to a female subject. The profiles of the heart and breath rates on a beat-by-beat and daily basis were obtained. Movements during sleep were also estimated. The results show that the daily average percentage of undetectable periods (UPs) during 881.6 sleep hours over a 180 day period was 17.2%. A total of 89.2% of sleep hours had a UP of not more than 25%. The profile of the heart rate revealed a periodic property that corresponded to the female monthly menstrual cycle. Our system shows promise as a long-term unconstrained monitor for heart and breath rates, and for other physiological parameters related to the quality of sleep and the regularity of the menstrual cycle. (note)

  8. Argon geochronology of Kilauea's early submarine history

    Calvert, A.T.; Lanphere, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Submarine alkalic and transitional basalts collected by submersible along Kilauea volcano's south flank represent early eruptive products from Earth's most active volcano. Strongly alkalic basalt fragments sampled from volcaniclastic deposits below the mid-slope Hilina Bench yield 40Ar/39Ar ages from 212 ?? 38 to 280 ?? 20 ka. These ages are similar to high-precision 234 ?? 9 and 239 ?? 10 ka phlogopite ages from nephelinite clasts in the same deposits. Above the mid-slope bench, two intact alkalic to transitional pillow lava sequences protrude through the younger sediment apron. Samples collected from a weakly alkalic basalt section yield 138 ?? 30 to 166 ?? 26 ka ages and others from a transitional basalt section yield 138 ?? 115 and 228 ?? 114 ka ages. The ages are incompatible with previous unspiked K-Ar studies from samples in deep drill holes along the east rift of Kilauea. The submarine birth of Kilauea volcano is estimated at <300 ka. If the weakly alkalic sequence we dated is representative of the volcano as a whole, the transition from alkalic to tholeiitic basalt compositions is dated at ??? 150 ka. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrological variability in the Fraser River Basin during the 20th century: A sensitivity study with the VIC model

    Kang, D.; Gao, H.; Dery, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, a macroscale surface hydrology model, was applied to the Fraser River Basin (FRB) of British Columbia, Canada. Previous modeling studies have demonstrated that the FRB is a snow-dominated system but with climate change may evolve to a pluvial regime. The ultimate goal of this model application is to evaluate the changing contribution of snowmelt to streamflow in the FRB both spatially and temporally. To this end, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data combined with meteorological observations over 1953 to 2006 are used to drive the model at a resolution of 0.25°. Model simulations are first validated with daily discharge observations from the Water Survey of Canada (WSC). In addition, the snow water equivalent (SWE) results from VIC are compared with snow pillow observations from the B.C. Ministry of Environment. Then peak SWE values simulated each winter are compared with the annual runoff data to quantify the changing contribution of snowmelt to the hydrology of the FRB. With perturbed model forcings such as precipitation and air temperature, how streamflow and surface energy-mass balance are changed is evaluated. Finally, interactions between the land surface and ambient atmosphere are evaluated by analyzing VIC results such as evaporation, soil moisture, snowmelt and sensible-latent heat flux with corresponding meteorological forcings, i.e. precipitation and air temperature.

  10. Back-Arc Extension in the Southern Andes: A Review and Critical Reappraisal

    Dalziel, I. W. D.

    1981-03-01

    The interpretation that the mafic 'rocas verdes' (green rocks) complex of the southern Andes represents part of the uplifted floor of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous back-arc basin has proved particularly useful in understanding the geological evolution of the southern Andes, the north Scotia Ridge and the Antarctic Peninsula. Clear field evidence of the back-arc setting of the 'rocas verdes' gabbro-sheeted dyke - pillow lava ophiolitic assemblages has encouraged fruitful petrological and geochemical comparison with mid-ocean ridge and marginal basin basalts, other onshore ophiolite complexes, and Archaean greenstone belts. Uncertainty still surrounds estimates of the original width and depth of the basin, as well as the proportion of new mafic crust, compared with relict sialic crust, in the basin floor. These questions are unresolved, owing mainly to the considerable Lower Cretaceous turbiditic basin infill and the effects of mid-Cretaceous compressional deformation. While the field relations clearly indicate that the 'rocas verdes' basin is not an older piece of ocean floor 'trapped' behind a volcanic arc, it is not yet clear whether the basin is directly subduction-related or falls in the category of back-arc 'leaky transforms' like the proto-Gulf of California or apparent 'rip-off' features like the Andaman Sea.

  11. Determination of ancient volcanic eruption center based on gravity methods (3D) in Gunungkidul area Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Santoso, Agus; Sismanto, Setiawan, Ary; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo

    2016-05-01

    Ancient eruption centers can be determined by detecting the position of the ancient volcanic material, it is important to understand the elements of ancient volcanic material by studying the area geologically and prove the existence of an ancient volcanic eruption centers using geophysics gravity method. The measuring instrument is Lacoste & Romberg gravimeter type 1115, the number of data are 900 points. The area 60×40 kilometers, the modeling 3D software is reaching depth of 15 km at the south of the island of Java subduction zone. It is suported by geological data in the field that are found as the following: 1. Pyroclastic Fall which is a product of volcanic eruptions, and lapilli tuff with felsic mineral. 2. Pyroclastic flow with Breccia, tuffaceous sandstone and tuff breccia. 3. Hot springs near Parangwedang Parangtritis. 4. Igneous rock with scoria structure in Parang Kusumo, structured amigdaloida which is the result of the eruption of lava/volcanic eruptions, and Pillow lava in the shows the flowing lava into the sea. Base on gravity anomaly shows that there are strong correlationship between those geological data to the gravity anomaly. The gravblox modeling (3D) shows the position of ancient of volcanic eruption in this area clearly.

  12. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in Imam Khomayni Hospital, Ilam, 2011-2012

    Reza Azizian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causes of hospital infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common agent of urinary tract infections. Hospital acquired infection as an old challenge has high importance in hospital infection control and Staphylococcus spp. play main role among routine pathogens. this study designed to investigate the of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus among ICU, Men and Children wards. Materials and methods: Samples collected randomly from ICU, Men and Children wards. Through 203 sampling of wall, floor, bed, pillow and blanket, 75 Staphylococcus spp. isolated. Species recognizes base on culture on Mannitol salt agar and Novobiocin susceptibility determination. Result: Among 75 positive samples, 62 (82.7%, and 13 isolates were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. 51% of bacteria isolated from ICU, 29% from children ward and 20% from men surgery ward. Staphylococcus saprophyticus comprised 87%, 82% and 73% of isolates pertaining to ICU, pediatric and men surgery wards, in a row. Conclusion: Our funding indicate there is an inappropriate instrument to deal with infection in hospital specially ICU. Regards to this issue that Staphylococcus spp. as a main pathogen which has potency to form biofilm and show high resistance to extended broad antibiotics therefore it is suggested to prepare proper guideline to cope with bacteria dissemination and resistance emergence in hospital.

  13. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemistry at south of Arghash (Neyshabour

    Zahra Karimi Saeid Abadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arghash area is located 45 km to southwest of Neyshabour. The subvolcanic rocks in the area consist of biotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende monzonite porphyry, biotite hornblende monzonite porphyry, monzodiorite porphyry and biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry units. The volcanic rocks consist of hornblende biotite dacite, biotite hornblende dacite, and andesite and pillow lava. The plutonic rocks consist of hornblende monzodiorite, hornblende monzonite, quartz monzonite, hornblende quartz monzodiorite, biotite granodiorite, hornblende granodiorite, biotite hornblende granodiorite, biotite quartz diorite and pyroxene dolerite units. Five types of alteration including propylitic, carbonate, argillic, silicification and sericitic were recognized. Those are subdivided into twelve sub-zones based on the mineral abundances and intensity of alteration. Primary pyrite, 3-4%, is found mainly as disseminated. Secondary mineralization includes limonite, hematite and jarosite. Twenty rock chip and 8 stream sediment samples were collected for geochemical exploration. The samples were analysed for Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag and Sb using Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometric (AAS method. In stream sediment samples, Cu abundance is 34-58 ppm, Zn 45-422 ppm, Pb 28-42 ppm and Ag 2-12 ppm; whereas in rock chip samples, Cu abundance is 8-1137 ppm, Zn 13-411 ppm, Pb 15-97 ppm and Ag 3-32 ppm.

  14. Strain analysis in the Orijärvi triangle, southwestern Finland; in perspective of tectonic models

    Stel, H.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Finite strain analyses were performed in metavolcanic rocks (agglomerates and pillowed metabasalts from the Orijärvi area, southwestern Finland. In this area, tight folding (F1 of layered metasedimentary rocks and development of a penetrative axial plane schistosity (S1 took place during an early stage in the Svecofennian orogeny. Within the domain, there is no evidence of older deformational structures or of a later deformation phase; except in narrow, late-stage shear zones that bound the Orijärvi triangle. During the orogenic evolution, a pervasive attenuation of the fabric in metavolcanic rocks has taken place. In order to quantify strain intensity and to investigate the relation of strain in metavolcanics and folding in metasediments, strain analyses were performed by the Rf/φ method on (subelliptical markers. Metavolcanic rocks demonstrate relatively homogeneous strain values on the outcrop scale, but strain parameters vary strongly on the scale of the study area. This variation in strain correlates with variation in rock composition; felsic metavolcanics demonstrate consistently lower strain intensities than mafic ones. Finite strain ellipsoids are prolate, indicating that the rocks underwent apparent constriction. X axes of strain are(subparallel to the regional fold axis. Constriction in the Orijärvi triangle is not in conflict with any of the current tectonic models. However, given the local structural setting, the most straightforward interpretation is that of progressive constriction by plutonic diapirism.

  15. IODP Expeditions 304 & 305 Characterize the Lithology, Structure, and Alteration of an Oceanic Core Complex

    Christopher J. MacLeod

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available More than forty years after the Mohole Project (Bascom, 1961, the goal of drilling a complete section through in situ oceanic crust remains unachieved. Deep Sea Drilling Project – Ocean Drilling Program (DSDP-ODP Hole 504B within the eastern Pacifi c (Alt et al., 1993 is the deepest hole ever drilled into ocean crust (2111 mbsf, but it failed to reach lower crustal plutonic rocks below the pillow basalts and sheeted dikes. IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 eventuallyrecovered the long-sought transition from sheeted dikes into underlying gabbros by drilling into very fast-spreading Pacifi c crust (Wilson et al., 2006. The lithology and structure of oceanic crust produced at slow-spreading ridges are heterogeneous (e.g., Cannat et al., 1997 and offer unique drilling access to lower crust and upper mantle rocks. After ODP Hole 735B penetrated 1500 m of gabbro at the Southwest Indian Ridge (Dick et al., 2000, IODP Expeditions 304 and 305 recently recovered just over 1400 m of little-deformed, gabbroic lower crust from a tectonic window along the slowspreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  16. Rehabilitation exercise for treatment of vestibular disorder: A case study

    Avraham Feazadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo and dizziness are common symptoms in the general population. While the clinical picture is well known and widely described, there are different interpretations of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of a 56 year old woman with complains of positional vertigo for 35 consecutive years. She suffered from a sudden onset of rotatory, unilateral horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The symtoms started a day after falling from a bus, where she injured her head. Otherwise her medical history was unremarkable. She was treated with an individualized home exercise program of eye movement exercises, Brandt/Daroff exercises, and general conditioning exercises (i.e., laying on the left side from sitting on the bed, while the head rotated 45 degrees to the right, waiting for about one minue; twice a day on gradual basis, not laying on the side all the way, but to use enough pillows to lay about at 60 degrees. Four weeks from the start of physical therapy, the patient was free of symptoms, even when her neck was in the extended position.

  17. Sinkholes, collapse structures and large landslides in an active salt dome submerged by a reservoir: The unique case of the Ambal ridge in the Karun River, Zagros Mountains, Iran

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Lizaga, Iván

    2016-02-01

    Ambal ridge, covering 4 km2, is a salt pillow of Gachsaran Formation with significant salt exposures in direct contact with the Karun River, Zagros Mountains. The highly cavernous salt dome is currently being flooded by the Gotvand Reservoir, second largest in Iran. Geomorphic evidence, including the sharp deflection of the Karun River and defeated streams indicate that Ambal is an active halokinetic structure, probably driven by erosional unloading. Around 30% of the salt dome is affected by large landslides up to ca. 50 × 106 m3 in volume. Slope oversteepening related to fluvial erosion and halokinetic rise seems to be the main controlling factor. A total of 693 sinkholes have been inventoried (170 sinkholes/km2), for which a scaling relationship has been produced. The depressions occur preferentially along a belt with a high degree of clustering. This spatial distribution is controlled by the proximity to the river, slope gradient and halite content in the bedrock. A large compound depression whose bottom lies below the normal maximum level of the reservoir will likely be flooded by water table rise forming a lake. The impoundment of the reservoir has induced peculiar collapse structures 220-280 m across, expressed by systems of arcuate fissures and scarps. Rapid subsurface salt dissolution is expected to generate and reactivate a large number of sinkholes and may reactivate landslides with a significant vertical component due to lack of basal support.

  18. Extraction of the respiratory signal from small-animal CT projections for a retrospective gating method

    ChavarrIas, C; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; RodrIguez-Ruano, A; Soto-Montenegro, M L; GarcIa-Barreno, P; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Anexo PsiquiatrIa, 1 Planta. C/Ibiza, 43. Madrid 28007 (Spain)

    2008-09-07

    We propose a retrospective respiratory gating algorithm to generate dynamic CT studies. To this end, we compared three different methods of extracting the respiratory signal from the projections of small-animal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Given a set of frames acquired from a certain axial angle, subtraction of their average image from each individual frame produces a set of difference images. Pixels in these images have positive or negative values (according to the respiratory phase) in those areas where there is lung movement. The respiratory signals were extracted by analysing the shape of the histogram of these difference images: we calculated the first four central and non-central moments. However, only odd-order moments produced the desired breathing signal, as the even-order moments lacked information about the phase. Each of these curves was compared to a reference signal recorded by means of a pneumatic pillow. Given the similar correlation coefficients yielded by all of them, we selected the mean to implement our retrospective protocol. Respiratory phase bins were separated, reconstructed independently and included in a dynamic sequence, suitable for cine playback. We validated our method in five adult rat studies by comparing profiles drawn across the diaphragm dome, with and without retrospective respiratory gating. Results showed a sharper transition in the gated reconstruction, with an average slope improvement of 60.7%.

  19. Geochemical and Geophysical Characteristics of the Balud Ophiolitic Complex (BOC, Masbate Island, Philippines: Implications for its Generation, Evolution and Emplacement

    Pearlyn C. Manalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first field, geochemical and geophysical information on the recently recognized Early Cretaceous Balud Ophiolitic Complex (BOC in the island of Masbate in the Central Philippines. Mapping of the western limb of the island revealed that only the upper crustal section of the BOC is exposed in this area. Geochemically, the pillow basalts are characterized by transitional mid-oceanic ridge basalt-island arc tholeiitic compositions. Gravity surveys yielded low Bouguer anomaly values that are consistent with the highly dismembered nature of the BOC. Short wavelength, high amplitude magnetic anomalies registered across the study area are attributed to shallow magnetic sources. This is taken to support the model that the ophiolitic complex occurs as thin crustal slivers that are not deeply-rooted in the mantle. Comparing BOC with other ophiolites in the Central Philippines, such as those in the islands of Sibuyan, Leyte and Bohol, suggests the possibility of a common or contiguous source for similarly-aged and geochemically composed crust-mantle sequences in the region.

  20. Comparisons of venus surface compositions with terrestrial ocean floor rocks

    Statistical comparison of Venera and Vega lander x-ray fluorescence spectrometer measurements of the composition of the Venus surface with an extensive database of compositional data for terrestrial ocean floor rocks indicates that the Venera 14 data matches certain tholeiitic basalts from the Kane Fracture Zone (KFZ) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22-250N) at high confidence levels. The tholeiites most similar to the Venera measurements are very primitive, low-calcium, high-alumina pillow basalts depleted in clinopyroxene, and are relatively unique to certain fracture zones in oceanic regions. If the Venera 14 analogy is valid, the implication is that certain Venus basaltic magmas have lost clinopyroxene at relatively high pressures by fractionation, perhaps within a deep source region. Comparisons of Venera 13 and Vega 2 data with oceanic rocks yield poorer matches. Venera 13 matches Loihi seamount alkali basalts, as well as potassic mafic rocks from oceanic island such as Tristan de Cunha. The best analogy to Vega 2 may be altered gabbros or basic lavas from terrestrial basic intrusions such as the Troodos ophiolite. The close similarity of a representative sample of Venera 14 material with distinctive ocean floor tholeiitic basalts suggests that deep magma storage regions exist on Venus, and that derivation of both tholeiitic and alkalic magmas from a single primitive parent may be an important process on Venus

  1. Bedbug infestation and its control practices in Gbajimba: a rural settlement in Benue state, Nigeri

    E.A. Omudu , C.N. Kus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The common bedbug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus 1758 (Hemiptera:Cimicidae is a globally re-emerging pest of serious public health concern. We investigated bedbuginfestation in randomly selected apartments in Gbajimba community in Guma Local Governmentarea in Benue state, Nigeria.Methods: Beddings and furniture (bed frames, pillows, mattresses, cushion chairs, mats, mosquitonets and bamboo beds were thoroughly inspected for bedbug infestation using the hand-pickingtechnique. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis for differences in the infestation levels inharbourages and sampling locations.Results: Only 16% of the apartments investigated showed no evidence of bedbug infestation asegg cases and faecal marks were sighted in 62.2% of apartments surveyed. The highest infestationrate was observed in Angwan Jukun area and infestation here was higher compared to other studylocations within the town though the difference was not statistically significant (2 = 7.92, df = 6,p >0.05. Bamboo beds harboured the highest number of bedbugs collected, accounting for 35.8%,while other harbourages like iron bed frames and sleeping mats had 23 and 22.7% infestationrates respectively. The infestation rates in these household items were significantly higher thanother items inspected (2 = 11.8, df = 4, p > 0.05.Interpretation & conclusion: This study demonstrates the urgent need for identification of evidencesof infestation and bedbug management involving community participation in inspection, detectionand education, including physical removal and exclusion as well as pesticide application.

  2. Ultra-diffuse hydrothermal venting supports Fe-oxidizing bacteria and massive umber deposition at 5000 m off Hawaii.

    Edwards, Katrina J; Glazer, B T; Rouxel, O J; Bach, W; Emerson, D; Davis, R E; Toner, B M; Chan, C S; Tebo, B M; Staudigel, H; Moyer, C L

    2011-11-01

    A novel hydrothermal field has been discovered at the base of Lōihi Seamount, Hawaii, at 5000 mbsl. Geochemical analyses demonstrate that 'FeMO Deep', while only 0.2 °C above ambient seawater temperature, derives from a distal, ultra-diffuse hydrothermal source. FeMO Deep is expressed as regional seafloor seepage of gelatinous iron- and silica-rich deposits, pooling between and over basalt pillows, in places over a meter thick. The system is capped by mm to cm thick hydrothermally derived iron-oxyhydroxide- and manganese-oxide-layered crusts. We use molecular analyses (16S rDNA-based) of extant communities combined with fluorescent in situ hybridizations to demonstrate that FeMO Deep deposits contain living iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria related to the recently isolated strain Mariprofundus ferroxydans. Bioenergetic calculations, based on in-situ electrochemical measurements and cell counts, indicate that reactions between iron and oxygen are important in supporting chemosynthesis in the mats, which we infer forms a trophic base of the mat ecosystem. We suggest that the biogenic FeMO Deep hydrothermal deposit represents a modern analog for one class of geological iron deposits known as 'umbers' (for example, Troodos ophilolites, Cyprus) because of striking similarities in size, setting and internal structures. PMID:21544100

  3. Snow water equivalent measured with cosmic-ray neutrons: reviving a little known but highly successful field method

    Desilets, D.

    2012-12-01

    Secondary cosmic-ray neutrons are attenuated strongly by water in either solid or liquid form, suggesting a method for measuring snow water equivalent that has several advantages over alternative technologies. The cosmic-ray attenuation method is passive, portable, highly adaptable, and operates over an exceptionally large range of snow pack thicknesses. But despite promising initial observations made in the 1970s, the technique today remains practically unknown to snow hydrologists. Side-by-side measurements performed over the past several years with a snow pillow and a submerged cosmic-ray probe demonstrate that the cosmic-ray attenuation method merits consideration for a wide range of applications—especially those where alternative methods are made problematic by dense vegetation, rough terrain, deep snowpack or a lack of vehicular access. During the snow-free season, the instrumentation can be used to monitor soil moisture, thus providing another widely sought field measurement. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. With main facilities in Albuquerque, N.M., and Livermore, C.A., Sandia has major R&D responsibilities in national security, energy and environmental technologies, and economic competitiveness.

  4. Plume-proximal mid-ocean ridge origin of Zhongba mafic rocks in the western Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Southern Tibet

    He, Juan; Li, Yalin; Wang, Chengshan; Dilek, Yildirim; Wei, Yushuai; Chen, Xi; Hou, Yunling; Zhou, Aorigele

    2016-05-01

    The >2000 km-long Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) in southern Tibet includes the remnants of the Mesozoic Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, and is divided by the Zhada-Zhongba microcontinent into northern and southern branches in its western segment. Zircon U-Pb dating of a doleritic rock from the northern branch has revealed a concordant age of 160.5 ± 1.3 Ma. All of the doleritic samples from the northern branch and the pillow basalt and gabbro samples from the southern branch display consistent REE and trace element patterns similar to those of modern OIB-type rocks. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures of these OIB-type rocks from the western segment are identical with those of OIB-type and alkaline rocks from other ophiolite massifs along the central and eastern segments of the YZSZ, suggesting a common mantle plume source for their melt evolution. The enriched Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic character of the gabbroic dike rocks from the southern branch points to a mantle plume source, contaminated by subducted oceanic crust or pelagic sediments. We infer that the mafic rock associations exposed along the YZSZ represent the remnants of a Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, which was developed as part of a plume-proximal seafloor-spreading system, reminiscent of the seamount chains along-across the modern mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific Ocean.

  5. Systematic measurements of the radon concentration indoor from Remetea, Harghita county

    Primary goal of the Remetea radon program was to carry out an indoor radon survey. The program can be applied too, in other places of the country. Remetea was built on volcanic rocks, where aligning of mineral water springs tells about the existence of geologic faulting. The 1992 census counted 2406 houses and 6550 residents of the village. The sample consisted of 120 houses chosen randomly from the entire stock. A hypergeometric statistical model has been used for sampling. Measurements were done in bedrooms at pillow level using etched track type Radamon radon detectors. Exposure lasted from January 1999 to July 1999. From the measurements it can be stated that the number of houses with radon concentration exceeding 200 Bq/m3 is around 82. A high precision determination of activity has been done (errors under 3 %). Mapping indoor radon levels resembles the fault location that is indicated by springs and exhibited by geological studies. Particular points of the program were the soulful and self-aware approach the more than 30 schoolboys and girls participated, and the fact that the program met with a warm response from the public. (author)

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary; Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Omraadebeskrivelser - Description of areas. Dansk og engelsk resume

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  7. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  8. Caldera Formation on the Vance Seamounts

    Clague, D.; Paduan, J.; Cousens, B.; Cornejo, L.; Perfit, M.; Wendt, R.; Stix, J.; Helo, C.

    2006-12-01

    The Vance Seamounts are a chain of near-ridge volcanoes located just west of the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The six volcanoes are built on ocean crust ranging from 0.78 Ma at the southeastern end to 2.55 Ma in the northwest. Morphologic analysis indicates that the volcanoes were constructed sequentially and get younger to the southeast towards the ridge axis. Like many near-ridge volcanoes, some of the Vance Seamounts have large offset calderas that presumably formed above evacuated shallow magma chambers within the upper ocean crust. In summer 2006, we completed 6 dives using MBARI's ROV Tiburon to study the formation of these calderas. The floor of each caldera consists of flat-lying volcaniclastite, under about 25 cm of pelagic sediment. Some caldera floors have mounds of post-caldera pillow flows. The caldera walls have a lower section covered by talus and an upper section of interbedded massive flows with columnar joints (to 11 m thick) and pillow basalts. The top of each caldera wall has a unit of volcanic mudstone to sandstone ranging from 20 cm to 2 m thick. The fine matrix of many of these samples is green hydrothermal clay. The finest siltstone to mudstone samples appear to be layers of massive tan hydrothermal clays. Talus fragments, lava and volcaniclastite outcrops are universally coated and cemented by 1 to 4 cm-thick deposits of hydrothermal Mn-oxide crusts, even on the youngest of the volcanoes. Volcanic particles in the sandstones are mostly dense angular glass, but bubble-wall fragments (limu o Pele) are present and indicate formation during low-energy pyroclastic eruptions. Without the few percent limu o Pele fragments, the glass fragments would resemble those inferred to form by quench granulation. We suggest that quench granulation is actually pyroclastic fragmentation that occurs as coalesced magmatic gas bubbles disrupt the molten lava surface at the vents. Our observations confirm that the more southeasterly offset calderas truncated thick

  9. Wide-angle seismic reflections as direct indictors of partial melt beneath an andesite arc

    Stern, T. A.; Benson, A.; Stratford, W. R.; Gamble, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Quasi-linear arcs of andesite volcanoes that erupt above 120 ± 40 km deep Waditi-Benioff zones are one of the most striking surface manifestations of plate tectonics. The prevailing view is that andesite magma that feed these arcs are an end-product of fluid-assisted melting in the mantle wedge1. Two key questions remain unresolved: why is the line of an active arc so sharply defined? and where do parental mantle-derived melts pool and differentiate into mafic restite and more felsic magma components that are so distinctive of continental magmatic arc systems ? Here we present seismic evidence from the MORC (mantle or crust?) project for a focused zone of melt below the andesite arc within northern New Zealand. Nine ~ 0.4 - 1.3 tonne dynamite shots were recorded on ~ 700 seismographs spaced along a 120 km long array across, and normal to the axis of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ). Two important features of the ray tracing solution are: (i) a lower-crustal, 10 km thick, "rift-pillow" of rocks where the P-wave seismic velocities (Vp) are ~ 6.8-7.1 km/s. Seismic reflections from top and bottom of the pillow are termed R1 and R2 respectively. (ii) Strong seismic reflections (termed R3 reflector) are recorded from a relatively short (12 -18 km-long) reflector at a depth of ~ 32 ± 2 km. An analysis of interval velocities between the R2 and R3 reflectors show a P-wave speed of 7.6 +/- 0.2 km/s, which is interpreted as anomalous upper mantle. Thus R3 is regarded as being a reflector within the upper mantle. Ray-tracing locates R3 beneath the eastern margin of the TVZ and directly beneath the active volcanic (andesite) front and geothermal fields. A causal relationship between the R3 reflector and the andesite arc is therefore implied. The amplitude ratio of the R3/R2 reflections along common traces is as high as 4-6 for incidence angles of reflection of 45-60 degrees. These data suggest R3 is best explained with numerical methods by an interface across which there is a

  10. An oceanic core complex (OCC) in the Mirdita ophiolite of the Albanian Dinarides?

    Maffione, M.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M.

    2011-12-01

    structures in three-dimensions from kilometric to millimetric spatial scales.The western part of Mirdita ophiolite is composed of a lherzolitic mantle sequence overlain by a thin gabbro/troctolitic sequence and MORB-like pillow lavas. The sheeted dyke complex and gabbroic sequence are missing locally, and the upper crustal volcanic sequence then rests directly on the mantle sequence in tectonic contact. This anomalous situation is directly comparable to lithostratigraphic relationships in oceanic detachment fault settings. In order to understand this tectonic contact and describe its kinematics we sampled 73 sites from ultramafics, lava flows, pillow lavas, and dykes, at the Puka and Krabbi massifs between the villages of Puka and Rreshen in northern Albania. Preliminary results showed a ca. 20° difference in paleomagnetic inclination between ultramafics and the volcanic sequence, quite minor than the 45-60° expected for detachment faults at modern OCCs. Now we discuss the results from all the samples sites and will provide a complete interpretation of the relationship between ultramafic and volcanics rocks from the northwestern part of the Mirdita ophiolite, in the framework of the OCC hypothesis.

  11. The Influence of Unconformities Along the Layer Interface on Capillary Barrier Flow

    Wohnlich, S.; Dallery, M.; Lesón, M.; Bitomsky, K.

    2008-12-01

    Under unsaturated conditions the water flow in sediments is largely influenced by capillary forces. Especially if layers of fine grained sand overlay coarser layers of sand and gravel. The fine soil layer stores infiltrating water (capillary forces), acts like a drainage layer in sloping systems and thus is used to divert laterally the water under unsaturated conditions. This effect is used in waste technology as a barrier to downward flow. By far most of the present experiments with this respect were investigating undisturbed, straight construction of the interface between the two layers. Sedimentological unconformities in natural soils or uneven settlements of underlying waste are disturbing this distinct construction. These unconformities along the layer interface may change the flow pattern and cause vertical breakthrough. The experiments presented here are aimed to quantify the influence of interface discontinuities on the capillary flow. In the experimental set up a capillary layer (0.35 m sand) and capillary block (0.18 m gravel) were placed in an experimental tank of 6 m length, 1 m high, and 0.6 m width, with a slope of 11.3°. The tank is subdivided in 12 separately measurable drainage compartments, which enables the identification and quantification of local breakthrough. Inflow, outflow at all 14 segments, soil water tension (13 tensiometers), soil moisture (4 TDR probes) were automatically monitored. In addition tracers (NaCl and Amidorhodamine G) were used to visualize the flow pattern and determine hydraulic parameters. In a first set of experiments (3) the interface between sand and gravel were partially covered by a plastic membrane with variable openings. The second setup included two pillows filled with water, which were placed in the gravel during the construction each on the left and the right side of the tank, in a distance of 0.42 m from the upper end. In all setups the inflow rate was stepwise increased until reaching the lateral drainage

  12. Geological evolution of the Coombs Allan Hills area, Ferrar large igneous province, Antarctica: Debris avalanches, mafic pyroclastic density currents, phreatocauldrons

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; McClintock, Murray

    2008-05-01

    . Meanwhile at Carapace Nunatak, mafic clasts were mixed with detrital material to form the Carapace Sandstone in alluvial and eventually lacustrine environments. Eruptions then became largely effusive, producing hundreds of metres of flood lavas that covered the landscape ('Kirkpatrick time'). In places, lava flowed into ephemeral lakes to form pillow-palagonite breccias (base of sequence, Carapace Nunatak) or pillow lavas (top of sequence, Coombs Hills). Several generations of Ferrar intrusions were emplaced during the course of these events; at least three can be distinguished based on field relations. New geochemical data indicates that for the Ferrar province, magma involved in the explosive eruptions had the same major element composition as that which produced shallow intrusions and lavas. We also note the possibility that flood lavas were fed by plugs cross-cutting the Mawson Formation at Coombs Hills, rather than by major dikes extending to the surface. Finally, we infer that eruption plumes were limited to the troposphere and that direct environmental impacts were thus likely restricted to the southern hemisphere.

  13. Effect of different body position care combined with early rehabilitation training on the functional recovery of knee joint after surgery for fracture of patella%髌骨骨折术后不同体位护理联合早期康复训练对膝关节功能恢复的影响

    余敏; 刘长英

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨髌骨骨折术后不同体位护理联合早期康复训练对膝关节功能恢复的影响。方法:将47例髌骨骨折患者随机分为实验组24例和对照组23例,实验组内固定术后局部弹力绷带包扎,膝后垫软枕,予屈曲膝关节90°~120°体位放置;常规组内固定术后常规抬高患肢15°~20°,膝后垫软枕,膝关节屈曲5°~10°体位。两组患者术后均实施冷敷,第2天由主管医生、护士和康复师对其进行康复指导,分别于术后第3天、第14天、第30天比较两组患者不同体位护理效果。结果:实验组患肢肿胀、疼痛程度明显轻于对照组,功能锻炼主动配合、膝关节功能恢复情况明显优于对照组,患者平均住院天数明显短于对照组(P﹤0.05);实验组早期体位舒适度较对照组差( P﹤0.05)。结论:髌骨骨折患者术后正确的体位、早期及时正确的功能锻炼是膝关节功能康复的关键。%Objective:To investigate the effect of different body position care combined with early rehabilitation training on the function-al recovery of knee joint after fracture of patella. Methods:47 patients with patellar fracture were randomly divided into the experimental group(n=24)and the control group(n=23). The local bandage was adopted with elastic bandages and soft pillow was used to cushion the knee flexion(90 °~120 °)after internal fixation in the experimental group;the affected limb was lifted about 15 °~ 20 °and soft pil-low was put under the knee in the position of knee flexion(5 ° ~ 10 °)after internal fixation in the control group. The patients in both groups were treated with cold compress after operation and they were given rehabilitation guidance by the doctor and nurse in charge and physical therapist on the second day,the effect of different body position care was compared respectively on the 3rd,14th and 30th day after operation. Results:The severity of swelling and

  14. Analysis of gravity anomalies in Maio Island, Cape Verde.

    Catalao, Joao; Represas, Patricia; Montesinos, Fuensanta; Antunes, Carlos; Madeira, José; Mata, João.

    2010-05-01

    The Cape Verde archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean about 500 km west of Senegal. It stands on the south-western part of the Cape Verde Rise, the largest oceanic intraplate bathymetric anomaly, which also coincides with important geoid and heat flow anomalies. The oceanic crust in the region is about 120 to 140 Ma old and the lithosphere circa 80 km thick. Cape Verde has been considered a hotspot resulting from a mantle plume for which the depth of rooting is still debatable. New gravimetric data were obtained on Maio (269 km2), which is one of the oldest islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. It presents a flattened morphology, mostly the result of quaternary marine abrasion, with a few residual hills in the centre. Geologically it is formed by a basement comprising uplifted sea-floor (N-MORB pillow lavas underlying a Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary suite) densely intruded by plutonic bodies of essexite/pyroxenite (and minor syenite) of probable Early Miocene age (~ 18-20 Ma) and dyke swarms. Unconformably resting on those units is a Mid to Late-Miocene (~15 - 7 Ma) sequence of hyaloclastites and pillow lavas, subaerial lavas and correlative volcaniclastic sediments. A set of Quaternary beach deposits (up to 70 m asl) and Holocene sediments (alluvial fans, aeolian sands) partially cover all sequences. The gravity survey was obtained over a total of 144 stations with a mean spacing of 1 km, measured with a Lacost & Romberg gravimeter. Stations position and height were determined by GPS and the orthometric heights were determined using a global geopotential model. Regional gravity and topographic/bathymetric data were compiled from EGM08 geopotential model and Smith and Sandwell global model, respectively. Grids with a resolution of 1 arcmin were computed for the gravity data and for the outer topographic/bathymetric data. A denser topographic grid, with 20 m resolution, was derived from cartographic charts of the island of Maio. The analysis of the dataset

  15. Channelling of hydrothermal fluids during the accretion and evolution of the upper oceanic crust: Sr isotope evidence from ODP Hole 1256D

    Harris, Michelle; Coggon, Rosalind M.; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Milton, James A.; Teagle, Damon A. H.

    2015-04-01

    ODP Hole 1256D in the eastern equatorial Pacific is the first penetration of a complete section of fast spread ocean crust down to the dike-gabbro transition, and only the second borehole to sample in situ sheeted dikes after DSDP Hole 504B. Here a high spatial resolution record of whole rock and mineral strontium isotopic compositions from Site 1256 is combined with core observations and downhole wireline geophysical measurements to determine the extent of basalt-hydrothermal fluid reaction and to identify fluid pathways at different levels in the upper ocean crust. The volcanic sequence at Site 1256 is dominated by sheet and massive lava flows but the Sr isotope profile shows only limited exchange with seawater. However, the upper margins of two anomalously thick (>25 m) massive flow sequences are strongly hydrothermally altered with elevated Sr isotope ratios and appear to be conduits of lateral low-temperature off-axis fluid flow. Elsewhere in the lavas, high 87Sr/86Sr are restricted to breccia horizons. Mineralised hyaloclastic breccias in the Lava-Dike Transition are strongly altered to Mg-saponite, silica and pyrite, indicating alteration by mixed seawater and cooled hydrothermal fluids. In the Sheeted Dike Complex 87Sr/86Sr ratios are pervasively shifted towards hydrothermal fluid values (∼0.705). Dike chilled margins display secondary mineral assemblages formed during both axial recharge and discharge and have higher 87Sr/86Sr than dike cores, indicating preferential fluid flow along dike margins. Localised increases in 87Sr/86Sr in the Dike-Gabbro Transition indicates the channelling of fluids along the sub-horizontal intrusive boundaries of the 25 to 50 m-thick gabbroic intrusions, with only minor increases in 87Sr/86Sr within the cores of the gabbro bodies. When compared to the pillow lava-dominated section from Hole 504B, the Sr isotope measurements from Site 1256 suggest that the extent of hydrothermal circulation in the upper ocean crust may be

  16. 液氢加注系统漏热故障对火箭发射的影响%Impact of Liquid Hydrogen Injection System Heat Leakage Fault on the Rocket Launch

    马昕晖; 栾骁; 陈景鹏; 孙克

    2013-01-01

    Using AMEsim modeling object-oriented software, with resistance to fluid and friction loss equation (Darcy-Weisbach) formula, extrusion and heat leakage model, based on liquid hydrogen injection system of the launch range, the paper establishes liquid flow and gas-liquid two-phase flow model, and analyzes the different heat leakage rate, pipe and device thermal failure, which affect the rocket changes in the tank. The results show that high-purity hydrogen flow compared with the actual value, in the two-phase flow model gasification hydrogen pressure, resistance, flow and other parameters have changed the role of the rocket tank's injection height and air pillow pressure; the two-phase flow model can simulate the heat leakage fault and can also indicate injection system failure process and results.%以AMEsim面向对象软件作为建模工具,以液阻与摩擦损失方程Darcy Weisbach公式、挤压与漏热模型为基础,基于发射场液氢加注系统,建立液相流动和气液两相流动模型,分析了不同漏热率,管路、器件漏热故障时对火箭贮箱的影响变化情况.研究结果表明:与液氢流动实际数值相比,两相流模型中气化液氢的压力、阻力、流量等参数的作用,改变了火箭贮箱的加注工位高度和贮箱气枕压力;两相流模型可进行加注系统漏热故障仿真,并能预示加注故障过程与结果.

  17. Formation of the soft-sediment deformation structures and its constraints on dinosaur fossil burial of the Cretaceous in Zhucheng, Shandong province, East China

    He, Bizhu; Qiao, Xiufu; Cai, Zhihui; Tian, Hongshui; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-04-01

    The triangular-shaped Zhucheng depression is located in the southwestern part of the Jiaolai basin, Jiaodong peninsula, East China. Various soft-sediment deformation structures are recognized in the southern Zhucheng depression, which have behaviour are plastic and/or brittle. Soft-sediment deformation structures mainly include undulate fold, mound and sag, diapir, convolute deformation and seismic-unconformity in the Lower Cretaceous, which are composed of fine-grained sediments in lacustrine environment, while load structure, ball and pillow structure, plunged sediment mixtures structure, fault-graded occurred in the Upper Cretaceous, which formed in a conglomeratic or coarse arenaceous alluvial fan and flood-plain setting. These soft-sediment deformation structures are proposed triggered by paleoearthquake. The deformed layers and undeformed layers developed in intervals, suggesting frequent seismic activities. In studied area, numerous giant hadrosaurid skeleton fossils have been found in the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group science 1958, and unusual and abundant dinosaur track fossils have been discovered in the Lower Cretaceous Yangzhuang Formation of Laiyang Group. The widespread identified soft-sediment deformation structures are proximately underlying or overlying these dinosaur fossil bearing strata. The depositional setting changed while multiple paleo-seismic events and tectonic activity happened. In the Early Cretaceous, after the occurrence of paleo-earthquakes and environmental changes, dinosaurs migrated and a lot of tracks with similar orientation on lacustrine offshore were preserved. In the Late Cretaceous, a large-scale dinosaur fossil layers and paleo-earthquake records occurred in intervals, indicating that the dinosaur fossils may be associated with large-scale debris flow and frequent earthquake events. Based on regional tectonic setting, distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures and predicted magnitude of paleo-earthquakes, the

  18. Distributed energy-balance modeling of snow-cover evolution and melt in rugged terrain: Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana, USA

    Letsinger, S.L.; Olyphant, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    A distributed energy-balance model was developed for simulating snowpack evolution and melt in rugged terrain. The model, which was applied to a 43-km2 watershed in the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana, USA, used measured ambient data from nearby weather stations to drive energy-balance calculations and to constrain the model of Liston and Sturm [Liston, G.E., Sturm, M., 1998. A snow-transport model for complex terrain. Journal of Glaciology 44 (148), 498-516] for calculating the initial snowpack thickness. Simulated initial snow-water equivalent ranged between 1 cm and 385 cm w.e. (water equivalent) with high values concentrated on east-facing slopes below tall summits. An interpreted satellite image of the snowcover distribution on May 6, 1998, closely matched the simulated distribution with the greatest discrepancy occurring in the floor of the main trunk valley. Model simulations indicated that snowmelt commenced early in the melt season, but rapid meltout of snow cover did not occur until after the average energy balance of the entire watershed became positive about 45 days into the melt season. Meltout was fastest in the lower part of the watershed where warmer temperatures and tree cover enhanced the energy income of the underlying snow. An interpreted satellite image of the snowcover distribution on July 9, 1998 compared favorably with the simulated distribution, and melt curves for modeled canopy-covered cells mimicked the trends measured at nearby snow pillow stations. By the end of the simulation period (August 3), 28% of the watershed remained snow covered, most of which was concentrated in the highest parts of the watershed where initially thick accumulations had been shaded by surrounding summits. The results of this study provide further demonstration of the critical role that topography plays in the timing and magnitude of snowmelt from high mountain watersheds. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Volcanic Structure of the Gakkel Ridge at 85°E

    Willis, C.; Humphris, S.; Soule, S. A.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Shank, T.; Singh, H.

    2007-12-01

    We present an initial volcanologic interpretation of a magmatically-robust segment of the ultra-slow spreading (3- 7 mm/yr) Gakkel Ridge at 85°E in the eastern Arctic Basin based on surveys conducted during the July 2007 Arctic GAkkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE). A previous expedition (2001 AMORE) and seismic stations in the area found evidence for active hydrothermal circulation and seismicity that suggested volcanic activity may be ongoing at 85°E. We examine multi-beam bathymetric data, digital imagery, and rock and sediment samples in order to determine the nature of volcanic accretion that is occurring in this environment including the distribution of flow types and their relationship to features of the axial valley. Raw multi-beam bathymetric data was logged by the Kongsberg EM 120 1°x1° multi-beam echo sounder aboard the icbreaker IB Oden. Digital imagery was recorded on five video and still cameras mounted on the CAMPER fiber-optic wireline vehicle, which was towed 1-3m above the seafloor. Digital imagery was recorded on thirteen CAMPER drift-dives over interesting bathymetry including: a volcanic ridge in the axial valley named Duque's Hill, and Oden and Loke volcanoes that are part of the newly discovered Asgard volcanic chain. Talus, lava flows, and volcaniclastics were sampled with the clamshell grabber and slurp suction sampler on CAMPER. A variety of lava morphologies are identified in the imagery including large basalt pillows with buds and other surface ornamentation, lava tubes, lobates, sheet flows, and a thick cover of volcaniclastic sediment over extensive areas suggestive of explosive volcanic activity.

  20. Reconstruction of ocean plate stratigraphy in the Gwna Group, NW Wales: Implications for the subduction-accretion process of a latest Proterozoic trench-forearc

    Asanuma, Hisashi; Okada, Yoshihiro; Fujisaki, Wataru; Suzuki, Kazue; Sato, Tomohiko; Sawaki, Yusuke; Sakata, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Shinji; Hirata, Takafumi; Maruyama, Shigenori; Windley, Brian F.

    2015-11-01

    The Gwna Group in Anglesey island and Lleyn peninsula, Wales consists of a latest Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary trench mélange, which has a complicated accretionary structure, and is poorly constrained by isotopic ages. The mélange contains oceanic-trench rocks including pillow basalts, cherts, mudstones and sandstones, which have not previously been interpreted as ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). We reconstructed imbricated OPS at 5 localities in the coastal Lleyn peninsula. In order to constrain the depositional U-Pb age of the upper clastic sediments, detrital zircons, separated from 9 clastic sediments, were analyzed with a Nu AttoM single-collector inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The ages indicate that there are two Gwna Groups (maximum depositional ages of: 1 at 608-601 Ma, and 2 at 564-539 Ma) that were deposited between the late Neoproterozoic and the Middle Cambrian contemporaneously with dated calc-alkaline arc magmatism and regional metamorphism in the Anglesey-Lleyn complex. The age spectra of the detrital zircons show a prominent peak at ca. 650-600 Ma, and several Proterozoic and Archean ages. To account for the older ages, we integrated our new isotopic data with published radiometric and fossil ages, and conclude that the clastic sediments at the top of the OPS were deposited in a trench on the western active margin of Avalonia when it was close to the Amazonian craton, and that the Gwna Group OPS began to be incorporated into an accretionary wedge in an active subduction zone in the latest Proterozoic.

  1. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  2. UPPER JURASSIC OUTCROPS ALONG THE CALDAS DA RAINHA DIAPIR, WEST CENTRAL PORTUGAL: A REGIONAL GEOHERITAGE OVERVIEW

    JORGE DINIS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mesozoic Portuguese geological heritage is very rich and varied, a legacy of the position in the western margin of Iberia and its relationship with the evolution of the North Atlantic, with an interesting tectonic history since the Late Triassic. Regarding the Upper Jurassic several connections can be established between the tectonics and the stratigraphic record in the area surrounding the Caldas da Rainha structure: the basement and salt pillow control on deposition; the beginning of a diapiric and magmatic cycle associated to the on-set of sea-floor and the exhumation of both Jurassic deposits and the core of their controlling diapirs. The nature of the outcrops and richness in sedimentary environments, related with the different phases of rifting, is a remarkable case for extensional basin studies. Geological sites can be of regional, national or international importance due to scientific, educational, economical, social or historical reasons. The present proposal can be considered as a model for the establishment of tourist/educational routes with a strong component in communication on Earth Sciences, integrating social and historical aspects at a regional level. The recognition of those sites as geoheritage may contribute to a more sustainable management, in particular because it allows the achievement of a critical dimension for the investment in human resources and marketing. In Portugal, recent legal evolution might be considered promising. Nevertheless, since implementation of the concept of protected site depends on the approval of detailed management programs, there are frequent delays, misinterpretations and disrespect of legislation. The strategy to be adopted must integrate conservation, scientific studies and science communication in projects with economic and social interest.

  3. Reconstructing lava flow emplacement processes at the hot spot-affected Galápagos Spreading Center, 95°W and 92°W

    McClinton, Tim; White, Scott M.; Colman, Alice; Sinton, John M.

    2013-08-01

    Volcanic eruptions at mid-ocean ridges (MORs) control the permeability, internal structure, and architecture of oceanic crust, thus establishing the foundation for the evolution of the ocean basins. To better understand the emplacement of submarine lava flows at MORs, we have integrated submersible-based geologic mapping with remote sensing techniques to characterize the lava flow morphology within previously mapped lava flow fields produced during single eruptive episodes at the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC). Detailed attributes describing the surface geometry and texture of the lava flows have been extracted from high-resolution sonar data and combined with georeferenced visual observations from submersible dives and camera tows; based on signatures contained in these data, a fuzzy logic-based classification algorithm categorized lava flow morphology as pillows, lobates, or sheets. The resulting digital thematic maps offer an unprecedented view of GSC lava morphology, collectively covering 77 km2 of ridge axis terrain at a resolution of 2 m × 2 m. Error assessments with independent visual reference data indicate approximately 90% agreement, comparable to subaerial classification studies. The digital lava morphology maps enable quantitative, spatially comprehensive measurements of the abundance and distribution of lava morphologies over large areas of seafloor and within individual eruptive units. A comparison of lava flow fields mapped at lower- and higher-magma-supply settings (95° and 92°W, respectively) indicates that effusion rates increase along with magma supply and independent of spreading rate at the GSC, although a complete range of eruptive behavior exists at each setting.

  4. Constructing mid-ocean ridge flat-topped volcanoes: First evidence from AUV mapping in the Woodlark Basin

    Devey, C. W.; Petersen, S.; Hannington, M.; Klaucke, I.; Lackschewitz, K. S.; Mahlke, J.; Rothenbeck, M.; Sticklus, J.

    2010-12-01

    The style of volcanic activity at many of the global spreading axes is dominated or at least strongly influenced by the construction of circular volcanoes with a flat, sometimes cratered, summit plateau. Such volcanoes are an important constituent of the upper oceanic crust in many ocean basins and so knowledge of their formation process and the rock types which constitute them is important for understanding the rheology and hydrology of the upper crust on a regional to ocean basin scale. Based on previous ship-mounted multibeam sonar cartography, deep-towed side-scan sonar and submersible investigations, a range of models for their formation has been proposed varying from construction above ring-dykes, with the central crater being either a product of this eruption style or of later caldera collapse, to successive eruptions of ever-smaller sheet flows ("pancake-stack"). Here we present the results of the first high resolution (<1m) mapping of such volcanoes using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The maps, combined with visual ground truthing, clearly show that the summit plateau was generated by lavas flowing laterally from a central lava lake. In the case of cratered volcanoes, this lake has drained (fully or partially) post-eruption, volcanoes with no crater (which are in the majority) appear to have retained the lake, which is now solidified. The solidified lake will form a massive, doleritic plug whose seismic, mechanical and hydrological characteristics will differ greatly (both at the axis itself and during crustal ageing) from those of pillow or sheet lava flows, with important consequences for bulk crustal properties both at the ridge axis and in older crust.

  5. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON BEHAVIOR ASSOCIATED WITH MOBILE PHONE USAGE AND ITS EFFECT ON HEALTH AMONG ME D ICAL STUDENTS IN CHENNAI

    Balaji

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Mobile phone usage has created undeniable health problems. The purpose of the current study is to describe patterns of mobile phone usage and associated effects on health. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study questionnaire was administered to (n = 213 the Medical students of ACS Medical College which covered the socio - demographic profile, behavior patterns like repeated checking, midnight checking etc., benefits as well as health problems encountere d due to mobile phone usage. RESULTS: In Our study 213 students have participated with the mean age of 17.8 and 67% were females. As far as the behavioral pattern associated with mobile usage was concerned about 90% (192 study participants keep the mobile under the pillow or near the bed, 45% (96 of them frequently (at least once or twice check the mobile for any missed calls or messages at midnight (in between sleep, 48.8% (104 of them were checking the mobile as soon they get up from the bed, 19.2% ( 41 were using during class hours, 25.4% (54 rest room usage, 35.7% (76 usage while driving and 56.3% (120 were using the mobile while it is in charging mode. Majority 137 (64.3% have experienced health problems like headache, sleep disturbance, ear pa in, irritability and (111 52% of the students replied that they were addicted to mobile phones. CONCLUSION : This study has explored that the young students have become addictive towards the mobile phone usage in spite of development of health problems and poor academic performance.

  6. The relationship between planned and reported home infant sleep locations among mothers of late preterm and term infants.

    Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Brandon, Debra

    2015-07-01

    To compare maternal report of planned and practiced home sleep locations of infants born late preterm (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) with those infants born term (≥37 0/7 gestational weeks) over the first postpartum month. Open-ended semi-structured maternal interviews were conducted in a US hospital following birth and by phone at 1 month postpartum during 2010-2012. Participants were 56 mother-infant dyads: 26 late preterm and 30 term. Most women planned to room share at home with their infants and reported doing so for some or all of the first postpartum month. More women reported bed sharing during the first postpartum month than had planned to do so in both the late preterm and term groups. The primary reason for unplanned bed sharing was to soothe nighttime infant fussiness. Those participants who avoided bed sharing at home commonly discussed their fear for infant safety. A few parents reported their infants were sleeping propped on pillows and co-sleeping on a recliner. Some women in both the late preterm and term groups reported lack of opportunity to obtain a bassinet prior to childbirth. The discrepancy between plans for infant sleep location at home and maternally reported practices were similar in late preterm and term groups. Close maternal proximity to their infants at night was derived from the need to assess infant well-being, caring for infants, and women's preferences. Bed sharing concerns related to infant safety and the establishment of an undesirable habit, and alternative arrangements included shared recliner sleep. PMID:25626714

  7. Intracanyon basalt lavas of the Debed River (northern Armenia), part of a Pliocene-Pleistocene continental flood basalt province in the South Caucasus

    Sheth, Hetu; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Israyelyan, Arsen; Navasardyan, Gevorg

    2015-03-01

    Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (~ 3.25-2.05 Ma), 200-400 m thick basalt lavas outcrop in the South Caucasus region, including the Kars-Erzurum Plateau (northeastern Turkey), the Javakheti Plateau (Georgia-Armenia), and the Lori Plateau (northern Armenia). These fissure-fed, rapidly erupted fluid lavas filled pre-existing river valleys over many tens of kilometres. The basalts exposed in the Debed River canyon, northern Armenia, are ~ 200 m thick and of three morphological types: (1) basal pillow basalts and hyaloclastites, overlain by (2) columnar-jointed pahoehoe sheet flows, in turn overlain by (3) slabby pahoehoe and rubbly pahoehoe flows. The lower and middle lavas show evidence for damming of river drainage, like many lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province, Scotland, Ireland, and Iceland. There is also evidence for syn-volcanic faulting of the early lavas. Related basalts also outcrop in the Gegham Uplands and the Hrazdan River basin in Armenia. This 3.25-2.05 Ma South Caucasus basalt province, covering parts of Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, has an estimated areal extent of ~ 15,000 km2 and volume of ~ 2250 km3. Because its main geological features are remarkably like those of many continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces, we consider it a true, albeit small, CFB province. It is the smallest and youngest CFB in the world. An analogue closely similar in major features is the Late Miocene Altos de Jalisco CFB province in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Both provinces formed during lithospheric pull-apart and transtensional faulting. Their broader significance is in showing flood basalt size distribution to be a continuum without natural breaks, with implications for geodynamic models.

  8. Vibration damage testing of thermal barrier fibrous blanket insulation

    GA Technologies is engaged in a long-term, multiphase program to determine the vibration characteristics of thermal barrier components leading to qualification of assemblies for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) service. The phase of primary emphasis described herein is the third in a series of acoustic tests and uses as background the more elemental tests preceding it. Two sizes of thermal barrier coverplates with one fibrous blanket insulation type were tested in an acoustic environment at sound pressure levels up to 160 dB. Three tests were conducted using sinusoidal and random noise for up to 200 h duration at room temperature. Frequent inspections were made to determine the progression of degradation using definition of stages from a prior test program. Initially the insulation surface adjacent to the metallic seal sheets (noise side) assumed a chafed or polished appearance. This was followed by flattening of the as-received pillowed surface. This stage was followed by a depression being formed in the vicinity of the free edge of the coverplate. Next, loose powder from within the blanket and from fiber erosion accumulated in the depression. Prior experience showed that the next stage of deterioration exhibited a consolidation of the powder to form a local crust. In this test series, this last stage generally failed to materialize. Instead, surface holes generated by solid ceramic particulates (commonly referred to as 'shot') constituted the stage following powdering. With the exception of some manufacturing-induced anomalies, the final stage, namely, gross fiber breakup, did not occur. It is this last stage that must be prevented for the thermal barrier to maintain its integrity. (orig./GL)

  9. Immobilization precision of a modified GTC frame.

    Winey, Brian; Daartz, Juliane; Dankers, Frank; Bussière, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and quantify the interfraction reproducibility and intrafraction immobilization precision of a modified GTC frame. The error of the patient alignment and imaging systems were measured using a cranial skull phantom, with simulated, predetermined shifts. The kV setup images were acquired with a room-mounted set of kV sources and panels. Calculated translations and rotations provided by the computer alignment software relying upon three implanted fiducials were compared to the known shifts, and the accuracy of the imaging and positioning systems was calculated. Orthogonal kV setup images for 45 proton SRT patients and 1002 fractions (average 22.3 fractions/patient) were analyzed for interfraction and intrafraction immobilization precision using a modified GTC frame. The modified frame employs a radiotransparent carbon cup and molded pillow to allow for more treatment angles from posterior directions for cranial lesions. Patients and the phantom were aligned with three 1.5 mm stainless steel fiducials implanted into the skull. The accuracy and variance of the patient positioning and imaging systems were measured to be 0.10 ± 0.06 mm, with the maximum uncertainty of rotation being ±0.07°. 957 pairs of interfraction image sets and 974 intrafraction image sets were analyzed. 3D translations and rotations were recorded. The 3D vector interfraction setup reproducibility was 0.13 mm ± 1.8 mm for translations and the largest uncertainty of ± 1.07º for rotations. The intrafraction immobilization efficacy was 0.19 mm ± 0.66 mm for translations and the largest uncertainty of ± 0.50º for rotations. The modified GTC frame provides reproducible setup and effective intrafraction immobilization, while allowing for the complete range of entrance angles from the posterior direction. PMID:22584167

  10. Assessment of the impact of moving fluids on the regional thermal field for the area of Brandenburg (North German Basin)

    Noack, V.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cacace, M.; Lewerenz, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of the 3D thermal field for the area of Brandenburg in the North German Basin. The study area encompasses a part of the basin centre in the north, whereas to the south the basin margin is enclosed. Starting with Permocarboniferous volcanic rocks the basin fill is represented by Permian to Cenozoic sediments. A thick layer of mobilized salt (Zechstein, Upper Permian) generated elevated structures such as salt pillows and diapirs. Especially where diapirs pierce their overburden, the overlying deposits are strongly influenced in their thickness and distribution. This special configuration of the Zechstein salt is relevant for the thermal calculations due to the fact that salt has a distinctly higher thermal conductivity than the surrounding sediments and is impermeable to fluid flow. Therefore, the Zechstein salt acts as a conductive chimney for heat and a hydraulic decoupling horizon between the Pre-Permian and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata. The latter are characterized by two further quasi-impervious sediment complexes, the Rupelian-clay and the Muschelkalk. These two divide the Post-Permian strata in three main aquifer systems: the Buntsandstein, Keuper to Pre-Rupelian and the Post-Rupelian complex. Based on results from purely conductive modelling we additionally analyse the influence of moving fluids on the shallow temperature field above the Zechstein salt. Therefore coupled fluid flow and heat transfer numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydrothermal field. The 3D simulations for the heat transport processes are based on the finite element method. The results indicate that the distribution of thermal conductivities in the basin fill controls the short-wavelength pattern of the temperature distribution whereas the long wavelength pattern results from interaction between the highly conductive crust and low conductive sediments. Furthermore, the results reveal that the shallow temperature field

  11. Multiphase salt tectonic evolution in NW Germany: seismic interpretation and retro-deformation

    Mohr, M.; Kukla, P. A.; Urai, J. L.; Bresser, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Central European Basin is a classic area of salt tectonics, characterized by heterogeneous structural evolution and complex salt movement history. We studied an area on its SW margin, based on prestack depth-migrated 2D and 3D seismic data. We use seismic interpretation and retro-deformation to obtain a better understanding of salt tectonics, structural control, and sedimentary response in this region. The first phase of salt tectonic evolution started with two main events of NW-SE extension and rafting in the Triassic before the Upper Bunter and before the Upper Muschelkalk. Rafting was accompanied by first salt diapirism and an increased sedimentary thickness adjacent to the salt structure. After salt supply ceased updip to the salt structure, a mini-basin grew in the intra-raft area. This sedimentary differential loading caused salt movement and growth of a pillow structure basinward. The second phase of salt movement was initiated by the formation of a NNW-SSE striking basement graben in the Middle Keuper that triggered reactive diapirism, the breakthrough of the pillow’s roof and salt extrusion. The following downbuilding process was characterized by sedimentary wedges with basal unconformities, onlap structures and salt extrusions that ceased in the Jurassic. The third and latest phase of salt tectonic evolution was activated in the Late Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary by compressional tectonics indicated by salt rise and a small horizontal shortening of the diapir. The interpreted salt tectonic processes and the resulting geometries can now be better tied in with the regional heterogeneous framework of the basin.

  12. Volcano-ice interactions in the Arsia Mons tropical mountain glacier deposits

    Scanlon, Kathleen E.; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel; Marchant, David R.

    2014-07-01

    Fan-shaped deposits (FSD) superposed on the sides of the Tharsis Montes volcanic edifices are widely interpreted to have been formed by cold-based glaciation during the Late Amazonian, a period when the Tharsis Montes were volcanically active. We survey the ∼166,000 km2 Arsia Mons FSD using new, high-resolution image and topography data and describe numerous landforms indicative of volcano-ice interactions. These include (1) steep-sided mounds, morphologically similar to terrestrial tindar that form by subglacial eruptions under low confining pressure; (2) steep-sided, leveed flow-like landforms with depressed centers, interpreted to be subglacial lava flows with chilled margins; (3) digitate flows that we interpret as having resulted from lava flow interaction with glacial ice at the upslope margin of the glacier; (4) a plateau with the steep sides and smooth capping flow of a basaltic tuya, a class of feature formed when subglacial eruptions persist long enough to melt through the overlying ice; and (5) low, areally extensive mounds that we interpret as effusions of pillow lava, formed by subglacial eruptions under high confining pressure. Together, these eruptions involved hundreds of cubic kilometers of subglacially erupted lava; thermodynamic relationships indicate that this amount of lava would have produced a similar volume of subglacial liquid meltwater, some of which carved fluvial features in the FSD. Landforms in the FSD also suggest that glaciovolcanic heat transfer induced local wet-based flow in some parts of the glacier. Glaciovolcanic environments are important microbial habitats on Earth, and the evidence for widespread liquid water in the Amazonian-aged Arsia Mons FSD makes it one of the most recent potentially habitable environments on Mars. Such environments could have provided refugia for any life that developed on Mars and survived on its surface until the Amazonian.

  13. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic radiolarian chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, and implications for its paleogeographic origins

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Murchey, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Upper Jurassic red tuffaceous chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California (lat 35??N, long 240??E), contains three components of remanent magnetization. The first component (A; removed by ???100-???200 ??C) has a direction near the present-day field for southern California and is probably a recently acquired thermoviscous magnetization. A second component (B; removed between ???100 and ???600 ??C) is identical to that observed by previous workers in samples of underlying pillow basalt and overlying terrigenous sedimentary rocks. This component has constant normal polarity and direction throughout the entire section, although these rocks were deposited during a mixed polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. The B magnetization, therefore, is inferred to be a secondary magnetization acquired during accretion, uplift, or Miocene volcanism prior to regional clockwise rotation. The highest temperature component (C; removed between ???480 and 680 ??C) is of dual polarity and is tentatively interpreted as a primary magnetization, although it fails a reversal test possibly due to contamination by B. Separation of the B and C components is best shown by samples with negative-inclination C directions, and a corrected mean direction using only these samples indicates an initial paleolatitude of 32??N ?? 8??. Paleobiogeographic models relating radiolarian faunal distribution patterns to paleolatitude have apparently been incorrectly calibrated using the overprint B component. Few other paleomagnetic data have been incorporated in these models, and faunal distribution patterns are poorly known and mostly unqualified. The available data, therefore, do not support formation of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain near the paleoequator or accretion at ???10??N paleolatitude, as has been previously suggested based on paleomagnetic data, but indicate deposition near expected paleolatitudes for North America (35??N ?? 4??) during Late Jurassic

  14. Development of colorimetric field screening methods for munitions compounds in soil

    Jenkins, Thomas F.; Walsh, Marianne E.; Schumacher, Patricia W.; Thorne, Philip G.

    1995-10-01

    Simple colorimetric tests have been developed to screen for the presence of TNT, TNB, DNT, DNB, tetryl, RDX, HMX, nitroglycerine (NG), PETN, nitrocellulose (NC), nitroguanidine (NQ), picric acid and ammonium picrate in soil. Soils are extracted by manual shaking with acetone. For the nitroaromatics, the extracts are reacted with potassium hydroxide and sodium sulfite to form their colored Janowsky complexes. For RDX, HMX, NG, PETN, NC and NQ, extracts are passed through an anion exchange resin to remove nitrate, and then acidified with acetic acid; the nitramines and nitrate esters are reduced with zinc to form nitrous acid. The nitrous acid is detected by the Griess reaction using a Hach Nitriver 3 powder pillow, which produces a highly colored azo dye. Detection of these analytes can be obtained visually and concentrations estimated from absorbance measurements at 540 nm for TNT, TNB and tetryl, 570 nm for DNTs and DNB, and at 510 nm for RDX, HMX, NG, PETN, NC and NQ. For picric acid/ammonium picrate, the acetone extract is passed through a basic ion-exchange column that retains picrate ion. The column is rinsed with methanol to elute interferences, and the picrate is desorbed with acetone containing several drops of sulfuric acid. The extract is diluted with deionized water, and the concentration of picrate is obtained from the absorbance at 400 nm. Detection limits are about 1 (mu) g/g for all analytes except NG, NC and NQ, which are slightly higher. Results from field screening at a number of sites have been correlated with laboratory analyses for TNT and RDX. The results indicate that the field screening methods do not suffer from false negatives and the rate of false positives is low. Concentration estimates from field screening compared favorably with results from the standard laboratory methods.

  15. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ANTIBACTERIAL TREATED COTTON FABRICS AND EFFECT OF LAUNDRY CYCLE

    PALAMUTCU Sema

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During daily usage of textiles, humidity and warmth conditions provide appropriate living conditions for bacteria and microorganisms in textile products. Bacteria growth, infection and cross infection by pathogens might develop due to usage of textile products. Especially since World War II, antibacterial textile products have developed as a result of the hygiene demand of the society. In this study, triclosan (sample A, quaternary ammonium plus triclosan (sample B, dichlorophenol (sample C, silver (sample D, quaternary ammonium (sample E and chitosan (sample F based six different antibacterial additives were applied on 100% cotton fabrics for antibacterial treatment. All six treated fabrics and the untreated fabric (control sample were washed for 40 cycles; the antibacterial efficacies were tested; changes in tear strength and Berger whiteness values of the samples were recorded prior to washing and after 1st, 5th, 10th, 20th and 40th washing cycles. Regarding all washing cycles, a decrease in tear strength results is observed between unwashed and 40 cycle washed samples. Textile materials such as bedlinen, pillow cases, surgeon gowns for which tear strength values are important and that have antibacterial treatments should be tested for tear strength values for different washing cycles to see if they meet minimum tear strength requirements. The change in tear strength and Berger whiteness of samples shows differences according to the antibacterial agent treated and washing cycle applied. Generally, slight decreases in tear strength values are observed. And slight decreases in whiteness, except for sample F which is treated with chitosan, are observed as well. Textile materials having antibacterial treatments should be tested for the special antibacterial agent they are treated and for the number of washing cycles that is required for their product life.

  16. Petrology and structure of greenstone blocks encased in mud-matrix melange of the Franciscan complex near San Simeon, California

    Davidsen, R.K.; Cloos, M.

    1985-01-01

    Greenstones comprise about 20% of all mappable (>1 m) blocks encased in blueschist-block-bearing mud-matrix melange exposed in a 10 km-length of sea cliffs near San Simeon. Field and petrographic analysis of 25 blocks show they vary from finely crystalline (<1 mm) locally porphyritic or amygdaloidal, volcanics to coarsely crystalline (1 to 5 mm) diabase. Some are in contact with bedded chert and two have relict pillows. However, most blocks are intensely deformed. Pinch-and-swell and boundinage are recognized on scales from cm to about 10 m. Distortion was accommodated by cataclasis to an aggregate of pieces from mm to m across. Generally, m-sized blocks are pervasively cataclastic whereas larger blocks are crosscut by cataclastic zones that emanate from pervasively cataclastic margins or necked regions of boudins. Discontinuous, cm-thick veins and cavities that are lined by quartz and clacite and rarely, laumontite, prehnite and aragonite locally crosscut all other structures. Relict igneous textures show the primary minerals are plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Abundant secondary minerals, particularly in cataclastic zones, are albite, chlorite, pumpellyite (some have high Al), and calcite. The metamorphic parageneses indicate relatively minor greenschist-facies, sea-floor-type alterations under static conditions followed by lower-temperature alterations synchronous with cataclasis and the development of boudinage. If the blocks are fragments of disrupted ophiolites, only the uppermost section of the suite are present within the mud-matrix melange near San Simeon. The simplest explanation for their crystallization, metamorphism and incorporation into the melange is that they are fragments of seamounts dismembered during subduction.

  17. The fabrication and performance of Canadian silicide dispersion fuel for test reactors

    Fuel fabrication effort is now concentrated on the commissioning of large-scale process equipment, defining product specifications, developing a quality assurance plan, and setting up a mini-computer material accountancy system. In the irradiation testing program, full-size NRU assemblies containing 20% enriched silicide dispersion fuel have been Irradiated successfully to burnups in the range 65-80 atomic percent. Irradiations have also been conducted on mini-elements having 1.2 mm diameter holes In their mid-sections, some drilled before irradiation and others after irradiation to 22-83 atomic percent burnup. Uranium was lost to the coolant in direct proportion to the surface area of exposed core material. Pre-irradiation in the intact condition appeared to reduce in-reactor corrosion. Fuel cores developed for the NRU reactor are dimensionally very stable, swelling by only 6-8% at the very high burnup of 93 atomic percent. Two important factors contributing to this good performance are cylindrical clad restraint and coarse silicide particles. Thermal ramping tests were conducted on irradiated silicide aspersion fuels. Small segments of fuel cores released 85Kr starting at about 520 deg. C and peaking at about 680 deg C. After a holding period of 1 hour at 720 deg. C a secondary 85Kr peak occurred during cooling (at about 330 deg. C) probably due to thermal contraction cracking. Whole mini-elements irradiated to 93 atomic percent burnup were also ramped thermally, with encouraging results. After about 0.25 h at 530 deg. C the aluminum cladding developed very localized small blisters, some with penetrating pin-hole cracks preventing gross pillowing or ballooning. (author)

  18. Subduction-related metamorphism beneath ophiolites (Oman) and during early stages of continental collision (Himalaya)

    Searle, Mike; Waters, David; Cowan, Robert; Cherry, Alan; Cooper, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Subduction-related metamorphism occurs beneath ophiolites (Oman), beneath island arcs (Kohistan) and during the early stages of continental collision (Kaghan, Tso Morari; Himalaya). Ophiolite obduction necessarily involves subduction of first oceanic, then continental crust to mantle depths beneath the ophiolite. In Oman an inverted pressure and temperature profile is exposed beneath the Semail ophiolite from garnet+clinopyroxene-bearing granulite to hornblende+plagioclase amphibolite down through epidote amphibolite and a variety of greenschist facies meta-sediments, dominantly cherts, marbles and quartzites. Thermobarometry on Grt+Cpx-bearing amphibolites immediately beneath the contact with mantle sequence harzburgites shows that the upper sole rocks formed at PT conditions of 770-900°C and 11-13 kbar, equivalent to depths of 30-40 km in oceanic lithosphere. Heat for metamorphism can only have been derived from the overlying mantle peridotites. Pressures are higher than can be accounted for by the thickness of the preserved ophiolite (15-20 km). Timing of peak metamorphism was synchronous with formation of the ophiolite gabbroic - trondhjemite crustal sequence and eruption of the pillow lavas (Cenomanian; 96-95 Ma). During the later stages of obduction the continental margin was dragged down to depths of nearly 100 km and basaltic sills within calc-schists were converted to eclogites (20-25 kbar; 500-560oC; 79.1 Ma), then exhumed back up the same subduction channel. Apparent 'extensional' fabrics throughout the HP units are related to upward flow of deeply buried rocks in a wholly compressional environment. Eclogites in a similar structural position occur along the Himalaya in the northernmost exposures of Indian plate rocks. These eclogites formed either during the latest stage of ophiolite obduction or the earliest stage of continental collision.

  19. Petrography and geochemistry evidence for supra-subduction ophiolites in Makran, SE Iran

    Hunziker, Daniela; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Bouilhol, Pierre; Omrani, Jafar

    2010-05-01

    Ophiolites archive tectonic and chemical processes from crystallization of the oceanic lithosphere to accretion during obduction and/or continental collision. The variety of ophiolites has shown that they form in various geotectonic settings and experience complex petrological and geochemical histories during their evolution. We present new results on the structure, petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of the Remeshk/Mokhtaramabad and Fannuj/Maskutan ophiolitic complexes in Makran (Southeast Iran), which have been very scarcely studied before this work. A detailed map and cross sections illustrate temporal and structural relationships between the different lithologies. The extensive ultramafic complexes comprise a lower, harzburgite-dominated unit with few lherzolites overlain by dunites. Pyroxene-bearing peridotites show typical features of tectonized mantle deformed at sub-solidus conditions. The olivine chemistry (xMg = 0.90-0.92, NiO content of 0.4-0.47wt%) indicates that the ultramafic rocks represent an ophiolitic upper mantle. Most dunites are characterized by cumulate textures in olivine and a slightly lower xMg = 0.87-0.89 and NiO content of 0.25-0.35wt%. Dunites are locally impregnated by plagioclase-rich melts with minor amounts of clinopyroxene. They were intruded by gabbroic dykes marking the transition zone between mantle and crust. The gabbroic sequence displays increasingly differentiated rocks originated from the same magma source in the following order: troctolite - olivine gabbro - gabbro - anorthositic dykes - diabase. These rocks were later intruded by plagiogranites and hornblende-gabbros. Petrography and geochemistry show oceanic features of a shallow environment for some lithologies; other lithologies indicate a supra-subduction environment, in particular the late-Cretaceous calc-alkaline pillow lavas that yield a clear arc signal. Advanced trace element analyses and geochronology will constrain the evolution of the Tethys

  20. Evidence for long-term uplift on the Canary Islands from emergent Mio Pliocene littoral deposits

    Meco, Joaquín; Scaillet, Stéphane; Guillou, Hervé; Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Carlos Carracedo, Juan; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan-Francisco; Cilleros, Antonio

    2007-06-01

    Several islands in the Canarian archipelago show marine deposits with identical fossil faunas, which are generally assigned to different glacioeustatic marine episodes: mainly Pleistocene episodes in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, and Mio-Pliocene ones in Gran Canaria. Three fossil species ( Saccostrea chili, Nerita emiliana and Strombus coronatus) characterize all the marine deposits from southern Lanzarote, to the west and south of Fuerteventura and northeast of Gran Canaria. Three other species ( Ancilla glandiformis, Rothpletzia rudista and Siderastraea miocenica) confirm the chronostratigraphic attribution of these deposits. Other more occasional fossils (as Chlamys latissima, Isognomon soldanii and Clypeaster aegyptiacus) fit an upper Miocene and lower Pliocene age. This agrees with new K/Ar ages obtained from pillow lavas emplaced into the marine deposits (ca. 4.1 Ma in Gran Canaria, ca. 4.8 Ma in Fuerteventura) and from underlying (ca. 9.3 Ma in Gran Canaria) or overlying (ca. 9.8 Ma in Lanzarote) lava flows. The marine deposits are eroded but large continuous segments are preserved sloping gently towards the coast. Variations in the highest and the lowest elevations of the deposits apsl (above present sea level) indicate post-depositional uplift movements. Glacioeustatic causes are unlikely to be responsible for these variations on the basis of the coastal location of the deposits and their equatorial fauna characteristic of Mio-Pliocene corals. Differential uplift of the deposits across the archipelago is argued to result from the progressive seaward tilting of the islands along the insular volcanic trail marking the westward migration of hot spot head since 20 Ma. Successive westward accretion of younger volcanic edifices resulted in increasing lithostatic load of the crust with progressive (diachronous) tilting of the older edifices and their palaeo-shorelines marked by past coastal deposits.

  1. Neck Pain Occurrence and Characteristics in Nigerian University Undergraduates

    Olufunke Patience Iroko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: University students seem to be a high risk group for neck pain which often leads to diminished concentration and academic performance among them. This study examined the occurrence and characteristics of neck pain in undergraduate students from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. METHOD: One thousand and sixty nine (512 male and 557 female undergraduate students with the mean age of 23.49 ± 2.54 years responded in this cross-sectional survey. An adapted questionnaire that sought information on demographics, occurrence, characteristics and the consequence of neck pain on activities of daily living served as the survey instrument. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence and current frequency of neck pain among the respondents was 34.9% and 9.8% respectively. Female students had a higher preponderance of lifetime neck pain prevalence than their male counterparts (52.8 vs. 47.2%. There was higher frequency of neck pain after admission into the university than before (68.6 vs. 28.7%. Neck pain increased according to level of study and commoner among clinical students. 20% of the respondents reported chronic neck pain and was commoner in males than females (13% vs. 7% females. Seats without back supports used during lectures (48.0%, long reading hours (31.4%, poor self perpetuating posture (16.6%, and types of pillow used when sleeping (14.2% were the most implicated predisposing factors to neck pain. Reading (49.7% and concentration on school work (27.9% were the most limited activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: Neck pain is common among Nigerian university undergraduate students and affects females than males. The prevalence increased with higher level of study and commoner among clinical students. Neck pain mostly affects reading and concentration on school work among university undergraduate students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 167-174

  2. Interplay between tectonic and volcanic processes along the East Pacific Rise, 16°N

    Le Saout, M.; Thibaud, R.; Gente, P.

    2015-12-01

    The East-Pacific Rise (EPR) is a fast spreading ridge. Between 15°22'N and 16°15'N the spreading rate is 87 mm/year. This segment is the most inflated of the EPR due to its interaction with the Mathematician hotspot. The French PARISUB ("Panache Ridge Submersible") cruise in 2010 acquired high-resolution geophysical data using the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Aster-X and the manned submersible Nautile (Ifremer). The goal was to investigate in detail the magmatic and tectonic processes at the intersection between the hotspot and the ridge. We investigate tectonic and volcanic processes using high-resolution data along the 16°N segment of the EPR. Near bottom bathymetric data (1 meter grid spacing) are improved by photos, videos and human observations from submersible survey. Data are used : 1/ to characterize in detail tectonic feature (faults and fissures) geometries (e.g., dip and vertical throw), 2/ to distinguish between different lava flows (pillow, lobate and sheet flows) and to locate lava sources defined in particular by flow front orientations and lava channels. In a context of an unusual spreading segment under influence of a hot spot, these data allow us to evaluate how small-scale volcanic and tectonic processes near ASTs, interact for nucleation and evolution of faulting patterns, and affect tectonic stain evaluation. The distinction between eruptive and non-eruptive tectonic features allows to estimate the distribution of tectonic feature affected by magnetic overprinting. We propose two origins for nucleation and evolution of faults around the AST, and define relations between faults, lava flows and seismic layer 2A.

  3. Hands-Free Transcranial Color Doppler Probe

    Chin, Robert; Madala, Srihdar; Sattler, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Current transcranial color Doppler (TCD) transducer probes are bulky and difficult to move in tiny increments to search and optimize TCD signals. This invention provides miniature motions of a TCD transducer probe to optimize TCD signals. The mechanical probe uses a spherical bearing in guiding and locating the tilting crystal face. The lateral motion of the crystal face as it tilts across the full range of motion was achieved by minimizing the distance between the pivot location and the crystal face. The smallest commonly available metal spherical bearing was used with an outer diameter of 12 mm, a 3-mm tall retaining ring, and 5-mm overall height. Small geared motors were used that would provide sufficient power in a very compact package. After confirming the validity of the basic positioning concept, optimization design loops were completed to yield the final design. A parallel motor configuration was used to minimize the amount of space wasted inside the probe case while minimizing the overall case dimensions. The distance from the front edge of the crystal to the edge of the case was also minimized to allow positioning of the probe very close to the ear on the temporal lobe. The mechanical probe is able to achieve a +/-20deg tip and tilt with smooth repeatable action in a very compact package. The enclosed probe is about 7 cm long, 4 cm wide, and 1.8 cm tall. The device is compact, hands-free, and can be adjusted via an innovative touchscreen. Positioning of the probe to the head is performed via conventional transducer gels and pillows. This device is amendable to having advanced software, which could intelligently focus and optimize the TCD signal.

  4. Seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures in the Palaeogene deposits of the Liaodong Bay Depression in the Bohai Bay basin and their spatial stratigraphic distribution

    Liu, Lei; Zhong, Yijiang; Chen, Hongde; Xu, Changgui; Wu, Kui

    2016-08-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) have been identified from well cores in the Palaeogene deposits of the Liaodong Bay Depression in the Bohai Bay basin, China. These deposits formed as interbedded sand and mud at a delta front or on the slope toe of the prodelta. According to criteria proposed by previous research, we established that these SSDS were induced by earthquakes and that they can be divided into two groups: ductile deformation structures (plastic intrusions, ball-and-pillow structures, flame structures, boudinage structures, irregular convolute stratifications, and synsedimentary faults and folds) and brittle deformation structures (sand dykes and autoclastic breccias). Based on their level of deformation, size, and complexity, the SSDS were divided into three Groups, from weak to strong, to reflect the intensity of palaeo-earthquakes. With consideration of the palaeo-sedimentary environment, we proposed a model to account for the production and preservation of these SSDS. According to the classification adopted in this study and the spatial stratigraphic distribution of the SSDS, the tectonic activities of the Tan-Lu faults in the Bohai Bay basin were investigated. The A and B oilfields (assumed names) are located in the tectonically active zones of the west and east branches of these faults, respectively. The extension tectonic activities in the A oilfield region exhibit a sharply decreasing trend from E2s3 to E2s1, and increase again in E3d2; whereas the strike-slip tectonic activities in the B oilfield region exhibit an increasing trend from E2s3 to E2s1, and finally, reach a maximum to E3d3. The results of this study show that the method of analysis of the spatial stratigraphic distribution of SSDS is suitable for determining the evolution of tectonic activity and thus, it can provide a new perspective for basin analysis.

  5. Compression strength of composite primary structural components

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    The linear elastic response is determined for an internally pressurized, long circular cylindrical shell stiffened on the inside by a regular arrangement of identical stringers and identical rings. Periodicity of this configuration permits the analysis of a portion of the shell wall centered over a generic stringer-ring joint; i.e., a unit cell model. The stiffeners are modeled as discrete beams, and the stringer is assumed to have a symmetrical cross section and the ring an asymmetrical section. Asymmetery causes out-of-plane bending and torsion of the ring. Displacements are assumed as truncated double Fourier series plus simple terms in the axial coordinate to account for the closed and pressure vessel effect (a non-periodic effect). The interacting line loads between the stiffeners and the inside shell wall are Lagrange multipliers in the formulation, and they are also assumed as truncated Fourier series. Displacement continuity constraints between the stiffeners and shell along the contact lines are satisfied point-wise. Equilibrium is imposed by the principle of virtual work. A composite material crown panel from the fuselage of a large transport aircraft is the numerical example. The distributions of the interacting line loads, and the out-of-plane bending moment and torque in the ring, are strongly dependent on modeling the deformations due to transverse shear and cross-sectional warping of the ring in torsion. This paper contains the results from the semiannual report on research on 'Pressure Pillowing of an Orthogonally Stiffened Cylindrical Shell'. The results of the new work are illustrated in the included appendix.

  6. Re-evaluation of Pre-pump Arterial Pressure to Avoid Inadequate Dialysis and Hemolysis: Importance of Prepump Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Shibata, Eriko; Nagai, Kojiro; Takeuchi, Risa; Noda, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomomi; Chikata, Yusuke; Hann, Michael; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ono, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Sayo; Tamaki, Masanori; Murakami, Taichi; Matsuura, Motokazu; Abe, Hideharu; Doi, Toshio

    2015-07-01

    Prepump arterial pressure (PreAP) is monitored to avoid generating excessive negative pressure. The National Kidney Foundation K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for vascular access recommend that PreAP should not fall below -250 mm Hg because excessive negative PreAP can lead to a decrease in the delivery of blood flow, inadequate dialysis, and hemolysis. Nonetheless, these recommendations are consistently disregarded in clinical practice and pressure sensors are often removed from the dialysis circuit. Thus far, delivered blood flow has been reported to decrease at values more negative than -150 mm Hg of PreAP. These values have been analyzed by an ultrasonic flowmeter and not directly measured. Furthermore, no known group has evaluated whether PreAP-induced hemolysis occurs at a particular threshold. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the importance of PreAP in the prediction of inadequate dialysis and hemolysis. By using different diameter needles, human blood samples from healthy volunteers were circulated in a closed dialysis circuit. The relationship between PreAP and delivered blood flow or PreAP and hemolysis was investigated. We also investigated the optimal value for PreAP using several empirical monitoring methods, such as a pressure pillow. Our investigation indicated that PreAP is a critical factor in the determination of delivered blood flow and hemolysis, both of which occured at pressure values more negative than -150 mm Hg. With the exception of direct pressure monitoring, commonly used monitoring methods for PreAP were determined to be ineffective. We propose that the use of a vacuum monitor would permit regular measurement of PreAP. PMID:25940509

  7. Active control of transmitted sound in buildings

    Thompsett, Russell Harvey George

    The problem of noise from neighbours has increased dramatically over the last few years. Many of the noise complaints are due to the high level, low frequency noise from modern stereo equipment, and are often described in terms of the low frequency characteristics of the music; the repetitive, booming, bass beat. The objective of this research was to establish the feasibility of applying active noise control to alleviate this problem. The initial approach was to evaluate the possibility of exploiting the dominance of individual modes in the response of rooms at low frequency to effect global control. However, initial investigations using a modal model of the sound field revealed that this would be difficult due to the contribution of many acoustic modes excited off resonance. This conclusion was supported by measurements of acoustic room responses in typical buildings, illustrating a non-resonant characteristic. Consequently, attention was turned to the feasibility of using local active control systems to create zones of quiet by concentrating control at a specific location near the observers ears, for example in a seat headrest, or near the pillows of a bed. The lack of a reference signal in either approach requires the use of a feedback control strategy. With a typically non-resonant system, the predictability in the disturbance necessary for successful feedback control must be contained in the primary excitation, namely the music. Examples of different music styles were investigated and of those with the potential to be a nuisance surprisingly few were significantly more predictable than a random disturbance. As expected the most encouraging control performance simulations were found for modern dance music, with a strong repetitive beat. A real-time, local controller was demonstrated in the laboratory with such a disturbance signal and the properties of the quiet zone were measured. The subjective response when hearing the controller in operation was found to be

  8. Application of a snowpack dynamic model to continuous-time data-series of snow depth and snow water equivalent from three weather stations in the upper Valtellina valley

    Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Bondiolotti, Ferdinando; Della Vedova, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    In Italian Alps, seasonal snowpack melting generates 40% - 70% of total water in reservoirs. This clarifies how much this process is relevant in the hydrological balance of northern Italy. Located in the central part of Italian Alps, the Valtellina valley has a relevant local production of hydroelectric power, a rich agricultural production and, thanks to its glaciers and the seasonal snowpack, it feeds river discharges towards the metropolitan area of Milan and the Po river basin, especially during spring and summer. Nonetheless, mainly because of scarce instrumentation, seasonal snow dynamics in the same area have been scarcely characterized in the past. Thus, potential impacts of climatic forcings on snowpack dynamics are widely unknown. In this contribution, we apply a simple one-dimensional model of snowpack density, depth and mass content (proposed by De Michele et al. 2013) to continuous-time data from three different sites placed in the upper Valtellina valley. Sites are placed in the western val Grosina valley (Malghera), eastern val Grosina valley (Eita) and in the Cancano valley (Val Cancano). At each site, snow depth, snow water equivalent, air temperature and precipitation are automatically logged, at a resolution of 15 minutes, by means of ultrasonic depth sensors, snow pillows, thermistors and heated rain gauges. The results of this application show that the model can be useful to investigate melting dynamics in Italian Alps, especially in areas of scarce instrumentation. De Michele, C., Avanzi, F., Ghezzi, A., and Jommi, C.: Investigating the dynamics of bulk snow density in dry and wet conditions using a one-dimensional model, The Cryosphere, 7, 433-444, doi:10.5194/tc-7-433-2013, 2013.

  9. Dart model for irradiation-induced swelling of dispersion fuel elements including aluminum-fuel interaction

    The Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART) contains models for fission-gas induced fuel swelling, interaction of fuel with the matrix aluminum, resultant reaction-product swelling, and calculation of the stress gradient within the fuel particle. The effects of an aluminide shell on fuel particle swelling are evaluated. Validation of the model is demonstrated by a comparison of DART calculations of fuel swelling of U3SiAl-Al and U3Si2-Al for various dispersion fuel element designs with the data. DART results are compared with data for fuel swelling Of U3SiAl-Al in plate, tube, and rod configurations as a function of fission density. Plate and tube calculations were performed at a constant fuel temperature of 373 K and 518 K, respectively. An irradiation temperature of 518 K results in a calculated aluminide layer thickness for the Russian tube that is in the center of the measured range (16 μm). Rod calculations were performed with a temperature gradient across the rod characterized by surface and central temperatures of 373 K and 423 K, respectively. The effective yield stress of irradiated Al matrix material and the aluminide was determined by comparing the results of DART calculations with postirradiation immersion volume measurement of U3SiAl plates. The values for the effective yield stress were used in all subsequent simulations. The lower calculated fuel swelling in the rod-type element is due to an assumed biaxial stress state. Fuel swelling in plates results in plate thickness increase only. Likewise, in tubes, only the wall thickness increases. Irradiation experiments have shown that plate-type dispersion fuel elements can develop blisters or pillows at high U-235 burnup when fuel compounds exhibiting breakaway swelling are used at moderate to high fuel volume fractions. DART-calculated interaction layer thickness and fuel swelling follows the trends of the observations. 3 refs., 2 figs

  10. Formation of hydrothermal deposits at Kings Triple Junction, northern Lau back-arc basin, SW Pacific: The geochemical perspectives

    Paropkari, Anil L.; Ray, Durbar; Balaram, V.; Surya Prakash, L.; Mirza, Imran H.; Satyanarayana, M.; Gnaneshwar Rao, T.; Kaisary, Sujata

    2010-04-01

    An inactive hydrothermal field was discovered near Kings Triple Junction (KTJ) in northern Lau back-arc basin during 19th cruise of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 1990. The field consisted of a large elongated basal platform 'the pedestal' with several 'small' chimneys on its periphery and one 'main mound' superposed over it. The surrounding region is carpeted with lava pillows having ferromanganese 'precipitate' as infillings. The adjoining second field consisted of small chimney like growths termed as 'Christmas Tree' Field. The basal pedestal, the peripheral chimneys and small 'Christmas Tree' like growths (samples collected by MIR submersibles), though parts of the same hydrothermal field, differ significantly in their mineralogy and elemental composition indicating different history of formation. The pedestal slab consisting of chalcopyrite and pyrite as major minerals and rich in Cu is likely to have formed at higher temperatures than sphalerite dominated peripheral chimney. Extremely low concentration of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta) and enrichment of light REE in these sulfides indicate prominent influence of aqueous arc-magma, rich in subduction components. The oxide growths in the 'Christmas Tree' Field have two distinct layers, Fe rich orange-red basal part which seems to have formed at very low temperature as precipitates from diffused hydrothermal flows from the seafloor whereas Mn rich black surface coating is formed from hydrothermal fluids emanated from the seafloor during another episode of hydrothermal activity. Perhaps this is for the first time such unique hydrothermal oxide growths are being reported in association with hydrothermal system. Here, we discuss the possible processes responsible for the formation of these different hydrothermal deposits based on their mineralogy and geochemistry.

  11. Fuel swelling and interaction layer formation in the SELENIUM Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates irradiated at high power in BR2

    Leenaers, A., E-mail: aleenaer@sckcen.be [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van den Berghe, S.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V. [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the SELENIUM project two full size flat fuel plates were produced with respectively Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) particles and irradiated in the BR2 reactor at SCK• CEN. Non-destructive analysis of the plates showed that the fuel swelling profiles of both SELENIUM plates were very similar to each other and none of the plates showed signs of pillowing or excessive swelling at the end of irradiation at the highest power position (local maximum 70% {sup 235}U). The microstructural analysis showed that the Si coated fuel has less interaction phase formation at low burn-up but at the highest burn-ups, defects start to develop on the IL–matrix interface. The ZrN coated fuel, shows a virtual absence of reaction between the U(Mo) and the Al, up to high fission densities after which the interaction layer formation starts and defects develop in the matrix near the U(Mo) particles. It was found and is confirmed by the SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium–Molybdenum) experiment that there are two phenomena at play that need to be controlled: the formation of an interaction layer and swelling of the fuel. As the interaction layer formation occurs at the U(Mo)–matrix interface, applying a diffusion barrier (coating) at that interface should prevent the interaction between U(Mo) and the matrix. The U(Mo) swelling, observed to proceed at an accelerating rate with respect to fission density accumulation, is governed by linear solid state swelling and fission gas bubble swelling due to recrystallization of the fuel. The examination of the SELENIUM fuel plates clearly show that for the U(Mo) dispersion fuel to be qualified, the swelling rate at high burn-up needs to be reduced.

  12. Effects of coal composition and flotation reagents on the water resistance of binderless briquettes

    Motaung, S.R.; Mangena, S.J.; de Korte, G.J. [Syngas & Coal Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2007-10-15

    The difference in the physical properties, particularly the water resistance or wet strength, of the binderless coal briquettes produced from flotation feed and concentrate was investigated using six bituminous coals from two collieries in the Witbank Coalfield. The coal samples were analyzed for their proximate, petrographic, and mineralogical properties. The presence, in the flotation concentrates, of the reagents used during the froth flotation process was also investigated using gas chromatography. Pillow-shaped binderless briquettes were produced from coal samples at various moisture contents and a pressure of approximately 17 MPA using a Komarek B-100A double-roll press. The briquettes were tested for some physical properties (i.e., dry- and wet-compressive strengths), which were thereafter compared with the properties determined for the coal samples. The binderless briquettes produced from the flotation concentrates were more water-resistant than those produced from the flotation feed. The flotation feed and concentrates of the coals tested were found to have similar petrographic properties. As expected, the ash and kaolinite contents were found to be lower in the flotation concentrates than in the flotation feed. Flotation reagents were detected in the flotation concentrates from both collieries. From the results obtained it is concluded that the increased water resistance of the binderless briquettes produced from flotation concentrates of the coals tested is due to a combination of the fineness of the coal particles, assisted by the amount of reactive macerals (most particularly vitrinite) with the lower ash and kaolinite contents, together with the presence of the flotation reagents, particularly the collector, in the flotation concentrate.

  13. Fuel swelling and interaction layer formation in the SELENIUM Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates irradiated at high power in BR2

    In the framework of the SELENIUM project two full size flat fuel plates were produced with respectively Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) particles and irradiated in the BR2 reactor at SCK• CEN. Non-destructive analysis of the plates showed that the fuel swelling profiles of both SELENIUM plates were very similar to each other and none of the plates showed signs of pillowing or excessive swelling at the end of irradiation at the highest power position (local maximum 70% 235U). The microstructural analysis showed that the Si coated fuel has less interaction phase formation at low burn-up but at the highest burn-ups, defects start to develop on the IL–matrix interface. The ZrN coated fuel, shows a virtual absence of reaction between the U(Mo) and the Al, up to high fission densities after which the interaction layer formation starts and defects develop in the matrix near the U(Mo) particles. It was found and is confirmed by the SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium–Molybdenum) experiment that there are two phenomena at play that need to be controlled: the formation of an interaction layer and swelling of the fuel. As the interaction layer formation occurs at the U(Mo)–matrix interface, applying a diffusion barrier (coating) at that interface should prevent the interaction between U(Mo) and the matrix. The U(Mo) swelling, observed to proceed at an accelerating rate with respect to fission density accumulation, is governed by linear solid state swelling and fission gas bubble swelling due to recrystallization of the fuel. The examination of the SELENIUM fuel plates clearly show that for the U(Mo) dispersion fuel to be qualified, the swelling rate at high burn-up needs to be reduced

  14. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic magmatic rocks from the Sarve-Abad ophiolites (Kurdistan region, Iran): Evidence for interaction between MORB-type asthenosphere and OIB-type components in the southern Neo-Tethys Ocean

    Saccani, Emilio; Allahyari, Khalil; Rahimzadeh, Bahman

    2014-05-01

    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites crop out in the Main Zagros Thrust Zone and represent remnants of the Mesozoic southern Neo-Tethys Ocean that was located between the Arabian shield and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental block. They consist of several incomplete ophiolitic sequences including gabbroic bodies, a dyke complex, and pillow lava sequences. These rocks generally range from sub-alkaline to transitional character. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that they have compositions akin to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and plume-type MORB (P-MORB). Nonetheless, the different depletion degrees in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), which can be observed in both E-MORB like and P-MORB like rocks enable two main basic chemical types of rocks to be distinguished as Type-I and Type-II. Type-I rocks are strongly depleted in HREE (YbN 9.0). Petrogenetic modeling shows that Type-I rocks originated from 7 to 16% polybaric partial melting of a MORB-type mantle source, which was significantly enriched by plume-type components. These rocks resulted from the mixing of variable fractions of melts generated in garnet-facies and the spinel-facies mantle. In contrast, Type-II rocks originated from 5 to 8% partial melting in the spinel-facies of a MORB-type source, which was moderately enriched by plume-type components. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the generation of the southern Neo-Tethys oceanic crust implies that the continental rift and subsequent oceanic spreading were associated with uprising of MORB-type asthenospheric mantle featuring plume-type component influences decreasing from deep to shallow mantle levels. These deep plume-type components were most likely inherited from Carboniferous mantle plume activity that was associated with the opening of Paleo-Tethys in the same area.

  15. Vulcanismo submarino del Santoniense en el Subbético: datación con nannofósiles e interpretación (formación Capas Rojas, Alamedilla, provincia de Granada

    de Gea, G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Submarine volcanic rocks (pillow lavas appear into the marly limestones and marls of the Capas Rojas Formation in the Median Subbetic. The dating with nannoplankton of the immediately underlying and overlying materials to these volcanic rocks has allow us to precise the age of this volcanic activity as Late Santonian (nannofossil biozone of Rucinolithus hayi. This volcanic event arose 84 million years ago, according to the absolute age obtained with the calibration of this biozone. It is the last Mesozoic volcanic activity registered until now in the External Zones of the Betic Cordilleras. The age of this event corresponds to the ending part of the interval of the Sudiberian continental margin evolution as an extensive margin, relatively nearly to the time in which it evolved to a convergent marginRocas volcánicas submarinas (lavas almohadilladas aparecen intercaladas entre calizas margosas y margas de la Formación Capas Rojas del Subbético Medio. La datación con nannoplancton de los materiales inmediatamente infrayacentes y suprayacentes a estas rocas volcánicas ha permitido precisar la edad de este vulcanismo como Santoniense superior (biozona de nannofósiles de Rucinolithus hayi. Este evento volcánico ocurrió hace unos 84 millones de años de acuerdo con la calibración a tiempos absolutos de la biozona indicada. Se trata por tanto de la actividad volcánica mesozoica más moderna datada hasta el momento en el conjunto de las Zonas Externas de las Cordilleras Béticas. La edad de este evento corresponde a la parte terminal del intervalo de tiempo durante el cual el margen continental sudibérico constituyó un margen extensivo, relativamente cercano al momento en que ocurrió su transformación a un margen convergente.

  16. Extensional tectonics during the igneous emplacement of the mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Barberton greenstone belt

    Dewit, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The simatic rocks (Onverwacht Group) of the Barberton greenstone belt are part of the Jamestown ophiolite complex. This ophiolite, together with its thick sedimentary cover occupies a complex thrust belt. Field studies have identified two types of early faults which are entirely confined to the simatic rocks and are deformed by the later thrusts and associated folds. The first type of fault (F1a) is regional and always occurs in the simatic rocks along and parallel to the lower contacts of the ophiolite-related cherts (Middle Marker and equivalent layers). These fault zones have previously been referred to both as flaser-banded gneisses and as weathering horizons. In general the zones range between 1-30m in thickness. Displacements along these zones are difficult to estimate, but may be in the order of 1-100 km. The structures indicate that the faults formed close to horizontal, during extensional shear and were therefore low angle normal faults. F1a zones overlap in age with the formation of the ophiolite complex. The second type of faults (F1b) are vertical brittle-ductile shear zones, which crosscut the complex at variable angles and cannot always be traced from plutonic to overlying extrusive (pillowed) simatic rocks. F1b zones are also apparently of penecontemporaneous origin with the intrusive-extrusive igneous processs. F1b zones may either represent transform fault-type activity or represent root zones (steepened extensions) of F1a zones. Both fault types indicate extensive deformation in the rocks of the greenstone belt prior to compressional overthrust tectonics.

  17. Ultrabasic-basic intrusive vizcaino layered complex and vizcaino ophiolite (southern baja california, mexico)

    Two ultrabasic-basic rocks-bearing units occur in the Vizcaino Peninsula of Southern Baja California (Mexico): the Vizcaino Layered Complex (VLC) and the San Hipolito Zone (SHZ). The VLC consists of two sequences: the lower Puerto Nuevo Sequence (serpentinite breccia, harzburgite, dunite, cyclic units), and the upper La Pintada Sequence (cyclic units, gabbros, diorites). The SHZ consists of serpentinite, actinote schists. microgabbros, spilitic pillow lavas, ophicalcites, radiolarites, tuffs, greywackes, interbedded limestone and dolomite, siliceous sandstones, and volcano sedimentary strata). The VLC is an autochtonous complex generated by a magma under plating, which is intrusive into the San Pablo Metamorphic Complex (SPMC) (amphibole-biotite gneiss with lenses of granite, migmatitic amphibolitic gneiss, orthoamphibolites). Originally, together with its metamorphic roof, the SPMC, it constituted a continental magmatic arc .The SHZ, a former Late Triassic marginal sea, is an allochthonous Carnian (?)-Norian ophiolitic unit, emplaced as a nappe upon the VLC during the Liassic. During the Late Triassic (starting at ±220 Ma) this zone underwent a long lived extensional event, during which plagiogranite dykes and dolerite/albitite dykes were emplaced into it, whereas the San Hipolito Basin opened behind it. Then, different units of the VLC were exhumed and exposed by low angle normal listric faults. It seems that the upper part of the VLC, La Pintada Sequence and the SPMC were then displaced to their present position of San Pablo-La Pintada. During the Liassic compressional phase the plagiogranite dykes were boudinaged, and slices of the SHZ Nappe came to rest upon every one of the units of the Puerto Nuevo Sequence, including the serpentinite breccia (which gave way to the erroneous notion of the so-called Puerto Nuevo melange of previous literature).

  18. Core evidence of paleoseismic events in Paleogene deposits of the Shulu Sag in the Bohai Bay Basin, east China, and their petroleum geologic significance

    Zheng, Lijing; Jiang, Zaixing; Liu, Hui; Kong, Xiangxin; Li, Haipeng; Jiang, Xiaolong

    2015-10-01

    The Shulu Sag, located in the southwestern corner of the Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin of east China, is a NE-SW trending, elongate Cenozoic half-graben basin. The lowermost part of the third member of the Shahejie Formation in this basin is characterized by continental rudstone and calcilutite to calcisiltite facies. Based on core observation and regional geologic analysis, seismites are recognized in these lacustrine deposits, which include soft-sediment deformation structures (sedimentary dikes, hydraulic shattering, diapir structures, convolute lamination, load-flame structures, ball-and-pillow structures, loop bedding, and subsidence structures), synsedimentary faults, and seismoturbidites. In addition, mixed-source rudstones, consisting of the Paleozoic carbonate clasts and in situ calcilutite clasts in the lowermost submember of Shahejie 3, appear in the seismites, suggesting an earthquake origin. A complete representative vertical sequence in the lowermost part of the third member found in well ST1H located in the central part of the Shulu Sag shows, from the base to the top: underlying undeformed layers, synsedimentary faults, liquefied carbonate rocks, allogenetic seismoturbidites, and overlying undeformed layers. Seismites are widely distributed around this well and there are multiple sets of stacked seismites separated by undeformed sediment. The nearby NW-trending Taijiazhuang fault whose fault growth index is from 1.1 to 1.8 and the NNE-trending Xinhe fault with a fault growth index of 1.3-1.9 may be the source of the instability to create the seismites. These deformed sedimentary layers are favorable for the accumulation of oil and gas; for example, sedimentary dikes can cut through many layers and serve as conduits for fluid migration. Sedimentary faults and fractures induced by earthquakes can act as oil and gas migration channels or store petroleum products as well. Seismoturbidites and mixed-source rudstones are excellent reservoirs due to

  19. Sexual compulsivity, state affect, and sexual risk behavior in a daily diary study of gay and bisexual men.

    Grov, Christian; Golub, Sarit A; Mustanski, Brian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    Researchers have identified a strong link between sexual compulsivity (SC) and risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Meanwhile, affect/mood has also been connected with negative sexual health outcomes (sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] transmission, sexual risk, sex under the influence of drugs/alcohol). Given that SC is characterized by marked distress around one's own sexual behavior, affect may play a central role in SC and HIV risk behavior. Data were taken from the Pillow Talk Project, a pilot study conducted in 2008-2009 with 50 highly sexually active MSM (9 or more male sex partners, ≤ 90 days), of which half displayed SC symptoms and half did not. Forty-seven men completed a daily diary online for 30 days (n = 1,060 diary days), reporting on their sexual behavior and concurrent affect: positive activation, negative activation, anxious arousal, and sexual activation. We conducted HLM analyses using daily affect (Level 1, within subjects) and SC and HIV status (Level 2, between subjects) to predict sexual behavior outcomes. Increased negative activation (characterized by fear, sadness, anger, and disgust) was associated with reduced sexual risk behavior, but less so among sexually compulsive MSM. Sexual activation was associated with increased sexual risk taking, but less so among sexually compulsive MSM. Anxious arousal was associated with increased sexual behavior, but not necessarily sexual risk taking. Findings indicate that affect plays key roles in sexual behavior and sexual risk taking; however, the association between affect and behavior may be different for sexually compulsive and non-sexually compulsive MSM. PMID:20853934

  20. Petrology and tectonic significance of seamounts within transitional crust east of Orphan Knoll, offshore eastern Canada

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Meredyk, Shawn; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Piper, David J. W.; Edinger, Evan

    2013-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous separation of Newfoundland from Iberia-Ireland is a classic example of a magma-poor continental margin with hyperextension and with widespread minor magmatism resulting in seamounts. This study defines the distribution of seamounts east of Orphan Knoll, and documents and interprets the geochemical character of the one recovered lava sample. Video imagery of lava outcrops, and the sample, were obtained by ROV from Orphan seamount, one of a linear series of small seamounts overlying transitional thinned continental crust on the seaward side of Orphan Knoll. New multibeam bathymetry and legacy seismic data show several seamounts that extend irregularly along the fault-bound NE margin of Orphan Knoll. Whole rock geochemistry shows the sample to be highly alkaline basanite or possibly tephrite. Diopside-hedenbergite, kaersutite and K-feldspar phenocrysts were analyzed by electron microprobe and scanning electron microscope, and alteration minerals including kaolinite were identified by X-ray diffraction. The highly alkaline character of the basanite is similar only to Early Cretaceous volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks erupted through thick continental crust of the Mesoproterozoic Grenville Orogeny. The location of the linear set of seamounts is related to margin-parallel faults on the seaward side of Orphan Knoll that provided a pathway for magma, although ENE-trending lineaments in individual seamounts or seamount groups suggest the influence of oceanic fracture zones. A lower gradient crest to Orphan seamount above 2,200 m suggests subaerial erosion, consistent with the presence of kaolinite as an alteration product and the absence of lava pillows at and above this depth.

  1. Analisis stratigrafi awal kegiatan Gunung Api Gajahdangak di daerah Bulu, Sukoharjo; Implikasinya terhadap stratigrafi batuan gunung api di Pegunungan Selatan, Jawa Tengah

    Hill Gendoet Hartono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no3.20091Generally, Tertiary volcanisms in the Southern Mountains, Central Jawa were started with the formation of pillow lavas having basalt to basaltic andesite in composition. This initial stage volcanism developed into a  construction period of composite volcanoes that consist of alternating basaltic to andesitic lava flows, breccias, and tuffs. The construction period could be followed by a destructive phase, producing pumice-rich pyroclastic breccias, lapillistones, and tuffs of high silica andesite to dacite, or even rhyolite in composition. A stratigraphic measuring section at Bulu area, Sukoharjo Regency, presents an alternat- ing fine-grained andesitic volcaniclastic material and some limestones, with the total thickness is 143.33 m. The thickness of bedded volcaniclastic material tends to be thickening upward from 35 m until 90 m. The grain size of the volcaniclastic material also tends to be coarsening upward from clay size through silt and fine sand to coarse sand and granules. Paleontological analysis on fossils contained in the lime- stone gives an age of Early Miocene (N7 - N9. The volcaniclastic rocks is conformably overlain by the Mandalika Formation, comprising alternating andesitic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. These data imply that the fine-grained volcaniclastic material is an initial product of the construction period of Gajahdangak Volcano in the area, that formed the Mandalika Formation. This Formation is overlain by the Semilir Formation, composed of pumice-rich pyroclastic breccias and tuffs with dacitic composition. This as- sociated volcanic rock reflects a product of a caldera explosion or a destructive phase. Based on the characteristics of lithology of volcanic products from the initial stage, to a construction and destruction period, and compiled age data, the Southern Mountains represent formal volcanic rock units that are able to be divided into many formations.  

  2. Initial clinical experience with scanned proton beams at the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO)

    We report the initial toxicity data with scanned proton beams at the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO). In September 2011, CNAO commenced patient treatment with scanned proton beams within two prospective Phase II protocols approved by the Italian Health Ministry. Patients with chondrosarcoma or chordoma of the skull base or spine were eligible. By October 2012, 21 patients had completed treatment. Immobilization was performed using rigid non-perforated thermoplastic-masks and customized headrests or body-pillows as indicated. Non-contrast CT scans with immobilization devices in place and MRI scans in supine position were performed for treatment-planning. For chordoma, the prescribed doses were 74 cobalt grey equivalent (CGE) and 54 CGE to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and PTV2, respectively. For chondrosarcoma, the prescribed doses were 70 CGE and 54 CGE to PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. Treatment was delivered five days a week in 35-37 fractions. Prior to treatment, the patients' positions were verified using an optical tracking system and orthogonal X-ray images. Proton beams were delivered using fixed-horizontal portals on a robotic couch. Weekly MRI incorporating diffusion-weighted-imaging was performed during the course of proton therapy. Patients were reviewed once weekly and acute toxicities were graded with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Median age of patients =50 years (range, 21-74). All 21 patients completed the proton therapy without major toxicities and without treatment interruption. Median dose delivered was 74 CGE (range, 70-74). The maximum toxicity recorded was CTCAE Grade 2 in four patients. Our preliminary data demonstrates the clinical feasibility of scanned proton beams in Italy. (author)

  3. Bacteria killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil effectively reduces bacterial burden in intensive care units.

    Hsueh, P-R; Huang, H-C; Young, T-G; Su, C-Y; Liu, C-S; Yen, M-Y

    2014-04-01

    A contaminated hospital environment has been identified as an important reservoir of pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of bacteria killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil on reducing bacterial counts in an intensive care unit (ICU). Two single-bed rooms (S-19 and S-20) in the ICU were selected from 7 April to 27 May 2011. Ten sets of new textiles (pillow cases, bed sheets, duvet cover, and patient clothing) used by patients in the two single-bed rooms were provided by the sponsors. In the room S-20, the 10 sets of new textiles were washed with Bio-Kil; the room walls, ceiling, and air-conditioning filters were treated with Bio-Kil; and the surfaces of instruments (respirator, telephone, and computer) were covered with Bio-Kil-embedded silicon pads. Room S-19 served as the control. We compared the bacterial count on textiles and environment surfaces as well as air samples between the two rooms. A total of 1,364 samples from 22 different sites in each room were collected. The mean bacterial count on textiles and environmental surfaces in room S-20 was significantly lower than that in room S-19 (10.4 vs 49.6 colony-forming units [CFU]/100 cm(2); P plate; P < 0.001). The density of microbial isolations was significantly greater among patients admitted to room S-19 than those to room S-20 (9.15 vs 5.88 isolates per 100 patient-days, P < 0.05). Bio-Kil can significantly reduce bacterial burden in the environment of the ICU. PMID:24136062

  4. Design and evaluation of representative indoor radon surveys

    We have developed a procedure to design and evaluate representative indoor radon surveys. The procedure is based on random sampling of a population of houses and careful statistical analysis of measured indoor radon concentrations. The method is designed to estimate the fraction of houses in which annual average 222Rn activity concentration may exceed a certain reference level. Measurements of annual average indoor 222Rn activity concentration were done in sleeping rooms at pillow level using etched track type radon detectors. We applied the above procedure in an old fashioned village and in a fast developing small city in Transylvania, Romania. In the village almost all houses were single floor wooden made houses without cellar built with traditional technology on a geologically uniform area. The distribution of indoor 222Rn activity concentration in a sample of 115 houses can almost perfectly be fitted with log-normal probability density function. The correlation coefficient of linear fitting on linearized scales was k = -0.9980. The percentages of houses expected to have annual average 222Rn activity concentration higher than 400 Bq m-3 is less than 1 %, and of those higher than 600 Bq m-3 can be estimated to be around 0.1 %. The small city, on the other hand lies on a geologically inhomogeneous area, and house construction technology has also changed dramatically in past decades. The resulting distribution of measured indoor 222Rn activity concentration in a sample of 116 houses cannot be fitted with any simple probability density function. Therefore the prediction of the fraction of houses in which the annual average 222Rn activity concentration may exceed a certain reference level could not be done adequately. With certain assumptions we estimated that the percentages of houses expected to have annual average 222Rn activity concentration higher than 400 Bq m-3 is between 3 and 7 %, and of those higher than 600 Bq m-3 can be estimated to be between 1 and 3

  5. Low temperature alteration of basalts in oceanic domain and behaviour of rare earth elements (SEADMA 1 cruise, Mid-Atlantic ridge, 20-24 deg. N)

    ''Zero-age'' tholeiitic pillow basalts were dredged from the axial zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the vicinity of 20 deg. and 24 deg. N during SEADMA l cruise. These basalts underwent three types of alteration: a deuteric alteration, during which protruding purple Ti - rich diopside crystallized in primary voids; a low temperature alteration, which is responsible for the formation of black bands and halos, where celadonite -nontronite, and iron oxy-hydroxides replaced the mesostasis and filled primary voids. These minerals formed at low temperature from mixed fluids (sea water / hydrothermal fluids). This alteration process is characterized by an increase of K20, Rb/Ba, H2O+, Fe2O3t, the oxidation ratio and δ18O in black halos and black bands with respect to the adjacent fresher part of the samples. The water / rock ratio is very low (0.2 in mass), a very discrete low temperature alteration, responsible for the crystallization of saponite, and then calcite. This process is thought to be mainly due to seawater circulation. Black bands and black halos are either richer or poorer in light rare earth elements (La and Ce) than their fresher equivalent. It is shown that the mobilization of light REE is related to alteration, and that LREE are trapped in secondary minerals, e.g. iron oxy-hydroxides. The LREE mobilization is not linked to the formation of black halos and is due to another alteration process, in which hydrothermal fluids are probably involved. (authors). 46 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs

  6. Numerical modeling on progressive internal deformation in down-built diapirs

    Fuchs, Lukas; Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro

    2014-09-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference code (FDCON) is used to estimate the finite deformation within a down-built diapir. The geometry of the down-built diapir is fixed by using two rigid rectangular overburden units which sink into a source layer of a constant viscosity. Thus, the model refers to diapirs consisting of a source layer feeding a vertical stem, and not to other salt structures (e.g. salt sheets or pillows). With this setup we study the progressive strain in three different deformation regimes within the “salt” material: (I) a squeezed channel-flow deformation regime and (II) a corner-flow deformation regime within the source layer, and (III) a pure channel-flow deformation regime within the stem. We analyze the evolution of finite deformation in each regime individually, progressive strain for particles passing all three regimes, and total 2D finite deformation within the salt layer. Model results show that the material which enters the stem bears inherited strain accumulated from the other two domains. Therefore, finite deformation in the stem differs from the expected channel-flow deformation, due to the deformation accumulated within the source layer. The stem displays a high deformation zone within its center and areas of decreasing progressive strain between its center and its boundaries. High deformation zones within the stem could also be observed within natural diapirs (e.g. Klodowa, Polen). The location and structure of the high deformation zone (e.g. symmetric or asymmetric) could reveal information about different rates of salt supplies from the source layer. Thus, deformation pattern could directly be correlated to the evolution of the diapir.

  7. Permo-Triassic hypabyssal mafic intrusions and associated tholeiitic basalts of the Kolyuchinskaya Guba, Chukotka (NE Russia): Significance for interregional correlations

    Ledneva, G. V.; Pease, V. L.; Sokolov, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    In order to test tectonic hypotheses regarding the evolution of the Arctic Alaska-Chukotka microplate prior to the opening of the Amerasian basin, we investigated rocks exposed near Kolyuchinskaya Guba, eastern Chukotka. Hypabyssal mafic rocks and associated basaltic flows enclose terrigenous sediments, minor cherts and limestones in pillow interstices. The hypabyssal mafic rock yields a U-Pb zircon age of 252+/-4 Ma and indicates intrusion of basic magma at the Permo-Triassic boundary, contemporaneous with voluminous magmatism of the Siberian large igneous province (LIP). The lava flows and hypabyssal mafic rocks of the Kolyuchinskaya Guba region have major and trace element compositions identical the tholeiitic flood basalts of the main plateau stage of the Siberian LIP. They are strongly differentiated, the result of high-pressure equilibrium crystallization of a low-Ti/Y tholeiitic melt, and contaminated. The compositional variations in these rocks, however, neither proves nor disproves a correlation between the Permo-Triassic tholeiitic flood basalts of eastern Chukotka and the Siberian LIP. Thus, two alternative geodynamic interpretations are possible: 1) The hypabyssal mafic rocks and associated tholeiitic flows crystallized from a plume-derived melt; 2) The rocks are not related to plume activity, consequently eastern Chukotka was probably part of a passive rifted or extensional continental margin in the Permo-Triassic. Nonetheless, we prefer the first of these two possibilities. Funding for this work is gratefully acknowledged from the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat ("Beringia-2005"), the Swedish Research Council, the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No 08-05-00547), Leading Scientific School (NSH-3172.2008.5) and ONZ RAS. Thanks are also extended to M.J. Whitehouse and the Nordsim facility - the Nordsim facility is funded by the research councils of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, the Geological Survey of Finland, and the Swedish Museum of

  8. 'Snake River (SR)-type' volcanism at the Yellowstone hotspot track: Distinctive products from unusual, high-temperature silicic super-eruptions

    Branney, M.J.; Bonnichsen, B.; Andrews, G.D.M.; Ellis, B.; Barry, T.L.; McCurry, M.

    2008-01-01

    A new category of large-scale volcanism, here termed Snake River (SR)-type volcanism, is defined with reference to a distinctive volcanic facies association displayed by Miocene rocks in the central Snake River Plain area of southern Idaho and northern Nevada, USA. The facies association contrasts with those typical of silicic volcanism elsewhere and records unusual, voluminous and particularly environmentally devastating styles of eruption that remain poorly understood. It includes: (1) large-volume, lithic-poor rhyolitic ignimbrites with scarce pumice lapilli; (2) extensive, parallel-laminated, medium to coarse-grained ashfall deposits with large cuspate shards, crystals and a paucity of pumice lapilli; many are fused to black vitrophyre; (3) unusually extensive, large-volume rhyolite lavas; (4) unusually intense welding, rheomorphism, and widespread development of lava-like facies in the ignimbrites; (5) extensive, fines-rich ash deposits with abundant ash aggregates (pellets and accretionary lapilli); (6) the ashfall layers and ignimbrites contain abundant clasts of dense obsidian and vitrophyre; (7) a bimodal association between the rhyolitic rocks and numerous, coalescing low-profile basalt lava shields; and (8) widespread evidence of emplacement in lacustrine-alluvial environments, as revealed by intercalated lake sediments, ignimbrite peperites, rhyolitic and basaltic hyaloclastites, basalt pillow-lava deltas, rhyolitic and basaltic phreatomagmatic tuffs, alluvial sands and palaeosols. Many rhyolitic eruptions were high mass-flux, large volume and explosive (VEI 6-8), and involved H2O-poor, low-??18O, metaluminous rhyolite magmas with unusually low viscosities, partly due to high magmatic temperatures (900-1,050??C). SR-type volcanism contrasts with silicic volcanism at many other volcanic fields, where the fall deposits are typically Plinian with pumice lapilli, the ignimbrites are low to medium grade (non-welded to eutaxitic) with abundant pumice lapilli

  9. Petrogenesis of the Khabr-Marvast Tectonized Ophiolite in the middle part of Nain-Baft Ophiolite belt, NW Shahrebabak, Iran

    Soltanmohammadi, A.; Rahgoshay, M.; Khalatbari-Jafari, M.

    2009-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Khabr-Marvast tectonized Ophiolite, exposed in the middle part of Nain-Baft ophiolite belt, at the South edge of the Central Iran micro-continent. Intrusive sequence of this association comprise by: serpentinized harzburgite, isotropic gabbro, diabase sheeted dikes complex, which intruded by isolated diabase dikes, pegmatite gabbro and trondjhemite. Extrusive sequence are included: pillow lava, sheetflow and hyaloclastic breccias at passing upward. The relationship between the units of this association are tectonized.The primitive mantle-normalized multi-element plot (Sun and McDonough, 1989) indicate moderate enrichement in the LILE and show clear depletion for Nb in all samples, and depletion for Ta and Ti in most of samples. The chondrite-normalized multi-element plot indicate different enrichment of samples from LREE to HREE, and could be compare with subduction related magmatism.The variable rare earth elements patterns of the Khabr-Marvast tectonized ophiolite may reflect presence of heterogeneous source to generation of these rocks.The high Ba/Th(209-1460) ratios, low Th/Ta(0.5-1.7) and Nb/Ta(2.02-4.04) ratios in sheeted dikes and pegmatite gabbros, indicate more participant of fluids with partial melting of depleted mantle wedge in a subduction zone (Pearce et al., 2005; König et al., 2008 ). In contrast, sheetflows and isolated diabase dikes and trondjhemites have lower Ba/Th(20-170) ratios and higher Th/Ta(7.9-16.1), Nb/Ta(12.12-24) ratios which indicative of partial melting of depleted mantle and lower fluids to participating in generation of these rocks.The geological and geochemical studies suggest that the Khabr-Marvast tectonized Ophiolite had heterogeneous source and form in a supra-subduction zone system which is consistent with the model that assumes subduction of the Arabian plate under the Central Iran micro-continent.Keywords: Tectonized Ophiolite, Central Iran micro-continent, heterogeneous source, supra-subduction system.

  10. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    J. Einen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004. The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group

  11. Snowmelt and sublimation: field experiments and modelling in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco

    O. Schulz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow in the High Atlas Mountains is a major source for freshwater renewal and for water availability in the semi-arid lowlands of south-eastern Morocco. Snowfall- and snow-ablation monitoring and modelling is important for estimating potential water delivery from the mountain water towers to the forelands. This study is part of GLOWA-IMPETUS, an integrated management project dealing with scarce water resources in West Africa. The Ameskar study area is located to the south of the High Atlas Mountains, in their rain shadow. As a part of the M’Goun river basin within the upper Drâa valley, the study area is characterised by high radiation inputs, low atmospheric humidity and long periods with sub-zero temperatures. Its altitude ranges between 2000 m and 4000 m, with dominant north- and south-facing slopes. Snowfall occurs mainly from November to April but even summit regions can become repeatedly devoid of snow cover. Snow cover maps for the M’Goun basin (1240 km2 are derived from calculations of NDSI (Normalized Difference Snow Index from MODIS satellite images and snow depth is monitored at four automatic weather stations between 2000–4000 m. Snowfall events are infrequent at lower altitudes. The presence of snow penitentes at altitudes above 3000 m indicates that snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation. Snow ablation was modelled with the UEB Utah Energy Balance Model (Tarboton and Luce, 1996. This single layer, physically-based, point energy and mass balance model is driven by meteorological variables recorded at the automatic weather stations at Tounza (2960 m and Tichki (3260 m. Data from snow pillows at Tounza and Tichki are used to validate the model’s physical performance in terms of energy and water balances for a sequence of two snowfall events in the winter of 2003/4. First UEB modelling results show good overall performance and timing of snowmelt and sublimation compared to field investigations. Up to 44

  12. Mafic-silicic magma interaction in the layered 1.87 Ga Soukkio Complex in Mäntsälä, southern Finland

    Toni T. Eerola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Svecofennian layered Soukkio Complex (1.87 Ga in Mäntsälä, southern Finland, consists of layered tholeiitic gabbro and porphyritic calc-alkaline monzonite, quartz monzonite and granite, mingled together. The gabbro belongs to a group of ten mafic-ultramafic intrusions of Mäntsälä, part of the 150 km long and 20 km wide, linear, E-W trending Hyvinkää–Mäntsälä Gabbroic Belt(HMGB, representing syn-collisional magmatism. Structures and textures related to magma mingling and mixing occur in a 1–2 km wide zone around Lake Kilpijärvi, located at the center of the Soukkio Complex. The complex is compositionally stratified and consists of four zones:its base, found at the Western Zone, is a dynamically layered gabbro. The followingtonalite is probably a result of magma mixing. Felsic amoeboid layers and pipes, alternating with or cutting the fine-grained gabbro in the Central-Western Zone, resemble those of mafic-silicic layered intrusions in general. Mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs and pillows form the South-Central Zone and disrupted synplutonic mafic dykes or sheets intruded the granite in the Eastern Zone. The MMEs and disrupted synplutonic mafic dykes or sheets show cuspate and chilled margins against the felsic host, quartz ocelli, corroded K-feldspar xenocrysts with or without plagioclase mantles, and acicular apatite, all typical features of magma mingling and mixing. Mixing is suggested by intermediate composition of MMEs between granitoid and gabbro, as well as by their partly linear trends in some Harker diagrams. REE composition of the MMEs is similar to that of the Soukkio Gabbro, as expected for granite hosted MMEs. The model proposed for evolution of the Soukkio Complex involves intrusion of mafic magma into the crust, causing its partial melting. This generated granitic magma above the mafic chamber. Injections of mafic magma invaded the felsic chamber and those magmas interacted mainly by intermingling. Mingling and

  13. Localization Accuracy and Immobilization Effectiveness of a Stereotactic Body Frame for a Variety of Treatment Sites

    Foster, Ryan, E-mail: Ryan.Foster@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Meyer, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Puneeth; Pistenmaa, David; Timmerman, Robert; Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Solberg, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the pretreatment setup errors and intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for stereotactic body radiation therapy patients immobilized and localized with a stereotactic body frame for a variety of treatment sites. Methods and Materials: Localization errors were recorded for patients receiving SBRT for 141 lung, 29 liver, 48 prostate, and 45 spine tumors representing 1005 total localization sessions. All patients were treated in a stereotactic body frame with a large custom-molded vacuum pillow. Patients were first localized to the frame using tattoos placed during simulation. Subsequently, the frame was aligned to the room lasers according to the stereotactic coordinates determined from the treatment plan. Every patient received a pretreatment and an intrafraction CBCT. Abdominal compression was used for all liver patients and for approximately 40% of the lung patients to reduce tumor motion due to respiration. Results: The mean ± standard deviation pretreatment setup errors from all localizations were −2.44 ± 3.85, 1.31 ± 5.84, and 0.11 ± 3.76 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean pretreatment localization results among all treatment sites were not significantly different (F test, P<.05). For all treatment sites, the mean ± standard deviation intrafraction shifts were 0.33 ± 1.34, 0.15 ± 1.45, and −0.02 ± 1.17 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean unidimensional intrafraction shifts were statistically different for several of the comparisons (P<.05) as assessed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Conclusions: Despite the varied tumor locations, the pretreatment mean localization errors for all sites were found to be consistent among the treatment sites and not significantly different, indicating that the body frame is a suitable immobilization and localization device for a variety of

  14. Interfractional Dose Variations in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Breath-Hold for Pancreatic Cancer

    Purpose: To investigate the interfractional dose variations for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT) combined with breath-hold (BH) at end-exhalation (EE) for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 10 consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled. Each patient was fixed in the supine position on an individualized vacuum pillow with both arms raised. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed before RT, and three additional scans were performed during the course of chemoradiotherapy using a conventional RT technique. The CT data were acquired under EE–BH conditions (BH–CT) using a visual feedback technique. The intensity-modulated RT plan, which used five 15-MV coplanar ports, was designed on the initial BH–CT set with a prescription dose of 39 Gy at 2.6 Gy/fraction. After rigid image registration between the initial and subsequent BH–CT scans, the dose distributions were recalculated on the subsequent BH–CT images under the same conditions as in planning. Changes in the dose–volume metrics of the gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV = GTV + 5 mm), stomach, and duodenum were evaluated. Results: For the GTV and clinical target volume (CTV), the 95th percentile of the interfractional variations in the maximal dose, mean dose, dose covering 95% volume of the region of structure, and percentage of the volume covered by the 90% isodose line were within ±3%. Although the volume covered by the 39 Gy isodose line for the stomach and duodenum did not exceed 0.1 mL at planning, the volume covered by the 39 Gy isodose line for these structures was up to 11.4 cm3 and 1.8 cm3, respectively. Conclusions: Despite variations in the gastrointestinal state and abdominal wall position at EE, the GTV and CTV were mostly ensured at the planned dose, with the exception of 1 patient. Compared with the duodenum, large variations in the stomach volume receiving high-dose radiation were observed, which might be beyond the negligible

  15. A 120 million years record of magmatism and crustal melting in the Kohistan Batholith

    Schaltegger, U.; Frank, M.; Burg, J.-P.

    2003-04-01

    The Kohistan Arc Complex (KAC) in the Pakistani Himalaya is a volcanic arc terrane with a mantle-crust transition at its bottom and upper crustal volcano-sedimentary sequences above. The KAC features arc-type intrusives with oldest ages of c. 100 Ma, and a huge intrusion of gabbronorite at 85 Ma emplaced during a stage of intra-arc rifting (Schaltegger et al. 2002, Terra Nova 14, 461-468). The rift zone may have evolved into an intra-arc (or back-arc?) basin that persisted and remained marine until the Eocene (c. 50 Ma) i.e. after docking of the KAC against the Karakoram terrane in the north, which is reputed to be older than 75 Ma. The main part of the KAC is comprised of tonalites, diorites, granodiorites and granites that form the so-called Kohistan Batholith. U-Pb and Hf isotopic determinations of zircon from some of these plutons reveal the existence of a 154.0 +- 0.6 Ma old tonalite (compared to the Rb-Sr isochron age of 102 +- 12 Ma of Petterson &Windley, 1985) with an extremely high initial epsilon Hf value of +21. This rock intrudes volcanic units containing pillow basalts. It is thus tentatively interpreted as a tonalite produced by melting of oceanic lithosphere that has been melt-depleted during an ancient melting event. Other plutons are dated at 50 and 30 Ma. With an epsilon Hf around +10, they represent melting of an island-arc to MORB-type source. The 30 Ma-old leucogranite at the Indus confluence contains zircons with a 560 Ma inheritance, which is coupled to a lower epsilon Hf of +3-4, beside newly crystallized grains of 30 Ma with epsilon Hf=10. The Hf isotopes thus do not reveal any systematic change of the source composition with time, as it has been inferred from Sr and Nd isotopes. The Kohistan Batholith containing magmatic remnants of a pre-arc oceanic crust is thus demonstrated to be poly-episodic and composite. The magmatism, including 30 Ma old leucogranites, is derived from depleted mantle sources and does not contain detectable traces

  16. Why Quark Rhymes with Pork

    Mermin, N. David

    2016-03-01

    Part I. Reference Frame Columns, Physics Today, 1988–2009: 1. What's wrong with this Lagrangean? April 1988; 2. What's wrong with this library? August 1988; 3. What's wrong with these prizes? January 1989; 4. What's wrong with this pillow? April 1989; 5. What's wrong with this prose? May 1989; 6. What's wrong with these equations? October 1989; 7. What's wrong with these elements of reality? June 1990; 8. What's wrong with these reviews? August 1990; 9. What's wrong with those epochs? November 1990; 10. Publishing in computopia, May 1991; 11. What's wrong with those grants, June 1991; 12. What's wrong in computopia, April 1992; 13. What's wrong with those talks? November 1992; 14. Two lectures on the wave-particle duality, January 1993; 15. A quarrel we can settle, December 1993; 16. What's wrong with this temptation, June 1994; 17. What's wrong with this sustaining myth, March 1996; 18. The golemization of relativity, April 1996; 19. Diary of a Nobel guest, March 1997; 20. What's wrong with this reading, October 1997; 21. How not to create tigers, August 1999; 22. What's wrong with this elegance? March 2000; 23. The contemplation of quantum computation, July 2000; 24. What's wrong with these questions? February 2001; 25. What's wrong with this quantum world? February 2004; 26. Could Feynman have said this? May 2004; 27. My life with Einstein, December 2005; 28. What has quantum mechanics to do with factoring? April 2007; 29. Some curious facts about quantum factoring, October 2007; 30. What's bad about this habit, May 2009; Part II. Shedding Bad Habits: 31. Fixing the shifty split, Physics Today, July 2012; 32. What I think about Now, Physics Today, March 2014; 33. Why QBism is not the Copenhagen interpretation, lecture, Vienna, June 2014; Part III. More from Professor Mozart: 34. What's wrong with this book? Unpublished, 1992; 35. What's wrong with these stanzas? Physics Today, July 2007; Part IV. More to be said: 36. The complete diary of a Nobel guest

  17. Bald Friar Metabasalt and Kennett Square Amphibolite: Two Iapetan Ocean Floor Basalts

    Smith, R.C., II

    2006-01-01

    The Bald Friar Metabasalt (BFM) and Kennett Square Amphibolite (KSA) are basaltic units found in the Piedmont of southeastern Pennsylvania. The BFM is also recognized in northern Maryland. Both are believed to represent fragments of the floor of the Iapetus Ocean, but are not known occur in direct association with one another. The BFM typically occurs as small fragments having typical stratigraphic thicknesses of 2.5 m, and composed of greenish, fine-grained chlorite-epidote-actinolite-albite metabasalt in ophiolite me??lange. One bed of pillow basalt has been found at the type locality, Bald Friar, Cecil County, Maryland. Even though outcrops of BFM are highly discontinuous, they have a remarkable chemical uniformity over a strike length of 143 km and appear to be equivalent to the Caldwell Group 1b metabasalt of the Thetford, Quebec, area. The BFM is typically associated with ultramafic fragments and may be affiliated with the Baltimore Mafic Complex (BMC), from which a baddeleyite date of 442 +/- 7 Ma (Silurian) has been obtained. The BFM is probably a back arc basin basalt (BABB). Pod and schlieren chromite compositions suggest an island arc environment for the BMC itself. The poorly defined, informal "Conowingo Creek metabasalt" of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, occurs on the north margin of the BMC and appears to be a fore arc boninite. The BFM and associated ultramafic fragments serve as a field-mappable marker for the structural equivalent of the Baie Verte-Brompton line in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Steatization of the associated ultramafic fragments has produced zones of extremely low competence that facilitated and localized thrusts of presumed Silurian age and later Alleghanian folding. The KSA typically occurs as much larger bodies having lengths of 3 km and composed of dark, medium-grained hornblende-plagioclase-clinopyroxene gneiss. No ultramafic rocks or me??lange have been recognized with the KSA. In Pennsylvania, the KSA

  18. Exploration of nurses' knowledge regarding correct way of blood pressure measurement

    Paraskeui Gourni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP measurement by the use of sphygmomanometer and auscultation of brachial artery by stethoscope is the most widespread way of measurement in daily clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to explore nurses' knowledge regarding correct way of measurement of blood pressure by the use of a sphygmomanometer. Method and material: The sample –studied consisted of individuals from all levels of nursing personnel. Data were collected by the use the completion of a specially designed questionnaire which apart from demographic variables, it included items concerning knowledge about the correct way of blood pressure measurement. Results: From the 360 participants, 88% (316 were women, while the mean age of the sample-studied was 36,1 years old. 51,4% of the sample-studied was of tertiary education. In terms of the knowledge of participants, 79,6% knew the correct preparation, 98,6% knew that arm position for blood pressure measurement should be on a pillow or a side table and the 94,8% knew the back should be supported on a chair back. 60,9% of the sample-studied knew that at first time, blood pressure (BP should be measured in both arms, while 45,9% didn't know that BP should be measured in arm with higher measurement. 78,2% of the participants knew that the correct measurement includes the use of sphygmomanometer and auscultation of brachial artery by stethoscope. 67,9% knew that body and arm position should be in ankle of 45o degrees and that the cuff should be placed around the upper arm at the same vertical height as the heart. 59,8% knew that the cuff should be placed 2-3 cm above the point of auscultation of brachial artery. 45,1% considered that the arm cuff should be inflated manually until when the height of the column of mercury approaches 200 mmHg. 52,3% knew the correct rhythm (2-3 mmHg/sec that the pressure in the cuff should be released. 88,4% knew the sounds corresponding to the measurement of Systolic blood

  19. Origin of Siletzia, a Large Igneous Province in the Cascadia Forearc, and the Early History of the Yellowstone Hotspot

    Wells, R. E.; Bukry, D.; Friedman, R. M.; Pyle, D. G.; Duncan, R. A.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Siletzia is a Paleogene large igneous province (LIP) forming the oceanic basement of coastal OR, WA and S. BC that was accreted to North America (NAM) in the early Eocene. Crustal thickness from seismic refraction ranges from 10 to 32 km, with 16 km of pillow and subaerial basalt exposed on the Olympic Peninsula. At 1.7-2.4 x 106 km3, Siletzia is at least 10 times the volume of the Columbia River flood basalts. U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages, global coccolith (CP) zones, and magnetostratigraphy allow correlation of Siletzia with the 2012 geomagnetic polarity time scale. Siletzia was erupted 56-49 Ma (Chron 25-22), and accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon. Siletzia's composition, great crustal thickness, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with formation as an oceanic plateau. Eight m.y. after accretion, margin-parallel extension and regional dike swarms accompanied the voluminous tholeiitic to highly alkalic Tillamook magmatic episode in the forearc (41.6 Ma; CP14a; Chron 19r). We examined the origin of Siletzia and the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) in GPlates. In most reference frames, the YHS is ~ 500km offshore S. OR, near an inferred northeast-striking Kula- Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge 60 to 50 Ma. The YHS could have provided the 56-49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which in the model accretes to NAM by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, may have formed on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to British Columbia at about the same time. Following accretion, the leading edge of NAM overrode the YHS ca. 42 Ma. The encounter with an active YHS may explain the voluminous 42-34 Ma Tillamook episode and forearc extension. Clockwise rotation of western Oregon about a pole in the backarc has since moved the Tillamook center and underlying Siletzia northward ~250 km from the likely hotspot track on NAM.

  20. Alternative Sources Of Protein And Bulking Agent For Mass Rearing Of The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.), For The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    The objective of this study was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), larvae by testing alternative sources of protein and bulking agent. Two larval diet groups for laboratory rearing of the medfly were conducted in addition to the control diet. The first group kept the sources of bulking agent constant (wheat bran) while the kind and the ratio of sources of protein were changed (brewer's yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar). In the second group, the fiber (used for filling the pillows) and a paste of cardboard eggs box trays were used instead of wheat bran as bulking agent against the yeast and soybean as protein sources. To investigate the effect of the new sources of bulking agent and the kind or the ratio of the protein sources on the development and viability of the medfly, larval duration, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability were checked. The larval duration, pupal weight, adult recovery and flight ability were unaffected when soybean or a mixture from yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar as protein sources for larval diet were used. The larvae reared on diets based on schemed milk or agar as sources of protein did not complete their life cycle. The percent of pupal recovery of larvae reread on diets of soybean or a mixture of protein sources were not affected except when larvae were reared on diets based on a mixture of soybean and schemed milk or schemed milk and agar. Larval duration was extended by one to two days more than the control when the fiber or a mixture of it with bran or paste of cardboard of eggs box was used as bulking agent. A paste of cardboard eggs box as bulking agent led to the extension of the larval duration by more than four days than in control. Pupal recovery was significantly decreased at all diets of the second group except the diet containing a mixture of 4 % fiber and 10 % bran as bulking agent

  1. Cambro-Ordovician Granites in the Araçuaí Belt, in Brazil: snapshots from a late orogenic collapse

    De Campos, Cristina P.; Mendes, Júlio Cesar; de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; Ludka, Isabel P.

    2014-05-01

    Along the Brazilian Coast, surrounding the São Francisco Craton and adjacent mobile belts, deep segments of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo) generated over 120 Ma of successive magmatic episodes of granitic magmatism. The c.630-585 Ma calc-alkaline magmatic arc consists of metatonalite to metagranodiorite, with metadioritic to noritic facies and enclaves. During the syn-collisional and crustal thickening stage (c. 585 to 560 Ma) S-type metagranites have been built by dehydration melting of a diverse package of sediments. Around 545-525 Ma late orogenic crustal remelting formed mostly non-foliated garnet-cordierite leucogranites. In the post-orogenic stage (c. 510-480 Ma) inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutons intruded previous units. This work will focus on the youngest post-orogenic magmatism. It will present the state of the art by reviewing structural measurements, detailed mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data. The architecture of around 10 plutons, ranging from c. 20 to 200 km2 in surface area, unravels deep mushroom- to funnel-like magma chambers and/or conduits. Available data point towards different compositional domains, which are interfingered in complex concentric layers, so that, each pluton depicts a unique internal flow pattern. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented or folded layers of granite, in a hybrid K-gabbroic/dioritic matrix, contrast with predominantly homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by magmatic shear zones where mixing is enhanced, also resulting in hybrid compositions. Sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks locally depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least

  2. Structure and development of an axial volcanic ridge: Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 45°N

    Searle, R. C.; Murton, B. J.; Achenbach, K.; LeBas, T.; Tivey, M.; Yeo, I.; Cormier, M. H.; Carlut, J.; Ferreira, P.; Mallows, C.; Morris, K.; Schroth, N.; van Calsteren, P.; Waters, C.

    2010-10-01

    We describe the most comprehensive and detailed high resolution survey of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) ever conducted, at 45°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We use 3 m resolution sidescan sonar, deep-towed magnetic field measurements, video observations from eleven ROV dives, and two very-high-resolution bathymetry and magnetic surveys. The most recently active AVR has high topographic relief, high acoustic backscatter, high crustal magnetization and little faulting. It is sharp-crested, 25 × 4 km in extent and 500 m high, and is covered by approximately 8000 volcanic "hummocks" whose detailed nature is revealed for the first time. Each is an individual volcano ≤ 450 m in diameter and ≤ 200 m high, ranging from steep-sided (45°) cones to low domes. Many have suffered significant flank collapse. Hummocks tend to align in rows parallel to the AVR axis, parallel to its NE-trending spurs or, on its lower flanks, sub-normal to the AVR trend. These latter are spaced 1-2 km apart and comprise 1-2 km-long rows of single volcanoes. We infer that their emplacement is controlled by down-flank magma transport, possibly via lava tubes. The AVR contains only one large flat-topped seamount. The flanking median valley floor consists of either older hummocky volcanic terrain or flat-lying, mostly sediment-covered lavas. These typically have low-relief lobate surfaces, inflation and collapse structures, and occasional lava tubes and tumuli. The AVR displays open fissures, mostly along its crest. There is direct evidence for only a few small faults on the AVR, though steep, outward-facing slopes draped by elongate pillows may be small normal faults covered by lava. The surrounding median valley floor is heavily fissured. Normal faults cut it and an older AVR, the latter displaying significant outward facing faults. High crustal magnetization, an approximate proxy for crustal age within the Brunhes, is confined to the active AVR. Magnetic palaeointensity measurements are

  3. Petrological and tectono-magmatic significance of ophiolitic basalts from the Elba Island within the Alpine Corsica-Northern Apennine system

    Saccani, Emilio; Principi, G.

    2016-05-01

    Two distinct ophiolitic units, which represent remnants of the Jurassic Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, crop out in the Elba Island. They are the Monte Strega unit in central-eastern Elba and the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit in western Elba. Ophiolitic rocks from the Monte Strega unit are commonly affected by ocean floor metamorphism, whereas those from the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit are affected to various extent by thermal metamorphism associated with the Late Miocene Monte Capanne monzogranitic intrusion. Both ophiolitic units include pillow lavas and dykes with compositions ranging from basalt to basaltic andesite, Fe-basalt, and Fe-basaltic andesite. Basaltic rocks from these distinct ophiolitic units show no chemical differences, apart those due to fractional crystallization processes. They display a clear tholeiitic nature with low Nb/Y ratios and relatively high TiO2, P2O5, Zr, and Y contents. They generally display flat N-MORB normalized high field strength element patterns, which are similar to those of N-MORB. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns show light REE / middle REE (LREE/MREE) depletion and marked heavy (H-) REE fractionation with respect to MREE. This HREE/MREE depletion indicates a garnet signature of their mantle sources. Accordingly, they can be classified as garnet-influenced MORB (G-MORB), based on Th, Nb, Ce, Dy, and Yb systematics. We suggest that the Elba Island ophiolitic basalts were generated at a magma starved, slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. REE, Th, and Nb partial melting modelling shows that the compositions of the relatively primitive Elba Island ophiolitic basalts are compatible with partial melting of a depleted MORB mantle (DMM) source bearing garnet-pyroxenite relics. Hygromagmatophile element ratios suggest that basalts from both ophiolitic units were originated from chemically very similar mantle sources. A comparison with basalts and metabasalts from Alpine Corsica and northern Apennine ophiolitic units shows

  4. The Xigaze ophiolite, southern Tibet: a fossil oceanic forearc generated during subduction initiation

    Dai, J.; Wang, C.; Zhu, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Xigaze ophiolite is located at the central Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, southern Tibet representing the remnants of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. It displays well preserved sections from mantle to crustal rocks, together with overlying marine sediments. The Xigaze peridotites have low CaO and Al2O3 contents and U-shaped REE patterns, suggesting that they are residues after moderate to high degrees of partial melting and were modified by infiltration of LREE-enriched boninitic melts. Two of five massifs from the Xigaze pillow lavas display tholeiitic affinity, while other three massifs show calcalkalic characteristics. The latter lavas show more HFSE-depleted and LILE-enriched compositions than those of the former. The latest diabase dikes possess high SiO2 and low TiO2 contents and show flat to LREE enrichment patterns, indicating they are analogue with boninitic rocks. Tholeiitic lavas were formed via decompression melting of a fertile lherzolitic source, whereas calcalkalic lavas and latest stage dikes were generated by melting of residual harzburgite and were influenced by slab-derived fluids. Both mantle and crustal rocks were invaded by plagiogranite dikes. The first plagiogranite group invaded into the crustal rocks lies on a continuation of the chemical trends defined by the mafic rocks and show similar REE patterns with the lavas, indicating they were generated by shallow fractional crystallisation. The second plagiogranite group invaded into the mantle displays different trends on Harker and REE patterns with diabase dike and enclave, but show uniform LREE depletion similar with mafic rocks, suggesting that they might be the product of subducted mafic slabs melting. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analyses from the second plagiogranites reveal that they were generated between 125-122 Ma, indistinguishable from those of mafic rocks. The zircons possess positive ɛHf(t) values ranging from +12.3 to +16.4, suggesting they were derived from depleted

  5. Tracking Down the Paleoproterozoic Glaciations 2.5-2.2 Ga Using Coeval Subglacial Meteoric-Hydrothermal Systems and Estimates of δ18O Value in Seawater at ~2.45Ga

    Zakharov, D. O.; Bindeman, I. N.; Serebryakov, N. S.; Kulikov, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    We continue investigation of the world's lowest δ18O and δD (down to -27.3‰ and -235‰, respectively) rocks associated with high-Mg and high-Fe intrusions found within a 450-km-long zone of metamorphic rocks in the Belomorian Belt (Baltic shield, Russia). We suggest that extreme depletion occurred during premetamorphic high temperature interaction between shallow mafic intrusions and Paleoproterozoic glacial waters. Heat associated with intrusion of Paleoproterozoic mafic dikes allowed for circulation of glacial water in mafic dikes' exterior causing isotopic exchange between ultra-low-δ18O water and host rocks. Based on correlation of Paleoproterozoic glaciogenic deposits scattered worldwide, it was inferred that that global glaciations occurred three times between 2.45 to 2.20 Ga, independently or systematically coincident with the rise of atmospheric oxygen. However, the exact ages of glaciations remain uncertain. Dating igneous cores within zircon grains from the intrusions that interacted with subglacial meteoric waters enables us to develop a new approach to determine the age of δ18O depletion and thus, glacial events. Recently published geochronology data for Fennoscandia indicates that there were at least three episodes of compositionally distinct mafic magmatism spanning between 2.5 and 2.2 Ga which may help us to precisely resolve the glaciation episodes. Initial efforts to date the Paleoproterozoic mafic intrusions in conjunction with newly published geochronology data suggest that the low-δ18O anomalies discovered at different localities were probably produced during different glacial episodes. We also present new data based on a study of the ~2.45 Ga Vetreny Belt rift, Karelia craton, where unmetamorphosed pillow basalts contain abundant genetically-related hydrothermal quartz-epidote veins (+4.7‰ and -0.44‰, for the two minerals respectively) that formed at temperature of ~350°C. Since hydrothermal minerals likely precipitated from

  6. 显微手术治疗大型听神经瘤的临床疗效分析%Microscopic analysis of operation treatment of large acoustic neuromas

    王华

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to study the clinical effect of treatment of large acoustic neuroma surgery microscope.Methods:our hospital in February 2014 - February 2014, 12 patients with large acoustic neuroma treated as the research object. All of the patients are made under the pillow after sigmoid sinus approach surgery under microscope.Results: the treatment, according to the results of 10 cases of total excision of the tumor, total resection was 83.3%, the anatomy of the facial nerve to keep 9 cases, 8 function reserves, retained the auditory nerve in 1 case, there was no death patients. In patients with dysphagia after surgery in 3 cases, 1 case of postoperative bleeding, 1 case of cerebrospinal lfuid leakage.Conclusion: patients with large acoustic neuroma, after using the occipital sigmoid sinus approach tumors were resected under a microscope, is an effective treatment method and the preservation of the facial nerve is of great significance, as well as to reduce morbidity and mortality, improve clinical therapeutic effect.%目的:研究探讨显微镜手术治疗大型听神经瘤的临床效果.方法:将我院2014年2月-2015年2月收治的大型听神经瘤患者12例为研究对象.所有患者均采用枕下乙状窦后入路显微镜下进行手术治疗.结果:治疗结果显示,肿瘤全切除10例,全切除率为83.3%,面部神经解剖保留9例,功能保留8例,保留听神经1例,并未出现死亡患者.在患者手术后出现吞咽困难的有3例、术后出血的有1例,脑脊液渗漏的有1例.结论:大型听神经瘤患者,采用枕下乙状窦后入路显微镜下切除肿瘤,是一种有效的治疗方法,对面部神经的保留具有重要意义,同时还有利于降低致残率与死亡率,提高临床治疗效果.

  7. Life's a switch. Experiences in NSF undergraduate design projects.

    Popp, Stephanie A; Barnes, Jennifer R; Barrett, Steven F; Laurin, Kathy M

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002 Stephanie Popp and Jennifer Barnes developed a manual, "Life's a Switch," through a project funded by the National Science Foundation. This manual teaches people how to build their own cost effective assistive switches. Assistive switches are a form of assistive technology which includes any device that enhances a person's quality of life by improving the individual's mobility, ability to perform daily activities, enhancing communication, or allowing participation in education, vocational activities and recreation. One main goal of assistive technology is to provide opportunities for children with disabilities to explore, play, learn, and communicate with others. Switches are essential tools used to provide these opportunities. When a child with developmental disabilities understands the connection between the activation of a switch and the resulting action it triggers, the knowledge of cause and effect is gained. Therefore, the basis for all future learning is established [1]. One of the current problems facing assistive switch users is the cost of available items. This project provides more affordable solutions for switch users by teaching the families and educators of switch users how to make their own switches and adaptors in the "Life's a Switch" manual. For example, some assistive technology vendors sell large button switches from $25.00 to $45.00, tread switches for $40.00, and pillow switches for $35.00 [2]. Amazingly, all parts and tools used to make these assistive switches can be bought and made into personally designed assistive devices averaging a cost of around $10.00 [3]. A workshop to teach this manual was also developed. This workshop will spread awareness of the more affordable options this project sets forth. In September of 2002, the first workshop was held in a laboratory classroom at the University of Wyoming's College of Engineering. Each attendant was provided with a kit that included all essential tools and

  8. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  9. Obduction of western Anatolian ophiolites: from birth to steady state of a subduction zone

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Whitechurch, Hubert; Okay, Aral

    2015-04-01

    During Cretaceous times, the convergence between the Anatolide Tauride block (following the movement of Africa) and Eurasia lead to the closure of a branch of the Neotethyan ocean and to ophiolite obduction. Obducted ophiolite and their sub-ophiolitic units can be found along a 400 kilometre-long north to south transect in western Anatolia. The aim of this contribution is twofold: (1) (re)-appraise the metamorphic pressure-temperature (PT) conditions and evolution of the sub-ophiolitic units of western Anatolia, by constraining the formation of the metamorphic sole during the first stages of subduction and the unusual accretion of ocean-derived units along a subduction interface in an evolving, cooling thermal regime, and (2) understand the dynamics of a large-scale and long-lived obduction. Directly below the ophiolite (mostly made of mantle-derived rocks) lies a metamorphic sole. The upper part is this sole is made of garnet and garnet clinopyroxene amphibolites, the lower part consisting in amphibolite or green-schist facies metapelites and metabasite suggestive of discrete accretion steps. In the northern part of the section the metamorphic sole is characterised by an important blueschist-facies overprint destabilizing the amphibolite paragenesis. This high-pressure overprint is lacking in the southern area. Using field and petrological observations, three units (namely and from top to bottom, OC1, OC2 and OC3) were distinguished in the accretionary complex with PT conditions ranging from incipient metamorphism to blueschist facies conditions. OC1 represents most of the outcropping unit, is found all along the section and shows only low-grade metamorphism. Metamorphic conditions remains hard to establish in this unit made of a stack of hm-thick tectonic slices showing subtle differences in their metamorphic grade (from pristine pillow basalts and hydrothermalized lavas to lawsonite pumpellyite-lawsonite bearing basalts). In OC2, Fe-Mg carpholite-bearing layers

  10. Development of a Distributed In Situ Instrument for Snowpack Monitoring

    Skalka, C.; Frolik, J.; Walker, M. J.; Moeser, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    influenced by a variety of independent variables such as latitude, elevation, aspect, slope, canopy cover, wind and solar radiation. Fixed-base SNOTEL sites typically rely on snow pillows for SWE approximation, which requires installation of supporting equipment in flat open areas. This approach is not designed to characterize the highly variable nature of SWE, which may lead to large errors in water supply forecasting. A Snowcloud deployment within the Sagehen Creek Field Station (near Truckee, CA) examines fluctuations in SWE arising from temporal and spatial changes in variables including canopy cover, aspect, wind direction and wind speed. The data are compared to results from snow pits and snow courses carried out with a Mount Rose SWE sampler. Data from the six nodes are combined for areal interpolation using kriging, which also provides a foundation for assessing the likely magnitude of interpolation errors in near realtime.

  11. The magmatic record in the Arghash region (northeast Iran) and tectonic implications

    Alaminia, Zahra; Karimpour, Mohammad Hassan; Homam, Seyed Massoud; Finger, Fritz

    2013-09-01

    The area of Arghash in northeast Iran, prominent for its gold mineralization, was newly mapped on a scale of 1:20,000 with particular attention to the occurring generations of igneous rocks. In addition, geochronological and geochemical investigations were carried out. The oldest geological unit is a late Precambrian, hornblende-bearing diorite pluton with low-K composition and primitive isotope signatures. This diorite (U-Pb zircon age 554 ± 6 Ma) is most likely a remnant from a Peri-Gondwana island-arc or back-arc basin. About one-third of the map area is interpreted as an Upper Cretaceous magmatic arc consisting of a volcanic and a plutonic part. The plutonic part is represented by a suite of hornblende-bearing medium-K, I-type granitoids (minor diorite, mainly quartz-monzodiorite and granodiorite) dated at 92.8 ± 1.3 Ma (U-Pb zircon age). The volcanic part comprises medium-K andesite, dacite and tuffitic rocks and must be at least slightly older, because it is locally affected by contact metamorphism through the hornblende-granitoids. The Upper Cretaceous arc magmatism in the Arghash Massif is probably related to the northward subduction of the Sabzevar oceanic basin, which holds a back-arc position behind the main Neotethys subduction front. Small occurrences of pillow basalts and sediments (sandstone, conglomerate, limestone) tectonically intercalated in the older volcanic series may be relics of earlier Cretaceous or even pre-Cretaceous rocks. In the early Cenozoic, the Cretaceous magmatic arc was intruded by bodies of felsic, weakly peraluminous granite (U-Pb zircon age 55.4 ± 2.3 Ma). Another strong pulse of magmatism followed slightly later in the Eocene, producing large masses of andesitic to dacitic volcanic rocks. The geochemistry of this prominent Eocene volcanism is very distinct, with a high-K signature and trace element contents similar to shoshonitic series (high P, Zr, Cr, Sr and Ba). High Sr/Y ratios feature affinities to adakite magmas. The

  12. Petrologic Evolution of Palau; A Nascent Island Arc

    Hawkins, J. W.; Ishizuka, O.

    2008-12-01

    Initiation of subduction in intra-oceanic settings requires relative differences in plate thickness and density (i.e., age difference); a major zone of weakness separating the plates, e.g., a fracture zone; and a change in relative vectors of movement to cause convergence. These factors help explain the origin of the southern- most part of the > 2500 km long Kyushu - Palau Ridge (KPR). Palau Islands, at 7 deg 30 ' N, are the only significant emergent feature on KPR. Small islands are mainly uplifted Pliocene and younger reef carbonate. Large islands are mainly volcanic comprising rare boninite; major basalt, basaltic andesite and andesite; and minor dacite. Polymict breccia is abundant; sills, flows, dikes are common; pillows are rare. The same rock types, as well as high-Mg basalt, were dredged from the Palau Trench. Volcanism on Palau began in late Eocene and ended by early Miocene. Rocks are low-K primitive island arc- tholeiite series. None are MORB. REE and HFSE require a depleted mantle source. Zr* and Ti* suggest that melts interacted with OL-PX rocks of upper mantle or deep crust cumulates. Moderate enrichment of LILE and LREE indicate influx of "dehydration fluid." Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* show no evidence for subducted sediments or recycling of arc- derived clastics yet there is no accreted sedimentary prism. This paradox may be owing to lack of arc or terrigenous clastics on seafloor formed in open ocean "sterile" equatorial latitudes. Plate reconstructions and paleomagnetic data suggest that the "arc" probably formed on the trace of a transform fault that has migrated northward and rotated clockwise up to 90 deg. since Oligocene time. Episodes of transtension allowed upwelling of relatively fertile hot mantle into depleted mantle and sheared, altered, rocks of the transform. Episodes of transpression may have initiated subduction of seafloor having a thin cover of pelagic sediments (calcareous and radiolarian ooze, chert, chalk, limestone) deposited far from

  13. Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes.

    Vojta, P J; Randels, S P; Stout, J; Muilenberg, M; Burge, H A; Lynn, H; Mitchell, H; O'Connor, G T; Zeldin, D C

    2001-01-01

    House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of physical interventions to mitigate house dust mite allergens in this setting. Homes with high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 > or = 10 microg/g dust by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in the bed, bedroom carpet, and/or upholstered furniture were enrolled in the study. Carpets and upholstered furniture were subjected to a single treatment of either dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming (carpet only) or intensive vacuuming alone. Bed interventions consisted of complete encasement of the mattress, box spring, and pillows plus either weekly professional or in-home laundering of nonencased bedding. Dust samples were collected at baseline and again at 3 days (carpet and upholstery only) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttreatment. We compared pretreatment mean allergen concentrations and loads to posttreatment values and performed between-group analyses after adjusting for differences in the pretreatment means. Both dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming and vacuuming alone resulted in a significant reduction in carpet house dust mite allergen concentration and load (p < 0.05). Levels approached pretreatment values by 4 weeks posttreatment in the intensive vacuuming group, whereas steam cleaning plus vacuuming effected a decrease that persisted for up to 8 weeks. Significant decreases in bed house dust mite allergen concentration and load were obtained in response to encasement and either professional or in-home laundering (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis revealed significantly less postintervention house dust mite allergen load in professionally laundered compared to home-laundered beds (p < 0.05). Intensive vacuuming and dry

  14. Design, implementation and hydrologic evaluation of a snow-measurement network using wireless sensors in the American River basin of California

    Rice, R.; Bales, R. C.; Marks, D. G.; Conklin, M. H.; Zhang, Z.; Glaser, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    American River Hydrologic Observatory in the Sierra Nevada of California, comprising of portions of the American River basin that receive significant snow, is the site for the deployment of a wireless sensor network (WSN) that provides distributed estimates of water balance and a full-basin, well-instrumented research platform. The WSN is a set of sensors integrated into a single instrument to make spatial measurements to capture the landscape variability, and provide both spatially distributed and representative values of snowcover and the energy that drives snowmelt across the basin. Each local WSN has 10 snow-depth, air-temperature and relative-humidity sensors placed in a ~1-km2 area, and is centered on existing snow-pillow, snow-course and meteorological-station. A subset of the nodes are equipped with 15-20 soil-moisture and soil-temperature sensors. The temporal resolution of all measurements are 15-minutes. Results indicate that the aggregate of all measurement nodes are representative of the landscape variability across the American River basin, as well as the three forks of the American River. Snow measurements across elevation gradients and at each local WSN show similar trends but different magnitudes. Across elevation gradients snow amounts can vary as much as 60%-80%, while variability across a 1-km2 10 measurement network range by as much as 60%. Additionally, spatially distributed sensors distinguish temperature and humidity differences across topographic and vegetation variables, which control variable snowmelt rates across the terrain. Snowmelt rates across a 1-km2 can ranged from 8 to 70 mm day-1. The Hydrologic data from the WSN is being used for research, and for modernizing forecasting and decision-support systems through spatially explicit modeling, and by enhancing existing physically and statistically based snowmelt and hydrologic models. Data are available through the American River Hydrologic Observatory (arho@ucmerced.edu) and real

  15. Melt fractionation during pāhoehoe flow lobe emplacement, Heiðin há lava, SW Iceland

    Nikkola, Paavo; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2016-04-01

    Melt segregations are vesicular formations of evolved melts generated by in situ closed system fractionation of a host lava. Although they are common in p¯a hoehoe flows, pillow basalts, lava lakes and shallow intrusions, their development is not fully understood. In addition, as the melt segregations are often confined to the scale of a single outcrop, they can be seen as an easily approachable analogue to the crystal-melt fractionation processes generating evolved magmas in the Earth's crust. An eight meter high p¯a hoehoe flow lobe in Heiðin há lava, SW Iceland, was sampled in order to understand the development of the elaborate segregation structures within. The sampled outcrop is a cross-section of a typical Icelandic p¯a hoehoe lava, belonging to a large post-glacial lava shield on Reykjanes Peninsula. The lava core is striped by melt segregations in the form of vertical vesicle cylinders 1-7 cm in diameter, which feed horizontal vesicle sheets higher up in the upper lava core and lower crust. Whole-rock major and trace element results for the 20 samples from the Heiðin há lava reveal a homogenous olivine tholeiitic host lava intersected by segregations of varying composition. The vesicle cylinders in the flow core are only mildly differentiated, but the segregated melt evolves upwards to horizontal vesicle sheets, from which some have experienced an additional enrichment possibly by a gas filter-pressing of the residual liquid in the horizontal sheet. The most evolved segregations are extremely Fe-rich with 19.5 % FeOtot in comparison to the average of 12.4 % FeOtot in the host lava. Consequently, MgO drops from the host lava's 9.5 % to 4.4 % in the segregation sheets. In addition, segregations are enriched by a factor of ˜2-2.5 in TiO2, K2O, P2O5 and incompatible elements Zr, Nb, Y and V. As a consequence of the closed system behavior, geochemical trends are evident between the host lava, vesicle cylinders, and vesicle sheets of different types.

  16. Extensive young dacite lava flows between boninite and BABB in a backarc setting: NE Lau Basin

    Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Several hundred square kilometers of young dacite lava flows mapped by their high acoustic backscatter erupted in several batches in proximity to boninite and back-arc basin basalt (BABB) in the NE Lau Basin, the world's fastest opening back-arc region and a site proposed as a modern analogue in some ophiolite models. Where sampled, these lavas are aphyric, glassy dacites and are not associated with andesite extrusives (commonly observed elsewhere). Several flow fields occur on the flank of the large silicic Niuatahi seamount. Two of the largest lava fields and several smaller ones (~220 km2) erupted as far as 60 km north of Niuatahi. Their occurrence is likely controlled by crustal fractures from the long-term extension in this rear-arc region. Determining thickness of these flows is problematic, but relief of 30-100 m on flow fronts and in collapsed areas yields volume estimates as high as ~7-18 km3 for the northern group. The mean silica content of the largest and best sampled dacite flow field (LL-B) is 65.6 ±0.2%, a remarkably consistent composition for such an extensive flow (~140 km2). Camera tows show lower viscosity flow forms, including many anastomatosing pillow tubes and ropey surfaces, as well as endogenous domes, ridges and lobes (some with "crease-like" extrusion ridges, and inflated lobes with extrusion structures). An enigmatic 2 x 1.5 km, 30-m deep collapse depression could mark an eruption center for the LL-B flow field. Low viscosity flow morphologies on portions of LL-B and a nearby smaller flow field implies high effusion rates during some phases of the eruption(s), which in turn implies some combination of higher than normal liquidus temperature and high water content. Submarine dacite flows have been described in ancient sequences from the Archaean through the Miocene but this is the first modern occurrence of large volume submarine dacite flows. The volume of these young dacite flows implies the presence of large differentiated melt

  17. The Mesozoic and cenozoivc evolution of the Bays of Kiel and Mecklenburg - A part of the NeoBaltic project

    Hansen, M.; Huebscher, C. P.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Reicherter, K.; Dehghani, A.; Gajewski, D.

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the Priority Program 1135 of the German Research Foundation (DFG) "Dynamics of sedimentary systems under varying stress conditions by example of the Central European Basin System", the scientific goal of the NeoBaltic project is to describe the post-Permian to recent structural and sedimentary evolution of the entire western Baltic Sea region, with a special emphasis on neotectonic activity and its relation to salt dynamics and the possible reactivation of deeper inherited structures. In order to investigate these scientific goals the Universities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Hamburg (Germany) has since 1998 completed eight marine campaigns in the western Baltic Sea, collecting 2D high resolution seismic (HRS), gravity and magnetic data in the entire region during different projects. Since 2003 all these data has been available for the NeoBaltic project. All together the data pool have more than 8000 km HRS, 6000 km gravity and 5000 km magnetic data. Until now the project work has been focused on the completion of the data processing and the digital interpretation of important Mesozoic and Cenozoic markers on the seismic sections from the Bays of Kiel and Mecklenburg. Furthermore several maps have been completed from the potential field data (gravity and magnetic). As a result of the digital interpretation of the HRS data, the overall geological evolution of the northern part of the NGB can be subdivided into four distinct periods. During the Triassic and the Early Jurassic, E-W directed extension and the deposition of clastic sediments initiated the movement of the underlying Zechstein evaporites. This is seen by the presence of several salt pillows in the region. The deposition ceased during the Middle Jurassic, when the entire area was uplifted, due to the Mid North Sea Doming. The uplift resulted in a pronounced erosion of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic strata. This event is marked by a clear unconformity on the seismic sections. The region

  18. Flight Crew Sleep in Long-Haul Aircraft Bunk Facilities: Survey Results

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Dinges, David F.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Modem long-haul aircraft can fly up to 16 continuous hours and provide a 24-hour, global capability. Extra (augmented) flight crew are available on long flights to allow planned rest periods, on a rotating basis, away from the flight deck in onboard crew rest facilities (2 bunks). A NASA/FAA study is under-way to examine the quantity and quality of sleep obtained in long-haul aircraft bunks and the factors that promote or interfere with that sleep. The first phase of the study involved a retrospective survey, followed by a second phase field study to collect standard polysomnographic data during inflight bunk sleep periods. A summary of the Phase I survey results are reported here. A multi-part 54-question retrospective survey was completed by 1,404 flight crew (37% return rate) at three different major US air carriers flying B747-100, 200, 400, and MD- 11 long-haul aircraft. The questions examined demographics, quantity and quality of sleep at home and in onboard bunks, factors that promote or interfere with sleep, and effects on subsequent performance and alertness. Flight crew reported a mean bunk sleep latency of 39.4 mins (SD=28.3 mins) (n=1,276) and a mean total sleep time of 2.2 hrs (SD=1.3 hrs) (n=603). (Different flight lengths could affect overall time available for sleep.) Crew rated 25 factors for their interference or promotion of bunk sleep. Figure I portrays the average ratings for each factor across all three carriers. A principal components analysis of the 25 factors revealed three areas that promoted bunk sleep: physiological (e.g., readiness for sleep), physical environment (e.g., bunk size, privacy), and personal comfort (e.g., blankets, pillows). Five areas were identified that interfered with sleep: environmental disturbance (e.g., background noise, turbulence), luminosity (e.g., lighting), personal disturbances (e.g., bathroom trips, random thoughts), environmental discomfort (e.g., low humidity, cold), and interpersonal disturbances (e

  19. Uplifted ophiolitic rocks on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile: implications for the closure history of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and the tectonic evolution of the Beagle Channel region

    Cunningham, W. D.

    1994-04-01

    A succession of mafic rocks that includes gabbro, sheeted dikes and deformed pillow basalts has been mapped in detail on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile and is identified as an upper ophiolitic complex representing the uplifted floor of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes marginal basin. The complex was uplifted, deformed, and regionally metamorphosed prior to the intrusion of an undeformed 90 Ma granodiorite that cuts the complex. The complex appears para-autochthonous, is gently tilted to the northeast and is internally sheared by near-vertical foliation zones. No evidence for obduction was observed although the base of the complex is not exposed. The ophiolitic rocks have been regionally metamorphosed to mid-upper greenschist levels. Isla Gordon is bounded by the northwest and southwest arms of the Beagle Channel, two important structural boundaries in the southernmost Andes that are interpreted to have accommodated north-side-up and left-lateral displacements. Directly north of Isla Gordon is the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex that exposes the highest grade metamorphic rocks in the Andes south of Peru. On the north coast of Isla Gordon a volcaniclastic turbidite sequence that is interpreted to have been deposited above the mafic floor is metamorphosed to lower greenschist levels in strong metamorphic contrast to amphibolite-grade othogneisses exposed in Cordillera Darwin only 2 km away across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel. The profound metamorphic break across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel and the regional northeast tilt of the ophiolitic complex are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that Isla Gordon represents the upper plate to an extensional fault that accommodated tectonic unroofing of Cordillera Darwin. However, limited structural evidence for extension was identified in this study to support the model and further work is needed to determine the relative importance of contractional, extensional and

  20. Interfractional Dose Variations in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Breath-Hold for Pancreatic Cancer

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko, E-mail: kei@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, Akira [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Shiinoki, Takehiro [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto (Japan); Matsuo, Yukinori [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nakata, Manabu [Clinical Radiology Service Division, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the interfractional dose variations for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT) combined with breath-hold (BH) at end-exhalation (EE) for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 10 consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled. Each patient was fixed in the supine position on an individualized vacuum pillow with both arms raised. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed before RT, and three additional scans were performed during the course of chemoradiotherapy using a conventional RT technique. The CT data were acquired under EE-BH conditions (BH-CT) using a visual feedback technique. The intensity-modulated RT plan, which used five 15-MV coplanar ports, was designed on the initial BH-CT set with a prescription dose of 39 Gy at 2.6 Gy/fraction. After rigid image registration between the initial and subsequent BH-CT scans, the dose distributions were recalculated on the subsequent BH-CT images under the same conditions as in planning. Changes in the dose-volume metrics of the gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV = GTV + 5 mm), stomach, and duodenum were evaluated. Results: For the GTV and clinical target volume (CTV), the 95th percentile of the interfractional variations in the maximal dose, mean dose, dose covering 95% volume of the region of structure, and percentage of the volume covered by the 90% isodose line were within {+-}3%. Although the volume covered by the 39 Gy isodose line for the stomach and duodenum did not exceed 0.1 mL at planning, the volume covered by the 39 Gy isodose line for these structures was up to 11.4 cm{sup 3} and 1.8 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Conclusions: Despite variations in the gastrointestinal state and abdominal wall position at EE, the GTV and CTV were mostly ensured at the planned dose, with the exception of 1 patient. Compared with the duodenum, large variations in the stomach volume receiving high-dose radiation were observed, which might be beyond the

  1. EBSD Characterization of Dendrites in Synthetic and Natural Rocks

    Hammer, J. E.; Tiley, J.; Shiveley, A.; Knox, S.; Viswanathan, G.

    2011-12-01

    Arborescent crystals in igneous rocks are associated with extreme crystallization environments: the protoplanary disk (chondrules), Earth's ultramafic Archean mantle (komatiite), and terrestrial submarine-erupted lavas (pillow basalts), although the role of morphological instabilities in more mundane settings such as magma reservoirs of modern oceanic islands is increasingly appreciated (see Welsch et al., V16). Fundamentals of dendrite formation are presumably well understood: branching morphologies belie crystal growth conditions in which the driving force for solidification produces a kinetic roughening transition, transforming an atomically smooth crystal-liquid interface into a rough, adhesive interface capable of extremely rapid advancement. However, not since photomicrograhic advances made possible close observations of snow crystals (Nakaya 1936), has there been a more promising set of analytical tools to characterize dendrites in natural and synthetic materials in pursuit of new insights. We are investigating clinopyroxene (cpx) in the quenched top of Fe-rich tholeiitic lava (Munro Township, Northeast Ontario; Fig. 1) and a synthetic basalt of similar character (Hammer 2006) with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), 3D reconstruction of optical serial sections, and TEM. Here we report intriguing phenomena observed with EBSD common to both samples. Severe thinning of dendrite trunks and repeated tip splitting destroys the self-similarity associated with classical dendrites and instead presages 'seaweed' morphology. Split tips manifest incremental trajectory deflections, producing gently arched trunks (Fig. 1A) as well as tightly curved (r, producing distinctive misorientation maps and pole figures (Fig. 1C). Parallel branches exhibit similar rotational trajectories, carving parallel arcs in the pole figure. The high incidence of side branching and tip splitting is consistent with very rapid growth velocity, associated with extremely high kinetic

  2. Research on Physiological Campaign of Chinese Classical Music Bringing out Emotion%中国古典音乐诱发情绪的生理活动研究

    刘贤敏; 刘昌

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨音乐诱发情绪的脑电及自主神经反应.方法 随机抽取20名研究生(8名男生,12名女生),倾听两段旋律相同但用不同乐器演奏的乐曲,采用BIOPAC MP150型多导生理仪,对倾听乐曲时的主观体验和脑电以及一些自主神经生理反应进行研究.结果 ①两段乐曲分别诱发出了愉快情绪和悲伤情绪(t=8.90,P<0.01;t=6.47,P<0.01);②两种情绪下的自主神经生理反应不同(F=5.091,P=0.037);③两种不同情绪下,α波、β波和θ波大能量在不同脑区有所增强.结论 α波、β波和θ波最大能量受情绪影响显著,愉快情绪较多激活枕区和顶区的α波,悲伤情绪较多激活额区的α波.%Objective To discuss the electroencephalogram and autonomous nerve reaction of emotion induced by music. Methods A total of 20 graduate students radomly taken out (8 male and 12 women) listened two melodies of identical composition but different instrument. Listening brain elec,tricity and the subjective experience in composition as well as some autonomous nerve physiological reactions were studied with BIOPAC MP150 model polygraph. Results ①Two compositions brought out happy emotion and sad emotion respectively ( t = 8.90, P < 0. 01; t = 6.47, P < 0. 01 ), ②The autonomous nerve physiological reactions under two moods were different (F= 5. 091,P= 0. 037). ③Under two different emotions, the biggest energy of α wave,β wave and θ wave in different brain area were strengthened. Conclusion The biggest energy of α wave, β wave and θ wave were influenced by emotion, the happy emotion could activate a wave of pillow district and top district, sad emotion could activate α wave of volume district.

  3. Magmatic and tectonic modification of convergent margins: An example from southern Alaska

    Farris, David W.

    Southern Alaska is an excellent natural laboratory to study forearc/arc subduction zone magmatism and tectonics. Understanding these processes are important to understanding the evolution and modification of continental crust. This thesis focuses on the Kodiak Islands, but also examines larger-scale features throughout southern Alaska and cordilleran tectonics. Kodiak Island intrusive rocks differ in character across the Border Ranges fault system (BRF). North of the BRF is the tilted Triassic-Jurassic Talkeetna island arc. This arc section exposes ultramafic mantle through mid to upper crustal plutonic and volcanic rocks all of which are geochemically related, despite being fault-bounded blocks. South of the BRF lie Paleocene intrusive rocks related to eastward spreadingridge subduction migration. These rocks are distributed in two belts: the Kodiak batholith and the trenchward belt. The Kodiak batholith is composed of granitic plutons emplaced as a series of intermingled, 1-8 km wide, viscoelastic diapirs that ascended by downward transport of aureole rocks through and around the magmatic column, and range in age from 59.2-58.4+/-0.2 Ma (SW-NE). These plutons formed from equilibrium crystallization of an argillite/graywacke derived magma, and contain fractally fragmented meta-sedimentary xenoliths. Trenchward belt rocks lie south of the Contact fault and are composed of small gabbroic to granitic plutons, dikes and pillows that range in age from 62.6+/-0.6-60.15+/-0.86 Ma (SW-NE). They formed by assimilation fractional crystallization of MORB with an argillite assimilant. Trenchward belt rocks intruded when a spreading ridge first entered the accretionary prism, whereas the Kodiak batholith formed when a slab window opened at 15-20 km depth. Age differences between the two Paleocene magmatic belts are explained by oblique ridge subduction and Contact fault displacement. The Kodiak batholith is part of the 2100 km Sanak-Baranof belt of forearc magmatism. Along

  4. Localization Accuracy and Immobilization Effectiveness of a Stereotactic Body Frame for a Variety of Treatment Sites

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the pretreatment setup errors and intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for stereotactic body radiation therapy patients immobilized and localized with a stereotactic body frame for a variety of treatment sites. Methods and Materials: Localization errors were recorded for patients receiving SBRT for 141 lung, 29 liver, 48 prostate, and 45 spine tumors representing 1005 total localization sessions. All patients were treated in a stereotactic body frame with a large custom-molded vacuum pillow. Patients were first localized to the frame using tattoos placed during simulation. Subsequently, the frame was aligned to the room lasers according to the stereotactic coordinates determined from the treatment plan. Every patient received a pretreatment and an intrafraction CBCT. Abdominal compression was used for all liver patients and for approximately 40% of the lung patients to reduce tumor motion due to respiration. Results: The mean ± standard deviation pretreatment setup errors from all localizations were −2.44 ± 3.85, 1.31 ± 5.84, and 0.11 ± 3.76 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean pretreatment localization results among all treatment sites were not significantly different (F test, P<.05). For all treatment sites, the mean ± standard deviation intrafraction shifts were 0.33 ± 1.34, 0.15 ± 1.45, and −0.02 ± 1.17 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean unidimensional intrafraction shifts were statistically different for several of the comparisons (P<.05) as assessed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Conclusions: Despite the varied tumor locations, the pretreatment mean localization errors for all sites were found to be consistent among the treatment sites and not significantly different, indicating that the body frame is a suitable immobilization and localization device for a variety of

  5. Geology of East Egypt greenstone field in Neoproterozoic isoand arc: Reconstruction of Iron formation sedimentary environment.

    Kiyokawa, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-12-01

    Geology of East Egypt greenstone-granit belt which is northern part of Nubia shield was identified neoproterozoic island arc amalgamated sections. There are several iron formation within these greenstone belt. Age data shows this iron formation may be overlaped during 700 Ma Snowball period, how ever, there is no detail report of well preserved ice related evidences. We now started detail field work for identified tectonic reconstruction, original stratigraphy around Iron formation and sedimentary environment during the iron formation sedimentation area. East Egyptian shield was divided three geology, Proterozoic greenstone complex, 700-600 Granitic domes and cover sequence (Hammamet Group). We focus three area to identified sedimentary environment of iron sedimentation. Along the north-south trend of Wadi EL Dabban area are, we named Wadi branch as West site is RW-0 ~ 12, East site is RE-0 ~ 12 from north to south. Northern area is structurally moderate, southern portion is north dipping. Southern portion was intruded by granite and several place contain granitic dikes. Northeast to eastern area are identified younger sedimentary sequence (Hammamat Group) which is unconformablly overlay on the other iron formation bearing greenstone belt. Structurally these area is divided four units. Wadi was divided by right-lateral strike-ship fault. The displacement are more than 3 km. Also north dipping faults are identified.East-West trend fault are divided two units. It is divided NE, SE, NW and NS units.SW unit is most well preserved thick sequence of the Iron formation. SW unit is well preserved iron formation sequence within thick volcaniclastics. This unit mostly north dipping around 40-60 degree. Structural repetition in not well understand. Reconstract stratigraphy in this unit is at least 4000m in thickness. 5 member is identified in this sequence. Several thin iron formations are observed with in pillow lava and volcaniclastic sequence. These very thick

  6. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26

    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  7. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Einen, J.; Kruber, C.; Øvreås, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.

    2006-03-01

    Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004). The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group of prosthecate oligotrophic

  8. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on

  9. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory–cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory–cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased

  10. Endeavor research into evolving paradigms around ophiolites: the case of the oceanic igneous complexes of Costa Rica

    Studies on the radiolarite igneous (ophiolitic) complexes were done for more than one century in Costa Rica that range from Jurassic to Eocene. These studies can be grouped in four stages of knowledge: 1) from 1904 to 1957 were recognized the cherts, and the mafic and ultramafic igneous complexes, the first regional maps were done, and the first time were recognized ellipsoidal basalts, now widely known as pillow lavas. 2) From 1958 to 1978 the complexes were seen under the concept of the association of ophiolites (serpentine, gabbro, diabase, basalts, and related rocks) and interpreted the radiolarites as deep-sea sediments. The stage is characterized by the seminal work of Gabriel Dengo and by the first geochemical analyses in the framework of the plate tectonics. 3) A huge amount of geochemical data, paleontological and K/Ar ages were published from 1979 to 1994 and it was the stage of more controversial papers, their interpretation varied for the same locality (i.e. (Nicoya Peninsula) from relative simple stratigraphic model to a very complex nappe slices, and from a simple tectonic evolution (in situ and formed by a mid oceanic ridge volcanism) to a multistage evolution (terrains, and mid oceanic ridge, aseismic ridge, intraplate and island arc volcanism). The situation was similar in the other Costa Rican oceanic complexes. 4) The outlook for 1995 to the present it has been clarified and mutual agreement between the different groups. The stage is characterized by joint collaboration, the use of modern laboratory techniques as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes, major, trace and complete rare earth elements. 40Ar/39Ar dating, and volcanological criteria, together with detailed field mapping. The main new result of these studies was that the radiolarites (164-84 Ma) in the Nicoya Peninsula were significatively older than the basic igneous rocks (140-84 Ma), indicating a complex magmatic event intruding and erupting into the thick sedimentary sequence. For other areas

  11. Patterns of volcanism and tectonism at a slow-spreading segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Lucky Strike, 37N): preliminary results from near-bottom geological and geophysical surveys

    Escartin, J.; Soule, S.; Bezos, A.; Cannat, M.; Fornari, D. J.; Ballu, V.; Humphris, S.

    2006-12-01

    Patterns of volcanism and tectonism and the mechanisms that influence them are not well understood at slow- spreading plate boundaries. Is magma supply persistent or episodic? Is tectonic strain symmetric or asymmetric? Are volcanism and tectonism distributed across the rift valley or localized along narrow bands of crust? Systematic, segment-scale observations, measurements, and sampling are needed to address these questions. During a recent cruise (GRAVILUCK, Aug. 2006) we conducted near-bottom surveys across the axial valley of the Lucky Strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (37°N) to determine where active volcanic and tectonic processes are occurring within the rift valley and their relationship with a recently recognized mid-crustal magma body at the segment center beneath Lucky Strike volcano [Singh et al., 2006]. Using a deep-towed digital imaging system (WHOI TowCam) and a submersible (Nautile) we collected still and video imagery, high-resolution bathymetry, magnetic data, and rock samples along 11 across-axis and 3 along-axis profiles covering ~80 km. Preliminary interpretation of the seafloor imagery shows that the majority of the most recent volcanic activity is in the form of jumbled sheet flows that are concentrated within a discontinuous narrow graben along the axis of the rift valley that bisects Lucky Strike volcano. In rare cases we observe young (i.e., less sedimented and unfaulted) pillow ridges up to 3 km from the axis of the rift valley. Recent volcanic activity appears to be more prevalent south of the volcano, and cuts across distinct geologic terrains characterized by extensive sheet flows near the segment center and axial volcanic ridges to the north and south of Lucky Strike Volcano. We will present a preliminary interpretation of the distribution and relative ages of volcanic deposits and fault characteristics across the rift valley, lava compositions, and magnetic intensities. We compare these observations with existing sidescan

  12. East Mariana Basin tholeiites: Cretaceous intraplate basalts or rift basalts related to the Ontong Java plume?

    Castillo, P.R.; Pringle, M.S.; Carlson, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns suggest the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in a large area in the western Pacific that includes the East Mariana, Nauru and Pigafetta Basins. Sampling of the igneous crust in this area by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) allows direct evaluation of the age and petrogenesis of this crust. ODP Leg 129 drilled a 51 m sequence of basalt pillows and massive flows in the central East Mariana Basin. 40Ar 39Ar ages determined in this study for two Leg 129 basalts average 114.6 ?? 3.2 Ma. This age is in agreement with the Albian-late Aptian paleontologic age of the overlying sediments, but is distinctively younger than the Jurassic age predicted by magnetic anomaly patterns in the basin. Compositionally, the East Mariana Basin basalts are uniformly low-K tholeiites that are depleted in highly incompatible elements compared to moderately incompatible ones, which is typical of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) erupted near hotspots. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the tholeiites ( 87Sr 86Srinit = 0.70360-0.70374; 143Nd 144Ndinit = 0.512769-0.512790; 206Pb 204Pbmeas = 18.355-18.386) also overlap with some Indian Ocean Ridge MORB, although they are distinct from the isotopic compositions of Jurassic basalts drilled in the Pigafetta Basin, the oldest Pacific MORB. The isotopic compositions of the East Mariana Basin tholeiites are also similar to those of intraplate basalts, and in particular, to the isotopic signature of basalts from the nearby Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. The East Mariana Basin tholeiites also share many petrologic and isotopic characteristics with the oceanic basement drilled in the Nauru Basin at DSDP Site 462. In addition, the new 110.8 ?? 1.0 Ma 40Ar 39Ar age for two flows from the bottom of Site 462 in the Nauru Basin is indistinguishable from the age of the East Mariana Basin flows. Thus, while magnetic anomaly patterns predict that the igneous

  13. Geochemistry of dike rocks in Dun Mountain Ophiolite, Nelson, New Zealand

    Basaltic dikes of the Lee River Group (Permian) at Roding River and in the Red Hills ultramafic body, both parts of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite, were analysed for major and trace elements. The dikes in the Lee River Group change into massive and pillowed lava towards the uppermost part of the sequence. The dikes in the Red Hills occur parallel to the layering of host ultramafic rocks. The Red Hills ultramafic body corresponds to the mantle-crust transition zone. The age of Red Hills dikes has been determined at c. 280 Ma. Hence, the Lee River Group and Red Hills dike complexes are about the same age. There are contrasting differences, however, between major and trace element compositions in those two dike rock groups. Lee River Group basalts show an increase in FeO*/MgO with increase in SiO2; high field strength elements and REE concentrations are higher in the Lee River Group than those in the Red Hills basalts; and εNd values are +7.5 to +8.3, suggesting the source to be depleted mantle. On the other hand, Red Hills basalts do not show an increase in FeO*/MgO with increase in SiO2, and are relatively enriched in large ion lithophile elements such as Ba and Sr, depleted in high field strength elements and REE and εNd values (+6.2 and +7.1) of plagiogranites associated with the Red Hills basalts are lower than those in the Lee River Group basalts. Lee River Group basalts have MORB or back-arc basin basalt affinities, whereas Red Hills basalts have island arc related characteristics. The new set of geochemical data is consistent with the Red Hills ultramafic body being a section of residual uppermost mantle previously described. The Dun Mountain Ophiolite is here suggested to have been derived from an island arc related tectonic environment following the extraction of MORB in a back-arc basin at 280 Ma. (author). 26 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Volcanological, petrographical and geochemical characteristics of Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks around Borçka-Artvin region (NE Turkey)

    Baser, Rasim; Aydin, Faruk; Oguz, Simge

    2015-04-01

    This study presents volcanological, petrographical and geochemical data for late Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Borçka-Artvin region (NE Turkey) in order to investigate their origin and magmatic evolution. Based on the previous ages and recent field studies, the late Cretaceous time in the study area is characterized by two different bimodal volcanic periods. The first bimodal period of the late Cretaceous volcanism is mainly represented by mafic rock series (basaltic-basaltic andesitic pillow lavas and hyaloclastites) in the lower part, and felsic rock series (dacitic lavas, hyaloclastites, and pyrite-bearing tuffs) in the upper part. The second bimodal period of the late Cretaceous volcanism begins with mafic rock suites (basaltic-andesitic lavas and dikes-sills) and grades upward into felsic rock suites (biotite-bearing rhyolitic lavas and hyaloclastites), which are intercalated with hyaloclastites and red pelagic limestones. All volcano-sedimentary units are covered by Late Campanian-Paleocene clayey limestones and biomicrites with lesser calciturbidites. The mafic volcanic series of the study area, which comprise basaltic and andesitic rocks, generally show amygdaloidal and aphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of calcic to sodic plagioclase and augite in a hyalopilitic matrix of plag+cpx+mag. Zircon and magnetite are sometimes observed as accessory minerals, whereas chlorite, epidote and calcite are typical alteration products. On the other hand, the felsic volcanic series consisting of dacitic and rhyolitic rocks mostly display porphyritic and glomeroporphyritic textures with predominant feldspar, quartz and some biotite phenocrysts. The microgranular to felsophyric groundmass is mainly composed of aphanitic plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz. Accessory minerals such as zircon, apatite and magnetite are common. Typical alteration products are sericite and clay minerals. Late Cretaceous Artvin-Borçka bimodal rock series generally display a

  15. An enigmatic source of hematitic carbonate beds containing vast amounts of iron oxidizers in a paleozoic metamorphic complex, South Hungary, Geresd-Hills, Ófalu.

    Jáger, Viktor; Dabi, Gergely; Menyhárt, Adrienn

    2013-04-01

    neptunian dykes, their age must be younger than the paleozoic metamorphic event. They must be older than the Early Cretaceous dyke emplacement in the region, based on cross-cutting relation with limonite stained calcite veins, related to the volcanic activity (Dabi et al., 2011) In this region (Tisza-megaunit) continental rift-related alkali basaltic submarine volcanism was widespread during the Early Cretaceous epoch, when hypabyssal basaltic bodies (intrusive pillow basalts) intruded into unconsolidated sediments. Along these magmatic bodies low temperature hydrothermal circulation of seawater hydrolyzed basaltic glass and mafic minerals, and huge amount of Fe(II) was released and got into the lime mud that was saturated with anaerobic water, where iron oxidizing microorganisms thrived (Jáger et al., 2012).We propose a very similar paleoenvironmental model for Ófalu occurence, where low temperature, reductive iron-rich hydrothermal fluids penetrated soft sediments and contributed to the flourishing of iron-oxidizers. Due to subsequent tectonic events, these iron-rich sediments got into the fissures of the Ófalu metamorphic complex. This model is strenghtened by some borehole and outcrops where the Lower Cretaceous interpillow sediments and hyaloclastites rich in iron oxydes and intrusive pillow basalt can be found close to our investigated section. (Hetényi et al., 1976) This study was supported by the Developing Competitiveness of Universities in the South Transdanubian Region (SROP-4.2.1.B-10/2/KONV-2010-0002). Dabi, G., Siklósy, Z., Schubert, F., Bajnóczi, B., M. Tóth, T., 2011. The relevance of vein texture in understanding the past hydraulic behaviour of a crystalline rock mass: reconstruction of the palaeohydrology of the Mecsekalja Zone, South Hungary. Geofluids, 11, 309-327. Hetényi, R., Földi, M., Hámor, G., Nagy, I., Bilik, I., Jantsky, B. 1976. Magyarázó a Mecsek hegység földtani térképéhez 10 000-es sorozat. MÁFI Budapest (in hungarian). J

  16. Risk factors of childhood asthma in Wuhan city%武汉市儿童支气管哮喘的危险因素

    黄洋; 杨磊; 龙珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conform the risk factors of childhood asthma and to provide accordance for the healthy management of children with asthma.Methods A cross-section investigation was carried out by multi-stage random sampling in Wuhan city.The investigation included questionnaire and clinic examination.The study population was the infant and children whose age were 0 to 14 years old,and the sample size was 4 132.One hundren and seventyfour children were diagnosed as asthma,and 173 non-asthma children with similar age in the same region were selected as controls.Chi-square test and multiple Logistic regression analysis were used to screen the risk factors of childhood asthma in Wuhan city.Results Family allergy history,allergic rhinitis,eczema,food allergy and drug allergy were the risk factors of childhood asthma.Furthermore,dust mites,mould,anther dust,mugwort,cat/dog hair were main allergize source.In addition,premature delivery,abdominal delivery,mildew stain in ceiling or floor,raise pets especially cat,chemical fiber pillow and blanket bedclothes will increase the incidence,while spontaneous delivery and breast feeding were with protection effect.The results of multiple Logistic regression analysis showed that children who were with allergic rhinitis,familiar allergic history,dust mites positive test,drug allergy and blanker bedclothes were the high risk group of childhood asthma.Conclusions Childhood asthma is high relative with atopy,and these children who are with allergic rhinitis,familiar allergic history and dust mites positive test should be strictly health management.Chemical fiber pillow,blanket bedclothes,raising pet cats and mould in ceiling and floor in atopy children family should be avoided.%目的 探讨儿童支气管哮喘(哮喘)的危险因素,为哮喘儿童的健康管理提供依据.方法 对武汉地区儿童哮喘的发病现状进行多阶段随机整群抽样调查,开展问卷调查及临床体检.研究对象为武汉地区0 ~14

  17. Tracking magma mixing: in-situ Hf-isotope analysis of zircons

    Full text: Field relationships in the 115 Ma Pingtan complex in coastal Fujian Province, SE China show extensive mingling of mafic and felsic magmas, producing pillow-like enclaves, and suggest formation of at least some intermediate members of the suite (granodiorite, quartz diorite) through hybridisation (Xu et al., 1999). Similar Sr (initial 87Sr/86Sr =0.7065) and Nd (eNd = -1.5) isotopic compositions imply that both the felsic and the mafic magmas represent contain a significant crustal component, but Nd model ages (TDM =1Ga), significantly younger than known crust in the region (1.4-2.0 Ga), suggest a juvenile component as well. To investigate the processes of crust-mantle interaction, and specifically the timing of any mixing of crustal and mantle components, we have carried out a detailed study of the Pingtan rocks, using LAM-MC-ICPMS techniques to analyse Hf isotopes in individual zircon grains. Zircons (*150x50 μm) were separated from a granite, a granodiorite enclave (pillow) in the granite, a quartz diorite enclave, a granodiorite and a gabbro. The zircons in each rock show several growth stages, recognised by studies of external and internal morphology in cathodoluminescence images. Detailed studies by EMP (Hf, Y, U, Th) and LAM-ICPMS (REE, U, Th, other trace elements) show that changes in internal morphology or zoning style are accompanied by changes in trace-element patterns, reflecting changes in magma composition and/or physical conditions. It is clear that the zircons have acted as recorders of the evolution of the magmas, and that this evolution included abrupt changes in composition. Hf isotope measurements were done using a Merchantek LUV266 Nd:YAG laser probe, attached to a Nu Plasma multi-collector ICPMS. Typical spot sizes were 30-40 microns; typical internal precision on 1-2 minute ablations was 176Hf/177Hf of ±0.00002-6 (2SE). Interferences of 176Lu and 176Yb on 176Hf were corrected by monitoring 175Lu and 172Yb; the accuracy and

  18. Influência do biofeedback respiratório associado ao padão quiet breathing sobre a função pulmonar e hábitos de respiradores bucais funcionais Influence of respiratory biofeedback associated with a quiet breathing pattern on the pulmonary function and habits of functional mouth breathers

    EF Barbiero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos da utilização do biofeedback respiratório (BR associado ao padrão quiet breathing sobre a perimetria torácica, função pulmonar, força dos músculos respiratórios e os seguintes hábitos de respiradores bucais funcionais (RBF: vigília de boca aberta, boca aberta durante o sono, baba no travesseiro, despertar difícil, ronco e sono inquieto. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 20 crianças RBF, as quais foram submetidas a 15 sessões de BR por meio do biofeedback pletsmovent (MICROHARD® V1.0, o qual proporciona o biofeedback dos movimentos tóraco-abdominais. Perimetria torácica, espirometria e medidas das pressões respiratórias máximas estáticas foram realizadas antes e após a terapia. Questões respondidas pelos responsáveis foram utilizadas para avaliar os hábitos dos RBF. Os dados foram analisados por meio de teste t de Student para dados pareados e testes não paramétricos. RESULTADOS: O uso do BR associado ao padrão quiet breathing não produziu alterações significativas na perimetria torácica e nos valores de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1, capacidade vital forçada (CVF, pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE, índice de Tiffeneau (IT e na pressão expiratória máxima (PEmáx. Entretanto, a pressão inspiratória máxima (PImáx apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (-53,6 ± 2,9 cmH2O vs. -65,0 ± 6,0 cmH2O; pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of using respiratory biofeedback associated with a quiet breathing pattern, on chest circumference, pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and the following functional mouth-breathing habits: watching things with mouth open, sleeping with mouth open, dribbling on the pillow, difficulty in waking up, snoring and restlessness during sleep. METHOD: Twenty functional mouth-breathing children were evaluated. They underwent 15 sessions of respiratory biofeedback by means of the biofeedback pletsmovent (MICROHARD® V1

  19. New geological data of New Siberian Archipelago

    Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeniy

    2014-05-01

    -bearing unconformably overlies folded basement. The latter encompasses two sedimentary units: the Middle Devonian shallow-marine carbonate and Late-Devonian-Permian olistostrome - flysch deposited in transitional environment from carbonate platform to passive margin. Dating of detrital zircons suggests the Siberian Platform and Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya areas as the most possible provenance. The magmatic activity on Belkovsky Island resulted in formation of Early Triassic gabbro-dolerite similar to the Siberian Platform traps. Proximity of Belkovsky Island to the north of Verkhoyansk foldbelt allows continuation of the latter into the Laptev Sea shelf. The geology of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island is discrepant from the rest of the NSA. In the south of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island the ophiolite crops complex out: it is composed of tectonic melange of serpentinized peridotite, bandedf gabbro, pillow-basalt, and pelagic sediments (black shales and cherts). All the rocks underwent epidot - amphibolite, glaucophane and greenschist facies metamorphism. The ophiolite is intruded by various in composition igneous massifs - from gabbro-diorite to leuco-granite, which occurred at 110-120 Ma. The Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island structure is thought to be a westerly continuation of the South Anui suture of Chukchi.

  20. Geologic Evolution of the eastern Panama Isthmus from biostratigraphic, tectonic and geophysical data

    Barat, F.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Sosson, M.; Müller, C.

    2012-04-01

    Panama is located at the junction of Nazca, Cocos, Caribbean and South America Plates, and reflects a complex geological history: the isthmus is mainly an island arc, formed by the convergence between the oceanic Farallon and Caribbean Plates during Late Cretaceous-Paleogene, deformed by extension from the beginning of the Miocene, and shortened during the Middle Miocene collision of the Panama-Choco block with the South America Plate. We focused our researches on the eastern part of Panama, mainly in the Darien province, the least explored territory of the country, combining field work data, remote sensing analyses (SAR images) and geophysical data in order to better constrain the geological history of Panama since the Late Cretaceous. New field observations and detailed biostratigraphic data (nannoflora) allow us to precise the stratigraphic units of eastern Panama. We recognize from bottom to top: (1) the Upper Cretaceous basement of the Caribbean plate consists of basalts, pillow basalts, with minor intercalations of radiolarian cherts, outcropping in the Gulf of San Miguel, San Blas Massif and Sapo Massif; (2) an early volcanic arc, Upper Cretaceous in age, composed by breccias, basalts, intrusive volcanic rocks, limestones and siliceous tuffs, outcropping in the Portobelo Peninsula and San Blas-Darien Massif, attributed to the Ocù formation; (3) a Paleocene-Middle Eocene island-arc magmatic rock suite, outcropping in the Massifs of San Blas-Darien, Mahé and Sapo, attributed to the San Blas Formation; (4) a thick package of Lower-Middle Eocene-Oligocene epiclastic volcanosedimentary rocks, tuffs, with few basaltic lavas, observed in the Mahé Massif, attributed to the Darien Formation; (5) Several sedimentary formations, composed by carbonated and siliceous fine sediments and conglomerates, Upper Middle Eocene to Upper Miocene in age, which outcrop in the basins of Chucunaque-Tuira and Sambu (Porcona, Clarita, Tapaliza, Tuira, Chucunaque formations). We also

  1. 山东诸城晚白垩世古地震事件与恐龙化石埋藏%Palaeoearthquake event and dinosaur fossil burial of the Late Cretaceous in Zhucheng of Shandong Province

    何碧竹; 乔秀夫; 田洪水; 陈树清; 张艳霞

    2011-01-01

    在山东诸城库沟、龙骨涧、西见屯集群恐龙化石埋藏层——上白垩统王氏群辛格庄组与红土崖组中,发现存在脆性、塑性及液化等多种类型的软沉积物变形构造,主要包括负载构造、球一枕构造、挤入构造(火焰构造)、液化卷曲变形、液化脉状构造、混插沉积构造及地震断裂等典型的粗碎屑沉积物形成的古地震记录.多层的软沉积物变形构造及未变形沉积层间互出现,反映晚白垩世诸城地区地震活动频繁,地震活动具有多期性、间歇性及活动能量强-弱转换的脉动性.泥石流、洪泛平原沉积层中埋藏了大规模、顺层分布的恐龙(鸭嘴龙)骨骼化石,其中砂砾岩物源主要来自盆地南缘下白垩统的莱阳组和青山组.多层的古地震软沉积物变形构造层之间夹持着恐龙化石埋藏层,可能与盆地南缘诱发泥石流、埋藏大规模恐龙骨骼的突发性、强能量地震事件有关.%Various and complex styles of soft-sediment deformation structures were recognized in the Upper Cretaceous of the Kugou-Longgujian-Xijiantun district at southwestern area of Zhucheng in Jiaolai Basin, which was located in Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern China. Many types of brittle, plastic and lique fied soft-sediment deformation structures were found including load structure, ball-pillow structure, injec tion structure (flame structure), liquefied deformation, liquefied vein, mixed plunge structure, minor earthquake fault. These deformation structures were typically formed by coarse sediments during palaeo earthquake event. Multi-bed soft-sediment deformation interclated with non-deformed beds, which indicate the earthquakes of the Late Cretaceous in Zhucheng were frequent, multi-stage, periodic and of strong-weak changing. Large scale dinosaur ( hadrosaurs) fossils were found in coarse sediments from flood plain and debris flows were mainly from the Lower Cretaceous Laiyang and Qingshan Formations in

  2. Tectonic impact on the dynamics of CO2-rich fluid migration in Utah

    Nadine, E. Z.; Jean Luc, F.; Remy, D.; Battani, A.; Olivier, V.

    2009-12-01

    explain the existence of these distinct provinces? Is it due to the physical properties of the reservoirs, to the evolution of the fracture and fault patterns changing through time in connection with paleostress fields, to the occurrence of a thick salt pillow in the Moab area which has driven the tectonic style and played as local seal, to the shale sealing properties when PCO2 increased at depth to the physical phase of the CO2 during migration or storage (dissolved, super-critical or gas), or finally to the seismic cyclicity. A possible strong linkage between the seismicity and the volcanic activity, corresponding to large CO2-rich gas expel, have been investigated. In order to constrain the architecture of the deep buried reservoirs and traps we analyzed the deformation through analogue models, the models have been acquired with X-Ray tomography at IFP. These parameters have been analysed for the three investigated areas, allowing to propose an integrated model of the local circulation and/or storage of the CO2-enriched fluid for each area.

  3. Diamonds in an Archean greenstone belt: Diamond suites in unconventional rocks of Wawa, Northern Ontario (Canada)

    Kopylova, Maya; Bruce, Loryn; Ryder, John

    2010-05-01

    Diamonds typically are found on Archean cratons entrained by younger Phanerozoic kimberlites. In contrast, Wawa diamonds are hosted in "unconventional", non-kimberlitic rocks that formed contemporaneously with the mafic and sedimentary rocks of the Archean Michipicoten Greenstone Belt (MGB). We studied two diamond suites that occur within the 2.9-2.7 Ga greenschist facies rocks of MGB located in the southwest portion of the Superior Craton (E. Canada). The first diamond suite henceforth referred to as the Wawa breccia diamonds (384 stones), are hosted in the 2618-2744 Ma calc-alkaline lamprophyres and volcaniclastic breccias, contemporaneous with pillow basalts and felsic volcanics of MGB. The second suite, the Wawa conglomerate diamonds (80 crystals), are hosted in the 2697-2700 Ma poorly sorted sedimentary polymictic conglomerate which is interpreted as a proximal alluvial fan debris flow in a fan-delta environment. The majority of the diamonds was found within the matrix of the conglomerate. The diamondiferous breccia occurs 20 km north of the town of Wawa, whereas the conglomerate is found 12 km northeast of Wawa. Diamonds from the 2 occurrences were characterized and described for provenance studies. Both the breccia and conglomerate diamonds show similar crystal habits, with the predominance of octahedral single crystals and ~ 10% of cubes. The conglomerate diamonds are significantly less resorbed (no resorbtion in 43% of the stones) than the breccia diamonds (8% non-resorbed stones). In both suites, only 21-24% show high degrees of resorption. The majority of crystals in both suites are colourless, with some yellow, brown and grey stones. Conglomerate diamonds had a wider variety of colours that were not seen in the breccia diamonds, including green and pink. The breccia diamonds contain 0-740 ppm N and show two modes of N aggregation at 0-30 and 60-95%. Among the breccia diamonds, Type IaA stones comprise 17%, whereas IaAB stones make up 49% of the

  4. Pharmacological interventions for clozapine-induced hypersalivation

    Syed, Rebecca; Au, Katie; Cahill, Caroline; Duggan, Lorna; He, Yanling; Udu, Victor; Xia, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Clozapine is widely used for people with schizophrenia. Although agranulocytosis, weight gain, and cardiac problems are serious problems associated with its use, hypersalivation, sometimes of a gross and socially unacceptable quantity, is also common (30-80%). Objectives To determine the clinical effects of pharmacological interventions for clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2007), inspected references of all identified studies for further trials, contacted relevant pharmaceutical companies, drug approval agencies and authors of trials. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials comparing pharmacological interventions, at any dose and by any route of administration, for clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data (homogenous) we calculated relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. We calculated weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. Main results Of the 15 trials identified, 14 were conducted in China and 14 in hospitals. The quality of reporting was poor with no studies clearly describing allocation concealment and much data were missing or unusable. All results are vulnerable to considerable bias. Most frequently the primary outcome was the diameter of the wet patch on the pillow. Antimuscarinics (astemizole, diphenhydramine, propantheline, doxepin) were the most commonly evaluated drugs. For the outcome of ‘no clinically important improvement’ astemizole and diphenhydramine were more effective than placebo (astemizole: n=97, 2 RCTs, RR 0.61 CI 0.47 to 0.81 NNT 3 CI 2 to 5; diphenhydramine: n=131, 2 RCTs, RR 0.43 CI 0.31 to 0.58, NNT 2 CI 1.5 to 2.5), but the doses of astemizole used were those that can cause toxicity. Data involving propantheline were heterogeneous (I2= 86.6%), but both

  5. 大灸疗法治疗强直性脊柱炎临床研究%Clinical Research on Moxibustion Therapy for the Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    张灵; 王振亮

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察大灸疗法治疗强直性脊柱炎的临床疗效.方法:将103例患者随机分为治疗组53例和对照组50例,对照组单独使用柳氮磺吡啶;治疗组在使用柳氮磺吡啶基础上加用通督开痹药饼(药物组成:淫羊藿15 g,狗脊30 g,怀牛膝30 g,杜仲15g,独活15 g,青风藤30 g,桂枝12 g,川芎15 g,红花10 g)进行大灸,均治疗3个月,观察治疗前后关节疼痛、腰部晨僵、“4”字试验、扩胸度、枕墙距、接地距;化验室检查C-反应蛋白(CRP)和血沉(ESR).结果:治疗组有效率96.23%,对照组有效率88.00%,两组有效率经统计处理,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对于各个观察指标治疗组与治疗前比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且关节疼痛、腰部晨僵、“4”字试验、CRP优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:大灸疗法治疗强直性脊柱炎疗效显著.%;Objective;To observe the clinical efficacy of moxibustion for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Methods; 103 patients were randomly divided into the treatment group of S3 cases and control group of 50 cases. The control group was given salazosulfapyri-dine alone while the treatment group was given Tongdukaibi medicinal cake for moxibustion (Ingredients of the medicinal cake; Epimedi-um 15 g.Woodwardia 30 g,Achyranthes bidentata 30 g.eucommia 15 g.heracleum hemsleyanum michaux 15 g,Caulis 30 g.cinnamom twig 12 g,hemlock parsley 15 g.safflower 10 g) on the basis of the use of salazosulfapyridine. Both groups were treated for 3 months and then joint pain,lower back morning stiffness,Caenslen's test,degree of chest expanding,pillow-wall distance,ground distance were ob-served before and after treatment; laboratory tests such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) were checked before and after treatment. Results;The effective rate of the treatment group was 96.23% , while that of the control group was 88%. After statistical processing of the effective rates in

  6. Biological and Geological Characteristics of the Gakkel Ridge

    Shank, T. M.; Bailey, J.; Edmonds, H.; Forte, P.; Helmke, E.; Humphris, S.; Kemp, J.; Nakamura, K.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Singh, H.; Willis, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean) is one of the slowest (1.0 cm per yr), deepest (5000 m axial depth), and most hydrographically and tectonically isolated mid-ocean ridge systems on earth. This isolation from the global ridge system should have profound implications for the evolution and ecology of resident chemosynthetic fauna. The July 2007 Arctic GAkkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) sought to define this Arctic biogeographic province and the relationship of Arctic vent fauna to Atlantic, Pacific, and hydrocarbon seep fauna through the use of an new under- ice vehicle `Camper', a fiber-optic video-guided sampling system drift towed 1 to 3 m above the seafloor. The imaging, sampling, and sensing capabilities were used to obtain high-resolution seafloor imagery to identify and collect benthic samples with a clamshell `grab' sampler and a suction 'slurp' sampler. Imagery from five video cameras, including obliquely-mounted video and downlooking digital high-definition color cameras were used to construct maps of seafloor features and faunal composition during 3 dives in the peridotite-hosted 7°E region and 13 dives in the volcanic 85°E region. The 7°E site was dominated by an almost continuous cover of pelagic sediment with abundant animal tracks, brittle stars, anemones, and shrimp. The explored 85°E area was dominated by relatively diverse and young lava morphologies- from large pillows hosting delicate surface ornamentation to lobates, long lava tubes, and fresh sheet flows, all with the upper surfaces covered (often cm thick) of fresh volcanic glass 'sediment' suggestive of explosive volcanic activity in the `recent' past. Fauna in these areas consisted mainly of sponges, anemones, amphipods and shrimp. Characterization of the newly-discovered Asgard volcanic chain, including `Oden', `Thor', and `Loke' volcanoes, in the 85°E axial valley revealed extensive microbial mats in the form of: 1) yellow `fluffy' material (often >5 cm thick) in places; and 2) yellow

  7. Variations of dose to the lung during computed tomography (CT) thorax examinations: A Monte Carlo study

    This study determined the influence of patient individuality on lung organ doses for chest CT examinations. The aim was a statistical statement on the variability as well as the uncertainty caused by the patient individuality. Furthermore, the reproducibility of the mean organ dose value of the lung using the new ICRP 110 voxelized adult female phantom was determined. Calculation of lung doses for 61 female chest CT studies with identical scan parameters (120 kV, 135 mAs, 100 mm collimation, 1.5 pitch) were done. For all patients, the lung was contoured and the geometry was simulated using the Monte Carlo method without patient table and with its original voxel size. The lungs were completely included in the scan area. A so-called user code CTDOSPP was developed which extends the Monte Carlo package EGSnrc and enables rotational simulation of CT X-ray sources. A developed graphical user interface GMctdospp allows easy handling of simulation parameters and CT studies, which are loaded in the DicomRT struct format. The transformation of CT values to material and density values is carried out with a standard relationship. The ICRP adult female material composition of all organs were directly taken from the publication. The patient table and bed and pillow were assumed to be air in order to be similar to patient pool. All simulations were calibrated for better handling and visualisation to a CTDIair value of 22.9 mGy. Simulation values were grouped into 1 mSv classes. The organ dose classes fit well to a Gaussian distribution (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.97). The fit's mean value is 10 mSv with a standard deviation of 2 mSv. The variability is about ± 30 % with minimum at 8 mSv and maximum at 13 mSv. The calculated organ dose to the lungs of the ICRP adult female phantom is about 11 mSv and thus within the calculated standard deviation of the patient pool. For all simulations the statistical uncertainty was between 2 and 3.5 %. This present study shows good

  8. Young segment-scale eruption discovered on the eastern Galapagos rift during the GALREX 2011 Expedition

    Embley, R. W.; White, S. M.; Hammond, S. R.; McClinton, J. T.; Rex, C.

    2011-12-01

    New high resolution mapping with an EM302 multibeam system and seafloor observations made with the Little Hercules remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the July 2011 GALREX expedition have discovered a very recent eruption along Segment III (Christie et al., 2005) centered at 88 deg 19.5'W on the eastern Galapagos spreading center (GSC). The site was chosen for detailed study after a water column survey using a towed CTD package identified intense particle plumes rising up to 250m above seafloor along the entire segment (see abstracts by Baker et al. and Holden et al., this meeting). The segment is characterized by ridge-and-valley terrain with the most recent neovolcanic ridge extending, respectively, 25 km west and 20 km east of a central low-relief area that is quasi-circular, ~2 km radius, less than 30 m high. The neovolcanic ridge, revealed by the EM302 bathymetry to be a generally hummocky edifice less than 1 km wide and under ~40 m high, is cut by a very small axial graben barely resolved in the EM302 bathymetry. Two areas were surveyed during five ROV dives, four on the central area near 88 deg 18.5'W and one dive at 14 km east at 88 deg 10.8'W. A third high intensity plume target near the western extremity of the segment at 88 deg 27.2'W was not investigated using the ROV. The recent lobate and pillow lava flows were emplaced in narrow grabens along and adjacent to the neovolcanic ridge. In several places, the flow was observed to fill the axial graben. It is likely that the flow thickness ranges from meters to 10's of meters, depending upon the pre-eruption graben size and local effusion variations. However, no long, channel-fed lava flows were found. Flow boundaries based on preliminary ROV navigation average less than 100 meters across-axis. The lobate lavas all had a very similar glassy appearance and negligible sediment cover, making them easy to recognize amid the surrounding, older flows. The age of these lavas appeared visually younger than the

  9. Reassessment of the origin of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite, New Zealand : Nd-isotopic and geochemical evolution of magma suites

    Magmatic suites with contrasting isotopic and geochemical compositions, sequentially emplaced in different tectonic regimes, comprise the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt (DMOB), New Zealand. At D'Urville Island, the northernmost exposure of the DMOB, earliest erupted (stage 1) pillow basalts εNd(T) = +6.3 to +7.5, and are incompatible element enriched, like basalts from geochemically anomalous ridge segments. Overlying stage 2 basalts (sheeted flows) show a narrow range of εNd(T) = +8.3 + or -0.2, with chemical characteristics of depleted backarc basin basalts. These rocks are intruded by mafic to silicic stage 3 magmas, which have high uniform initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios (εNd(T) = +9.3 + or -0.2) over a wide range of 147Sm/144Nd values (yielding a precise Early Permian Nd-isotope age of 278 ± 4 Ma (MSWD = 0.48)). Stage 3 magmas show pronounced subduction-related geochemical signatures similar to island arc tholeiites (IAT) from immature arcs. They are closely analogous to some (boninite)-IAT magmas which characterise 'infant arc' eruptive activity in forearc basins of present-day Western Pacific island arc systems. A wide variety of stage 3 magma compositions, ranging from near-primary basaltic dikes (Mg = 74) to extremely fractionated silicic plagiogranites with uniformly very depleted isotopic ratios, is consistent with slow spreading rates which gave rise to polybaric, closed-system fractionation of magmas and periodic chamber abandonment. Some stage 3 rocks with SiO2 levels in the andesite range have low-TiO2 contents and high Mg, and may be fractionated equivalents of boninites. High εNd(T) values of stage 3 magmas indicate a lack of subducted sediment with inherited crustal residence signatures, and reflect the extent of supra-subduction zone (SSZ) mantle wedge depletion. DMOB stage 3 magmas may represent foreac magmatism that was the precursor to normal subduction-related volcanism established by c. 265 Ma in the Brook Street Arc and derived from a SSZ

  10. Giant rafted pumice blocks from the most recent eruption of Taupo volcano, New Zealand: Insights from palaeomagnetic and textural data

    von Lichtan, I. J.; White, J. D. L.; Manville, V.; Ohneiser, C.

    2016-05-01

    as the dome grew and deformed then rising buoyantly to the surface. Parts of the carapace could also be released by local magma-water explosions. Some textures of the pumice, however, suggest fresher magma released from beneath the carapace. This may suggest that silicic dikes and pillows/pods intruded into a growing mound of silicic hyaloclastite, itself formed by quench fragmentation and thermal granulation of the dike margins. This fragmental cover would have inhibited cooling of a still-hot and actively vesiculating interior, which was then released to float to the surface by gravitational destabilisation and collapse of the growing pile. Following their formation, the large fragments of pumice floated to the lake's surface, where they were blown ashore to become embedded in accumulating transgressive shoreface sediments and continue cooling.

  11. Optimization of backfill pellet properties AASKAR DP2 - Laboratory tests

    Andersson, Linus; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    's ability to buffer the inflowing groundwater during the installation phase was investigated in two types of tests. In the first test the wetting behavior was observed at small scale in a Plexiglas tube. The second test was performed in an artificial pellet slot with Plexiglas sides. The ASHA extruded 6 mm pellet seem to be the superior in water storing capacity, though it is suggested that this result may be more related to the presence of a fine grained material within the pellet mass than the pellets themselves. 4. Installation test. The pellets will most likely be installed with a shotcrete machine blowing them into place. This method was tested at full scale in order to investigate how much of the pellet filling that would be crushed into fine grained material if there is no water used during their placement. ASHA extruded 6 mm was the most durable pellet type with 5% of the material being crushed. 7 - 8% of the IBECO extruded pellet types (6 and 10 mm) were crushed into finer grains. The least durable pellets were the ASHA compacted pellets (pillow and almond shaped) with a crushing ratio of 53 to 61%. These results may have significance in terms of subsequent water uptake behavior. Large scale tests at repository-scale still need to be done utilizing shotcrete equipment so that more experience is obtained in how to control the installation of the pellet filling and identify the key influences on its composition and as-placed condition.

  12. AUV Mapping and ROV Sampling of Ridges and Seamounts: No Longer Wandering Around in the Dark

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration by submersible has been described as akin to dangling from a helicopter, at night, in a snowstorm, with a flashlight. Until recently, the divers were further hampered by not knowing where they were: the best bathymetric maps had resolution the length of a football field, and detailed maps could be constructed only after considerable investment in ship time to deploy and calibrate long baseline networks on the sea floor. Since then, maps have greatly improved with the use of high-frequency multibeam sonars flown close to the bottom, reliable navigation systems on the vehicles and surface ships, and sophisticated software to process the data. Our submersible dives are now guided, and older dives reinterpreted, using 1-meter resolution maps made with the MBARI Mapping AUV. We have utilized this combo at 7 sites along NE Pacific mid-ocean ridges, 3 seamounts off California, and 2 back-arc volcanoes in the Lau Basin. Among these, on the northern Cleft Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, four ROV dives were conducted over six years on a 30 km-long section of the ridge axis that was mapped with the AUV in two 18-hour surveys in 2009. Our experiences there will be used to illustrate advantages and challenges of studying the sea floor armed with better maps. The AUV maps are at a resolution where individual sulfide chimneys, lava pillars, eruptive fissures, lava channels and flow margins can be distinguished. Inflated flows and tectonically faulted seamounts can be examined in detail. Characteristic progressions in flow morphology from eruptive fissures through collapsed channels to pillowed margins can be traced along lava flow units. Relative age relationships can be determined from truncations of flow channels and tectonic fractures. The ROV's HD camera and array of samplers permit ground-truthing and refining of our interpretations of the maps. The mapped relationships of flows allow us to focus ROV sampling efforts and give wider context to the camera

  13. Geological and petrological aspects of the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Iribarren, I.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Torres, P. A.; Felpeto, A.; Lopez, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    white, highly vesiculated and rich in silica (>60%). This type of fragments was observed only during the first days of the eruption. On 27 November (and later) new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Many of them were "lava balloons", with a huge cavity in the centre or fragments of pillow lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm; all of them have a highly vesiculated outer crust. The composition is basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane could be observed most of the times. In this work, we describe the petrological evolution observed since the beginning of the eruption through the fragments emitted and the geological characteristics of the submarine edifice.

  14. IHG: an Integrated Hydrological-Geotechnical model for large landslides' susceptibility assessments

    Passalacqua, R.; Bovolenta, R.

    2012-04-01

    A large area (~ 5 km2) in the north-east sector of the Genoa-Province (Liguria - Italy) is subjected to a diffused, continuous kinematic phenomenon. It is shaped into a top-valley gentle slope (circa 11° ), which downgrades directly from the south-side faces of the Northern Apennines summits (1800 meters a.s.l.). On this endangered site are situated a small town and six of its surrounding hamlets. In consequence of the widespread and differential movements at ground level, many buildings and structures are continuously damaged. Institutions, Land-Authorities, as well as the Citizens, are applying their economical efforts in the rehabilitations and the assessment/control of the active phenomena. From the geological and morphological points of view, the topmost sediment is formed by a pliocenic glacial till and its body of widely assorted sediments had been reckoned as a large relict landslide. The loose-soils' thickness spans from few meters up to 90, before of reaching the local bedrock formations (argillites, sandstones, mudstones, ophiolites and diabases in pillows). Former studies have underlined that the main trigger actions are represented by the seasonal rain/snow falls on the watershed and that the kinematic phenomenon is heavily influenced by the subsoil features. The Authors have recently dealt with the characterization and study of this complex landslide [ref. @: the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Conference, Salzburg (A), September 5-9, 2011 and the 2nd World Landslide Forum, Rome (I), October 3-9, 2011], giving particular attention to both the geotechnical and the hydrological aspects of the site. Since the buried bedrock spatial morphology, depth and steepness have a key role, geophysical and seismic array techniques were used toinvestigate the micro-tremor characteristics and to correlate the emerging data to the geotechnical and geophysical properties of the shallowsediments. Noise measurements were made at more than

  15. Optimization of backfill pellet properties AASKAR DP2-Laboratory tests

    buffer the inflowing groundwater during the installation phase was investigated in two types of tests. In the first test the wetting behavior was observed at small scale in a Plexiglas tube. The second test was performed in an artificial pellet slot with Plexiglas sides. The ASHA extruded 6 mm pellet seem to be the superior in water storing capacity, though it is suggested that this result may be more related to the presence of a fine grained material within the pellet mass than the pellets themselves. 4. Installation test. The pellets will most likely be installed with a shotcrete machine blowing them into place. This method was tested at full scale in order to investigate how much of the pellet filling that would be crushed into fine grained material if there is no water used during their placement. ASHA extruded 6 mm was the most durable pellet type with 5% of the material being crushed. 7 - 8% of the IBECO extruded pellet types (6 and 10 mm) were crushed into finer grains. The least durable pellets were the ASHA compacted pellets (pillow and almond shaped) with a crushing ratio of 53 to 61%. These results may have significance in terms of subsequent water uptake behavior. Large scale tests at repository-scale still need to be done utilizing shotcrete equipment so that more experience is obtained in how to control the installation of the pellet filling and identify the key influences on its composition and as-placed condition

  16. Mesozoic Rifting in the German North Sea

    Lutz, R.; Jähne, F.; Arfai, J.

    2013-12-01

    similar evolution as the Horn Graben with high sediment thicknesses deposited during the Triassic. This indicates that initiation of rifting started in the central German North Sea already during the Early Triassic and subsequently migrated to the west into the Central Graben. Before the Triassic thick layers of Permian rock salt (Upper Rotliegend and Zechstein) were deposited in the Central European Basin System, which spans from the UK across the Netherlands, southern Denmark, Germany, and into Poland. Salt movements resulted in the formation of salt diapirs, salt pillows, salt walls and intrusions into faults. Analyses of rim-synclines of salt diapirs reveals that most of the salt structures inside the German Central Graben had a main phase of growth during the Late Jurassic while the salt structures situated toward the southeast had their main phase of growth during the Triassic. The final products of the project are accessible at www.geopotenzial-nordsee.de/.

  17. Mesozoic extension and Cenozoic contraction in an intraplate setting (Maestrat basin, Iberian Chain, E Spain)

    Nebot Miralles, M.; Guimerà Roso, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Iberian Chain, located in the eastern Iberian Peninsula, is a fold-and-thrust belt developed during the Cenozoic, because of the contractional inversion of the Mesozoic Iberian Rift System. The extension in the Iberian Chain took place in two major rifting cycles (late Permian to late Triassic and late Oxfordian to late Albian) followed by episodes of lower rifting activity (early and middle Jurassic, and late Albian to Maastrichtian). The Maestrat basin (containing up to 6.5 km of Mesozoic sediments) is one of the most subsident basins during the late Oxfordian to late Albian cycle. A system of listric extensional faults, which involve the basement, bounded the basin, and also divided it into minor sub-basins, containing different thicknesses of the Mesozoic sedimentary fill. An E-W-trending, N-verging, fold-and-thrust belt developed in the northern boundary of the basin, as the result of the Cenozoic inversion. This belt involved the Mesozoic cover in the northern -foreland- areas, with a detachment level located within the Triassic: in the Middle Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) and Keuper (Upper Triassic), both formed by lutites and evaporites. Southwards, the thrust-system also involved the Variscan basement. A study of the region containing the transition between the thin-skinned and the thick-skinned areas is presented, based on seismic profiles, oil-exploration wells and field data. A progressive northward thickening of Jurassic and lower Cretaceous units, related to a S-dipping listric extensional fault located to the N, can be observed both in the field and the seismic profiles. In the Triassic rocks, depositional thickness variations in the Middle Muschelkalk unit are observed, related to sub-vertical faults active during the Triassic rifting. Salt anticlines, pillows and welds are also observed in the Middle Muschelkalk. These halocynetic structures developed during the Keuper, as it is deduced from the onlap geometries of the Keuper seismic reflectors

  18. Experimental approach to form anorthositic melts: phase relations in the system CaAl2Si2O8 - CaMgSi2O6 - Mg2SiO4 at 6 wt.% H2O

    Zirner, Aurelia Lucretia Katharina; Ballhaus, Chris; Fonseca, Raúl; Müncker, Carsten

    2014-05-01

    Massive anorthosite dykes are documented for the first time from the Limassol Forest Complex (LFC) of Cyprus, the LFC being a deformed equivalent of the Troodos ultramafic massif. Both the Troodos and LFC complexes are part of the Tethyan realm consisting of Cretaceous oceanic crust that formed within a backarc basin 90 Ma ago and was obduced during late Miocene. From crosscutting relations with the sheeted dyke complex, it follows that the anorthosites belong to one of the latest magmatic events on Cyprus. In hand specimen, the rocks appear massive and unaltered, although in thin section magmatic plagioclase (An93) is partially replaced by albite and thomsonite (zeolite). Where magmatic textures are preserved, plagioclase forms cm-sized, acicular, radially arranged crystal aggregates that remind of spinifex textures. Six major types of anorthosite occurrences have previously been described, none of them matching with the above described anorthosite dykes [1]. The origin of these anorthosite dykes remains poorly understood. Even though they occur as intrusive dykes, it is evident that they cannot represent liquidus compositions, at least under dry conditions. Whole-sale melting of pure An93 would require temperatures in excess of 1450 °C, which is a quite unrealistic temperature of the modern Earth's crust. The working hypothesis is that boninitic melts with approximately 4 wt.% H2O, as found in the cyprian upper pillow lavas (UPL), could produce such rocks by olivine-pyroxene fractionation. Indeed, experiments indicate that such lithologies can be generated by medium-pressure fractional crystallization of hydrous basaltic melts followed by decompression-degassing. High pH2O stabilizes olivine but tends to suppress plagioclase as the highest polymerized phase. Hence the An component is accumulated in the (late-stage) melt. When such a system experiences sudden decompression, the aqueous phase will exsolve and will trigger massive precipitation of anorthite

  19. The Cimmerian accretionary wedge of Anarak, Central Iran

    Zanchi, Andrea; Malaspina, Nadia; Zanchetta, Stefano; Berra, Fabrizio; Benciolini, Luca; Bergomi, Maria; Cavallo, Alessandro; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Kouhpeyma, Meyssam

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence in Iran of several ophiolite belts dating between Late Palaeozoic to Triassic poses several questions on the possible existence of various sutures marking the closure of the Palaeotethys ocean between Eurasia and this Gondwana-derived microplate. In this scenario, the Anarak region in Central Iran still represents a conundrum. Contrasting geochronological, paleontological, paleomagnetic data and reported field evidence suggest different origins for the Anarak Metamorphic Complex (AMC). The AMC is either interpreted, as: (1) relict of an accretionary wedge developed at the Eurasia margin during the Palaeotethys subduction as part of the Cimmerian suture zone of NE Iran, displaced to Central Iran by a large counter-clockwise rotation of the central Iranian blocks; (2) autochthonous unit forming a secondary branch of the main suture zone. Our structural, petrographic and geochemical data indicate that the AMC consists of several metamorphic units also including dismembered "ophiolites" which display different tectono-metamorphic evolutions. Three main ductile deformational events can be distinguished in the AMC. The Morghab and Chah Gorbeh complexes preserve a different M1 metamorphism, characterized by blueschist relics in the S1 foliation of the former unit, and greenschist assemblages in the latter. They share a subsequent similar D2 deformational and M2 metamorphic history, showing a prograde metamorphism with syn- to post-deformation growth of blueschist facies mineral assemblages on pre-existing greenschist facies associations. High pressure, low temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism responsible for the growth of sodic amphibole has been recognized also within marble lenses at the contact between the Chah Gorbeh Complex and serpentinites. Evidence of HP/LT metamorphism also occurs in glaucophane-bearing meta-pillow lavas and serpentinites, which contain antigorite and form most of the "ophiolites" within the AMC. Structural relationships show that the

  20. The Blackwater Intrusion of the Grampian Orogeny: Implications for the Younger Basics and the Tectonic-Metamorphic Zonation of the Grampian Terrane, NE Scotland

    Webb, Gareth; Raub, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    the gabbro and serpentinite. Also, several apparently sheared m-scale pegmatite dykes cross-cut the gabbro, also with a NE-SW orientation. There is no evidence for significant hornfelsing adjacent to the intrusion. Collectively, this evidence suggests that the mass is largely tectonically emplaced, and that the PDHL was active both during and after emplacement of the Blackwater Gabbro. Meta-basic rocks of the Blackwater Formation have been interpreted as pillow basalts erupted from a submarine rift associated with the breakup of Rodinia. Vesicles are abundant in some outcrops, consistent with an extrusive origin. Determination of δ34S values in sulphide minerals and REE element profiles of the meta-basalts should further test the origin of these undated units. I will also present fluid inclusion data from mylonites adjacent to the intrusion and Cr-spinel-specific elemental data bearing on the nature of the original ultramafic melt composition, the mantle peridotite source, and tectonic setting of the Younger Basic bodies.

  1. Study of 2H and 18O in the Kouris catchment (Cyprus) for the description of the regional groundwater balance

    The Kouris catchment covers 300 km2 on the southern side of the Troodos Massif of Cyprus and bounded on the South by the Mediterranean Sea. Elevations range from 2000 m to sea level within a distance of 30 km. The basin consists of an ophiolitic complex in the North (ultramafic rocks, gabbros, sheeted dykes and pillow lavas) and an overlying sedimentary complex in the South (chalks, marls, calcarenites and limestones). The ophiolites highly heterogeneous and contain the major groundwater resources in Cyprus. While the geology of the Troodos Massif is very well documented, the hydrogeology of the area is much less known. The aim of this study is to apply 144 new and 72 published analysis of δD and δ18 in groundwater as well as as new and reported in IAEA database analysis of rainfall samples for better understanding of main mechanisms of ground water flow and for checking the assumptions of the groundwater model, developed at the previous stage. 2H and 18O in Precipitation. 2H and 18O contents in rainfall over the Kouris catchment samples are linearly related by the equation of the local meteoric water line: δD = 6.5*δ18 + 10.6 that differs from the equation of the Global Meteoric Water Line by a smaller slope, indicating partial evaporation of rain drops prior to infiltration. Seasonal variations might be extremely high (-36 per mille for δD and -5.5 per mille for δ18 in 2000/2001). Averaged monthly mixed rainfall samples for October-February 2000/2001 at the two meteostations and some data from springs at the highest altitudes suggest the regression equation for δD(per mille) and the altitude(m): δD = -0.012H(m) - 24,86 (1), where H(m) - the altitude of the rainfall 2H and 18O in groundwater. Almost all points at the 2H versus 18O diagram (except some in the ophiolites) are displaced from the local meteoric water line due to evaporation. Samples taken from the sedimentary rocks seem to be more affected by evaporation than those in ophiolites. Seasonal

  2. A Preliminary Geological and Geochemical Study of the Sharebabak-Baft Ophiloites, South of Kahduiyeh, Central Iran.

    Khalatbari Jafari, Morteza; Sepehr, Hadi

    2010-05-01

    The Kahduiyeh tectonized Ophiolite of the northern part of Sharebabak-Baft Ophiolite belt is located in the southern margin of the central Iran micro-plate at 53o 45' to 54o 00' E latitude and 31o 00' to 31o 25'N longitude. The mantle sequence of this ophiolite comprised of lherzholite and cpx-bearing harzburgite that are highly serpentinized and are cut across with individual diabase and plagiogranite- tronjemite dikes and pods. The crustal section comprises extensively of high level isotropic and cumulate gabbro with the olivine gabbro, pyroxene gabbro and foliated hornblende- bearing gabbrodiorite compositions. There is no layered gabbro in the crustal sequence. This section is normally and not tectonically transitioned to the diabasic sheeted dikes complex on top of the sequence. These sheeted dikes are oriented in N-S direction with a couple of degrees of inclinations towards either the East or the West and are cut across with wherlitic dikes and intrusions, the small intrusions of quartz diorite to quartz monzodiorite, packets of pegmatitic gabbro, and individual diabase and tronjemite dikes. The microscopic studies of the scarce and fresh peridotites, show kink bands in olivine and deformed pyroxenes which is the characteristics of the mantle peridotites. The sporadic distribution of undeformed pyroxenes as well as the presence of the deformed minerals mentioned above and the crystallization of neoformed olivine in the rim and inside of the deformed orthopyroxenes probably indicates the effect of transiting fluids and their reactions with the primitive peridotites. The extrusive sequence comprises of chert and radiolarite with intercalation of pelagic limestones at base of sequence and hyaloclastic breccia, hyaloclastite, tuff, sheet flow and pillow lava on top of the sequence. In some cases, pelagic limestone and radiolarite have the Upper Cretaceous micro faunas. Rodingite and listvenite are among the metasomatic rocks of this tectonized assemblage. A few

  3. The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data

    Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt≡12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand

  4. Architecture and evolution of La Réunion inferred from geophysical data

    Gailler, Lydie; Lénat, Jean-Francois

    2010-05-01

    la Fournaise on its northern and eastern flanks. It also indicates the presence of a body of weakly magnetized rocks underneath the central zone, correlated with the presence of a hydrothermal system which is well characterized by a dome of rocks of low resistivity and magma storage structures. Beneath the Ancient Shield, a region of weak resistivity may correspond with an ancient hydrothermal system. The Piton des Neiges is shown as an immense volcano structured around a hypovolcanic system which extends a great distance laterally and vertically. The coverage of the Brunhes formations is incomplete and gives variable thicknesses. Only the western flank, the summit zone and, to a lesser degree the northern flank, present significant thicknesses of these products. Topographical barriers, such as the regions of collapse or landslides could explain the discontinuous distribution of these formations at the scale of the massif. There is an obvious correlation between the lateral spreading of the dense body and the topographical depressions above, suggesting a relationship between the subsidence of the intrusive complex and that of the depressions. At the scale of the immerged system the morphology of two large zones of ancient volcanic constructions is reconstructed to the east of the Piton de la Fournaise and to the south-west of Piton des Neiges. These results bring to question the interpretations of seismic data in these particular sectors. The morphology of the emerged-immerged edifice can be reconstructed. At the land-sea transition, the coastal shelf is interpreted in terms of accumulation of hyaloclastites and pillow-lavas. On the immerged flanks, our analysis confirms that the four submarine bulges are due to the accumulation of avalanches debris deposits of which the internal density contrasts can be correlated with specific geological units observed from the surface.

  5. Chemical and stable isotopic compositions of volatiles in mantle peridotites of the Yushigou ophiolite in Qilian orogenic belt, western China%祁连造山带玉石沟地幔橄榄岩中挥发分的流体化学和稳定同位素组成及古大洋岩石圈演化意义

    胡沛青; 张铭杰; 汤中立; LI Chusi; 王记周

    2007-01-01

    degassing. In contrast, the volatiles released at 800 ~ 1200℃ are characterized by trace amounts of H2 and CO in dunite and SO2 in harzburgite, much lighter δ13C ( -29.1‰~ - 19.5‰), heavier δ13O (8.8‰) of CO2 and positive relationship between these isotopic ratios and the concentration of CO2. Such features can be best explained by mixing of significant terrestrial crustal (organic) and minor mantle volatiles. We proposed that the Yishigou peridotites are more likely to have derived from a continental lithosphere instead of an oceanic lithosphere comprising the Yishigou gabbros and pillowed basalts. A supra-subduction tectonic setting is thus inferred for the Yushigou ophiolite.

  6. Reinterpretacion estratigráfica y petrología de la Formacion Chuscho, Precordillera de La Rioja Stratigraphical reinterpretation and petrology of the Cerro Chuscho Formation. Precordillera of La Rioja

    L.E. Fauqué

    2003-06-01

    , sills and pillow-lavas of basaltic composition, representing an ophiolitic facies interbedded in the sedimentary pile. The Cerro Chuscho Formation belongs to the "Famatinian Ophiolitic Belt", which is related to the opening of a marginal basin during Chilenia accretion in Cambro-Ordovician times. The geochemical signature of the basaltic rocks changes along the rift, from N-MORB in the Cordillera Frontal to E-MORB in the Precordillera of San Juan and La Rioja. This variation probably reflects the changing altitude of the rift relative to the mantle. By contrast, the "Andesitas Punta del Agua", of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian age, are considered to be subduction-related andesites according to their geochemical characteristics.

  7. The Post-Permian evolution of the Northern Part of the North German Basin

    Hansen, M. B.; Huebscher, C.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Gajewski, D.; Dehghani, A.; Reicherter, K.

    2004-12-01

    In the frame of the Priority Program 1135 of the German Research Foundation (DFG) "Dynamics of sedimentary systems under varying stress conditions by example of the Central European Basin System", the scientific goal of the NeoBaltic project is to describe the post-Permian to recent geological evolution of the entire western Baltic Sea region, with a special emphasis on neotectonic activity and it relation to salt dynamics. The western Baltic Sea comprises the northern part of the North German Basin (NGB), a part of the Central European Basin System (CEBS), and the transitional zone between the NGB and the Baltic Shield. In order to investigate these scientific goals the Universities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Hamburg (Germany) has since 1998 completed seven marine campaigns in the western Baltic Sea, collecting 2D high resolution seismic (HRS), gravity and magnetic data in the entire region during different projects. Since 2003 all these data has been available for the NeoBaltic project. All together the data pool have more than 7000 km HRS, 5000 km gravity and 4000 km magnetic data. Until now the project work has been focused on the completion of the data processing and the digital interpretation of important Mesozoic and Cenozoic markers on the seismic sections from the Bays of Kiel and Mecklenburg. Furthermore, several maps have been completed from the potential field data (gravity and magnetic). As a result of the digital interpretation of the HRS data, the overall geological evolution of the northern part of the NGB can be subdivided into four distinct periods. During the Triassic and the Early Jurassic, E-W extension and the deposition of clastic sediments initiated the movement of the underlying Zechstein evaporites. This is seen by the presence of several salt pillows in the region. The deposition ceased during the Middle Jurassic, when the entire area was uplifted, due to the Mid North Sea Doming. The uplift resulted in a pronounced erosion of Upper Triassic

  8. Hábitos de sono relacionados à síndrome da morte súbita do lactente: estudo populacional Sleeping habits related to sudden infant death syndrome: a population-based study

    Lorena Teresinha Consalter Geib

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo transversal, que descreve os hábitos de sono com risco potencial para a síndrome da morte súbita do lactente, incluiu todas as crianças nascidas vivas em 2003, em Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com coleta de dados nas Declarações de Nascidos Vivos e em entrevistas, analisados com estatística descritiva e teste de qui-quadrado. Dos 2.634 nascidos vivos, selecionaram-se 2.285 (86,75%, com exclusão de 8,4% e perda de 5,2%. Dentre os hábitos protetores, constatou-se, em 77% dos lactentes, uso de vestuário adequado, 90% envolvidos frouxamente, 69% com cobertas de espessura fina, 98% dormindo no quarto dos pais e 56%, no berço. Dos hábitos com potencial risco, observaram-se decúbito lateral (92%, uso de travesseiro (88% e os pés distanciados da borda inferior do berço (96%. Nas classes econômicas pobres, o hábito da criança de compartilhar a cama foi significativo (p = 0,00. Assim, num município com baixa prevalência de síndrome da morte súbita, os lactentes são expostos tanto a hábitos de sono protetores como de risco, sugerindo que, em populações desfavorecidas de países em desenvolvimento, outros fatores de risco dessa síndrome devam ser considerados.This cross-sectional study on sleeping habits with potential risk for sudden infant death syndrome included all live births in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003 with data collection from Certificates of Live Birth and interviews, analyzed with descriptive statistics and the qui-squared test. From the 2,634 live births, 2,285 children were selected (86.75%, with 8.4% exclusion and 5.2% losses. Protective habits included 77% of infants with appropriate clothing, 90% loosely wrapped, 69% with thin blankets, 98% sleeping in the parents' bedroom, and 56% in the crib. Potentially risky habits included lateral decubitus (92%, use of a pillow (88%, and feet far from the lower edge of the crib (96%. Among low-income families, bed-sharing with other

  9. Foreword

    Full text: For Polish science the year 2002 was the year of struggle for survival. The state financing has reached the lowest-ever level. The sudden drop in this financing was like pulling a pillow from under a dying. Many a weaker man dies, many a weaker institution perishes. This Annual Report bears witness that we have managed to survive, though we did not emerge quite unscathed: our personnel had decreased in number by about 15 %, the number of our publications did not increase (about 200), no discovery worth the Nobel prize was announced, etc. We do, however, have some pieces of good work to brag about (see the forewords to various chapters in this Report by the department leaders). As examples, I'll mention two very different award gaining contributions. One is a piece of advanced mathematics applied elegantly to a rather general physical problem, the other is a piece of advanced electronics which has finally matured to commercialization. We have also started to explore new research territories. Thus e.g. we are now actively engaged in the fast growing international collaboration on the hottest subject in subatomic physics: the neutrino physics (as it happens, the topic of the latest Nobel lecture). Our belt tightening happens at the time of a natural ''change of guards''. Several of our senior colleagues retire and leave the institute or continue part time only. One of the presently most essential tasks for our long term survival is to fill the vacancies with ''fresh blood''. Against the odds, we can claim at least a partial success in this task, though far below the needs. In addition to our Ph. D. studies and to opening a few post-doc positions, we also engage in educational activities at other levels. We took active part in the ''Warsaw Science Picnic'' in the spring and in the Science Festival in the autumn, we managed to greatly enrich the permanent exhibition of our Training Department (notably with a rather sophisticated, 1:10 scale model of a nuclear

  10. Peperitas en Costa Rica Costa Rican peperites

    Daniel Soto

    2012-12-01

    peperites, as examples of spatial and temporal coexistence of magmatism and sedimentation in Costa Rica. The cases are presented in basic igneous complexes (ophiolites, mixtures varying from incomplete (megablocks of radiolarite with diabase in the Nicoya Complex to complete mixes in various stages of Maastrichtian-Paleocene (Golfito Formation or Paleocene pelagic limestones with basalts (Quepos Subcomplex or Tulín Formation to form brechoid and pillowed peperites. Within the Oligo-Miocene arc, there are examples extended along the Talamanca range and its foothills, as well as Sarapiquí’s plains represented for brechoid and bulbous (fluidal peperites in latiandesitic lavas (Pacacua Formation or brechoid peperitic pipes in ignimbrites (Mata de Limón Member or possible brechoid peperites in lavas in the Crucitas mining prospect (Cureña Formation, or simple brechoid peperites in andesitic flow (Pacacua Formation, in Talamanca or as hydroclastic breccias with fragments of dacitic composition in lava flow deposits of Carbonal Guanacaste, just between the beaches Cabuyal and Naranjo. All these rocks represented proximal equivalents of the explosive, effusive and subvolcanic volcanism (endogenous domes and criptodomes and his concomitance with the fluvial sedimentation. In Quaternary period, we have a sample in the base of Tiribí Formation in contact with Palmares Lacustrine. Also this paper included possible and potential cases. It hopes that the description and interpretation of this type of rocks helps to its identification in other regions of Costa Rica and Central America in general, as well as a potential source for the exploration of valuable metals.

  11. A major 2.1 Ga event of mafic magmatism in west Africa: An Early stage of crustal accretion

    Abouchami, Wafa; Boher, Muriel; Michard, Annie; Albarede, Francis

    1990-10-01

    Birimian terranes from West Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Niger) comprise two major units: a dominantly mafic bimodal volcanic unit and a volcano-detrital unit with mostly felsic to intermediate protolith. Stratigraphic relationships of these units are still a matter of debate but current work suggest that they both formed in a short time interval around 2.1 Ga. Widespread basaltic magmas from the bimodal unit have been analyzed for REE distributions and Sr-Nd isotopes. Three Sm-Nd isochrons on tholeiitic lavas were obtained at 2.229±0.042 Ga and initial ɛNd = 3.6±1.0 for Mauritania, 2.126±0.024 Ga and initial ɛNd = 2.9±0.7 for Burkina Faso, 2.063±0.041 Ga and initial ɛNd = 3.1± .0 for Eastern Senegal, data which compare with the age of 2.11±0.09 Ga and initial ɛNd = 2.1±1.8 obtained in Guyana by Gruau et al. (1985). Samples from other localities (Ivory Coast, Niger) give generally similar results. Although the variations of Sm/Nd ratios and the scatter of ɛNd(T) values from +1.2 to +4.3 preclude a single origin for these magmas, initial isotopic heterogeneities are unlikely to bias significantly the ages given by the isochrons which are in good agreement with U-Pb zircon ages (Boher et al., 1989; unpublished data, 1990). Presence of lavas with frequent pillow structures and sediments virtually free of older recycled components suggests that Birimian terranes formed in ocean basins far from continental influence. The isotopic heterogeneities are not consistent with a MORB-like mantle source. Most lavas are slightly depleted in LREE and inversion of the data through a melting model suggests 5-15 percent melting of a slightly depleted Iherzolite. Strong depletion (Burkina Faso) and slight enrichment (Senegal) are occasionally observed. With a noticeable trend of Ti enrichment with differentiation intermediate between that of MORB and IAT, the geochemical signature of Birimian basalts does not fit the best known geodynamic

  12. Pedogenetic processes on Mars

    Chiara Tangari, Anna; Marinangeli, Lucia; Piluso, Eugenio; Pompilio, Loredana; Scarciglia, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Clay minerals, such as Fe/Mg smectite and Al-rich phyllosilicates (i.e., montmorillonite and kaolinite) were detected in the last years on Mars by numerous missions[1,2]. These minerals can be formed by fluid/rock interaction. Therefore, their study may provide important information on the climatic conditions and consequent habitability of the Martian surface. In this work we compare the mineralogy observed with CRISM data in the eastern part of Valles Marineris (Coprates-Ganges-Capri-Eos Chasmata), Margaritifer Terra and Margaritifer Chaos regions, with soils sampled on the Etna volcano (Sicily) and Cerviero Mount (Calabria, Southern Italy). We use an integrated approach of remote sensing coupled with pedological, petrographical and mineralogical investigations. Our purpose, here, is to find possible analogies between some Andosols developed on the basaltic substrates of Etna and Cerviero Mount, and the Martian soils, based on their spectral response and formation processes. CRISM data show poor abundance of clay minerals, such as illite, smectite and montmorillonite, in the eastern part of Valles Marineris. On the contrary, these phases are widely exposed in the Margaritifer Terra and Margaritifer Chaos, where we detected allophone (poorly crystalline clay), vermiculite, chlorite and other phyllosilicates belonging to the smectite group, such as saponite and nontronite. The surrounding area shows dominant signatures of basaltic composition.Our preliminary analysis on terrestrial soil profiles, using X-ray diffraction analysis, shows similar characteristics to Mars in terms of bedrock composition and clay mineralogy. Etnean soils, formed from lavas and pyroclastics of various ages (from 12 ka to 122 BC) [3] show the presence of clay minerals, such as kaolinite and small amounts of illite. The Cerviero Mount soils, developed on pillow basalts of Maastrichtian-Paleocene ages [4] are composed of vermiculite, illite, chlorite and interstratified clays such as

  13. Broken formations, melanges and olistostromes in Puerto Plata area (Northern Dominican Republic) as a record of subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North-American plates

    Hernaiz Huerta, Pedro Pablo; Valera Fernando, Pérez; de Los Santos Manuel, Abad; Jacques, Monthel; de Neira Alberto, Díaz

    2010-05-01

    The Northern Cordillera of the Dominican Republic records the (oblique) subduction and collisional processes occurred between the Caribbean and North-American plates during Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleogene times. The boundary between these two plates can be traced within this range disrupted by an Upper Paleogene to present intense left-lateral strike-slip tectonism, onset after collision. In the western part of the range this boundary might be defined by the Camu fault. In the coastal area of Puerto Plata, located on the northern block of the Camu fault, basement rocks belonging to the subducting plate (the Puerto Plata Basement Complex) and several related units probably formed in an accretionary prism, preserve in a large (300 km2) outcrop of chaotic formations presumably formed (and exhumed) during collision. They include from broken formations and tectonic melanges to olistostromes and other coeval sedimentary deposits. The Puerto Plata Basement Complex (PPBC) consists of highly faulted and dismembered blocks formed by discontinuous but sometimes coherent outcrops of serpentinized or massive peridotite, pods of ultramafic cumulates, massive or banded gabbros and Los Caños Fm, a thick sequence of gross bedded volcaniclastic material with interbedded basaltic (sometimes pillowed) or andesitic flows. All these rocks bear low grade metamorphism and lack a general deformation fabric apart from occasional transformation to mylonites due to localized shearing. The PPBC has been interpreted as a fragment of oceanic crust, belonging to the subducting (North-American) slab that has been exhumed as a tectonic melange or a broken complex. The Imbert Fm, of Palaeocene-Eocene age, is formed by a well bedded succession of white very fine grained porcelaneous tuffs, with eventual intercalations of cherts, limestones and marls that, towards the lower part, is interbedded with volcanic-derived graywackes and limolites, and more occasionally, thick beds of conglomerates and

  14. Discovery of Nascent Vents and Recent Colonization Associated with(Re)activated Hydrothermal Vent Fields by the GALREX 2011 Expedition on the Galápagos Rift

    Shank, T. M.; Holden, J. F.; Herrera, S.; Munro, C.; Muric, T.; Lin, J.; Stuart, L.

    2011-12-01

    GALREX 2011 was a NOAA OER telepresence cruise that explored the diverse habitats and geologic settings of the deep Galápagos region. The expedition made12 Little Hercules ROV dives in July 2011.Abundant corals and a strong depth zonation of species (including deepwater coral communities) were found near 500 m depth on Paramount Seamount, likely influenced by past low sea level states, wave-cut terrace processes, and the historical presence of shallow reef structures. At fresh lava flows with associated (flocculent) hydrothermal venting near 88° W, now known as Uka Pacha and Pegasus Vent Fields, rocks were coated with white microbial mat and lacked sessile fauna, with few mobile fauna (e.g., bythograeid crabs, alvinocarid shrimp, polynoid worms, zoarcid fish, and dirivultid copepods). This suggests a recent creation of hydrothermal habitats through volcanic eruptions and/or diking events, which may have taken place over a 15 km span separating the two vent fields. The Rosebud vent field at 86°W was not observed and may have been covered with lava since last visited in 2005. A hydrothermal vent field near 86°W was discovered that is one of the largest vent fields known on the Rift (120m by 40m). Low-temperature vent habitats were colonized by low numbers of tubeworms including Riftia, Oasisia, and a potential Tevnia species (the latter not previously observed on the Galapagos Rift). Patches of tubeworms were observed with individuals less than 2cm in length, and the relatively few large Riftia had tube lengths near 70cm long. Large numbers of small (microbial communities were observed on the underside and vertical surfaces of basalt rock surfaces. There were at least 13 species of vent-endemic fauna. The active colonization was observed on relatively older basalt pillows and lobate lavas ringed by and amidst a large dead bed of Calyptogena clams (most with broken and dissolving shells greater than 25 cm in length, with a few of the same size living amongst the

  15. P-T evolution of slivers of garnet-bearing micaschist in the sole of the Western Vardar Ophiolite Unit at Brezovica, Kosovo

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Koller, Friedrich; Onuzi, Kujtim

    2016-04-01

    at a pressure of 11.5 kbar, which is compatible with the aforementioned talc + phengite assemblage. We think that the recognized HP metamorphism of the studied micaschist was caused by the load of the obducting oceanic lithosphere, which must have been as thick as 35 km. Heating of the overridden rocks during this obduction process resulted in the release of H2O, which hydrated the mantle rocks at the base of the obducting oceanic lithosphere. An alternative model, which assigned the location of the hydration to the mantle wedge overlying a subduction zone, was abandoned also because of the existence of higher levels of oceanic crust, such as pillow lavas, in the preserved oceanic lithosphere close to the Brezovica region.

  16. Stratigraphy and Geochemistry of the Lower Permian Esayoo Volcanics, Northwest Ellesmere Island: Insights into Sverdrup Basin Paleogeography

    Morris, N. J.; Beauchamp, B.; Cuthbertson, J. P.; Chau, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Esayoo Volcanics consist of altered Lower Permian basalts that outcrop on northwest Ellesmere Island and northeast Axel Heiberg, within the Sverdrup Basin, Arctic Canada. Rifting in the Sverdrup Basin initiated in the Early Carboniferous and ceased during the Early Permian. The Esayoo volcanics geochemically classify as alkaline to transitional within-plate-basalts, with high Ti/Y and Zr/Y ratios. Eruptions are coincident with two rifting pulses of Sakmarian and Kungurian age. During the 2011 July field season, ten stratigraphic sections of the Esayoo Volcanics were measured at four locations on northwest Ellesmere Island: Borup Fiord Pass, Oobloyah Bay, Ricker Glacier and Mount Leith. The Esayoo Volcanics reach a maximum thickness of 450 m near Oobloyah Bay, and thin west, east and north of Oobloyah Bay with respective thicknesses of 140 m, 69 m and 75 m. At Oobloyah Bay, volcanic rocks occur at two stratigraphic levels. The lower Esayoo unit lies within the Raanes Formation, a mixed clastic-carbonate, and further west at Ricker Glacier within the upper Hare Fiord Formation, a black siliceous shale-siltstone. The upper Esayoo unit is below the Assistance Formation, carbonate-rich to clean quartz sandstone, and below the Sabine Bay Formation, a clean quartz sandstone with abundant cross-beds. Thin 1 to 2 m shales that indicate maximum flooding surfaces overlie both the upper and lower Esayoo units. Each measured section was divided into individual flow units that averaged 7 m thick. Dominant textures observed within individual flow units include: thin 2-3 cm thick amygdule-rich bases transitioning into thick 2-10 m thick massive flow interiors; frothy, amygdule-rich flow tops 1-3 m thick; and chaotic vesicular units with amygdules ranging from 0.5-3 cm in width and pervasive cross-cutting calcite veins and stringers. The lower level at Oobloyah Bay is composed of a laminated volcaniclastic rock that is rich in heterozoan marine bioclasts, with associated pillow

  17. Molecular Analysis of Endolithic Microbial Communities in Volcanic Glasses

    di Meo, C. A.; Giovannoni, S.; Fisk, M.

    2002-12-01

    Terrestrial and marine volcanic glasses become mineralogically and chemically altered, and in many cases this alteration has been attributed to microbial activity. We have used molecular techniques to study the resident microbial communities from three different volcanic environments that may be responsible for this crustal alteration. Total microbial DNA was extracted from rhyolite glass of the 7 million year old Rattlesnake Tuff in eastern Oregon. The DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with bacterial primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This 16S rDNA was cloned and screened with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Out of 89 total clones screened, 46 belonged to 13 different clone families containing two or more members, while 43 clones were unique. Sequences of eight clones representing the most dominant clone families in the library were 92 to 97% similar to soil bacterial species. In a separate study, young pillow basalts (microbial life. Total DNA was extracted from the basalt glass and screened for the presence of both bacteria and archaea using the PCR. Repeated attempts with different primer sets yielded no bacterial genes, whereas archaeal genes were quite abundant. A genetic fingerprinting technique, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), was used to compare the archaeal community compositions among the six different basalts. Filtered deep-sea water samples (~15 L) were examined in parallel to identify any overlap between rock- and seawater-associated archaea. The six rock community profiles were quite similar to each other, and the background water communities were also similar, respectively. Both the rock and water communities shared the same dominant peak. To identify the T-RFLP peaks corresponding to the individual members of the rock and seawater communities, clone libraries of the archaeal 16S rDNA for one basalt sample (Dive 3718) and its corresponding background water sample were

  18. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a massive sulfide province that is located in the south of Portugal and Spain, and hosts more than 90 massive sulfide deposits that amount to more than 1850 million metric tonnes of sulfide ore (Tornos, 2006). The ore deposits size, vary from ~1Mt to >100Mt (e.g. Neves Corvo and Aljustrel in Portugal, and Rio Tinto and Tharsis in Spain). The ore deposits are hosted by a submarine sedimentary and volcanic, felsic dominated, succession that constitutes the Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous Volcanic and Sedimentary Complex (VSC). The VSC ranges in thickness from approximately 600 to 1300 m (Tornos 2006). The VSC overlies the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQ) (Upper Devonian, base unknown) and is overlain by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (Lower to Upper Carboniferous). The Lousal massive sulfide deposit is located in the western part of the IPB and occurs mostly interbedded with black mudstone. The VSC sequence at Lousal mine consists of a mudstone and quartzite sequence (PQ Group) in the lower part of the succession, over which a thick sequence of rhyolitic lavas (>300 m) occurs. Above the rhyolitic lavas there is a thick sequence of black and grey mudstone that hosts the massive sulfide ore bodies, and a rhyolitic sill. The upper part of the VSC sequence consists of a thick mudstone interval that hosts two thick basaltic units, locally with pillows. The rhyolites have small coherent cores, locally with flow bands, that grade to surrounding massive clastic intervals, with large lateral extent. The clasts show jigsaw-fit arrangement in many places and have planar or curviplanar margins and locally are perlitic at the margin. The top contact of these units is in most locations not exposed, which makes difficult to interpret the mode of emplacement. However, the thick clastic intervals, above described, are in accordance with quenching of volcanic glass with abundant water and therefore indicate that quenching of the rhyolites was the

  19. Oceanic crust production in the Dinarides during the Senonian: combined U-Pb in situ laser ablation ICP(MC)-MS zircon and mineral separates Ar-Ar dating

    ; εHf of 0.8 ± 1.0) which is compatible with a subduction-related setting.Our combined Ar- Ar and U-Pb dating show that - at least locally in the Dinarides - oceanic crust formed in the Senonian. The U-Pb zircon ages show that gabbros crystallized at 103.2 ± 1.5 Ma and confirm the amphibole Ar-Ar ages (109 ± 17 Ma). Pillow lavas from another Dinaric locality gave even younger plagioclase Ar-Ar ages (61 ± 14 Ma). Commonly it was thought that oceanic domains in the Dinarides had closed no later than the early Cretaceous. Our data, however clearly, suggest that oceanic crust was produced for a long time and lasted at least till Campanian/Maastrichtian times. It is currently too early to make new geotectonic interpretation but these results give completely new insights in our understanding of geodynamic development of this part of Balkans. (author)

  20. Review of external ocular compression: clinical applications of the ocular pressure estimator

    Korenfeld MS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd. Washington, MO, USA; 2Washington University Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Ophthalmology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: The authors have previously validated an Ocular Pressure Estimator (OPE that can estimate the intraocular pressure (IOP during external ocular compression (EOC. The authors now apply the OPE in clinical states where EOC is clinically important. The original work is described for two periods of risk: during sleep and during the digital ocular massage (DOM maneuver used by surgeons after trabeculectomy to keep the operation functional. Other periods of risk for external ocular compression are then reviewed.Methods: The first protocol estimated the IOP in the dependent eye during simulated sleep. Subjects had their IOPs initially measured in an upright-seated position, immediately upon assuming a right eye dependent side sleeping position (with nothing contacting the eye, and then 5 minutes later while still in this position. While maintaining this position, the fluid filled bladder of the OPE was then placed between the subject’s closed eye and a pillow during simulated sleep. The IOP was continuously estimated in this position for 5 minutes. The subjects then had the IOP measured in both eyes in an upright-seated position. The second protocol determined if a larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio was more common on the side that patients reported they preferred to sleep on. The hypothesis was that chronic asymmetric, compression induced, elevations of IOP during sleep would be associated with otherwise unexplained asymmetry of the vertical cup-to-disc ratio. The third protocol assessed the IOP during DOM. The OPE was used to characterize the IOP produced during the DOM maneuver of five glaucoma surgeons. After this, 90 mmHg was chosen as a target pressure for DOM. The surgeons were then verbally coached

  1. 早寒武世初期沂沭断裂带地震效应%Seismic effects from Yishu Fault Zone during the earlier Early Cambrian

    田洪水; 张邦花; 祝介旺; 张增奇; 李洪奎

    2011-01-01

    In the earlier Early Cambrian, with the proceeding of the marine invasion from the Paleo-Yishu Strait to west, uneven thick deposits of sandstone, mudstone and carbonate rock of littoral, lagoon and neritic facies were deposited in western Shandong Province. The horizon of these layers belongs to the bottom part of Lower Cambrian consisting of the Liguan and Zhushadong Formations. Together with the depositional and formation processes, tectonic rift-depression was taking place in the Yishu Fault Zone, characterized by frequent submarine earthquakes with different seismic effects within 200 km range from the Yishu Fault Zone to west. Various seismogenetic syndepositional deformation structures are formed in the seismic records. Seismic effect records developed in the Zhushadong Formation are mainly soft-sediment deformations such as diapir structure, carbonate lime-mud volcano, liquefied vein, liquefied brec cia , seismic fold, graded-fault, siliceous vein etc., besides a few brittle deformation of semi-consolidated sediments. Those preserved in the Liguan Formation are not only slump fold, load structure and ball-and pillow structure, but also some seismo-turbidite. Magnitude reflected by submarine seismic effects might be Richater magnitude of 5. 0 ~ 8. 9. These evidences indicate that strong tectonic activities occurred along the Yishu Fault Zone in the Early Cambrian. Analyses from the viewpoint of marine engineering geology show that seismic effects mentioned above are destructive forms of sediment layers caused by earthquake at the sea-bottom. This paper has provided intuitive materials for understanding earthquake destruction to rock-soil layers of seafloor-engineering foundation.%早寒武世初期,随着从古沂沭海峡向西海侵的发展,鲁西地区沉积了厚度不等的主要由砂岩、泥岩和碳酸盐岩组成的滨海、潟湖及浅海相沉积,其层位属下寒武统底部的李官组和朱砂洞组.在它们沉积过程中,沂沭断裂带

  2. Additional evidence to the existence of a subducted plate beneath equatorial Atlantic

    The lithosphere surrounding the St Paul Fracture Zone (SPFZ) is typically cooler than other areas in the Atlantic Ocean as pointed out by Bonatti (1990). The existence of older lithospheric material in the Equatorial Atlantic was first suggested by the analysis of Re-Pt-Os concentrations and Os isotopic composition of abyssal peridotites (Esperan et al, 1999) from SPFZ. Tomographic evidence, in combination with the geochemical data supports that a fossil subducting slab is present in this region (CIRON, 2000). The existence of a fossil subduction in the Equatorial Atlantic is further corroborated by paleo-reconstructions for the period between 460 and 300 Ma (Maia et al, 2001). The consequences of a cold subducted lithosphere beneath this region are the high ratio of ultramafic to volcanic rocks, the ridge axis morphology, and the petrology of both basalts and uplifted abyssal peridotites (Bonatti, 1992, Schilling et al.1994, Schilling et al., 1995, Hekinian et al, 2000 and Cadoux, 2000). The Equatorial Atlantic is marked by sparse volcanic activity (e.g., pillow lavas, diabase dikes) and intense tectonic activity (e.g., normal faults) at the inter transform ridge axes. These inter transform ridges do not show a sigmoid shape as the fracture zones in the Pacific. Serpentinized peridotites are observed in the flanks of the axial valley and cut by diabase dikes. Significant tectonic movement allowed the exposure of abundant abyssal peridotites some of them exposed in the islets of St. Peter and St. Paul (SPSP). The SPFZ is located at 1 on the MAR and represents one of the largest discontinuities, which offsets the MAR axis roughly by 600 km. The SPFZ is a multiple fracture zone system (Gorini, 1977). The St. Paul transform fault is a triple fracture zone interrupted by four Intra- Transform Ridges (ITR). The ITR display rift valleys showing recent volcanic and tectonic activities at depths of 4700m. A complete geological section from 4500m to 1850m was done based on

  3. Faults, Post-1720 Explosion Craters, and the Remains of a Lava Lake at Castro Bank Seamount (E Azores)

    Wunderman, R.; Barriga, F. J.; Nishimura, C.; Pacheco, J. M.; Vogt, P. R.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Santos, R.

    2003-12-01

    During 25-28 July 2003 the US Navy submarine NR-1 dove on the seamount D. Joao de Castro Bank, compiling reconnaissance sonar and visual data. Castro Bank sits along strike and between the eastern Azorian islands of Terceira and S. Miguel, occupying a seismically active region ˜60 km from each of these islands and apparently controlled by the same underlying tectonics as other islands found along the Azores' northern margin. Castro Bank's last recorded eruptions built a ˜1 km diameter ephemeral island in the 1720s. The bathimetry of the uppermost 40 m or so of the Bank is rather well known via single beam sonar, scuba diving and AUV surveys (IH, DOP/UA and ISR/IST, unpublished work). Our dives compiled data in concentric rings along contours, collecting side- and forward-looking sonar along an overall track length of ˜20 km, with the deepest ring approaching ˜200 m depth. To document key features we came near the sea floor and took videos in water with typical visibility of ˜10-15 m. This is the first progress report on our work, which found the edifice morphologically complex and irregular. We noted that the seamount was often covered by aerially extensive yellow-brown hyaloclastic tuffs that were presumably products of the 1720s eruption, but also cut by faults and fissures (with offsets of ten's of meters) exposing abundant areas of older edifice. The faults typically lacked sediment cover, and in one case a very fresh, sediment-free fault trended along the base of a steep cliff. This suggested the faults were much younger than the 1720 eruption, an observation in accord with intense seismicity recorded in this area. The faults provided exposures of older rocks, which included abundant breccia and lesser clearly identified pillows or thick lava flows. The NW quadrant contains two small, shallow, elliptical craters. These lie side-by-side and crosscut inferred 1720s-age tuffs. One crater held a lava lake, the body of which apparently withdrew or subsided

  4. Arc-rift transition volcanism in the Volcanic Hills, Jacumba and Coyote Mountains, San Diego and Imperial Counties, california

    Fisch, Gregory Zane

    proximity could possibly reflect the opening of a slab window produced by the collision of the spreading center and continued subduction of the Farallon plate beneath the North American continent. However, evidence presented here suggests that crustal contamination and metasomatic processes in the Coyote Mountains are the primary source of the geochemical variations. Trace-element signatures are similar in samples from all of the study regions, with pronounced Nb depletion typical of island-arc volcanism. The distinguishing features of samples from the Coyote Mountains are the high amount of alteration and their high levels of K2O (4-5 wt%). This study will examine the possibility that these characteristics result from the interaction of the basalt with a highly alkaline body of water and/or sediments. Supporting data for such a model include pillow structures and spiracle formations within the basalt flows exposed in the Fossil Canyon and Butaca Canyon regions of the Coyote Mountains. Future studies of the olivine-basalt samples within the central region of the Coyote Mountains, away from the altered exposures, would provide a more complete understanding of their genesis. While the geochemical data were initially analyzed using standard geochemical techniques, the data are also analyzed statistically using a relatively new multivariate analysis technique known as Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA). Using the CoDA techniques, a clearer insight into the actual changes of the chemical composition can be seen. It also provides statistically valid correlation between the various regions in the study area. The CoDA processes, CLR BiPlots in particular, show which elements vary from one region to the next. It also differentiates elemental groups that correlate with typical rock-forming processes (e.g., fractional crystallization) from those that result from contamination from other sources or processes. Two examples illustrate the application: 1) In the Volcanic Hills, a

  5. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    hydrocarbons in the Toender area. The resistivity variations clearly reflect the presence of salt tectonics in the survey area. Another achievement from the test is the information on electromagnetic noise sources. The noise in the survey area was highly variable both spatially and with time. At some MT stations high quality data could be obtained. Other MT stations did not provide data of sufficiently quality to be included in the modelling. Some tentative comments with respect to interpretation of the acquired MT data are provided. We do not enter into an in-depth interpretation of the data and derived model, but we conclude that the MT data provide valuable information on the regional variations of resistivity. A number of anomalies are evident which point to significant variations in resistivity laterally. Some inconsistencies in relation to information from deep wells are noted with respect to depth to stratigraphic units. This is particularly the case at the location of the Borg-1 well. The salt pillow around at Toender is mapped well by the MT data. The reporting of the test is structured as follows: after a short introduction (with some basic information on MT for readers unfamiliar with the method) follows the report by L.B. Pedersen and J. Shan, Uppsala University, which represents the core of the test. It includes a description of field work, noise conditions and data quality, data processing techniques and modelling. The report by Pedersen and Shan and accompanying appendix is included as chapter 3 in this report. The last part of this report places the modelling results in context with geological information and other geophysical data publically available from the survey area. The purpose of this last part of the report is to provide information and considerations useful for further interpretation on the acquired new data. A section on the geology of the area is included with some key references and finally, another section includes displays of the model derived

  6. The study of major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry in Shahrestanak Mn deposit, south of Qom: Implications for genesis

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2015-04-01

    source. As (Co/Zn-(Co+Cu+Ni diagram, the samples from Shahrestanak deposit show close similarities with hydrothermal deposits which in turn show common genesis. Using Pb versus Zn diagram, dubhite (deposits derived from previous mineralized sequence can be distinguished from other Mn oxide (hydrothermal or supergene deposits. The dubhite deposits have high Pb/Zn ratios and more than 1 percent Pb and Zn contents. Meanwhile, other types of deposits like shallow marine deposit, hot springs, SEDEX, weathered deposits have lower contents of Pb and Zn. The Shahrestanak deposit has more similarities with SEDEX and shallow marine deposits. Conclusion Geological and geochemical evidences show that deposition of ore occurred by submarine hydrothermal activities in Neotethys oceanic basin during Middle to Upper Eocene in calcareous tuff with intercalation of micrite and calcareous limestone. For the genesis of the deposit, it can be stated that the pillow basalt and andesite lavas were leached by hydrothermal activities and Mn, Fe, Si, Ba, Sr and As entered in sedimentary basin by exhalative – volcanic activities through faults, then by regression of the sea and forming oxidizing condition, primary oxide-hydroxide Mn-minerals are deposited. Acknowledgement We gratefully thank the Research and Technology Department of Bu-Ali Sina University for supporting the research. References Bonatti, E., Kraemer, T. and Rdell, H., 1972. Classification and genesis of submarine iron- manganese deposits of the ocean floor. In: D.R. Horn (Editor, Ferromanganese Deposits of the Ocean Floor. Aren House Harriman, pp. 149-166. Cann, J.R., Winter, C.K. and Pritchard R.G., 1977. A hydrothermal deposit from the floor of the Gulf of Aden. Mineralogical Magazine, 41(318: 193-199. Nicholson, K., 1992. Genetic types of manganese oxide deposits in Scotland: Indicators of paleo-ocean-spreading rate and a Devonian geochemical mobility boundary. Economic Geology 87(5: 1301-1309.

  7. Geology and formation of titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area, Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2015-10-01

    -rich sediment distribution in drill holes and trenches indicates that the titaniferous placers are distributed in an area of about 0.8 km2 and follow the Upper Jogaz river system. The titaniferous placers are concentrated mainly in three beds with thicknesses of 30 to 100 cm. The study of heavy minerals shows that ilmenite is the main ore mineral and titanomagnetite, rutile and sphene are present as trace minerals. The ilmenite concentration varies in the Upper Jogaz Valley fluvial sediments, in which the concentration of ilmenite generally increases away from source rock to reach a maximum concentration downstream. The geological evidence indicates that the titaniferous placers were deposited as a fluvial placer and originated from weathering and erosion of ilmenite-rich gabbros. The presence of low-grade deposits and sparse heavy minerals in the Upper Jogaz river coarse sediments is probably related to hydraulic equilibrium (Robb, 2005. Entrainment sorting created thin layers of heavy minerals (i.e., ilmenite on the Upper Jogaz streambed. The occurrence of Ti-rich layers in fine sand and silt beds is probably due to shear sorting. (5The ophiolite sequence is well exposed in the study area. This sequence is composed of cumulative peridotites, layered and massive gabbros, diabasic sheeted dikes, basaltic pillow lavas and pelagic sediments. The layered gabbros were the main source of the ilmenite Ti mineralization. The highest concentration of Ti was observed in the eastern and northern parts of Upper Jogaz Valley area, which are mainly covered by olivine- and hornblende-gabbros (6. The western part of the area is covered by an unaltered diabase unit. The study of several polished sections from the Upper Jogaz Valley gabbros shows ilmenite as the main Ti-bearing mineral with anhedral to subhedral crystals 5 to 400 microns in size. The drill hole and trench data suggest that the deposits follow the morphology of the present-day Upper Jogaz river. The Ti placer beds accumulated

  8. Petrography and mineral chemistry of wehrlites in contact zone of gabbro intrusions and mantle peridotites of the Naein ophiolite

    Farhad Ghaseminejad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Geological background Ophiolites have played a major role in our understanding of Earth’s processes ranging from seafloor spreading, melt evolution and magma transport in oceanic spreading centers, and hydrothermal alteration and mineralization of oceanic crust to collision tectonics, mountain building processes, and orogeny. They provide the essential structural, petrological, geochemical, and geochronological evidence to document the evolutionary history of ancient continental margins and ocean basin. Ophiolites include a peridotitic mantle sequence, generally characterized by high-temperature plastic deformation and residual chemistry, and a comagmatic crustal sequence (gabbros, diabase dikes, and submarine basalts, weakly or not deformed. According to this interpretation, ophiolites were allochthonous with respect to their country rocks. They were assembled during a primary accretion stage at an oceanic spreading center, and later tectonically emplaced on a continental margin or island arc (Dilek, 2003. The indigenous dikes of pyroxenites and gabbros that were injected into a melting peridotite, or intrusive dikes of pyroxenite and gabbro that injected when the peridotite was fresh and well below its solidus, are discussed in different ophiolite papers. Pyroxenite formation and contact of gabbro and mantle peridotite are discussed in different articles (Dilek, 2003. When a gabbro intrude a fresh mantle peridotite could not significantly react with it, but if intrusion occurs during the serpentinization, the gabbro will change to rodingite. Geological setting The Naein ophiolitic melanges comprise the following rock units: mantle peridotites (harzburgite, lherzolite, dunite, with associated chromitite, gabbro, pyroxenite, sheeted and swarm dikes, massive basalts, pillow lava, plagiogranite, radiolarian chert, glaubotruncana limestone, rodingite, listvenite, and metamorphic rocks (foliated amphibolitic dike, amphibolite, skarn

  9. Image fusion based on images of SPECT and CT modalities acquired in separated scanners

    Full text: Developing countries have several limitations to acquire the new high cost hybrid devices such as SPECT-CT or PET-CT for combined clinical diagnosis, due to the very limited budget most hospitals currently have. However, the information that combined diagnostic modalities offer to physicians is very helpful in determining the exact site of radiopharmaceutical concentration both in physiological or pathological situations, leading to a more accurate treatment for patients. Moreover, the information obtained from the electronic density from X rays on CT images gives the information that radiologists need for morphologic diagnosis. In our experience combined imaging modalities (metabolic and structural) gives usually more information that the sum of individual modalities. This opinion is based on performing co-registered PET-CT imaging over thousands of patients. In this paper, we propose an Acquisition Protocol to obtain SPECT and CT images from already existent dedicated devices in a hospital, in an appropriate condition allowing to be used for co-registration and later on, fusion and interpretation. Since the patient must move from one scanner to the other, we set the following conditions in both scanners: - Planar bed, which is accomplished by putting an insert over the conventional bed. This append must have a very low attenuation correction, such as MDF, wood, polycarbonate, or glass fibber, strong enough to support the patient weight. -Head and neck support, to fix head and neck, depending on the region studied. - Thermoplastic mask fixed to the head and neck support, in the same way that is used for radiotherapy planning. -Angle guide to place the patient's head in the most accurate position. This setting is also used in radiotherapy. - Belts to properly fix arms and legs. -Pillows, cushions and blankets to assure patients comfort, avoiding the risk of involuntary movements due to cramps and pain. Depending on the clinical case under study, patient

  10. Application of the improved lateral decubitus position in the operation%改良侧卧位在手术体位中的应用

    于美华; 何丽云; 谢玮娜; 余晓玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the application effect of the improved lateral decubitus position in the operation.Methods 160 cases were randomly divided into the modified lateral surgical group and traditional group two groups (n =80 for each group).Fourth edition of the traditional group was “routine medical care and technical operations” approach placed.Modified group:before anesthesia,a small pad under the chest wall soft pillow,according to lesion location after anesthesia choose left or right lateral position,his hands in front of music was set to sleep like the two arms of a small soft pillowbetween the pad; Front legs apart,on the tuiqu Xi,the next leg straight; head elevated after the first lap put the gap at the ear; Chest and abdomen and the back of each fixed a cylindrical yam bags,and finally tied with fixed hip,knee.Placed in two groups were observed an average completion time position,the incidence of intra-operative movement position,pressure and skin after postoperative follow-up physical fatigue,nerve damage,etc.Results Placed in modified group method average completion time is shorter than the traditional group,skin pressure,body fatigue,nerve injury rate of postoperative complications was significantly lower than the traditional group,intra-operative position more stable than the traditional group [ ( 13.97 ± 1.63 ) vs (6.71 ± 12.9 ),t =31.238,P < 0.01 ; x2 =6.826 7,8.901 1,1 1.756 6,P < 0.01 ).Conclusions Placed by the improved method can shorten the display side of time.For BP,HR,SpO2,respiration rate change had no effect,and complications of place due to improper posture can be significantly reduced and further enhance the quality of surgical care.%目的 探讨常规侧卧手术体位摆放的改进与应用效果.方法 将160例侧卧手术患者随机分为改良组与传统组两组,每组为80例.传统组采用第四版《医疗护理技术操作常规》方法摆放.改良组:麻醉前胸壁下方垫一小软枕,麻醉后根据病变

  11. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

    Fariborz Khodadadi

    2015-04-01

    samples carried out in the chemistry laboratory of the University of Urmia. All water sampling procedures were performed based on standard protocols (SMEWW, 2010. The maximum concentration of heavy metal contamination of drinking water with EPA, WHO and national standards were compared. In this study, the chemical analysis of heavy metals, were used by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (at ppb for the elements Cu, Mg, Fe and Zn. Concentration of the heavy metals in acidified water samples (pH value of 2, using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer were analyzed. Discussion There are enormous amounts of Fe and magnesium in groundwater from the north and northwest Khoy plain, and the amount of Cu and zinc are in the normal range in water resources. The source of iron and magnesium in the groundwater of the study area is ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Khoy ophiolite complex. Weathering of ultramafic and mafic igneous rocks such as peridotite, olivine basalt, gabbro and pillow lava and then soil formation, high concentrations of the elements Mg and Fe were transferred to soil. Ferromagnesian olivine is formed Mg2+ and Fe2+ ions and tetrahedral silicon. If sufficient amount of Mg2+ and Fe3+ ions combine with silicon and oxygen, silicon into the soil, forms silicic acid (H4SiO4, or magnesium or iron smectite (clay minerals (Alexander et al., 2007. Several types of pyroxene are more stable than olivine. Orthopyroxene during weathering decompose into talc and smectite. Magnesite (MgCO3 is present in some serpentine soils. With respect to the empirical relationship (Kierczak et al., 2007 and based on temperature and rainfall, the study area with a drought index of 12.48 places in the category of semi-arid-cold climate between 10 and 19.9. Temperature changes in the condition cause weathering and leaching of serpentine soils, and subsequently can remove large amounts of magnesium. Weathering and leaching serpentine soils, releases immediately magnesium and

  12. 宝鸡市城区0~14岁儿童哮喘调查研究%Investigation on asthma in 0~14 years old children in Baoji city

    吕菊红; 李文君; 魏升云; 汤淑斌; 李武军; 高改兰; 王玉; 柳文婧; 韩丽华

    2013-01-01

    【Objective】 To understand asthma prevalence in 0~14 years old children in Baoji city. 【Method】 The cluster sampling method was used to select randomly 0~14 years old Baoji children for investigation. 【Results】 Morbidity of asthma was 4. 82% in 0~14 year-old children in Baoji,the morbidity of boys' and girls' were 5. 68% and 3. 82% respec-tivily,the difference of morbidity between different gender was statistically significant (χ2 = 19. 965,P<0. 001). In terms of patients who had asthma attack in near 2 years,predisposing factors were mainly respiratory infections(98. 96%) and changes in the weather (87. 08% ) ,the seasons of asthma onset were autumn (42. 71%) and winter (21. 55%) primarily. An major hour of asthma onset were midnight (43. 13%) and mane primo (29. 38%). The age of the first asthma onset was under 3 years old accounted for 71. 04% ;rate of using antibiotic was 85. 21%. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis presented that in the case of no cold or flu,children had sneezing,runny nose,nasal congestion,nasal itching or eye itching phenomenon were independent risk factors for asthma(P<0. 05) ,and repeated skin itching or joint flexor side rash,allergic rhinitis,allergic symptoms or similar allergies after eating some foods,caesarean,plus protein food within six months, history of using antibiotics,room wall using paint,doors and windows were made from plastic steel,coolingwith natural ventilation in summer,silkworm sand pillow were independent risk factors for asthma (P<0. 05) ; Heater using in winter heating, ventilation or cooling using fans in summer and down duvets were protective factors of asthma (P<0. 05). 【Conclusion】Compared to 2000,the morbidity of asthma in 0 -14 years of children in Baoji markedly rise,there are many risk factors of childhood asthma,and it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of children asthma.%[目的]了解宝鸡市城区0~14岁儿童哮喘流行情况,为有效

  13. Geología y vulcanología de La Palma y El Hierro, Canarias Occidentales

    Pérez Torrado, F. J.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The western Canaries, relatively little studied until a few years ago from the geological point of view, have however provided decisive data for understanding many of the most important geological problems of the Archipelago, which would probably have been dilucidated earlier, had the study begun with the most recent islands, as occurs in similar chains of oceanic volcanic islands in other parts of the world. To summarize the main geological features and evolutionary characteristics of both islands we emphasize the following stages of development: During the Pliocene, a submarine volcanic edifice or seamount formed in the island of La Palma, made up of pillow lavas, pillow breccias and hyaloclastites, intruded by trachytic domes, plugs of gabbros, and a highly dense dyke swarm. The intense magmatic and dyke intrusion uplifted the searnount up to 1,500 m, tilting it 45-50" to the SW. This intrusive phase was followed by a period of quiescence and erosion of the emerged submarine edifice. The definitive consolidation and progression of the construction of the island continued from at least 1.77 ma in angular and erosive discordance over the submarine basement. The subaerial volcanic reactivation, in which explosive volcanism predominated during the initial stages, producing abundant volcanoclastic and phreatomagmatic materials at the base of the subaerial edifice, persisted in a highly continuous manner until at least 0.41 ma. This initial subaerial stage shaped the northern volcanic shield, formed by the accumulation of several superimposed volcanoes, approximately concentric in relation to one another and the submarine basement. The initial stage of the northern volcanic shield lasted between 1.77 and 1.20 ma, during which period the Garafía volcano was built to a height of 2,500-3,000 m, with steeply sloping flanks, formed predominantly by alkaline basalts with abundant pahoehoe lavas. The rapid growth and progressive instability of the Garaf

  14. Stratigraphic position, origin and characteristics of manganese mineralization horizons in the Late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence, south-southwest of Sabzevar

    Sajjad Maghfouri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Mn mineralization occurs in the northeastern segment of the Sabzevar zone (SZ, north of the Central Iranian Microcontinent (CIM. This Zone (SZ is located between the CIM fragmentation in the south and the Kopeh dagh sedimentary sequence in the north. The ore deposits of the northeastern segment of the Sabzevar zone can be divided into three groups, each with different metal association and spatial distribution and each related to a major geodynamic event. The first mineralization with associated Ordovician host rock is characterized by Taknar polymetallic (Fe-rich massive sulfide deposit. The Cretaceous mineralization consists of Cr deposits associated with serpentinized peridotites, Cyprus type VMS, Mn deposit in pillow lava, volcano-sedimentary hosted Besshi type VMS and Mn deposit. Paleogene mineralization in eastern segment of the Sabzevar zone began with porphyry deposits, Cu Red Bed mineralization occurs in the Paleogene sandy red marl. Materials and methods A field study and sampling was performed during the autumn of 2012. To assess the geochemical characteristics of 48 systematic samples (least fractured and altered of ore-bearing layers and host rocks were collected from the deposit for polished thin section examination. In order to correctly characterize their chemical compositions, 15 least-altered and fractured samples were chosen for major elements analysis. Results The Late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence in south-southwest of Sabzevar hosts numerous manganese mineralization. The sequence based on the stratigraphic position, age and composition of the rocks, can be divided into two lower and upper parts. The lower part or K2tv unit mainly formed from marine sediments interbedded with volcanic rocks. The sedimentary rocks of this part include silicified tuff, chert, shale and sandstone, and the volcanic rocks involve pyroclastic rocks of various composition, rhyolite, dacite and andesitic lava. The upper

  15. Elus esinevad asjad. Popkunst lääne eeskujul argipäeva dokumenteerijana

    Anneli Porri

    2005-01-01

    Soviet, and was expressed in the attempt to imitate westerners in both behaviour and clothing. Proceeding from the aesthetics and the choice of topics, pop art could be unmistakably associated with the Western society and was therefore publicly condemned. Still, people found ways to put the alluring visual language into proper use: the one-dimensional and transparent aesthetics of pop art was most convenient to apply in the so-called small media: areas of art that remained in the periphery outside the art hierarchy, depicting, among other things, objects characteristic particularly of pop art. Theatre design (Leonhard Lapin, illustrations for youth magazines (Ando Keskküla, Andres Tolts and animated cartoons (L. Lapin, A. Keskküla, Rein Tammik were the most suitable and extensive sublimation channels for talented designers and architects. An interior design magazine Kunst ja kodu, or Art and Home, which was published in Estonia but circulated all over the Soviet Union, often applied the visual language of pop art in its designs. Kunst ja kodu represented an avant-garde achievement, reproducing the creation of consumer artists or offering tips for interior decoration on photos, i.e. the work was not created in the form of an assemblage, object or painting, but the image characteristic of pop art was obtained in the form of a photo reproduction accompanying the article as an illustrative means. Even more progressive compared to the magazine Kunst ja kodu was the youth magazine Noorus, or Youth, which published illustrations by both the initiators of the group SOUP 69 and members of Visarid. Owing to these two magazines it is possible to talk about repro pop in the Estonian context. In their works the artists employed abstract rather than material values, symbols and allegory rather than clearly outlined icons. The most explicit images of the period were bus tickets, tetrahedral milk cartons, vacuum cleaners, pillows and canned soup. In Estonia, pop art did not serve to

  16. INFLUENCE OF INTRAOPERATIVE CERVICAL POSTURE IN SINGLE SEGMENTAL CERVICAL DISC REPLACEMENT ON RESTORATION OF CERVICAL CURVE IN NEUTRAL POSITION%单节段颈椎间盘置换术中颈椎体位对术后颈椎中立位生理轴线重建的影响

    洪瑛; 邓宇骁; 刘浩; 龚仁蓉; 安晶晶; 龚全; 李涛; 宋跃明

    2013-01-01

    after surgery. Methods Between January 2008 and August 2010, 51 patients underwent single segmental PRESTIGE LP replacement, and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. During the surgery, the patient was supinely placed and the lordosis of the cervical spine was mantained with a pillow placed beneath the neck. Of them, 28 were male and 23 were female, aged 30-64 years (mean, 45 years); 32 were diagnosed as having cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 7 having radiculopathy, and 12 having myelopathy and radiculopathy. The disease duration was 3-48 months (mean, 15 months). CDR was performed at Co in 5 cases, at C5.6 in 42 cases, and at C6,7 in 4 cases. The Cobb angles of the cervical alignment, targeted functional spinal unit (FSU), and targeted disc were measured by sagittal X-ray film of the cervical spine in neutral position before and after surgery, as well as the intraoperative C-arm fluroscopy of the cervical spine. Linear correlation and regression were performed to analyze the relation between cervical Cobb angle difference at intraoperation and improvement of the Cobb angles at 3 months after operation. Results The cervical Cobb angles at intraoperation and 3 months after operation were larger than those at preoperation (P < 0.05). The difference of the Cobb angle between intra- and pre-operation was (6.72 ± 9.13)° on cervical alignment, (2.10 ± 5.12)° on targeted FSU, and (3.33 ± 3.75)° on targeted disc. At 3 months after operation, the Cobb angle improvement of the cervical alignment, targeted FSU, and targeted disc was (6.30 ± 7.28), (3.99 ± 5.37), and (4.29 ± 5.36)°, respectively. There was no significant difference in the Cobb angle improvement between the targeted FSU and the targeted disc (t=-0.391, P=0.698), and between the targeted disc and the cervical alignment (t=-1.917, P=0.061), but significant difference was found between the targeted FSU and the cervical alignment (t=-2.623, P=0.012). The linear correlation between the Cobb angle

  17. Mineralization and trace element distribution in pyrite using EMPA in exploration drill holes from Cheshmeh Zard gold district, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    Zahra Alaminia

    2015-10-01

    systems were recognized east of Arghash. The estimated resources are about 2 million metric tons of potential ore with an average of 1.9 g/t Au (Samadi, 2001;Ashrafpour et al., 2012. Multiple intrusive events are recognized in the region including Precambrian to post-Oligocene-Miocene igneous rocks (Alaminia et al., 2013a. This includes the Arghash diorite pluton, upper Cretaceous granitoids (minor diorite, mainly quartz monzodiorite and granodiorite, early Eocene granite and several lamprophyre and small intrusions of quartz monzodiorite porphyries. Volcanicsinclude andesite, dacite, pillow basalt and tuffs. Sedimentary rocks are conglomerate and minor limestone. Gold veins are hosted by intermediate to silicic volcanic rocks, tuffs, granite, granodiorite, and conglomerate. Veins consist of calcite and quartz. The main alteration zones mapped at the surface and underground are sericite-quartz-pyrite-calcite, withsilicified, propylitic, argillic, and carbonate zones. The mineralization associated with sericiticalteration and silicificationoccurs asveinlets and disseminated in the propylitic zone. Gangue minerals are quartz, chalcedony, calcite, adularia, illite, and kaolinite. Mineralization occurs as veinlets, breccia filling and disseminated. The veinlets are comprised of pyrite, arsenopyrite, minor chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, magnetite and hematite. Pyrite is the main sulfide mineral in the hypogene ore. Samples were collected with the objective of studying the pyrite in the Au (III vein systems. All samples were therefore pyrite rich. The paragenesiswas determined to show four stages of mineralization based on the following microscopic observations: 1. an initial pyrite veinlet stage with associated quartz, chlorite, epidote. Pyrite is fine to medium grained, anhedral and gold-poor. 2. a second pyritic stage (polymetallic sulfide stage contains pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, quartz and chalcedony, minor adularia and arsenopyrite. 3. An As

  18. Comparison of the risk factors for asthma in children between urban and rural areas in fuzhou city%福州市城乡儿童哮喘危险因素比较分析

    唐素萍; 王世彪; 郑建云; 刘艳琳; 程潮; 张敏军; 叶雯婧; 陈燊; 董李

    2014-01-01

    children and was 1.79%.Adding protein supplement before 6 months (OR =1.908,95% CI:1.233-2.959),the use of antibiotics in the treatment of asthma (OR =14.541,95% CI:8.920-23.705),furniture materials (non wood) (OR =2.432,95% CI:1.563-3.785) were the main risk factors of children with asthma in urban.Adding protein supplement before 6 months(OR =3.021,95% CI:1.357-6.711),the use of antibiotics in the treatment of asthma(OR =14.784,95% CI:3.842-56.885),the use of coal as fuel (OR =63.339,95% CI:7.993-501.943),domesticated livestock (OR =13.659,95% CI:1.342-139.068),the family smoking before and after birth (OR =6.226,95% CI:2.674-14.495) and chemical fiber pillow (OR =3.638,95% CI:1.241-10.666) were the main risk factors of children with asthma in rural areas.Conclusion The prevalence of children with asthma in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas.The prevalence of asthma in male children was higher than in female children.Adding protein food supplement before 6 months,the use of antibiotics and non solid wood furniture material were the main risk factors in children with asthma in urban areas.Adding protein supplement before 6 months,the use of antibiotics,domesticated livestock,the use of coal as fuel and the family smoking before and after birth were the main risk factor of asthma in children in rural areas.

  19. Perioperative nursing care and rehabilitation for patients with traumatic elbow joint stiffness%创伤性肘关节僵硬的围手术期护理及康复治疗

    王红莉; 孔祥燕

    2015-01-01

    .The surgery with medial and lateral approaches were performed to release the capsular ligament and tendon ,and remove the ectopic ossification .Normal release was performed for the prepositioned ulnar nerve .The center of rotation of the elbow joint was positioned under fluoroscopy .2‐mm Kirschner wire was inserted in the center of rotation .Stryker Dynamic Joint Distractor (DJD II) was used for external fixation .2 screws for external fixation were inserted from the humerus and ulna ,respectively .The screws should be in parallel with the Kirschner wire in the same plane .The screws were connected with the external fixator using clamp .The elbow joint gap was open by rotating the retractor .Key points for nursing :(1) Psychological nursing before surgery :The patients were subject to health education based on the assessment of patients′understanding of the condition .Patients were informed of the surgery objective and outcome ,possible discomforts after surgery and relative measures and the importance of function exercise .Rehabilitation plan was made for patients .They are also motivated to cooperate during surgery ,postoperative nursing care and rehabilitation so that good results could be obtained .(2 ) Postoperative nursing for affected extremity :During stay in bed ,the patients were on the horizontal position with soft pillow elevating the affected extremity .The affected extremity was gently massaged from the distal to the proximal end to promote vein reflux .When the patients are able to get out of the bed ,the forearm was supported by strap .The temperature ,blood supply ,feelings and mobility were assessed to determine whether symptoms of nerve injury developed .(3 ) Pain management after surgery :Long‐term physical therapy and drugs were used to relieve pain .The cold pack was applied to the affected extremity three times per day ,20 min once .The patients in the group had no history of gastrointestinal ulcer before surgery .The patients were

  20. Perioperative nursing care and rehabilitation for patients with traumatic elbow joint stiffness%创伤性肘关节僵硬的围手术期护理及康复治疗

    王红莉; 孔祥燕

    2015-01-01

    based on the assessment of patients′understanding of the condition .Patients were informed of the surgery objective and outcome ,possible discomforts after surgery and relative measures and the importance of function exercise .Rehabilitation plan was made for patients .They are also motivated to cooperate during surgery ,postoperative nursing care and rehabilitation so that good results could be obtained .(2 ) Postoperative nursing for affected extremity :During stay in bed ,the patients were on the horizontal position with soft pillow elevating the affected extremity .The affected extremity was gently massaged from the distal to the proximal end to promote vein reflux .When the patients are able to get out of the bed ,the forearm was supported by strap .The temperature ,blood supply ,feelings and mobility were assessed to determine whether symptoms of nerve injury developed .(3 ) Pain management after surgery :Long‐term physical therapy and drugs were used to relieve pain .The cold pack was applied to the affected extremity three times per day ,20 min once .The patients in the group had no history of gastrointestinal ulcer before surgery .The patients were intravenously administered with flurbiprofen axetil twice at a dose of 50 mg during stay after surgery .In case of flare of pain ,people with pain score≥4 were intramuscularly administered with 50 mg pethidine hydrochloride .After discharge ,the patients were orally administered with celecoxib ,200 mg once ,twice per day .(4 ) Nursing of approaches after surgery :The dressings were immediately changed if exudate was observed after function exercise at early period .75% alcohol was used to sterilize skin around the approaches ,twice per day .The patients were told to keep the affected extremity and external fixator clean .The approaches and external fixator should not be touched at will .If purulent exudate on the approach or red swelling around the approach skin was observed ,it was suspected as approach

  1. Case-paired analysis of the indications for percutaneous laser disc decompression%经皮激光椎间盘减压术适应证的病例配对分析

    郑叶滨; 杜凡; 杨军

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) has been developed gradually in China. But there have been fewer further studies on the indications and contraindications for the use of the therapy.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the therapeutic effect after the choice of the indications for PLDD.DESIGN: A case-paired observational analysis with the patients as the subjects.SETTING: The Department of Radiology and Department of Soft Injuries of the 474 Hospital of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: We recruited inpatients of the 474 Hospital of Chinese PLA after PLDD between August 1998 and December 2004 as subjects for this research. Totally 68 cases were involved. According to the same gender, the closeness in age, the cases were matched and divided into 2 groups (eg. If there were 2 or more than 2 cases with the same age, the case whose disease course is the closest one was chosen): poor indication group (n=34) and good indication group (n=34).METHODS: A pillow was put under the belly of the patient who lay face down on the angiographic bed with the side with serious symptoms near the outside of the bed (the side where doctor operated). Symbols were marked on the body surface under the fluoroscopy. The waist was subjected to conventional sterilization and was paved with a piece of sterile cloth. 5 Ml of lydocaine was used for anesthesia. 8-12 cm to the posterior central midline of the diseased side, an incision was made to insert the needle according to the fat and thinness of the patients, and attention to the angle adjustment was needed to enter the intervertebral disc through "the secure triangle"beneath the nerve root so that 5 mm of the exposed front segment covered the needle end completely. Cautery was made with 15 W laser for every 1s after an interval of 4 s. The total output power of laser was adjusted according to the area of intervertebral disc, which was usually 1 200-1 700joules. The gas produced should be drawn out during the cautery, and

  2. Braidplain, floodplain and playa lake, alluvial-fan, aeolian and palaeosol facies composing a diversified lithogenetical sequence in the permian and triassic of South Devon (England)

    Mader, Detlef

    interbedded sand layers within the mudstone sequences are often subjected to various types of deformation, depending on the state of dewatering and thus consolidation of the mudstones. Loading of partially dewatered mudstones with thinner sandstone beds results in division of the sand into isolated balls and pillows which frequently sink down into the mud. Burial of still plastic mudstones by thicker sandstones gives rise to intrusion of the mobile clay into the loose sand as domes and pillars. Infilling of mud cracks by sand at the contacts of both lithologies reflects total stabilization of silty-clayey sediments by desiccation during subaerial exposure. The cohesion of the mud in an advanced stage of dewatering is also underlined by the downcutting of bizarre erosional reliefs with steep walls and overhanging, undercut flanks in some negative features and steep residual pillars as positive remnants of degradation. Fluvial floodplain and playa lake sediments comprising mudstones and sandstones originate in lakes, ponds and puddles in overbank plains intersected by alluvial channels and in extensive flood flats of playa type lacking intervening watercourses, with the delimitation between floodplain and plays a lake being arbitrary and fluent. Mudstones are laid down during partially prolonged periods of quiet water which are only occasionally interrupted by invasion of channelized or sheet-type flood surges that result in spreading out of sand blankets at the floor of the lake. The rarity of bioturbation in many parts of the mudstone sequences gives evidence of high rates of suspension fallout over longer periods of time thereby inhibiting the colonization of the ground of the water bodies. Alluvial-fan deposits comprising breccias, sandstones and mudstones originate by stream-flood, sheet-flood and stream-flow in channels and on flats of an alluvial-fan complex. Blankets and drapes of breccias are spread out on the slope of alluvial-fan cones and are spilled onto the sand

  3. 肱骨近端严重骨折半肩关节置换术后护理与康复治疗%Nursing and rehabilitation after shoulder hemi-arthroplasty for severe proximal humeral fracture

    孔祥燕

    2015-01-01

    :Remove pillow,allow the patient to lie on his/her back,allow the affected side arm to flex elbow by 90°and put arm on body side(rest position);The therapist use one hand to hold up the affected side upper arm and use another hand to hold the affected side forearm,make passive anteflexion and uplifting of shoulder joint in scapula plane (30 °-45 ° in front of coronal plane);If pain occurs or resistance is met when flexion motion has proceeded to a certain angle,stop movement for 5s,the gradually return to rest position;with repetition for 4 times as 1 group,respectively exercise for 1 group in the morning and at afternoon respectively.(3)Passive external rotation exercise:Allow the patient to take dorsal position,remove the pillow,perform abduction of upper limb by 30°,keep the limbs in the scapula plane,and perform elbow joint flexion.The therapist uses one hand to hold up the affected side upper arm and uses another hand to hold the affected side wrist to make passive external rotation of shoulder joint in the direction away from the centre line of body.With repetition for 4 times as 1 group,respectively exercise 1 group in the morning and at afternoon.(4)Passive abduction,adduction and internal rotation exercise (Start from the 5th week post operation):Allow the patient to take dorsal position,the therapist help the patient to perform passive abduction, adduction and internal rotation (Abduction by 90°,internal rotation)training on shoulder joint;With repetition for 4 times as 1 group,respectively exercise 1 group in the morning and at afternoon. Muscle strength training:The training of isometric contraction of shoulder girdle is started from the 3rd week post operation.From the 6th week post operation,start isometric contraction training on shoulder internal and external rotation muscle groups.(1)Training on the shoulder joint anteflexion muscle group:Allow the patient to take standing position,face towards door or wall,allow the affected side elbow to flex by 90

  4. Nursing and rehabilitation after shoulder hemi-arthroplasty for severe proximal humeral fracture%肱骨近端严重骨折半肩关节置换术后护理与康复治疗

    孔祥燕

    2015-01-01

    adjacent joint perform rear traction without load as well as internal and external rotation motion;(3)In the 3rd week post operation,use healthy hand to protect the affected side to perform low load rear traction of both shoulder joints as well as chest extension exercise;(4)Iin the 4th week post operation, perform gravity-assisted pendulum exercise and anteflexion exercise, shoulder abduction,external rotation and uplifting function exercise;(5 ) In the 6th week post operation,after the healing of rotator cuff and big/small tubercles has been verified through X-ray examination,start active function exercise and increase functional training on supraspinous muscle and musculus deltoideus as well as wall-climbing exercise.At this stage,it is necessary to pay special attention to the training on the range of joint motion and muscle strength.Training on range of joint motion:(1 )Pendulum exercise:Allow the patient to bend down,so that trunk is parallel with ground,relax and hang the affected side upper limb,allow the upper limb and the trunk to present an angle of 90°, use heath side hand to support the affected side forearm to make clockwise or counterclockwise circle moment;with 10 circles as 1 group,respectively exercise for 1 group in the morning and at afternoon respectively.(2)Passive anteflexion and uplifting exercise on shoulder joint:Remove pillow,allow the patient to lie on his/her back,allow the affected side arm to flex elbow by 90°and put arm on body side(rest position);The therapist use one hand to hold up the affected side upper arm and use another hand to hold the affected side forearm,make passive anteflexion and uplifting of shoulder joint in scapula plane (30 °-45 ° in front of coronal plane);If pain occurs or resistance is met when flexion motion has proceeded to a certain angle,stop movement for 5s,the gradually return to rest position;with repetition for 4 times as 1 group,respectively exercise for 1 group in the morning and at afternoon respectively