WorldWideScience

Sample records for 300-ff-5 operable unit

  1. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement.

  2. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement

  3. Phase I and II feasibility study report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit

    The purpose of this Phase I/II feasibility study is to assemble and screen a list of alternatives for remediation of the 300-FF-5 operable site on the Hanford Reservation. This screening is based on information gathered in the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) and on currently available information on remediation technologies. The alternatives remaining after screening provide a range of response actions for remediation. In addition, key data needs are identified for collection during a Phase II RI (if necessary). This Phase I/II FS represents a primary document as defined by the Tri-Party Agreement, but will be followed by a Phase III FS that will further develop the alternatives and provide a detailed evaluation of them. The following remedial action objectives were identified for the 300-FF-5 operable unit: Limit current human exposure to contaminated groundwater in the unit; Limit discharge of contaminated groundwater to the Columbia River; Reduce contaminant concentrations in groundwater below acceptable levels by the year 2018

  4. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  5. Contaminants of Potential Concern in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit: Expanded Annual Groundwater Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    This report satisfies requirements in the Operations and Maintenance Plan for the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit (DOE/RL-95-73/Rev.1) to provide detailed information, beyond that provided in the regular annual groundwater report (e.g., PNNL-15070), on groundwater conditions. The purpose is to characterize current conditions; provide a basis for changes to the monitoring schedules; and provide technical information to support the second 5-year review of the record-of-decision for the operable unit. Key topics include historical trends in the levels of various contaminants; updating the list of contaminants of potential concern; conceptual site models for uranium (300 Area) and tritium (618-11 waste site sub-region); performance of the interim actions under the current record-of-decision; and analysis of the applicability of Monitored Natural Attenuation as a remedial action alternative

  6. Borehole Data Package for One CY 2005 CERCLA Well 699-S20-E10, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Keller, Jason M.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2006-03-29

    This report supplies the information obtained during drilling, characterization, and installation of the new groundwater monitoring well. This document also provides a compilation of hydrogeologic and well construction information obtained during drilling, well development, and sample collection/analysis activities.

  7. Multi-unit operations considerations

    Several nuclear weapons programs have or are pursuing the implementation of multi-unit operations for tasks such as disassembly and inspection, and rebuild. A multi-unit operation is interpreted to mean the execution of nuclear explosive operating procedures in a single facility by two separate teams of technicians. The institution of a multi-unit operations program requires careful consideration of the tools, resources, and environment provided to the technicians carrying out the work. Therefore, a systematic approach is necessary to produce safe, secure, and reliable processes. In order to facilitate development of a more comprehensive multi-unit operations program, the current work details categorized issues that should be addressed prior to the implementation of multi-unit operations in a given weapons program. The issues have been organized into the following categories: local organizational conditions, work process flow/material handling/workplace configuration, ambient environmental conditions, documented safety analysis, and training

  8. Monitoring and controlling unit operations

    Cypes, Stephen; Uhrich, M; Carlson, Eric; Kolosov, Oleg; Padowitz, David; Bennett, James; Matsiev, L

    2007-01-01

    Fluid sensor methods and systems adapted for monitoring and/or controlling distillation operations in fluidic systems, such as batch distillation operations or continuous distillation operations, are disclosed. Preferred embodiments are directed to process monitoring and/or process control for unit operations involving endpoint detemlination of a distillation, for example, as applied to a liquid-componentswitching operation (e.g., a solvent switching operation), a liquid-liquid separation ope...

  9. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  10. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    O'Connor, John T., Ed.

    This manual was prepared for the purpose of stimulating the development of effective unit operations and unit processes laboratory courses in environmental engineering. Laboratory activities emphasizing physical operations, biological, and chemical processes are designed for various educational and equipment levels. An introductory section reviews…

  11. Physical protection of nuclear operational units

    The general principles of and basic requirements for the physical protection of operational units in the nuclear field are established. They concern the operational units whose activities are related with production, utilization, processing, reprocessing, handling, transport or storage of materials of interest for the Brazilian Nuclear Program. (I.C.R.)

  12. Mineral operations outside the United States

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  13. Nuclear units operating improvement by using operating experience

    The paper presents how the information experience can be used to improve the operation of nuclear units. This areas include the following items: conservative decision making; supervisory oversight; teamwork; control room distraction; communications; expectations and standards; operator training and fundamental knowledge, procedure quality and adherence; plant status awareness. For each of these topics, the information illustrate which are the principles, the lessons learned from operating experience and the most appropriate exemplifying documents. (authors)

  14. Operating performance of LWR nuclear generating units

    This work aims at reviewing, on the basis of historical data, the operational problem areas which explain the degree of availability and productivity achieved up to now by nuclear power plants in commercial operation in the world. The operating performance data of nuclear power plants area analysed with respect to plant type, size and other significant reference parameters and they are evaluated also by comparison with fossil generating unit data. Major performance indices data are presented for both nuclear and fossil units type and distribution of outage causes. Unplanned full outages caused by nuclear power plant equipment and components failure are particulary emphasized. The trend for unplanned full outages due to the failure of components shows decreasing numerical values in 1981 with respect to the previous years. But this result should be weighed with the increasing plant unavailability hours needed for maintenance and repair action (chiefly preventive maintenance on critical components). This means that the number and downtime of forced outage must be drastically reduced for economic reasons (production losses and problems associated with the unavailable unit unplanned replacement) as well as for plant safe and reliable operation (sudden unavailability of key components and frequency of transients associated with plant shutdown and routine startup operation)

  15. Operational safety evolution in Spanish nuclear units

    Within the European Union, Spain is the fourth largest producer of nuclear power and the third in terms of reliance on this kind of electricity generation. At present, the total nuclear capacity installed is 7400 MW(e), of which 6780 came into commercial operation between 1981 and 1988. During the past decade Spain has mainly been involved with construction activity. However, Spain has more than 100 reactor-years of operating experience and new regulations, regulatory guides and requirements have been introduced. The nuclear experience acquired and the degree of maturity during the past 20 years have made it evident since the beginning of the 1980s that additional measures would be needed in order to reach the intended level of safety, reliability and economic operation of Spanish nuclear units. New safety criteria and methodologies developed through the 1980s and safety and quality culture concepts were considered as well. A systematic evaluation programme for two units (Santa Maria de Garona and Jose Cabrera NPPs) built to earlier standards was developed and significant post-Three Mile Island requirements were implemented for the remaining Spanish units. The paper summarizes the organization structures established by the Spanish nuclear sector to follow and covers significant safety and operational issues and the important areas in which safety improvements were made to upgrade operational safety in our nuclear power plants. Areas such as probabilistic safety analysis and its applications, technology innovation incorporated in some safety systems, accident management procedures and guidance, operational experience feedback, safety and quality culture programmes, etc., are described in the paper, with the lessons learned from each process and the benefits obtained. (author). 8 figs

  16. 200-UP-2 operable unit radiological surveys

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the radiological surveys conducted from August 17 through December 16, 1993 over a partial area of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, 200-W Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. In addition, this report explains the survey methodology of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-II) and the Ultra Sonic Ranging And Data System (USRADS). The radiological survey of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit was conducted by the Site Investigative Surveys/Environmental Restoration Health Physics Organization of the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The survey methodology for the majority of area was based on utilization of the MSCM-II or the USRADS for automated recording of the gross beta/gamma radiation levels at or near six (6) inches from the surface soil

  17. NIC atomic operation unit with caching and bandwidth mitigation

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    A network interface controller atomic operation unit and a network interface control method comprising, in an atomic operation unit of a network interface controller, using a write-through cache and employing a rate-limiting functional unit.

  18. Higher-Order Thinking in the Unit Operations Laboratory.

    Miller, Ronald L.; Ely, James F.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Olds, Barbara M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the unit operations laboratory provides an ideal setting to help chemical engineering students become better engineering practitioners. Describes a summer program at the Colorado School of Mines that incorporates experience into a unit operations laboratory. (DDR)

  19. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites

  20. Incorporating Safety into a Unit Operations Laboratory Course.

    King, Julia A.

    1998-01-01

    Details the incorporation of safety procedures and issues into the curriculum of an undergraduate chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Includes checklists and sample reporting forms. (DDR)

  1. Sanitary Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    American Association of Professors in Sanitary Engineering.

    This manual contains a compilation of experiments in Physical Operations, Biological and Chemical Processes for various education and equipment levels. The experiments are designed to be flexible so that they can be adapted to fit the needs of a particular program. The main emphasis is on hands-on student experiences to promote understanding.…

  2. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant scale that can be projected onto future Spaceport architectures...

  3. System for monitoring and controlling unit operations that include distillation

    Cypes, Stephen; Uhrich, M; Kolosov, Oleg; Carlson, Eric; Padowitz, David; Bennett, James; Matsiev, L

    2009-01-01

    Fluid sensor methods and systems adapted for monitoring and/or controlling distillation operations in fluidic systems, such as bath distillation operations or continuous distillation operations, are disclosed. Preferred embodiments are directed to process monitoring and/or process control for unit operations involving endpoint determination of a distillation, for example, as applied to a liquid-component-switching operation (e.g., a solvent switehing operation), a liquid-liquid separation ope...

  4. Ergonomic aspects in designing unit operator's console

    The question is discussed of raising operating reliability, efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants by the gradual replacement of man in the process of control by automatic control systems. An analysis of the failure of complex technological systems has shown that the human factor is the cause of 70 to 90% of all accidents. The areas are listed of the most frequent use of computer systems in nuclear power (automation of testing and control, upgrading communication between operator and technological equipment, evaluation and signalling of warnings and failures, and rationalization of protocol writing). The main problems of the use of computer based control and information systems include the integration of computer-based and classical instrumentation, the distribution of functions between operator and computer, the methods of data pre-processing, the use of graphics, optimized data coding, etc. (J.C.)

  5. Unit costs of waste management operations

    Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ``cradle to grave``) cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics.

  6. Unit costs of waste management operations

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

  7. Weighted Composition Operators between Hardy Spaces on the Unit Ball

    XUHui-ming; LIUTai-shun

    2004-01-01

    We consider the weighted composition operators between Hardy spaces on the unit ball, and obtain some sufficient and necessary conditions of bounded or compact weighted composition operators. We also prove that the operator from H1 to H1 is compact if and only if it is weakly compact. Meanwhile, we get the analogue on the Bergman spaces.

  8. Study on safety operation for large hydroelectric generator unit

    Yan, Z. G.; Cui, T.; Zhou, L. J.; Zhi, F. L.; Wang, Z. W.

    2012-11-01

    Hydroelectric generator unit is a complex mechanical system which is composed of hydraulic turbine and electric generator. Rotary system is supported by the bearing bracket and the reinforced concrete structures, and vibration problem can't be avoided in the process of operating. Many large-scale hydroelectric units have been damaged because of the vibration problem in recent years. As the increase of the hydraulic turbine unit capacity and water head, the safe operation of hydraulic turbine has become a focus research in many countries. The operating characteristics of the hydraulic turbine have obvious differences at different working conditions. Based on the combination of field measurement and theoretical calculation, this paper shows a deep research on the safe operation of a large-scale Francis turbine unit. Firstly, the measurements of vibration, swing, pressure fluctuation and noise were carried out at 4 different heads. And also the relationships between vibrations and pressure fluctuations at different heads and working conditions were analysed deeply. Then the scientific prediction of safe operation for the unit at high head were done based on the CFD numerical calculation. Finally, this paper shows the division of the operating zone for the hydroelectric unit. According to the experimental results (vibrations, swings, pressure fluctuations and noise) as well as the theoretical results, the operating zone of the unit has been divided into three sections: prohibited operating zone, transition operating zone and safe operating zone. After this research was applied in the hydropower station, the security and economic efficiency of unit increased greatly, and enormous economic benefits and social benefits have been obtained.

  9. Study on safety operation for large hydroelectric generator unit

    Hydroelectric generator unit is a complex mechanical system which is composed of hydraulic turbine and electric generator. Rotary system is supported by the bearing bracket and the reinforced concrete structures, and vibration problem can't be avoided in the process of operating. Many large-scale hydroelectric units have been damaged because of the vibration problem in recent years. As the increase of the hydraulic turbine unit capacity and water head, the safe operation of hydraulic turbine has become a focus research in many countries. The operating characteristics of the hydraulic turbine have obvious differences at different working conditions. Based on the combination of field measurement and theoretical calculation, this paper shows a deep research on the safe operation of a large-scale Francis turbine unit. Firstly, the measurements of vibration, swing, pressure fluctuation and noise were carried out at 4 different heads. And also the relationships between vibrations and pressure fluctuations at different heads and working conditions were analysed deeply. Then the scientific prediction of safe operation for the unit at high head were done based on the CFD numerical calculation. Finally, this paper shows the division of the operating zone for the hydroelectric unit. According to the experimental results (vibrations, swings, pressure fluctuations and noise) as well as the theoretical results, the operating zone of the unit has been divided into three sections: prohibited operating zone, transition operating zone and safe operating zone. After this research was applied in the hydropower station, the security and economic efficiency of unit increased greatly, and enormous economic benefits and social benefits have been obtained.

  10. Sand and Gravel Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  11. Crushed Stone Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  12. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  13. Maintenance management of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plants Unit 1 and Unit 2 terminated operation

    Hamaoka NPP Unit 1 and Unit 2 terminated operation on January 30th of 2009 and submitted an application for the decommissioning plan licensing on June 1st of 2009. At present due to the lack of clarity about requirements for maintenance at decommissioning stage such as Hamaoka NPP Unit 1 and Unit 2, we considered their maintenance optimization and planed maintenance management categorized three classifications in anticipation of the future decommissioning. (author)

  14. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9x10-5

  15. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    This feasibility study (FS) examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred altemative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965-1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-:levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228 and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9 x 105

  16. Papers on reactor physics for operators and unit managers

    The monograph contains papers submitted to the Dukovany nuclear power plant personnel with the aim of improving professional knowledge of reactor operators and unit managers and helping them in their preparation for state examinations. It presents an easy to understand explanation of phenomena unit control room personnel actually encounter. The following topics are covered: radioactivity, nuclear reactions, nuclear fission and the fate of neutrons in the reactor; delayed neutrons; reactor period, reactivity; subcriticality and transition to criticality; heat generation in the reactor; reactivity coefficients; reactivity effects during the fuel cycle; reactivity compensation during power changes; reactor response to reactivity changes; xenon poisoning, samarium poisoning; residual power; unit start-up after refuelling; unit power rise to the minimal controllable level following emergency shutdown; shutdown concentrations; reactor control and safety system; scram rod drop; neutron sensors in the reactor; monitoring system inside the reactor; 3rd unit computer; ''operator's ten commandments''. (P.A.). 36 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  17. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  18. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-20

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  19. Limited field investigation for the 200-UP-1 operable unit

    The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit is located in the southern portion of the 200 West Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The operable unit is located adjacent to the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit and underlies a significant part of seven source operable units: 200-RO-1, 200-RO-2, 200-RO-3, 200-RO-4, 200-SS-2, 200-UP-2, and 200-UP-3. Remedial efforts in the 100-ZP-1 Operable Unit focus on addressing volatile organic contamination in the aquifer. The focus of the 200-UP-1 limited field investigation (LFI) is on contaminated aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, with the exception of uranium and technetium-99 plumes, which are addressed by an existing 200-UP-1 interim remedial measure (IRM). The LFI approach is driven by general and specific data needs required to refine the site conceptual model and conduct a risk assessment. Activities supporting the LFI include drilling, well construction, sampling and analysis, data validation, geologic and geophysical logging, aquifer testing, measuring depth to water, and evaluating geodetic survey and existing analytical data

  20. Limited field investigation for the 200-UP-1 operable unit

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit is located in the southern portion of the 200 West Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The operable unit is located adjacent to the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit and underlies a significant part of seven source operable units: 200-RO-1, 200-RO-2, 200-RO-3, 200-RO-4, 200-SS-2, 200-UP-2, and 200-UP-3. Remedial efforts in the 100-ZP-1 Operable Unit focus on addressing volatile organic contamination in the aquifer. The focus of the 200-UP-1 limited field investigation (LFI) is on contaminated aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, with the exception of uranium and technetium-99 plumes, which are addressed by an existing 200-UP-1 interim remedial measure (IRM). The LFI approach is driven by general and specific data needs required to refine the site conceptual model and conduct a risk assessment. Activities supporting the LFI include drilling, well construction, sampling and analysis, data validation, geologic and geophysical logging, aquifer testing, measuring depth to water, and evaluating geodetic survey and existing analytical data.

  1. Analysis on Operation Reliability of Generating Units in 2005

    Zuo Xiaowen; Chu Xue

    2007-01-01

    @@ The weighted average equivalent availability factor of thermal power units in 2005 was 92.34%, an increase of 0.64 percentage points as compared to that in 2004. The average equivalent availability factor in 2005 was 92.22%, a decrease of 0.95 percentage points as compared to that in 2004. The nationwide operation reliability of generating units in 2005 was analyzed completely in this paper.

  2. 200-BP-5 operable unit Technical Baseline report

    Jacques, I.D.; Kent, S.K.

    1991-10-01

    This report supports development of a remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The report summarizes baseline information for waste sites and unplanned release sites located in the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The sites were investigated by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The investigation consisted of review and evaluation of current and historical Hanford Site reports, drawings, and photographs, and was supplemented with recent inspections of the Hanford Site and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted.

  3. 200-BP-5 operable unit Technical Baseline report

    This report supports development of a remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The report summarizes baseline information for waste sites and unplanned release sites located in the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The sites were investigated by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The investigation consisted of review and evaluation of current and historical Hanford Site reports, drawings, and photographs, and was supplemented with recent inspections of the Hanford Site and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted

  4. Peacekeeping operations: From the birth of the United Nations onward

    Klein, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    The article reviews proposals to create a United Nations standing armed force as opposed to a rapid reaction force. In either case, to play its optimal role in the future of peacekeeping operations, the U.N. will have to face up to new demands, beyond those contemplated in 1945. Given the resistance in Iraq that has surprised two major powers (the United States and the United Kingdom), it is plausible that a truly collective effort by the U.N., even at higher costs in people and finance, meri...

  5. Operational safety experience reporting in the United States

    Licensees of nuclear power plants in the United States have many reporting requirements included in their technical specifications and the code of federal regulations, title 10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commisson receives these reports and utilizes them in its regulatory program. Part of this usage includes collecting and publishing this operating experience data in various reports and storing information in various data systems. This paper will discuss the data systems and reports on operating experience published and used by the NRC. In addition, some observations on operating experience will be made. Subjects included will be the Licensee Event Report (LER) Data File, the Operating Unit Status Report (Gray Book), Radiation Exposure Reports, Effluents Reports, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, Current Events, Bulletin Wrapups and Annual Summaries. Some of the uses of the reports and systems will be discussed. The Abnormal Occurence Report to the US Congress will also be described and discussed. (author)

  6. United States Special Operations command professional military education

    Dexter, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Reissued 10 Sep 2015 to revise acknowledgements and narrative on p. 6. The United States Special Operations Command does not have an intermediate-level professional military education program for its officers. Current service-provided PME programs are not adequately meeting the educational goals for officers as required by USSOCOM. Through the Joint Special Operations University, SOCOM could establish its own PME program for office...

  7. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  8. Community-Based Presentations in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Mitchell, Brian S.; Law, Victor J.

    2005-01-01

    A method for incorporating community­-based oral presentations into the undergraduate chemical engineering unit operations laboratory experience is described. Examples are given of appropriate topics and how these presentations can be incorporated into the experiment sequence. Course evaluations reflect the fact that these presentations are an…

  9. An Automated Distillation Column for the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Perkins, Douglas M.; Bruce, David A.; Gooding, Charles H.; Butler, Justin T.

    2005-01-01

    A batch distillation apparatus has been designed and built for use in the undergraduate unit operations laboratory course. The column is fully automated and is accompanied by data acquisition and control software. A mixture of 1­-propanol and 2-­propanol is separated in the column, using either a constant distillate rate or constant composition…

  10. The Development and Deployment of a Virtual Unit Operations Laboratory

    Vaidyanath, Sreeram; Williams, Jason; Hilliard, Marcus; Wiesner, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Computer-simulated experiments offer many benefits to engineering curricula in the areas of safety, cost, and flexibility. We report our experience in developing and deploying a computer-simulated unit operations laboratory, driven by the guiding principle of maximum fidelity to the physical lab. We find that, while the up-front investment in…

  11. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  12. Implementation and Analysis of Hemodialysis in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Madihally, Sundararajan V.; Lewis, Randy S.

    2007-01-01

    To enhance bioengineering in the chemical engineering curriculum, a Unit Operations experiment simulating the hemodialysis of creatinine was implemented. The blood toxin creatinine was used for developing a more realistic dialysis experiment. A dialysis model is presented that allows students to assess the validity of model assumptions. This work…

  13. Adaptation of Professional Skills in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Rende, Deniz; Rende, Sevinc; Baysal, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the design of three consecutive unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses that retain the academic rigor of the course while incorporating skills essential for professional careers, such as ability to propose ideas, develop practical solutions, participate in teamwork, meet deadlines, establish communication between technical support…

  14. Optimal operation of cogeneration units. State of art and perspective

    Optimal operation of cogeneration plants and of power plant fueling waste products is a complex challenge as they have to fulfill, beyond the contractual obligation of electric power supply, the constraints of supplying the required thermal energy to the user (for cogeneration units) or to burn completely the by-products of the industrial complex where they are integrated. Electrical power market evolution is pushing such units to a more and more volatile operation caused by uncertain selling price levels. This work intends to pinpoint the state of art in the optimization of these units outlining the important differences among the different size and cycles. The effect of the market liberalization on the automation systems and the optimization algorithms will be discussed

  15. Operating experiences with high standard mobile solidification units

    According to current regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany, liquid nuclear wastes from power plants have to be solidified before being finally stored, preferably in geological salt formations. Solidification is necessary to provide a safeguard in addition to the geological barrier. This paper discusses on-site solidification of liquid nuclear wastes in mobile cementation units as an alternative to the transportation of liquid wastes to remote conditioning plants or to the solidification of the wastes in a stationary unit of the power plant's own. An account is rendered on the experiences gained from the operation of the mobile DEWA-solidification unit, which has been in use since 1977, and a description of the new MOWA-solidification unit is given

  16. The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

  17. Expert system for operational personnel support during power unit operation control in regulation range

    The problems met when developing the systems for NPP operator support in the process of power unit operation are considered. The expert system for NPP personnel intelligent support combining the properties belonging to the artificial intelligence systems including selection of the analysis method taking into account the concrete technological situation and capability of application of algothmic calculations of the equipment characteristics using the information accumulated during the system development, erection and operation is described

  18. Is fumigation enough for air conditioning units in operation theatres and Intensive care units?

    Anasua Deb; Sharmila Raut; Sunita Gajbhiye; Priyanka Patil; Sanjay Raut

    2016-01-01

    Background: Strict asepsis is necessary in operating theatres (OT) and intensive care units (ICU) as the patients undergo invasive procedures. The filters of contaminated air conditioning (AC) units provide a niche for proliferation of fungi and production of fungal spores. Methods: The routine procedure for maintenance of sterile atmosphere in our hospital, i.e. fumigation and mopping walls with disinfectants often fail to address these fungal spores of the AC filters. We therefore carri...

  19. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  20. Stability Analysis for Operation of DG Units in Smart Grids

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multifunction control strategy for the stable operation of Distributed Generation (DG) units during grid integration. The proposed control model is based on Direct Lyapunov Control (DLC) theory and provides a stable region for the appropriate operation of DG units during grid...... integration. Using DLC technique in DG technology can provide the continuous injection of maximum active power in fundamental frequency from the DG source to the grid, compensating all reactive power and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads through the integration of DG link into the grid....... Application of this concept can guarantee to reduce the stress on the grid during the energy demand peak. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and performance of the proposed DLC technique in DG technology....

  1. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-05-22

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed.

  2. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed

  3. Modeling of biopharmaceutical processes. Part 2: Process chromatography unit operation

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; McCue, Justin; Engel, Philip;

    2008-01-01

    Process modeling can be a useful tool to aid in process development, process optimization, and process scale-up. When modeling a chromatography process, one must first select the appropriate models that describe the mass transfer and adsorption that occurs within the porous adsorbent. The theoret...... theoretical understanding of chromatographic behavior can augment available experimental data and aid in the design of specific experiments to develop a more complete understanding of the behavior of a unit operation....

  4. Using AI Planning Techniques for Army Small Unit Operations

    Tate, Austin; Levine, John; Jarvis, Peter; Dalton, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the requirements of a planning and decision aid to support US Army small unit operations in urban terrain and show how AI planning technologies can be exploited in that context. The work is a rare example of a comprehensive use of AI technologies across the whole planning lifecycle, set in a realistic application in which the actual user community set the requirements. The phases involved include: * Domain knowledge elicitation * Rich plan representation and use ...

  5. Operating experience on full flow condensate polishing unit of FBTR

    The steam generator of Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam (India) is an Once Through type Sodium heated Steam Generator (OTSG). Therefore, the feed water is maintained at a high purity level. To achieve this, a full-flow deep bed Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU) has been installed in the circuit and has been in operation for the past 7 years. However, problems such as premature termination of operation cycle of the CPU, enhanced impurity pickup resulting in increased load for CPU, early silica breakthrough etc were observed in many instances leading to deterioration in the feed water quality. This paper describes the modifications that were carried out in steam water circuit to overcome the above mentioned problems. The experience in operating the CPU is discussed in detail here. Further modifications to enhance the performance are also suggested in this paper. (author)

  6. Reconfigurable ternary optical processor based on row operation unit

    Kai, SONG; LiPing, YAN

    2015-09-01

    In order to eliminate the difference between the data bits and the pixel bits of the processors in the logic operation of Ternary Optical Computer (TOC), and to make the reconfiguration of the processors more convenient and efficient, while extending the research ideas of TOC, the paper presents a new typical optical component, which is row operation unit (ROU). The features, circuit implementations, and commands for the reconfiguration of ROU are also discussed in detail. On this basis, the reconfigurable ternary optical processor (RTOP) was designed and achieved, which reduces the complexity of the processor management software. Finally, the experiments of reconfigurable ROU are performed, which shows that the principles of RTOP are correct, and all 81 commands for the reconfiguration are effective. Each of the two-input, tri-valued logic operations with thousands of data bits can be concurrently achieved in RTOP.

  7. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants) and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-theshelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  8. The design and orbital operation of Space Flyer Unit

    Kuriki, K.; Ninomiya, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Tsuya, N.; Kawachi, M.; Ijichi, K.; Kimura, H.

    The Space Flyer Unit is a retrievable and re-usable multipurpose platform. The first SFU mission (SFU-1) will be launched by Japanese H-II rocket and retrieved by the United States Space Shuttle. SFU system consists of the core system and payloads. The core system provides standardized interfaces and services for payload integration and operation. The core system is reusable with proper post mission maintenances. Electrical furnaces for material processing, technology development experiments such as two-dimensionally deployable mechanism, electric propulsion experiment, a partial model of Japanese Experiment Module of the Space Station and a space infrared telescope are among the payloads of SFU-1. In addition to ground based system, SFU will be equipped with an onboard navigation and guidance system which will be used for the rendezvous with Space Shuttle. The SFU-1 launch date is targeted for the first quarter of 1994 and retrieved after several months of operation in orbit. The brief description of the core system and the in-orbit operation, emphasized on retrieval phase, will be presented in this paper.

  9. Provence 250 MWe unit: the largest CFB boiler in operation

    Delot, P.; Roulet, V.; Lucat, P.; Levy, D. [Electricite de France, La Defense (France)

    1997-12-31

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, `Circulating Fluidized Bed, is one of the most promising. The interest of this technology has been confirmed by the success of the first large French CFB boiler (E. Huchet 125 MWe), which has already logged more than 30 000 hours of satisfactory operation. Today, the first 250 MWe CFB unit in the world is in operation at Provence Power Station in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit, with a `pant leg` design, is also a very important step towards larger sizes, i.e. 400 MWe and bigger. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverised coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence/Gardanne power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler was ordered from GEC ALSTHOM Stein Industrie by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. The 250 MWe Boiler is of the high pressure-reheat type firing local high-sulfur sub-bituminous coal with the possibility of cofiring high viscosity residual oil (with a high sulfur content) up to a 50%-50% energy ratio. This paper describes, besides the construction progress of the plant and technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries, the main observations made during commissioning. Also presented are some results of a 100% load test and the investigation program defined to give a thorough evaluation of this boiler with a view to the design of large CFB in the future.

  10. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  11. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision

  12. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    K. Jean Holdren

    2007-05-29

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision.

  13. Operational benchmark for VVER-1000 Kozloduy NPP unit 6

    Benchmark calculations have been carried out using the 3 D nodal code TRAPEZ. The neutron-physics characteristics of the VVER-1000 core, Kozloduy NPP Unit 6, have been determined taking into account the real loading patterns and operational history of the first three cycles. The code TRLOAD has been used to perform the fuel reloading between any two cycles. The reactor and component descriptions, as well as material compositions, are given. The results presented in the, paper include the critical boric acid concentration, the radial power distribution, the axial power distribution for the maximum overloaded assembly, and the burnup distribution at three different moments during each cycle. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. It is shown that the results obtained by the TRAPEZ code are in good agreement with the experimental data. Thus the information presented could serve as a test case for validation of code packages designed for analyzing the steady-state operation of WWERs. i (authors)

  14. 100 Area Source Operable Unit focused feasibility study. Volume 2

    This 100-KR-1 Operable Unit Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) is prepared in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process for the 100 Areas. This 100-KR-1 FFS, evaluates the remedial alternatives for interim action at high-priority waste sites within the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit, and provides the information needed for the timely selection of the most appropriate interim action at each waste site. The FFS process for the 100 Areas is conducted in two stages: an evaluation of remedial alternatives for waste-site groups and an evaluation of the remedial alternatives for individual waste sites. Whenever the characteristics of the individual waste-sites are sufficiently similar to the characteristics of the waste-site groups, the evaluation of alternatives in the Process Document is used. This approach, referred to as the ''plug-in'' approach, is used because there are many waste sites within the 100 Areas that are similar to each other

  15. The operating experience for Wolsung Unit 3 commissioning

    This is a slide-based oral presentation given to the COG/IAEA: Fifth technical committee meeting on 'Exchange of operating experience of pressurized heavy water reactors' held in Mangalia, Romania on 7-10 September 1998. Since energization of Wolsung Unit 3 station service transformer on July 12, 1996 a line of initial test program was conducted as follows: 1. ILRT/SIT; 2. Pre-operational and Hot Functional testing with a Light Water and without Fuel in Systems; 3. Load D2O in Moderator System; 4. Initial fuel loading; 5. Load D2O in PHT System; 6. Hot Functional Testing with Heavy Water and Fuel in Systems; 7. Criticality and Low Power Physics Testing; 8. Power Ascension Test and, then finally, phase-D test; the plant acceptance test was accomplished after having a Mini-Overhaul to prepare for Commercial Operation. These documents contain not only both overall introduction of commissioning and the first TBN rolling and Synchronization test performed in Hot Function Test, but also presentation of precautions taken against unexpected trip during commissioning. These refer to: 1. Functional Test on the Major Equipments'; 2. Improvement of prevention related to Rx Trip Occurrence During Low Power Operation; Paint Removal in the Turbine's and Cross Around Pipes'; Equipment Improvement About Feed WTR HTR Box-Up; Improvement of Level Control of Deaerator; A thorough Check-out of Main Transformer. The content of the document is the following: A. General; B. Prerequisition condition for test; C. Interruption condition for test; D. Performance of TBN rolling; E. Major operating parameter during test; F. Significant deficiencies and remedial actions during test; G. Effects. In conclusion, the overall commissioning test plan of Wolsung NPP Unit 3 was carried out well without any significant accident or trouble concerning plant safety. These relatively good results might not be acquired without constant efforts of concerned parties including field check out, test and safety

  16. Applied Meteorology Unit - Operational Contributions to Spaceport Canaveral

    Bauman, William H., III; Roeder, William P.; Lafosse, Richard A.; Sharp, David W.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development, evaluation and transition services to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the National Space Program. It is established under a Memorandum of Understanding among NASA, the Air Force and the National .Weather Service (NWS). The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by ENSCO, Inc. through a competitively awarded NASA contract. The primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL; the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX; and the NWS office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB). This paper will briefly review the AMU's history and describe the three processes through which its work is assigned. Since its inception in 1991 the AMU has completed 72 projects, all of which are listed at the end of this paper. At least one project that highlights each of the three tasking processes will be briefly reviewed. Some of the projects that have been especially beneficial to the space program will also be discussed in more detail, as will projects that developed significant new techniques or science in applied meteorology.

  17. Enhanced Teaching and Student Learning through a Simulator-Based Course in Chemical Unit Operations Design

    Ghasem, Nayef

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates a teaching technique used in computer applications in chemical engineering employed for designing various unit operation processes, where the students learn about unit operations by designing them. The aim of the course is not to teach design, but rather to teach the fundamentals and the function of unit operation processes…

  18. Integrated production and utility system approach for optimizing industrial unit operations

    AGHA, Mujtaba; Thery, Raphaële; Hétreux, Gilles; Haït, Alain; Le Lann, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    To meet utility demands some industrial units use onsite utility system. Traditionally, the management of such type of industrial units is carried out in three sequential steps: scheduling of the manufacturing unit by minimizing inventory, estimating the utility needs of manufacturing unit and finally operation planning of the utility system. This article demonstrates the value of an integrated approach which couples the scheduling of manufacturing unit with operational planning of the utilit...

  19. Operator Strategy for Cold Overpressure Mitigation during SBLOCA for Kori Units 3 and 4 and Ygn Units 1 and 2

    This paper performed analysis to develop the operator response guideline when a primary small bore loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) in shutdown operation occurs. Break is isolated early since operator recognizes that drain line is opened inadvertently. However, safety injection continues during a fifteen minute since operator action is taken inadequately. Reactor coolant system (RCS) experiences a cold overpressure. A cold overpressure mitigation system (COMS) is actuated normally. On this paper, operator response guideline for the phenomena has been developed based on best estimate analyses for Kori Units 3 and 4 and Ygn Units 1 and 2 power uprate

  20. Varying duty operation of air-cooled condenser units

    Milman, O. O.; Kondratev, A. V.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Dunaev, S. N.; Kirjukhin, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Results of experimental investigations of operation modes of air-cooled condensers (ACC) under design and varying duty conditions are presented. ACCs with varying cooling airflow rates under constant heat load and with constant cooling airflow under varying heat load are examined. Diagrams of heat transfer coefficients and condensation pressures on the heat load and cooling airflow are obtained. It is found that, if the relative heat load is in the range from 0.6 to 1.0 of the nominal value, the ACC heat transfer coefficient varies insignificantly, unlike that of the water-cooled surface condensers. The results of the determination of "zero points" are given, i.e., the attainable pressure in air-cooled condensing units (ACCU), if there is no heat load for several values of working water temperature at the input of water-jet ejectors and liquid ring vacuum pump. The results of the experimental determination of atmospheric air suction into the ACC vacuum system. The effect of additional air suctions in the steam pipe on ACCU characteristics is analyzed. The thermal mapping of ACC heat exchange surfaces from the cooling air inlet is carried out. The dependence of the inefficient heat exchange zone on the additional air suction into the ACC vacuum system is given. It is shown that, if there is no additional air suction into the ACC vacuum system, the inefficient heat exchange zone is not located at the bottom of the first pass tubes, and their portion adjacent to the bottom steam pipe works efficiently. Design procedures for the ACC varying duty of capacitors are presented, and their adequacy for the ACCU varying duty estimation is analyzed.

  1. FOCU:S--future operator control unit: soldier

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Karan, Cem; Young, Stuart H.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing the Soldier-robot interface aspect, CISD has begun development on a unique dismounted controller called the Future Operator Control Unit: Soldier (FOCU:S) that is based on an Apple iPod Touch. The iPod Touch's small form factor, unique touch-screen input device, and the presence of general purpose computing applications such as a web browser combine to give this device the potential to be a disruptive technology. Setting CISD's implementation apart from other similar iPod or iPhone-based devices is the ARL software that allows multiple robotic platforms to be controlled from a single OCU. The FOCU:S uses the same Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI) that all other assets in the ARL robotic control system use, enabling automated asset discovery on any type of network. Further, a custom ad hoc routing implementation allows the FOCU:S to communicate with the ARL ad hoc communications system and enables it to extend the range of the network. This paper will briefly describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide short descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss FOCU:S specific software developed for the iPod Touch, including unique capabilities enabled by the device's unique hardware.

  2. Verification of SAPFIR95andRC code package against operational data of WWER units

    The previous report on the same subject represents a brief description of procedure laid down in the code package SAPFIR 95 and RC and gives calculation results of fuel cycles by operational data of WWER-440 power Units (Kola NPP, Unit No.1 and Dukovany NPP, Unit No.2). The given paper additionally represents simulation results of fuel cycles as compared with operational data of Dukovany NPP, Unit No.3 and power Units with WWER-1000 reactors (Volgodon NPP, Unit No.1, Kalinin NPP, Unit No.3) (Authors)

  3. Unit information system operational displays for VVER-1000 reactors

    The role of high level operational displays is explained as well as the principles of the design of such displays. The tasks of WWER operating personnel are described and the support provided by operational displays is highlighted. The architecture of the displays is also dealt with. (A.K.)

  4. Impact of wind power on the unit commitment and power system operations

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Center of Finland (Finland); O' Malley, Mark; Tuohy, Aidan [Univ. College Dublin (Ireland). School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering; Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Lange, Bernhard [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Gibescu, Madeleine [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Electrical Sustainable Energy; Meibom, Peter [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Intelligent Energy Systems Programme; Vigueras-Rodriguez, Antonio; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Castilla-La Mancha Univ. (Spain). Renewable Energy Research Inst.

    2010-07-01

    The article reviews the new requirements variable and partly unpredictable wind power could bring to unit commitment and power system operations. Current practice is shortly described and contrasted against the new requirements. Literature specifically addressing questions about wind power and unit commitment related power system operations is reviewed. Analyzed issues include forecast errors, dispatch, operating reserves, intra-day unit commitments, and sharing reserves across interconnections. Discussion highlights the most important issues and gaps in the current knowledge. (orig.)

  5. 100-BC-5 operable unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    This focused feasibility study report presents the detailed analysis of alternatives for both interim remedial measures and potential future actions for the 100-BC-5 operable Unit. The limited investigation recommended that the operable unit be removed from the IRM pathway as defined in the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The FFS was initiated in support of a final action. In the course of evaluating alternatives, it was recognized that the data were insufficient to support a final action. Consequently, the unit managers decided to complete the document as an interim FFS to document the modeling and evaluation efforts done to date. The potential contaminant of interest in the operable unit for a final action would be Sr-90, with a calculated incremental cancer risk of 2E-06 based on an occasional-use exposure scenario and which exceeds the Safe Drinking Water Act maximum contaminant level in the near-river wells. The modeling to support the evaluation of alternatives was based on Sr-90 data from groundwater monitoring wells in the operable unit. The 100-BC-5 unit is one of three operable units associated with the 100 B/C Area of the site. Two of the 100 B/C operable units are source units. The 100-BC-5 Groundwater Operable Unit includes the groundwater beneath the source operable units and the adjacent groundwater, surface water, fluvial sediments, and aquatic biota impacted by the overlying source operable unit. The key assumptions which form the basis for the FFS are: addressing an identified threat to human health or the environment; protecting the Columbia River and to abate offsite migration of contaminants; containment and control of contaminant plumes; occasional-use scenario is assumed for the operable unit; a finite lifecycle for the IRM to the year 2008; the 100 Area Feasibility Study Phases I ampersand 2 forms the basis for the alternatives evaluated in the FFS; disposal to the Environment Restoration Disposal Facility is assumed for all solid wastes

  6. Operational test procedure for SY tank farm replacement exhauster unit

    This operational test procedure will verify that the remaining functions not tested per WHC-SD-WM-ATP-080, or components disturbed during final installation, as well as interfaces with other tank farm equipment and remote monitoring stations are operating correctly

  7. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report for 1976

    Net electrical energy generated by Unit 1 was 30,399 MWH with the generator on line 334.5 hrs. Unit 2 generated 2,481,014 MWH with the generator on line 4,915.53 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns and power reductions, maintenance, power generation, modifications, changes to operational procedures, radiation exposures, and leak rate testing

  8. Interim remedial measures proposed plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    The purpose of this interim remedial measures (IRM) proposed plan is to present and solicit public comments on the IRM planned for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The 200-ZP-1 is one of two operable units that envelop the groundwater beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  9. Price Competition between Road Side Units Operators in Vehicular Networks

    FUX, Vladimir; Maillé, Patrick; Cesana, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular networks, besides supporting safety- oriented applications, are nowadays expected to provide effec- tive communication infrastructure also for supporting leisure- oriented application including content sharing, gaming and In- ternet access on the move. This work focuses on Vehicle to Infras- tructure (V2I) scenarios, where multiple content providers own a physical infrastructure of Road Side Units (RSUs) which they use to sell contents to moving vehicles. Content provider/RSU owners...

  10. Peacekeeping and U.N. operational control: a study of their effect on unit cohesion

    Cunningham, Ernest G.

    1995-01-01

    Unit cohesion, the human element in combat, is critical to a unit's ability to survive and conduct successful warfare. Several factors can degrade unit cohesion and subsequently, combat effectiveness. This study concentrates on two such factors, U.S./U.N. operational control and operations other than war (OOTW). A survey was conducted on 300 U.S. Marine Corps soldiers. The results revealed that non-traditional missions were acceptable to a majority of the soldiers if these missions were condu...

  11. Efficiency and productivity in the operational units of the armed forces

    Hanson, Torbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Most nations spend a considerable part of their gross domestic product (GDP) on defense. However, no previous study has addressed the productivity and efficiency of the core area of the armed forces, operational units, using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Introducing a model for the production process of an operational unit, productivity and efficiency are estimated by DEA for units of one branch of the Norwegian armed forces. Small samples are a characteristic of DEA studies in the militar...

  12. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2. Annual operating report, 1975

    Initial criticality occurred in March and start-up testing continued for most of the year. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, maintenance, design changes, personnel radiation exposures, thermal transients, safety/relief valve malfunctions, condenser tube leaks, and recirculation pump seal failures

  13. Parallel Operation Characteristics Analysis of Sewage Source Heat Pump Units in Winter

    庄兆意; 张承虎; 王海燕; 孙德兴

    2010-01-01

    Sewage source heat pump unit operates under partial load most of the time, and study on the law of coefficient of performance (COP) of the unit varying with load ratio can provide basis for the heat pump units running in high efficiency. A mathematical model determining COP, evaporation temperature and condensation temperature of a single unit was proposed. Under the condition of uniform load distribution, the model was established according to different ways of bearing partial load with the same type multi...

  14. Cognitive model of the power unit operator activity

    Basic notions making it possible to study and simulate the peculiarities of man-operator activity, in particular his way of thiking, are considered. Special attention is paid to cognitive models based on concept of decisive role of knowledge (its acquisition, storage and application) in the man mental processes and activity. The models are based on three basic notions, which are the professional world image, activity strategy and spontaneous decisions

  15. Design of system for support of decision making by nuclear unit operator

    The diagnostic system is designed for determining the most probable causes of failures of a nuclear power unit, including those caused by positive reactivity changes, loss-of-coolant accidents, and heat removal system failures. The system algorithm operates in cycles of three steps, viz.: (1) simulation of nuclear unit operation using a mathematical model of the unit and simulated input values; (2) comparison of time courses of simulated and measured technological parameters based on the evaluation of the square of their deviations; (3) optimal adjustment of values using a suitable optimization method. A system of this type can be applied in two operating situations: in support of the operator's intervention in the control functions of the automated process control system aiming at preventing accident unit shutdown, and in a quick determination of the cause of an accident unit shutdown. In testing, the time of analysis of causes was about 10 to 20 s. (J.B.). 1 fig

  16. Biota of the 300-FF-1 operable unit. [Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Fitzner, R.E.; Brandt, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes Task 5a-2 of the Phase I Remedial Investigation -- Operable Unit Characterization of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The ultimate goal of Phase I is to determine the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment from releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit. The purpose of Task 5a-2 was to determine what species inhabit the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit and how they use the unit. The focus is on those species listed as endangered or threatened, those that are economically important, or those that constitute significant components of the human food chain. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Operation of the radioactive acid-digestion test unit (RADTU)

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, research and development work concerned with the acid digestion of combustible waste with high plutonium content is being carried out. The main objectives are the reduction of the waste volume, the recovery of the plutonium and the transformation of the process residues into a product suitable for final disposal. For this purpose an inactive demonstration plant with a throughput of 1.5 kg/h has been constructed. In the first version, the reactor of this plant was a tray reactor of the HEDL type. During test operations the sedimentation of a residue was observed on the tray. The density of this residue was higher than that of the residue suspended in the reaction acid. Experiments using tantalum oxide (D=8.4 g/cm3) to simulate the plutonium oxide (D=11.5 g/cm3) have verified this observation. This means that in active operation a sedimentation of plutonium oxide on the tray is to be expected. With respect to these results a new reactor was developed where the settling of the residue is avoided by appropriate design and high circulation velocity of the reaction acid. The reactor consists of a tube 50-80 mm in diameter, which is curved to form a closed loop with an arm length of about 1x1 m. Since October 1979 this ring reactor has been under inactive test operation. Its behaviour is very stable. The velocity of the reaction acid in the heater is 0.5-1 m/s. A settling of residues or tantalum oxide has not been observed. The throughput attained is comparable to that of the tray reactor but the space requirement is three times smaller, and the volume of the reaction acid four times smaller. (author)

  18. 14 CFR 375.41 - Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and industrial operations... Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States. Foreign civil aircraft shall not be used for such commercial air operations as crop dusting, pest control, pipeline patrol, mapping,...

  19. Systems for training and supporting the level of unit operator's skill

    Power unit operator's activity and the flowsheets of his contacts are considered. Different systems of personnel training: standard, conceptional and two-stage complex system of education and training are analyzed. The necessity to organize training centers including the full-scale trainer, the monitoring system of current phsicho-physiological operator's characteristics and the monitoring system of operator errors are proved

  20. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Jian Wang; Xiaolong Wang; Aipeng Jiang; Shu Jiangzhou; Ping Li

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO) units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP) of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A...

  1. Operational optimization of large-scale parallel-unit SWRO desalination plant using differential evolution algorithm.

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Aipeng; Jiangzhou, Shu; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO) units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP) of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality. PMID:24701180

  2. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Wang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Aipeng; Jiangzhou, Shu; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO) units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP) of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality. PMID:24701180

  3. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality.

  4. Preparation status for continuous operation of Kori unit 1 NPP in Korea

    Kori unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant is the first commercial operation plant in Korea. In Korea, the life extension of NPP beyond design lifetime reached practically application stage. Preparations status for continuous operation of Kori unit 1, Many researches have demonstrated that life extension beyond design lifetime is possible in terms of technology. This paper is to introduce and to share the continuous operation preparations status and schedule for Kori unit 1 License Renewal Process an additional every 10 years beyond the design life 30 years term. (author)

  5. A comparison of operational risk in banks of United Kingdom and China

    JIANG, KAITIAN

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation mainly compares the operational risk in banks of the United Kingdom (UK hereafter) and China by measuring the operational risk and estimating the firm-specific and macroeconomic determinants of operational risk in both the UK and China separately. Four main findings are concluded from the comparison of operational risk in banks of the UK and China. It suggests that larger banks with better profitability, less solvency risk, less growth opportunity, better efficiency and grea...

  6. Operation of EMEP 'supersites' in the United Kingdom. Annual report for 2007

    J. N. Cape; Bealey, W; M. Coyle; Di Marco, C.; Kentisbeer, J.; Leaver, D.; Malcolm, H.; E. Nemitz; Simmons, I.; Twigg, M.; van Dijk, van Dijk

    2009-01-01

    As part of its commitment to the UN-ECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution the United Kingdom will operate two ‘supersites’ reporting data to the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). This report provides the annual summary for 2007, the first full calendar year of operation of the first EMEP ‘supersite’ to be established in the United Kingdom. Detailed operational reports have been submitte...

  7. Operation of EMEP 'supersites' in the United Kingdom. Annual report for 2006

    J. N. Cape; Bealey, W; M. Coyle; Di Marco, C.; Kentisbeer, J.; Leaver, D.; Malcolm, H.; E. Nemitz; Simmons, I.; Twigg, M.; van Dijk, N

    2009-01-01

    As part of its commitment to the UN-ECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution the United Kingdom will operate two ‘supersites’ reporting data to the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). This report provides the annual summary for 2006, the first calendar year of operation of the first EMEP ‘supersite’ to be established in the United Kingdom. Detailed operational reports have been submitted to ...

  8. Operation of EMEP ‘supersites’ in the United Kingdom. Annual report for 2008.

    J. N. Cape; Bealey, W; M. Coyle; Di Marco, C.; Kentisbeer, J.; Leaver, D.; Malcolm, H.; E. Nemitz; Simmons, I.; Twigg, M.; van Dijk, N

    2010-01-01

    As part of its commitment to the UN-ECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution the United Kingdom operates two ‘supersites’ reporting data to the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). This report provides the annual summary for 2008, the second full calendar year of operation of the first EMEP ‘supersite’ to be established in the United Kingdom. Detailed operational reports have been submitted...

  9. The Design, Testing and Operation of the IUE Data Processing Unit Power Supply

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The design and operation is reported of the power supply for the IUE data processing unit. Design specifications are presented along with performance data and parts selection. Illustrations show the completed circuit with and without its covers.

  10. 78 FR 39018 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Supplement to Final Supplement 38 to the Generic...

  11. Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit. decisions for this operable unit

  12. Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    Initial reactor criticality was achieved 12/11/76 and power generation began 12/25/76. Information is presented concerning operation, maintenance, procedure and specification changes, power generation, unit shutdowns and forced power reductions, testing, and personnel radiation exposures

  13. Radon dosimetry in the operational units of the 'Sanpaolo IMI' Italian banking group

    This document sets out the activities relating to information organization and risk assessment for the management of the dosimeters labelling, data collection for information storage measured data in the operational units of the Italian banking group 'Sanpaolo IMI'

  14. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  15. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  16. Psychophysiological maintaining power unit operators reliability in the nuclear power industry

    The research center of nuclear power industry analyzed the causes of failures in power unit operation connected with the errors made by operators. In normal function of NPP operation readings of the devices change slowly and the units operation is steady. It creates monotonous actions and leads to the loss of vigilance. But at the same time a unit operator is in the state of operation waiting which leads to psychological tenacity. Each moment an operator must imagine how the power unit works and he must be ready to operate the unit quickly. For safety operation of NPP it's necessary to select people who have some professional qualities and who will be able to acquire knowledge at the appointed time. The operator's motivation is of great importance: if he wants to work at a NPP and why: if he is interested in successful work; if he is indifferent to his work or not. The negative factors that influence successful work are as follows: low ability for logical analyses expressed yearning for domination, to become a leader, to produce favorable impression by all means, including lie; disability to eject factors, causing alarm and long emotional experience. We have watched this kind of operators could do anything in critical situation low level of activity and mood special individual approach to the situation, when a person is guided only by himself without due regard to other people. Additional clinical psychodiagnostic methods are implemented after making primary psychodiagnostics to persons who have some signs of supposed mental health defects. Near 3 thousand operators have been tested at the Psychological Service at the STC. The results were: 7% of the pretenders did not meet the requirements, they have not been accepted to work in NPPs. The experts did not recommend to employ 16% of the pretenders or it's necessary to control their work carefully. 77% of the pretenders have been recommended to operational work

  17. Economic Assessment of Unified Power Quality Controller Operation in Joint and Separated Modes with DG Units

    Y. Hoseynpoor; T. Pirzadeh Ashraf; Sh. Sajedi

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the joint operation of the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) and distributed generation system with there separated operation and compares these modes from economic point of view. The investigated joint system consists of a series inverter, a shunt inverter, and an DG unit connected in the dc link through a rectifier. The separated system consists of a separate UPQC and DG unit which is connected to grid through back to back inverters. The investment cost of joint ...

  18. Agglomeration and Spatial Dependence in Certified Organic Operations in the United States

    Marasteanu, I. Julia; Jaenicke, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper to provide added insight into clustering as it pertains to the United States organic sector. I identify clusters of United States certified organic operations by showing how a formal definition of spatial clusters can emerge from an estimated model that accounts for spatial dependency. I also analyze how county-level variables impact the distribution of certified organic operations while controlling for spatial autocorrelation. My results indicate that the spatial di...

  19. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report: January thru December 1976

    Net electrical energy generated by Unit 1 was 953,015.5 MWH with the generator on line 7,399.37 hrs. Unit 2 generated 4,371,553.689 MWH with the generator on line 6,664.58 hrs while Unit 3 generated 4,034,251 MWH with the generator on line 7,234.86 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, and shutdowns

  20. Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    Unit 1 generated 227,877 MWH with the generator on-line 540 hrs and Unit 2 generated 324,954 MWH with the generator on-line 696 hrs. Information is presented concerning operating experience; procedure changes, tests, and experiments; maintenance, licensee event reports and other events of interest; data tabulations of electric power generation, unit shutdowns, forced power reductions, and number of personnel and Man/Rem exposure; eddy current testing of steam generator tubes; and fuel history

  1. Quad-Cities Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    Unit 1 generated 2,024,125 net electrical MWH and the generator was on line 3162.6 hours. Unit 2 generated 746,184 net electrical MWH and was on line 1475.3 hrs. Data is included concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, and tests. (FS)

  2. 2006 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report covers the time period from January 1 through December 31, 2006, and describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action (DOE/ID-10660) as described in the Group 1 Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOE/ID-10772)

  3. 2006 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    D. E. Shanklin

    2007-02-14

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report covers the time period from January 1 through December 31, 2006, and describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action (DOE/ID-10660) as described in the Group 1 Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOE/ID-10772).

  4. Decommissioning strategy of the operating WWER type units in the Ukraine

    At present in Ukraine, 13 WWER type units are in operation and two other ones are in the final stage of construction. Decommissioning of these units is expected after the year 2010. General planning of their decommissioning is developed in the framework of the decommissioning strategy of operating WWER type units. The strategy contains the objectives, principles and main tasks of the decommissioning as well as the activities at each phase of decommissioning. It is considered a broad range of factors important for the planning and implementation of decommissioning. (author)

  5. OPERATING OF MOBILE MACHINE UNITS SYSTEM USING THE MODEL OF MULTICOMPONENT COMPLEX MOVEMENT

    Lebedev, A.; N. Artiomov; M. Shulyak; M. Podrigalo; D. Abramov; D. Klets; R. Kaidalov

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite) movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  6. Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    Information is presented concerning operations, performance characteristics, changes, tests, inspections, containment leak tests, maintenance, primary coolant chemistry, station staff changes, reservoir investigations, plume mapping, and operational environmental radioactivity monitoring data for oconee Units 1, 2, and 3. The non-radiological environmental surveillance program is also described. (FS)

  7. Small Hankel Operators on the Dirichlet-Type Spaces on the Unit Ball of Cn

    Peng Yan HU; Wen Jun ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the small Hankel operators on the Dirichlet-type spacesDp on the unit ball of Gn are considered. A similar result to that ofthe one-dimensional setting is given, which characterizes the boundedness of the small Hankel operators on Dp.

  8. Economic Assessment of Unified Power Quality Controller Operation in Joint and Separated Modes with DG Units

    Y. Hoseynpoor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the joint operation of the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC and distributed generation system with there separated operation and compares these modes from economic point of view. The investigated joint system consists of a series inverter, a shunt inverter, and an DG unit connected in the dc link through a rectifier. The separated system consists of a separate UPQC and DG unit which is connected to grid through back to back inverters. The investment cost of joint system is compared with investment cost of separate use of UPQC and DG unit and the economic saving due to use of coupled system is estimated. The DG unit is assumed a wind energy conversion system (WECS in this study. The analysis shows that joint operation of UPQC with WECS is significantly economical.

  9. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    Patsch Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  10. Indian Point Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report for 1976

    Unit 1 remained in a shutdown condition pending a decision by the Company on the installation of an ECCS as required by NRC. Net electrical power generated by Unit 2 was 2,267,654 MWH with the unit on line 3,056.45 hrs. Unit 3 generated 1,872,947 MWH and was on line 2,286.01 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, reportable events, corrective maintenance, fuel performance, radioactivity releases, shutdowns, primary coolant chemistry, and occupational radiation exposures

  11. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-11

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

  12. Evaluation of a Multiple-Effect Distillation Unit under Partial Load Operating Conditions

    2013-01-01

    The design of a multiple-effect distillation (MED) system is presented, and the results for partial load operation of a single-effect distillation unit are presented. The MED is designed to be driven by solar energy, and thus the dynamic performance and partial load operation production are of interest. Two operating modes are considered in the analysis, with and without the use of a flow distributor. Various tests were performed varying the heating steam flow rate and the intake seawater flo...

  13. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992.

  14. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992

  15. 303-K Storage Facility closure plan

    Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 303-K Storage Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 303-K Storage Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 303-K Storage Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 303-K Storage Facility. The 303-K Storage Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5

  16. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) environmental checklist forms for 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan

    The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 304 Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 304 Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The 304 Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5

  17. 303-K Storage Facility closure plan. Revision 2

    1993-12-15

    Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 303-K Storage Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 303-K Storage Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 303-K Storage Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 303-K Storage Facility. The 303-K Storage Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5.

  18. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) environmental checklist forms for 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan. Revision 2

    1993-11-01

    The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 304 Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 304 Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The 304 Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5.

  19. Fiscal Year 1997 Annual Report for the 100-NR-2, 200-UP-1, and 200-ZP-1 Pump and Treat Operations and Operable Units

    The Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC), Bechtel Hanford, Inc., conducts groundwater remediation activities across the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. Operable units, as defined under CERCLA, have been established to address groundwater contamination issues in various areas of the Site. Groundwater within these operable units has been contaminated by a variety of chemical and radiological constituents associated with past-practices liquid effluent disposal, as well as accidental leaks and spills. The ERC is currently operating three pump-and-treat systems in the 100 Area: Strontium-90 is being addressed in the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit, while hexavalent chromium is being addressed in the 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units. In the 200 Area, technetium-99, uranium, carbon tetrachloride, and nitrate are being addressed in the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit, while carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene, and chloroform are being addressed in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit

  20. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  1. An Optimal Design of Crude Distillation Unit Part 2. Optimal Operating Conditions

    Seo, Jung Won; Kim, Suk Joon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Tae Hee [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Oh, Min [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    This paper considers the optimal operating conditions to minimize the annual capital and operating cost of a crude distillation unit, which consumes enormous energy. Reflecting on the complexity of intervention and interconnection among each unit, optimization task was carried out for the whole crude distillation unit including preheat train, atmospheric/vacuum distillation column, light naphtha stabilizer, etc. Optimization results were compared with those from commercial plant of which capacity is 150,000 BPSD. >From this comparison, we can save 20,000,000 Kcal/h in the optimal case. It is also concluded that annual capital and operating cost was reduced from 10,649,000 US$/ to 9,185,230 US$/y, which is equivalent to 14% cost saving. 22 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Compex system for teaching and training operators for TPP and NPP power units

    Requirements, taken as a principle for constructing the system for operator teaching and training (OTT), have been formulated on the basis of investigation of operators' work at TPP and NPP power units. Functional structure and a structural block-diagram for OTT are built. As a criterion, which determines the structure of any trainers, being a part of OTT a requirement has been chosen satisfying the correspondence beetween habits developed with the help of trainers and habits of real operators' work. Results of analysis permit to confirm that refusal or under statement of the role of any stage of operator training leads to reduction of quality of his training

  3. Ergonomic aspects of design of operators' workplaces in unit control room

    A project was designed of reconstruction of the power unit control room with the objective of optimizing the relation man-position-working conditions and of improving the operator's reliability. The project was based on an analysis of the operators' jobs and an analysis of the current control room equipment. The results of the analyses point to high psychological demands put on the operators' job, unsuitable location of workplaces in the control room, subjective feelings of fatigue of the operators, unsuitable illumination, etc. (J.B.)

  4. Turkey Point Plant, Units 3 and 4. Semiannual operating report No. 7, July--December 1975

    Unit 3 generated 1,968,074 MWh(e) net electric power and the generator was on line 2,802.9 hrs. Unit 4 generated 2,560,476 MWh(e) and was on line 3,944.8 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, radioactive effluent releases, radiological environmental monitoring, and occupational personnel radiation monitoring

  5. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  6. Control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units within a microgrid

    Highlights: • A control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units is proposed. • Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors. • The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components is considered. • Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid. - Abstract: This paper describes a control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation (DG) units based on renewable energy sources, during islanding and grid-connected modes. The Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of DG units during integration and power sharing with loads and/or power grid, which is an appropriate tool to analyze and define a stable operating condition for DG units in microgrid technology. The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components of DG units in ac-side, and dc-link voltage variations in dc-side of interfaced converters, are considered properly in the control loop of DG units, which is the main contribution and novelty of this control technique over other control strategies. By using the proposed control technique, DG units can provide the continuous injection of active power from DG sources to the local loads and/or utility grid. Moreover, by setting appropriate reference current components in the control loop of DG units, reactive power and harmonic current components of loads can be supplied during the islanding and grid-connected modes with a fast dynamic response. Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid during dynamic and steady-state operating conditions

  7. Design and operational parameters of transportable supercritical water oxidation waste destruction unit

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is the destruction of hazardous waste by oxidation in the presence of water at temperatures and pressures above its critical point. A 1 gal/h SCWO waste destruction unit (WDU) has been designed, built, and operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This unit is transportable and is intended to demonstrate the SCWO technology on wastes at Department of Energy sites. This report describes the design of the WDU and the preliminary testing phase leading to demonstration

  8. Short-term Operating Strategy with Consideration of Load Forecast and Generating Unit Uncertainty

    Sarjiya; Eua-Arporn, Bundhit; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    One of the common problems faced by many electric utilities concernes with the uncertainty from both load forecast error and generating unit unavailability. This uncertainty might lead to uneconomic operation if it is not managed properly in the planning stage. Utilities may have many operational tools, e.g. unit commitment, economic dispatch. However, they require a proper operating strategy, taking into account uncertainties. This paper explicitly demonstrates how to include the uncertainties to obtain the best operating strategy for any power systems. The uncertainty of the load forecast is handled using decision analysis method, meanwhile the uncertainty of the generating unit is approached by inclusion of risk cost to the total cost. In addition, three spinning reserve strategies based on deterministic criteria are incorporated in the development of scenario. Meanwhile, Mixed Integer Linear Programming method is utilized to generate unit commitment decision in each created scenario. The best strategy which gives the minimum total cost is selected among the developed scenarios. The proposed method has been tested using a modified of IEEE 24-bus system. Sensitivity analysis with respect to the number of unit, expected unserved energy price, standard deviation of load forecast, and probability of load level is reported.

  9. Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08

    M. S. Roddy

    2007-05-01

    This plan describes the groundwater sampling and water level monitoring that will be conducted to evaluate contaminations in the Snake River Plain Aquifer entering and leaving the Idaho National Laboratory. The sampling and monitoring locations were selected to meet the data quality objectives detailed in this plan. Data for the Snake River Plain Aquifer obtained under this plan will be evaluated in the Operable Unit 10-08 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study report and will be used to support the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide groundwater model.

  10. RCRA facility investigation report for the 200-PO-1 operable unit. Revision 1

    This Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) report is prepared in support of the RFI/corrective measures study process for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report summarizes existing information on this operable unit presented in the 200 East and PUREX Aggregate Area Management Study Reports, contaminant specific studies, available modeling data, and groundwater monitoring data summary reports. Existing contaminant data are screened against current regulatory limits to determine contaminants of potential concern (COPC). Each identified COPC is evaluated using well-specific and plume trend analyses

  11. Survey Method for Radiological Surveys of 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Soils and Material

    This technical basis is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by radiological control technician (RCTs) to guide the excavation effort in accordance with the 300-FF-1 waste site Record of Decision (ROD). The ROD for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit requires selective excavation, removal, and disposal of contaminated soil above 350 pCi/g total uranium activity. Soil above this level will be disposed of as radioactive waste. The remaining soil will remain onsite

  12. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment

  13. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  14. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  15. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  16. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  17. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase I) Remedial Action Report

    L. Davison

    2007-07-31

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase I sites at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The 10 sites addressed in this report were defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for these 10 sites have been accomplished and are hereafter considered No Action or No Further Action sites.

  18. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit

  19. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit. Volume 1

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit.

  20. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state.

  1. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state. (paper)

  2. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to estimate compositions of materials in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in a remotely operated nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH provides estimates of the steady-state composition of materials residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimations, the results are determined for the cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent materials collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for materials previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple performance models to estimate material holdup and distribution within unit operations. In simulated run-testing, NUMATH typically produced estimates within 5% of the measured inventories for uranium and within 8% of the measured inventories for thorium during steady-state process operation

  3. A Mathematical Model and Its Application for Hydro Power Units under Different Operating Conditions

    Yang, Weijia; Yang, Jiandong; Guo, Wencheng; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Chao; Saarinen, Linn; Norrlund, Per

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of hydro power units, especially the governor system model for different operating conditions, based on the basic version of the software TOPSYS. The mathematical model consists of eight turbine equations, one generator equation, and one governor equation, which are solved for ten unknown variables. The generator and governor equations, which are different under various operating conditions, are presented and discussed in detail. All the essential non-...

  4. Evaluation of the contract management process in the United Nations for acquiring peacekeeping operations/services

    Shameem, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Over the years, the United Nations' (UN) peacekeeping operations have increased significantly. When a crisis develops in any part of the world, the UN is expected to respond. It examines the overall situation in order to assess the political and military goals, required composition of force, equipment, training, financial implications, circumstances of deployment and effectiveness of the peacekeeping operation required. The UN does not have any permanent force structure; it is dependent on it...

  5. Operating characteristics and efficiencies of an active chilled beam terminal unit under variable air volume mode

    Appropriately designing and maintaining temperature and relative humidity in a given space is essential for active chilled beam systems, where condensation should be strictly prevented. As a consequence, the Total Cooling Output Capacity (TCOC) of an active chilled beam system should be matched with the total cooling load of the applied space, as well as the Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR) of the system with the SHR of the space. From such a perspective, this paper for the first time explored the operating characteristics of a 2-way discharge active chilled beam terminal unit. Based on an experimentally verified model of the unit, a series of realistic simulations were carried out under various primary air volume flow rates and various chilled water volume flow rates. Inherent correlations between the TCOC and SHR were revealed. In the meanwhile, the operating efficiencies of the unit were also measured by an energy saving potential index ε, which is defined as the ratio of chilled water sensible cooling output capacity to the total sensible cooling output capacity. In addition, influences of different primary air and space conditions on the operating characteristics and efficiencies were studied. The results obtained in this study are expected to facilitate a better understanding of the active chilled beam terminal unit, so as to the designs, the operating principles, and the control strategies of active chilled beam systems for an improved indoor thermal environment. - Highlights: • The operating characteristics and efficiencies of an active chilled beam terminal unit were revealed. • The performance indexes were correlated and mutually constrained with a colorful trapezoid. • The sensitivity of the performance indexes to actual primary air and space conditions were evaluated. • Application range of the active chilled beam terminal unit can be enlarged at a low primary air relative humidity

  6. Post TMI nuclear power plant operator qualification and training practices in the United States

    Nuclear power plant operator qualification and training practices in the United States which have changed or may change as a result of the accident at Three Mile Island are discussed. First, the response of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been to develop a comprehensive plan designed to improve the operational safety of nuclear power facilities. This includes upgrading operator training, operator licensing examinations, shift staffing requirements and operator entry level qualifications. Secondly the U.S. National Voluntary Consensus Standards Response has included revisions of three standards in this area. Thirdly, the Research Response: the U.S. Department of Energy is funding research by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in the area of operator qualification and training, including job and task analyses for the auxiliary operator, reactor operator, senior reactor operator, shift supervisor and shift technical advisor. Additionally research under the auspices of the USNRC in the areas of job/task analysis, nuclear power plant simulators, and the effects of shift work will be used to help establish optimal qualification and training requirements for nuclear power plant operators. (U.K.)

  7. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    1994-06-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km{sup 2} (0.59 mi{sup 2}) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation.

  8. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  9. A Moveable Feast--A Progressive Approach to the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Conner, Wm. Curtis, Jr.; Hammond, Karl D.; Laurence, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an alternative format for the senior laboratory in which students are allowed--indeed, expected--to communicate with previous groups and build on their results. The effect is a unit operations laboratory in which students are empowered to propose the experiments they wish to do and in which the cumulative experience of the…

  10. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    1991-02-02

    This report consists of Detailed Data Acquisition Sheets for Runs E-6 and E-7 for Task 2.2 of the Modification, Operation, and Support Studies of the Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit. (Task 2.2: Alternate Catalyst Run E-6 and Catalyst Activity Maintenance Run E-7).

  11. 77 FR 40091 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3 AGENCY: Nuclear... statement for license renewal of nuclear plants; availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  12. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  13. Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit

  14. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit; FINAL

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  15. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km2 (0.59 mi2) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation

  16. China's first large-scale MA production unit operational in Shanxi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Abrainchild of researchers of the CAS Institute of Coal Chemistry, a production unit capable of turning out 20,000 tons of maleic anhydride (MA) per year, the largest of its kind in China, has come into operation recently at the Shanxi Regent Taiming Chemical Co Ltd in Taiyuan, capital of north China's Shanxi Province.

  17. 27 CFR 28.58 - Operations or unit bond-distilled spirits.

    2010-04-01

    ...-distilled spirits. 28.58 Section 28.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... § 28.58 Operations or unit bond—distilled spirits. (a) Spirits. Where spirits are withdrawn without payment of tax, as authorized in § 28.91, from the bonded premises of a distilled spirits plant...

  18. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    Vukelich, S.E. [Golder Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  19. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River

  20. NSSS design and cycle 1 operating history data for Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2. Final report

    This report contains design and cycle 1 operating data for the Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2 nuclear steam supply system. The design data include descriptions of the reactor core, reactor coolant system, and control systems which are a part of the nuclear steam supply system. Operating history data are provided for the period of December 1978 through January 1980. The most important operating history data provided include reactor power, cumulative fuel burnup, control rod position, primary coolant temperature, and a series of power distribution state points

  1. Mortality on grower/finisher-only swine operations in the United States

    Losinger W.C.; Bush E.J.; Smith M.A.; Corso B.A.

    1999-01-01

    For 53 grower/finisher-only swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, mortality among finisher pigs ranged from 0 to 12.0% over a 6-month period. Twenty-six (49.1%) had 2% mortality. Nine (17.0%) operations experienced >4% mortality. Fisher's exact test revealed that operations with all-in all-out management were significantly more likely to have 900 pigs entered the grower/finisher phase) practiced all-in, all-...

  2. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume

  3. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are 99Tc and 60Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and 90Sr, 239/240Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes

  4. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses

  5. Operating experience gained during the copper oxide plugging incident in Koeberg unit 1 generator stator

    Mellor, S.P.; Matthee, F.W. [ESKOM, Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (South Africa)

    2002-07-01

    In June 1999 Koeberg's unit 1 started to experience adverse operating conditions which were later ascribed to blockages in the hollow conductors of the generator stator. These blockages were attributed to copper oxide plugs which developed progressively during the following year and culminated in reduced power operation. Many attempts were made to address the plugging by implementing various off-line and on-line cleaning processes. Subsequent to a successful on-line cleaning operation, the unit was returned to full power and the chemistry regime for the stator cooling water system was changed to allow for operation at an elevated pH. This paper discusses Koeberg's experience with copper oxide blockages, describes the initial indications of the problem and the impact on the operating parameters. The remainder of the paper focuses on the actions taken to address the deteriorating situation and the different cleaning methods implemented to remove the copper oxide deposits. The paper concludes with the current status of the unit 1 generator stator and the lessons learned during the resolution of this problem. (authors)

  6. Level 1 shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results that have been applied within the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia. The SPSA project was realized by VUJE Trnava Inc., Slovakia in 2001-2002 years. The Level 1 SPSA study for Mochovce NPP Unit 1 covers internal events as well as internal (fires, floods and heavy load drop) and external (aircraft crash, extreme meteorological conditions, seismic event and influence of surrounding industry) hazards. Mochovce NPP consists of two operating units equipped with VVER 440/V213 reactors safety upgraded before construction finishing and operation start. 87 safety measures based on VVER 440 operational experience and international mission insights were implemented to enhance its operational and nuclear safety. The SPSA relates to full power PSA (FPSA) as a continuation of the effort to create a harmonized level 1 PSA model for all operational modes of the plant with the goal to use it for further purposes as follows: Real Time Risk Monitor, Maintenance Optimization, Technical Specifications Optimization, Living PSA. (author)

  7. Operating experience with the WWER-440/W 230 reactor units of the Greifswald nuclear power station

    After seventeen years of operation, almost to the day, unit 1 of the Greifswald nuclear power station was shut down in December 1990 as the last of the units still in operation. This step completed the decommissioning of all units as ordered by the authorities. The use of nuclear power for energy generation in the eastern part of Germany, which began when the Rheinsberg nuclear power station was commissioned in 1966, has thus been brought to a temporary end. The Greifswald (4x440 MW) and Rheinsberg (70 MW) nuclear power stations covered an annual average of 10 to 12% of the electricity requirement of the GDR in the past ten years, thus contributing to a stable energy supply over a prolonged period of time. For security reasons of the then GDR government there was hardly any possibility to report about the performance and operating records of the plants in former years. The 1990 press reports consequently were bound to create the impression as if these reactor plants had not been very successful and had been operated at high risk. In order to put these impressions on a more objective base, this report presents important findings made during the operation of the Greifswald nuclear power station and evaluates them. (orig.)

  8. Operating experience gained during the copper oxide plugging incident in Koeberg unit 1 generator stator

    In June 1999 Koeberg's unit 1 started to experience adverse operating conditions which were later ascribed to blockages in the hollow conductors of the generator stator. These blockages were attributed to copper oxide plugs which developed progressively during the following year and culminated in reduced power operation. Many attempts were made to address the plugging by implementing various off-line and on-line cleaning processes. Subsequent to a successful on-line cleaning operation, the unit was returned to full power and the chemistry regime for the stator cooling water system was changed to allow for operation at an elevated pH. This paper discusses Koeberg's experience with copper oxide blockages, describes the initial indications of the problem and the impact on the operating parameters. The remainder of the paper focuses on the actions taken to address the deteriorating situation and the different cleaning methods implemented to remove the copper oxide deposits. The paper concludes with the current status of the unit 1 generator stator and the lessons learned during the resolution of this problem. (authors)

  9. [Operational Management of Multidisciplinary Organ-Based Tumor Units in Our Cancer Center].

    Kato, Hiroaki; Tsujie, Masanori; Ichimura, Noriko; Yukawa, Masao; Inoue, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    Owing to the advances in diagnosis and treatment, it is imperative to develop a multidisciplinary approach for the management of cancer patients. In our cancer center, multidisciplinary organ-based tumor units have been organized for team medical care. These units consist of cancer specialists from multiple departments including medical oncology, surgery, radiology, histopathology, and nursing. Members of each unit regularly conduct meetings to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic aspects, as well as to report the progress of cancer patients. Co-operation with the counseling and support center, utilization of the computerized medical record system, and using brochures for advertisement, all play important roles in adequate management of multidisciplinary organ-based tumor units. PMID:27210090

  10. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The open-quotes Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,close quotes Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the open-quotes 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,close quotes (DOE-RL 1993)

  11. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-10-08

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The {open_quotes}Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,{close_quotes} Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the {open_quotes}300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,{close_quotes} (DOE-RL 1993).

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination

  14. Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report No. 10, January--June 1975

    Unit 1 operated at an average capacity factor of 65.2 percent with a net efficiency of 31.41 percent. Unit 2 operted at an average capacity factor of 88.6 lpercent with a net efficiency of 32.28 percent. Unit 1 was essentially base loaded while Unit 2 operated on load follow. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, abnormal occurrences, and environmental monitoring. (FS)

  15. Optimal coordinate operation control for wind–photovoltaic–battery storage power-generation units

    Highlights: • Adopt ‘rainflow’ calculation method to establish the battery cycle life model and quantitatively calculate the life wreck. • Minimize unit cost of power generation through enhanced gravitational search algorithm. • Analyze the relationship between renewable resource potential and the economic efficiency of power generation unit. - Abstract: An optimal coordinate operation control method for large-scale wind–photovoltaic (PV)–battery storage power generation units (WPB-PGUs) connected to a power grid with rated power output was proposed to address the challenges of poor stability, lack of decision-making, and low economic benefits. The “rainflow” calculation method was adopted to establish the battery cycle life model and to calculate quantitatively the life expectancy loss in the operation process. To minimize unit cost of power generation, this work optimized the output period of the equipment and strategy of battery charging and discharging with consideration of working conditions, generation equipment characteristics, and load demand by using the enhanced gravitational search algorithm (EGSA). A case study was conducted on the basis of data obtained using WPB-PGU in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that the proposed method could effectively minimize the unit cost of a WPB-PGU under different scenarios and diverse meteorological conditions. The proposed algorithm has high calculation accuracy and fast convergence speed

  16. Operating and reconstruction experience of the drum-separators of the Kursk NPP unit 1

    The reason for increased humidity at the drum-separator outlet is determined analyzing separation tests and data on the power unit equipment operation. It is shown that hydrovalve breakup at the outlet of the submerged punched sheet was the source of the high steam humidity. Recommendations on the hydrovalve reconstruction and separation test results after the reconstruction are presented. The separated steam humidity does not exceed 0.02% by the mass at the nominal unit parameters at 52 mm height of the hydrovalve outlet gap

  17. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-FR-1 source operable unit

    This report provides the Qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the waste sites associated with the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit. The QRA is an evaluation of risk for a predefined set of human and ecological exposure scenarios. It is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment. The QRA is streamlined to consider only two human health scenarios (frequent-and occasional-use) with four exposure pathways (soil ingestion, fugitive dust inhalation, inhalation of volatile organics, and external radiation exposure) and a limited ecological evaluation. The use of these scenarios and pathways was agreed to by the 100 Area Tri-Party unit managers

  18. Commercial operation and outage experience of ABWR at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa units Nos. 6 and 7

    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Units Nos. 6 and 7, the world's first ABWRs (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor), started commercial operation on November 7, 1996 and July 2, 1997, respectively, and continued their commercial operation with a high capacity factor, low occupational radiation exposure and radioactive waste. Units 6 and 7 were in their 3rd cycle operation until 25th April 1999 and 1st November 1999, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 35.4-35.8% (design thermal efficiency: 34.5%) during these period, demonstrating better performance than that of BWR-5 (design thermal efficiency: 33.4%). Nos. 6 and 7 have experienced 2 annual outages. The first outage of unit No. 6 started on November 20, 1997 and was completed within 61 days (including 6 New Year holidays), and the second outage started on March 13, 1999 and was completed within 44 days. The first annual outage of unit No. 7 started on May 27, 1998, earlier than it would normally have been, to avoid an annual outage during the summer, and was completed within 55 days, and the second outage started on September 18th, 1999 and was completed within 45 days, All annual outages were carried out within a very short time period without any severe malfunctions, including newly designed ABWR systems and equipment. As the first outage in Japan, 55 days is a very short period, despite the fact that the Nos. 6 and 7 are the first ABWRs in the world and the largest capacity units in Japan. The total occupational radiation exposure of No. 6 was 300 man-mSv (1st outage) and 331 man-mSv (2nd outage). That of Unit 7 was 153 man-mSv (1st outage) Those of unit No. 6 were at the same level as those of unit No. 3, which is the latest design 1100MW(e) BWR-5. That of unit No. 7 was the lowest ever at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station. The drums of radioactive waste discharged during the annual outage numbered 54 (1st outage) for No. 6 and 62 (1st outage) for No. 7, which was less than the design target of 100

  19. An Automatic Uav Mapping System for Supporting un (united Nations) Field Operations

    Choi, K.; Cheon, J. W.; Kim, H. Y.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    The United Nations (UN) has performed field operations worldwide such as peacekeeping or rescue missions. When such an operation is needed, the UN dispatches an operation team usually with a GIS (Geographic Information System) customized to a specific operation. The base maps for the GIS are generated mostly with satellite images which may not retain a high resolution and the current situation. To build an up-to-date high resolution map, we propose a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) based automatic mapping system, which can operate in a fully automatic way from the data acquisition of sensory data to the data processing for the generation of the geospatial products such as a mosaicked orthoimage of a target area. In this study, we analyse the requirements for UN field operations, suggest a UAV mapping system with an operation scenario, and investigate the applicability of the system. With the proposed system, we can construct a tailored GIS with up-to-date and high resolution base maps for a specific operation efficiently.

  20. An analysis of post-traumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators.

    Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William

    2014-06-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed. PMID:24907535

  1. RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    1993-06-01

    The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is one of two source operable units at the U Plant Aggregate Area at the Hanford Site. Source operable units include waste management units and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of radioactive and/or hazardous substance contamination. This work plan, while maintaining the title RFI/CMS, presents the background and direction for conducting a limited field investigation in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, which is the first part of the process leading to final remedy selection. This report discusses the background, prior recommendations, goals, organization, and quality assurance for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Work Plan. The discussion begins with a summary of the regulatory framework and the role of the work plan. The specific recommendations leading into the work plan are then addressed. Next, the goals and organization of the report are discussed. Finally, the quality assurance and supporting documentation are presented.

  2. RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is one of two source operable units at the U Plant Aggregate Area at the Hanford Site. Source operable units include waste management units and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of radioactive and/or hazardous substance contamination. This work plan, while maintaining the title RFI/CMS, presents the background and direction for conducting a limited field investigation in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, which is the first part of the process leading to final remedy selection. This report discusses the background, prior recommendations, goals, organization, and quality assurance for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Work Plan. The discussion begins with a summary of the regulatory framework and the role of the work plan. The specific recommendations leading into the work plan are then addressed. Next, the goals and organization of the report are discussed. Finally, the quality assurance and supporting documentation are presented

  3. Steam generator tube integrity requirements and operating experience in the United States

    Steam generator tube integrity is important to the safe operation of pressurized-water reactors. For ensuring tube integrity, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses a regulatory framework that is largely performance based. This performance-based framework is supplemented with some prescriptive requirements. The framework recognizes that there are three combinations of tube materials and heat treatments currently used in the United States and that the operating experience depends, in part, on the type of material used. This paper summarizes the regulatory framework for ensuring steam generator tube integrity, it highlights the current status of steam generators, and it highlights some of the steam generator issues and challenges that exist in the United States. (author)

  4. Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

    Truex, Michael J.; Dresel, P. EVAN; Nimmons, Michael J.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2006-09-21

    A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final (EPA 1988). The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers) identified in the groundwater sampling and analysis plan for the operable unit (DOE/RL-2001-49, Rev. 1) with additions.

  5. Development of Regulatory Audit Programs for Wolsong Unit 1 Continued Operation

    Wolsong Unit 1 (PHWR type) design life expires on November 20, 2010. In relation to it, KHNP submitted its application to get approval of the MEST on December 30, 2009 and KINS is under review to confirm the appropriateness of continued operation. For the comprehensive review of Wolsong Unit 1 continued operation, KINS has developed the review guidelines for PHWR type reactor including a total of 39 aging management program (AMP) items and 7 time limited aging analysis (TLAA) items. Evaluations or calculations to verify the integrity of nuclear components are required for plant specific AMP and TLAA items as well as the ones specified in the guidelines. In this paper, audit calculation programs developed for KINS staff use in reviewing applicant's submitted evaluation results are presented

  6. Start up and commercial operation of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Unit 1

    Prior to start up of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant preoperational tests and start tests were performed and they are described in its more eminent aspects. In relation to commercial operation of nuclear station a series of indicator were set to which allow the measurement of performance in unit 1, in areas of plant efficiency and personal safety. Antecedents. Laguna Verde station is located in Alto Lucero municipality in Veracruz state, 70 kilometers north-northeast from port of Veracruz and a 290 kilometers east-northeast from Mexico city. The station consist of two units manufactured by General Electric, with a nuclear system of vapor supply also called boiling water (BWR/5), and with a system turbine-generator manufactured by Mitsubishi. Each unit has a nominal power of 1931 MWt and a level design power of 675 Mwe and a net power of 654 Electric Megawatts

  7. 200-ZP-1 operable unit borehole summary report for FY 1995 and FY 1996

    This document details the well construction, sampling, analyses, and geologic character of the Ringold Formation fluvial unit E gravels as encountered in 16 boreholes in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. These boreholes were drilled by Water Development Hanford Corporation during fiscal years 1995 and 1996. Two of the sixteen boreholes were abandoned; the remaining 14 boreholes were completed as functioning production and compliance wells. The borehole logs and well summary sheets included as Appendices A and B of this document, respectively, depict and describe the vadose zone stratigraphic units encountered during the course of drilling. Appendix C contains the results of sieve analyses conducted on samples obtained via resonant sonic coring and standard split-spoon methods. The sieve analyses were the driver behind the majority of the well designs. Also, for completeness, Appendices D and E contain the well design calculations and the well development process

  8. Summary of remedial investigations at the 307 retention basins and 307 trenches (316-3), 300-FF-2 Operable Unit

    Remedial investigations at the 307 retention basins and 307 trenches (316-3) in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site were conducted as part of the 300-FF-1 operable unit Phase 1 remedial investigation (RI) in accordance with the approved RI work plan. During the RI, the southwestern boundary of the 300-FF-1 operable unit was modified by all signatories to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which shifted the 307 retention basins and 307 trenches to the 300-FF-3 operable unit. As a consequence, the RI results from these waste management units were not included in the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation Report for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. As a results of recent Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the 300-FF-2 operable unit now consists of the remaining 300 Area operable units within the 300 Area National Priorities List (NPL), which includes the former 300-FF-3 operable unit. Therefore, this document summarizes the RI results from the 307 retention basins and 307 trenches in the 300-FF-2 operable unit. Analysis and evaluation of these results well be included in the 300-FF-2 RI report

  9. Discrete Sampling Test Plan for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit

    Sweeney, Mark D.

    2010-02-04

    The Discrete Groundwater Sampling Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on behalf of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company. The project is focused on delivering groundwater samples from proscribed horizons within select groundwater wells residing in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit (200-BP-5 OU) on the Hanford Site. This document provides the scope, schedule, methodology, and other details of the PNNL discrete sampling effort.

  10. Clinical microbiology in the intensive care unit: Strategic and operational characteristics

    Bhattacharya S; Mondal A.

    2010-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs). The application of the principles and the practice of Clinical Microbiology for ICU patients can significantly improve clinical outcome. The present article is aimed at summarising the strategic and operational characteristics of this unique field where medical microbiology attempts to venture into the domain of direct clinical care of critically ill patients. The close and strategic ...

  11. INEL Operable Unit 7-13 containment and stabilization configuration option

    A containment and stabilization configuration option has been developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area Operable Unit 7-13, the transuranic (TRU)-contaminated waste pits and trenches. The configuration option is presented as an end-to-end system block diagram. Functional subelements are separately discussed, and technical background information, assumptions, input, high-level subelement requirements, and output are presented for each option

  12. Data validation report for the 100-KR-4 operable unit first quarter, 1994

    Samples were obtained from the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit first Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling event. The data from the chemical analysis of fifty-eight samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported samples results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. Information fro the sampling event and the information validation processes are presented in this document

  13. Hill Air Force Base, Utah, Final Record of Decision and Responsiveness Summary for Operable Unit 2

    Ogden ALC

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Hill Air Force Base (HAFB), Utah. It was selected in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record for this site. Th...

  14. The new local control systems for operating gaseous diffusion plant units at Pierrelatte

    The development of a local control network for operating gaseous diffusion plant units is presented. The objective of the control system up date was to replace all the information network hardware. The new generation HP1000 calculators and a network architecture were chosen. The validation tests performed in laboratory and in situ, and the management policies towards the personnel during the technical changes are summarized

  15. Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2. Application for construction permits and operating licenses

    An application to construct and operate Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2, is presented. The two BWR type reactors will have a rated core thermal power of 3579 MW(t) and a net electrical power of approximately 1150 MW(e). The facility will be located in Inola Township, 23 miles east of Tulsa on the east side of the Verdigris River in Rogers County, Oklahoma

  16. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of 60Co, 90Sr, and 137Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area

  17. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  18. Enhanced teaching and student learning through a simulator-based course in chemical unit operations design

    Ghasem, Nayef

    2016-07-01

    This paper illustrates a teaching technique used in computer applications in chemical engineering employed for designing various unit operation processes, where the students learn about unit operations by designing them. The aim of the course is not to teach design, but rather to teach the fundamentals and the function of unit operation processes through simulators. A case study presenting the teaching method was evaluated using student surveys and faculty assessments, which were designed to measure the quality and effectiveness of the teaching method. The results of the questionnaire conclusively demonstrate that this method is an extremely efficient way of teaching a simulator-based course. In addition to that, this teaching method can easily be generalised and used in other courses. A student's final mark is determined by a combination of in-class assessments conducted based on cooperative and peer learning, progress tests and a final exam. Results revealed that peer learning can improve the overall quality of student learning and enhance student understanding.

  19. The prevalence of long QT interval in post-operative intensive care unit patients.

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Banks, Michael C; Narotsky, David L; Dorman, Todd; Winters, Bradford D

    2016-08-01

    The severity of patient illnesses and medication complexity in post-operative critically ill patients increase the risk for a prolonged QT interval. We determined the prevalence of prolonged QTc in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. We performed a prospective cross-sectional study over a 15-month period at a major academic center. SICU pre-admission and admission EKGs, patient demographics, and laboratory values were analyzed. QTc was evaluated as both a continuous and dichotomous outcome (prolonged QTc > 440 ms). 281 patients were included in the study: 92 % (n = 257) post-operative and 8 % (n = 24) non-operative. On pre-admission EKGs, 32 % of the post-operative group and 42 % of the non-operative group had prolonged QTc (p = 0.25); on post-admission EKGs, 67 % of the post-operative group but only 33 % of the non-operative group had prolonged QTc (p experience increases the risk for long QTc. PMID:26169292

  20. A Mathematical Model and Its Application for Hydro Power Units under Different Operating Conditions

    Weijia Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of hydro power units, especially the governor system model for different operating conditions, based on the basic version of the software TOPSYS. The mathematical model consists of eight turbine equations, one generator equation, and one governor equation, which are solved for ten unknown variables. The generator and governor equations, which are different under various operating conditions, are presented and discussed in detail. All the essential non-linear factors in the governor system (dead-zone, saturation, rate limiting, and backlash are also considered. Case studies are conducted based on one Swedish hydro power plant (HPP and three Chinese plants. The simulation and on-site measurements are compared for start-up, no-load operation, normal operation, and load rejection in different control modes (frequency, opening, and power feedback. The main error in each simulation is also discussed in detail. As a result, the model application is proved trustworthy for simulating different physical quantities of the unit (e.g., guide vane opening, active power, rotation speed, and pressures at volute and draft tube. The model has already been applied effectively in consultant analyses and scientific studies.

  1. Operational Evaluation of VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSan(tm) as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  2. Operation Evaluation of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSantm as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  3. PREMATH: a Precious-Material Holdup Estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    A computer program, PREMATH (Precious Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. PREMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, PREMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balances for thorium (a less valuable material than uranium) during steady-state process operation

  4. Operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-412, Beaver County, Pennsylvania

    The final environmental impact statement (EPA No. 850438F) assesses the effects of operating a pressurized water reactor in Pennsylvania on the south bank of the Ohio River, which would serve as the final heat sink for the cooling system. Operation of Unit 2 would add 836 MW of capacity and increase system reliability. The plant would employ 465 at an $18 million payroll. Facilities for the plant would take up 56 acres of agricultural land. The operation result in both water and noise pollution. There is only a small probability of impacts due to potential radiation exposure. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations require the impact statement

  5. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  6. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    This NRC Plan, which defines NRC's functional role in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 and outlines NRC's regulatory responsibilities in fulfilling this role, is the first revision to the initial plan issued in July 1980 (NUREG-0698). Since 1980, a number of policy developments have occurred which will have an impact on the course of cleanup operations. This revision reflects these developments in the area of NRC's review and approval process with regard to cleanup operations as well as NRC's interface with the Department of Energy's involvement in the cleanup and waste disposal. This revision is also intended to update the cleanup schedule by presenting the cleanup progress that has taken place and NRC's role in ongoing and future cleanup activities

  7. The nuclear industry's transition to risk-informed regulation and operation in the United States

    This paper summarizes a study of the transition of the United States nuclear industry from a prescriptive regulatory structure to a more risk informed approach to operations and regulations. The transition occurred over a 20 yr period in which gradual changes were made in the fundamental regulations and to the approach to nuclear safety and operations. While the number of actual regulatory changes were few, they are continuing. The utilities that embraced risk informed operations made dramatic changes in the way they approached operations and outage management. Those utilities that used risk in operations showed dramatic improvement in safety based on Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) performance indicators. It was also shown that the use of risk did not negatively affect safety performance of the plants compared to standard prescriptive approaches. This was despite having greater flexibility in compliance to regulatory standards and the use of the newly instituted risk-informed reactor oversight process. Key factors affecting the successful transition to a more risk-informed approach to regulations and operations are: strong top management support and leadership both at the regulator and the utility; education and training in risk principles and probabilistic risk Assessment tools for engineers, operators and maintenance staff; a slow and steady introduction of risk initiatives in areas that can show value to both the regulator and the industry; a transparent regulatory foundation built around a safety goal policy and the development of a strong safety culture at the utility to allow for more independence in safety compliance and risk management. The experience of the United States shows positive results in both safety and economics. The INPO and NRC metrics presented show that the use of risk information in operations and regulation is marginally better with no degradation in safety when plants that have embraced risk-informed approaches are compared

  8. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Semiannual report on operating and maintenance, July--December 1974

    Unit 1 generated 388,882 MWH(e) and was on line 3111.2 hours, Unit 2 generated 1,204,106 MWH(e) and was on line 2013.4 hours, and Unit 3 generated 2,250,810 MWH(e) and was on line 3836 hours. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, and experiments for the three units. (U.S.)

  9. Preliminary importance analysis of safety related motor operated valves for Ulchin units 3 and 4

    We perform an importance analysis of safety related motor operated valves( MOV) for Ulchin Units 3 and 4 from the viewpoint of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The safety evaluation of safety related MOV for domestic nuclear power plants affects the experience data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure (CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 and 4 PSA. Therefore, in this paper, we re-estimate MGL(multiple greek letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF events in Ulchin Units 3 and 4 and perform importance analysis for safety related MOVs. The number of high safety significant components (HSSCs) by the integrated importance analysis using the changed MGL parameter is decreased by 45% compared with that using current MGL parameter in Ulchin Units 3 and 4 PSA. If sensitivity analysis results are incorporated into the integrated importance analysis results, the number of HSSCs by the integrated importance analysis using the changed MGL parameter is decreased by 35% compared with that using the current MGL parameter

  10. Fessenheim 2: ASN's green light for continuing operation - Beginning of the works for unit 1

    Every 10 years a nuclear power plant operator has to make a re-assessment of the nuclear safety standard of his plant. This re-assessment is made of 2 parts: first the review of the safety conformity and secondly a thorough re-examination of the safety that takes into account today's safety standards and feedback experience from similar plants. This detailed assessment of the safety aims at checking that the consequences of the different aging phenomena are well mastered for the next 10 years at least. At the end of this re-assessment, the ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authorities) decide or not the continuation of plant activity or can prescribe safety improvements. In the case of the unit 2 of the Fessenheim plant that has just finished its third decennial safety re-assessment, the ASN has prescribed the same improvements as for the unit 1, that is to say the reinforcement of the resistance to corium of the foundation raft and an improvement on the emergency cooling system. The works on the unit 1 have begun despite contestation from anti-nuclear associations that question the cost of the safety upgrading (20 to 30 millions euros) while the unit is expected to be decommissioned by end 2016. (A.C.)

  11. Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants

    Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW [i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)] that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials [liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids], could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends

  12. Pickering NGS B - Unit 6 strategy to remove fuel defects during operation at high power

    Unit 6 was operating at high power (100% FP) with all the adjuster rods (AAs) in core when Chemistry sample results of HTS I-131 activity increased from 1.65 μCi/kg (base line) to 5.4 μCi/kg. Sustained elevated activity levels and subsequently numerous significant spikes have lead to the conclusion that the Unit 6 core contains defected fuel bundles. 34 channels have been identified by Reactor Physics, as possible locations containing defective fuel bundles. Reactor Physics has developed a set of criteria, to be used in prioritizing the sequence of channel re-fuelling and defect removal. The refuelling strategy was successfully implemented in February 2009, all the suspect channels were twice fuelled and any potential defected fuel bundle was discharged by end of summer 2009. (author)

  13. Development of CAPE-OPEN unit operations for advanced power systems modeling

    Swensen, D.; Zitney, S.; Bockelie, M.

    2007-01-01

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) is developing a suite of CORBA CAPE-OPEN compliant unit operations to support the Department of Energy NETL Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power systems. One of these components will provide an interface to the GateCycle software, which is widely used in the power generation industry for process modeling. Additional CAPE-OPEN components will provide modeling capabilities of varying fidelity for equipment such as a gasifier, air separation unit, syngas cooler, solid oxide fuel cell and water-gas shift reactor. The models used in the components will be a combination of those developed by REI and proprietary models developed by members of the Project's industrial interest group.

  14. Current sharing between two vacuum circuit breaker units in parallel operation for large direct current interruption

    The inductive energy storage system (IES system) has been developed for the energy source of a fusion reactor. This paper presents the characteristics of circuit breaker units which will be used for the IES system. A small scale parallel breaking test circuit, in which two vacuum circuit breaker units are used, was constructed. The power source for the circuit was a condenser bank of 730 microfarad. The relation between arc voltage and arc current, and current wave forms in both vacuum valves operated in parallel were observed. Simulation calculation for the small scale circuit was performed. The obtained wave forms were similar to the measured forms. It was found that the current through both breakers was nearly balanced when the difference of breaking time of both breakers was small. Simulation calculation method for large scale parallel breakers was developed. Use of a series inductance of 100 microhenry will save the difference of breaking time. (Kato, T.)

  15. Integrated Operational Taxonomic Units (IOTUs) in Echolocating Bats: A Bridge between Molecular and Traditional Taxonomy

    Galimberti, Andrea; Spada, Martina; Russo, Danilo; Mucedda, Mauro; Agnelli, Paolo; Crottini, Angelica; Ferri, Emanuele; Martinoli, Adriano; Casiraghi, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Background Nowadays, molecular techniques are widespread tools for the identification of biological entities. However, until very few years ago, their application to taxonomy provoked intense debates between traditional and molecular taxonomists. To prevent every kind of disagreement, it is essential to standardize taxonomic definitions. Along these lines, we introduced the concept of Integrated Operational Taxonomic Unit (IOTU). IOTUs come from the concept of Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) and paralleled the Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit (MOTU). The latter is largely used as a standard in many molecular-based works (even if not always explicitly formalized). However, while MOTUs are assigned solely on molecular variation criteria, IOTUs are identified from patterns of molecular variation that are supported by at least one more taxonomic characteristic. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested the use of IOTUs on the widest DNA barcoding dataset of Italian echolocating bats species ever assembled (i.e. 31 species, 209 samples). We identified 31 molecular entities, 26 of which corresponded to the morphologically assigned species, two MOTUs and three IOTUs. Interestingly, we found three IOTUs in Myotis nattereri, one of which is a newly described lineage found only in central and southern Italy. In addition, we found a level of molecular variability within four vespertilionid species deserving further analyses. According to our scheme two of them (i.e. M. bechsteinii and Plecotus auritus) should be ranked as unconfirmed candidate species (UCS). Conclusions/Significance From a systematic point of view, IOTUs are more informative than the general concept of OTUs and the more recent MOTUs. According to information content, IOTUs are closer to species, although it is important to underline that IOTUs are not species. Overall, the use of a more precise panel of taxonomic entities increases the clarity in the systematic field and has the potential to fill the gaps

  16. Integrated operational taxonomic units (IOTUs in echolocating bats: a bridge between molecular and traditional taxonomy.

    Andrea Galimberti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nowadays, molecular techniques are widespread tools for the identification of biological entities. However, until very few years ago, their application to taxonomy provoked intense debates between traditional and molecular taxonomists. To prevent every kind of disagreement, it is essential to standardize taxonomic definitions. Along these lines, we introduced the concept of Integrated Operational Taxonomic Unit (IOTU. IOTUs come from the concept of Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU and paralleled the Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit (MOTU. The latter is largely used as a standard in many molecular-based works (even if not always explicitly formalized. However, while MOTUs are assigned solely on molecular variation criteria, IOTUs are identified from patterns of molecular variation that are supported by at least one more taxonomic characteristic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the use of IOTUs on the widest DNA barcoding dataset of Italian echolocating bats species ever assembled (i.e. 31 species, 209 samples. We identified 31 molecular entities, 26 of which corresponded to the morphologically assigned species, two MOTUs and three IOTUs. Interestingly, we found three IOTUs in Myotis nattereri, one of which is a newly described lineage found only in central and southern Italy. In addition, we found a level of molecular variability within four vespertilionid species deserving further analyses. According to our scheme two of them (i.e. M.bechsteinii and Plecotus auritus should be ranked as unconfirmed candidate species (UCS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From a systematic point of view, IOTUs are more informative than the general concept of OTUs and the more recent MOTUs. According to information content, IOTUs are closer to species, although it is important to underline that IOTUs are not species. Overall, the use of a more precise panel of taxonomic entities increases the clarity in the systematic field and has the potential

  17. Operating results in 1986 of German nuclear generating units. Pt. 2

    The 1986 operating results of the nuclear power plants of more than 1000 MW power run in the Federal Republic of Germany are reprinted in excerpts in part 2 (pt. 1: nuclear generating units of up to 1000 MW power). The top of the list, as far as electricity generation is concerned (also worldwide), is occupied by the Grohnde nuclear generating unit (1365 MWe) with 10.793 billion kWh, followed by Philippsburg KKP-2 (1349 MWe) with 10.750 billion kWh and Kruemmel KKK (1316 MWe) with 9.888 billion kWh. Nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany also attained high availabilities. The highest availability level has been recorded for the Grohnde KWG unit, i.e., 92,7% availability in terms of time and 89.7% capacity availability. KWG is followed in that respect by Stade KKS (672 MWe) with 92% and 89.2%, respectively. The THTR and Muelheim-Kaerlich plants, which are in the commissioning phase, suffered prolonged outages for licensing reasons. In 1986 there were no major safety related events in the nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany, which could be called accidents. Technical problems, some of which resulted in considerably prolonged revision outages or unscheduled outages, were encountered in the year under review especially in the turbine sector (fixed and moving blades), in the main coolant pumps of PWR plants, and the bolts of core shrouds (PWR) and feedwater spargers, respectively (BWR). Some BWR plants expanded their operating characteristics thus improving their load following behavior. After an introductory survey, the various reactors are dealt with in greater detail, including the operating diagrams for 1986. (orig./UA)

  18. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  19. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    This plan was prepared in support of the Phase II Remedial Design Report (DOE/OR/01-1449 ampersand D1) and in accordance with requirements under CERCLA to present the plan for best management practices to be followed during the remediation. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about spill prevention and control, water quality monitoring, good housekeeping practices, sediment and erosion control measures, and inspections and environmental compliance practices to be used during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit

  20. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE's preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public's role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy

  1. Linear fractional composition operators on the Dirichlet space in the unit ball

    ZHOU ZeHua; YUAN Cheng

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the adjoints of linear fractional composition operators Cφ acting on classical Dirichlet space D(BN) in the unit ball BN of CN,and characterize the normality and essential normality of Cφ on:D(BN) and the Dirichlet space modulo constant function:Do (BN),where φ is a linear fractional map of BN.In addition,we also show that for any non-elliptic linear fractional map φ of BN,the composition maps σ o φ and φo σ are elliptic or parabolic linear fractional maps of BN.

  2. Linear fractional composition operators on the Dirichlet space in the unit ball

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the adjoints of linear fractional composition operators Cφ acting on classical Dirichlet space D(BN ) in the unit ball BN of CN , and characterize the normality and essential normality of Cφ on D(BN ) and the Dirichlet space modulo constant function D0(BN ), where φ is a linear fractional map of BN . In addition, we also show that for any non-elliptic linear fractional map φ of BN , the composition maps σοφ and φοσ are elliptic or parabolic linear fractional maps of BN .

  3. Operating experience and lessons learned in the United States of America

    One of the key elements for continuous improvement of ageing management is the use of OE and lessons learned during the implementation of AMPs. The document NEI 95-10 (Rev. 6), which is the basis for licence renewal evaluations for LTO in the United States of America and many other States, has identified OE as one of the ten key elements of every AMP for LTO. The OE element is described as: “Operating experience of the aging management activity, including past corrective actions resulting in program enhancements or additional programs or activities, should provide objective evidence to ensure that the effects of aging will be adequately managed so that the intended functions of the structure or component will be maintained during the period of extended operation.”

  4. Maintenance and operation of a hydroelectric unit of energy in a power system using virtual reality

    de Sousa, Marcos Paulo Alves [Federal University of Para, Faculty of Engineering Computing, Augusto Correa Street, No. 1, Belem, Para (Brazil); Emilio Goeldi Museum, Service Data Processing Department, Perimetral Avenue No. 1901, Belem, Para (Brazil); Filho, Manoel Ribeiro; Nunes, Marcus Vinicius Alves; Lopes, Andrey da Costa [Federal University of Para, Faculty of Engineering Computing, Augusto Correa Street, No. 1, Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents a new approach to training for hydroelectric unit of energy (HUE) by using virtual reality Non-immersive techniques. The software offers two modules of training: maintenance and operation. The first module, maintenance, uses the learning approach based on practice and offers different training levels, divided into three modes: automatic, guided, and exploratory, in which these modes are accessed according to the acquired degree of knowledge by the trainee in relation to maintenance procedures. The second module, allows the trainee to visualize the operation of HUE during a certain event as the electromechanical dynamics of the turbine-generator assemblage in the virtual world by the visualization of several requisite conditions before the startup-shutdown procedure of HUE. (author)

  5. 78 FR 5167 - BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States

    2013-01-24

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC003 BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues... Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States (BE-9). This mandatory survey is..., agents, or other representatives of foreign airline operators that transport passengers or freight...

  6. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K trademark resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well

  7. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K{trademark} resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well.

  8. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    This work plan and attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-2 operable unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The 100 Area is one of four areas at the Hanford Site that are on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List under CERCLA. The 100-BC-2 operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-B/C Area (Figure ES-1). Source operable units are those that contain facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The 100-BC-2 source operable unit contains waste sites that were formerly in the 100-BC-2, 100-BC-3, and 100-BC-4 operable units. Because of their size and geographic location, the waste sites from these two operable units were added to 100-BC-2. This allows for a more efficient and effective investigation of the remaining 100-B/C Reactor area waste sites. The investigative approach to waste sites associated with the 100-BC-2 operable unit are listed in Table ES-1. The waste sites fall into three general categories: high priority liquid waste disposal sites, low priority liquid waste disposal sites, and solid waste burial grounds. Several sites have been identified as candidates for conducting an IRM. Two sites have been identified as warranting additional limited field sampling. The two sites are the 116-C-2A pluto crib, and the 116-C-2C sand filter

  9. Operational Experience with Long Duration Wildfire Mapping: UAS Missions Over the Western United States

    Hall, Philip; Cobleigh, Brent; Buoni, Greg; Howell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United States Forest Service, and National Interagency Fire Center have developed a partnership to develop and demonstrate technology to improve airborne wildfire imaging and data dissemination. In the summer of 2007, a multi-spectral infrared scanner was integrated into NASA's Ikhana Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) (a General Atomics Predator-B) and launched on four long duration wildfire mapping demonstration missions covering eight western states. Extensive safety analysis, contingency planning, and mission coordination were key to securing an FAA certificate of authorization (COA) to operate in the national airspace. Infrared images were autonomously geo-rectified, transmitted to the ground station by satellite communications, and networked to fire incident commanders within 15 minutes of acquisition. Close coordination with air traffic control ensured a safe operation, and allowed real-time redirection around inclement weather and other minor changes to the flight plan. All objectives of the mission demonstrations were achieved. In late October, wind-driven wildfires erupted in five southern California counties. State and national emergency operations agencies requested Ikhana to help assess and manage the wildfires. Four additional missions were launched over a 5-day period, with near realtime images delivered to multiple emergency operations centers and fire incident commands managing 10 fires.

  10. Overview of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Power System Integration and Operation at Desert RATS 2010

    Colozza, Anthony J.; George, Pat; Gambrell, Ronnie; Chapman, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A habitat demonstration unit (HDU) was constructed at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and designed by a multicenter NASA team led out of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The HDU was subsequently utilized at the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) program held at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. This report describes the power system design, installation and operation for the HDU. The requirements for the power system were to provide 120 VAC, 28 VDC, and 120 VDC power to the various loads within the HDU. It also needed to be capable of providing power control and real-time operational data on the load's power consumption. The power system had to be capable of operating off of a 3 phase 480 VAC generator as well as 2 solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The system operated well during the 2 week Desert RATS campaign and met all of the main goals of the system. The power system is being further developed to meet the future needs of the HDU and options for this further development are discussed.

  11. Solving optimum operation of single pump unit problem with ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm

    For pumping stations, the effective scheduling of daily pump operations from solutions to the optimum design operation problem is one of the greatest potential areas for energy cost-savings, there are some difficulties in solving this problem with traditional optimization methods due to the multimodality of the solution region. In this case, an ACO model for optimum operation of pumping unit is proposed and the solution method by ants searching is presented by rationally setting the object function and constrained conditions. A weighted directed graph was constructed and feasible solutions may be found by iteratively searching of artificial ants, and then the optimal solution can be obtained by applying the rule of state transition and the pheromone updating. An example calculation was conducted and the minimum cost was found as 4.9979. The result of ant colony algorithm was compared with the result from dynamic programming or evolutionary solving method in commercial software under the same discrete condition. The result of ACO is better and the computing time is shorter which indicates that ACO algorithm can provide a high application value to the field of optimal operation of pumping stations and related fields.

  12. Operational reliability statistical analysis of WWER -1000 reactors electric pump units CN 60-180 by kernel estimation methods

    The article deals with the processing of statistical information on pump units CN 60-180 failures during operation. Pump units CN 60-180 are part of the regular equipment of WWER-1000 reactors. The information for the analysis was obtained from VNIIAEhS branch database. The object operation observation period is 01.01.1990 - 31.12.2007. The statistical data processing was carried out with nonparametric estimation method named kernel estimation. Such pump units reliability characteristic estimates, as probability density and distribution function of failure time, probability of no-failure operation and failure rate were obtained. The work results are used for NPP control

  13. Phase report 1C, TA-21 operable unit RCRA Facility Investigation, Outfalls Investigation

    This phase report summarizes the results of field investigations conducted in 1992 at Technical Area 21 of Los Alamos National Laboratory, as prescribed by the RCRA Facility Investigation work plan for the Technical Area 21 operable unit (also known as OU 1106). This phase report is the last part of a three-part phase report describing the results of field work conducted in 1992 at this operable unit. Phase Report lA, issued on l4 June l993, summarized site geologic characterization activities. Phase report 1B, issued on 28 January 1994, included an assessment of site-wide surface soil background, airborne emissions deposition, and contamination in the locations of two former air filtration buildings. The investigations assessed in Phase Report 1C include field radiation surveys and surface and near-surface sampling to characterize potential contamination at 25 outfalls and septic systems listed as SWMUs in the RFI work plan. Based on the RFI data, it is recommended that no further action is warranted for 8 SWMUs and further action is recommended for 3 SWMUs addressed in this phase report. For 14 SWMUs which represent no immediate threat to human health or environment, deferral of further action/no further action decisions is recommended until outstanding analytical data are received, sampling of adjacent SWMUs is completed, or decisions are made about the baseline risk assessment approach

  14. Phase report 1C, TA-21 operable unit RCRA Facility Investigation, Outfalls Investigation

    1994-02-28

    This phase report summarizes the results of field investigations conducted in 1992 at Technical Area 21 of Los Alamos National Laboratory, as prescribed by the RCRA Facility Investigation work plan for the Technical Area 21 operable unit (also known as OU 1106). This phase report is the last part of a three-part phase report describing the results of field work conducted in 1992 at this operable unit. Phase Report lA, issued on l4 June l993, summarized site geologic characterization activities. Phase report 1B, issued on 28 January 1994, included an assessment of site-wide surface soil background, airborne emissions deposition, and contamination in the locations of two former air filtration buildings. The investigations assessed in Phase Report 1C include field radiation surveys and surface and near-surface sampling to characterize potential contamination at 25 outfalls and septic systems listed as SWMUs in the RFI work plan. Based on the RFI data, it is recommended that no further action is warranted for 8 SWMUs and further action is recommended for 3 SWMUs addressed in this phase report. For 14 SWMUs which represent no immediate threat to human health or environment, deferral of further action/no further action decisions is recommended until outstanding analytical data are received, sampling of adjacent SWMUs is completed, or decisions are made about the baseline risk assessment approach.

  15. Preliminary remedial action objectives for the Tank 16 groundwater operable unit

    Tank 16 is a High Level Radioactive Waste tank in the H-Area Tank Farm on the Savannah River Site that was placed into service in May 1959. A leak was detected in one of the construction weld joints while the tank was being filled. Before jet evacuation of the tank waste was completed, the leak overflowed the annulus pan and an estimated 16 to 700 gallons of waste escaped to the environment (soil and groundwater) over a six hour period contaminating approximately 1,600--70,000 cubic feet of soil with up to 5000 curies of activity (principally Cs137). The Tank 16 bottom is constructed below the groundwater table which resulted in almost immediate contamination of that medium. Low groundwater flow rates, the ion exchange property of adjacent soils, and the distance to the nearest surface water bodies (1,500 to 8,000 feet) indicates that surface water and sediment outcrop of contaminates may be expected between 44 and 530 years (Poe et al., 1974). Remedial action objectives consist of medium-specific and operable unit specific goals for protecting human health and the environment. These objectives are specific and do not limit the range of alternatives that may be developed.A range of remedial technologies, which provides for treatment, containment, and removal requirements of contaminated media remaining at the Tank 16 groundwater operable unit, is identified and developed for each general response action

  16. The development of the operational program for seismic monitoring system of Uljin Unit 1 and 2

    Lee, J.R.; Heo, T.Y.; Cho, B.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, T.G.; Kim, H.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Oh, S.M.; Kang, Y.S. [Korea Electric Power Data Network Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Due to aging of the imported seismic monitoring system of Uljin of t 1 and 2 units it is difficult for this system to provide enough functions needed for the security of seismic safety and the evaluation of the earthquake data from the seismic instrumentation. For this reason, it is necessary to replace the seismic monitoring system of Uljin 1 and 2 units with a new system which has the localized and upgraded hardware and corresponding software. In the part of standardization of existing seismic monitoring system, furthermore, it is necessary to develop the seismic wave analysis system which incorporate newly developed software and can real-timely analyze the seismic wave. This report is the finial product of research project ``The development of the operational program for seismic monitoring system of Uljin Unit 1 and 2`` which have been performed from June 1996 to June 1997 by KEPRI and KDN. Main accomplishments - Review of regulatory criteria for seismic monitoring system -Analysis and upgrade of hardware system -Analysis and upgrade of software system - Development of seismic wave analysis system. (author). 17 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Combined operation of AC and DC distribution system with distributed generation units

    This paper presents a DC distribution system which has been supplied by external AC systems as well as local DG units in order to demonstrate an overall solution to power quality issue. In this paper, the proposed operation method is demonstrated by simulation of power transfer between external AC systems, DG units, AC and DC loads. The power flow control in DC distribution system has been achieved by network converters and DG converters. Also, the mathematical model of the network, DG and load converters are obtained by using the average technique, which allows converter systems accurately simulated and control strategies for this converters is achieved. A suitable control strategy for network converters has been proposed that involves DC voltage droop regulator and novel instantaneous power regulation scheme. Also, a novel control technique has been proposed for DG converters. In this paper, a novel control system based on stationary and synchronously rotating reference frame has been proposed for load converters for supplying AC loads connected to the DC bus by balanced voltages. The several case studies have been studied based on proposed methods. The simulation results show that DC distribution systems including DG units can improve the power quality at the point of common coupling (PCC) in the power distribution system or industrial power system. (authors)

  18. Economic evaluation alongside pragmatic randomised trials: developing a standard operating procedure for clinical trials units

    Russell Ian T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is wide recognition that pragmatic randomised trials are the best vehicle for economic evaluation. This is because trials provide the best chance of ensuring internal validity, not least through the rigorous prospective collection of patient-specific data. Furthermore the marginal cost of collecting economic data alongside clinical data is typically modest. UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC does not require a standard operating procedure (SOP for economic evaluation as a prerequisite for trial unit registration. We judge that such a SOP facilitates the integration of health economics into trials. Methods A collaboration between health economists and trialists at Bangor University led to the development of a SOP for economic evaluation alongside pragmatic trials, in addition to the twenty SOPs required by UKCRC for registration, which include randomisation, data management and statistical analysis. Results Our recent telephone survey suggests that no other UKCRC-registered trials unit currently has an economic SOP. Conclusion We argue that UKCRC should require, from all Trials Units undertaking economic evaluation and seeking registration or re-registration, a SOP for economic evaluation as one of their portfolio of supporting SOPs.

  19. Interprofessional rhetoric and operational realities: an ethnographic study of rounds in four intensive care units.

    Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Gropper, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Morning interprofessional rounds (MIRs) are used in critical care medicine to improve team-based care and patient outcomes. Given existing evidence of conflict between and dissatisfaction among rounds participants, this study sought to better understand how the operational realities of care delivery in the intensive care unit (ICU) impact the success of MIRs. We conducted a year-long comparative ethnographic study of interprofessional collaboration and patient and family involvement in four ICUs in tertiary academic hospitals in two American cities. The study included 576 h of observation of team interactions, 47 shadowing sessions and 40 clinician interviews. In line with best practices in ethnographic research, data collection and analysis were done iteratively using the constant comparative method. Member check was conducted regularly throughout the project. MIRs were implemented on all units with the explicit goals of improving team-based and patient-centered care. Operational conditions on the units, despite interprofessional commitment and engagement, appeared to thwart ICU teams from achieving these goals. Specifically, time constraints, struggles over space, and conflicts between MIRs' educational and care-plan-development functions all prevented teams from achieving collaboration and patient-involvement. Moreover, physicians' de facto control of rounds often meant that they resembled medical rounds (their historical predecessors), and sidelined other providers' contributions. This study suggests that the MIRs model, as presently practiced, might not be well suited to the provision of team-based, patient-centered care. In the interest of interprofessional collaboration, of the optimization of clinicians' time, of high-quality medical education and of patient-centered care, further research on interprofessional rounds models is needed. PMID:26704051

  20. History of the project of upgrading the Dukovany reactor units for operation in the variable load mode, its implementation and operating experience

    The history of adapting the reactor unit systems for operation in the power control mode (including design changes that actually remained non-implemented) is highlighted. The demands of the electric grid on the power control operation modes (grid-support services) are briefly summarised, including their certification under the Electricity Transfer System Code. Experience of the NPP Dukovany gained from operation in the power control mode is described. (author)

  1. A descriptive survey of management and operations at selected sports medicine centers in the United States.

    Olsen, D

    1996-11-01

    No uniform guidelines for operations or accreditation standards for sports medicine center were available and, at the time of this study, little information on the management and operation of sports medicine centers was available in the literature. The purpose of the study was to determine the management structure and function of selected sports medicine centers in the United States. Questionnaires were mailed to 200 randomly selected centers throughout the United State from a directory of sports medicine centers published in Physician and Sportsmedicine (1992) to gather descriptive information on eight areas, including 1) general background, 2) staffing, 3) services, facilities, and equipment, 4) billing, collections, and revenue, 5) clientele, caseloads, and referrals, 6) ownership and financing, 7) school and club outreach contracts, and 8) marketing strategies and future trends. A total of 71 surveys (35.5%) were returned in the allotted time frame. Data were analyzed using ranges, means, medians, modes, and percentages. Results yielded several conclusions about sports medicine centers. Nearly all (93%) of the centers employed physical therapists; physical therapists were clinical directors at 70.2% of centers; orthopaedists were most often medical directors; rehabilitation was the most frequently offered service (93%); physical therapy produced the highest revenue; sports injuries accounted for a mean 34.5% of patients, who were mostly recreational or high school athletes between 13-60 years of age; primary shareholders were most often physical therapists or physicians; most were involved in outreach services for schools; marketing strategies primarily involved communication with referral sources; and managed care was identified most frequently as a trend affecting the future of sports medicine centers. Findings identified common aspects of sports medicine centers and may assist in establishing guidelines for operations or accreditation of sports medicine

  2. Record of Decision for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County, Commerce City, Colorado.

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County (east of...

  3. Continuous operation of NPP Kori Unit 1 - Fireproof paint for cables

    Fireproof cable coating materials have been used in European NPP, especially in Germany, Russia, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Switzerland. Wide experiences were made during operation while applying these systems. In NPP Kori, Unit 1, a fire proof cable coating project was realised for the first time in a NPP of KHNP. The scope of services of the cable trays to coat amounts to 15,587m2. In different fire compartments and rooms the cables should be coated partially respectively completely with the fire proof cable coating system. The extent of cable surfaces to coat was stipulated by KHNP on the basis of an analysis made by KHNP. The project was tendered on the basis of a technical specification of KHNP. The specification is mainly predicted on Korean and US standards. The most important criteria for the fire proof cable coating is resumed as follows: The fireproof cable coating has to assure the fire protection of the cables for a period defined and for operational conditions defined in such a manner that the general conditions for the operation of the cable installation will not be affected

  4. Data collection on the unit control room simulator as a method of operator reliability analysis

    The report consists of the following chapters: (1) Probabilistic assessment of nuclear power plant operation safety and human factor reliability analysis; (2) Simulators and simulations as human reliability analysis tools; (3) DOE project for using the collection and analysis of data from the unit control room simulator in human factor reliability analysis at the Paks nuclear power plant; (4) General requirements for the organization of the simulator data collection project; (5) Full-scale simulator at the Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute in Trnava, Slovakia, used as a training means for operators of the Dukovany NPP; (6) Assessment of the feasibility of quantification of important human actions modelled within a PSA study by employing simulator data analysis; (7) Assessment of the feasibility of using the various exercise topics for the quantification of the PSA model; (8) Assessment of the feasibility of employing the simulator in the analysis of the individual factors affecting the operator's activity; and (9) Examples of application of statistical methods in the analysis of the human reliability factor. (P.A.)

  5. Tire derived fuel and thermal waste incineration commercial operation in coal fired cyclone units

    In an effort to clean up and dispose of former manufactured gas plant site wastes, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency issued an experimental permit to Illinois Power to conduct a test burn of coal tar and coal tar impacted soil. An experimental permit was required because this was the first time in Illinois that gas manufacturing residues had been burned in a power plant boiler, even though it has been done in other states with great success. The USEPA, the Illinois EPA, and Illinois Power believe the most efficient way to clean up these wastes is to use a method that permanently reduces or removes threats to health and the environment. After completing successful test burns and providing results to the Illinois EPA and USEPA, Illinois Power petitioned for and was granted an environmental permit to construct and operate a commercial incineration facility to supplement the fuel on two coal fired cyclone units. This technical paper examines the processing, testing and effectiveness of the commercial operation to date. A comprehensive health and safety plan along with a results study to establish an improved permanent operation at the Baldwin Plant will be contained

  6. First operational experience with the LHC beam dump trigger synchronization unit

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented for a safer operation. This includes an increase of the diagnosis and monitoring functionalities and a more automated validation of the hardware and embedded firmware before deploying or executing a post-operational analysis of the TSU performance, after each dump action. In the light of this first experience the outcome of the external review performed in 2010 is presented. The lessons learnt on the project life cycle for the design of mission critical electronic modules are discussed. (authors)

  7. RCRA Facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 100-DR-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    This work plan establishes the operable unit setting and the objectives, approach, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Resource Conservation Recovery Act facility investigation/corrective measure study (RFI/CMS) for the 100-DR-2 Operable Unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. This work plan is intended to cover the entire RFI/CMS program, but it is focused on limited field investigation (LFI) activities. The 100 Area is one of four areas at the Hanford Site that are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. The 100-DR-2 Operable Unit is one of two remaining source operable units in the 100 D/DR Area. Source operable units are those that contain facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. In order to more efficiently manage the environmental restoration of the 100 D/DR Area, 100-DR-3 was incorporated into 100-DR-2. The 100-DR-2 contains liquid, sludge, and solid waste units that were used to support the operation of the DR Reactor. The 100-DR-3 mainly consists of solid waste burial grounds, which are presently on the interim remedial measure (IRM) pathway. The approach described in this work plan is based on the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. This strategy streamlines the past-practice remedial action process with a bias for action through optimizing the use of interim actions. This approach culminates with decisions of final remedies on both an operable unit and 100 Area scale. The pathway selected during the scoping process for the high-priority liquid waste sites and solid waste burial grounds in the 100-DR-2 Operable Unit is the IRM pathway

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Process Vents From Batch Unit... Subpart PPP of Part 63—Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations—Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting... monitor was continuously operating during batch emission episodes selected for control and whether a...

  9. A Formula for the Units to Satisfy an Operation's Desired Rate of Return in CVP Analysis--A Conceptual Approach

    Anderson, Johann A.; Leese, Wallace R.

    2016-01-01

    A common formula presented in many managerial- and cost-accounting textbooks makes possible the determination of the quantity of units which must be produced and sold to generate a desired dollar-amount of operating income. This article addresses the question "What formula can be used to determine the quantity of units needed to yield a…

  10. Operation experience of the advanced fuel assemblies at Unit 1 of Volgodonsk NPP within four fuel cycles

    The first commissioning of Volgodonsk NPP Unit 1 with standard reactor WWER-1000 (project V-320) was in 2001. The reactor core, starting from the first fuel charge, was arranged completely with Advanced Fuel Assemblies (AFAs). In this way, it is possible to obtain the experience in startup and operation of the core, completely arranged with AFAs, and also to get a possibility of performing the comprehensive check for justification of newly commissioned units and justification of design solutions accepted in the design of reactor core for Taiwan NPP, Bushehr NPP and Kudankulam NPP. The first fuel charge of the Volgodonsk NPP Unit 1 is a reference and unified for Tiawan NPP (V-428), Bushehr NPP (V-446), Kudankulam NPP(V-412) with small differences caused by design features of RP V-320. The first core charge of Unit 1 of Volgodonsk NPP was arranged of 163 AFAs, comprising 61 CPS ARs and 42 BAR bundles. The subsequent fuel charges were arranged of AFAs with gadolinium oxide integrated into fuel instead of BAR. By 2005 the results of operation of the core at Unit 1 of Volgodonsk NPP during four fuel cycles showed that AFA is sufficiently reliable and serviceable. The activity of the primary coolant of the Volgodonsk NPP is at stable low level. During the whole time of the core operation of the Volgodonsk NPP Unit 1 no leaky AFAs were revealed. The modifications of the internals, made during pre-operational work, are reasonable and effective to provide for fuel mechanical stability in the course of operation. The modifications, made in AFA structure during operation of the Volgodonsk NPP Unit 1, are aimed at improving the service and operational reliability of its components. Correctness of the solutions taken is confirmed by AFAs operation experience both at the Volgodonsk NPP, and at other operating Russian NPPs

  11. Proposed Plan for Interim Remedial Action and Dangerous Waste Modified Closure of the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Units and Associated Sites in the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit

    This Proposed Plan identifies the preferred alternatives for interim remedial action and dangerous waste unit modified closure and corrective action of the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units and their associated sites in the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit, located at the Hanford Site (Figure S-1). The TSD units consist of contaminated soils, structures, and pipelines. There are four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) TSD units: the 116-N-1 Crib and Trench, the 116-N-3 Crib and Trench, the 120-N-1 Percolation Pond, and the 120-N-2 Surface Impoundment. There are two associated sites: the UPR-100-N-31 unplanned release (UPR) spill site and the 100-N-58 South Settling Pond. This Proposed Plan also summarizes the other remedial alternatives analyzed for remedial action. The intent of the remedial action is to address contaminated areas that pose potential threats to human health and the environment

  12. A Survey of the Fuel Cycles Operated in the United Kingdom

    (a) The natural uranium/ magnox fuel cycle. The United Kingdom have chosen the natural uranium graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactor as the basis of their nuclear power programme. They have operated the reactors at Calder Hall and Chapelcross for seven years; the Berkeley and Bradwell reactors of the CEGB are now operating, and reactors at seven other sites are under construction or planned. The fuel for these reactors is designed and manufactured at the U.K.A.E.A. Springfields factory and then transported to the reactor site for loading. After irradiation and discharge the fuel is transported to the U.K.A.E.A. site at Windscale for separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products. The paper outlines the UK experience of design and manufacture of fuel, re actor operation, transport of irradiated fuel and subsequent processing of the fuel. Mention is made of the behaviour of fuel in a reactor and alternative charging and discharging programmes, the subject is further elaborated in another paper. (b) Reactors using enriched fuels. The UK are developing an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR), the prototype reactor of which came on power in 1963. The fuel is manufactured from enriched uranium oxide canned in stainless steel and it will be reprocessed through a ''head-end'' which will be added to the Windscale Magnox separation plant. The enriched uranium for the AGR is produced in the UK Diffusion Plant at Capenhurst. An alternative to enriched uranium oxide as a fuel is plutonium-enriched natural-uranium oxide. The paper outlines the experience in production of oxide fuel for AGR, the operating experience with the reactor so far and the plans for reprocessing the fuel. The alternative use of a plutonium fuel is considered and the effects of this on costs and the fuel cycle. Finally the paper outlines the place of Magnox and AGR reactors in the UK power programme. (author)

  13. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit first quarter 1994 groundwater sampling data

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-24

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit First Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of twenty-four samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The samples were analyzed by Thermo-Analytic Laboratories (TMA) and Roy F. Weston Laboratories (WESTON) using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CLP protocols. Sample analyses included: inorganics; and general chemical parameters. Forty-two samples were validated for radiochemical parameters by TMA and Teledyne.

  14. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment

  15. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  16. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit first quarter 1994 groundwater sampling data

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit First Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of twenty-four samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The samples were analyzed by Thermo-Analytic Laboratories (TMA) and Roy F. Weston Laboratories (WESTON) using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CLP protocols. Sample analyses included: inorganics; and general chemical parameters. Forty-two samples were validated for radiochemical parameters by TMA and Teledyne

  17. Designing User Interfaces for Smart-Applications for Operating Rooms and Intensive Care Units

    Kindsmüller, Martin Christof; Haar, Maral; Schulz, Hannes; Herczeg, Michael

    Today’s physicians and nurses working in operating rooms and intensive care units have to deal with an ever increasing amount of data. More and more medical devices are delivering information, which has to be perceived and interpreted in regard to patient status and the necessity to adjust therapy. The combination of high information load and insufficient usability creates a severe challenge for the health personnel with respect to proper monitoring of these devices respective to acknowledging alarms and timely reaction to critical incidents. Smart Applications are a new kind of decision support systems that incorporate medical expertise in order to help health personnel in regard to diagnosis and therapy. By means of a User Centered Design process of two Smart Applications (anaesthesia monitor display, diagnosis display), we illustrate which approach should be followed and which processes and methods have been successfully applied in fostering the design of usable medical devices.

  18. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer Pilot Study Plans

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-07-15

    A pilot study is being conducted to support the approval of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) pre-Hanford orchard lands. Based on comments received by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology, the pilot study will evaluate the use of field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry measurements for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of past use of lead arsenate pesticide residue in the OU. The work will be performed in the field during the summer of 2014, and assist in the planning for the characterization activities in the RI/FS.

  19. Technical work plan for Surface Impoundments Operable Unit engineering support studies

    This document provides a comprehensive work plan which, when utilized as a data collection guide for field activities, will provide the necessary information required to complete a report on geotechnical properties of the sediments contained in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Detailed guidance is provided for the following activities: collection of samples from the impoundments; compressive strength testing of the raw sediments; compressive strength testing of the structurally modified (lime and cement additives) sediments; testing for sediment physical properties and settling rates; testing for sediment dewatering characteristics; testing for radiation activity during the field work; testing for polymer additions that may enhance settling. The work plan additionally provides guidance and examples for the preparation of documents necessary to establish readiness for safe and satisfactory performance of the field activities. An outline for the format requested for a report of these data is also provided

  20. Thermo-physical performance prediction of the KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit for liquid hydrogen

    Baik, J. H.; Notardonato, W. U.; Karng, S. W.; Oh, I.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) researchers have been working on enhanced and modernized cryogenic liquid propellant handling techniques to reduce life cycle costs of propellant management system for the unique KSC application. The KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit (GODU) for liquid hydrogen (LH2) plans to demonstrate integrated refrigeration, zero-loss flexible term storage of LH2, and densified hydrogen handling techniques. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has partnered with the KSC researchers to develop thermal performance prediction model of the GODU for LH2. The model includes integrated refrigeration cooling performance, thermal losses in the tank and distribution lines, transient system characteristics during chilling and loading, and long term steady-state propellant storage. This paper will discuss recent experimental data of the GODU for LH2 system and modeling results.

  1. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

  2. Technical work plan for Surface Impoundments Operable Unit engineering support studies

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a comprehensive work plan which, when utilized as a data collection guide for field activities, will provide the necessary information required to complete a report on geotechnical properties of the sediments contained in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Detailed guidance is provided for the following activities: collection of samples from the impoundments; compressive strength testing of the raw sediments; compressive strength testing of the structurally modified (lime and cement additives) sediments; testing for sediment physical properties and settling rates; testing for sediment dewatering characteristics; testing for radiation activity during the field work; testing for polymer additions that may enhance settling. The work plan additionally provides guidance and examples for the preparation of documents necessary to establish readiness for safe and satisfactory performance of the field activities. An outline for the format requested for a report of these data is also provided.

  3. Evaluation of the operational efficiency of pacifying police units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Igor Rosa Dias de Jesus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pacification Police Unit (UPP is a new model for public security and policing, aimed at ensuring local security and, above all, reduce, or even, extinguish violent crime linked to drug trafficking, and approach people and police. The purpose of this article is measuring the operational efficiency of all UPPs installed in the state of Rio de Janeiro by the beginning of 2011 by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. For this, it was used the CCR model – input-oriented – developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes, which allows an objective assessment of the overall efficiency, identifying the sources of inefficiencies and the needed targets to achieve the efficiency in each UPP. The results converge to a reduction of the amount of policemen in all communities out of the efficiency frontier.

  4. Data validation summary report for the 100-NR-2 operable unit groundwater sampling round 8

    The information provided in this validation summary report includes data from the chemical analyses of samples from the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. Data from this sampling event and their related quality assurance (QA) samples were reviewed and validated in accordance with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) guidelines at the requested level. Sample analyses included metals, general chemistry, and radiochemistry. Forty-eight (48) metals samples were analyzed by Quanterra Environmental Services (QES) and Lockheed Analytical Services (LAS). The metals samples were validated using WHC protocols specified in WHC (1992a). All metals data were qualified based on this guidance. The container for sample number BOGJW7 in Sample Delivery Group (SDG) No. W0721-QES was broken in transit and therefore no results were available for validation. Table 1 lists the metals SDGs that were validated for this sampling event

  5. Model-based prediction of suitable operating range of a SOFC for an Auxiliary Power Unit

    Pfafferodt, Matthias; Heidebrecht, Peter; Stelter, Michael; Sundmacher, Kai

    This paper presents a one-dimensional steady state model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to be used in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). The fuel cell is fed a prereformed gas from an external autothermic reformer. In addition to the three electrochemical reactions (reduction of oxygen at the cathode, oxidation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide at the anode) the water-gas shift reaction and the methane steam reforming reaction are taken into account in the anode channel. The model predicts concentrations and temperatures and uses an equivalent circuit approach to describe the current-voltage characteristics of the cell. The model equations are presented and their implementation into the commercial mathematical software FEMLAB is discussed. An application of this model is used to determine suitable operating parameters with respect to optimum performance and allowable temperature.

  6. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater

  7. Geophysical investigation of the 116-H-1 liquid waste disposal trench, 100-HR-1 operable unit

    A geophysical investigation and data integration were conducted for the 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench, which is located in the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit. The 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench is also known as the 107-H Liquid Waste Disposal Trench, the 107-H Rupture Effluent Trench, and the 107-H Trench (Deford and Einan 1995). The trench was primarily used to hold effluent from the 107-H Retention Basin that had become radioactive from contact with ruptured fuel elements. The effluent may include debris from the ruptured fuel elements (Koop 1964). The 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench was also used to hold water and sludge from the 107-H Retention Basin during the basin's deactivation in 1965

  8. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced

  9. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced.

  10. Managing waste from confined animal feeding operations in the United States: the need for sanitary reform.

    Graham, Jay P; Nachman, Keeve E

    2010-12-01

    Confined food-animal operations in the United States produce more than 40 times the amount of waste than human biosolids generated from US wastewater treatment plants. Unlike biosolids, which must meet regulatory standards for pathogen levels, vector attraction reduction and metal content, no treatment is required of waste from animal agriculture. This omission is of concern based on dramatic changes in livestock production over the past 50 years, which have resulted in large increases in animal waste and a high degree of geographic concentration of waste associated with the regional growth of industrial food-animal production. Regulatory measures have not kept pace with these changes. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) review trends that affect food-animal waste production in the United States, 2) assess risks associated with food-animal wastes, 3) contrast food-animal waste management practices to management practices for biosolids and 4) make recommendations based on existing and potential policy options to improve management of food-animal waste. PMID:20705978

  11. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    2013-06-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended... workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, a subsidiary of...

  12. Essential Norms of Weighted Composition Operators from Weighted Bergman Space to Mixed-norm Space on the Unit Ball

    Ze Hua ZHOU; Yu Xia LIANG; Hong Gang ZENG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we characterize the boundedness and compactness of the weighted composition operators from the weighted Bergman space to the standard mixed-norm space or the mixed-norm space with normal weight on the unit ball and estimate the essential norms of the weighted composition operators.

  13. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    2012-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating... regulation requires applicants for a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs... Staff Guidance-022 on Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants...

  14. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gorton, Alicia M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Pino, Christian; Martinez, Dominique M.; Rana, Komal; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-20

    Prior to the acquisition of land by the U.S. Department of War in February 1943 and the creation of the Hanford Site, the land along the Columbia River was home to over 1000 people. Farming and orchard operations by both homesteaders and commercial organizations were prevalent. Orchard activities and the associated application of lead arsenate pesticide ceased in 1943, when residents were moved from the Hanford Site at the beginning of the Manhattan Project. Today, the residues from historical application of lead arsenate pesticide persist in some locations on the Hanford Site. In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology established the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The pre-Hanford orchard lands identified as the 100-OL-1 OU are located south of the Columbia River and east of the present-day Vernita Bridge, and extend southeast to the former Hanford townsite. The discontinuous orchard lands within 100-OL-1 OU are approximately 20 km2 (5000 ac). A pilot study was conducted to support the approval of the remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 OU. This pilot study evaluated the use of a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of lead arsenate pesticide residues in the OU. The objectives of the pilot study included evaluating a field portable XRF analyzer as the analytical method for decision making, estimating the nature and extent of lead and arsenic in surface soils in four decision units, evaluating the results for the purpose of optimizing the sampling approach implemented in the remedial investigation, and collecting information to improve the cost estimate and planning the cultural resources review for sampling activities in the remedial investigation. Based on

  15. Annual Summary Report, February to December 1998, for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Pump-and-Treat Operations and Operable Units

    This annual summary report discusses the interim remedial actions at the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Operable Units (OUs) for February 1,1998, through December 31, 1998. This is the second annual summary report that has been submitted for these OUs; the first report was released in April 1998 (DOE-RL 1998). Ongoing annual summaries and performance evaluations of each of the pump-and-treat systems are required by the Remedial Design Report and Remedial Action Work Plan for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Groundwater Operable Units' Interim Action (RDR/RAWP) (DOE-RL 1996)

  16. Can a stepwise steady flow computational fluid dynamics model reproduce unsteady particulate matter separation for common unit operations?

    Pathapati, Subbu-Srikanth; Sansalone, John J

    2011-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is emerging as a model for resolving the fate of particulate matter (PM) by unit operations subject to rainfall-runoff loadings. However, compared to steady flow CFD models, there are greater computational requirements for unsteady hydrodynamics and PM loading models. Therefore this study examines if integrating a stepwise steady flow CFD model can reproduce PM separation by common unit operations loaded by unsteady flow and PM loadings, thereby reducing computational effort. Utilizing monitored unit operation data from unsteady events as a metric, this study compares the two CFD modeling approaches for a hydrodynamic separator (HS), a primary clarifier (PC) tank, and a volumetric clarifying filtration system (VCF). Results indicate that while unsteady CFD models reproduce PM separation of each unit operation, stepwise steady CFD models result in significant deviation for HS and PC models as compared to monitored data; overestimating the physical size requirements of each unit required to reproduce monitored PM separation results. In contrast, the stepwise steady flow approach reproduces PM separation by the VCF, a combined gravitational sedimentation and media filtration unit operation that provides attenuation of turbulent energy and flow velocity. PMID:21644537

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  19. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L. [and others

    1994-06-01

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT.

  20. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT

  1. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  2. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  3. Proposed plan for interim remedial measures at the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Draft A

    This proposed plan introduces the preferred alternative for addressing contaminated soil and solid waste at the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit, located at the Hanford Site, along the Columbia River. In addition, this plan includes a summary of other alternatives analyzed for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit. The DOE conceived and implemented the Environmental Restoration Program in response to the 100 Areas being placed on the National Priorities List. The objective of the Environmental Restoration Program is remediation of the contaminated waste sites in the 100 Areas in accordance with applicable regulations. The Environmental Restoration Program proposes using past-practice waste site and groundwater remediation, along with reactor and facility decontamination and demolition, to prepare the 100 Areas for delisting from the Superfund National Priorities List. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit includes liquid and sludge disposal and solid waste sites generally associated with operation of the D and DR reactors

  4. Cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative force structures for fulfillment of the United States Marine Corps operational support airlift and search and rescue missions

    Chase, Eric T.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis provides a preliminary cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative force structures for the United States Marine Corps operational support airlift and search and rescue missions. The four alternative force structures include C-12s and CH-46Es, C-35s and CH-46Es and HV-609s. Lifecycle cost analysis of the alternative force structures using Crystal Bali forecasting provides a 90% upper confidence level lifecycle cost estimate that identifies a mix of C-35s for operati...

  5. FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT FOR THE 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER OPERABLE UNIT

    BYRNES ME

    2008-07-18

    The Hanford Site, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), encompasses approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. In 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas of the Hanford Site on the 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300, 'National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan' National Contingency Plan [NCPD], Appendix B, 'National Priorities List' (NPL), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Areas NPL sites consist of the 200 West and 200 East Areas (Figure 1-1). The 200 Areas contain waste management facilities, inactive irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities, and the 200 North Area (formerly used for interim storage and staging of irradiated fuel). Several waste sites in the 600 Area, located near the 200 Areas, also are included in the 200 Areas NPL site. The 200 Areas NPL site is in a region referred to as the 'Central Plateau' and consists of approximately 700 waste sites, excluding sites assigned to the tank farm waste management areas (WMAs). The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) consists of the groundwater located under the northern portion of the 200 West Area. Waste sources that contributed to the 200-ZP-1 OU included cribs and trenches that received liquid and/or solid waste in the past from the Z Plant and T Plant aggregate areas, WMA-T, WMA-TX/TY, and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). This feasibility study (FS) for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater OU was prepared in accordance with the requirements of CERCLA decision documents. These decision documents are part of the Administrative Record for the selection of remedial actions for each waste site and present the selected remedial actions that are chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

  6. FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT FOR THE 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER OPERABLE UNIT

    BYRNES ME

    2008-07-18

    The Hanford Site, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), encompasses approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. In 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas of the Hanford Site on the 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300, 'National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan' National Contingency Plan [NCPD], Appendix B, 'National Priorities List' (NPL), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Areas NPL sites consist of the 200 West and 200 East Areas (Figure 1-1). The 200 Areas contain waste management facilities, inactive irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities, and the 200 North Area (formerly used for interim storage and staging of irradiated fuel). Several waste sites in the 600 Area, located near the 200 Areas, also are included in the 200 Areas NPL site. The 200 Areas NPL site is in a region referred to as the 'Central Plateau' and consists of approximately 700 waste sites, excluding sites assigned to the tank farm waste management areas (WMAs). The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) consists of the groundwater located under the northern portion of the 200 West Area. Waste sources that contributed to the 200-ZP-1 OU included cribs and trenches that received liquid and/or solid waste in the past from the Z Plant and T Plant aggregate areas, WMA-T, WMA-TX/TY, and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). This feasibility study (FS) for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater OU was prepared in accordance with the requirements of CERCLA decision documents. These decision documents are part of the Administrative Record for the selection of remedial actions for each waste site and present the selected remedial actions that are chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

  7. Commissioning and quality assurances of the Intrabeam Intra-Operative radiotherapy unit

    KR Muralidhar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The authors report comprehensive commissioning and quality assurance (QA procedures for Intrabeam, Intra-Operative radiotherapy (IORT unit. The Intrabeam system miniature X-ray source is a 50 kV and 40 µA unit. Methods: The authors’ tests include measurements of output, beam deflection, isotropy, kVp and mAs measurements, quality index, isodose, reproducibility, linearity, depth dose verification, and 3D dose distribution. IC ionization chamber and the UNIDOSE dosimeter were used for the output commissioning. Probe adjuster/ionization chamber holder (PAICH was used to check the mechanical straightness of the probe. For radiation tests, NACP parallel plate chamber, Standard Imaging electrometer, 30 × 30 × 30 cm3 IAEA water phantom, solid water slabs, EDR-2 Films with RIT software, and ionization based survey meters were used. Unfors Xi platinum edition kVp meter was used to measure the kVp and mAs. Results: In mechanical QA test, X-Beam position (-0.09 mm, Y-Beam position (0.01 mm, and radial position (0.11 mm errors were within the tolerance level. Isotropy test with PDA, survey meter, ion chamber, and film measurements also produced results within the specifications. Output measurements with PAICH and external chamber measurements were matched. Beam quality, linearity, and reproducibility values were ascertained at 50KV and 40 µA and found to be within limits. Isodose, 3D dose distribution, transverse, and horizontal profiles showed the good isotropy of the source. Conclusion: The authors’ methodology provides comprehensive commissioning and calibration procedures for the Intrabeam system.

  8. Test blanket module maintenance operations between port plug and ancillary equipment unit in ITER

    In collaboration between the FZK and KFKI-RMKI, in the frame of the activities of the EU Breeder Blanket Programme a concept for test blanket module (TBM) integration, maintenance schedules and all required special purpose equipments has been developed. During the first 10 years of ITER operation four different plasma scenarios will be used. Hence it will be possible to investigate the characteristics (e.g. tritium breeding performance) of different TBM concepts which will be installed during operation for the different phases of ITER operation in the equatorial ports 2, 16 and 18. In every port two TBMs will be accommodated, in the port 16 will be the European helium-cooled pebble bed blanket. In different phases of ITER operation different TBMs will be used. Therefore a complex maintenance process is necessary for the exchange of TBMs. Two TBMs are mounted onto one common frame, into a port plug (PP), which offers a standardised interface to the vacuum vessel (VV). It is cantilevered with a flange to VV port extension. This attachment system is the same in every equatorial port, so the exchange process of this structure with the TBMs is also the standard operation of ITER. Several components of the helium cooling system of the EU breeder modules, valves, pipes, gas mixers, thermal sleeves, pipes for tritium extraction, measurement system are integrated into the ancillary equipment unit (AEU), which during the operation will connect the port plug to the subsystems. The bigger part of the AEU is accommodated in the port cell and the rest part of it is penetrated into the interspace inside the bioshield and reach the back plane of the installed PP. The remote handling operations for connection/disconnection of an interface between the PP of the EU-TBMs and the AEU are investigated with the goal to reach a quick and simple TBM exchange procedure. The current design of the EU-TBMs foresees up to 18 supply lines for both TBMs. These lines have to be connected here. A

  9. Test blanket module maintenance operations between port plug and ancillary equipment unit in ITER

    In collaboration between the FZK and KFKI-RMKI, in the frame of the activities of the EU Breeder Blanket Programme a concept for Test Blanket Module (TBM) integration, maintenance schedules and all required special purpose equipments has been developed. During the first 10 years of ITER operation 4 different plasma scenarios will be used. Hence it will be possible to investigate the characteristics (e.g. tritium breeding performance) of different TBM concepts which will be installed during operation for the different phases of ITER operation in the equatorial ports 2, 16 and 18. In every port will be two TBMs accomodated, in the port 16 will be the the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed blanket. In the different phases of ITER operation different TBMs will be used. Therefore a complex maintenance process is necessary for exchange the TBMs. Two TBMs are mounted into one common frame, into a Port Plug (PP), which offers a standardised interface to the Vacuum Vessel (VV). It is cantilevered with a flange to VV Port Extension. This attachment system is the same in every equatorial port, so the exchange process of this structure with the TBMs are also standard operation of ITER. Several components of the Helium cooling system of the EU breeder modules, valves, pipes, gas mixers, thermal sleeves, pipes for tritium extraction, measurement system, etc. All of them is integrated into the Ancillary Equipment Unit (AEU) which during operation will connect the port plug to the sub systems. The bigger part of the AEU is accomodated in the Port Cell and the rest part of it is penetrate to the interspace inside the bioshield and reach the back plane of the installed PP. The remote handling operations for connection / disconnection of an interface between the PP of the EU-TBMs and the AEU are investigated with the goal to reach a quick and simple TBM exchange procedure. The current design of the EU-TBMs foresees up to 18 supply lines for both TBMs. These lines have to be connected

  10. Approach and plan for cleanup actions in the 100-FR-2 operable unit of the Hanford Site, Revision 0

    A new administrative approach is being used to reach a cleanup decision for the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit. The unit, located at the 100-F Area, contains solid waste sites and is one of the remaining operable units scheduled for characterization and cleanup in the 100 Area. This Focus Package (1) describes the new approach and activities needed to reach a decision on cleanup actions for the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit and (2) invites public participation into the planning process. The previous approach included the production of a Work Plan, a Limited Field Investigation Report, a Qualitative Risk Assessment, a Focused Feasibility Study, and a Proposed Plan, all culminating in an interim action Record of Decision. Information gathered to date on other operable units allows the analgous site approach to be used on the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, and therefore, a reduction in documentation preparation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Department of Energy (Tri-Party Agreement) believe that the new approach will save time and funding. In the new approach, the Work Plan has been condensed into this 12 page Focus Package. The Focus Package includes a summary of 100-F Area information, a list of waste sites in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, a summary of proposed work, and a schedule. The new approach will also combine the Limited Field Investigation and Qualitative Risk Assessment reports into the Focused Feasibility Study. The Focused Feasibility Study will analyze methods and costs to clean up waste sites. Consolidating the documents should reduce the time to complete the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process by 16 months, compared to the previous approach

  11. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested for many researchers and network operators. Using Electrical Vehicles (PEVs and wind power for energy production is one of the newest proposed methods for replacing fossil fuels.One of the effective strategies for analyzing of the effects of Vehicle 2 Grid (V2G and wind power in optimal operation of generation is running of SCUC for power systems that are equipped with V2G and wind power resources. In this paper, game theory method is employed for deterministic solution of day-ahead unit commitment with considering security constraints in the simultaneous presence of V2G and wind power units. This problem for two scenarios of grid-controlled mode and consumer-controlled mode in three different days with light, medium and heavy load profiles is analyzed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the presence of V2G and wind power for decreasing of generation cost and improving operation indices of power systems.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch River. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received containments, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. Water-soluble contaminants released to ORR surface waters are rapidly diluted upon entering the Clinch River and then quickly transported downstream to the Tennessee River where further dilution occurs. Almost the entire quantity of these diluted contaminants rapidly flows through LWBR. In contrast, particle-associated contaminants tend to accumulate in the lower Clinch River and in LWBR in areas of sediment deposition. Those particle-associated contaminants that were released in peak quantities during the early years of ORR operations (e.g., mercury and 137Cs) are buried under as much as 80 cm of cleaner sediment in LWBR. Certain contaminants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have accumulated in LWBR biota. The contamination of aquatic biota with PCBs is best documented for certain fish species and extends to reservoirs upstream of the ORR, indicating a contamination problem that is regional in scope and not specific to the ORR

  13. Porting ONETEP to graphical processing unit-based coprocessors. 1. FFT box operations.

    Wilkinson, Karl; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2013-10-30

    We present the first graphical processing unit (GPU) coprocessor-enabled version of the Order-N Electronic Total Energy Package (ONETEP) code for linear-scaling first principles quantum mechanical calculations on materials. This work focuses on porting to the GPU the parts of the code that involve atom-localized fast Fourier transform (FFT) operations. These are among the most computationally intensive parts of the code and are used in core algorithms such as the calculation of the charge density, the local potential integrals, the kinetic energy integrals, and the nonorthogonal generalized Wannier function gradient. We have found that direct porting of the isolated FFT operations did not provide any benefit. Instead, it was necessary to tailor the port to each of the aforementioned algorithms to optimize data transfer to and from the GPU. A detailed discussion of the methods used and tests of the resulting performance are presented, which show that individual steps in the relevant algorithms are accelerated by a significant amount. However, the transfer of data between the GPU and host machine is a significant bottleneck in the reported version of the code. In addition, an initial investigation into a dynamic precision scheme for the ONETEP energy calculation has been performed to take advantage of the enhanced single precision capabilities of GPUs. The methods used here result in no disruption to the existing code base. Furthermore, as the developments reported here concern the core algorithms, they will benefit the full range of ONETEP functionality. Our use of a directive-based programming model ensures portability to other forms of coprocessors and will allow this work to form the basis of future developments to the code designed to support emerging high-performance computing platforms. PMID:24038140

  14. GROUDWATER REMEDIATION AT THE 100-HR-3 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD, SITE WASHINGTON, USA - 11507

    The 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site underlies three former plutonium production reactors and the associated infrastructure at the 100-D and 100-H Areas. The primary contaminant of concern at the site is hexavalent chromium; the secondary contaminants are strontium-90, technetium-99, tritium, uranium, and nitrate. The hexavalent chromium plume is the largest plume of its type in the state of Washington, covering an area of approximately 7 km2 (2.7 mi2) with concentrations greater than 20 (micro)g/L. Concentrations range from 60,000 (micro)g/L near the former dichromate transfer station in the 100-D Area to large areas of 20 to 100 (micro)g/L across much of the plume area. Pump-and-treat operations began in 1997 and continued into 2010 at a limited scale of approximately 200 gal/min. Remediation of groundwater has been fairly successful in reaching remedial action objectives (RAOs) of 20 (micro)g/L over a limited region at the 100-H, but less effective at 100-D. In 2000, an in situ, permeable reactive barrier was installed downgradient of the hotspot in 100-D as a second remedy. The RAOs are still being exceeded over a large portion of the area. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company was awarded the remediation contract for groundwater in 2008 and initiated a remedial process optimization study consisting of modeling and technical studies intended to enhance the remediation. As a result of the study, 1,400 gal/min of expanded treatment capacity are being implemented. These new systems are designed to meet 2012 and 2020 target milestones for protection of the Columbia River and cleanup of the groundwater plumes.

  15. Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    Units 1 and 2 were down for the first half of the year caused by the fire of March 1975. Net electrical power generated by Unit 1 this year was 1,301,183 MWH with the generator on line 2,175.25 hrs. Unit 2 generated 1,567,170 MWH with the generator on line 2,548.73 hrs. Unit 3 began full power operation on November 20th and generated 1,416,891 MWH with the generator on line 2,058.20 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, fuel performance, surveillance testing, containment leak testing, changes, power generation, shutdown and forced reductions, coolant chemistry, occupational radiation exposures, and maintenance

  16. Monitoring the film coating unit operation and predicting drug dissolution using terahertz pulsed imaging.

    Ho, Louise; Müller, Ronny; Gordon, Keith C; Kleinebudde, Peter; Pepper, Michael; Rades, Thomas; Shen, Yaochun; Taday, Philip F; Zeitler, J Axel

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the coating unit operation is imperative to improve product quality and reduce output risks for coated solid dosage forms. Three batches of sustained-release tablets coated with the same process parameters (pan speed, spray rate, etc.) were subjected to terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) analysis followed by dissolution testing. Mean dissolution times (MDT) from conventional dissolution testing were correlated with terahertz waveforms, which yielded a multivariate, partial least squares regression (PLS) model with an R(2) of 0.92 for the calibration set and 0.91 for the validation set. This two-component, PLS model was built from batch I that was coated in the same environmental conditions (air temperature, humidity, etc.) to that of batch II but at different environmental conditions from batch III. The MDTs of batch II was predicted in a nondestructive manner with the developed PLS model and the accuracy of the predicted values were subsequently validated with conventional dissolution testing and found to be in good agreement. The terahertz PLS model was also shown to be sensitive to changes in the coating conditions, successfully identifying the larger coating variability in batch III. In this study, we demonstrated that TPI in conjunction with PLS analysis could be employed to assist with film coating process understanding and provide predictions on drug dissolution. PMID:19367620

  17. Health risks associated with ingesting venison from a uranium enrichment facility with multiple operable units

    Ingestion of game, including venison, may be a significant exposure pathway in human health risk assessments at hazardous waste sites. The difficulty associated with modeling contaminant tissue concentrations in a wide-ranging herbivorous mammal is compounded when the home range of the mammal extends over multiple operable units (OUs) of varying size and media contaminant concentration. Using biotransfer factors extracted from the literature and species-specific parameter information (e.g., home range size, diet, forage and water ingestion rates) the authors estimate contaminant concentrations in venison based on soil and surface water contaminant concentrations and determine the contribution of individual OUs to modeled venison tissue concentrations. Estimated tissue concentrations are calculated through the use of site foraging factors (SFFS) that adjust exposure contributions from individual OUs to account for the size of the OU in relation to the animals home range. The authors then use the venison tissue concentrations to estimate human health risk associated with ingesting venison under both a current and future exposure scenario

  18. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  19. Newer approaches and developments of quality assurance procedures for intrabeam intra operative radiotherapy unit

    The authors present new QA procedures for Intrabeam intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) system which address some of the limitations of the inbuilt QA procedures and provide various other measurements over the existing QA procedures. Intrabeam System (manufactured by Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany), is an intraoperative radiotherapy unit. It is a miniature, high dose rate, low energy X-ray source (XRS) equipped with a 10 cm long (0 3.2 mm) probe. Currently IORT systems rely on inbuilt QA methods for verification of output, beam deflection, isotropy and straightness of the probe. While manufacturer specified inbuilt QA procedures are more frequently used, it will not give full confidence especially at the time of installation and commissioning The new approach provides isotropy, beam deflection, isodose output measurements, KVp and MAs measurements, beam quality, energy stability verification, reproducibility and linearity. These tests and measurements also help us to use the computerized planning systems in which we are able to see the 2D and 3D dose distributions on the CT data which is not available at present on this system. In an IORT facility, the quality assurance needs to be more stringent due to the miniature x-ray source and its high dose rate. These new QA results were compared to the existing readings with the inbuilt QA procedures

  20. Potential primary contaminants at the various operable units of the Rocky Flats Plant

    Although detailed information about contaminants at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has been compiled, no clear description of the nature and location of the largest spills and most critical contaminant releases has been prepared. To provide this description, historical use and release information was assessed. Sites with small amounts or low concentrations of contaminants or with unsubstantiated reports of contamination remained. The fifteen contaminants can be grouped into five categories: (1) solvents (carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, trichloroethane, methylene chloride and acetone); (2) actinides (plutonium, americium, uranium and tritium); (3) oils (hydraulic and lathe oils, and number 6 fuel oil); (4) metals (chromium and lithium); and (5) nitrates. The most important potential primary contaminant is a carbon tetrachloride because very large quantities were used as RFP. There are also significant quantities of chlorinated solvents and nitrates, both of which were heavily used. Actinides are present in substantial concentrations in only a few locations. Operable Unit (OU) 16 had no potential primary contaminants and OUs 3, 5, 11 and 15 each had only one. The resultant shortened and simplified list allows the most important contaminants and the most probable media to receive first priority, thereby affording a more rational approach to treatment evaluation and selection

  1. Potential primary contaminants at the various operable units of the Rocky Flats Plant

    Although detailed information about contaminants at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has been compiled, no clear description of the nature and location of the largest spills and most critical contaminant releases has been prepared. To provide this description, historical use and release information was assessed. Sites with small amounts or low concentrations of contaminants or with unsubstantiated reports of contaminated were excluded. After these minor or doubtful constituents were deleted, fifteen contaminants remained. The fifteen contaminants can be grouped into five categories: (1) solvents (carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, trichloroethane, methylene chloride and acetone); (2) actinides (plutonium, americium, uranium, and tritium); (3) oils (hydraulic and lathe oils, and number 6 fuel oil); (4) metals (chromium and lithium); and (5) nitrates. The most important potential primary contaminant is carbon tetrachloride because very large quantities were used at RFP. There are also significant quantities of chlorinated solvents and nitrates, both of which were heavily used. Actinides are present in substantial concentrations in only a few locations. Operable Unit (OU) 16 had no potential primary contaminants and OUs 3, 5, 11 and 15 each had only one. The resultant shortened and simplified list allows the most important contaminants and the most probable media to receive first priority, thereby affording a more rational approach to treatment evaluation and selection

  2. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  3. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985). Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992). Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993). Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), and Supplement No. 15 (June 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos, 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  4. jMOTU and Taxonerator: turning DNA Barcode sequences into annotated operational taxonomic units.

    Martin Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding and other DNA sequence-based techniques for investigating and estimating biodiversity require explicit methods for associating individual sequences with taxa, as it is at the taxon level that biodiversity is assessed. For many projects, the bioinformatic analyses required pose problems for laboratories whose prime expertise is not in bioinformatics. User-friendly tools are required for both clustering sequences into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU and for associating these MOTU with known organismal taxonomies. RESULTS: Here we present jMOTU, a Java program for the analysis of DNA barcode datasets that uses an explicit, determinate algorithm to define MOTU. We demonstrate its usefulness for both individual specimen-based Sanger sequencing surveys and bulk-environment metagenetic surveys using long-read next-generation sequencing data. jMOTU is driven through a graphical user interface, and can analyse tens of thousands of sequences in a short time on a desktop computer. A companion program, Taxonerator, that adds traditional taxonomic annotation to MOTU, is also presented. Clustering and taxonomic annotation data are stored in a relational database, and are thus amenable to subsequent data mining and web presentation. CONCLUSIONS: jMOTU efficiently and robustly identifies the molecular taxa present in survey datasets, and Taxonerator decorates the MOTU with putative identifications. jMOTU and Taxonerator are freely available from http://www.nematodes.org/.

  5. Data validation report for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, third round groundwater samples

    Ayres, J.M.

    1994-03-31

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-FR-3 operable Unit Third Round Groundwater sampling investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of 51 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The report is broken down into sections for each chemical analysis and radiochemical analysis type. Each section addresses the data package completeness, holding time adherence, instrument calibration and tuning acceptability, blank results, accuracy, precision, system performance, as well as the compound identification and quantitation. In addition, each section has an overall assessment and summary for the data packages reviewed for the particular chemical/radiochemical analyses. Detailed backup information is provided to the reader by SDG No. and sample number. For each data package, a matrix of chemical analyses per sample number is presented, as well as data qualification summaries.

  6. 200-UP-1 Operable Unit borehole summary report for FY 1995

    This report details the well construction, sampling, analyses, and geologic character of the Ringold Formation as it was encountered in five wells drilled in the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit during fiscal year (FY) 1995. The 200-UP-1 Interim Remedial Measure Drilling Description of Work was prepared to support the FY 95 field work and presented the specific field activities and procedural requirements to be implemented. The geology of the vadose zone is not described in the text of this report. Vadose zone geology in the immediate area is characterized in sufficient detail in existing documents. However, the borehole logs and well summary sheets provided in the appendices depict the vadose zone stratigraphy and well construction details. Sieve analyses conducted on sediments from the saturated zone were used to design the well completions; these analyses are included. Where applicable, inferences are made concerning the geologic character of the saturated interval. In addition, a synopsis of the preliminary well development process is outlined. Other related information is included with this report as supplemental data

  7. 5-year operation experience with the 1.8 K refrigeration units of the LHC cryogenic system

    Ferlin, G; Claudet, S; Pezzetti, M

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is in operation at CERN. The LHC superconducting magnets distributed over eight sectors of 3.3-km long are cooled at 1.9 K in pressurized superfluid helium. The nominal operating temperature of 1.9 K is produced by eight 1.8-K refrigeration units based on centrifugal cold compressors (3 or 4 stages depending to the vendor) combined with warm volumetric screw compressors with sub-atmospheric suction. After about 5 years of continuous operation, we will present the results concerning the availability for the final user of these refrigeration units and the impact of the design choice on the recovery time after a system trip. We will also present the individual results for each rotating machinery in terms of failure origin and of Mean Time between Failure (MTBF), as well as the consolidations and upgrades applied to these refrigeration units.

  8. Operation of the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit installed in the power stabilizing system

    This serial research intends to put a unique power stabilization system with a pumped storage into practical use. The pumped storage is equipped with a counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit whose operating mode can be shifted instantaneously in response to the fluctuation of power from renewable resources. This paper verifies that the system is reasonably effective to stabilize the fluctuating power. It is necessary to quickly increase the rotational speed when the operation is shifted from the turbine to the pumping modes, because the unit cannot pump-up water from a lower reservoir at a slow rotational speed while keeping gross/geodetic head constant. The maximum hydraulic efficiency at the turbine mode is close to the efficiency of the counter-rotating type hydroelectric unit designed exclusively for the turbine mode. The system is also provided for a pilot plant to be operated in the field

  9. 5-year operation experience with the 1.8 K refrigeration units of the LHC cryogenic system

    Ferlin, G.; Tavian, L.; Claudet, S.; Pezzetti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2009, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is in operation at CERN. The LHC superconducting magnets distributed over eight sectors of 3.3-km long are cooled at 1.9 K in pressurized superfluid helium. The nominal operating temperature of 1.9 K is produced by eight 1.8-K refrigeration units based on centrifugal cold compressors (3 or 4 stages depending to the vendor) combined with warm volumetric screw compressors with sub-atmospheric suction. After about 5 years of continuous operation, we will present the results concerning the availability for the final user of these refrigeration units and the impact of the design choice on the recovery time after a system trip. We will also present the individual results for each rotating machinery in terms of failure origin and of Mean Time between Failure (MTBF), as well as the consolidations and upgrades applied to these refrigeration units.

  10. Micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine for heating and their real operation

    Čierny, Jaroslav; Patsch, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This article was deal with micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine. We watched problematic of real working Stirling engine. The article also contain hookup of unit constructed at University of Zilina.

  11. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental benefits and costs, and concludes that the action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Beaver Valley Unit 2

  12. Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    Net electric power generated by Unit 1 was 2,315,124 MWH(e) and Unit 2 generated 2,062,954 MWH(e) with Unit 1 generator on line for 3,157.8 hrs and Unit 2 on line for 2,881.2 hrs. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, abnormal occurrences, and environmental monitoring. (FS)

  13. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10

    D. L. Eaton

    2007-01-18

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) applies to the remedial actions performed under the Final Record of Decision for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (DOE-ID 1999) as amended by the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2003), the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks (TSF-09 and TSF-18) and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks (TSF-26) and TSF-06, Area IO, at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0 (DOE-ID 2004a), and the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2005). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10; and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare-now identified as the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)-signed the Record of Decision (ROD) in December 1999, the 2003 ESD in April 2003, the ROD Amendment/ESD in February 2004, and the 2005 ESD in January 2005. The EPA and DEQ support the need for this ESD.

  14. Operation of Browns Ferry, Units 1 and 2 following the March 22, 1975 fire. Safety evaluation report

    The Safety Evaluation Report (SER) by the Division of Operating Reactors Supporting the Operation After the Restoration and Modification of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2 Following the March 22, 1975 Fire was issued on February 23, 1976. The SER identified matters requiring additional submittals by the Tennessee Valley Authority with subsequent NRC evaluation. The purpose of this supplement is to update the SER based on the NRC evaluation work performed since February 23, 1976

  15. Nuclear power plant life management: strategy for long term operation of the Beznau NPP unit 1 and 2

    The strategy for attaining long-term operation (LTO) of the Beznau nuclear power plants (NPPs) (2 Units) is given. The requirements, technical evaluations for LTO, in addition to considerations for fuel, radwaste disposal, staff and materials management and economic factors, are described. It is shown that, thanks to optimum management strategies, including backfitting and operational improvements, there are no technical reasons to prevent LTO. (author)

  16. Operational prediction of air quality for the United States: applications of satellite observations

    Stajner, Ivanka; Lee, Pius; Tong, Daniel; Pan, Li; McQueen, Jeff; Huang, Jianping; Huang, Ho-Chun; Draxler, Roland; Kondragunta, Shobha; Upadhayay, Sikchya

    2015-04-01

    Operational predictions of ozone and wildfire smoke over United States (U.S.) and predictions of airborne dust over the contiguous 48 states are provided by NOAA at http://airquality.weather.gov/. North American Mesoscale (NAM) weather predictions with inventory based emissions estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and chemical processes within the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model are combined together to produce ozone predictions. Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model is used to predict wildfire smoke and dust storm predictions. Routine verification of ozone predictions relies on AIRNow compilation of observations from surface monitors. Retrievals of smoke column integrals from GOES satellites and dust column integrals from MODIS satellite instruments are used for verification of smoke and dust predictions. Recent updates of NOAA's operational air quality predictions have focused on mobile emissions using the projections of mobile sources for 2012. Since emission inventories are complex and take years to assemble and evaluate causing a lag of information, we recently began combing inventory information with projections of mobile sources. In order to evaluate this emission update, these changes in projected NOx emissions from 2005-2012 were compared with observed changes in Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 observations and NOx measured by surface monitors over large U.S. cities over the same period. Comparisons indicate that projected decreases in NOx emissions from 2005 to 2012 are similar, but not as strong as the decreases in the observed NOx concentrations and in OMI NO2 retrievals. Nevertheless, the use of projected mobile NOx emissions in the predictions reduced biases in predicted NOx concentrations, with the largest improvement in the urban areas. Ozone biases are reduced as well, with the largest improvement seen in rural areas. Recent testing of PM2.5 predictions is relying on

  17. Radiation Protection Control Area Around Dental X-ray Units Operating in RVG Mode

    The importance of prompt occupational dose reporting rises when dose is received within short-time interval or when the radiation source suffers any technical failures. New dosimetric concept states that exposure to radiation is to be recognized as a private/or group hazard of each person alone. Actual radiation quality of the source and well defined controlled areas and areas of concern - point (Ort) are to be taken into account. Quality Control measurements of the source and digital dosemeter ALARA OD2 for external dosimetry are used to establish the real pattern of occupational dose delivered to the workers or/and as the (Ort) environmental measuring station. Dosemeter device, produced by ALARA Instruments Ltd., is licensed in Republic of Croatia. Device has the probe sensitive to background radiation and fast enough to record any change in environmental-background radiation field. If user-worker or dosimeter device enter the radiation field area or radiation source produces unexpected higher radiation output, second mode will separately start to measure this additional dose. This upgrade to legal obligatory external dosimetry is helping and will help and ease defining the professional staff who are actually exposed to ionising radiation of concern and for whom it is necessary to provide legally required or even additional occupational health care programme. This work states that the working areas around the dental X-ray units operating in RVG digital mode are not to be concerned as controlled areas in radiation protection sense. These areas are to be carefully designed and monitored before the final decision is made, but as it seems we have found no dental X-ray device working in RVG mode around which it is necessary to establish full control areas according to BSS IAEA and our legal law regulations. (author)

  18. 300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study

    Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ''green'' material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ''green'' soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction

  19. Phase 1 and 2 feasibility study report for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

    1993-11-01

    The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) feasibility study (FS) presented in this document completes the FS process only through the first two study phases: Phase I, Remedial Alternatives Development, and Phase II, Remedial Alternatives Screening in accordance with CERCIA guidance for performing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) (EPA 1988a). This Phase I/II study provides a generalized view of workable remedial technologies as applied to the site contamination problems as a whole. Phase III, Detailed Analysis of Alternatives, will be performed at a later date to further evaluate screened alternatives based on the nine criteria in the CERCLA RI/FS guidance. The purpose of this Phase I/II FS is to develop and screen a range of alternatives for remediation of contamination present in the vadose zone of the 300-FF-1 OU. The scope of work for this Phase I/II FS includes five primary tasks: 1. Review existing documents and their associated data from relevant investigations and studies; 2. Establish remedial action objectives (RAO) and general response actions (GRA); 3. Identify applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) pertinent to all general response actions (including waste disposal); 4. Develop remedial alternatives (Phase I) applicable to the 300-FF-1 OU including identification and screening of technologies and process options, and assembly of remedial alternatives from representative technology types; 5. Screen alternatives (Phase II) developed in Phase I for implementability, effectiveness, and cost to identify those alternatives which warrant advancement to the detailed analysis phase (Phase III) of the FS.

  20. No Correlation Between Work-Hours and Operative Volumes-A Comparison Between United States and Danish Operative Volumes Achieved During Surgical Residency

    Christensen Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week....... We hypothesize that there is no direct correlation between work-hours and operative volume achieved during surgical residency. To test the hypothesis, we compare Danish and US operative volumes achieved during surgical residency training. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study. PARTICIPANTS: The...... find no difference in overall surgical volumes between Danes and US residents during their surgical training. When time in training was accounted for, differences between weekly surgical volumes achieved were minor, indicating a lack of direct correlation between weekly work-hours and operative volumes...

  1. Theater level operations: modeling ground unit logistical requirements in the Joint Warfare Analysis Experimental Prototype

    Wilk, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology for modeling the logistics processes for ground units in the Joint Warfare Analysis Experimental Prototype (JWAEP) simulation. The model structure presented in this research allows for the representation of the consumption. movement, and distribution of supplies within the combat units modeled in JWAEP. Also presented is an architecture to model logistical units in JWAEP Methodologies are presented to model both the "push" and "pull" systems of supply. The su...

  2. Development of LOCA Response Strategy during Shutdown Operation in Kori 3 and 4 and Ygn 1 and 2 Units

    The abnormal transients and accidents during shutdown operation modes of pressurized water reactor, in contrast with those during full power operation modes, have been recently issued due to their potential risk for leading to a severe abnormal condition because the various safety-related systems and equipments may be unavailable. The NRC issued Loss of Reactor Coolant Inventory and Potential Loss of Emergency Mitigation Functions While in a Shutdown Condition, on January 12, 1995, to alert addressees to an incident at the Wolf Creek plant involving the loss of reactor coolant inventory while the reactor was in a hot shutdown condition. Considering those situations, abnormal response mitigation strategies in shutdown operation modes have been developed by evaluating the plant specific thermal hydraulic behavior following LOCA. The objectives of this study are: (1) to verify the effectiveness of abnormal operating procedure (AOP) and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) on reactor safety at shutdown operation, developing the operation strategy at the condition and abnormal operation guideline in the light water reactors; (2) to enhance understanding of the thermal-hydraulic phenomena during abnormal and accident conditions. In this paper, some accident scenarios are analyzed to develop the abnormal operating strategy following LOCA in shutdown operation modes for Kori 3 and 4 and Ygn 1and 2 units. This study shows the adequacy of operator action time to mitigate the LOCA, the thermal hydraulic behavior, reactor inventory distribution and possibility of cold overpressurization after SBLOCA during shutdown operation modes using computer code RELAP5 /MOD3.2

  3. Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report for Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    Forsythe, Howard S.

    2010-04-10

    This annual report summarizes maintenance, monitoring, and inspection activities performed to implement the selected remedy for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Results from monitoring perched water and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center are also presented.

  4. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of...) filed on December 20, 2012 on behalf of workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport...

  5. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  6. 75 FR 69711 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4; Exemption

    2010-11-15

    ... significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 67784). This exemption is effective upon... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4; Exemption...

  7. 78 FR 37591 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 2, LLC, Issuance of Director...

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 2, LLC, Issuance of Director's Decision Notice is hereby given that the Deputy Director, Reactor Safety Programs, Office of...

  8. 78 FR 26662 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 3 Extension of Public...

    2013-05-07

    ... notice appearing in the Federal Register on April 3, 2013 (78 FR 20144), by extending the original public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 3 Extension of...

  9. 75 FR 76052 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    2010-12-07

    ... environment (75 FR 73135, dated November 29, 2010). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2;...

  10. 75 FR 9620 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    2010-03-03

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 3761; dated January 22, 2010... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption...

  11. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-322

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report of Long Island Lighting Company's application for a license to operate the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, located in Suffolk County, New York, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement addresses several items that have come to light since the previous supplement was issued

  13. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT, MIAMISBURG, OHIO

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the Miamisburg Closure Project (MCP) Site's Operable Unit-1 (OU-1) Landfill in Miamisburg, Ohio on April 14 and 15, 2010 to perform independent verification activities at the OU-1 Landfill Area excavated trenches. Verification activities were conducted in accordance with the ORISE Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification (IEAV) Program's Project-Specific Verification Plan, Survey Procedure,s and Quality Program Manuals (ORISE 2007 and 2008, and ORAU 2009). The collective site areas verified consisted of four trenches; of which, three trenches were along the southeast portion of the Landfill Area (Trenches 30, 31, and 32; Figure 3) and one along the northwest portion of the Landfill area (Trench 53; Figure 3). Due to the depth of the trenches and the potential for cave in, final status surveys (FSS) by the site decommissioning contractor and verification surveys by ORISE personnel, were conducted on the excavated soil piles. The bottom of the trenches and the excavated soil piles were inspected for evidence of any landfill wastes. ORISE did not observe any visible wastes within the soil piles or trenches. High density scans for gamma radiation were performed on accessible surfaces of the trench soil piles and in the immediate vicinity of the trench openings using NaI and FIDLER scintillation detectors. Gross gamma radiation scans ranged from 3,200 to 5,100 counts per minute (cpm) with the NaI scintillation detectors and 400 to 720 cpm with the FIDLER. Background gamma measurements were approximately 3,000 cpm for the NaI detectors and approximately 400 cpm with the FIDLER detectors. A random sequence generator (Random.org) was used to generate random sample locations in the four trenches. ORISE collected twelve random samples from among the site decommissioning contractor's soil sample locations. A static gamma count rate measurement was performed at each location prior to

  14. Record of Decision for Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater, Operable Unit 3-14

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-16

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact to groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank farm soil and groundwater at INTEC. The response action selected in this ROD is necessary to protect the public health, welfare, or the environment from actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Such a release or threat of release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment. The remedial actions selected in this ROD are designed to reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment to acceptable levels. In addition, DOE-ID, EPA, and DEQ (the Agencies) have determined that no action is necessary under CERCLA to protect public health, welfare, or the environment at 16 sites located outside the tank farm boundary. The purposes of the selected remedy are to (1) contain contaminated soil as the radionuclides decay in place, (2) isolate current and future workers and biological receptors from contact with contaminated soil, and (3) restore the portion of Snake River Plain Aquifer contaminated by INTEC releases to Idaho Ground Water Quality

  15. BIOTIC INTEGRITY OF STREAMS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATOR OPERABLE UNITS, 1996 TO 2003

    Paller, M; Susan Dyer, S

    2004-11-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been divided into six Integrator Operable Units (IOUs) that correspond to the watersheds of the five major streams on the SRS (Upper Three Runs, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs) and the portions of the Savannah River and Savannah River Swamp associated with the SRS. The streams are the primary integrators within each IOU because they potentially receive, through surface or subsurface drainage, soluble contaminants from all waste sites within their watersheds. If these contaminants reach biologically significant levels, they would be expected to effect the numbers, types, and health of stream organisms. In this study, biological sampling was conducted within each IOU as a measure of the cumulative ecological effects of the waste sites within the IOUs. The use of information from biological sampling to assess environmental quality is often termed bioassessment. The IOU bioassessment program included 38 sites in SRS streams and nine sites in the Savannah River. Sampling was conducted in 1996 to 1998, 2000, and 2003. Four bioassessment methods were used to evaluate ecological conditions in the IOU streams: the Index of Biotic Integrity, the Fish Health Assessment Index, measurement of fish tissue contaminant levels, and two benthic macroinvertebrate indices. The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is an EPA supported method based on comparison of ecologically important and sensitive fish assemblage variables between potentially disturbed and reference (i.e., undisturbed) sites. It is designed to assess the ability of a stream to support a self-sustaining biological community and ecological processes typical of undisturbed, natural conditions. Since many types of contaminants can bioaccumulate, fish tissue contaminant data were used to determine the types of chemicals fish were exposed to and their relative magnitudes among IOUs. The Fish Health Assessment Index (HAI) is an EPA supported method for assessing

  16. Organization and methodology applied to the control of commissioning tests to guarantee safe operation of nuclear units

    This paper describes the activities of the Safety Analysis Department (DAS), which provides technical support for the French safety authorities in the specific context of analysis and control of startup test programme quality at each of the different stages of the programme. These activities combine to ensure that the objective of the startup tests is reached, in particular that the functions of each safety-related system are guaranteed in all operating configurations, that the performance levels of all components in the system comply with design criteria and that defects revealed during previous tests have been dealt with correctly. The special case of French nuclear facilities, linked to unit standardization, has made it possible to acquire a large amount of experience with the startup of the 900 MWe units and has illustrated the importance of defining a startup test programme. In 1981, a working group, comprising operating organization and safety authority representatives, studied the lessons which had to be learned from 900 MWe unit startup and the improvements which could be made and taken into account in the 1300 MWe unit startup programme. To illustrate the approach adopted by the DAS, we go on to describe the lessons learned from startup of the first 1300 MWe (P4) units

  17. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    Peach Bottom Unit 2 generated 3,005,350 MWH(e) net electric power and was on line 3,132.48 hrs and Unit 3 generated 2,972,897 MWH(e) and was on line 3,417.97 hours. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, and abnormal occurrences. (FS)

  18. Zion Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operations report, January--June 1975

    Unit 1 generated 1,869,892 MWH(e) net electrical and was on line 2,351.2 hours. Unit 2 generated 2,033,359 MWH(e) net electrical and was on line 2,677.8 hours. Data is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational personnel radiation exposures, release of radioactive materials, and abnormal occurrences. (U.S.)

  19. Data compilation task report for the source investigation of the 300-FF-1 operable unit phase 1 remedial investigation

    Young, J.S.; Fruland, R.M.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1990-02-01

    This report provides additional information on facility and waste characteristics for the 300-FF-1 operable unit. The additional information gathered and reported includes meetings and on-site visits with current and past personnel having knowledge of operations in the operable unit, a more precise determination of the location of the Process Sewer lines and Retired Radioactive Liquid Waste Sewer, a better understanding of the phosphoric acid spill at the 340 Complex, and a search for engineering plans and environmental reports related to the operable unit. As a result of this data-gathering effort, recommendations for further investigation include characterization of the 307 Trenches to determine the origin of an underlying uranium plume in the groundwater, more extensive sampling of near-surface and dike sediments in the North and South Process Ponds to better define the extent of horizontal contamination, and detection of possible leaks in the abandoned Radioactive Waste Sewer by either electromagnetic induction or remote television camera inspection techniques. 16 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. United States Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Environmental Compliance Handbook. Third edition

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Environment, Safety & Health Division (ESHD) of the Nevada Operations Office has prepared this Environmental Compliance Handbook for all users of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) facilities. The Handbook gives an overview of the important environmental laws and regulations that apply to the activities conducted by the Nevada Operations Office and other users of DOE/NV facilities in Nevada.

  1. United States Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Environmental Compliance Handbook. Third edition

    The Environment, Safety and Health Division (ESHD) of the Nevada Operations Office has prepared this Environmental Compliance Handbook for all users of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) facilities. The Handbook gives an overview of the important environmental laws and regulations that apply to the activities conducted by the Nevada Operations Office and other users of DOE/NV facilities in Nevada

  2. The CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-03

    The scope of the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC) Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory staff to provide technical and integration support to CHPRC. This work includes conducting investigations at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and other groundwater operable units, and providing strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. The projects under this Master Project will be defined and included within the Master Project throughout the fiscal year, and will be incorporated into the Master Project Plan. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) and all releases associated with the CHPRC Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  3. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archeologic sites will be small. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this environmental statement, it is concluded that the action called for under NEPA and 10 CFR 51 is the issuance of an operating license for Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3. 101 references, 33 figures, 30 tables

  4. Cost-Optimal Operation of Energy Storage Units: Benefits of a Problem-Specific Approach

    Siemer, Lars; Kleinhans, David

    2015-01-01

    The integration of large shares of electricity produced by non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES) leads to an increasingly volatile energy generation side, with temporary local overproduction. The application of energy storage units has the potential to use this excess electricity from RES efficiently and to prevent curtailment. The objective of this work is to calculate cost-optimal charging strategies for energy storage units used as buffers. For this purpose, a new mathematical optimization method is presented that is applicable to general storage-related problems. Due to a tremendous gain in efficiency of this method compared with standard solvers and proven optimality, calculations of complex problems as well as a high-resolution sensitivity analysis of multiple system combinations are feasible within a very short time. As an example technology, Power-to-Heat converters used in combination with thermal storage units are investigated in detail and optimal system configurations, including storage ...

  5. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    This Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Duquesne Light Company, as applicant and agent for the owners, for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Shippingport Borough, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, on the south bank of the Ohio River. Subject to the favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the staff concludes that the facility can be operated by the applicant without endangering the health and safety of the public

  6. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 7): Former Nebraska Ordnance Plant Site, Operable Unit 1, Mead, NE, August 29, 1995

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) site, in Mead, Nebraska. The former NOP site was used as an ordnance loading, assembly, and packing facility. Operations at the NOP resulted in contamination of soil with explosive compounds. Operable Unit 1 (OU1) encompasses the upper 4 feet of soil contaminated with explosive compounds. The remedial action for OU1 addresses one of the principal threats at the site, explosives-contaminated soil, by thermally treating the contaminated soil on-site.

  7. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial nea-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Low-level radioactive waste disposal standards and techniques in the United States have evolved significantly since the early 1960's. Six commercial LLW disposal facilities(Barnwell, Richland, Ward Valley, Sierra Blanca, Wake County and Boyd County) operated and proposed between 1962 and 1997. This report summarizes each site's design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. These new standards and mitigating efforts at closed facilities (Sheffield, Maxey Flats, Beatty and West Valley) have helped to ensure that the public has been safely protected from LLW. 15 refs

  8. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the United Arab Emirates 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the United Arab Emirates carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  9. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    The Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Northeast Nuclear Energy Company, as applicant and agent for the owners, for a license to operate the Millstone Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-423), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in the town of Waterford, New London County, Connecticut, on the north shore of Long Island Sound. Subject to favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the NRC staff concludes that the facility can be operated by the applicant without endangering the health and safety of the public

  10. [Report of a tour of the surgical centers in the United States organized by the Japanese Association for Operative Medicine].

    Mizutani, Koh; Nagase, Kiyoshi; Shinomiya, Satoshi; Orita, Mutsuko

    2011-11-01

    We, 4 authors, visited 4 surgical centers in the United States last year on a tour sponsored by the Japanese Association for Operative Medicine. The surgical center of each hospital we visited aimed to contribute to the hospital not only in terms of financial strength but also in the creation of a unique hospital brand value by increasing the number of surgeries compared with previous years as much as possible. The role of surgical centers in the United States was comparable with what we consider an ideal center in Japan. We also found that management of the surgical centers by directors who are specialized anesthesiologists is well organized to promote efficiency with respect to organization, utilities and human resources, and realized that these anesthesiologists must know how to manage the team members and the organization of the surgical centers to improve the quality of operative medicine. PMID:22175177

  11. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-446)

    Supplement 26 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Unit 2, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25 to that report were published. This supplement deals primarily with Unit 2 issues; however, it also references evaluations for several licensing issues that relate to Unit 1, which have been resolved since Supplement 25 was issued

  12. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-446)

    This document supplement 25 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Unit 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, 22, 23, and 24 to that report were published. This supplement deals primarily with Unit 2 issues; however, it also references evaluations for several Unit 1 licensing items resolved since Supplement 24 was issued

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    This report, Supplement No. 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Duquesne Light Company et al. (the applicant) for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and its Supplements 1, 2, and 3 were published

  14. The operational and logistic experience on transportation of Brazilian spent nuclear fuel to the United States of America

    In 1999 a shipment of 127 spent MTR fuel assemblies was made from IEA-R1 Research Reactor located at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Brazil to Savannah River Site Laboratory (SRS) in the United States. This paper describes the operational and logistic experience on this transportation made by IPEN staff, EDLOW International Company and the Consortium NCS/GNS. (author)

  15. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    This Draft Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  16. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9

  17. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-322)

    Supplement 10 (SSER 10) to the Safety Evaluation Report on Long Island Lighting Company's application for a license to operate the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, located in Suffolk County, New York, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement addresses several items that have been reviewed by the staff since the previous supplement was issued

  18. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): United Nuclear Corporation, Mckinley County, New Mexico, ground-water operable unit (first remedial action) September 1988

    The United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) site is located approximately 17 miles northeast of Gallup, New Mexico in McKinley County. The site operated as a State-licensed uranium mill facility from June 1977 to May 1982. It includes an ore-processing mill (about 25 acres) and an unlined tailings pond area (about 100 acres). In July 1979, approximately 23 million gallons of tailings and pond water were released to a nearby river as a result of a dam breach in the tailings pond area. The site damage was repaired; however, attention was focused on ground-water contamination resulting from tailings seepage. Nevertheless, the offsite migration of radionuclides and chemical constituents from uranium milling byproduct materials into the ground water, as well as to surface water and air, are still principal threats at the site. The remedial action will address onsite ground water contamination. Source control and onsite surface reclamation will be implemented under the direction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and integrated with this ground water operable unit. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are metals including arsenic, and radioactive substances including radium-226/228 and gross alpha. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  20. Operating power plant experience with condensate polishing units in morpholine/ammonia-OH cycle

    Impurity removal efficiency of condensate polisher plant (CPP) in ammonium cycle is poor. Cost considerations demand CPP operation in amine-OH cycle. With certain precautions such as higher regeneration levels, good regenerent quality, minimized cross contamination, continuous monitoring of influent and effluent and provision for 100% standby bed, it is possible to operate CPP beyond H-OH cycle while keeping the effluent impurities within the specified limits. This paper presents problem associated with the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) CPP operation in morpholine-OH form and Korba Super Thermal Power Station (KSTPS) CPP in ammonia-OH form and suggested remedial measures. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

  1. Regular norm and the operator semi-norm on a non-unital Banach Algebra

    Orenstein, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We show that if $\\mathfrak{A}$ is a commutative complex non-unital Banach Algebra with norm $\\|\\cdot\\|$, then $\\|\\cdot\\|$ is regular on $\\mathfrak{A}$ if and only if $\\|\\cdot\\|_{op}$ is a norm on $\\mathfrak{A}\\oplus \\mathbb{C}$ and $\\mathfrak{A}\\oplus\\mathbb{C}$ is a commutative complex Banach Algebra with respect to $\\|\\cdot\\|_{op}$.

  2. 77 FR 65581 - Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales) Division, East Operating...

    2012-10-29

    ... Register on January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3501). At the request of a worker, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit... Healthcare, and Pro Unlimited, East Hanover, NJ and Off-Site Workers of Novartis Pharmaceuticals...

  3. 78 FR 20144 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    2013-04-03

    ... exemption and FONSI were published in the Federal Register (FR) on the same day the exemption was issued (72 FR 55254). The exemption was then implemented at Indian Point Unit 3. A draft EA for public comment.... See 75 FR 20248 (April 19, 2010). That 2010 rulemaking expanded the scope of an existing...

  4. 77 FR 41814 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1

    2012-07-16

    ... review and comment on a draft EA and FONSI for the proposed action on May 11, 2012 (77 FR 27804), and... road and road base in low areas or areas that have become washed out over the years. These... other than GGNS Unit 1 between the Big Black River to the north, and Bayou Pierre River to the...

  5. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo;

    2015-01-01

    unit toincrease the overall energy conversion efficiency.The dynamic model of the plant is coupled with a one-dimensional model of the once-through boilerfed by the exhaust thermal power of the gas turbine. The heat exchanger model uses a distributedcross-flow physical topology and local correlations...

  6. United States nuclear merchant ship program: financial protection issues in the operations of nuclear merchant ships

    Financial protection embraces three principal areas: insurance, government indemnity, and limitations of liability. This protection must extend throughout the world following the trades of the nuclear powered merchant marine. Legislation to provide for government indemnity in the United States is in its draft stage. This legislation contains a limitation of liability. 19 refs

  7. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    2013-03-14

    ... Consideration of Issuance of Amendment published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2012 (77 FR 1743), and a... published in the Federal Register on January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3458). However, by letter dated February 7... COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility...

  8. Novovoronezh Unit 5 WWER-1000 reactor transfer to uranium-gadolinium fuel -operating experience of fuel cycles 23 and 24

    Development of Uranium-Gadolinium Fuel (UGF) cycle and safety justification for the Novovoronezh NPP Unit 5 were performed by Kurchatov Institute, Gidropress, VNIINM, VNIIAES, while preparation of the new FAs for fabrication was performed by NZKhK. The purpose of the project was to support fuel cycle duration of 300 effective days and longer with the average burn-up of about 50 MWday/kgU in spent FAs. The work was coordinated by concerns TVEL and Rosenergoatom. Special UGF FAs were developed for the Novovoronezh Unit 5 with initial enrichment of 3.9% and 4.3%. Core maps with UGF FAs are provided. During pilot operation (fuel loads 23 to 26) installation of UGF FAs was based on full scope of the core make-up. Fuel load 23 operated from 29 August 2005 to 25 July 2006. The fuel cycle duration was 312.5 effective days. The second batch of UGF FAs operated in fuel load 24 from 4 September 2006 to 14 July 2007. 30 UGF FAs were loaded in the core with the average initial enrichment of 4.3%, and 12 UGF FAs - with the average initial enrichment of 3.9%. This fuel cycle lasted for 302 effective days. For both cycles reactor power behavior curve and the maximum relative FA power as well as the curves of calculated and measured boric acid concentrations by chemical analysis during the cycles are shown. Comparison of FA relative power reconstructed by thermocouple (ThC) readings with calculation in maximum-density FA, reconstructed power root mean-square deviation (RMSD) from calculation in self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) locations during 23rd and 24rd fuel charge operation are presented. Changes in reactor plant thermal power and FA maximum relative power during the both fuel campaigns are also given. Based on the presented results authors concluded that: 1) During UGF operation all parameters monitored according to the Novovoronezh NPP Unit 5 technical specification of safe operation were within operational limits; 2) Introduction of UGF FAs did not result in increased

  9. Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1. Semiannual operating report No. 4, July--December 1975

    Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, radioactive effluent releases, solid radioactive waste, primary coolant chemistry, personel radiation, and refueling. Histograms of thermal power vs. time are included

  10. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff's evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements

  11. Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    Information is presented concerning operating experience, outages, exposures, and indication of failed fuel elements. In addition FSAR Amendment 53 and a listing of effective pages for the FSAR through Amendment 53 are given

  12. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure. PMID:26771771

  13. Construction and operating experience of Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 1

    No. 1 plant in Shika Nuclear Power Station, Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc. is a Mark 1 improved type plant of 540 MW output, in which the results of improvement and standardization were adopted, and started the commercial operation in July, 1993. To this plant, the newest results of technical development based on the experiences of design, construction and operation obtained so far by Hitachi Ltd. were applied, such as the automation of operation, the advanced monitoring of operation condition by image display, the speed control of recirculation pumps by thyristors, the volume reduction and solidification of waste and so on. The detailed planning of piping and the layout by three-dimensional CAD were adopted on full scale. The site and appearance designs were carried out by regarding the harmony with nature as important. In the construction, the efficiency was increased, and the construction period was shortened by increasing the size of sections, adopting module method and so on. The sufficient performance was confirmed by all the test, and after the commercial operation for 9 months, the first periodic inspection was carried out from April, 1994, and was finished as scheduled. The features of the reactor containment vessel, reactor system and engineering safety facility, turbine system, instrumentation and control system and waste treatment facility are explained. The construction works at the site, the trial operation and the first periodic inspection are reported. (K.I.)

  14. A concept of optimal number of units in an operation at a given demand in hydro power plants

    The concept of optimal number of units in an operation at a given demand in hydro-power plants is important because it helps to form their consumption characteristics of water and specific consumption characteristics of water, as well. The above mentioned characteristics, further on are used for the purpose of de terminating optimal schedule of power in complex electrical power systems composed of hydro and thermal power plants. Therefore it is necessary for them to be acknowledged for different levels of electric power system consumption. Thereby, it is often practiced each plant's daily load diagram to be divided into 24 time-intervals and within each time-interval it might be assumed that the electrical load is constant. The method presented in this paper is based on characteristics of water consumption concept for each hydro-unit without taking into account self-consumption of water and electric power for running the unit. Also, it is based on functional dependencies for self-consumption of water and self-consumption of power as a function of net-consumption of water and gross-production by the hydro-unit, respectively. Finally, the method requires knowledge of the plant's load diagram and technical features of the hydro-units. It may be considered that the suggested method is iterative, but solving the solutions within each individual iteration is analytical, so the required time for achieving the final results is very short-lasting. (Original)

  15. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (USDOE) Operable Unit 5, Paducah, KY, August 10, 1998

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the final remedial action decisions selected for soils and sediments in each of the solid waste management units (SWMUs) of Waste Area Groups (WAGs) 1 and 7 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) near Paducah, Kentucky. Waste Area Group 1 consists of SWMUs 100 and 136. Waste Area Group 7 consists of SWMUs 8 and 130 through 134. By mutual consent among the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection (KDEP), the United States Department of Defense (DOD), the United States Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and the DOE, it was agreed that the evaluation and implementation of any remedial actions required for the Kentucky Ordnance Works (KOW) SWMUs (SWMU 94 (KOW Sewage Treatment Plant), SWMU 95 (KOW Burn Area), and SWMU 157 (KOW Toluene Spill Site)), formerly included in WAGs 1 and 7, would be the responsibility of the DOD and conducted on behalf of the DOD by the COE. Due to the agreements reached among these entities, remedial technologies for the KOW SWMUs are not discussed further in this ROD and will be evaluated as part of the WAG 10 investigation by the COE. Additionally, by written mutual consent, the EPA, the DKEP, and the DOE agreed that an evaluation of remedial alternatives for SWMU 38, the C-615 Sewage Treatment Plant, would be deferred until the unit ceases operation. Consequently, no remedial actions are discussed for these SWMUs in this ROD

  16. Influence of large nuclear units on the operating condition of the Electric Power System in Bulgaria

    The Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant contributes a significant share to the Bulgarian Electric Power System's balance of energy and power. The concentration of such large electricity generation capacity in one power plant, as well as the use of turbogenerators with unit capacity of 1000 MW provokes certain difficulties. Sudden tripping of a very large generator on minimum load causes heavy disturbance to the electric power system. The present paper addresses the measures aimed at decreasing the power deficit, respectively the system disturbance and to avoid a major power system failure that could be initiated by tripping of a large nuclear turbogenerator. An evaluation is made of electric control systems and governors, their characteristics and behaviour. Participation on large nuclear turbogenerators in primary frequency control, voltage and reactive power regulation is described. Analyses are illustrated by authentic records of transients during nuclear units tripping. (author)

  17. LeanERP® Mobile Platform Solution for Planning, Visualization and Execution of Business Operations in MSME Unit

    Dr . Jayakumar Karuppusamy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and development of a solution framework for a LeanERP® interactive application for use with mobile handheld devices, which enables profile based activity logging, planning and execution of tasks, information sharing, collaboration and decision support aligned with the enterprise operations. The design leverages intelligence with the use of cognitive approaches, classifier systems and a data driven approach for adaptive profiling and configuration of software behavior. The solution is well suited for MSME units as the architecture is designed on the basis of a SOA for rapid adaptation and deployment for a given cluster and presents an engaging role centric GUI with multiple widgets and tabs for dynamic visualization of information relating to enterprise operations with trails and traceability of process flows, events, activities, analysis and cost estimates. The solution integrates mechanisms, data structures, algorithms and associated computational models that enable presentation of performance characteristics, predictions and appropriate options for decisions relating to various operations

  18. Cernavoda NPP Unit 1: Operating experience program and plant specific performance indicators (level 2)

    The basis for the Operating Experience Program was set in place since early stages of the commissioning phase (1993), when a system based on the Canadian approach was implemented for reporting, reviewing, assessing and establishing of the necessary corrective action for unplanned events. This system provided excellent opportunity to train staff in unplanned event assessment methodology, and prepare the station for the formal reporting process following criticality in accordance with the licensing requirements. The formal process, set in place after criticality is described in Station Instruction Procedure SI-01365-P13 'Unplanned Event Report' and was developed under the supervision of Safety and Compliance Department. In parallel, a program for information exchange and trending of performance indicators was developed by Technical Services Department. The WANO recommendations following August 1997 Peer Review provided the opportunity for a better understanding and reconsideration of the Operating Experience Program. As a result, all the activities related to this topic were assigned to a new structure, within Safety and Compliance Department. As such an Operating Experience Group was created and a new program is now being developed in an integrated and centralized manner. The content of the paper is the following: - Overview; - Operating Experience Program; - Event Analysis (Unplanned Events Assessment System - UEIR Process- and Systematic Analysis of Operational Events - ACR Process); - Information Exchange Program; - Monitoring of Operating Experience - Plant Specific Performance Indicators; - Purpose; - Level 2 Performance Indicators. Four appendices are added containing: - A. Station performance indicators/targets (Level 2); - B. SPI (Station Performance Indicators - Level 2) - Graphics; - C. UEIR, LRS (Safety and Licensing Review Sheet), UEFR (Unplanned Event Follow-up Report), ACR and OPEX forms. (authors)

  19. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-461

    This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Clinton Power Station Unit 1 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land-use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts will also be small. However, steam fog from the station's cooling lake has the potential for reducing visibility over nearby roads and bridges. A fog-monitoring program for roads and ridges near the lake has been recommended. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible. Chemical discharges to Lake Clinton and Salt Creek are expected to have no appreciable impacts on water quality under normal conditions and will be required to meet conditions of the station's NPDES permit. The hydrothermal analyses indicate that under certain meteorological conditions (1-in-50-year drought), the plant would have to be operated at reduced power levels in order to meet the thermal standards established by the Illinois Pollution Control Board Order PCB 81-82. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission line facilties should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. Contentions associated with environmental issues accepted during the operating-license hearing are related to assessment of effects of low-level radiation. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Unit 1 of Clinton

  20. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-461

    This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Clinton Power Station Unit 1 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land-use, terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts, and air-quality impacts will be small. Steam fog from the station's cooling lake has the potential for reducing visibility over nearby roads and bridges. A fog-monitoring program for nearby roads and bridges has been recommended. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible. Chemical discharges to Lake Clinton and Salt Creek are expected to have no appreciable impacts on water quality under normal conditions and will be required to meet conditions of the station's NPDES permit. The hydrothermal analyses indicate that under certain meteorological conditions (1-in-50-year drought), the plant would have to be operated at reduced power levels in order to meet the thermal standards established by the Illinois Pollution Control Board Order PCB 81-82. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission line facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure is very low. Contentions associated with environmental issues accepted during the operating-license hearing are related to assessment of effects of low-level radiation. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Unit 1 of Clinton

  1. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report No. 3

    After a month-by-month summary of operations and maintenance activities, data are presented concerning modifications, procedure changes, and man-rem radiation doses. Appendices include information on the main generator outage, leak rate testing, refueling outage, recirculation pump modifications, and instrument drift

  2. SEP operating history of the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 2

    206 forced shutdowns and power reductions were reviewed, along with 631 reportable events and other miscellaneous documentation concerning the operation of Dresden-2, in order to indicate those areas of plant operation that compromised plant safety. The most serious plant challenge to plant safety occurred on June 5, 1970; while undergoing power testing at 75% power, a spurious signal in the reactor pressure control system caused a turbine trip followed by a reactor scram. Subsequent erratic water level and pressure control in the reactor vessel, compounded by a stuck indicator pen on a water level monitor-recorder and inability of the isolation condenser to function, led to discharge of steam and water through safety valves into the reactor drywell. No significant contamination was discharged. There was no pressure damage or the reactor vessel of the drywell containment walls. Six areas of operation that should be of continued concern are diesel generator failures, control rod and rod drive malfunctions, radioactive waste management/health physics program problems, operator errors, turbine control valve and EHC problems, and HPCI failures. All six event types have continued to recur

  3. Operator-system interaction language for a nuclear power unit. 4. Keyboards and menu

    The article is devoted to the functional-linguistic analysis of keyboards, placed on the NPPs control panels. The front panels of keyboards are considered and the problems on information management and role distribution between the man and machine and the keyboard conveniences for operators are discussed

  4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    Gross electrical energy generated was 2,610,000 MWH with the generator on line 6,162.9 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, reportable occurrences, steam generator tube inspections, primary coolant chemistry, containment penetration leak tests, and radiological environmental monitoring

  5. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Fifth semiannual operating and maintenance report, July--December 1974

    During this period the reactor was critical for 3,550.3 hrs and the net electrical power generated was 1,973,033 MWH. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, radioactive effluents, environmental monitoring, and radioactive materials released to unrestricted areas. (U.S.)

  6. Success in an Introductory Operations Research Course: A Case Study at the United Arab Emirates University

    Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of a number of factors such as high school major, high school score, gender, Stat105, Maths I, Maths II grades, and grade point average (GPA) on students' academic performance in an introductory operations research (OR) course at the department of Business Administration--College of…

  7. Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    Net electrical power generated was 3,383,265.0 MWh with the generator on line for 6,926.8 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, changes in technical specifications, modifications, steam generator tube inspection, containment leak rate tests, in-service inspection, maintenance, environmental technical specifications, and the radiological monitoring program

  8. Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    Net electrical energy generated was 441,530 MWH with the generator on line 1714.9 hours. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, changes, licensee event reports, power generation, shutdowns and forced power reductions, personnel radiation exposures, and unique reporting requirements

  9. H. B. Robinson Plant, Unit 2. Semiannual operating report No. 11, July--December 1975

    Net electrical power generated was 2,119,115 MW(e) with the generator on line 3,308 hrs. Information is presented concerning operation, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, tests, inspections, refueling, and steam generator outage

  10. Three-Dimensional Groundwater Models of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Chen, Yousu

    2008-09-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed field-scale groundwater flow and transport simulations of the 300 Area to support the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Phase III Feasibility Study. The 300 Area is located in the southeast portion of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. Historical operations involving uranium fuel fabrication and research activities at the 300 Area have contaminated engineered liquid-waste disposal facilities, the underlying vadose zone, and the uppermost aquifer with uranium. The main objectives of this research were to develop numerical groundwater flow and transport models to help refine the site conceptual model, and to assist assessment of proposed alternative remediation technologies focused on the 300 Area uranium plume.

  11. Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption

    This study examines the prospect for performance improvement in the 62 light water reactors in operation in the US as of the end of last year and which are deemed to have current commercial design features. These units represent a total net capacity of 49,481 MW(e). In the last two years (1978 to 1979), total capacity factor losses for these units was 36.5%. This study finds that in the short-term, capacity factor improvement of about 16% could be achieved, for example, in response to a short-term energy crisis. In the long-term a gain of perhaps 18% could be achieved. Such gains would represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. In addition, this study evaluated potential increases in the operating power level of these units, and concluded that a short term power level increase of about 2500 MW(e) could be achieved, in addition to a long term increase of about 1700 MW(e). This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-352 and 50-353)

    In August 1983 the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-0991) regarding the application of the Philadelphia Electric Company (the licensee) for licenses to operate the Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, located on site in Montgomery and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania. Supplement 1 to NUREG-0991 was issued in December 1983. Supplements 2 and 3 were issued in October 1984. License NPF-27 for the low-power operation of Limerick Unit 1 was issued on October 26, 1984. Supplement 4 was issued in May, 1985, Supplement 5 was issued in July 1985, and Supplement 6 was issued in August 1985. These supplements addressed further issues that required resolution before Unit 1 proceeded beyond the 5-percent power level. The full-power operating license for Limerick Unit 1 (NPF-39) was issued August 8, 1985, and the unit has completed two cycles of operation. Supplement 7 was issued April 1989 to address some of the few significant design differences between Units 1 and 2, the resolution of issues that remained open when the Unit 1 full-power license was issued and an assessment of some of the issues that required resolution before issuance of an operating license for Unit 2. This supplement addresses the remaining issues that required resolution before issuance of and operating license for Unit 2

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, Dockets Nos. 50-352 and 50-353: Philadelphis Electric Company

    In August 1983 the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-0991) regarding the application of the Philadelphia Electric Company (the licensee) for licenses to operate the Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, located on a site in Montgomery and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania. Supplement 1 to NUREG-0991 was issued in December 1983. Supplements 2 and 3 were issued in October 1984. License NPF-27 for the low-power operation of Limerick Unit 1 was issued on October 26, 1984. Supplement 4 was issued in May 1985, Supplement 5 was issued in July 1985, and Supplement 6 was issued in August 1985. These supplements addressed further issues that required resolution before Unit 1 proceeded beyond the 5-percent power level. The full-power operating license for Limerick Unit 1 (NPF-39) was issued August 8, 1985, and the unit has completed two cycles of operation. This supplement addresses the major design differences between Units 1 and 2, the resolution of all issues that remained open when the Unit 1 full-power license was issued, the staff's assessment of the licensee's application to operate Unit 2, and the issues that require resolution before issuance of an operating license for Unit 2

  14. Remedial Action Report for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    R. P. Wells

    2007-08-15

    This Phase III remedial action report addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility STF-02 Gun Range at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Phase I, consisting of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operble Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory Site-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring, was addressed in a previous report. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance.

  15. A STRATEGIC ANALYSIS FOR A MULTI-UNIT DAIRY QUEEN OPERATION IN CANADA

    Mah, Tracy D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a strategic analysis for ABC Holdings, a family run multi-unit Dairy Queen in a small Northern Canadian city. An industry analysis of the fast food industry in Canada is conducted as well as an in-depth examination of International Dairy Queen. An external analysis in the form of Porter?s Five Forces are utilized to determine the key success factors to identify the threats and opportunities available to the Dairy Queen. An internal analysis of the DQ using the Diamond-E Framewor...

  16. Capability of the manned maneuvering unit to support satellite servicing operations

    Bergonz, F. H.; Lenda, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Features, capabilities, and projected performances and missions of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) are described. A zero gravity, autonomous, six degree of freedom mobility system using gaseous nitrogen for propulsion, the MMU is equipped with jets for attitude and rotational control, 24 thrusters total, with each providing 7.5 N thrust. The unit is controled from hand controllers used by the pilot, in addition to an automatic attitude control using outputs from a gyroscope pack in the control electronics assembly. EVA periods of 6 hrs are possible with the 150 kg MMU and its fuel complement of 12 kg of gaseous N. Refueling is allowed through an Orbiter interface at the same location the MMU is stowed. The MMU has a delta-V capability of 20 m/sec, with a thrust duration of 7085 N-sec, implying the EVA suit limit will be reached before propellant can be exhausted. The results of various mission simulations for the MMU are reported.

  17. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Callaway Plant, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-483)

    The final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Callaway Plant Unit 1, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Par 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the purpose and need for the Callaway project, alternatives to the project, the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. No water-use impacts are expected from cooling-tower markup withdrawn from, or blowdown discharged into, the Missouri River. Land-use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts from cooling-tower drift and other emissions and dust will also be small. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible with the development and implementation of the applicant's cultural-resources management plan. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Unit 1 of the Callaway Plant. 18 figs., 16 tabs

  18. Symptoms of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in United States Air Force "drone" operators.

    Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Prince, Lillian; Goodman, Tanya; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie N; Thompson, William

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study is to repeat a survey administered in 2010 to assess for changes in mental health among United States Air Force aircrew operating Predator/Reaper remotely piloted aircraft, also commonly referred to as "drones." Participants were assessed for self-reported sources of occupational stress, levels of clinical distress using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. A total of 1,094 aircrew responded to the web-based survey composed of the commercially available standardized instruments mentioned above. The survey also contained nonstandardized items asking participants to report the main sources of their occupational stress, as well as questions addressing demographics and work-related characteristics. The estimated response rate to the survey was 49%. Study results reveal the most problematic self-reported stressors are operational: low manning, extra duties/administrative tasks, rotating shift work, and long hours. The results also reveal 10.72% of operators self-reported experiencing high levels of distress and 1.57% reported high levels of PTSD symptomology. The results are lower than findings from the 2010 survey and from soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Implications of the study and recommendations for United States Air Force line leadership and mental health providers are discussed. PMID:25102551

  19. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  20. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan's purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner

  1. Optimal design of Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) for power system operation in smart cities

    Aamir, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The concept of smart cities involves specifically modified infrastructure for its physical, economic and social systems which is mandatory to provide improved facilities to citizens at various levels. The major infrastructure is energy which is mainly distributed in the form of Electricity. Therefore power system operation must be optimized by making it intelligent and environmental friendly by including renewable resources and green ICT systems to achieve greater energy efficiency. In th...

  2. Agent-based simulation of military operations other than war small unit combat

    Woodaman, Ronald F. A.

    2000-01-01

    A significant challenge to the Armed Forces today is the development of tactics, techniques, procedures, and equipment that will enable success in the small-scale combats that characterize Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW). This thesis develops an agent-based simulation methodology for modeling MOOTW combat scenarios. The methodology combines agent-based modeling with discrete event simulation in a software package called AgentKit. AgentKit is used to model a riot control problem for...

  3. Economic evaluation alongside pragmatic randomised trials: developing a standard operating procedure for clinical trials units

    Russell Ian T; Linck Pat; Hounsome Barry; Edwards Rhiannon T

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is wide recognition that pragmatic randomised trials are the best vehicle for economic evaluation. This is because trials provide the best chance of ensuring internal validity, not least through the rigorous prospective collection of patient-specific data. Furthermore the marginal cost of collecting economic data alongside clinical data is typically modest. UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) does not require a standard operating procedure (SOP) for economic e...

  4. Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1. Annual operation report: January-December 1977 (including environmental report)

    Net electrical energy generated in 1977 was 2,922,683.7 MWH with the generator on line 6,959.8 hours. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, occupational personnel radiation exposures, and primary coolant chemistry. Data on radioactive effluent releases, meteorology, environmental monitoring, and potential radiation doses to individuals for July 7, 1977 to December 31, 1977 are also included

  5. The Optimized Operation of Gas Turbine Combined Heat and Power Units Oriented for the Grid-Connected Control

    Xia, Shu; Ge, Xiaolin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, according to various grid-connected demands, the optimization scheduling models of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units are established with three scheduling modes, which are tracking the total generation scheduling mode, tracking steady output scheduling mode and tracking peaking curve scheduling mode. In order to reduce the solution difficulty, based on the principles of modern algebraic integers, linearizing techniques are developed to handle complex nonlinear constrains of the variable conditions, and the optimized operation problem of CHP units is converted into a mixed-integer linear programming problem. Finally, with specific examples, the 96 points day ahead, heat and power supply plans of the systems are optimized. The results show that, the proposed models and methods can develop appropriate coordination heat and power optimization programs according to different grid-connected control.

  6. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  7. THE FINANCING OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE TERRITORIAL UNITS IN THE WEST DEVELOPMENT REGION THROUGH THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME 2007 - 2013

    Munteanu Nicolae-Eugen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to be found methods to increase the competitiveness between the Romanian administrative-territorial units, under the current conditions of the economic crisis, by means of the existing economic levers successfully used within the European Union regions. The development regions of Romania do not have the statute of administrative units, but they represent territorial units large enough to constitute a good basis for the elaboration and implementation of regional development strategies, allowing an efficient use of the financial and human resources. The scope for which these development regions were created had in view the support granted for the larger communities in their action to settle the problems which go beyond the administrative borders and which surpass the financial possibilities of one county. In Romania, the communes, towns, municipalities and counties are defined as administrative-territorial units within which the local autonomy is exercised and the authorities of the local public administration are organized and operate. The local, communal, town, municipality and county councils, as deliberative authorities, and also the mayors and the presidents of county councils as executive authorities have the duties to solve the public matters of the community, acting as authorities of the Romanian public administration. In Romania, the local autonomy is only administrative and financial, having as objective the organization, operation, competencies and tasks, and also the management of the inland resources. The principle of the local financial autonomy implies the fact that the administrative-territorial units have the right to financial resources, which can be used by the authorities of the local public administration when exercising their tasks. According to the Law of the local public finances, the local budget incomes could be made also of the non-reimbursable funds granted by the European Union. Based on the

  8. Surry unit 2 end of cycle 4 onsite fuel examination: reduced data and operating history

    Onsite nondestructive examinations were performed at the end of reactor cycle 4 on 17 x 17 demonstration assemblies irradiated in the Surry Unit 2 reactor during cycles 2, 3, and 4. Two three-cycle 17 x 17 demonstration fuel assemblies, four two-cycle 17 x 17 removable fuel rods, and eight three-cycle 17 x 17 removable fuel rods were examined. These examinations included television visual examinations and grid cell friction force measurements performed on the fuel assemblies and breakaway/withdrawal force measurements, television visual examinations, and profilometry measurements performed on the removable fuel rods. The actual reduced onsite data from the breakaway/withdrawal force measurements, the grid cell friction force measurements, and the profilometry measurements are contained in this report

  9. 天然气回收装置投用小结%Operation Summary of the Natural Gas Recovery Unit

    肖震

    2014-01-01

    通过技改,增加天然气回收装置,回收开停车期间脱硫后放空的天然气。投用后取得了很好的效果,达到了设计目的。%While revamping process ,natural gas recovery system was added to recover the vented desulfurized natural gas during the unit start-up and shut-down . The effect is good after it put into operation . T he design target is achieved .

  10. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    This report, Supplement No. 5 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Duquesne Light Company et al. (the applicant) for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and its Supplements 1, 2, 3, and 4 were published

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 8): Monticello Mill Tailings (USDOE), Operable Unit 3, Monticello, UT, September 29, 1998

    This decision document presents the selected interim remedial action for Operable Unit (OU) 3 surface water and ground water at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site (MMTS) in San Juan County, Utah. The selected alternative for the interim remedial action for OU 3 surface water runoff, continuation of ongoing monitoring efforts, and evaluation of a permeable reactive treatment (PeRT) wall through the use of a pilot-scale treatability study. If monitoring results indicate that the interim remedial action is not achieving the objectives of preventing exposure to and reducing contaminants in contaminated ground water, other alternatives will be evaluated from the OU 3 feasibility study

  12. Application of an LWR operator information systems analysis to the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant-Unit 1

    This report describes the formulation and demonstration of a method to help utilities achieve their objectives of nuclear plant safety and economy. Called The Integrated Approach to Economic and Safe Nuclear Power Production, it is a framework for showing how plant equipment and personnel work together in successful nuclear operations. It is being applied to the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 to evaluate the current plant information systems and, should it appear to be desirable, to identify potential cost-beneficial improvements to plant information systems

  13. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1, Docket No. 50-461

    Supplement No. 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Illinois Power Company, Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc., and Western Illinois Power Cooperative, Inc., as applicants and owners, for a license to operate the Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Harp Township, DeWitt County, Illinois. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplement No. 1

  14. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    This report, Supplement No. 6 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Duquesne Light Company et al. (the licensee) for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and its Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were published

  15. Organizational structure and operation of defense/aerospace information centers in the United States of America

    Sauter, H. E.; Lushina, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    U.S. Government aerospace and defense information centers are addressed. DTIC and NASA are described in terms of their history, operational authority, information services provided, user community, sources of information collected, efforts under way to improve services, and external agreements regarding the exchange of documents and/or data bases. Contents show how DTIC and NASA provide aerospace/defense information services in support of U.S. research and development efforts. In a general introduction, the importance of scientific and technical information and the need for information centers to acquire, handle, and disseminate it are stressed.

  16. The types of services a single unit, new operating utility needs from industry

    The author examines the future of the Wolf Creek nuclear power plant. He says the future includes the following elements: fulfillment of the commitment to and responsibility for safe operation of the plant, and effective utilization of human and economic resources. The author says the Wolf Creek organization cannot and should not be entirely self-sufficient. Services purchased from outside firms, subcontractors, and consultants are expected to be 20% of the 1986 budget. The author asks for help and patience in meeting the plant's goals

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  18. Evaluation of the D-Area Expanded Operable Unit for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Constituents of Concern: Interim Report

    A comprehensive approach is being developed to evaluate SRS sites with inorganic constituents of concern (COCs) for potential implementation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy. In order to invoke MNA, the operative, or controlling, attenuation mechanisms at a given site must be identified and demonstrated using a technically defensible approach and site-specific data. This report details ongoing research in the application of this approach at the D-Area expanded operable unit (DEXOU). Initial screening of the DEXOU described in this interim report indicates that natural attenuation of inorganic COCs (low pH, Cr, Ni, Se, and As) is occurring to a significant degree. This work is part of continuing efforts to characterize the natural attenuation processes, both abiotic and biotic, occurring at this location and likely occurring at other SRS sites with inorganic COCs

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T. [eds.; Musicki, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144.

  20. Coal quality influence on availability and reliability of two 620 MW lignite fired units after 100 000 operating hours

    General statistics data on operation of two 620 MW low calorific value coal fired units are foundation for analysis of influence of variable coal characteristics on availability and reliability. Changeable mineralogical structure, ash contents and heating value cause the following problems: increased abrasive wear and unstable firing. Almost 23 % of plant shutting down are caused by the mentioned reasons, which have multiplied in the last years. Analysis will show how it is possible to plan terms of overhaul of boilers with respect to quality of used coal and reliability of pipe system and maintenance of high level of availability and reliability in spite of periodical low heating value of coal. Described experiences are also important for planning, design, construction and operation of new power plants firing with same coal. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144

  2. Major Problems Related with Operation of Catalytic Reforming Units and Countermeasures

    Zhou Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    @@ Currently the catalytic reforming units are playing an increasingly important role for gasoline quality upgrading, increased production of high add-value aromatic compounds and supply of cheap hydrogen resources. The high proportion of FCC gasoline in China' s automotive gasoline pool has led to a quite significant gap in gasoline quality as compared to the demand of World Fuel Charter and even to the new Chinese standards for unleaded automotive gasoline. According to the statistical data, the ratio of FCC naphtha in the gasoline pool is 35% in the US and 27% in EU, whereas that number is 75% in China's gasoline pool. The share of reformate and other high-quality gasoline components in the gasoline pool is 65% in the US and 73% in EU, whereas that number is merely 14% in China's gasoline pool along with a definite share of low-octane (straight-run) gasoline. Therefore, devoting major efforts to the development of catalytic reforming technology to increase the output of high-octane, lowolefin and low-sulfur reformer gasoline component is an effective avenue for gasoline quality upgrading along with increased production of high add-value aromatics and cheap hydrogen.

  3. Design and operational experience of low level radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of at the Drigg near-surface disposal site for over 30 years. These are carried out under a disposal authorization granted by the UK Environment Agency. This is augmented by a three tier comprehensive system of waste controls developed by BNFL involving wasteform specification, consignor and waste stream qualification and waste consignment verification. Until 1988 wastes were disposed of into trench facilities. However, based on a series of integrated optioneering studies, new arrangements have since been brought into operation. Central to these is a wasteform specification based principally on high force compaction of wastes, grouting within 20 m3 steel overpack containers to essentially eliminate associated voidage and subsequent disposal in concrete lined vaults. These arrangements ensure efficient utilisation of the Drigg site capacity and a cost-effective disposal concept which meets both national and international standards. (author). 7 figs

  4. Microalgae cultivation as tertiary unit operation for treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater associated with lipid production.

    Hemalatha, Manupati; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae based treatment was studied to polish sequential batch reactor (SBR) treated pharmaceutical wastewater under mixotrophic mode of operation with simultaneous biomass/lipid production. At the end of biomass growth phase (BGP), carbon removal efficiency was observed to be 73% along with good removal of nitrates (62%). Since microalgae assimilate nutrients from wastewater for growth, an increment in total biomass productivity (2.8g/l) was observed. Subjecting to nutrient stress phase (NSP), total lipid content of 17.2% with neutral lipids of 6.2% was observed under light condition. Contrarily, dark condition depicted total lipid content of 15.8% with neutral lipids constituting 6.5%. The nutrient stress in combination with light showed marked influence on the profile of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Integration of microalgae cultivation improves environmental sustainability and enables greener routes of biofuels and value added products synthesis in a biorefinery approach. PMID:27177715

  5. Engineering analysis activities in support of Susquehanna Unit 1 startup testing and Cycle 1 operations

    The Engineering Analysis group has responsibility for all nuclear plant systems analysis and reactor analysis activities, excluding fuel management analysis, at Pennsylvania Power and Light Co. These activities include pretest and post test predictions of startup tests, analyzing unplanned or unexpected transient events, providing technical training to plant personnel, assisting in the development of emergency drill scenarios, providing engineering evaluations to support design and technical specification changes and the evaluation, assessment and resolution of a number of license conditions. Many of these activities have required the direct use of our RETRAN models. This paper will focus on two RETRAN analyses that were completed to support plant operation: 1) an analysis of the turbine trip startup test, and 2) the analysis of the loss of startup transformer event. For each case, RETRAN results are compared with available plant data and the comparisons are drawn on the acceptability of the performance of the plant systems

  6. Engineering analysis activities in support of susquehanna unit 1 startup testing and cycle 1 operations

    The engineering analysis group is responsible for all nuclear plant systems analysis and reactor analysis activities, excluding fuel management analysis, at Pennsylvania Power and Light Company. These activities include making pretest and posttest predictions of startup tests; analyzing unplanned or unexpected transient events; providing technical training to plant personnel; assisting in the development of emergency drill scenarios; providing engineering evaluations to support design and technical specification changes, and evaluating, assessing, and resolving a number of license conditions. Many of these activities have required the direct use of RETRAN models. Two RETRAN analyses that were completed to support plant operations - a pretest analysis of the turbine trip startup test, and a posttest analysis of the loss of startup transformer event - are investigated. For each case, RETRAN results are compared with available plant data and comparisons are drawn on the acceptability of the performance of the plant systems

  7. Four years experience in spent resins encapsulation with mobile units operated by STMI in EDF's nuclear plants

    The French Nuclear Program, developed since 1973 by EDF, consists of standardized 900 MW and 1300 MWe, PWR nuclear power plants. All those plants are of similar design and therefore, are particularly suited for the use of itinerant mobile equipment for the performance of intermittent tasks not directly related to electrical production. Since 1981, STMI (EDF and CEA subsidiary for nuclear decontamination services) has operated a mobile system service for spent resins encapsulation from the EDF nuclear plants. Three mobile systems are in operation: COMET 1 and COMET 2, of STMI design, using polymerized styrene with proper additives as encapsulating material, and PRECED, of PEC Engineering design, based on a Dow Chemical solidification process. To date, 25 operations have been performed on EDF's PWR plants. About 5,000, 110 liter drums have been produced, while encapsulating more than 450 cubic meters (more than 16,000 cu ft) of spent resins. During this time the mobile units have shown an excellent record of availability and reliability. Simplified devices and operation procedures make the system very efficient

  8. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  9. Control loop and unit operation realtime modeling on a distributed control system

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be primarily controlled by a Distributed Control System (DCS). The magnitude of the DWPF process requires that an ample amount of realistic and effective process- and procedure-oriented training take place on the DCS as a prerequisite for safe and efficient operation of the site. To help ensure that the training goal will be accomplished, the decision was made to develop a series of simulation packages that deals with selected sections of the process. These simulation packages are executed not on a mainframe computer, as is the usual case, but in the Distributed Control environment, the same DCS structure built to control the process. The DWPF will be used to process liquid radioactive waste into a safe, stable, and manageable form. The waste will be bound in a solid glass matrix for safe storage for thousands of years. The process will be primarily controlled by a Distributed Control System (DCS). The DCS will be responsible for processing the information from 6400 digital and analog input-output (I/O) points. The processed information will be displayed to the operators via DCS consoles. Because this will be the first application of this process, and because of the complexity, significance, and importance of the DWPF, an ample amount of realistic and effective process- and procedure-oriented training and testing must take place. This paper will provide a review of the advantages and disadvantages of this approach and an in-depth discussion on the development of the concept of Functional Simulation and how it was used to generate these DCS-oriented Process Simulation Packages

  10. Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006

    R. P. Wells

    2007-05-09

    This report provides a status of the progress made in Fiscal Year 2006 on tasks identified in the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan. Major accomplishments include: (1) groundwater sampling and review of the groundwater monitoring data, (2) installation of a Sitewide groundwater-level monitoring network, (3) update of the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan of Operable Unit 10-08, (4) re-evaluation of the risk at Site TSF-08, (5) progress on the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model.

  11. KELUHAN SUBJEKTIF PADA OPERATOR KOMPUTER DI UNIT PELAKSANA TEKNIS – PENGEMBANGAN SENI DAN TEKNOLOGI KERAMIK DAN PORSELIN BALI

    Komang Nelly Sundari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Di UPT – PSTKP (Unit Pelaksana Teknis – Pengembangan Seni dan Teknologi Keramik dan Porselin Bali hampir setiap ruangan dilengkapi sebuah komputer, kecuali dalam ruangan rapat, ruangan laboratorium, dan ruangan produksi. Para operator komputer tersebut biasanya melaksanakan tugas sehari-harinya di depan komputer tidak lebih dari dua jam, lalu beralih ke pekerjaan lain yang tidak menggunakan komputer dan selanjutnya melanjutkan lagi pekerjaannya dengan komputer. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mengurangi rasa jenuh, penat, dan kelelahan di mata selama bekerja di depan komputer. Bila dilihat dari sisi keefektivitan tenaga operator, cara kerja seperti ini sudah jelas tidak menguntungkan bagi lembaga karena waktu kerja terbuang dan sudah pasti kaitannya pada produktivitas yang tidak optimal. Kondisi tersebut tentu tidak sesuai dengan konsep ergonomi. Salah satunya adalah tidak tercapainya peningkatan produktivitas. Dalam ergonomi dikenal istilah keluhan subjektif, yaitu tanda-tanda yang menyatakan adanya kelelahan yang dialami orang akibat beban kerja yang membebaninya oleh karena interaksi pekerja dengan jenis pekerjaannya, rancangan tempat kerja, peralatan kerja, dan lingkungan kerja. Kelelahan dibedakan dalam tiga kategori yaitu menurunnya aktivitas, menurunnya motivasi, dan adanya kelelahan fisik akibat keadaan umum. Jenis penelitian ini adalah cross-sectional dengan rancangan pre and post test group design, melibatkan sepuluh orang operator sebagai subjek penelitian. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah kuesioner kelelahan 30 items of rating scale. Pendataan dilakukan sebelum dan setelah 2 jam kerja. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan uji t-paired pada tingkat kemaknaan α = 0,05. Hasilnya adalah operator komputer yang bekerja selama 2 jam mengalami peningkatan kelelahan secara umum sebesar 37,29%; pelemahan aktivitas kerja sebesar 39,08%; pelemahan motivasi kerja sebesar 28,64% dan meningkatnya kelelahan fisik sebesar 42,15%. Saran yang dapat

  12. Drilling Specifications: Well Installations in the 300 Area to Support PNNL's Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) Project

    Part of the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) will be installation of a network of high density borings and wells to monitor migration of fluids and contaminants (uranium), both in groundwater and vadose zone, away from an surface infiltration plot (Figure A-1). The infiltration plot will be located over an area of suspected contamination at the former 300 Area South Process Pond (SPP). The SPP is located in the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site, within the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with the support of FH shall stake the well locations prior to the start of drilling. Final locations will be based on accessibility and will avoid any surface or underground structures or hazards as well as surface contamination

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF Hispanic Veterans—A Review Using the PRISMA Method

    Vanessa D. Arriola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an “alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.” TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI.

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Hispanic Veterans-A Review Using the PRISMA Method.

    Arriola, Vanessa D; Rozelle, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an "alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force." TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI. PMID:26771647

  15. Public Participation Plan for Waste Area Group 7 Operable Unit 7-13/14 at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    This Public Participation Plan outlines activities being planned to: (1) brief the public on results of the remedial investigation and feasibility study, (2) discuss the proposed plan for remediation of Operable Unit 7-13/14 with the public, and (3) encourage public participation in the decision-making process. Operable Unit 7-13/14 is the Comprehensive Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Group 7. Analysis focuses on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory (Site). This plan, a supplement to the Idaho National Laboratory Community Relations Plan (DOE-ID 2004), will be updated as necessary. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will participate in the public involvement activities outlined in this plan. Collectively, DOE, DEQ, and EPA are referred to as the Agencies. Because history has shown that implementing the minimum required public involvement activities is not sufficient for high-visibility cleanup projects, this plan outlines additional opportunities the Agencies are providing to ensure that the public's information needs are met and that the Agencies can use the public's input for decisions regarding remediation activities

  16. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. PMID:20088030

  17. A new operative open-wings technique to correct the frontoforehead unit in metopic synostosis.

    Messi, Marco; Consorti, Giuseppe; Lupi, Ettore; Girotto, Riccardo; Valassina, Davide; Balercia, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The technology adoption and creation of a multidisciplinary team have helped to overcome the complexity associated. Craniofacial surgery has thus emerged from the valuable contributions of neurosurgery, maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, eyes, nose, and throat as well as head and neck surgery. A patient with trigonocephaly may present a prominent "keel" forehead, accompanied by recession of the lateral orbit rims, hypotelorism, and constriction of the anterior frontal fossa when the metopic suture fuses before 6 months of age. In a period between 2007 and 2011, in the Salesi Children's Hospital, were treated for nonsyndromic variety of metopic synostosis 11 infants; their ages ranged from 6 months to 9 months, and 7 were males and 4 females. The most important aims of our new surgical technique are the achievement of symmetry as well as normal proportion and reconstruction of the frontoforehead unit but remaining in a very conservative treatment. The morphology and position of the supraorbital ridge-lateral orbital rim region are key elements of upper facial esthetics. This new "open-wings" technique for the reconfiguration of the bilateral emisupraorbital bar requires a midline incomplete osteotomy that involves only the internal cortex of the frontonasal region. Hence, both lateral orbital walls are bent inwardly and tilting forward, as in computed tomographic scan planning, with a greenstick fracture pivoting on the preserved medial frontonasal region. This open-wings conservative technique allows the avoidance of the most important complication that may result in the traditional way such as dead space in the anterior cranial fossa, infections, and blood loss but with an achievement of satisfactory craniofacial form and aesthetic result. PMID:25850875

  18. Liquid Phase Methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    1990-08-31

    A gas phase and a slurry phase radioactive tracer study was performed on the 12 ton/day Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process Development Unit (PDU) in LaPorte, Texas. To study the gas phase mixing characteristics, a radioactive argon tracer was injected into the feed gas and residence time distribution was generated by measuring the response at the reactor outlet. Radioactive manganese oxide powder was independently injected into the reactor to measure the slurry phase mixing characteristics. A tanks-in-series model and an axial dispersion model were applied to the data to characterize the mixing in the reactor. From the axial dispersion model, a translation to the number of CSTR's (continuous stirred tank reactors) was made for comparison purposes with the first analysis. Dispersion correlations currently available in the literature were also compared. The tanks-in-series analysis is a simpler model whose results are easily interpreted. However, it does have a few drawbacks; among them, the lack of a reliable method for scaleup of a reactor and no direct correlation between mixing in the slurry and gas phases. The dispersion model allows the mixing in the gas and slurry phases to be characterized separately while including the effects of phase transfer. This analysis offers a means for combining the gas and slurry phase dispersion models into an effective dispersion coefficient, which, in turn, can be related to an equivalent number of tanks-in-series. The dispersion methods reported are recommended for scaleup of a reactor system. 24 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit

    The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. - Highlights: • Low energy school buildings and classroom environment. • Heat recovery facility operating with an air conditioning unit. • Displacement ventilation influenced by the heat recovery efficiency. • Energy conservation of cooling and ventilation through heat recovery. • Enhancement of classroom environment with reduction of school building energy

  20. Secondary side cracking at Saint-Laurent unit B1: investigations, operating chemistry and corrosion tests

    Among the similar steam generators (SG) in EDF plants (equipped with mill annealed Alloy 600, drilled tube-support plates TSP), one of the SG of SAINT-LAURENT B1 was found particularly affected by cracking at TSP level. Eddy current indications lead to pull one tube after 30 000 h of operation: investigations revealed that corrosion was involved. In 1991, after 58 000 h, numerous indications with axial probe were beyond the recording threshold. A few heats were concerned, the examination of 11 pulled tubes evidenced an important axial intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), with bands of intergranular attack (IGA) in front of the edge of TSPs. This investigation has qualified a new probe (STL 10). A new plugging criterion was also defined. In the same time, the results from hideout return tests and the operating chemistry were examined. They did not provide a satisfactory explanation of the observed damage. The degradations have affected only one out of three SG and the pH-calculations using MULTEQ code have shown that the environment in restricted-flow areas has not always been strongly alkaline (pH270: 5.7 to 10.2). Moreover, pH-values were decreasing after successive hideout return shutdowns. Corrosion tests were then performed in laboratory conditions (sodium hydroxide, 350 deg C) in order to study the sensitivity of the pulled tubes. They demonstrated the greatest sensitivity to cracking of these tubes, among various mill-annealed tubes in Alloy 600. The worst behaviour in caustic environment of SAINT-LAURENT tubes is apparently not connected with their metallurgical structure; moreover, they are not sensitized (no intergranular chromium depletion). The sensitivity in caustic environment seems to be in accordance with a low value of the yield stress. Studies are still in progress in order to examine if it is the right explanation for the sensitivity of Saint-Laurent tubes (the composition at the grain boundaries is also investigated...). The knowledge

  1. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury

  2. Operation of a semi-industrial unit for the production of UO sub(3)

    This work discusses the precipitation of ammonium diuranate (ADU) from uranyl nitrate using ammonia gas as precipitant, its filtration, dewatering and conversion to nuclear grade uranium trioxide. The ADU was filtered using a rotary drum filter and dried into a continuous belt conveyor tunnel furnace. Experiments were made to found suitable technological conditions to obtain UO sub(3) with chemical and mechanical characteristics appropriated to feed the UF sub(4) Pilot Plant. To reach this aim the following parameters were studied:- uranyl nitrate concentration, precipitation temperature, residence time and final PH of the ADU pulp; filter element characteristics, rotation speed and vacuum distribution in the rotary drum filter; residence time, temperature and water content of UO sub(3) in the continuous belt conveyor tunnel furnace. The best operational conditions recommended are: uranyl nitrate concentration: 100 g U/L, ADU PH precipitation: 9, temperature of the pulp inside the reactor 60-85 sup(0) C, residence time: 40 minutes; ADU pulp concentration: 100 g U/L; temperature of ADU in the filter: 30-60 sup(0) C; PH of the ADU pulp in the filter: 9; rotation speed: 0,072-0,090 rpm; vacuum conditions: 15-24 inches Hg column; residence time of ADU/UO sub(3) cake in the furnace: 4 hours. (author)

  3. Operational experience of decommissioning techniques for research reactors in the United Kingdom

    In previous co-ordinated research projects (CRP) conducted by the IAEA no distinction was made between decommissioning activities carried out at nuclear power plants, research reactors or nuclear fuel cycle facilities. As experience was gained and technology advanced it became clear that decommissioning of research reactors had certain specific characteristics which needed a dedicated approach. It was within this context that a CRP on Decommissioning Techniques for Research Reactors was launched and conducted by the IAEA from 1997 to 2001. This paper considers the experience gained from the decommissioning of two research reactors during the course of the CRP namely: (a) the ICI Triga Mk I reactor at Billingham UK which was largely complete by the end of the research project and (b) the Argonaut 100 reactor at the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor centre at East Kilbride in Scotland which is currently is the early stages of dismantling/site operations. It is the intention of this paper with reference to the two case studies outlined above to compare the actual implementation of these works against the original proposals and identify areas that were found to be problematical and/or identify any lessons learnt. (author)

  4. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-275 and 50-323)

    Supplement 27 to the Safety Evaluation Report for Pacific Gas and Electric Company's application for a license to operate Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-275), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement addresses the revisions to the license conditions and to the Technical Specifications as they relate to Amendment 10 to Diablo Canyon, Unit 1 Facility Operating License, DPR-76

  5. Application of improved technologies for ensuring high quality in safety, maintenance and operation activities of units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy

    The modernization of the units 5 and 6 of the Kozloduy NPP is discussed. The Program for modernization of the units has been implemented in order to bring them into accordance with international safety standards. The main aspects of the modernization are: implementation of digital technologies, improvement of the operators interface, improvement of the concept for in-depth protection, installation of diagnostic systems, improvement of the secondary circuit operation, improvement of the power supply systems reliability etc

  6. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Byron Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-454 and STN 50-455). Supplement No. 7

    Supplement No. 7 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to Commonwealth Edison Company's application for licenses to operate the Byron Station, Units 1 and 2, located in Rockvale Township, Ogle County, Illinois, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement provides additional information supporting the license for initial criticality and power ascension to full-power operation for Unit 2

  7. Analysis of current state of transformer equipment, its role and place in affording safety, increasing power- and ecological effectiveness operation of units of nuclear power stations of Ukraine

    Analysis of technical state, life service and reliability of modern transformer equipment of power generating units of nuclear power stations (NPS) was conducted. Cause-and-effect factors of pre-emergency and emergency faults of transformers have been analyzed. Technical offers aimed at improvement of efficiency and reliability parameters of transformer equipment operation on NPS units were developed.

  8. Sampling and analysis plan for remediation of Operable Unit 100-IU-3 waste site 600-104. Revision 1

    This sampling and analysis plan presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities to support remediation of 100-IU-3 Operable Unit waste site 600-104. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activities is to demonstrate that time-critical remediation of the waste site for soil containing 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid salts and esters (2,4-D) and dioxin/furan isomers at concentrations that exceed cleanup levels has been effective. This shall be accomplished by sampling various locations of the waste site before and after remediation, analyzing the samples, and comparing the results to action levels set by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  9. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with the United Republic of Tanzania, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $ 3.4 million of Agency support received, the United Republic of Tanzania ranks 44th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. Almost half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (49%), followed by training through fellowships and scientific visits (29%) and expert services (22%). Ninety-two per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the rest was made available through assistance in kind (5%) and through extrabudgetary contributions (3%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, by far the largest share has gone to agriculture (48%), followed by nuclear physics (20%), nuclear safety (17%) and nuclear medicine (11%)

  10. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  11. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (USDOE), Operable Unit 1, Livermore, CA, January 29, 1997

    The site described in this Record of Decision (ROD) is known as the General Services Area (GSA) operable unit (OU) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300, Tracy, California. The major components of the selected remedy include: monitoring throughout the predicted 55 years of remediation, plus five years of post-remediation monitoring; contingency point-of-use (POU) treatment for existing offsite water-supply wells; administrative controls to prevent human exposure by restricting access to or activities in contaminated areas, if necessary; soil vapor extraction (SVE) and treatment in the central GSA dry well source area; dewatering of the shallow water-bearing zone in the vicinity of the Building 875 dry well release area to enhance the effectiveness of SVE by exposing a larger soil volume to vapor flow; and extraction and treatment of ground water in the GSA until drinking water standards (Maximum Contaminant Levels, or MCLs) are reached in both the regional and shallow aquifers

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Rocky Flats Plant (USDOE), Operable Unit 3, Golden, CO, June 3, 1997

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action/corrective action for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) Operable Unit (OU) 3: Offsite Areas, located near Broomfield and Westminster, Colorado. OU 3 is comprised of four Individual Hazardous Substance Sites (IHSS's): Contamination of the Land Surface (IHSS 199), Great Western Reservoir (IHSS 200), Standley Lake (IHSS 201) and Mower Reservoir (IHSS 202). Based upon the Baseline Risk Assessment and the Environmental Risk Assessment contained in the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) Report of June 1996, DOE, the lead agency under CERCLA for OU 3, concludes that no action is appropriate for OU 3. The RFI/RI Report concludes that all IHSS's within OU 3 are already in a state protective of human health and the environment

  14. Progressing from surface water detention to environmental restoration in Operable Units 5 and 6 at Rocky Flats Plant

    Three series of detention ponds were constructed within drainages at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in the 1950's to allow for flood control and containment of plant generated, treated process waste water prior to discharge. Discharge of process waste water was a practice discontinued in 1973. The potential for water quality degradation due to surface water releases has resulted in a complex network of regulations, agreements, and procedures for water quality monitoring, treatment, and management at RFP. At present, these drainages have been identified as Operable Units (OUs) warranting remedial investigations and possible remedial actions. Water diversions and treatment systems have mitigated potential impacts on downstream water supply reservoirs while, in addition to these interim measures, environmental restoration (ER) activities have begun. (author)

  15. Laguna Verde fuel management system: Nuclear data bank and first cycle simulation for unit 1: Pre-operational analysis

    The Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) is the first of its kind in Mexico. It is owned and operated by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the National electric utility. Right now the plant is undergoing the start-up procedures and it reached 50% of power last September. In 1985 CFE received IAEA support to obtain a Fuel Management System (FMS) Computer Code Package from Scandpower Inc., and this paper presents the results of the calculation of the Nuclear Data Bank (NDB) and the simulation of the first cycle for the unit one of the LVNPP. The data have been tested and validated against the General Electric Cycle Management Report (GE-CMR). Results obtained using the FMS codes are compared to those obtained using GE codes. (author). 5 refs, 26 figs, 2 tabs

  16. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  17. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE, IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT, HANFORD SITE

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU

  18. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  19. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area

  20. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    This work plan identifies the objectives, tasks, and schedule for conducting a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area of the Hanford Site. The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit addresses contamination identified in the aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, as determined in the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE/RL 1992b). The objectives of this work plan are to develop a program to investigate groundwater contaminants in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area that were designated for Limited Field Investigations (LFIs) and to implement Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) recommended in the 200 West Groundwater AAMSR. The purpose of an LFI is to evaluate high priority groundwater contaminants where existing data are insufficient to determine whether an IRM is warranted and collect sufficient data to justify and implement an IRM, if needed. A Qualitative Risk Assessment (QRA) will be performed as part of the LFI. The purpose of an IRM is to develop and implement activities, such as contaminant source removal and groundwater treatment, that will ameliorate some of the more severe potential risks of groundwater contaminants prior to the RI and baseline Risk Assessment (RA) to be conducted under the Final Remedy Selection (FRS) at a later date. This work plan addresses needs of a Treatability Study to support the design and implementation of an interim remedial action for the Uranium-99 Tc-Nitrate multi-contaminant IRM plume identified beneath U Plant

  1. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of South Texas Project, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-499)

    In April 1986 the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-0781) regarding the application of Houston Lighting and Power Company (applicant and agent for the owners) for a license to operate South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-498 and 50-499). The facility is located in Matagorda County, Texas, west of the Colorado River, 8 miles north-northwest of the town of Matagorda and about 89 miles southwest of Houston. The first supplement to NUREG-0781 was issued in September 1986, the second supplement in January 1987, the third supplement in May 1987, the fourth supplement in July 1987 and the fifth supplement in March 1988. This sixth supplement provides updated information on the issues that had been considered previously as well as the evaluation of issues that have arisen since the fifth supplement was issued. The evaluation resolves all the issues necessary to support the issuance of a low-power license for Unit 2

  2. Investor's requirements on software of operating diagnostic system in period of nuclear power unit start-up

    The demands are summed up on the software for the diagnostic system of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the period of the integrated hydraulic trial, the physical and power start-up of the unit. These demands have followed from experience gained with the first and second units of the plant which showed that it was very difficult to locate, using the installed diagnostic system, the source of the failure by analyzing an arbitrary signal from the sensor output. The functions are defined which the diagnostic system software must fulfil during the start-up when it is necessary to detect defects of delivered components including defects of assembly such as to allow their removal during the revision of the installation. Special attention is devoted to the identification of loose parts in the primary circuit and to the possibility of calibrating and simulating the system of loose parts in operation. The software of the system must proceed from an estimate of weight and kinetic energy of the loose part which must be identified, including the distance between the point of impact and the sensor, and the time of contact of the part with the point of impact. (Z.M.)

  3. Thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at Kaiga atomic power station. Pt. 2. Studies for the case of four and six units in operation

    A computational model was developed earlier for 2 units of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) operational at Kaiga Atomic Power Station (KAPS) to understand the thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir wherein the hot water from the plant condensers is discharged. The model was successfully validated against the site data. The same model has now been extended for analyzing the thermal plume behaviour in case of 4 NPP units as well as 6 NPP units operational at the same site. The present paper briefly describes details of the studies along with the results of earlier study to understand the overall behavior of thermal plume in Kadra reservoir. (orig.)

  4. Use of filming amine treatment for cycle chemistry operation on an 8.4 MPa drum boiler unit after 20 years of storage

    Galt, Kenneth J.; Sulliman, Sumayyah [Eskom Holdings SOC. Ltd., Johannesburg (South Africa). Chemical Discipline, Plant Engineering Group Technology

    2012-06-15

    In the late 1980s Eskom was faced with a large overcapacity situation ({approx} 30 %) and several stations were either shut down/mothballed or changed to two-shifting operation. By 2004, instead of overcapacity, there was an impending power shortage. Eskom began to build new stations and return mothballed plants to service. After 20 years of storage, Komati Unit 7 was the first mixed-metallurgy unit to be returned. Instead of implementing AVT(R) chemistry a decision was made to operate the unit under filming amine treatment (FAT). Although targeting compliance with existing Eskom cycle chemistry specifications (and the major international guidelines), the real criterion of success was minimisation of corrosion product (CP) transport, with Unit 7 being measured by comparison with CP transport on Unit 9, an all-ferrous unit operating AVT(O). The iron transport figures obtained showed comparable results on the two units, while copper transport was below detection levels. For Komati the ultimate goal is implementation of FAT on all 9 units; this paper relates the Komati FAT experience to date. (orig.)

  5. Correlation analysis of factors influencing the electronic unit pump cycle fuel injection quantity under overall operating conditions for diesel engines

    Electronic unit pump (EUP) can satisfy both diesel engine emission legislation and fuel economy by improving injection pressure and numerical control. Fluctuations in cycle fuel injection quantity (CFIQ) of EUP determine the coherence and stability of the EUP fuel injection system. The EUP simulation model is developed in the AMESim environment. The method for the simulation experiment is designed in the MODDE environment using the design of experiments method. The results of the simulation reveal the variation laws of correlation between parameters with interaction or no interaction under overall operating conditions of diesel engines. In addition, the results also show the EUP system is a complex nonlinear system. Under overall operating conditions, all the characteristic parameters, such as fuel supply pressure, cam profile velocity, control valve lift, injector opening pressure, injector needle lift, and injector flow coefficient, have significant correlation with CFIQ. The interacting first-order factors exhibit the most significant correlation with CFIQ. The self interacting second-order factors have significant secondary correlation with CFIQ

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  7. The modelling of dynamic chemical state of paper machine unit operations; Dynaamisen kemiallisen tilan mallintaminen paperikoneen yksikkoeoperaatioissa - MPKT 04

    Ylen, J.P.; Jutila, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The chemical state of paper mass is considered to be a key factor to the smooth operation of the paper machine. There are simulators that have been developed either for dynamic energy and mass balances or for static chemical phenomena, but the combination of these is not a straight forward task. Control Engineering Laboratory of Helsinki University of Technology has studied the paper machine wet end phenomena with the emphasis on pH-modelling. VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) Process Physics has used thermodynamical modelling successfully in e.g. Bleaching processes. In this research the different approaches are combined in order to get reliable dynamical models and modelling procedures for various unit operations. A flexible pilot process will be constructed and different materials will be processed starting from simple inorganic substances (e.g. Calcium carbonate and distilled water) working towards more complex masses (thick pulp with process waters and various reagents). The pilot process is well instrumented with ion selective electrodes, total calcium analysator and all basic measurements. (orig.)

  8. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-275 and 50-323)

    Supplement 20 to the Safety Evaluation Report for Pacific Gas and Electric Company's application for licenses to operate Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 and Unit 2 (Docket Nos. 50-275 and 50-323), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports on the verification effort for Diablo Canyon Unit 1 that was performed between November 1981 and the present in response to Commission Order CLI-81-30 and an NRC letter of November 19, 1981 to the licensee. Specifically, Supplement 20 addresses those issues and other matters identified in Supplements 18 and 19 that must be resolved prior to Unit 1 achieving criticality and operating at power levels up to 5% of rated full power. This SER Supplement applies only to Diablo Canyon Unit 1

  9. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  10. Unit Operations in Microgravity.

    Allen, David T.; Pettit, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Presents some of the work currently under way in the development of microgravity chemical processes. Highlights some of the opportunities for materials processing in outer space. Emphasizes some of the contributions that chemical engineers can make in this emerging set of technologies. (TW)

  11. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-275 and 50-323)

    Supplement 34 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG ampersand E) for licenses to operate Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-275 and 50-323, respectively) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement documents the NRC staff review of the Long-Term Seismic Program conducted by PG ampersand E in response to License Condition 2.C.(7) of Facility Operating License DPR-80, the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 operating license. 111 refs., 20 figs., 31 tabs

  12. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  13. Safety-Evaluation Report related to the operation of Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-416 and 50-417

    Supplement 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report for Mississippi Power and Light Company, et. al., joint application for licenses to operate the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, located on the east bank of the Mississippi River near Port Gibson in Claiborne County, Mississippi, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status on the resolution of those issues that required further evaluation before authorizing operation of Unit 1 above 5% rated power and other issues that were to be evaluated during the first cycle of power operation

  14. Development of the main coolant pump for the NPPS with VVER-400 units and direction in the operating reliability improvement

    For assurance of serviceability, safety, and safe operation at the NPP, the main coolant pumps (MCP) hold an important place. The MCP relates to the NPP main technological equipment of active action principle, with long operating service life and closely connected with other equipment. In connection with it, the MCP reliability assurance problems are complex and topical. The paper deals with a number of directions in the MCPs improvement, increase of their operational reliability: (1) fire safety ensuring by inflammable oils change for water and non-flammable fluids; (2) reduction of dependence on the NPP external auxiliary systems, modification of the MCP self-containment; (3) improvement of the MCP seal design, reduction of the controlled leakages up to rates; (4) increase of seismic stability. Introducing the above measures into the MCP design is shown on an example of development and creation of the GTSI-1309 main coolant pump. The GTSI-1309 main coolant pump is designed for circulation of coolant in the primary loop of the NPPs with VVER-440 units which are under construction and put to modernization in Russia and abroad with its assistance including seismically active regions with tropical climate. The GTSI-1309 has increased safety, fire safety and seismic stability which are ensured by use of specially developed; (1) radial thrust bearing taking up load of 40 t with cooling and lubrication by water instead of oil; (2) mechanical face seal with minor leakages (not more than 0.05 cubic meters per hour), not requiring injected water feed from the NPP external systems; and (3) electric motor with crankcase lubrication system. The paper gives a description of complex of development and research work and rig tests carried out in the course of the GTSI-1309 creation

  15. Simulation of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack using AspenPlusTM unit operation models

    The design of a fuel cell system involves both optimization of the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant with respect to efficiency and economics. Many commercially available process simulators, such as AspenPlusTM, can facilitate the analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A SOFC system may include fuel pre-processors, heat exchangers, turbines, bottoming cycles, etc., all of which can be very effectively modelled in process simulation software. The current challenge is that AspenPlusTM or any other commercial process simulators do not have a model of a basic SOFC stack. Therefore, to enable performing SOFC system simulation using one of these simulators, one must construct an SOFC stack model that can be implemented in them. The most common approach is to develop a complete SOFC model in a programming language, such as Fortran, Visual Basic or C++, first and then link it to a commercial process simulator as a user defined model or subroutine. This paper introduces a different approach to the development of a SOFC model by utilizing existing AspenPlusTM functions and existing unit operation modules. The developed ''AspenPlusTM SOFC'' model is able to provide detailed thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the SOFC operation and can easily be extended to study the entire power plant consisting of the SOFC and the balance of plant without the requirement for linking with other software. Validation of this model is performed by comparison to a Siemens-Westinghouse 100 kW class tubular SOFC stack. Sensitivity analyses of major operating parameters, such as utilization factor (Uf), current density (Ic) and steam-carbon ratio (S/C), were performed using the developed model, and the results are discussed in this paper

  16. Pilot Operation of Ex-core Neutron Sensors of Divers Shutdown System (DSS) Unit 2 Ignalina NPP

    The Ignalina Safety Assessment, which was completed in December 1996, recommended the installation of a diverse shutdown system on the 2nd unit at Ignalina. During the PPR-2004 in the DSS project are created two independent shutdown systems by separating the absorber rods into two independent groups as follows: 1. One system (designated AZ) consists of the existing 24 BAZ rods and 49 AZ/BSM rods that together are used for reliable reactor shutdown (including Control and Protection System (CPS) circuit voiding accident). This system performs the emergency protection function. 2. The other system (designated BSM) comprises the remaining absorber rods and the 49 AZ/BSM rods. Thus 49 AZ/BSM rods are actuated from AZ initiating equipment as well as from BSM initiating equipment. The BSM system performs the normal reactor shutdown function and is able to ensure long-term maintenance of the reactor in the sub-critical state. Along with implementation of DSS was modernized existing Emergency Process Protection System, which was divided into two independent Sets of initiating equipment. The DSS is independent and diverse initiating equipment from the existing 1st Set equipment; with each set having its own independent in-core and ex-core sensors for measurement of neutron flux and process parameters. The 2nd Set of initiating equipment for measuring ex-core neutron flux, was modernized with new design of 4 Ex-Core detectors each have a single low level neutron flux detector and two high range neutron detectors. They are comprising: 1. A fission chamber which operates in pulse mode to cover the low flux levels. 2. A compensated ionisation chamber in current mode to operate at high flux level. This detector is doubled to give a measurement of the axial deviation. Two detectors are enough to produce the axial power deviation. The results of testing and analysis of pilot operation of ex-core neutron sensors of DSS will be shown on the Report. (author)

  17. Draft environmental statement: Related to operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant Unit No. 2, Georgia Power Company: Docket No. 50-366

    The proposed action is the issuance of an operation license to the Georgia Power Company for the startup and operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-366), located on the Altamaha River in Appling County, approximately 11 miles north from Baxley, Georgia. The information in this Statement represents the second, assessment of the environmental impact associated with the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2, pursuant to the guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 of the Commission's Regulations. After receipt of an application, in 1970, to construct this plant, the staff carried out a review of impact that would occur during the construction and operation of this plant. That evaluation was issued as a Final Environmental Statement in October 1972. As the result of that environmental review, a safety review, an evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, and a public hearing in Baxley, Georgia and Washington, D.C., the AEC (now NRC) issued a permit in December 1972, for the construction of Unit No. 2 of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant. As of February 1977, the construction of Unit No. 2 was 70% complete. With a proposed fuel-loading date of April 1978 for Unit No. 2, the applicant has petitioned for license to operate Unit No. 2 and has submitted (July 1975) the required safety and environmental reports to substantiate this petition. 97 refs., 18 figs., 37 tabs

  18. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WAC/DQO AND UNIT OPERATIONS FOR THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    Peeler, D.; Adamson, D.; Bannochie, C.; Cozzi, A.; Eibling, R.; Hay, M.; Hansen, E.; Herman, D.; Martino, C.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.; Poirier, M.; Reboul, S.; Stone, M.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; White, T.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-05-16

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently transitioning its emphasis from a design and construction phase toward start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements related to actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program to be implemented to support the WTP. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS), based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested the utilization of subject matter experts from SRNL to support a technology exchange to perform a review of the WTP waste qualification program, discuss the general qualification approach at SRS, and to identify critical lessons learned through the support of DWPF's sludge batch qualification efforts. As part of Phase 1, SRNL subject matter experts in critical technical and/or process areas reviewed specific WTP waste qualification information. The Phase 1 review was a collaborative, interactive, and iterative process between the two organizations. WTP provided specific analytical procedures, descriptions of equipment, and general documentation as baseline review material. SRNL subject matter experts reviewed the information and, as appropriate, requested follow-up information or clarification to specific areas of interest. This process resulted in multiple teleconferences with key technical contacts from both organizations resolving technical issues that lead to the results presented in this report. This report provides the results of SRNL's Phase 1 review of the WAC-DQO waste acceptance criteria and processability parameters, and the specific unit operations which are required to support WTP waste qualification efforts. The review resulted in SRNL providing concurrence, alternative methods, or gap

  19. SRNL Phase 1 Assessment Of The WAC/DQO And Unit Operations For The WTP Waste Qualification Program

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently transitioning its emphasis from a design and construction phase toward start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements related to actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program to be implemented to support the WTP. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS), based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested the utilization of subject matter experts from SRNL to support a technology exchange to perform a review of the WTP waste qualification program, discuss the general qualification approach at SRS, and to identify critical lessons learned through the support of DWPF's sludge batch qualification efforts. As part of Phase 1, SRNL subject matter experts in critical technical and/or process areas reviewed specific WTP waste qualification information. The Phase 1 review was a collaborative, interactive, and iterative process between the two organizations. WTP provided specific analytical procedures, descriptions of equipment, and general documentation as baseline review material. SRNL subject matter experts reviewed the information and, as appropriate, requested follow-up information or clarification to specific areas of interest. This process resulted in multiple teleconferences with key technical contacts from both organizations resolving technical issues that lead to the results presented in this report. This report provides the results of SRNL's Phase 1 review of the WAC-DQO waste acceptance criteria and processability parameters, and the specific unit operations which are required to support WTP waste qualification efforts. The review resulted in SRNL providing concurrence, alternative methods, or gap identification

  20. Public exposure from environmental release of radioactive material under normal operation of unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant

    Highlights: ► The unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant is a VVER type reactor with 1000 MWe power. ► Doses of public critical groups living around the plant were assessed under normal reactor operation conditions. ► PC-CREAM 98 computer code developed by the HPA was applied to assess the public doses. ► Doses are comparable with those in the FSAR, in the ER and doses monitored. ► The doses assessed are lower than the dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/y associated with the plant. - Abstract: The Unit-1 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP-1), constructed at the Hallileh site near Bushehr located at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran, is a VVER type reactor with 1000 MWe power. According to standard practices, under normal operation conditions of the plant, radiological assessment of atmospheric and aquatic releases to the environment and assessment of public exposures are considered essential. In order to assess the individual and collective doses of the critical groups of population who receive the highest dose from radioactive discharges into the environment (atmosphere and aquatic) under normal operation conditions, this study was conducted. To assess the doses, the PC-CREAM 98 computer code developed by the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (HPA; formerly called NRPB) was applied. It uses a standard Gaussian plume dispersion model and comprises a suite of models and data for estimation of the radiological impact assessments of routine and continuous discharges from an NPP. The input data include a stack height of 100 m annual radionuclides release of gaseous effluents from the stack and liquid effluents that are released from heat removal system, meteorological data from the Bushehr local meteorological station, and the data for agricultural products. To assess doses from marine discharges, consumption of sea fish, crustacean and mollusca were considered. According to calculation by PC-CREAM 98 computer code, the highest individual