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Sample records for 3-methylcholanthrene induces differential

  1. Prevention of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcomas in rats pre-inoculated with endogenous rat retrovirus.

    Fish, D C; Demarais, J T; Djurickovic, D B; Huebner, R J

    1981-01-01

    Weanling Fischer 344 rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of a 1000-fold concentrated preparation of endogenous nontransforming rat retrovirus. Ten days later, the rats were each given a single subcutaneous injection of 3-methylcholanthrene. The rats inoculated with the endogenous rat retrovirus were significantly protected against the development of cancer, whereas uninoculated rats and rats given one of several murine retroviruses or baboon retrovirus were not protected.

  2. Analysis of Ki-ras Exon 2 Gene Mutations in 3-Methylcholanthrene and Butylated Hydroxytoluene-Induced Rat Lung Tissues

    POLAT, Fikriye; ÖZDEMİR, Öztürk; ELAGÖZ, Şahende

    2008-01-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (MCA) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and potent carcinogenic agent that is often used in experimental cancer studies. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) has been widely used for many years as an antioxidant to preserve and stabilize the freshness, nutritional value, flavor, and color of foods. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the application of MCA and BHT in the development of lung cancer, and to detect any mutation in the Ki-ras gene exon 2....

  3. CD8+ T cells are crucial for the ability of congenic normal mice to reject highly immunogenic sarcomas induced in nude mice with 3-methylcholanthrene

    Boesen, M; Svane, I M; Engel, A M; Rygaard, J; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Werdelin, O

    2000-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify the selection pressures put upon a growing tumour by CD8+ T cells. To this end tumours induced with 3-methylcholanthrene in T cell-deficient nude mice and in congenic T cell-competent nu/+ mice were transplanted to nu/+ recipients. The rejection rate of the sarcomas...... from nude mice was almost twice that of the sarcomas from nu/+ mice. Depletion of CD8+ T cells from nu/+ recipients prior to transplantation made them accept nude tumours that were consistently rejected by untreated nu/+ recipients. These findings suggest that a methylcholanthrene sarcoma during its...

  4. Transformation of SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cells by 3-methylcholanthrene increases IFN- and Large T Antigen-induced transcripts

    Easton Marilyn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simian Virus 40 (SV40 immortalization followed by treatment of cells with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC has been used to elicit tumors in athymic mice. 3-MC carcinogenesis has been thoroughly studied, however gene-level interactions between 3-MC and SV40 that could have produced the observed tumors have not been explored. The commercially-available human uroepithelial cell lines were either SV40-immortalized (HUC or SV40-immortalized and then 3-MC-transformed (HUC-TC. Results To characterize the SV40 - 3MC interaction, we compared human gene expression in these cell lines using a human cancer array and confirmed selected changes by RT-PCR. Many viral Large T Antigen (Tag expression-related changes occurred in HUC-TC, and it is concluded that SV40 and 3-MC may act synergistically to transform cells. Changes noted in IFP 9-27, 2'-5' OAS, IF 56, MxA and MxAB were typical of those that occur in response to viral exposure and are part of the innate immune response. Because interferon is crucial to innate immune host defenses and many gene changes were interferon-related, we explored cellular growth responses to exogenous IFN-γ and found that treatment impeded growth in tumor, but not immortalized HUC on days 4 - 7. Cellular metabolism however, was inhibited in both cell types. We conclude that IFN-γ metabolic responses were functional in both cell lines, but IFN-γ anti-proliferative responses functioned only in tumor cells. Conclusions Synergism of SV40 with 3-MC or other environmental carcinogens may be of concern as SV40 is now endemic in 2-5.9% of the U.S. population. In addition, SV40-immortalization is a generally-accepted method used in many research materials, but the possibility of off-target effects in studies carried out using these cells has not been considered. We hope that our work will stimulate further study of this important phenomenon.

  5. Activation of liver X receptor inhibits the development of pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene in BALB/c mice.

    Wang, Qixue; Sun, Lei; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xingzhe; Li, Qi; Chen, Yuanli; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Di; Li, Xiaoju; Xiang, Rong; Wei, Yuquan; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that LXR ligand, T0901317, inhibited the growth of inoculated Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice by activating IFN-γ production. However, the effects of T0901317 on carcinogen-induced pulmonary carcinomas remain unknown. In this study, we initially conducted a statistical analysis on the data of human lung cancer samples extracted from the TCGA database, and determined that survival rate/time of lung cancer patients and grade of lung adenocarcinoma were positively and negatively related to lung IFN-γ levels, respectively. We then determined the inhibitory effects of T0901317 on mouse pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or urethane. We found that T0901317 reduced morbidity and mortality in MCA/BHT-injected BALB/c mice by inhibiting lung adenocarcinoma. T0901317 also protected C57BL/6 mice, but not IFN-γ deficient (IFN-γ(-/-), C57BL/6 background) mice, against MCA/BHT-induced lung hyperplasia/inflammation. In addition, we determined that T0901317 inhibited urethane-induced lung tumors in BABL/c mice. Furthermore, we determined that T0901317 prevented metastasis of 4T1 breast cancer cells in BALB/c mice. Administration of T0901317 substantially increased serum IFN-γ levels and lung IFN-γ expression in BABL/c and C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that LXR inhibits MCA/BHT-induced pulmonary carcinomas in BABL/c mice and the inhibition is associated with induction of IFN-γ production. PMID:27250582

  6. Activation of liver X receptor inhibits the development of pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene in BALB/c mice

    Wang, Qixue; Sun, Lei; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xingzhe; Li, Qi; Chen, Yuanli; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Di; Li, Xiaoju; Xiang, Rong; Wei, Yuquan; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that LXR ligand, T0901317, inhibited the growth of inoculated Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice by activating IFN-γ production. However, the effects of T0901317 on carcinogen-induced pulmonary carcinomas remain unknown. In this study, we initially conducted a statistical analysis on the data of human lung cancer samples extracted from the TCGA database, and determined that survival rate/time of lung cancer patients and grade of lung adenocarcinoma were positively and negatively related to lung IFN-γ levels, respectively. We then determined the inhibitory effects of T0901317 on mouse pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or urethane. We found that T0901317 reduced morbidity and mortality in MCA/BHT-injected BALB/c mice by inhibiting lung adenocarcinoma. T0901317 also protected C57BL/6 mice, but not IFN-γ deficient (IFN-γ−/−, C57BL/6 background) mice, against MCA/BHT-induced lung hyperplasia/inflammation. In addition, we determined that T0901317 inhibited urethane-induced lung tumors in BABL/c mice. Furthermore, we determined that T0901317 prevented metastasis of 4T1 breast cancer cells in BALB/c mice. Administration of T0901317 substantially increased serum IFN-γ levels and lung IFN-γ expression in BABL/c and C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that LXR inhibits MCA/BHT-induced pulmonary carcinomas in BABL/c mice and the inhibition is associated with induction of IFN-γ production. PMID:27250582

  7. Developmental regulation of the 3-methylcholanthrene- and dioxin-inducible CYP1A5 gene in chick embryo liver in vivo.

    Bentivegna, C S; Ihnat, M A; Baptiste, N S; Hamilton, J W

    1998-07-01

    The cDNA sequences for two dioxin-inducible cytochrome P450s in chicken, CYP1A4 and CYP1A5, have recently been reported which correspond to two dioxin-inducible forms of P450 previously designated as TCDDAHH and TCDDAA, respectively. The developmental expression of CYP1A4-associated aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase (AHH) activity and its association with expression of the Ah receptor had previously been characterized in chick embryo liver. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental regulation of the second dioxin-inducible P450 gene, CYP1A5, in chick embryo liver. A partial gene sequence for CYP1A5 indicated that the intron/exon organization of this gene was identical to that of the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mammalian genes and was present in a single copy in the genome. CYP1A5 mRNA was expressed basally in chick embryo liver and was highly inducible by the Ah receptor ligands, 3-methylcholanthrene, beta-naphthoflavone, and 3,4,3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), but not by the phenobarbital analog, glutethimide. CYP1A5 mRNA levels were increased 40- to 50-fold within 5 h after a single TCB treatment, corresponding to a 30- to 40-fold increase in the transcription rate of the CYP1A5 gene at this time point. In contrast to a previous report that CYP1A5 mRNA expression was inducible by estradiol, we observed no effects of estradiol or dexamethasone on CYP1A5 mRNA expression, either alone or in combination with TCB. Basal and TCB-inducible CYP1A5 mRNA expression was maximal in liver at 8 days of development and remained high throughout the remainder of embryonic development. Thus, CYP1A5 appears to be regulated in a very similar manner to CYP1A4 in chick embryo liver. PMID:9705900

  8. 3-methylcholanthrene induces differential recruitment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor to human promoters

    Pansoy, Andrea; Ahmed, Shaimaa; Valen, Eivind;

    2010-01-01

    responsive element. Conventional ChIP confirmed recruitment of AHR to 26 regions with target gene responses to 3MC varying from activation to inhibition to having no effect. A comparison of identified AHR-3MC bound regions with AHR-TCDD bound regions in from our previous study (Ahmed, S., Valen, E., Sandelin...... periodicity between 1.5 to 2 h. Re-treatment of cells with 3MC failed to alter the oscillatory binding profiles of AHR or ARNT. Cells became responsive to 3MC but not TCDD after 24 h of exposure to 3MC, highlighting important differences in AHR responsiveness between the two ligands. Our results reveal a...

  9. Aberrant methylation accounts for cell adhesion-related gene silencing during 3-methylcholanthrene and diethylnitrosamine induced multistep rat lung carcinogenesis associated with overexpression of DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3a

    To evaluate the significance of alterations in cell adhesion-related genes methylation during lung multistep carcinogenesis induced by the genotoxic carcinogens 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), tissue samples microdissected from MCA/DEN-induced rat lung carcinogenesis model were subjected to methylation-specific PCR to evaluate the DNA methylation status of CADM1, TIMP3, E-cadherin and N-cadherin. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine protein expression of CADM1, TIMP3, N-cadherin and the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 1, 3a and 3b. E-cadherin hypermethylation was not detected in any tissue. CADM1, TIMP3 and N-cadherin hypermethylation was correlated with the loss of their protein expression during the progression of pathologic lesions. The prevalence of DNA methylation of at least one gene and the average number of methylated genes increased with the histological progression. DNMT1 and DNMT3a protein expression increased progressively during the stages of lung carcinogenesis, whereas DNMT3b overexpression was only found in several samples. Furthermore, DNMT1 protein expression levels were correlated with CADM1 methylation, and DNMT3a protein expression levels were correlated with CADM1, TIMP3 and N-cadherin methylation. The average number of methylated genes during carcinogenesis was significantly correlated with DNMT1 and DNMT3a protein expression levels. Moreover, mRNA expression of CADM1 significantly increased after treatment with DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in CADM1-methylated primary tumor cell lines. Our findings suggest that an accumulation of hypermethylation accounts for cell adhesion-related gene silencing is associated with dynamic changes in the progression of MCA/DEN-induced rat lung carcinogenesis. We suggest that DNMT1 and DNMT3a protein overexpression may be responsible for this aberrant DNA methylation.

  10. Activation of liver X receptor inhibits the development of pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene in BALB/c mice

    Qixue Wang; Lei Sun; Xiaoxiao Yang; Xingzhe Ma; Qi Li; Yuanli Chen; Ying Liu; Di Zhang; Xiaoju Li; Rong Xiang; Yuquan Wei; Jihong Han; Yajun Duan

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that LXR ligand, T0901317, inhibited the growth of inoculated Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice by activating IFN-γ production. However, the effects of T0901317 on carcinogen-induced pulmonary carcinomas remain unknown. In this study, we initially conducted a statistical analysis on the data of human lung cancer samples extracted from the TCGA database, and determined that survival rate/time of lung cancer patients and grade of lung adenocarcinoma were positively and...

  11. Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on 3-methylcholanthrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and aflatoxin B1 induced skin tumorigenesis in mice

    A study on the protective effect of alcoholic extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum on 3-mthylcholanthrene (MCA), 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induced skin tumorigenesis in a mouse model has been investigated. The study involved pretreatment of mice with the leaf extract prior to either MCA application or tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) treatment in a two-stage tumor protocol viz a viz, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA. The results of the present study indicate that the pretreatment with alcoholic extract of the leaves of O. sanctum decreased the number of tumors in MCA, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA treated mice. The skin tumor induced animals pretreated with alcoholic extract led to a decrease in the expression of cutaneous γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and glutathione-S-transferase-P (GST-P) protein. The histopathological examination of skin tumors treated with leaf extract showed increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear, mononuclear and lymphocytic cells, decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity with concomitant enhancement of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum, implying the in vivo antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activity of leaf extract. The decrease in cutaneous phase I enzymes and elevation of phase II enzymes in response to topical application of leaf extract prior to MCA, AFB1, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA treatment indicate the possibility of impairment in reactive metabolite(s) formation and thereby reducing skin carcinogenicity. Furthermore, pretreatment of leaf extract in the carcinogen induced animals resulted in elevation of glutathione levels and decrease in lipid peroxidation along with heat shock protein expression, indicating a scavenging or antioxidant potential of the extract during chemical carcinogenesis. Thus it can be concluded that leaf extract of O. sanctum provides protection against chemical carcinogenesis in one or more of the following mechanisms: (i) by acting as an

  12. Effect of interleukin 12 on tumor induction by 3-methylcholanthrene.

    Noguchi, Y; Jungbluth, A; Richards, E C; Old, L J

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12 has strong antitumor activity in transplantable tumor systems in the mouse. The present study was designed to determine whether tumor induction by 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), a carcinogenic hydrocarbon, can be inhibited by IL-12. BALB/cBy mice were injected subcutaneously with 25 micrograms or 100 micrograms of 3-MC and treated with 100 ng, 10 ng, or 1 ng of IL-12 for 5 days a week for 18 weeks, with a schedule of 3 weeks on and 1 week off. In mice injected with 25 microg...

  13. Expression of CYP2A3 mRNA and its regulation by 3-methylcholanthrene, pyrazole, and ß-ionone in rat tissues

    A.B. Robottom-Ferreira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP 2A enzymes are involved in the metabolism of numerous drugs and hormones and activate different carcinogens. Human CYP2A6, mouse CYP2A5 and rat CYP2A3 are orthologous enzymes that present high similarity in their amino acid sequence and share substrate specificities. However, different from the human and mouse enzyme, CYP2A3 is not expressed in the rat liver. There are limited data about expression of CYP2A3 in extrahepatic tissues and its regulation by typical CYP inducers. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyze CYP2A3 mRNA expression in different rat tissues by RT-PCR, and to study the influence of 3-methylcholanthrene, pyrazole and ß-ionone treatment on its expression. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 5 rats each, and were treated ip for 4 days with 3-methylcholanthrene (25 mg/kg body weight, pyrazole (150 mg/kg body weight, ß-ionone (1 g/kg body weight, or vehicle. Total RNA was extracted from tissues and CYP2A3 mRNA levels were analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. CYP2A3 mRNA was constitutively expressed in the esophagus, lung and nasal epithelium, but not along the intestine, liver, or kidney. CYP2A3 mRNA levels were increased in the esophagus by treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and pyrazole (17- and 7-fold, respectively, in lung by pyrazole and ß-ionone (3- and 4-fold, respectively, although not statistically significant, in the distal part of the intestine and kidney by 3-methylcholanthrene and pyrazole, and in the proximal part of the intestine by pyrazole. CYP2A3 mRNA was not induced in nasal epithelium, liver or in the middle part of the intestine. These data show that, in the rat, CYP2A3 is constitutively expressed in several extrahepatic tissues and its regulation occurs through a complex mechanism that is essentially tissue specific.

  14. Consequences of 3-methylcholanthrene-type induction for the metabolism of 4-aminobiphenyl in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Orzechowski, A; Schrenk, D; Schut, H A; Bock, K W

    1994-03-01

    Carcinogenic aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) are extensively metabolized by both oxidative and conjugation reactions. Thus the burden of genotoxic metabolites of 4-ABP in a target organ is probably influenced by the balance of N-hydroxylation and alternative metabolic pathways in the hepatocyte. In freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, 4-ABP (at a substrate concentration of 10 microM) was mainly N-acetylated (54% of total metabolites), while 2% N-hydroxy-4-ABP-N-glucuronide and 21% of unconjugated N-hydroxylated metabolites were detectable. Ring-hydroxylated metabolites and the primary N-glucuronide of 4-ABP accounted for 8% and 4%, respectively. Pretreatment of rats with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC), a dioxin-type inducer of CYP1A isozymes and phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1), led to a dramatic decrease of N-acetylated (2% of total metabolites) and an increase of N-hydroxylated (54% as free and glucuronidated compound) and ring-hydroxylated (35%) metabolites. Essentially similar effects were seen at a substrate concentration of 50 microM. Consistently, MC-type induction with beta-naphthoflavone resulted in a significant increase in the formation of DNA adducts of 4-ABP, detected by 32P-postlabeling of hepatocellular DNA. The results suggest that, similar to a previous study with 2-naphthylamine (2-NA), MC treatment leads to a marked shift from conjugation to N-oxidation. However, N-hydroxy-4-ABP (in contrast to N-hydroxy-2-NA) is mostly released from hepatocytes in the unconjugated form. PMID:8118934

  15. The effect of 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene on glycogen levels of liver, muscle, testis, and tumor tissues of rats

    POLAT, Fikriye; DERE, Egemen; GÜL, Eylem; YELKUVAN, İzzet; ÖZDEMİR, Öztürk; BİNGÖL, Günsel

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of separate and combined applications of 3-methylcholanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and potent carcinogenic agent, and butylated hydroxytoluene, the antioxidant food additive, on the glycogen levels of liver, muscle, testis, and tumor tissues in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats weighing 100-110 g at 8 weeks of age were used in this study. This study consisted of a control group (n = 9) and 3 different experiment groups in which rats were chronic...

  16. Influences of 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital and dexamethasone on xenobiotic metabolizing-related cytochrome P450 enzymes and steroidogenesis in human fetal adrenal cortical cells

    Hui WANG; Min HUANG; Ren-xiu PENG; Jiang LE

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To explore the influence and possible mechanism of xenobiotics on adrenal steroidogenesis during fetal development. Methods: Primary human fetal adrenal cortical cells were prepared, cultured and treated with 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital and dexamethasone. The activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin 0-dealkylase, benzphetamine, aminopyrine and erythromycin N-demethylases were measured by enzyme assays. At the same time, quantitative analysis of steroid hormones cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone and progesterone were carried out in cultural medium by radioimmunoassays. Results: The activities of benzphetamine and aminopyrine Ar-demethylase were increased in the cultural fetal adrenal cells treated with phenobarbital (0.25-1 mmol/L) for 24 h. Dexamethasone (25-100 μmol/L) also increased the activity of erythromycin W-demethylase. The activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin 0-dealkylase was undetected in the cells treated without and with 3-methylcholanthrene (0.5-2 μmol/L). Meanwhile, the contents of medium cortisol, aldosterone and progesterone were decreased after treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene. Cortisol, aldosterone and progesterone concentrations were also slightly decreased with phenobarbital. Dexamethasone enhanced the productions of cortisol and progesterone remarkably. The trend of testosterone concentration was uncertain after 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital or dexamethasone treatment. Conclusion: 3-Methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital or dexamethasone could interfere with the synthesis of cortisol, aldosterone and progesterone in primary human fetal adrenal cortical cells, which likely act through xenobiotic metabolizing-related cytochrome P450 isoform activation.

  17. Induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 and formation of DNA adducts in C57BL/6, Balb/c, and F1 mice following in utero exposure to 3-methylcholanthrene

    Fetal mice are more sensitive to chemical carcinogens than are adults. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated differences in the mutational spectrum induced in the Ki-ras gene from lung tumors isolated from [D2 x B6D2F1]F2 mice and Balb/c mice treated in utero with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC). We thus determined if differences in metabolism, adduct formation, or adduct repair influence strain-specific responses to transplacental MC exposure in C57BL/6 (B6), Balb/c (BC), and reciprocal F1 crosses between these two strains of mice. The induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 in fetal lung and liver tissue was determined by quantitative fluorescent real-time PCR. MC treatment caused maximal induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 RNA 2-8 h after injection in both organs. RNA levels for both genes then declined in both fetal organs, but a small biphasic, secondary increase in Cyp1a1 was observed specifically in the fetal lung 24-48 h after MC exposure in all four strains. Cyp1a1 induction by MC at 4 h was 2-5 times greater in fetal liver (7000- to 16,000-fold) than fetal lung (2000- to 6000-fold). Cyp1b1 induction in both fetal lung and liver was similar and much lower than that observed for Cyp1a1, with induction ratios of 8- to 18-fold in fetal lung and 10- to 20-fold in fetal liver. The overall kinetics and patterns of induction were thus very similar across the four strains of mice. The only significant strain-specific effect appeared to be the relatively poor induction of Cyp1b1 in the parental strain of B6 mice, especially in fetal lung tissue. We also measured the levels of MC adducts and their disappearance from lung tissue by the P32 post-labeling assay on gestation days 18 and 19 and postnatal days 1, 4, 11, and 18. Few differences were seen between the different strains of mice; the parental strain of B6 mice had nominally higher levels of DNA adducts 2 (gestation day 19) and 4 (postnatal day 1) days after injection, although this was not statistically significant

  18. Transcription factor oscillations induce differential gene expressions.

    Wee, Keng Boon; Yio, Wee Kheng; Surana, Uttam; Chiam, Keng Hwee

    2012-06-01

    Intracellular protein levels of diverse transcription factors (TFs) vary periodically with time. However, the effects of TF oscillations on gene expression, the primary role of TFs, are poorly understood. In this study, we determined these effects by comparing gene expression levels induced in the presence and in the absence of TF oscillations under same mean intracellular protein level of TF. For all the nonlinear TF transcription kinetics studied, an oscillatory TF is predicted to induce gene expression levels that are distinct from a nonoscillatory TF. The conditions dictating whether TF oscillations induce either higher or lower average gene expression levels were elucidated. Subsequently, the predicted effects from an oscillatory TF, which follows sigmoid transcription kinetics, were applied to demonstrate how oscillatory dynamics provide a mechanism for differential target gene transactivation. Generally, the mean TF concentration at which oscillations occur relative to the promoter binding affinity of a target gene determines whether the gene is up- or downregulated whereas the oscillation amplitude amplifies the magnitude of the differential regulation. Notably, the predicted trends of differential gene expressions induced by oscillatory NF-κB and glucocorticoid receptor match the reported experimental observations. Furthermore, the biological function of p53 oscillations is predicted to prime the cell for death upon DNA damage via differential upregulation of apoptotic genes. Lastly, given N target genes, an oscillatory TF can generate between (N-1) and (2N-1) distinct patterns of differential transactivation. This study provides insights into the mechanism for TF oscillations to induce differential gene expressions, and underscores the importance of TF oscillations in biological regulations. PMID:22713556

  19. Impact-induced differentiation in icy bodies

    Tonks, W Brian; Melosh, H Jay

    2016-01-01

    By the time icy objects grow to about the mass of Europa and silicate bodies grow to approximately lunar mass, a large high-speed impact can generate an intact melt region that allows the dense material to gravitationally segregate, forming a large density anomaly. If this anomaly generates sufficient differential stress, it rapidly segregates to the object's center, triggering whole body differentiation. We used an impact melting model based on the Hugoniot equations, the linear shock-particle velocity relationship, and the empirical relationship between shock pressure and distance coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation of the late accretion process to determine conditions under which large impacts trigger differentiation in icy bodies. In a gas-free environment, impacts of projectiles in the satellite's accretion zone have a small probability of triggering differentiation in surviving proto-satellites as small as Triton. The probability increases to 100% by the time surviving proto-satellites grow to the mas...

  20. Differential effects of mercury, lead and copper on the constitutive and inducible expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-regulated genes in cultured hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

    Korashy, Hesham M; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2004-09-01

    Both simultaneous and sequential exposure to heavy metals and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-ligands potentially occur in human populations, yet there have been relatively few studies of combined effects of heavy metals and AHR-ligands on AHR-regulated genes. To investigate the effects of heavy metals on AHR-regulated genes; cytochrome P450 1a1 (cyp1a1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (QOR) and glutathione S-transferase Ya (GST Ya), murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of Hg2+ (2.5-10 microM), Pb2+ (10-100 microM), and Cu2+ (1-100 microM) alone or with the AHR-ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (0.1 nM), 3-methylcholanthrene (0.25 microM), beta-naphthoflavone (10 microM), or benzo[a]pyrene (1 microM). The results clearly showed that metals alone did not significantly alter the cyp1a1 activity and protein levels but increased its mRNA expression, whereas a significant reduction in AHR ligand-mediated induction of cyp1a1 activity was observed by all metals. The decrease in cyp1a1 activity was associated with an increase, no change, or decrease in cyp1a1 mRNA and protein levels by Hg2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ respectively, suggesting pre- and post-transcription mechanisms are involved. With respect to QOR, the activity and mRNA levels were increased by all metals in the absence or presence of an AHR-ligand, with the exception of Cu2+ which significantly decreased the induction of QOR. Differently, GST Ya activity was significantly increased by Cu2+ and Pb2+ and inhibited by Hg2+, while its mRNA was increased by Hg2+ and Pb2+ and decreased by Cu2+. All metals significantly increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1, which coincided with the changes in the phase I and phase II enzyme activities. These results demonstrate that heavy metals differentially modulate the constitutive and the inducible expression of AHR-regulated genes. PMID:15297030

  1. On Volatility Induced Stationarity for Stochastic Differential Equations

    Albin, J.M.P.; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Muszta, Anders;

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with stochastic differential equations with volatility induced stationarity. We study of theoretical properties of such equations, as well as numerical aspects, together with a detailed study of three examples.......This article deals with stochastic differential equations with volatility induced stationarity. We study of theoretical properties of such equations, as well as numerical aspects, together with a detailed study of three examples....

  2. Transcription Factor Oscillations Induce Differential Gene Expressions

    Wee, Keng Boon; Yio, Wee Kheng; Surana, Uttam; Chiam, Keng Hwee

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular protein levels of diverse transcription factors (TFs) vary periodically with time. However, the effects of TF oscillations on gene expression, the primary role of TFs, are poorly understood. In this study, we determined these effects by comparing gene expression levels induced in the presence and in the absence of TF oscillations under same mean intracellular protein level of TF. For all the nonlinear TF transcription kinetics studied, an oscillatory TF is predicted to induce ge...

  3. Induced Differentiation of Adipose-derived Stromal Cells into Myoblasts

    吴桂珠; 郑秀; 江忠清; 王金华; 宋岩峰

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to induce the differentiation of isolated and purified adipose-derived stromal cells(ADSCs) into myoblasts,which may provide a new strategy for tissue engineering in patients with stress urinary incontinence(SUI).ADSCs,isolated and cultured ex vivo,were identified by flow cytometry and induced to differentiate into myoblasts in the presence of an induction solution consisting of DMEM supplemented with 5-azacytidine(5-aza),5% FBS,and 5% horse serum.Cellular morphology was observed under an i...

  4. Mechanisms that uncouple growth and differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells: restoration of requirement for normal growth-inducing protein without restoring induction of differentiation-inducing protein.

    Lotem, J; Sachs, L

    1982-01-01

    There are different macrophage- and granulocyte-inducing (MGI) proteins. Normal myeloid precursors are induced to multiply by one form (MGI-1) and to differentiate by another form (MGI-2). There are clones of myeloid leukemia cells that no longer require MGI-1 for growth but can still be induced to differentiate by MGI-2. After induction of differentiation in these leukemia cells by adding MCI-2 or inducing endogenous production of MGI-2 by lipopolysaccharide, the differentiating leukemia cel...

  5. Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    Hamilton, J W; Denison, M S; Bloom, S E

    1983-06-01

    The development of the hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system was studied to determine the basal level of embryonic enzyme activity and the inducibility of this system throughout growth and differentiation. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and inducible hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase; designated elsewhere as AHH) activity from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation (DI) through day 10 after hatching. In addition, whole-embryo and viscera preparations were assayed at 3 and 4 DI. Basal AHHase activity was equal to or greater than adult levels from 3 DI through hatching in all preparations (approximately 0.3-0.5 nmol/min per mg). A 3-fold increase in basal activity above adult values occurred at hatching. The onset of inducibility in chicken embryo liver between 5 and 6 DI was concomitant with hepatocyte differentiation. A developmental profile of 24-hr 3,4,3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-induced AHHase activity showed 15- to 30-fold induction over controls from 7 DI through day 10 after hatching, with a maximum of 15 nmol/min per mg at 14 DI and day 1 after hatching, a specific activity greater than 50% greater than maximal induction in the adult. Embryonic AHHase activity was also induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3-methylcholanthrene, beta-naphthoflavone, and sodium phenobarbital. Induction kinetics throughout embryonic development were similar to those reported for the adult chicken and other animals. These findings demonstrate development of a mixed-function oxidase system in very early embryogenesis and then in the liver as it differentiates. Liver AHHase activity is inducible throughout development and perinatally but such activity is under strict developmental regulation. The chicken embryo has adult levels of AHHase activity which would be sufficient to achieve metabolic activation of promutagens/carcinogens before and after hepatocyte differentiation. PMID:6407011

  6. Globular adiponectin induces differentiation and fusion of skeletal muscle cells

    Tania Fiaschi; Domenico Cirelli; Giuseppina Comito; Stefania Gelmini; Giampietro Ramponi; Maria Serio; Paola Chiarugi

    2009-01-01

    The growing interest in skeletal muscle regeneration is associated with the opening of new therapeutic strategies for muscle injury after trauma, as well as several muscular degenerative pathologies, including dystrophies, muscu-lar atrophy, and cachexia. Studies focused on the ability of extracellular factors to promote myogenesis are therefore highly promising. We now report that an adipocyte-derived factor, globular adiponectin (gAd), is able to induce mus-cle gene expression and cell differentiation, gAd, besides its well-known ability to regulate several metabolic func-tions in muscle, including glucose uptake and consumption and fatty acid catabolism, is able to block cell cycle entry of myoblasts, to induce the expression of specific skeletal muscle markers such as myosin heavy chain or eaveolin-3, as well as to provoke cell fusion into multinucleated syneytia and, finally, muscle fibre formation, gAd exerts its pro-differentiative activity through redox-dependent activation of p38, Akt and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase path-ways. Interestingly, differentiating myoblasts are autocrine for adiponectiu, and the mimicking of pro-inflammatory settings or exposure to oxidative stress strongly increases the production of the hormone from differentiating cells. These data suggest a novel function of adiponectin, directly coordinating the myogenic differentiation program and serving an autocrine function during skeletal myogenesis.

  7. Testicular acid phosphatase induces odontoblast differentiation and mineralization.

    Choi, Hwajung; Kim, Tak-Heun; Yun, Chi-Young; Kim, Jung-Wook; Cho, Eui-Sic

    2016-04-01

    Odontoblasts differentiate from dental mesenchyme during dentin formation and mineralization. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling odontoblast differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that expression of testicular acid phosphatase (ACPT) is restricted in the early stage of odontoblast differentiation in proliferating dental mesenchymal cells and secretory odontoblasts. ACPT is expressed earlier than tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and partly overlaps with TNAP in differentiating odontoblasts. In MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells, expression of ACPT appears simultaneously with a decrease in β-catenin activity and is abolished with the expression of Phex and Dsp. Knockdown of ACPT in MDPC-23 cells stimulates cell proliferation together with an increase in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. In contrast, the overexpression of ACPT suppresses cell proliferation with a decrease in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. Expression of TNAP, Osx, Phex and Dsp is reduced by knockdown of ACPT but is enhanced by ACPT overexpression. When ACPT is blocked with IgG, alkaline phosphatase activity is inhibited but cell proliferation is unchanged regardless of ACPT expression. These findings suggest that ACPT inhibits cell proliferation through β-catenin-mediated signaling in dental mesenchyme but elicits odontoblast differentiation and mineralization by supplying phosphate during dentin formation. Thus, ACPT might be a novel candidate for inducing odontoblast differentiation and mineralization for dentin regeneration. PMID:26547858

  8. Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast

    Park, Sa-Rah; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Han, Young-Soo; Shim, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    One of the most common tumors in many countries is lung cancer and patients with lung cancer may take radiotherapy. Although radiotherapy may have its own advantages, it can also induce serious problems such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of {alpha}-SMA and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta}), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) are related to fibrosis. Among them TGF-{beta} with Smad signaling is known to be the main stream and other signaling molecules such as MAPK, ERK and JNK (3) also participates in the process. In addition to those above factors, it is thought that more diverse and complicate mechanisms may involve in the radiationinduced fibrosis. Therefore, to investigate the underlying mechanisms in radiation induced fibrosis, first of all, we confirmed whether radiation induces trans differentiation in human normal lung fibroblasts. Here, we suggest that not only TGF-{beta} but also radiation can induce trans differentiation in human lung fibroblast WI-38 and IMR-90.

  9. Insulin Cannot Induce Adipogenic Differentiation in Primary Cardiac Cultures.

    Parameswaran, Sreejit; Sharma, Rajendra K

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac tissue contains a heterogeneous population of cardiomyocytes and nonmyocyte population especially fibroblasts. Fibroblast differentiation into adipogenic lineage is important for fat accumulation around the heart which is important in cardiac pathology. The differentiation in fibroblast has been observed both spontaneously and due to increased insulin stimulation. The present study aims to observe the effect of insulin in adipogenic differentiation of cardiac cells present in primary murine cardiomyocyte cultures. Oil Red O (ORO) staining has been used for observing the lipid accumulations formed due to adipogenic differentiation in murine cardiomyocyte cultures. The accumulated lipids were quantified by ORO assay and normalized using protein estimation. The lipid accumulation in cardiac cultures did not increase in presence of insulin. However, addition of other growth factors like insulin-like growth factor 1 and epidermal growth factor promoted adipogenic differentiation even in the presence of insulin and other inhibitory molecules such as vitamins. Lipid accumulation also increased in cells grown in media without insulin after an initial exposure to insulin-containing growth media. The current study adds to the existing knowledge that the insulin by itself cannot induce adipogenic induction in the cardiac cultures. The data have significance in the understanding of cardiovascular health especially in diabetic patients. PMID:27574386

  10. Acidic environments induce differentiation of Proteus mirabilis into swarmer morphotypes.

    Fujihara, Masatoshi; Obara, Hisato; Watanabe, Yusaku; Ono, Hisaya K; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu; Harasawa, Ryô

    2011-07-01

    Although swarmer morphotypes of Proteus mirabilis have long been considered to result from surfaced-induced differentiation, the present findings show that, in broth medium containing urea, acidic conditions transform some swimmer cells into elongated swarmer cells. This study has also demonstrates that P. mirabilis cells grown in acidic broth medium containing urea enhance virulence factors such as flagella production and cytotoxicity to human bladder carcinoma cell line T24, though no significant difference in urease activity under different pH conditions was found. Since there is little published data on the behavior of P. mirabilis at various hydrogen-ion concentrations, the present study may clarify aspects of cellular differentiation of P. mirabilis in patients at risk of struvite formation due to infection with urease-producing bacteria, as well as in some animals with acidic or alkaline urine. PMID:21707738

  11. ROS Mediates Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast

    Park, Sa Rah; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Hyeung; Lim, Min Jin; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    One of the most common tumors worldwide is lung cancer and the number of patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy is increasing rapidly. Although radiotherapy may have lots of advantages, it can also induce serious adverse effects such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of smooth muscle actin-alpha (a-SMA) and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-b), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and reactive oxygen species are related to fibrosis. It is also reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be induced by radiation and can act as a second messenger in various signaling pathways. Therefore we focused on the role of ROS in radiation induced fibrosis. Here, we suggest that irradiation generate ROS mainly through NOX4, result in differentiation of lung fibroblast into myofibroblast.

  12. Decreased Intracellular pH Induced by Cariporide Differentially Contributes to Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Wei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1 is an important regulator of intracellular pH (pHi. High pHi is required for cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous study has proven that the pHi of mesenchymal stem cells is higher than that of normal differentiated cells and similar to tumor cells. NHE1 is highly expressed in both mesenchymal stem cells and tumor cells. Targeted inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of K562 leukemia cells. In the present paper we explored whether inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord and both the surface phenotype and functional characteristics were analyzed. Selective NHE1 inhibitor cariporide was used to treat human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs. The pHi and the differentiation of hUC-MSCs were compared upon cariporide treatment. The putative signaling pathway involved was also explored. Results: The pHi of hUC-MSCs was decreased upon cariporide treatment. Cariporide up-regulated the osteogenic differentiation of hUC-MSCs while the adipogenic differentiation was not affected. For osteogenic differentiation, β-catenin expression was up-regulated upon cariporide treatment. Conclusion: Decreased pHi induced by cariporide differentially contributes to hUC-MSCs differentiation.

  13. Pathologic endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by glucotoxic insults inhibits adipocyte differentiation and induces an inflammatory phenotype.

    Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Zatterale, Federica; Fiory, Francesca; Nigro, Cecilia; Raciti, Gregory A; Miele, Claudia; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco; Di Jeso, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is critical in obesity. By controlling new adipocyte recruitment, adipogenesis contrasts adipocyte hypertrophy and its adverse consequences, such as insulin resistance. Contrasting data are present in literature on the effect of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR) on adipocyte differentiation, being reported to be either necessary or inhibitory. In this study, we sought to clarify the effect of ER stress and UPR on adipocyte differentiation. We have used two different cell lines, the widely used pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells and a murine multipotent mesenchymal cell line, W20-17 cells. A strong ER stress activator, thapsigargin, and a pathologically relevant inducer of ER stress, glucosamine (GlcN), induced ER stress and UPR above those occurring in the absence of perturbation and inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Very low concentrations of 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA, a chemical chaperone) inhibited only the overactivation of ER stress and UPR elicited by GlcN, leaving unaltered the part physiologically activated during differentiation, and reversed the inhibitory effect of GlcN on differentiation. In addition, GlcN stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release and PBA prevented these effects. An inhibitor of NF-kB also reversed the effects of GlcN on cytokine release. These results indicate that while ER stress and UPR activation is "physiologically" activated during adipocyte differentiation, the "pathologic" part of ER stress activation, secondary to a glucotoxic insult, inhibits differentiation. In addition, such a metabolic insult, causes a shift of the preadipocyte/adipocyte population towards a proinflammatory phenotype. PMID:26940722

  14. Laboratory-induced hyperventilation differentiates female sexual arousal disorder subtypes.

    Brotto, Lori A; Klein, Carolin; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-08-01

    The effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity via laboratory-induced hyperventilation (LIH) on subjective and physiological sexual arousal were examined in a heterogeneous group of women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n = 60), as well as across subtypes of SAD, in comparison to a control group of women without sexual difficulties (n = 42). Participants took part in 2 min of rapid breathing, a technique previously found to increase SNS activity, immediately prior to viewing erotic stimuli. Physiological arousal (i.e., vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured via the vaginal photoplethysmograph and subjective arousal was measured via self-report questionnaires. LIH differentiated women with SAD from those in the control group, with LIH increasing VPA in the latter, but having no significant effect in the heterogeneous SAD group. However, among subtypes of SAD, LIH differentiated women with genital (n = 16) and subjective (n = 16) subtypes of SAD from women with combined SAD (n = 28) and women without sexual difficulties. Specifically, women in the control group and those with combined SAD had a significant increase in VPA whereas women with genital or subjective SAD had a significant decrease in VPA following LIH. There was no significant effect of LIH on any self-report measure of sexual arousal following erotic stimuli. Implications of the results for the conceptualization, diagnosis, and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:18343989

  15. Optimal time point for the transplantation of neural stem cells induced to differentiate with retinoic acid

    Shuxin Wang; Dengji Pan; Na Liu; Yongming Liu; Juan Chen; Houjie Ni; Zhouping Tang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that differentiated neural stem cells (NSCs) are more suitable for transplantation than non-differentiated NSCs. In this study, NSCs were expanded in vitro for two passages, induced with retinoic acid to differentiate, and harvested between 1-6 days later. They were subsequently cultured in artificial cerebrospinal fluid for an additional 3 days, during which their growth and morphology was monitored. NSCs induced for 4 days exhibited a peak rate of cells differentiating into neurons and robust growth. Our results indicate that the optimal time point for transplanting NSCs is following a 4-day period of induced differentiation.

  16. Static and Dynamic Experiment Evaluations of a Displacement Differential Self-Induced Magnetorheological Damper

    Guoliang Hu; Wei Zhou; Mingke Liao; Weihua Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a novel magnetorheological damper (MRD) which has a self-induced ability. In this study, a linear variable differential sensor (LVDS) based on the electromagnetic induction mechanism was integrated with a conventional MRD. The structure of the displacement differential self-induced magnetorheological damper (DDSMRD) was developed, and the theory of displacement differential self-induced performance was deduced. The static experiments of the DDSMRD under ...

  17. Derivation, characterization and retinal differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells

    Subba Rao Mekala; Vasundhara Vauhini; Usha Nagarajan; Savitri Maddileti; Subhash Gaddipati; Indumathi Mariappan

    2013-03-01

    Millions of people world over suffer visual disability due to retinal dystrophies which can be age-related or a genetic disorder resulting in gradual degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors. Therefore, cell replacement therapy offers a great promise in treating such diseases. Since the adult retina does not harbour any stem cells, alternative stem cell sources like the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a great promise for generating different cell types of the retina. Here, we report the derivation of four iPSC lines from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) using a cocktail of recombinant retroviruses carrying the genes for Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc. The iPS clone MEF-4F3 was further characterized for stemness marker expression and stable reprogramming by immunocytochemistry, FACS and RT-PCR analysis. Methylation analysis of the nanog promoter confirmed the reprogrammed epigenetic state. Pluripotency was confirmed by embryoid body (EB) formation and lineage-specific marker expression. Also, upon retinal differentiation, patches of pigmented cells with typical cobble-stone phenotype similar to RPE cells are generated within 6 weeks and they expressed ZO-1 (tight junction protein), RPE65 and bestrophin (mature RPE markers) and showed phagocytic activity by the uptake of fluorescent latex beads.

  18. Embryonic carcinoma cells show specific dielectric resistance profiles during induced differentiation.

    Simin Öz

    Full Text Available Induction of differentiation in cancer stem cells by drug treatment represents an important approach for cancer therapy. The understanding of the mechanisms that regulate such a forced exit from malignant pluripotency is fundamental to enhance our knowledge of tumour stability. Certain nucleoside analogues, such as 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine and 1β-arabinofuranosylcytosine, can induce the differentiation of the embryonic cancer stem cell line NTERA 2 D1 (NT2. Such induced differentiation is associated with drug-dependent DNA-damage, cellular stress and the proteolytic depletion of stem cell factors. In order to further elucidate the mode of action of these nucleoside drugs, we monitored differentiation-specific changes of the dielectric properties of growing NT2 cultures using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS. We measured resistance values of untreated and retinoic acid treated NT2 cells in real-time and compared their impedance profiles to those of cell populations triggered to differentiate with several established substances, including nucleoside drugs. Here we show that treatment with retinoic acid and differentiation-inducing drugs can trigger specific, concentration-dependent changes in dielectric resistance of NT2 cultures, which can be observed as early as 24 hours after treatment. Further, low concentrations of nucleoside drugs induce differentiation-dependent impedance values comparable to those obtained after retinoic acid treatment, whereas higher concentrations induce proliferation defects. Finally, we show that impedance profiles of substance-induced NT2 cells and those triggered to differentiate by depletion of the stem cell factor OCT4 are very similar, suggesting that reduction of OCT4 levels has a dominant function for differentiation induced by nucleoside drugs and retinoic acid. The data presented show that NT2 cells have specific dielectric properties, which allow the early identification of differentiating

  19. Phenazopyridine induces and synchronizes neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    Suter, David M; Preynat-Seauve, Olivier; Tirefort, Diderik; Feki, Anis; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2009-09-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are powerful tools to understand mechanisms of neuronal differentiation and to engineer neurons for in vitro studies and cell therapy. We developed a screening approach to identify small organic molecules driving neuronal differentiation of ES cells. For this purpose, we used a lentivector carrying a dual luciferase reporter system to engineer an ES cell line which allowed us to screen for small organic molecules enhancing neuronal differentiation. One of them, phenazopyridine, was further analysed in human ES cells. Phenazopyridine: (i) enhanced neuronal differentiation, (ii) increased cell survival, (iii) decreased the amount of non-neuronal and undifferentiated cells and (iv) synchronized the cellular differentiation state. Phenazopyridine allowed the development of a differentiation protocol compatible with the generation of clinical grade neural precursors, which were able differentiate into different neuronal subtypes, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In summary, we describe a powerful approach to identify small molecules directing stem cell differentiation. This led to the establishment of a new application for an old drug and the development of a novel clinical grade protocol for neuronal differentiation of ES cells. PMID:20196783

  20. PI3K/AKT and ERK regulate retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation

    Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Lan; Josifi, Erlena; Tiao, Joshua R. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retinoic acid (RA) induces neuroblastoma cells differentiation, which is accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA resulted in neuroblastoma cell survival and inhibition of DNA fragmentation; this is regulated by PI3K pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 pathway; PI3K pathway mediates RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of p21 is necessary for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. -- Abstract: Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine the cell signaling processes involved in RA-induced cellular differentiation. Upon RA administration, human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, demonstrated neurite extensions, which is an indicator of neuronal cell differentiation. Moreover, cell cycle arrest occurred in G1/G0 phase. The protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27{sup Kip}, which inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression at G1/S phase, increased after RA treatment. Interestingly, RA promoted cell survival during the differentiation process, hence suggesting a potential mechanism for neuroblastoma resistance to RA therapy. Importantly, we found that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of RA-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation, which may be important for developing novel therapeutic strategy against poorly differentiated neuroblastoma.

  1. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 induces cyclin D1 degradation through the phosphorylation of Thr286 in squamous cell carcinoma

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are morphogens which induce cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. We reported that DIF-1 and DIF-3 inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DIF-1 on oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines NA and SAS, well differentiated and poorly differentiated cell lines, respectively. Although DIF-1 did not induce the expression of cell differentiation makers in these cell lines, it inhibited the proliferation of NA and SAS in a dose-dependent manner by restricting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. DIF-1 induced cyclin D1 degradation, but this effect was prevented by treatment with lithium chloride and SB216763, the inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Depletion of endogenous GSK-3β by RNA interference also attenuated the effect of DIF-1 on cyclin D1 degradation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DIF-1 on GSK-3β and found that DIF-1 dephosphorylated GSK-3β on Ser9 and induced the nuclear translocation of GSK-3β, suggesting that DIF-1 activated GSK-3β. Then, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on cyclin D1 mutants (Thr286Ala, Thr288Ala, and Thr286/288Ala). We revealed that Thr286Ala and Thr286/288Ala mutants were highly resistant to DIF-1-induced degradation compared with wild-type cyclin D1, indicating that the phosphorylation of Thr286 was critical for cyclin D1 degradation induced by DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 induces degradation of cyclin D1 through the GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of Thr286

  2. BMP-2 Induced Expression of Alx3 That Is a Positive Regulator of Osteoblast Differentiation.

    Takashi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate many aspects of skeletal development, including osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, cartilage and bone formation, and cranial and limb development. Among them, BMP-2, one of the most potent osteogenic signaling molecules, stimulates osteoblast differentiation, while it inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. To evaluate genes involved in BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation, we performed cDNA microarray analyses to compare BMP-2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells. We focused on Alx3 (aristaless-like homeobox 3 which was clearly induced during osteoblast differentiation. Alx3, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophilaaristaless gene, has been linked to developmental functions in craniofacial structures and limb development. However, little is known about its direct relationship with bone formation. In the present study, we focused on the mechanisms of Alx3 gene expression and function during osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. In C2C12 cells, BMP-2 induced increase of Alx3 gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the BMP receptors-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In addition, silencing of Alx3 by siRNA inhibited osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, as showed by the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (Alp, Osteocalcin, and Osterix, while over-expression of Alx3 enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. These results indicate that Alx3 expression is enhanced by BMP-2 via the BMP receptors mediated-Smad signaling and that Alx3 is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2.

  3. Wnt signaling pathway participates in valproic acid-induced neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells

    Wang, Li; Liu, Yuan; Li, Sen; Zai-yun LONG; Wu, Ya-min

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent cells that have the capacity for differentiation into the major cell types of the nervous system, i.e. neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely prescribed drug for seizures and bipolar disorder in clinic. Previously, a number of researches have been shown that VPA has differential effects on growth, proliferation and differentiation in many types of cells. However, whether VPA can induce NSCs from embryonic cerebral cor...

  4. Inducing endoderm differentiation by modulating mechanical properties of soft substrates.

    Jaramillo, Maria; Singh, Satish S; Velankar, Sachin; Kumta, Prashant N; Banerjee, Ipsita

    2015-01-01

    Early embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation is marked by the formation of three germ layers from which all tissues types arise. Conventionally, ESCs are differentiated by altering their chemical microenvironment. Recently however, it was established that a mechanical microenvironment can also contribute towards cellular phenotype commitment. In this study, we report how the cellular mechanical microenvironment of soft substrates affects the differentiation and phenotypic commitment of ESCs. Mouse ESCs were cultured in a fibrin hydrogel matrix in 2D and 3D cultures. The gelation characteristics of the substrates were modulated by systematically altering the fibrinogen concentration and the fibrinogen-thrombin crosslinking ratio. Analysis of the ESCs cultured on different substrate conditions clearly illustrated the strong influence that substrate physical characteristics assert on cellular behaviours. Specifically, it was found that ESCs had a higher proliferation rate in gels of lower stiffness. Early differentiation events were studied by analyzing the gene and protein expression levels of early germ layer markers. Our results revealed that lower substrate stiffness elicited stronger upregulation of endoderm related genes Sox17, Afp and Hnf4 compared to stiffer substrates. While both 2D and 3D cultures showed a similar response, the effects were much stronger in 3D culture. These results suggest that physical cues can be used to modulate ESC differentiation into clinically relevant tissues such as liver and pancreas. PMID:23008262

  5. Lignin Induces ES Cells to Differentiate into Neuroectodermal Cells through Mediation of the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Inoue, Yu; Hasegawa, Seiji; Yamada, Takaaki; Date, Yasushi; MIZUTANI, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Akamatsu, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are characterized by their pluripotency and infinite proliferation potential. Ever since ES cells were first established in 1981, there have been a growing number of studies aimed at clinical applications of ES cells. In recent years, various types of differentiation inducement systems using ES cells have been established. Further studies have been conducted to utilize differentiation inducement systems in the field of regenerative medicine. For cellular treatm...

  6. Tinospora cordifolia Induces Differentiation and Senescence Pathways in Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Mishra, Rachana; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-08-01

    Children diagnosed with neuroblastomas often suffer from severe side as well as late effects of conventional treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent advances in understanding of molecular pathways involved in cellular differentiation and apoptosis have helped in the development of new therapeutic approach based on differentiation-based therapy of malignant tumours. Natural medicines with their holistic therapeutic approach are known to selectively eliminate cancer cells thus provide a better substitute for the conventional treatment modes. The current study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancer potential of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) using IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell line as a model system. TCE is highly recommended in Ayurveda for its general body and metal health-promoting properties. TCE treatment was seen to arrest the majority of cells in G0/G1 phase and modulated the expression of DNA clamp sliding protein (PCNA) and cyclin D1. Further, TCE-treated cells showed differentiation as revealed by their morphology and the expression of neuronal cell specific differentiation markers NF200, MAP-2 and NeuN in neuroblastoma cells. The differentiated phenotype was associated with induction of senescence and pro-apoptosis pathways by enhancing expression of senescence marker mortalin and Rel A subunit of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) along with decreased expression of anti-apoptotic marker, Bcl-xl. TCE exhibited anti-metastatic activity and significantly reduced cell migration in the scratched area along with downregulation of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) polysialylation and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Our data suggest that crude extract or active phytochemicals from this plant may be a potential candidate for differentiation-based therapy of malignant neuroblastoma cells. PMID:25280667

  7. Graphene induces spontaneous cardiac differentiation in embryoid bodies

    Ahadian, Samad; Zhou, Yuanshu; Yamada, Shukuyo; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Nakajima, Ken; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2016-03-01

    Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac differentiation of EBs, which has potential cell therapy and tissue regeneration applications.Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac

  8. Activation of PPARγ is not involved in butyrate-induced epithelial cell differentiation

    Histone deacetylase-inhibitors affect growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of several transcription factors, e.g. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) or vitamin D receptor (VDR). While activation of VDR by butyrate mainly seems to be responsible for cellular differentiation, the activation of PPARγ in intestinal cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PPARγ in butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition and differentiation induction in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with PPARγ ligands ciglitazone and BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl) enhanced butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas cell differentiation was unaffected after treatment with PPARγ ligands rosiglitazone and MCC-555. Experiments were further performed in dominant-negative PPARγ mutant cells leading to an increase in cell growth whereas butyrate-induced cell differentiation was again unaffected. The present study clearly demonstrated that PPARγ is involved in butyrate-induced inhibition of cell growth, but seems not to play an essential role in butyrate-induced cell differentiation

  9. The Preliminary Experimental Study of Induced Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Ling Yu; Jian Ge; Zhichong Wang; Bing Huang; Keming Yu; Chongde Long; Xigu Chen

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:To study preliminarily induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells intocorneal epithelial cells in vitro.Methods: Murine embryonic stem cells were co-cultured with Rabbit limbal cornealepithelial cells in Transwell system to induce differentiation. Mophological andimmunohistochemical examination were implemented.Results: The induced cells from embryonic stem cells have an epithelial appearance.The cells formed a network and were confluent into film gradually after beingco-cultured with rabbit limbal corneal epithelial cells for 24 ~ 96 hours. The cells rangedmosaic structure and localized together with clear rim. Most of the cells showedpolygonal appearance. Transmission electron microscope showed lots of microvilli on thesurface of induced cells and tight junctions between them. These epithelial-like cellsexpressed the corneal epithelial cell specific marker cytokeratin3/cytokeratinl2.Conclusion: The potential mechanism of the differentiation of murine embryonic stemcells into corneal epithelial cells induced by limbal corneal epithelial cell-derivedinducing activity is to be further verified.

  10. Natural Product Vibsanin A Induces Differentiation of Myeloid Leukemia Cells through PKC Activation.

    Yu, Zu-Yin; Xiao, He; Wang, Li-Mei; Shen, Xing; Jing, Yu; Wang, Lin; Sun, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Cui, Yu; Shan, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Wen-Bing; Xing, Shuang; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Dong, Bo; Feng, Jian-Nan; Wang, Li-Sheng; Luo, Qing-Liang; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Cong, Yu-Wen

    2016-05-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-based cell differentiation therapy has been successful in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, other subtypes of AML display resistance to ATRA-based treatment. In this study, we screened natural, plant-derived vibsane-type diterpenoids for their ability to induce differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells, discovering that vibsanin A potently induced differentiation of AML cell lines and primary blasts. The differentiation-inducing activity of vibsanin A was mediated through direct interaction with and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Consistent with these findings, pharmacological blockade of PKC activity suppressed vibsanin A-induced differentiation. Mechanistically, vibsanin A-mediated activation of PKC led to induction of the ERK pathway and decreased c-Myc expression. In mouse xenograft models of AML, vibsanin A administration prolonged host survival and inhibited PKC-mediated inflammatory responses correlated with promotion of skin tumors in mice. Collectively, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for vibsanin A as a myeloid differentiation-inducing compound, with potential application as an antileukemic agent. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2698-709. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26984756

  11. SKW 6.4 cell differentiation induced by interleukin 6 is stimulated by butyrate.

    Kawamoto, T; Gohda, E; Iji, H; Fujiwara, M; Yamamoto, I

    1998-08-01

    We investigated if sodium butyrate (NaBu), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, and its analogs modulate cytokine-induced differentiation of the human B cell line SKW 6.4 transformed by the Epstein-Barr virus. NaBu markedly enhanced interleukin (IL)-6-induced IgM production with an accompanying increase in the level of histone H4 acetylation and augmented IgM production induced by IL-4 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. From both the enhancing effect of cell differentiation and the effect of inducing histone hyperacetylation in SKW 6.4 cells, other histone deacetylase inhibitors and NaBu analogs were divided into three groups: those that increased both IL-6-induced antibody production and histone acetylation, those that caused histone hyperacetylation, but failed to induce the differentiation, and those that were ineffective at inducing either activity. No agent that enhanced IgM production without inducing histone hyperacetylation was found among the inhibitors and analogs we tested. These results suggest that the increase in the histone acetylation is necessary, but it is insufficient to augment differentiation of SKW 6.4 cells. Thus another activity of NaBu in addition to the inhibition of histone deacetylase may be involved in promoting IL-6-induced differentiation. Our results also suggest that fatty acids that have a straight chain of four carbon atoms or are branched with four and five carbon atoms, which contain no hydrophilic substituents, or those with similar structures, show this other activity. PMID:9826026

  12. Forced expression of Hnf4a induces hepatic gene activation through directed differentiation.

    Yahoo, Neda; Pournasr, Behshad; Rostamzadeh, Jalal; Fathi, Fardin

    2016-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and have a diverse differentiation potential. These unique features make ES cells as an attractive source for developmental biology studies. Having the mature hepatocyte in the lab with functional activities is valuable in drug discovery studies. Overexpression of hepatocyte lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) becomes a promising approach in pluripotent cell differentiation toward liver cells. Many studies generate transgenic ES cell lines to examine the effects of specific TFs overexpression in cell differentiation. In the present report, we have addressed whether a suspension or adherent model of differentiation is an appropriate way to study the role of Hnf4a overexpression. We generated ES cells that carried a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Hnf4a using lentiviral vectors. The transduced cells were subjected to induced Hnf4a overexpression through both spontaneous and directed differentiation methods. Gene expression analysis showed substantially increased expression of hepatic gene markers, particularly Ttr and endogenous Hnf4a, in transduced cells differentiated by the directed approach. These results demonstrated that forced expression of TFs during directed differentiation would be an appropriate way to study relevant gene activation and the effects of overexpression in the context of hepatic differentiation. PMID:27233607

  13. Myogenic differentiation of FSHD patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells

    Bosnakovski, Darko

    2012-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (IPS) cells overcome several disadvantages of human embryonic stem cells, including host specificity and ethical issues. Patient-specific IPS cells can be generated from every donor by using different cell types, making them a suitable tool for autologous cell therapy and tissue engineering. IPS cells generated from patients with genetic disorders capture the disease genotype in the cell, making them a good model for studying the pathology of the diseas...

  14. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  15. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

    Morizane, Ryuji [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Monkawa, Toshiaki, E-mail: monkawa@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  16. Metformin induces differentiation in acute promyelocytic leukemia by activating the MEK/ERK signaling pathway

    Huai, Lei; Wang, Cuicui; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Qihui; Chen, Yirui; Jia, Yujiao; Li, Yan; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020 (China); Wang, Jianxiang, E-mail: wangjx@ihcams.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020 (China)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin induces differentiation in NB4 and primary APL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin induces activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in APL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin synergizes with ATRA to trigger maturation of NB4 and primary APL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin induces the relocalization and degradation of the PML-RAR{alpha} fusion protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study may be applicable for new differentiation therapy in cancer treatment. -- Abstract: Recent studies have shown that metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reduce the risk of cancer development. In this study, we investigated the antitumoral effect of metformin on both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. Metformin induced apoptosis with partial differentiation in an APL cell line, NB4, but only displayed a proapoptotic effect on several non-M3 AML cell lines. Further analysis revealed that a strong synergistic effect existed between metformin and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during APL cell maturation and that metformin induced the hyperphosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in APL cells. U0126, a specific MEK/ERK activation inhibitor, abrogated metformin-induced differentiation. Finally, we found that metformin induced the degradation of the oncoproteins PML-RAR{alpha} and c-Myc and activated caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggest that metformin treatment may contribute to the enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation in APL, which may deepen the understanding of APL maturation and thus provide insight for new therapy strategies.

  17. Metformin induces differentiation in acute promyelocytic leukemia by activating the MEK/ERK signaling pathway

    Highlights: ► Metformin induces differentiation in NB4 and primary APL cells. ► Metformin induces activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in APL cells. ► Metformin synergizes with ATRA to trigger maturation of NB4 and primary APL cells. ► Metformin induces the relocalization and degradation of the PML-RARα fusion protein. ► The study may be applicable for new differentiation therapy in cancer treatment. -- Abstract: Recent studies have shown that metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reduce the risk of cancer development. In this study, we investigated the antitumoral effect of metformin on both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. Metformin induced apoptosis with partial differentiation in an APL cell line, NB4, but only displayed a proapoptotic effect on several non-M3 AML cell lines. Further analysis revealed that a strong synergistic effect existed between metformin and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during APL cell maturation and that metformin induced the hyperphosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in APL cells. U0126, a specific MEK/ERK activation inhibitor, abrogated metformin-induced differentiation. Finally, we found that metformin induced the degradation of the oncoproteins PML-RARα and c-Myc and activated caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggest that metformin treatment may contribute to the enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation in APL, which may deepen the understanding of APL maturation and thus provide insight for new therapy strategies.

  18. STRUCTURAL REMODELING OF PROTEOGLYCANS UPON RETINOIC ACID-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION OF NCCIT CELLS*

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E.; Nairn, Alison V.; Liu, Haiying; Janet L. Paluh; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increa...

  19. Src transduces erythropoietin-induced differentiation signals through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

    Kubota, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Terukazu; Kitanaka, Akira; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Okutani, Yuichi; Waki, Masato; Ishida, Toshihiko; Kamano, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of erythropoietin-initiated signal transduction of erythroid differentiation through Src and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). Antisense oligonucleotides against src but not lyn inhibited the formation of erythropoietin-dependent colonies derived from human bone marrow cells and erythropoietin-induced differentiation of K562 human erythroleukaemia cells. Antisense p85α oligonucleotide or LY294002, a selective inhibitor of PI3-kinase...

  20. Electrical Stimulation Promotes Cardiac Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Damián Hernández; Rodney Millard; Priyadharshini Sivakumaran; Wong, Raymond C. B.; Crombie, Duncan E.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Helena Liang; Hung, Sandy S. C.; Alice Pébay; Shepherd, Robert K.; Gregory J Dusting; Lim, Shiang Y

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an attractive source of cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair and regeneration. In this study, we aim to determine whether acute electrical stimulation of human iPSCs can promote their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Methods. Human iPSCs were differentiated to cardiac cells by forming embryoid bodies (EBs) for 5 days. EBs were then subjected to brief electrical stimulation and plated down for 14 days. Results. In iPS(Foreskin)-2 cell...

  1. A cost-effective system for differentiation of intestinal epithelium from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Soichiro Ogaki; Mayu Morooka; Kaito Otera; Shoen Kume

    2015-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium is a useful model for pharmacological studies of absorption, metabolism, drug interactions, and toxicology, as well as for studies of developmental biology. We established a rapid and cost effective system for differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into definitive endoderm (DE) cells. In the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a low concentration of Activin at 6.25 ng/ml is sufficient to give a similar differentiation efficiency with t...

  2. Effects and mechanisms of melatonin on neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Shu, Tao; Wu, Tao; Pang, Mao; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Juan; Liu, Bin; Rong, Limin

    2016-06-01

    Melatonin, a lipophilic molecule mainly synthesized in the pineal gland, has properties of antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and antiapoptosis to improve neuroprotective functions. Here, we investigate effects and mechanisms of melatonin on neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs were induced into neural stem cells (NSCs), then further differentiated into neurons in medium with or without melatonin, melatonin receptor antagonist (Luzindole) or Phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002). Melatonin significantly promoted the number of neurospheres and cell viability. In addition, Melatonin markedly up-regulated gene and protein expression of Nestin and MAP2. However, Luzindole or LY294002 attenuated these increase. The expression of pAKT/AKT were increased by Melatonin, while Luzindole or LY294002 declined these melatonin-induced increase. These results suggest that melatonin significantly increased neural differentiation of iPSCs via activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway through melatonin receptor. PMID:27130826

  3. Direct hepatic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells induced by valproic acid and cytokines

    Xue-Jun Dong; Guo-Rong Zhang; Qing-Jun Zhou; Ruo-Lang Pan; Ye Chen; Li-Xin Xiang; Jian-Zhong Shao

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To develop a protocol for direct hepatic lineage differentiation from early developmental progenitors to a population of mature hepatocytes. METHODS: Hepatic progenitor cells and then mature hepatocytes from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were obtained in a sequential manner, induced by valproic acid (VPA) and cytokines (hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor and insulin). Morphological changes of the differentiated cells were examined by phase-contrast microscopy and electron microscopy. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical analyses were used to evaluate the gene expression profiles of the VPA-induced hepatic progenitors and the hepatic progenitor-derived hepatocytes. Glycogen storage, cytochrome P450 activity, transplantation assay, differentiation of bile duct-like structures and tumorigenic analyses were performed for the functional identification of the differentiated cells. Furthermore, FACS and electron microscopy were used for the analyses of cell cycle profile and apoptosis in VPA-induced hepatic differentiated cells. RESULTS: Based on the combination of VPA and cytokines, mouse ES cells differentiated into a uniform and homogeneous cell population of hepatic progenitor cells and then matured into functional hepatocytes. The progenitor population shared several characteristics with ES cells and hepatic stem/progenitor cells, and represented a novel progenitor cell between ES and hepatic oval cells in embryonic development. The differentiated hepatocytes from progenitor cells shared typical characteristics with mature hepatocytes, including the patterns of gene expression, immunological markers, in vitro hepatocyte functions and in vivo capacity to restore acute-damaged liver function. In addition, the differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells from ES cells was accompanied by significant cell cycle arrest and selective survival of differentiating cells towards hepatic lineages. CONCLUSION: Hepatic cells

  4. Synaptic network activity induces neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal precursor cells through BDNF signaling

    HarishBabu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated by activity. But how do neural precursor cells in the hippocampus respond to surrounding network activity and translate increased neural activity into a developmental program? Here we show that long-term potential (LTP-like synaptic activity within a cellular network of mature hippocampal neurons promotes neuronal differentiation of newly generated cells. In co-cultures of precursor cells with primary hippocampal neurons, LTP-like synaptic plasticity induced by addition of glycine in Mg2+-free media for 5 min, produced synchronous network activity and subsequently increased synaptic strength between neurons. Furthermore, this synchronous network activity led to a significant increase in neuronal differentiation from the co-cultured neural precursor cells. When applied directly to precursor cells, glycine and Mg2+-free solution did not induce neuronal differentiation. Synaptic plasticity-induced neuronal differentiation of precursor cells was observed in the presence of GABAergic neurotransmission blockers but was dependent on NMDA-mediated Ca2+ influx. Most importantly, neuronal differentiation required the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF from the underlying substrate hippocampal neurons as well as TrkB receptor phosphorylation in precursor cells. This suggests that activity-dependent stem cell differentiation within the hippocampal network is mediated via synaptically evoked BDNF signaling.

  5. Autocrine fibroblast growth factor 18 mediates dexamethasone-induced osteogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells.

    Hamidouche, Zahia; Fromigué, Olivia; Nuber, Ulrike; Vaudin, Pascal; Pages, Jean-Christophe; Ebert, Regina; Jakob, Franz; Miraoui, Hichem; Marie, Pierre J

    2010-08-01

    The potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to differentiate into functional bone forming cells provides an important tool for bone regeneration. The identification of factors capable of promoting osteoblast differentiation in MSCs is therefore critical to enhance the osteogenic potential of MSCs. Using microarray analysis combined with biochemical and molecular approach, we found that FGF18, a member of the FGF family, is upregulated during osteoblast differentiation induced by dexamethasone in murine MSCs. We showed that overexpression of FGF18 by lentiviral (LV) infection, or treatment of MSCs with recombinant human (rh)FGF18 increased the expression of the osteoblast specific transcription factor Runx2, and enhanced osteoblast phenotypic marker gene expression and in vitro osteogenesis. Molecular silencing using lentiviral shRNA demonstrated that downregulation of FGFR1 or FGFR2 abrogated osteoblast gene expression induced by either LV-FGF18 or rhFGF18, indicating that FGF18 enhances osteoblast differentiation in MSCs via activation of FGFR1 or FGFR2 signaling. Biochemical and pharmacological analyses showed that the induction of phenotypic osteoblast markers by LV-FGF18 is mediated by activation of ERK1/2-MAPKs and PI3K signaling in MSCs. These results reveal that FGF18 is an essential autocrine positive regulator of the osteogenic differentiation program in murine MSCs and indicate that osteogenic differentiation induced by FGF18 in MSCs is triggered by FGFR1/FGFR2-mediated ERK1/2-MAPKs and PI3K signaling. PMID:20432451

  6. Silver nanoparticles impede phorbol myristate acetate-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation and autophagy

    Xu, Yingying; Wang, Liming; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Tianlu; Chen, Chunying

    2015-09-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are important constituents of the innate immune system. Monocyte-macrophage differentiation is not only crucial for innate immune responses, but is also related to some cardiovascular diseases. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterials because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of AgNPs on the functions of blood monocytes is scarcely reported. Here, we report the impedance effect of AgNPs on THP-1 monocyte differentiation, and that this effect was mediated by autophagy blockade and lysosomal impairment. Firstly, AgNPs inhibit phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced monocyte differentiation by down-regulating both expression of surface marker CD11b and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Secondly, autophagy is activated during PMA-induced THP-1 monocyte differentiation, and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) can inhibit this process. Thirdly, AgNPs block the degradation of the autophagy substrate p62 and induce autophagosome accumulation, which demonstrates the blockade of autophagic flux. Fourthly, lysosomal impairments including alkalization and decrease of lysosomal membrane stability were observed in AgNP-treated THP-1 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the impedance of monocyte-macrophage differentiation by AgNPs is mediated by autophagy blockade and lysosomal dysfunction. Our results suggest that crosstalk exists in different biological effects induced by AgNPs.

  7. Blocking p55PIK signaling inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation of leukemia cells.

    Wang, G; Deng, Y; Cao, X; Lai, S; Tong, Y; Luo, X; Feng, Y; Xia, X; Gong, J; Hu, J

    2012-11-01

    p55PIK, a regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, promotes cell cycle progression by interacting with cell cycle modulators such as retinoblastoma protein (Rb) via its unique amino-terminal 24 amino-acid residue (N24). Overexpression of N24 specifically inhibits these interactions and leads to cell cycle arrest. Herein, we describe the generation of a fusion protein (Tat transactivator protein (TAT)-N24) that contains the protein transduction domain and N24, and examined its effects on the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells. TAT-N24 not only blocks cell proliferation but remarkably induces differentiation of leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. Systemically administered TAT-N24 also significantly decreases growth of leukemia cell tumors in animal models. Furthermore, overexpression of p55PIK in leukemia cells leads to increased proliferation; however, TAT-N24 blocks this effect and concomitantly induces differentiation. There is significant upregulation of p55PIK mRNA and protein expression in leukemia cells from patients. TAT-N24 inhibits cell cycle progression and induces differentiation of bone marrow cells derived from patients with several different types of leukemia. These results show that cell-permeable N24 peptide induces leukemia cell differentiation and suggest that p55PIK may be a novel drug target for the treatment of hematopoetic malignancies. PMID:22722333

  8. A localized differentiation-inducing-factor sink in the front of the Dictyostelium slug.

    Kay, R R; Large, S.; Traynor, D.; Nayler, O

    1993-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor 1 [DIF-1; 1-(3,5-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-hexan-1-one] induces stalk cell differentiation during Dictyostelium development. It is present as a gradient in the multicellular slug, its lowest concentration being in the anterior. Here we demonstrate the existence of a localized sink for DIF-1, also in the anterior of the slug, which could be responsible for generating the DIF-1 gradient. DIF-1 is metabolized extensively by developing cells, initiall...

  9. 5-Azacytidine Induces Cardiac Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Activating Extracellular Regulated Kinase

    Qian, Qian; QIAN, HUI; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Wei; Yan, Yongmin; Ye, Shengqin; Peng, Xiujuan; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhe; Sun, Lingyun; Xu, Wenrong

    2011-01-01

    5-Azacytidine (5-Aza) induces differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cardiomyocytes. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Our previous work showed that 5-Aza induces human bone marrow-derived MSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Here, we demonstrated that 5-Aza induced cardiac differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hucMSCs) and explored the potential signaling pathway. Our results showed that hucMSCs had cardiomyocyte phenotypes after...

  10. Mannosylerythritol lipid induces granulocytic differentiation and inhibits the tyrosine phosphorylation of human myelogenous leukemia cell line K562

    Isoda, Hiroko; Nakahara, Tadaatsu

    1997-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), which induced granulocytic differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60, also induced differentiation of human myelogenous leukemia cell line K562. MEL inhibited insulin-dependent cell proliferation and induced leukocyte esterase activity of K562 cells. MEL markedly increased the differentiation-associated characteristics in granulocytes, such as nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reducing ability, expression of Fc receptors, and phagocytic activity ...

  11. Undifferentiated spleen colonies: an attempt to induce differentiation into eosinophils

    Repeated injections of casein caused a 4-fold increase in the overall number of colonies in the spleens of sublethally irradiated, polycythemic mice. Chronic (12 injections) casein treatment considerably increased the number of eosinophil and of undifferentiated colonies, but not that of granuloid ones. A reduction in number and size of eosinophil colonies took place between the sixth and the ninth day after irradiation. No such reduction occurred with undifferentiated colonies. Stimulation with casein for only 3 (consecutive) days before irradiation caused a similar increase in eosinophil colonies, only a moderate increase in undifferentiated ones and a very marked increase in granuloid colonies. Evidence for a change of undifferentiated colonies into eosinophil ones under conditions of eosinopoiesis was looked for, but not detected. No correlation was found between the amyloid-inducing capacity of caseins and their eosinopoietic potency

  12. Activin A induces Langerhans cell differentiation in vitro and in human skin explants.

    Tiziana Musso

    Full Text Available Langerhans cells (LC represent a well characterized subset of dendritic cells located in the epidermis of skin and mucosae. In vivo, they originate from resident and blood-borne precursors in the presence of keratinocyte-derived TGFbeta. In vitro, LC can be generated from monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF, IL-4 and TGFbeta. However, the signals that induce LC during an inflammatory reaction are not fully investigated. Here we report that Activin A, a TGFbeta family member induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and involved in skin morphogenesis and wound healing, induces the differentiation of human monocytes into LC in the absence of TGFbeta. Activin A-induced LC are Langerin+, Birbeck granules+, E-cadherin+, CLA+ and CCR6+ and possess typical APC functions. In human skin explants, intradermal injection of Activin A increased the number of CD1a+ and Langerin+ cells in both the epidermis and dermis by promoting the differentiation of resident precursor cells. High levels of Activin A were present in the upper epidermal layers and in the dermis of Lichen Planus biopsies in association with a marked infiltration of CD1a+ and Langerin+ cells. This study reports that Activin A induces the differentiation of circulating CD14+ cells into LC. Since Activin A is abundantly produced during inflammatory conditions which are also characterized by increased numbers of LC, we propose that this cytokine represents a new pathway, alternative to TGFbeta, responsible for LC differentiation during inflammatory/autoimmune conditions.

  13. Differential effects of energy balance on experimentally-induced colitis

    Sarah J McCaskey; Elizabeth A Rondini; Ingeborg M Langohr; Jenifer I Fenton

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To characterize the influence of diet-induced changes in body fat on colitis severity in SMAD3-/-mice.METHODS:SMAD3-/-mice (6-8 wk of age) were randomly assigned to receive a calorie restricted (30%of control; CR),control (CON),or high fat (HF) diet for 20 wk and were gavaged with sterile broth or with Helicobacter hepaticus (H.hepaticus) to induce colitis.Four weeks after infection,mice were sacrificed and the cecum and colons were processed for histological evaluation.RESULTS:Dietary treatment significantly influenced body composition prior to infection (P < 0.05),with CR mice having less (14% ± 2%) and HF-fed mice more body fat (32% ± 7%) compared to controls (22% ±4%).Differences in body composition were associated with alterations in plasma levels of leptin (HF > CON > CR) and adiponectin (CON > HF ≥ CR) (P < 0.05).There were no significant differences in colitis scores between CON and HF-fed mice 4 wk post-infection.Consistent with this,differences in proliferation and inflammation markers (COX-2,iNOS),and infiltrating cell types (CD3+ T lymphocytes,macrophages) were not observed.Unexpectedly,only 40% of CR mice survived infection with H.hepaticus,with mortality observed as early as 1 wk following induction of colitis.CONCLUSION:Increased adiposity does not influence colitis severity in SMAD3-/-mice.Importantly,caloric restriction negatively impacts survival following pathogen challenge,potentially due to an impaired immune response.

  14. Hypoxia induces differential translation of enolase/MBP-1

    Hypoxic microenvironments in tumors contribute to transformation, which may alter metabolism, growth, and therapeutic responsiveness. The α-enolase gene encodes both a glycolytic enzyme (α-enolase) and a DNA-binding tumor suppressor protein, c-myc binding protein (MBP-1). These divergent α-enolase gene products play central roles in glucose metabolism and growth regulation and their differential regulation may be critical for tumor adaptation to hypoxia. We have previously shown that MBP-1 and its binding to the c-myc P2 promoter regulates the metabolic and cellular growth changes that occur in response to altered exogenous glucose concentrations. To examine the regulation of α-enolase and MBP-1 by a hypoxic microenvironment in breast cancer, MCF-7 cells were grown in low, physiologic, or high glucose under 1% oxygen. Our results demonstrate that adaptation to hypoxia involves attenuation of MBP-1 translation and loss of MBP-1-mediated regulation of c-myc transcription, evidenced by decreased MBP-1 binding to the c-myc P2 promoter. This allows for a robust increase in c-myc expression, 'early c-myc response', which stimulates aerobic glycolysis resulting in tumor acclimation to oxidative stress. Increased α-enolase mRNA and preferential translation/post-translational modification may also allow for acclimatization to low oxygen, particularly under low glucose concentrations. These results demonstrate that malignant cells adapt to hypoxia by modulating α-enolase/MBP-1 levels and suggest a mechanism for tumor cell induction of the hyperglycolytic state. This important 'feedback' mechanism may help transformed cells to escape the apoptotic cascade, allowing for survival during limited glucose and oxygen availability

  15. Reversible structural alterations of undifferentiated and differentiated human neuroblastoma cells induced by phorbol ester.

    Tint, I S; Bonder, E. M.; Feder, H. H.; Reboulleau, C P; Vasiliev, J M; Gelfand, I M

    1992-01-01

    Morphological alterations in the structure of undifferentiated and morphologically differentiated human neuroblastoma cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C, were examined by video microscopy and immunomorphology. In undifferentiated cells, PMA induced the formation of motile actin-rich lamellas and of stable cylindrical processes rich in microtubules. Formation of stable processes resulted either from the collapse of lamellas or the movement ...

  16. Differential effect of baicalein on ionizing radiation induced cell death in normal lymphocytes and lymphoma cells

    Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one), a naturally occurring flavone, present in Indian and Chinese medicinal plants has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. Previous reports from our laboratory have elucidated the radical scavenging and radioprotective potential of this compound in cell free system. To investigate potential of baicalein as a radioprotector, we have studied its effect on normal lymphocytes and lymphoma cells (EL-4 cells) in presence of radiation. Baicalein protected murine splenic lymphocytes against radiation (4Gy) induced apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide staining. It inhibited background cell death in lymphocytes whereas, baicalein induced concentration dependent cell death in EL-4 cells and did not protect against radiation induced apoptosis. Interestingly, baicalein scavenged radiation derived ROS (reactive oxygen species) in both the cell types suggesting that, it is not exhibiting differential antioxidant action. Despite scavenging radiation derived ROS, which are principal mediators of radiation induced cell death, baicalein induced cell death in EL-4 cells. To investigate the reason for this differential behavior, we investigated the effect of baicalein on pro-survival molecules viz. ERK and NF-kB. Baicalein induced phosphorylation of ERK in normal lymphocytes in a time dependent manner, but, it did not alter pERK levels in EL-4 cells. Baicalein treatment per se induced degradation of IkBα and increased nuclear accumulation of NF-kB in normal lymphocytes. Whereas, baicalein pre-treatment reduced basal NF-kB levels in EL-4 cells and it also suppressed TNF-α induced nuclear accumulation of NF-kB. This study suggests that, differential regulation of pro-survival transcription factor NF-kB may be playing a role in differential effect of baicalein in normal lymphocytes and lymphoma cells. (author)

  17. Wnt signaling induces epithelial differentiation during cutaneous wound healing

    Hocking Anne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous wound repair in adult mammals does not regenerate the original epithelial architecture and results in altered skin function. We propose that lack of regeneration may be due to the absence of appropriate molecular signals to promote regeneration. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Wnt signaling during cutaneous wound healing and the consequence of activating either the beta-catenin-dependent or beta-catenin-independent Wnt signaling on epidermal architecture during wound repair. Results We determined that the expression of Wnt ligands that typically signal via the beta-catenin-independent pathway is up-regulated in the wound while the beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling is activated in the hair follicles adjacent to the wound edge. Ectopic activation of beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling with lithium chloride in the wound resulted in epithelial cysts and occasional rudimentary hair follicle structures within the epidermis. In contrast, forced expression of Wnt-5a in the deeper wound induced changes in the interfollicular epithelium mimicking regeneration, including formation of epithelia-lined cysts in the wound dermis, rudimentary hair follicles and sebaceous glands, without formation of tumors. Conclusion These findings suggest that adult interfollicular epithelium is capable of responding to Wnt morphogenic signals necessary for restoring epithelial tissue patterning in the skin during wound repair.

  18. Ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium: bone morphogenic protein 4-induced odontogenic differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Liu, Li; Liu, Ying-Feng; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Yin-Zhong; Jin, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells possess the ability of self-renewal and can differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, both in vitro and in vivo. Here we report a new method to efficiently induce differentiation of mouse iPS cells into the odontogenic lineage. Using ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium (ASF-CM), we successfully generated ameloblast-like cells from mouse iPS cells. Importantly, culturing mouse iPS cells in ASF-CM supplemented with BMP4 (ASF-BMP4) promoted odontogenic differentiation, which was evident by the upregulation of ameloblast-specific as well as odontoblast-specific genes. On the other hand, culturing mouse iPS cells in ASF-CM supplemented with noggin (ASF-noggin), an inhibitor of BMP4, abrogated this effect. These results suggest that mouse iPS cells can be induced by ASF-BMP4 to differentiate into ameloblast-like and odontoblast-like cells. The results of our study raise the possibility of using patient-specific iPS cells for tooth regeneration in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23606575

  19. Static and Dynamic Experiment Evaluations of a Displacement Differential Self-Induced Magnetorheological Damper

    Guoliang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a novel magnetorheological damper (MRD which has a self-induced ability. In this study, a linear variable differential sensor (LVDS based on the electromagnetic induction mechanism was integrated with a conventional MRD. The structure of the displacement differential self-induced magnetorheological damper (DDSMRD was developed, and the theory of displacement differential self-induced performance was deduced. The static experiments of the DDSMRD under different displacement positions were carried out by applying sine excitation signals to the excitation coils, and the experimental results show that the self-induced voltage is proportional to the damper piston displacement. Meanwhile, the dynamic experiments were also carried out using the fatigue test machine to investigate the change of the self-induced voltage under the typical direct current inputs and the different piston rod displacements; the experimental results also show that the self-induced voltage is proportional to the damper piston displacements. Additionally, the dynamic mechanical performance of the DDSMRD was evaluated. The theory deduction and the experimental results indicate that the proposed DDSMRD has the ability of the integrated displacement sensor in addition to the output controllable damping force.

  20. Lignin Induces ES Cells to Differentiate into Neuroectodermal Cells through Mediation of the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Inoue, Yu; Hasegawa, Seiji; Yamada, Takaaki; Date, Yasushi; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Akamatsu, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are characterized by their pluripotency and infinite proliferation potential. Ever since ES cells were first established in 1981, there have been a growing number of studies aimed at clinical applications of ES cells. In recent years, various types of differentiation inducement systems using ES cells have been established. Further studies have been conducted to utilize differentiation inducement systems in the field of regenerative medicine. For cellular treatments using stem cells including ES cells, differentiation induction should be performed in a sufficient manner to obtain the intended cell lineages. Lignin is a high-molecular amorphous material that forms plants together with cellulose and hemicelluloses, in which phenylpropane fundamental units are complexly condensed. Lignin derivatives have been shown to have several bioactive functions. In spite of these findings, few studies have focused on the effects of lignin on stem cells. Our study aimed to develop a novel technology using lignin to effectively induce ES cells to differentiate into neuroectodermal cells including ocular cells and neural cells. Since lignin can be produced at a relatively low cost in large volumes, its utilization is expected for more convenient differentiation induction technologies and in the field of regenerative medicine in the future. PMID:23805217

  1. Murine bone cell lines as models for spaceflight induced effects on differentiation and gene expression

    Lau, P.; Hellweg, C. E.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Reitz, G.

    Critical health factors for space crews especially on long-term missions are radiation exposure and the absence of gravity DNA double strand breaks DSB are presumed to be the most deleterious DNA lesions after radiation as they disrupt both DNA strands in close proximity Besides radiation risk the absence of gravity influences the complex skeletal apparatus concerning muscle and especially bone remodelling which results from mechanical forces exerting on the body Bone is a dynamic tissue which is life-long remodelled by cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineage Any imbalance of this system leads to pathological conditions such as osteoporosis or osteopetrosis Osteoblastic cells play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis and differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes Premature terminal differentiation has been reported to be induced by a number of DNA damaging or cell stress inducing agents including ionising and ultraviolet radiation as well as treatment with mitomycin C In the present study we compare the effects of sequential differentiation by adding osteoinductive substances ss -glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid Radiation-induced premature differentiation was investigated regarding the biosynthesis of specific osteogenic marker molecules and the differentiation dependent expression of marker genes The bone cell model established in our laboratory consists of the osteocyte cell line MLO-Y4 the osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the subclones 4 and 24 of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 expressing several

  2. Nicotinamide induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, nicotinamide, induces differentiation and maturation of fetal pancreatic cells. In addition, we have previously reported evidence that nicotinamide increases the insulin content of cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the possibility of nicotinamide acting as a differentiating agent on its own has never been completely explored. Islet cell differentiation was studied by: (i) X-gal staining after neomycin selection; (ii) BrdU studies; (iii) single and double immunohistochemistry for insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iv) insulin and C-peptide content and secretion assays; and (v) transplantation of differentiated cells, under the kidney capsule, into streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. Here we show that undifferentiated mouse ES cells treated with nicotinamide: (i) showed an 80% decrease in cell proliferation; (ii) co-expressed insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iii) had values of insulin and C-peptide corresponding to 10% of normal mouse islets; (iv) released insulin and C-peptide in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; and (v) after transplantation into diabetic mice, normalized blood glucose levels over 7 weeks. Our data indicate that nicotinamide decreases ES cell proliferation and induces differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Both aspects are very important when thinking about cell therapy for the treatment of diabetes based on ES cells

  3. Differentiation induced by physiological and pharmacological stimuli leads to increased antigenicity of human neuroblastoma cells

    Lena-Maria Carlson; Sven P(a)hlman; Anna De Geer; Per Kogner; Jelena Levitskaya

    2008-01-01

    Sympathetic neuronal differentiation is associated with favorable prognosis of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of early childhood. Differentiation agents have proved useful in clinical protocols of NB treatment, but using them as a sole treatment is not sufficient to induce tumor elimination in patients. Therefore, complementary approaches, such as immunotherapy, are warranted. Here we demonstrate that differentiation of NB cell lines and ex vivo isolated tumor cells in response to physiological or pharmacological stimuli is associated with acquisition of increased antigenicity. This manifests as increased expression of surface major histocompatibility class I complexes and ICAM-1 molecules and translates into increased sensitivity of NB cells to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. The latter is paralleled by enhanced ability of differentiated cells to form immune conjugates and bind increased amounts of granzyme B to the cell surface. We demonstrate, for the first time, that, regardless of the stimulus applied, the differentiation state in NBs is associated with increased tumor antigenicity that enables more efficient elimination of tumor cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes and paves the way for combined application of differentiation-inducing agents and immunotherapy as an auxiliary approach in NB patients.

  4. Cytokine-Regulated GADD45G Induces Differentiation and Lineage Selection in Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Frederic B. Thalheimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The balance of self-renewal and differentiation in long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSC must be strictly controlled to maintain blood homeostasis and to prevent leukemogenesis. Hematopoietic cytokines can induce differentiation in LT-HSCs; however, the molecular mechanism orchestrating this delicate balance requires further elucidation. We identified the tumor suppressor GADD45G as an instructor of LT-HSC differentiation under the control of differentiation-promoting cytokine receptor signaling. GADD45G immediately induces and accelerates differentiation in LT-HSCs and overrides the self-renewal program by specifically activating MAP3K4-mediated MAPK p38. Conversely, the absence of GADD45G enhances the self-renewal potential of LT-HSCs. Videomicroscopy-based tracking of single LT-HSCs revealed that, once GADD45G is expressed, the development of LT-HSCs into lineage-committed progeny occurred within 36 hr and uncovered a selective lineage choice with a severe reduction in megakaryocytic-erythroid cells. Here, we report an unrecognized role of GADD45G as a central molecular linker of extrinsic cytokine differentiation and lineage choice control in hematopoiesis.

  5. Retinoic acid induces HL-60 cell differentiation via the upregulation of miR-663

    Zhuan Zhou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell line HL-60 can be induced by all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA; however, the mechanism regulating this process has not been fully characterized. Methods Using bioinformatics and in vitro experiments, we identified the microRNA gene expression profile of HL-60 cells during ATRA induced granulocytic differentiation. Results Six microRNAs were upregulated by ATRA treatment, miR-663, miR-494, miR-145, miR-22, miR-363* and miR-223; and three microRNAs were downregulated, miR-10a, miR-181 and miR-612. Additionally, miR-663 expression was regulated by ATRA. We used a lentivirus (LV backbone incorporating the spleen focus forming virus (SFFV-F promoter to drive miR-663 expression, as the CMV (Cytomegalovirus promoter is ineffective in some lymphocyte cells. Transfection of LV-miR-663 induced significant HL-60 cell differentiation in vitro. Conclusions Our results show miR-663 may play an important role in ATRA induced HL-60 cell differentiation. Lentivirus delivery of miR-663 could potentially be used directly as an anticancer treatment in hematological malignancies

  6. Strain Gauges Indicate Differential-CTE-Induced Failures

    Harris, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A method of detecting mechanical failure induced by variation in temperature at an adhesive bond between two materials that have different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) involves monitoring of strain-gauge readings. This method can be regarded as an exploitation of the prior observation that the readings of strain gauges commonly used in tensile and compressive testing of material specimens include features indicative of incremental failures in the specimens. In this method, one or more strain gauges are bonded to either or both of the two materials near the bond between the materials. (The adhesive used to bond the strain gauges would not ordinarily be the same as the one used to bond the two materials). Then strain-gauge readings are recorded as the temperature of the materials is varied through a range of interest. Any significant discontinuity in the slope of the resulting strain-versus-temperature curve(s) is taken to be a qualitative indication of a failure of the bond between the two materials and/or a failure within one of the materials in the vicinity of the bond. The method has been demonstrated in experiments on specimens consisting of polyacrylonitrile-fiber/epoxy-matrix laminated composite plates bonded by epoxy to smaller plates made, variously, of aluminum, titanium, and a low-CTE nickel/iron alloy. In preparation for each experiment, strain gauges were bonded, by use of cryogenic-rated adhesives, to the composite plate near the corners of the metal plate (see Figure 1). In each experiment, strain-gauge and temperature readings were taken as the specimen was cooled from room temperature to 20 K. The specimens were then returned to room temperature and ultrasonically inspected for damage in the bond region. No failure events were detectable in the strain-gauge readings from the composite/ titanium and composite/low-thermalexpansion- alloy specimens, and ultrasonic inspection of these specimens revealed no damage. However, failure events were

  7. Smurf1 plays a role in EGF inhibition of BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation

    It has been demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a role in supporting the proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells in bone but inhibits their osteogenic differentiation. However, the mechanism underlying EGF inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unclear. Smurf1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets Smad1/5 and Runx2, which are critical transcription factors for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of EGF on the expression of Smurf1, and the role of Smurf1 in EGF inhibition of osteogenic differentiation using C2C12 cells, a murine myoblast cell line. EGF increased Smurf1 expression, which was blocked by inhibiting the activity of either JNK or ERK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and Smurf1 promoter assays demonstrated that c-Jun and Runx2 play roles in the EGF induction of Smurf1 transcription. EGF suppressed BMP2-induced expression of osteogenic marker genes, which were rescued by Smurf1 knockdown. EGF downregulated the protein levels of Runx2 and Smad1 in a proteasome-dependent manner. EGF decreased the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smurf1, which was partially rescued by Smurf1 silencing. Taken together, these results suggest that EGF increases Smurf1 expression via the activation of JNK and ERK and the subsequent binding of c-Jun and Runx2 to the Smurf1 promoter and that Smurf1 mediates the inhibitory effect of EGF on BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation. - Highlights: • EGF increases the expression level of Smurf1 in mesenchymal precursor cells. • EGF reduces the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smad1. • EGF suppresses BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation, which is rescued by Smurf1 knockdown

  8. Tryptanthrin induces growth inhibition and neuronal differentiation in the human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells.

    Liao, Xuemei; Leung, Kwok Nam

    2013-04-25

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common extracranial solid cancers found in young children. The prognosis of neuroblastoma patients in advanced stages having N-myc amplification remains poor despite intensive multimodal therapy. Agents that trigger neuroblastoma cells to undergo cellular differentiation and thereby stop proliferation have attracted considerable interest as an alternative therapy. Tryptanthrin (12-dihydro-6,12-dioxoindolo-(2,1-b)-quinazoline) is a weakly basic alkaloid isolated from the dried roots of medicinal indigo plants known as Banlangen. It has been shown to possess various biological activities, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. However, its effects and mechanism(s) of action on human neuroblastoma cells remain poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of tryptanthrin on the growth and differentiation of human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells with N-myc amplification. Our results show that tryptanthrin inhibited the growth of the human neuroblastoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies indicated that tryptanthrin induced cell cycle arrest of the human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells at the G0/G1 phase. Tryptanthrin also induced neuronal differentiation of LA-N-1 cells, as assessed by morphological criteria, enhancement of acetylcholine esterase activity and up-regulation of various differentiation markers. Moreover, tryptanthrin treatment led to the significant reduction of N-myc expression in LA-N-1 cells while siRNA directed against N-myc induced morphological differentiation of LA-N-1 cells. These results, when taken together, suggest that tryptanthrin suppressed the growth and induced neuronal differentiation in the human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells and might be exploited as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of high-risk neuroblastomas with N-myc-amplification. PMID:23500671

  9. Smurf1 plays a role in EGF inhibition of BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation

    Lee, Hye-Lim; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang [Department of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Kyunghwa [Department of Pharmacology, College of Dentistry and Research Institute of Oral Science, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702, Gangwondo (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Kim, Gwan-Shik [Department of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa, E-mail: baekjh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a role in supporting the proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells in bone but inhibits their osteogenic differentiation. However, the mechanism underlying EGF inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unclear. Smurf1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets Smad1/5 and Runx2, which are critical transcription factors for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of EGF on the expression of Smurf1, and the role of Smurf1 in EGF inhibition of osteogenic differentiation using C2C12 cells, a murine myoblast cell line. EGF increased Smurf1 expression, which was blocked by inhibiting the activity of either JNK or ERK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and Smurf1 promoter assays demonstrated that c-Jun and Runx2 play roles in the EGF induction of Smurf1 transcription. EGF suppressed BMP2-induced expression of osteogenic marker genes, which were rescued by Smurf1 knockdown. EGF downregulated the protein levels of Runx2 and Smad1 in a proteasome-dependent manner. EGF decreased the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smurf1, which was partially rescued by Smurf1 silencing. Taken together, these results suggest that EGF increases Smurf1 expression via the activation of JNK and ERK and the subsequent binding of c-Jun and Runx2 to the Smurf1 promoter and that Smurf1 mediates the inhibitory effect of EGF on BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation. - Highlights: • EGF increases the expression level of Smurf1 in mesenchymal precursor cells. • EGF reduces the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smad1. • EGF suppresses BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation, which is rescued by Smurf1 knockdown.

  10. Quantitative glycomics monitoring of induced pluripotent- and embryonic stem cells during neuronal differentiation

    Michiyo Terashima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the structure of cell surface glycoforms occurring during the stages of stem cell differentiation remain unclear. We describe a rapid glycoblotting-based cellular glycomics method for quantitatively evaluating changes in glycoform expression and structure during neuronal differentiation of murine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Our results show that changes in the expression of cellular N-glycans are comparable during the differentiation of iPSCs and ESCs. The expression of bisect-type N-glycans was significantly up-regulated in neurons that differentiated from both iPSCs and ESCs. From a glycobiological standpoint, iPSCs are an alternative neural cell source in addition to ESCs.

  11. Differentiation patterns of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into neurons.

    Nakamura, Mai; Kamishibahara, Yu; Kitazawa, Ayako; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Shimizu, Norio

    2016-05-01

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the ability to differentiate in vitro into various cell lineages including neurons. The differentiation of these cells into neurons has potential applications in regenerative medicine. Previously, we reported that a chick dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-conditioned medium (CM) promoted the differentiation of mouse ES and iPS cells into neurons. Here, we used real-time PCR to investigate the differentiation patterns of ES and iPS cells into neurons when DRG-CM was added. DRG-CM promoted the expression levels of βIII-tubulin gene (a marker of postmitotic neurons) in ES and iPS cells. ES cells differentiated into neurons faster than iPS cells, and the maximum peaks of gene expression involved in motor, sensory, and dopaminergic neurons were different. Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors could be very valuable at numerous stages in the production and use of stem cells in basic research and eventual cell-based therapies. Thus, we investigated whether the addition of a ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 and DRG-CM on the basis of the differentiation patterns promotes the neuronal differentiation of ES cells. When the ROCK inhibitor was added to the culture medium at the initial stages of cultivation, it stimulated the neuronal differentiation of ES cells more strongly than that stimulated by DRG-CM. Moreover, the combination of the ROCK inhibitor and DRG-CM promoted the neuronal differentiation of ES cells when the ROCK inhibitor was added to the culture medium at day 3. The ROCK inhibitor may be useful for promoting neuronal differentiation of ES cells. PMID:25354731

  12. Glucocorticoid-induced differentiation of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts is mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-6.

    Boden, S D; Hair, G; Titus, L; Racine, M; McCuaig, K; Wozney, J M; Nanes, M S

    1997-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) at physiological concentrations promote osteoblast differentiation from fetal calvarial cells, calvarial organ cultures, and bone marrow stromal cells; however, the cellular pathways involved are not known. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are recognized as important mediators of osteoblast differentiation. Specific roles for individual BMPs during postembryonic membranous bone formation have yet to be determined. We recently reported that GC potentiated the osteoblast differentiation effects of BMP-2 and BMP-4, but not of BMP-6, which, by itself, was the most potent of the three. In the present study, we used fetal rat secondary calvarial cultures to study the role of BMP-6 during early osteoblast differentiation. Treatment with the GC triamcinolone (10(-9) M) resulted in a 5- to 8-fold increase in BMP-6 steady-state messenger RNA levels, peaking at 12 h. In contrast, BMPs -2, -4, -5, -7, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 messenger RNA levels increased by less than 2-fold, after GC treatment, compared with untreated control cultures at 24 h. BMP-6 protein secretion increased 6- to 7-fold by 12 h and 12-fold (from 7.5 to 90 ng/ml) by 24 h, as measured by quantitative Western analysis. Treatment of cells with oligodeoxynucleotides antisense to BMP-6 diminished secretion of BMP-6 protein and significantly inhibited the GC-induced differentiation, as determined by a 10-fold decrease in the number of mineralized bone nodules, compared with controls that were treated with sense oligonucleotides or no oligonucleotides (ANOVA, P < 0.05). The antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of differentiation was rescued by treatment with exogenous recombinant human BMP-6. We conclude that GC-induced differentiation of osteoblasts from the pluripotent precursors is mediated, in part, by BMP-6. These results suggest that BMP-6 has an important and unique role during early osteoblast differentiation. PMID:9202223

  13. Genistein as an inducer of tumor cell differentiation : possible mechanisms of action.

    Constantinou, A.; Huberman, E.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    1995-01-01

    Decreased activity of either topoisomerases or tyrosine kinases has been implicated in the differentiation of a number of cell types. It is therefore conceivable that genistein, because of its reported ability to inhibit these activities in vitro, may be an inducer of cellular differentiation. We investigated this possibility in human promyelocytic HL-60 and erythroid K-562 leukemia cells and in human SK-MEL-131 melanoma cells. Our results indicated that genistein, in a dose-dependent manner, inhibited cell multiplication and induced cell differentiation. The maturing HL-60 cells acquired granulocytic and monocytic markers. The differentiating K-562 cells stained positively with benzidine, which indicates the production of hemoglobin, an erythroid marker. Following genistein treatment, maturing SK-MEL-131 melanoma cells formed dendrite-like structures and exhibited increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content. Experiments were designed to identify the molecular mechanism of genistein's action. Data from our laboratory suggest that this isoflavone triggers the pathway that leads to cellular differentiation by stabilizing protein-linked DNA strand breakage. Other possible mechanisms reported in the literature are discussed.

  14. The benzophenanthridine alkaloid fagaronine induces erythroleukemic cell differentiation by gene activation.

    Dupont, Claude; Couillerot, Eric; Gillet, Reynald; Caron, Catherine; Zeches-Hanrot, Monique; Riou, Jean-François; Trentesaux, Chantal

    2005-06-01

    Fagaronine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid from Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae), has been tested on the erythroleukemic cell line K562 in order to explain some previous results on cell differentiation. In this study we showed that fagaronine induces a significant hemoglobinization of the human erythroleukemic cell line K562. This hemoglobin synthesis was accompanied by a strong increase of erythroid mRNA expression such as gamma- and alpha-globin, and PBGD, an enzyme of heme synthesis. In addition, the Epo-R transcripts were also stimulated indicating that cells are engaged in a maturation process. Both transcription factors GATA-1 and NF-E2, which play an important role in the regulation of genes involved in the erythroid differentiation, were also transcriptionally up-regulated. To elucidate the possible role of GATA-1 in the FAG-induced differentiation of K562 cells, we transfected reporter constructs containing regulatory regions of erythroid genes encompassing GATA-1 binding sites. After 48 hours of treatment, FAG stimulated the EPO-R and gamma-globin promoters by 2- to 3-fold and the promoter/enhancer region of GATA-1 gene by 3.2-fold. A mutation within the GATA-1 binding sites strongly decreased the promoter activation induced by FAG. Taken together, our results represent a demonstration that FAG exerts its differentiating activity by a specific activation of the regulating GATA-1 regions of genes involved in the erythroid phenotype expression. PMID:15971117

  15. Identification of Centella asiatica’s Effective Ingredients for Inducing the Neuronal Differentiation

    Hui Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica, commonly known as Gotu kola, has been widely used as a traditional herb for decades. Yet, the study on which compounds or compound combinations actually lead to its brain benefits remains scarce. To study the neuroprotection effects of Centella asiatica, neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells was applied. In our pilot study, we isolated 45 Centella asiatica fractions and tested their abilities for inducing neuronal differentiation on PC12 cells. The most effective fraction showed robust induction in neurite outgrowth and neurofilament expression. LC-MS fingerprint analysis of this fraction revealed asiatic acid and madecassic acid as the dominant components. A further investigation on the pure combination of these two compounds indicated that the combination of these two compounds extensively promoted nerve differentiation in vitro. Application of PD98059, a protein MEK inhibitor, attenuated combination-induced neurofilament expression, indicating the combination-induced nerve differentiation through activation of MEK signaling pathway. Our results support the use of combination of asiatic acid and madecassic acid as an effective mean to intervene neurodegenerative diseases in which neurotrophin deficiency is involved.

  16. Titanium With Nanotopography Induces Osteoblast Differentiation by Regulating Endogenous Bone Morphogenetic Protein Expression and Signaling Pathway.

    M S Castro-Raucci, Larissa; S Francischini, Marcelo; N Teixeira, Lucas; P Ferraz, Emanuela; B Lopes, Helena; T de Oliveira, Paulo; Hassan, Mohammad Q; Losa, Adalberto L; Beloti, Marcio M

    2016-07-01

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of titanium (Ti) with nanotopography (Nano) on the endogenous expression of BMP-2 and BMP-4 and the relevance of this process to the nanotopography-induced osteoblast differentiation. MC3T3-E1 cells were grown on Nano and machined (Machined) Ti surfaces and the endogenous BMP-2/4 expression and the effect of BMP receptor BMPR1A silencing in both osteoblast differentiation and expression of genes related to TGF-β/BMP signaling were evaluated. Nano supported higher BMP-2 gene and protein expression and upregulated the osteoblast differentiation compared with Machined Ti surface. The BMPR1A silencing inhibited the osteogenic potential induced by Nano Ti surface as indicated by reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin and RUNX2 gene expression, RUNX2 protein expression and ALP activity. In addition, the expression of genes related to TGF-β/BMP signaling was deeply affected by BMPR1A-silenced cells grown on Nano Ti surface. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that nanotopography induces osteoblast differentiation, at least in part, by upregulating the endogenous production of BMP-2 and modulating BMP signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1718-1726, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26681207

  17. A Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Dovitinib (TKI-258), Enhances BMP-2-Induced Osteoblast Differentiation In Vitro.

    Lee, Yura; Bae, Kyoung Jun; Chon, Hae Jung; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Soon Ae; Kim, Jiyeon

    2016-05-31

    Dovitinib (TKI258) is a small molecule multi-kinase inhibitor currently in clinical phase I/II/III development for the treatment of various types of cancers. This drug has a safe and effective pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile. Although dovitinib can bind several kinases at nanomolar concentrations, there are no reports relating to osteoporosis or osteoblast differentiation. Herein, we investigated the effect of dovitinib on human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-induced osteoblast differentiation in a cell culture model. Dovitinib enhanced the BMP-2-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) induction, which is a representative marker of osteoblast differentiation. Dovitinib also stimulated the translocation of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 into the nucleus and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, including ERK1/2 and p38. In addition, the mRNA expression of BMP-4, BMP-7, ALP, and OCN increased with dovitinib treatment. Our results suggest that dovitinib has a potent stimulating effect on BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation and this existing drug has potential for repositioning in the treatment of bone-related disorders. PMID:27025387

  18. Choline kinase alpha expression during RA-induced neuronal differentiation: role of C/EBPβ.

    Domizi, Pablo; Aoyama, Chieko; Banchio, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    Neuronal differentiation is a complex process characterized by a halt in proliferation and extension of neurites from the cell body. This process is accompanied by changes in gene expression that mediate the redirection leading to neurite formation and function. Acceleration of membrane phospholipids synthesis is associated with neurite elongation, and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the major membrane phospholipid in mammalian cells. The transcription of two genes in particular encoding key enzymes in the CDP-choline pathway for PtdCho biosynthesis are stimulated; the Chka gene for choline kinase (CK) alpha isoform and the Pcyt1a gene for the CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) alpha isoform. We report that the stimulation of CKα expression during retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiation depends on a promoter region that contains two CCAAT/Enhancer-binding Protein-β (C/EBPβ) sites. We demonstrate that during neuronal differentiation of Neuro-2a cells, RA induces Chka expression by a mechanism that involves ERK1/2 activation which triggers C/EBPβ expression. Elevated levels of C/EBPβ bind to the Chka proximal promoter (Box1) inducing CKα expression. In addition we identified a downstream sequence named Box2 which together with Box1 is required for the promoter to reach the full induction. This is the first elucidation of the mechanism by which the expression of Chka is coordinately regulated during neuronal differentiation. PMID:24440820

  19. Differentiation of human B lymphocyte subpopulations induced by an alloreactive helper T-cell clone

    We have used cloned alloreactive helper T cells to determine if direct T cell-B cell interaction can induce differentiation of human peripheral blood B cells which do not respond to pokeweed mitogen (PWM). T-cell clone 2F8 was derived from a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction. 2F8 cells are T3+T4+T8-IL-2R+ and proliferate in response to irradiated stimulator cells, but not autologous cells, in the absence of exogenous interleukin-2. 2F8 cells provide allospecific help for polyclonal proliferation and differentiation of B cells in the absence of any other stimulus. The magnitude of this response is comparable to that of the response of the same B cells to PWM and fresh autologous T cells. 2F8 cells could also provide nonspecific help for unrelated donor B cells in the presence of PWM, with no requirement for costimulation by irradiated stimulator cells. Allospecific stimulation of B cells was completely inhibited by antibodies to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) framework determinants and was abrogated by 1000-rad irradiation. Cloned 2F8 T cells stimulated differentiation of both small, high-density B cells and larger B cells, generating up to 30% plasma cells with either fraction. B cells forming rosettes with mouse erythrocytes were also induced to differentiate by the helper T cell clone. As found previously, neither small, high-density B cells nor mouse rosette+ B cells responded well to PWM. Direct interaction with allospecific T cells induces differentiation of a broader spectrum of B cells than soluble growth and differentiation factors in conjunction with polyclonal activators such as PWM and protein A containing staphylococci

  20. Expression of the X-CGD gene during induced differentiation of myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60.

    Barker, K A; Orkin, S H; Newburger, P E

    1988-01-01

    The expression of the X-CGD gene, which encodes the heavy-chain subunit of the phagocyte cytochrome b, was studied during induced myeloid differentiation of HL-60 cells. Incubation of the cells with a combined regimen of retinoic acid and dimethyl formamide resulted in granulocytic morphological differentiation and acquisition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, a measure of superoxide generation. During the 5-day course of induced differentiation, the levels of X-CGD mRNA transcripts rose 13...

  1. Cisplatin induces resistance by triggering differentiation of testicular embryonal carcinoma cells.

    Paolo B Abada

    Full Text Available Although testicular germ cell tumors are generally quite responsive to treatment with cisplatin, a small fraction of them acquire resistance during therapy. Even when cisplatin treatment is successful the patient is often left with a residual teratoma at the site of the primary tumor suggesting that cisplatin may trigger differentiation in some tumors. Using the human embryonal carcinoma cell line NTera2/D1, we confirmed that exposure to the differentiating agent retinoic acid produced a reduction in pluripotency markers NANOG and POU5F1 (Oct3/4 and an acute concentration-dependent increase in resistance to both cisplatin and paclitaxel that reached as high as 18-fold for cisplatin and 61-fold for paclitaxel within four days. A two day exposure to cisplatin also produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the expression of the NANOG and POU5F1 and increased expression of three markers whose levels increase with differentiation including Nestin, SCG10 and Fibronectin. In parallel, exposure to cisplatin induced up to 6.2-fold resistance to itself and 104-fold resistance to paclitaxel. Paclitaxel did not induce differentiation or resistance to either itself or cisplatin. Neither retinoic acid nor cisplatin induced resistance in cervical or prostate cancer cell lines or other germ cell tumor lines in which they failed to alter the expression of NANOG and POU5F1. Forced expression of NANOG prevented the induction of resistance to cisplatin by retinoic acid. We conclude that cisplatin can acutely induce resistance to itself and paclitaxel by triggering a differentiation response in pluripotent germ cell tumor cells.

  2. Cisplatin induces resistance by triggering differentiation of testicular embryonal carcinoma cells.

    Abada, Paolo B; Howell, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Although testicular germ cell tumors are generally quite responsive to treatment with cisplatin, a small fraction of them acquire resistance during therapy. Even when cisplatin treatment is successful the patient is often left with a residual teratoma at the site of the primary tumor suggesting that cisplatin may trigger differentiation in some tumors. Using the human embryonal carcinoma cell line NTera2/D1, we confirmed that exposure to the differentiating agent retinoic acid produced a reduction in pluripotency markers NANOG and POU5F1 (Oct3/4) and an acute concentration-dependent increase in resistance to both cisplatin and paclitaxel that reached as high as 18-fold for cisplatin and 61-fold for paclitaxel within four days. A two day exposure to cisplatin also produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the expression of the NANOG and POU5F1 and increased expression of three markers whose levels increase with differentiation including Nestin, SCG10 and Fibronectin. In parallel, exposure to cisplatin induced up to 6.2-fold resistance to itself and 104-fold resistance to paclitaxel. Paclitaxel did not induce differentiation or resistance to either itself or cisplatin. Neither retinoic acid nor cisplatin induced resistance in cervical or prostate cancer cell lines or other germ cell tumor lines in which they failed to alter the expression of NANOG and POU5F1. Forced expression of NANOG prevented the induction of resistance to cisplatin by retinoic acid. We conclude that cisplatin can acutely induce resistance to itself and paclitaxel by triggering a differentiation response in pluripotent germ cell tumor cells. PMID:24475288

  3. Induced differentiation of cancer cells: second generation potent hybrid polar compounds target cell cycle regulators

    Hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of differentiation of a wide variety of cancer transformed cells. Hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) has been used as a prototype of these compounds to investigate their mechanism of action. Employing murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells as a model, three characteristics of inducer-mediated commitment to terminal differentiation were demonstrated: (I) induced commitment was stochastic, requiring up to 5 cell cycles to recruit essentially all cells to commit to growth arrest in G1; (II) inducers caused a prolongation of the initial G1; and (III) the hybrid polar compounds induced a wide variety of transformed cells to terminal differentiation. These findings suggested that the rate limiting factor or factors for induction by these agents may be at the level of protein(s) regulating G1-to-S progression, which are common to most eukaryotic cells. It was found that HMBA induced a profound suppression of cyclin dependent kinase, cdk4, which reflected a marked decrease in stability of the protein, and is a critical change in the pathway of induced differentiation. HMBA also induced an increase in pRB and in the active, underphosphorylated form of this protein, an increase in the pRB related protein, p107, and an increase in the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. Further, the free form of the transcription factor, E2F, was markedly decreased within hours of exposure of transformed cells to HMBA and found to complex with p107 and cdk 2. A phase II clinical trial was conducted using HMBA to treat patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia. Of 28 patients, 9 patients achieved a complete or partial remission lasting from 1 to 16 months. These clinical studies also provided direct evidence that HMBA induces differentiation of transformed cells in patients. In four separate courses of treatment with HMBA, a patient with MDS and the monosomy 7 karyotype marking the malignant clone of bone marrow blast

  4. Inhibition of the NAD-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT2 induces granulocytic differentiation in human leukemia cells.

    Yoshitaka Sunami

    Full Text Available Sirtuins, NAD-dependent protein deacetylases, play important roles in cellular functions such as metabolism and differentiation. Whether sirtuins function in tumorigenesis is still controversial, but sirtuins are aberrantly expressed in tumors, which may keep cancerous cells undifferentiated. Therefore, we investigated whether the inhibition of sirtuin family proteins induces cellular differentiation in leukemic cells. The sirtuin inhibitors tenovin-6 and BML-266 induce granulocytic differentiation in the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL cell line NB4. This differentiation is likely caused by an inhibition of SIRT2 deacetylase activity, judging from the accumulation of acetylated α-tubulin, a major SIRT2 substrate. Unlike the clinically used differentiation inducer all-trans retinoic acid, tenovin-6 shows limited effects on promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RAR-α stability and promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body formation in NB4 cells, suggesting that tenovin-6 does not directly target PML-RAR-α activity. In agreement with this, tenovin-6 induces cellular differentiation in the non-APL cell line HL-60, where PML-RAR-α does not exist. Knocking down SIRT2 by shRNA induces granulocytic differentiation in NB4 cells, which demonstrates that the inhibition of SIRT2 activity is sufficient to induce cell differentiation in NB4 cells. The overexpression of SIRT2 in NB4 cells decreases the level of granulocytic differentiation induced by tenovin-6, which indicates that tenovin-6 induces granulocytic differentiation by inhibiting SIRT2 activity. Taken together, our data suggest that targeting SIRT2 is a viable strategy to induce leukemic cell differentiation.

  5. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    Sato, Chieri [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyo-i@huhs.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P

  6. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    Highlights: ► We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. ► Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. ► S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. ► MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P receptor-mediated signaling plays a crucial role for osteoblast differentiation.

  7. Retinoic acid induces nuclear accumulation of Raf1 during differentiation of HL-60 cells

    Smith, James; Bunaciu, Rodica P.; Reiterer, Gudrun [Department of Biomedical Sciences, T4-008 VRT, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Coder, David; George, Thaddeus [Amnis Corporation, Seattle, Washington (United States); Asaly, Michael [Department of Biomedical Sciences, T4-008 VRT, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yen, Andrew, E-mail: ay13@cornell.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, T4-008 VRT, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    All trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a standard therapeutic agent used in differentiation induction therapy treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). RA and its metabolites use a diverse set of signal transduction pathways during the differentiation program. In addition to the direct transcriptional targets of the nuclear RAR and RXR receptors, signals derived from membrane receptors and the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway are required. Raf1 phosphorylation and the prolonged activation of Raf1 persisting during the entire differentiation process are required for RA-dependent differentiation of HL-60 cells. Here we identify a nuclear redistribution of Raf1 during the RA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. In addition, the nuclear accumulation of Raf1 correlates with an increase in Raf1 phosphorylated at serine 621. The serine 621 phosphorylated Raf1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus. The RA-dependent nuclear accumulation of Raf1 suggests a novel nuclear role for Raf1 during the differentiation process.

  8. A cost-effective system for differentiation of intestinal epithelium from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Ogaki, Soichiro; Morooka, Mayu; Otera, Kaito; Kume, Shoen

    2015-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium is a useful model for pharmacological studies of absorption, metabolism, drug interactions, and toxicology, as well as for studies of developmental biology. We established a rapid and cost effective system for differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into definitive endoderm (DE) cells. In the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a low concentration of Activin at 6.25 ng/ml is sufficient to give a similar differentiation efficiency with that using Activin at 100 ng/ml at the presence of Wnt activator. In the presence of DMSO, Activin at low concentration triggered hiPS cells to undergo differentiation through G1 arrest, reduce apoptosis, and potentiate activation of downstream targets, such as SMAD2 phosphorylation and SOX17 expression. This increased differentiation into CDX2 + SOX17 + DE cells. The present differentiation procedure therefore permits rapid and efficient derivation of DE cells, capable of differentiating into intestinal epithelium upon BIO and DAPT treatment and of giving rise to functional cells, such as enterocytes. PMID:26616277

  9. Effect of anthocyanidins on myogenic differentiation in induced and non-induced primary myoblasts from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Villasante, Alejandro; Powell, Madison S; Murdoch, Gordon K; Overturf, Ken; Cain, Kenneth; Wacyk, Jurij; Hardy, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to test whether an anthocyanidin mixture (peonidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin chloride) modulates myogenesis in both induced and non-induced myogenic cells from juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We evaluated three different anthocyanidin concentrations (1×, 2.5× and 10×) at two sampling times (24 and 36h). To test for treatment effects, we analyzed the expression of myoD and pax7 as well as two target genes of the Notch signaling pathway, hey2 and her6. In induced myogenic cells, the lowest and middle anthocyanidin doses caused significantly greater expression of myoD after 24h of treatment compared to control. A significantly higher expression of pax7 in cells exposed to either anthocyanidin treatment during 36h compared was observed. Similarly, the pax7/myoD ratio was significantly lower in cells exposed to the lowest anthocyanidin doses during 24h compared to control. No significant effect of anthocyanidin treatments on the expression of hey2 and her6 at either sampling point was detected. In non-induced cells, we observed no effect of anthocyanidins on myoD expression and significant down-regulation on pax7 expression in cells exposed to either anthocyanidin mixture concentrations after 24 and 36h of treatment compared to control. Further, the pax7/myoD ratio was significantly lower in cells exposed to either anthocyanidin doses at both sampling time. In non-induced cells, the highest anthocyanidin dose provoked significantly greater expression of hey2 after 24h of treatment compared to control. We detected no such effect in non-induced cells exposed to the lowest and middle anthocyanidin doses during 24h of treatment. The expression of her6 was unaffected by anthocyanidin treatments at either sampling time or doses compared to control. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that anthocyanidins modulate specific components of the myogenic programming in fish, thereby potentially affecting somatic growth in fish fed

  10. Experimental study of millimeter wave-induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes.

    Wu, Guang-Wen; Liu, Xian-Xiang; Wu, Ming-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Yan; Chen, Wen-Lie; Lin, Ru-Hui; Lin, Jiu-Mao

    2009-04-01

    Low power millimeter wave irradiation is widely used in clinical medicine. We describe the effects of this treatment on cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and attempted to identify the underlying mechanism. Cells cultured using the whole marrow attachment culture method proliferated dispersedly or in clones. Flow cytometric analyses showed that the MSCs were CD90 positive, but negative for CD45. The negative control group (A) did not express detectable levels of Cbfa1 or Sox9 mRNA at any time point, while cells in the millimeter wave-induced groups (B and C) increasingly expressed both genes after the fourth day post-induction. Statistical analysis showed that starting on the fourth day post-induction, there were very significant differences in the expression of Cbfa1 and Sox9 mRNA between groups A and B as well as A and C at any given time point, between treated groups B and C after identical periods of induction, and within each treated group at different induction times. Transition electron microscopy analysis showed that the rough endoplasmic reticulum of cells in the induced groups was richer and more developed than in cells of the negative control group, and that the shape of cells shifted from long-spindle to near ellipse. Toluidine blue staining revealed heterochromia in the cytoplasm and extracellular matrix of cells in the induced groups, whereas no obvious heterochromia was observed in negative control cells. Induced cells also exhibited positive immunohistochemical staining of collagen II, in contrast to the negative controls. These results show that millimeter wave treatment successfully induced MSCs to differentiate as chondrocytes and the extent of differentiation increased with treatment duration. Our findings suggest that millimeter wave irradiation can be employed as a novel non-drug inducing method for the differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes. PMID:19288021

  11. B-Raf inhibitors induce epithelial differentiation in BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer cells.

    Herr, Ricarda; Köhler, Martin; Andrlová, Hana; Weinberg, Florian; Möller, Yvonne; Halbach, Sebastian; Lutz, Lisa; Mastroianni, Justin; Klose, Martin; Bittermann, Nicola; Kowar, Silke; Zeiser, Robert; Olayioye, Monilola A; Lassmann, Silke; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Brummer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    BRAF mutations are associated with aggressive, less-differentiated and therapy-resistant colorectal carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms for these correlations remain unknown. To understand how oncogenic B-Raf contributes to carcinogenesis, in particular to aspects other than cellular proliferation and survival, we generated three isogenic human colorectal carcinoma cell line models in which we can dynamically modulate the expression of the B-Raf(V600E) oncoprotein. Doxycyclin-inducible knockdown of endogenous B-Raf(V600E) decreases cellular motility and invasion in conventional and three-dimensional (3D) culture, whereas it promotes cell-cell contacts and induces various hallmarks of differentiated epithelia. Importantly, all these effects are recapitulated by B-Raf (PLX4720, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib) or MEK inhibitors (trametinib). Surprisingly, loss of B-Raf(V600E) in HT29 xenografts does not only stall tumor growth, but also induces glandular structures with marked expression of CDX2, a tumor-suppressor and master transcription factor of intestinal differentiation. By performing the first transcriptome profiles of PLX4720-treated 3D cultures of HT29 and Colo-205 cells, we identify several upregulated genes linked to epithelial differentiation and effector functions, such as claudin-1, a Cdx-2 target gene encoding a critical tight junction component. Thereby, we provide a mechanism for the clinically observed correlation between mutant BRAF and the loss of Cdx-2 and claudin-1. PLX4720 also suppressed several metastasis-associated transcripts that have not been implicated as targets, effectors or potential biomarkers of oncogenic B-Raf signaling so far. Together, we identify a novel facet of clinically applied B-Raf or MEK inhibitors by showing that they promote cellular adhesion and differentiation of colorectal carcinoma cells. PMID:25381152

  12. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 function also as modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    Hidekazu Kuwayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the early stages of development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, chemotaxis toward cAMP plays a pivotal role in organizing discrete cells into a multicellular structure. In this process, a series of signaling molecules, such as G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for cAMP, phosphatidylinositol metabolites, and cyclic nucleotides, function as the signal transducers for controlling dynamics of cytoskeleton. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 (DIF-1 and DIF-2 were originally identified as the factors (chlorinated alkylphenones that induce Dictyostelium stalk cell differentiation, but it remained unknown whether the DIFs had any other physiologic functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further elucidate the functions of DIFs, in the present study we investigated their effects on chemotaxis under various conditions. Quite interestingly, in shallow cAMP gradients, DIF-1 suppressed chemotaxis whereas DIF-2 promoted it greatly. Analyses with various mutants revealed that DIF-1 may inhibit chemotaxis, at least in part, via GbpB (a phosphodiesterase and a decrease in the intracellular cGMP concentration ([cGMP](i. DIF-2, by contrast, may enhance chemotaxis, at least in part, via RegA (another phosphodiesterase and an increase in [cGMP](i. Using null mutants for DimA and DimB, the transcription factors that are required for DIF-dependent prestalk differentiation, we also showed that the mechanisms for the modulation of chemotaxis by DIFs differ from those for the induction of cell differentiation by DIFs, at least in part. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DIF-1 and DIF-2 function as negative and positive modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report in any organism of physiologic modulators (small molecules for chemotaxis having differentiation-inducing activity.

  13. Differential Costs of Two Distinct Resistance Mechanisms Induced by Different Herbivore Species in Arabidopsis.

    Onkokesung, Nawaporn; Reichelt, Michael; van Doorn, Arjen; Schuurink, Robert C; Dicke, Marcel

    2016-02-01

    Plants respond to herbivory with the induction of resistance, mediated by distinct phytohormonal signaling pathways and their interactions. Phloem feeders are known to induce plant resistance via the salicylic acid pathway, whereas biting-chewing herbivores induce plant resistance mainly via the jasmonate pathway. Here, we show that a specialist caterpillar (biting-chewing herbivore) and a specialist aphid (phloem feeder) differentially induce resistance against Pieris brassicae caterpillars in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Caterpillar feeding induces resistance through the jasmonate signaling pathway that is associated with the induction of kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside, whereas aphid feeding induces resistance via a novel mechanism involving sinapoyl malate. The role of sinapoyl malate is confirmed through the use of a mutant compromised in the biosynthesis of this compound. Caterpillar-induced resistance is associated with a lower cost in terms of plant growth reduction than aphid-induced resistance. A strong constitutive resistance against P. brassicae caterpillars in combination with a strong growth attenuation in plants of a transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertion mutant of WRKY70 (wrky70) suggest that the WRKY70 transcription factor, a regulator of downstream responses mediated by jasmonate-salicylic acid signaling cross talk, is involved in the negative regulation of caterpillar resistance and in the tradeoff between growth and defense. In conclusion, different mechanisms of herbivore-induced resistance come with different costs, and a functional WRKY70 transcription factor is required for the induction of low-cost resistance. PMID:26603653

  14. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Highlights: ► iPS-derived cells express myostatin and its receptor upon myoblast differentiation. ► Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by inhibiting MyoD and Myo5a induction. ► Silencing of myostatin promotes differentiation of human iPS cells into myoblasts. -- Abstract: Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF-8), regulates proliferation of muscle satellite cells, and suppresses differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes via down-regulation of key myogenic differentiation factors including MyoD. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled generation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells, but it remains to be clarified whether myostatin is also involved in regulation of artificial differentiation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells that were induced to differentiate into myoblasts expressed myostatin and its receptor during the differentiation. An addition of recombinant human myostatin (rhMyostatin) suppressed induction of MyoD and Myo5a, resulting in significant suppression of myoblast differentiation. The rhMyostatin treatment also inhibited proliferation of the cells at a later phase of differentiation. RNAi-mediated silencing of myostatin promoted differentiation of human iPS-derived embryoid body (EB) cells into myoblasts. These results strongly suggest that myostatin plays an important role in regulation of myoblast differentiation from iPS cells of human origin. The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases

  15. Intercellular Communication between Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Induces Local Osteoclast Differentiation: a Mechanism Underlying Cholesteatoma-Induced Bone Destruction.

    Iwamoto, Yoriko; Nishikawa, Keizo; Imai, Ryusuke; Furuya, Masayuki; Uenaka, Maki; Ohta, Yumi; Morihana, Tetsuo; Itoi-Ochi, Saori; Penninger, Josef M; Katayama, Ichiro; Inohara, Hidenori; Ishii, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance in activity between bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Shifting the balance toward bone resorption causes osteolytic bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Osteoclast differentiation is regulated by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), which, under some pathological conditions, is produced by T and B lymphocytes and synoviocytes. However, the mechanism underlying bone destruction in other diseases is little understood. Bone destruction caused by cholesteatoma, an epidermal cyst in the middle ear resulting from hyperproliferation of keratinizing squamous epithelium, can lead to lethal complications. In this study, we succeeded in generating a model for cholesteatoma, epidermal cyst-like tissue, which has the potential for inducing osteoclastogenesis in mice. Furthermore, an in vitro coculture system composed of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and osteoclast precursors was used to demonstrate that keratinocytes stimulate osteoclast differentiation through the induction of RANKL in fibroblasts. Thus, this study demonstrates that intercellular communication between keratinocytes and fibroblasts is involved in the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, which may provide the molecular basis of a new therapeutic strategy for cholesteatoma-induced bone destruction. PMID:27001307

  16. Introduction of v-Ha-ras oncogene induces differentiation of cultured human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an endocrine tumor of the thyroid C cells that expresses high levels of the neuroendocrine peptide hormone calcitonin. During tumor progression in the host, there is an apparent loss of differentiation in MTC cells that involves a consistent decrease in calcitonin content of the tumor cells associated with decreased expression of the calcitonin gene and/or changes in a mRNA alternative-processing pattern away from that characteristic of the parent thyroid C cell. The authors now report that introduction of the viral Harvey ras (v-Ha-ras) oncogene into cultured human MTC cells can reverse such changes in gene expression and can induce endocrine differentiation of the tumor cells. The expression of v-Ha-ras is associated with decreased cellular proliferation and DNA synthesis. There is a marked increase in the number of cytoplasmic secretory granules that are a classic feature of differentiated thyroid C cells. v-Ha-ras expression induces increased expression of the calcitonin gene and the processing of the primary gene transcript is shifted to favor calcitonin mRNA rather than calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) mRNA production. These studies with cultured human MTC cells provide a model system to study the role of Ha-ras and related genes in neuroendocrine differentiation. The findings suggest an important approach for identifying genes in solid tumors whose altered expression may play a role in the impaired maturational capacity characteristic of cancer cells during tumor progression

  17. Chronic heat-shock treatment driven differentiation induces apoptosis in Leishmania donovani.

    Raina, Puneet; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigates the role of apoptosis in the regulation of cell numbers of Leishmania donovani during the in vitro differentiation of promastigote stage to amastigote stage in axenic conditions. We report that apoptosis is induced in Leishmania donovani due to chronic heat-shock treatment of 37 ( degrees )C that also mediates the differentiation of promastigotes to amastigotes. This is characterized by the fragmentation of DNA, blebbing in the parasite cell membrane, nuclear condensation, formation of preapoptotic bodies and involvement of Ca(++) in the apoptotic process. The flowcytometric analysis shows an early and steep rise in percentage apoptotic nuclei till 48-hour stage of differentiation and then a gradual decline, suggesting synergistic action of Ca(++) ATPase and probably Hsp70. Hsp70 might be rescuing cells from apoptosis in the death signaling pathway. Incubation of the culture with Ca(++) chelator EGTA (1 mM) brings down the percentage of apoptotic nuclei considerably showing thereby that calcium is needed for the process of cell death here that occurs by apoptosis. The survival of the infective individuals appears to be decided by the parasite in the early stages of its differentiation. Our studies show the potential of the physiological temperature of 37 ( degrees )C in inducing apoptosis in Leishmania donovani and the therapeutic use it can be put to. PMID:16718376

  18. Differential diagnosis of particular interest - Osteoarthropathy induced by haemochromatosis; Die interessante Differentialdiagnose - die Haemochromatose-Osteoarthropathie

    Kittner, T. [Universitaetsklinikum ``Carl Gustaf Carus``, TU Dresden, Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik (Germany); Nitzsche, H. [Universitaetsklinikum ``Carl Gustaf Carus``, TU Dresden, Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik (Germany); Klengel, S. [Universitaetsklinikum ``Carl Gustaf Carus``, TU Dresden, Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    Two cases have been selected to explain the efficiency of X-radiography and MRI and the relevant diagnostic images leading to the diagnosis of haemochromatosis-induced osteoarthropathy of the hand joints, and to possible differential diagnoses. Clinical as well as paraclinical aspects are included in the report. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand zweier Fallbeispiele werden das konventionell-radiologische sowie kernspintomographische Erscheinungsbild der Haemochromatose-Osteoarthropathie der Handgelenke sowie moegliche Differentialdiagnosen beschrieben. Klinische sowie paraklinische Aspekte finden gleichfalls Beachtung. (orig.)

  19. Selective differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells induced by recombinant human interleukins.

    Saito, H; Hatake, K.; Dvorak, A. M.; Leiferman, K M; Donnenberg, A D; Arai, N.; Ishizaka, K; Ishizaka, T

    1988-01-01

    Effects of recombinant human interleukins on hematopoiesis were explored by using suspension cultures of mononuclear cells of human umbilical-cord blood and bone marrow. The results showed that interleukin 5 induced the selective differentiation and proliferation of eosinophils. After 3 weeks in culture with interleukin 5, essentially all nonadherent cells in both bone marrow and cord blood cell cultures became eosinophilic myelocytes. Culture of the same cells with interleukin 4 resulted in ...

  20. Sad but true? - How induced emotional states differentially bias self-rated Big Five personality traits

    Querengässer, Jan; Schindler, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Background The Big Five are seen as stable personality traits. This study hypothesized that their measurement via self-ratings is differentially biased by participants’ emotions. The relationship between habitual emotions and personality should be mirrored in a patterned influence of emotional states upon personality scores. Methods We experimentally induced emotional states and compared baseline Big Five scores of ninety-eight German participants (67 female; mean age 22.2) to thei...

  1. Latexin is involved in bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced chondrocyte differentiation

    Latexin is the only known carboxypeptidase A inhibitor in mammals. We previously demonstrated that BMP-2 significantly induced latexin expression in Runx2-deficient mesenchymal cells (RD-C6 cells), during chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated latexin expression in the skeleton and its role in chondrocyte differentiation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes expressed latexin during skeletogenesis and bone fracture repair. In the early phase of bone fracture, latexin mRNA expression was dramatically upregulated. BMP-2 upregulated the expression of the mRNAs of latexin, Col2a1, and the gene encoding aggrecan (Agc1) in a micromass culture of C3H10T1/2 cells. Overexpression of latexin additively stimulated the BMP-2-induced expression of the mRNAs of Col2a, Agc1, and Col10a1. BMP-2 treatment upregulated Sox9 expression, and Sox9 stimulated the promoter activity of latexin. These results indicate that latexin is involved in BMP-2-induced chondrocyte differentiation and plays an important role in skeletogenesis and skeletal regeneration.

  2. Differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells induced by liver tissue homogenate.

    Xing, X K; Feng, H G; Yuan, Z Q

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of inducing the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro using Sprague Dawley rats, as a model of hepatocyte generation for cell transplantation. BMSCs were isolated and grown using the adherent method and exposed to 5 or 10% liver tissue homogenate, before being collected for analysis after 0, 7, 14, and 21 days. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were employed to detect the liver-specific markers a-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin (ALB). Supernatant urea content was also measured to verify that differentiation had been induced. After 7 days in the presence of 10% liver tissue homogenate, BMSCs demonstrated hepatocyte-like morphological characteristics, and with prolonged culture time, liver-specific markers were gradually produced at levels indicating cell maturation. AFP expression peaked at 14 days then began to decrease, while both urea and ALB levels increased with induction time. Overall, marker expression in the 5% homogenate group was less than or equal to the 10% group at each time point. Thus, in a rat model, liver tissue homogenate obtained from partial hepatectomy can induce the differentiation of BMSCs into hepatocyte-like cells. This method is simple, feasible, and has remarkable real-world application potential. PMID:27525848

  3. Mutated recombinant human glucagon-like peptide-1 induces differentiation of PC12 cells

    Jin Wu; Lan Zhang; Zhongwei Sun; Gang Huang; Jing Huang; Bing Mei

    2011-01-01

    "Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its long-acting analogues have neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties and are emerging as potential treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Its short half-life has limited the application of GLP-1 in the clinic. We generated a mutated form of human GLP-1 (mGLP-1) using site-directed mutagenesis and gene recombination techniques, and found that these modifications significantly prolonged the biological half-life of GLP-1 compared with native GLP-1 (nGLP-1). This study investigated the role of mGLP-1 on inducing PC12 cell differentiation. mGLP-1 induced PC12 cell differentiation with neurite outgrowth and increased the expression of growth-associated protein-43 and neuronal class III ?-tubulin, and significantly increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate level. No significant difference was found between mGLP-1 and nGLP-1. The results indicate that mGLP-1 activates the GLP-1 receptor, induces PC12 cell differentiation, and has neurotrophic effects.

  4. Differential interferometry for measurement of density fluctuations and fluctuation-induced transport (invited)

    Differential interferometry employs two parallel laser beams with a small spatial offset (less than beam width) and frequency difference (1-2 MHz) using common optics and a single mixer for a heterodyne detection. The differential approach allows measurement of the electron density gradient, its fluctuations, as well as the equilibrium density distribution. This novel interferometry technique is immune to fringe skip errors and is particularly useful in harsh plasma environments. Accurate calibration of the beam spatial offset, accomplished by use of a rotating dielectric wedge, is required to enable broad application of this approach. Differential interferometry has been successfully used on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch plasma to directly measure fluctuation-induced transport along with equilibrium density profile evolution during pellet injection. In addition, by combining differential and conventional interferometry, both linear and nonlinear terms of the electron density fluctuation energy equation can be determined, thereby allowing quantitative investigation of the origin of the density fluctuations. The concept, calibration, and application of differential interferometry are presented.

  5. Differential effects of chronic alcohol administration to rats on the activation of aromatic amines to mutagens in the Ames test.

    Steele, C M; Ioannides, C

    1986-05-01

    Male Wistar albino rats were maintained on alcohol-containing liquid diets for 4 weeks. Hepatic post-mitochondrial preparations derived from these animals were more efficient than control in activating 4-aminobiphenyl and 2-aminofluorene to mutagens in the Ames test. The alcohol-induced enhancement in mutagenicity was not inhibited by dimethylsulphoxide indicating that the generation of hydroxyl radicals is not involved. The activation of 2-naphthylamine was not affected by the treatment with alcohol but the mutagenicities of 2-aminoanthracene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene were inhibited. The same treatment markedly increased hepatic microsomal aniline p-hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase activities and to a lesser extent benzphetamine N-demethylase and microsomal levels of total cytochromes P-450. It is concluded that chronic alcohol administration to rats modulates the metabolic activation of pre-carcinogens to their reactive intermediates presumably by causing the redistribution of cytochrome P-450 isozymes. PMID:3009048

  6. Ultraviolet radiation B induces differentiation and protein kinase C in normal human epidermal keratinocytes

    Mid-wave ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-320 nm) is highly efficient at inducing erythema, pyrimidine dimers in DNA, oncogene expression and initiation of cutaneous tumors. These UVB-induced responses of epidermal cells have been correlated with the direct effects of UVB on DNA. However, UVB has also been shown to have biologic effects at the cellular level that appear to mimic some of the membrane-associated effects produced by phorbol ester tumor promoters such as 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). For example, we have previously shown that both UVB irradiation and TPA treatment are followed by release of arachidonic acid and a rapid, dose-dependent inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding. TPA generates cellular responses through activation of a phospholipid-dependent, calcium-sensitive protein kinase, protein kinase C (PKC). The primary goal of the studies described here was to compare the cellular effects of TPA with those of UVB with special regard to PKC and keratinocyte growth control, using normal human epidermal keratinocytes. The results obtained showed that both TPA and UVB radiation induced differentiation in normal human keratinocytes. UVB radiation, however, increased both cytosolic and membrane-associated levels of PKC, in contrast to TPA, which increased PKC primarily in the membrane fraction. PCK is probably not the initial chromophore or target molecule of UVB, but because activation of PKC has been shown to be essential for keratinocyte differentiation, differentiation induced by UVB may be caused by activation of PKC by UVB-induced release of diacylglycerol or arachidonic acid. (au) 25 refs

  7. Uremic Toxins Enhance Statin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells

    Hitoshi Uchiyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis is considerably increased in statin users with end-stage renal failure (ESRF. Uremic toxins, which accumulate in patients with ESRF, exert cytotoxic effects that are mediated by various mechanisms. Therefore, accumulation of uremic toxins might increase statin-induced cytotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of four uremic toxins—hippuric acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate, indole-3-acetic acid, and 3-indoxyl sulfate—on statin-induced myopathy. Differentiated rhabdomyosarcoma cells were pre-treated with the uremic toxins for seven days, and then the cells were treated with pravastatin or simvastatin. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by viability assays and flow cytometry. Pre-treatment with uremic toxins increased statin- but not cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.05 vs. untreated. In addition, the pre-treatment increased statin-induced apoptosis, which is one of the cytotoxic factors (p < 0.05 vs. untreated. However, mevalonate, farnesol, and geranylgeraniol reversed the effects of uremic toxins and lowered statin-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.05 vs. untreated. These results demonstrate that uremic toxins enhance statin-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity. The mechanism underlying this effect might be associated with small G-protein geranylgeranylation. In conclusion, the increased severity of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with ESRF is likely due to the accumulation of uremic toxins.

  8. Corticosteroids reverse cytokine-induced block of survival and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from rats

    Marx Romy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is a frequent complication of preterm delivery. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α released from astrocytes and microglia activated by infection or ischemia have previously been shown to impair survival and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitors and could thus be considered as potential factors contributing to the generation of this disease. The first goal of the present study was to investigate whether exposure of oligodendrocyte precursors to these cytokines arrests the maturation of ion currents in parallel to its effects on myelin proteins and morphological maturation. Secondly, in the search for agents, that can protect differentiating oligodendrocyte precursor cells from cytokine-induced damage we investigated effects of coapplications of corticosteroids with proinflammatory cytokines on the subsequent survival and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Methods To exclude influences from factors released from other cell types purified cultures of oligodendrocyte precursors were exposed to cytokines and/or steroids and allowed to differentiate for further 6 days in culture. Changes in membrane surface were investigated with capacitance recordings and Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy. Na+- and K+- currents were investigated using whole cell patch clamp recordings. The expression of myelin specific proteins was investigated using western blots and the precursor cells were identified using immunostaining with A2B5 antibodies. Results Surviving IFN-γ and TNF-α treated cells continued to maintain voltage-activated Na+- and K+ currents characteristic for the immature cells after 6 days in differentiation medium. Corticosterone, dihydrocorticosterone and, most prominently dexamethasone, counteracted the deleterious effects of IFN-γ and TNF-α on cell survival, A2B5-immunostaining and expression of myelin basic

  9. Activation of JNKs is essential for BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Yan-fang Zhao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although BMP9 is highly capable of promoting osteogenicdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs, the molecularmechanism involved remains to be fully elucidated. Here, weexplore the possible involvement and detail role of JNKs (c-JunN-terminal kinases in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiationof MSCs. It was found that BMP9 stimulated the activation ofJNKs in MSCs. BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation ofMSCs was dramatically inhibited by JNKs inhibitor SP600125.Moreover, BMP9-activated Smads signaling was decreased bySP600125 treatment in MSCs. The effects of inhibitor arereproduced with adenoviruses expressing siRNA targeted JNKs.Taken together, our results revealed that JNKs was activated inBMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. What ismost noteworthy, however, is that inhibition of JNKs activityresulted in reduction of BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiationof MSCs, implying that activation of JNKs is essential forBMP9 osteoinductive activity. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(8:422-427

  10. Dendritic cells enhance UHMWPE wear particle-induced osteoclast differentiation of macrophages.

    Cang, Dingwei; Guo, Kaijin; Zhao, Fengchao

    2015-10-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been widely used in large joint replacement. Osteolysis induced by the UHMWPE wear particles is one of the main causes of replacement failure. This study aims to elucidate whether dendritic cells play a role in UHMWPE particle-induced osteolysis. An in vitro Raw 264.7 and DC 2.4 coculture system was employed to examine the effects of dendritic cells on the inflammatory and osteoclastogenic responses of Raw 264.7 toward UHMWPE particles. The expression of cytokines, NF-κB, and osteoclast marker genes was analyzed by ELISA, western blot, or quantitative PCR. The osteoclast differentiation was measured by TRAP staining and flow cytometry. UHMWPE particles induced Raw 264.7 cells to differentiate into osteoclasts, which was enhanced by coculturing with DC 2.4 cells. DC 2.4 cells augmented UHMWPE particle-elicited activation of NF-κB signaling, higher levels of TNF-α and MCP-1, and an increased expression of MMP-9, Calcr, and Ctsk, though DC 2.4 coculture alone did not significantly cause the aforementioned changes. These results suggest that dendritic cells, among other immune cells recruited by UHMWPE particle induced inflammation, could further exacerbate inflammation and osteolysis. PMID:25808788

  11. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong, E-mail: haedong@hnu.kr

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  12. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  13. Dopamine inhibits proliferation, induces differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells

    HE Qun; YUAN Lin-bo

    2007-01-01

    Background Dopamine exerts its effects mainly in nervous system through D1, D2 or D3 receptors. There are few reports dealing with the effects of dopamine on leukaemia cells. However, some dopamine agonists or antagonists do show biological effects on some types of leukaemia cells. Here, we report the effects of dopamine on the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells.Methods Proliferation was determined by MTT assay and cell counting both in liquid and semisolid cultures.Differentiation was verified by morphology, benzidine staining and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was checked by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. The two groups were untreated group and treated group (dopamine 10-9 mol/L-10-4mol/L).Results In liquid culture, MTT assay and colony assay, dopamine inhibited proliferation of K562 cells. Inhibition rate was 29.28% at 10-6 mol/L and 36.10% at 10-5 mol/L after culture for 5 days in MTT assay. In benzidine staining and CD71 expression, dopamine induced K562 cells toward erythroid differentiation by increased 155% at 10-6 mol/L and by 171% at 10-5 mol/L after culture for 5 days in benzidine staining. In Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry,dopamine induced K562 cells toward apoptosis. The sub G1 peak stained by PI was 14.23% at 10-4 mol/L dopamine after culture for 3 days compared with the control (0.81%) in flow cytometry.Conclusion Dopamine inhibites proliferation and induces both differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells.

  14. Isolation, Culture and Induced Differentiation of Fetal Porcine Islet Derived Pancreatic Stem Cell

    FENG Ruo-peng; ZHANG Hui-ru; WANG Yun; QIAO Hai; ZHAO Ting; SHEN Wen-zheng; DOU Zhong-ying

    2007-01-01

    To isolate and culture the porcine pancreatic stem cells and investigate their function, the fetal porcine pancreatic stem cells were isolated by the method of suspending plus adhering culture. The isolated cells were then identified by irnmunohistochemical staining, and their culture viability measured through the MTT method in vitro. This induced them to differentiate into endocrine cells and detect their function. The isolated IPSCS did not express nestin, but expressed CK-19, a marker of ductal epithelia cells and oc-actin, a smooth muscle marker, demonstrating the growth characteristics of ES-like cells, and strong proliferative ability, after 18 passages. They could excrete insulin, and showed ultrastructure changes after being induced. Porcine pancreatic stem cells can be isolated by this method, induced to form islet-like clusters, and can secret insulin.

  15. ESAT6-induced IFNgamma and CXCL9 can differentiate severity of tuberculosis.

    Zahra Hasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protective responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are dependent on appropriate T cell and macrophage activation. Mycobacterial antigen six kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT6 and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10 can detect M. tuberculosis specific IFNgamma responses. However, most studies have been performed in non-endemic regions and to study pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. We have studied ESAT6 and CFP10 induced cytokine and chemokines responses in PTB and extrapulmonary (EPul TB. METHODOLOGY: IFNgamma, IL10, CXCL9 and CCL2 responses were determined using an ex vivo whole blood assay system in PTB (n = 30 and EPulTB patients with limited (LNTB, n = 24 or severe (SevTB, n = 22 disease, and in healthy endemic controls (ECs. Responses to bacterial LPS were also determined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ESAT6- and CFP10-induced IFNgamma was comparable between ECs and TB patients. Both ESAT6- and CFP10-induced IFNgamma secretion was greater in LNTB than PTB. ESAT6-induced CXCL9 was greater in EPulTB as compared with PTB, with an increase in SevTB as compared with LNTB. CFP10-induced CCL2 was higher in PTB than LNTB patients. LPS-stimulated CXCL9 was greatest in SevTB and LPS-induced CCL2 was increased in PTB as compared with LNTB patients. A positive correlation between ESAT6-induced IFNgamma and CXCL9 was present in all TB patients, but IFNgamma and CCL2 was only correlated in LNTB. ESAT-induced CCL2 and CXCL9 were significantly associated in LNTB while correlation in response to LPS was only present in SevTB. CONCLUSIONS: ESAT6 induced IFNgamma and CXCL9 can differentiate between limited and severe TB infections.

  16. A hybrid microfluidic system for regulation of neural differentiation in induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Hesari, Zahra; Soleimani, Massoud; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Sharifdini, Meysam; Nadri, Samad; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Zare, Mehrak; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2016-06-01

    Controlling cellular orientation, proliferation, and differentiation is valuable in designing organ replacements and directing tissue regeneration. In the present study, we developed a hybrid microfluidic system to produce a dynamic microenvironment by placing aligned PDMS microgrooves on surface of biodegradable polymers as physical guidance cues for controlling the neural differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The neuronal differentiation capacity of cultured hiPSCs in the microfluidic system and other control groups was investigated using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and immunocytochemistry. The functionally of differentiated hiPSCs inside hybrid system's scaffolds was also evaluated on the rat hemisected spinal cord in acute phase. Implanted cell's fate was examined using tissue freeze section and the functional recovery was evaluated according to the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Our results confirmed the differentiation of hiPSCs to neuronal cells on the microfluidic device where the expression of neuronal-specific genes was significantly higher compared to those cultured on the other systems such as plain tissue culture dishes and scaffolds without fluidic channels. Although survival and integration of implanted hiPSCs did not lead to a significant functional recovery, we believe that combination of fluidic channels with nanofiber scaffolds provides a great microenvironment for neural tissue engineering, and can be used as a powerful tool for in situ monitoring of differentiation potential of various kinds of stem cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1534-1543, 2016. PMID:26914600

  17. Differential microRNA expression in aristolochic acid-induced upper urothelial tract cancers ex vivo.

    Tao, Le; Zeng, Yigang; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zhihong; Shen, Bing; Ge, Jifu; Liu, Yong; Guo, Yifeng; Qiu, Jianxin

    2015-11-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a carcinogenic, mutagenic and nephrotoxic compound commonly isolated from members of the plant family of Aristolochiaceae (such as Aristolochia and Asarum) and used in Chinese herbal medicine. Use of AA and AA‑containing plants causes chronic kidney disease (CKD) and upper urinary tract carcinoma (UUC); however, the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. miRNAs regulate a number of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. This study explored differentially expressed miRNAs between AA‑induced upper urothelial tract cancer (AAN‑UUC) and non‑AAN‑UUC tissues. Patients with AAN‑UUC and non‑AAN‑UUC (n=20/group) were recruited in the present study. Five tissue samples from each group were used for miRNA microarray profiling and the rest of the tissue samples were subjected to reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis including seven selected miRNAs for confirmation. A total of 29 miRNAs were differentially expressed between AAN‑UUC and non‑AAN‑UUC tissues (Pontology analyses predicted the functions and targeted genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs, i.e. Akt3, FGFR3, PSEN1, VEGFa and AR. Subsequently, expression of the selected differentially expressed miRNAs (Hsa‑miR‑4795‑5p, Hsa‑miR‑488, Hsa‑miR‑4784, Hsa‑miR‑330, Hsa‑miR‑3916, Hsa‑miR‑4274 and Hsa‑miR‑181c) was validated in another set of tissue samples. A total of 29 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed between AAN‑UUC and non‑AAN‑UUC tissues and these miRNA target genes in FGFR3 and Akt pathways, which regulate cell growth and tumor progression, respectively. PMID:26397152

  18. Effect of amorphous silica nanoparticles on in vitro RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in murine macrophages

    Nagano Kazuya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSP have been used as a polishing agent and/or as a remineralization promoter for teeth in the oral care field. The present study investigates the effects of nSP on osteoclast differentiation and the relationship between particle size and these effects. Our results revealed that nSP exerted higher cytotoxicity in macrophage cells compared with submicron-sized silica particles. However, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity and the number of osteoclast cells (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells were not changed by nSP treatment in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL at doses that did not induce cytotoxicity by silica particles. These results indicated that nSP did not cause differentiation of osteoclasts. Collectively, the results suggested that nanosilica exerts no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells, although a detailed mechanistic examination of the nSP70-mediated cytotoxic effect is needed.

  19. TBTC induces adipocyte differentiation in human bone marrow long term culture

    Organotins are widely used in agriculture and the chemical industry, causing persistent and widespread pollution. Organotins may affect the brain, liver and immune system and eventually human health. Recently, it has been shown that tri-butyltin (TBT) interacts with nuclear receptors PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) and RXR (retinoid x receptor) leading to adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3 cell line. Since adipocytes are known to influence haematopoiesis, for instance through the expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules, it was considered of interest to further study the adipocyte-stimulating effect of TBTC in human bone marrow cultures. Nile Red spectrofluorimetric analysis showed a significant increase of adipocytes in TBTC-treated cultures after 14 days of long term culture. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed the high expression of the specific adipocyte differentiation marker aP2 (adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein). PPARγ, but not RXR, mRNA was increased after 24 h and 48 h exposure. TBTC also induced a decrease in a number of chemokines, interleukins, and growth factors. Also the expression of leptin, a hormone involved in haematopoiesis, was down regulated by TBTC treatment. It therefore appears that TBTC induced adipocyte differentiation, whilst reducing a number of haematopoietic factors. This study indicates that TBTC may interfere in the haematopoietic process through an alteration of the stromal layer and cytokine homeostasis

  20. Statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells

    The beneficial effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) beyond cholesterol lowering involve their direct actions on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the effects of statins on phenotypic modulation of VSMCs are unknown. We herein show that simvastatin (Sm) and atorvastatin (At) inhibited DNA synthesis in human aortic VSMCs dose-dependently, while cell toxicity was not observed below the concentration of 1 μM of Sm or 100 nM of At. Stimulating proliferative VSMCs with Sm or At induced the expression of SM-α-actin and SM-MHC, highly specific markers of differentiated phenotype. Sm up-regulated the binding activity of GATA-6 to SM-MHC GATA site and activated the transfected SM-MHC promoter in proliferative VSMCs, while mutating the GATA-6 binding site abolished this activation. Geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (10 μM), an inhibitor of Rho family proteins, abolished the statin-mediated induction of the differentiated phenotype in VSMCs. These findings suggest that statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated VSMCs

  1. Paracrine sonic hedgehog signalling by prostate cancer cells induces osteoblast differentiation

    Iannaccone Philip

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sonic hedgehog (Shh and components of its signalling pathway have been identified in human prostate carcinoma and increased levels of their expression appear to correlate with disease progression and metastasis. The mechanism through which Shh signalling could promote metastasis in bone, the most common site for prostate carcinoma metastasis, has not yet been investigated. The present study determined the effect of Shh signalling between prostate cancer cells and pre-osteoblasts on osteoblast differentiation, a requisite process for new bone formation that characterizes prostate carcinoma metastasis. Results LNCaP human prostate cancer cells modified to overexpress Shh (designated LNShh cells and MC3T3 mouse pre-osteoblasts were maintained as mixed populations within the same culture chamber. In this non-conventional mixed culture system, LNShh cells upregulated the expression of Shh target genes Gli1 and Patched 1 (Ptc1 in MC3T3 cells and this was inhibited by cyclopamine, a specific chemical inhibitor of hedgehog signalling. Concomitantly, MC3T3 cells exhibited time-dependent decreased cell proliferation, upregulated alkaline phosphatase Akp2 gene expression, and increased alkaline phosphatase activity indicative of early phase osteoblast differentiation. LNShh cell-induced differentiation was inhibited in MC3T3 cells stably transfected with a dominant negative form of Gli1, a transcription factor that mediates Shh signalling. Interestingly, LNShh cells did not significantly increase the endogenous expression of the osteoblast differentiation transcription factor Runx2 and its target genes osteocalcin and osteopontin. Consistent with these results, exogenous Shh peptide did not upregulate Runx2 expression in MC3T3 cells. However, Runx2 levels were increased in MC3T3 cells by ascorbic acid, a known stimulator of osteoblast differentiation. Conclusion Altogether, these data demonstrate that Shh-expressing prostate cancer

  2. Structurally distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce differential transcriptional responses in developing zebrafish

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components of fossil fuels and by-products of combustion. These multi-ring chemicals differentially activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in a structurally dependent manner, and induce toxicity via both AHR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PAH exposure is known to induce developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos, and recent studies have shown cardiac toxicity induced by compounds with low AHR affinity. Unraveling the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms of PAH toxicity is essential for understanding the hazard posed by complex PAH mixtures present in the environment. We analyzed transcriptional responses to PAH exposure in zebrafish embryos exposed to benz(a)anthracene (BAA), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and pyrene (PYR) at concentrations that induced developmental malformations by 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Whole genome microarray analysis of mRNA expression at 24 and 48 hpf identified genes that were differentially regulated over time and in response to the three PAH structures. PAH body burdens were analyzed at both time points using GC–MS, and demonstrated differences in PAH uptake into the embryos. This was important for discerning dose-related differences from those that represented unique molecular mechanisms. While BAA misregulated the least number of transcripts, it caused strong induction of cyp1a and other genes known to be downstream of the AHR, which were not induced by the other two PAHs. Analysis of functional roles of misregulated genes and their predicted regulatory transcription factors also distinguished the BAA response from regulatory networks disrupted by DBT and PYR exposure. These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures. - Highlights: • Defined global mRNA expression

  3. Structurally distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce differential transcriptional responses in developing zebrafish

    Goodale, Britton C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Tilton, Susan C. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Corvi, Margaret M.; Wilson, Glenn R. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Janszen, Derek B. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Anderson, Kim A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: tanguay.robert@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, The Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components of fossil fuels and by-products of combustion. These multi-ring chemicals differentially activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in a structurally dependent manner, and induce toxicity via both AHR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PAH exposure is known to induce developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos, and recent studies have shown cardiac toxicity induced by compounds with low AHR affinity. Unraveling the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms of PAH toxicity is essential for understanding the hazard posed by complex PAH mixtures present in the environment. We analyzed transcriptional responses to PAH exposure in zebrafish embryos exposed to benz(a)anthracene (BAA), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and pyrene (PYR) at concentrations that induced developmental malformations by 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Whole genome microarray analysis of mRNA expression at 24 and 48 hpf identified genes that were differentially regulated over time and in response to the three PAH structures. PAH body burdens were analyzed at both time points using GC–MS, and demonstrated differences in PAH uptake into the embryos. This was important for discerning dose-related differences from those that represented unique molecular mechanisms. While BAA misregulated the least number of transcripts, it caused strong induction of cyp1a and other genes known to be downstream of the AHR, which were not induced by the other two PAHs. Analysis of functional roles of misregulated genes and their predicted regulatory transcription factors also distinguished the BAA response from regulatory networks disrupted by DBT and PYR exposure. These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures. - Highlights: • Defined global mRNA expression

  4. Inhibition of protein kinase C induces differentiation in Neuro-2a cells

    1-(5-Isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, induced neuritogenesis in Neuro-2a cells, whereas N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA 1004), which inhibits more efficiently cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, did not. The effect, noticeable after 3 hr, was maximum (13-fold increase at 500 μM H7) between 1 and 3 days and was maintained over 2 months. In controls, 90% of the cells were undifferentiated, whereas after 3 hr with 500 μM H7 only 25% of the cells remained undifferentiated. DNA synthesis decreased as the number of differentiated cells increased. Differentiation is also functional since acetylcholinesterase activity increased ∼7-fold after 48 hr with 500 μM H7. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a specific activator of protein kinase C, prevented or reversed the induction of neuritogenesis and the inhibition of DNA synthesis by H7. There is a good correlation between the level of protein kinase C and the percentage of differentiated cells. The results indicate that protein kinase C may play a key role in the control of differentiation of neural cells. Some possible clinical implications are briefly discussed

  5. Bystander-induced apoptosis and premature differentiation in primary urothelial explants after charged particle microbeam irradiation

    The ureter primary explant technique was developed to study bystander effects under in vivo like conditions where stem and differentiated cells are present. Irradiation was performed with a 3He2+ charged particle microbeam available at the Gray Cancer Institute, with high (∼2 μm) precision. Tissue sections from porcine ureters were pre-irradiated with the microbeam at a single location with 103He2+ particles (5 MeV; LET 70 keV.μm-1). After irradiation, the tissue section was incubated for 7 days, thus allowing the explant outgrowth to form. Total cellular damage (total fraction of micronucleated and apoptotic cells) was measured according to morphological criteria. Apoptosis was also assessed using a 3'-OH DNA end-labelling technique. Premature differentiation was estimated using antibodies to uroplakin III, a specific marker of terminal urothelial differentiation. Results of our experiments demonstrated a significant bystander-induced differentiation and a less significant increase in apoptotic and micronucleated cells. A hypothesis based on the protective nature of the bystander effect is proposed. (author)

  6. Inhibition of protein kinase C induces differentiation in Neuro-2a cells.

    Miñana, M D; Felipo, V; Grisolía, S

    1990-01-01

    1-(5-Isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, induced neuritogenesis in Neuro-2a cells, whereas N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA 1004), which inhibits more efficiently cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, did not. The effect, noticeable after 3 hr, was maximum (13-fold increase at 500 microM H7) between 1 and 3 days and was maintained over 2 months. In controls, 90% of the cells were undifferentiated, whereas after 3 hr with 500 microM H7 only 25% of the cells remained undifferentiated. DNA synthesis decreased as the number of differentiated cells increased. Differentiation is also functional since acetylcholinesterase activity increased approximately 7-fold after 48 hr with 500 microM H7. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a specific activator of protein kinase C, prevented or reversed the induction of neuritogenesis and the inhibition of DNA synthesis by H7. There is a good correlation between the level of protein kinase C and the percentage of differentiated cells. The results indicate that protein kinase C may play a key role in the control of differentiation of neural cells. Some possible clinical implications are briefly discussed. Images PMID:1693437

  7. Inhibition of protein kinase C induces differentiation in Neuro-2a cells

    Minana, M.D.; Felipo, V.; Grisolia, S. (Instituto de Investigaciones Citologicas de la Caja de Ahorros de Valencia (Spain))

    1990-06-01

    1-(5-Isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, induced neuritogenesis in Neuro-2a cells, whereas N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA 1004), which inhibits more efficiently cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, did not. The effect, noticeable after 3 hr, was maximum (13-fold increase at 500 {mu}M H7) between 1 and 3 days and was maintained over 2 months. In controls, 90% of the cells were undifferentiated, whereas after 3 hr with 500 {mu}M H7 only 25% of the cells remained undifferentiated. DNA synthesis decreased as the number of differentiated cells increased. Differentiation is also functional since acetylcholinesterase activity increased {approx}7-fold after 48 hr with 500 {mu}M H7. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a specific activator of protein kinase C, prevented or reversed the induction of neuritogenesis and the inhibition of DNA synthesis by H7. There is a good correlation between the level of protein kinase C and the percentage of differentiated cells. The results indicate that protein kinase C may play a key role in the control of differentiation of neural cells. Some possible clinical implications are briefly discussed.

  8. Influence of suppressor gene p16 on retinoic acid inducing cancer cell A549 differentiation

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of suppressor gene p16 in the process of differential regulation of retinoic acid (RA) on the A549 lung cancer cells.Methods Tumor suppressor gene p16 was transferred into A549 cells and the cells were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATR) at the dosage of 5×10-6 mol/L for 4 d. After that, the proliferation and differentiation of A549 cells were examined by growth curve and cytometry analysis, the change of lung lineage-specific marker MUC1 was tested by immunohistochemical staining. Meanwhile, Western blot was used to observe the change of p16 protein expression in A549 cells treated with ATRA.Results ATRA could obviously inhibit the growth and induce the differentiation of A549 Cells that were transferred with p16 gene. There were more cells arrested in G1/G0 phase and the expression of MUG1 was markedly down-regulated than in control cells. The expression of p16 protein was up-regulated in A549 cells treated with ATRA.Conclusion Suppressor gene p16 could enhance the effects of RA and proliferated suppression and differential induction of A549 cells.

  9. The nucleus of differentiated root plant cells: modifications induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    G Lingua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclei of plant cells show marked differences in chromatin organisation, related to their DNA content, which ranges from the type with large strands of condensed chromatin (reticulate or chromonematic nuclei to one with mostly decondensed chromatin (chromocentric or diffuse nuclei. A loosening of the chromatin structure generally occurs in actively metabolising cells, such as differentiating and secretory cells, in relation to their high transcriptional activity. Endoreduplication may occur, especially in plants with a small genome, which increases the availability of nuclear templates, the synthesis of DNA, and probably regulates gene expression. Here we describe structural and quantitative changes of the chromatin and their relationship with transcription that occur in differentiated cells following an increase of their metabolism. The nuclei of root cortical cells of three plants with different 2C DNA content (Allium porrum, Pisum sativum and Lycopersicon esculentm and their modifications induced by arbuscular mycorrhization, which strongly increase the metabolic activity of colonised cells, are taken as examples.

  10. Algal Toxin Azaspiracid-1 Induces Early Neuronal Differentiation and Alters Peripherin Isoform Stoichiometry

    Linda V. Hjørnevik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Azaspiracid-1 is an algal toxin that accumulates in edible mussels, and ingestion may result in human illness as manifested by vomiting and diarrhoea. When injected into mice, it causes neurotoxicological symptoms and death. Although it is well known that azaspiracid-1 is toxic to most cells and cell lines, little is known about its biological target(s. A rat PC12 cell line, commonly used as a model for the peripheral nervous system, was used to study the neurotoxicological effects of azaspiracid-1. Azaspiracid-1 induced differentiation-related morphological changes followed by a latter cell death. The differentiated phenotype showed peripherin-labelled neurite-like processes simultaneously as a specific isoform of peripherin was down-regulated. The precise mechanism behind this down-regulation remains uncertain. However, this study provides new insights into the neurological effects of azaspiracid-1 and into the biological significance of specific isoforms of peripherin.

  11. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in phorbol ester, interferon and dimethyl sulfoxide differentiation induced U937 cells

    U937, a human macrophage cell line can metabolize arachidonic acid to a prostaglandin E2-like substance, and an unidentified lipoxygenase product. This metabolism occurs at very low levels however since these cells have low lipase and fatty acid oxygenase activities. The investigated the appearance of these enzyme activities during differentiation induced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), human gamma interferon (INF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on days 1,3 and 5 of stimulation using 3H-arachidonic acid (3H-AA). Culture supernatants were analyzed for free 3H-AA and 3H metabolites by radio-thin layer chromatography (3H-MET). The increasing percentage of 3H-AA release suggests the appearance of phospholipase activity during differentiation

  12. Advances of imaging on differential diagnosis between recurrence of glioma and radiation-induced brain injury

    Differentiating recurrence of glioma from radiation-induced brain injury is a central challenge in neuro-oncology. The 2 very different outcomes after brain tumor treatment often appear similar on traditional imaging studies. They may even manifest with similar clinical symptoms. Distinguishing treatment injury from tumor recurrence is crucial for diagnosis and treatment planning. In this article, we reviewed the latest developments and key findings from research studies exploring the efficacy of structural and functional imaging modalities in differentiating treatment injury from tumor recurrence with DWI, MRS, DCE-MR, DSC-MR, PET, and SPECT. And we discussed the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to provide useful information for making proper diagnosis and treatment planning. (authors)

  13. The prelamin A pre-peptide induces cardiac and skeletal myoblast differentiation

    Prelamin A processing is unique amongst mammalian proteins and results in the production of a farnesylated and carboxymethylated peptide. We examined the effect of pathogenic LMNA mutations on prelamin A processing, and of the covalently modified peptide on cardiac and skeletal myoblast differentiation. Here we report a mutation associated with dilated cardiomyopathy prevents prelamin A peptide production. In addition, topical application of the covalently modified C-terminal peptide to proliferating skeletal and cardiac myoblasts induced myotube and striated tissue formation, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that skeletal and cardiac myoblasts are the first cell lines examined to contain unprocessed prelamin A, and immunostaining of peptide-treated cells revealed a previously unidentified role for prelamin A in cytoskeleton formation and intercellular organization. These results demonstrate a direct role for prelamin A in myoblast differentiation and indicate the prelamin A peptide may have therapeutic potential

  14. STRUCTURAL REMODELING OF PROTEOGLYCANS UPON RETINOIC ACID-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION OF NCCIT CELLS*

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E.; Nairn, Alison V.; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L.; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1500-fold and 2800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  15. Structural remodeling of proteoglycans upon retinoic acid-induced differentiation of NCCIT cells.

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E; Nairn, Alison V; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S; Moremen, Kelley W; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1,500-fold and 2,800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  16. Proteomics unveil corticoid-induced S100A11 shuttling in keratinocyte differentiation

    Unlike classical protein extraction techniques, proteomic mapping using a selective subcellular extraction kit revealed S100A11 as a new member of the S100 protein family modulated by glucocorticoids in keratinocytes. Glucocorticoids (GC)-induced S100A11 redistribution in the 'organelles and membranes' compartment. Microscopic examination indicated that glucocorticoids specifically routed cytoplasmic S100A11 toward perinuclear compartment. Calcium, a key component of skin terminal differentiation, directed S100A11 to the plasma membrane as previously reported. When calcium was added to glucocorticoids, minor change was observed at the proteomic level while confocal microscopy revealed a rapid and dramatic translocation of S100A11 toward plasma membrane. This effect was accompanied by strong nuclear condensation, loss of mitochondrial potential and DNA content, and increased high molecular weight S100A11 immunoreactivity, suggesting corticoids accelerate calcium-induced terminal differentiation. Finally, our results suggest GC-induced S100A11 relocalization could be a key step in both keratinocyte homeostasis and glucocorticoids side effects in human epidermis

  17. Using delay differential equations to induce alternans in a model of cardiac electrophysiology.

    Eastman, Justin; Sass, Julian; Gomes, Johnny M; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Cherry, Elizabeth M

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac electrical alternans is a period-2 dynamical behavior with alternating long and short action potential durations (APD) that often precedes dangerous arrhythmias associated with cardiac arrest. Despite the importance of alternans, many current ordinary differential equations models of cardiac electrophysiology do not produce alternans, thereby limiting the use of these models for studying the mechanisms that underlie this condition. Because delay differential equations (DDEs) commonly induce complex dynamics in other biological systems, we investigate whether incorporating DDEs can lead to alternans development in cardiac models by studying the Fox et al. canine ventricular action potential model. After suppressing the alternans in the original model, we show that alternans can be obtained by introducing DDEs in the model gating variables, and we quantitatively compare the DDE-induced alternans with the alternans present in the original model. We analyze the behavior of the voltage, currents, and gating variables of the model to study the effects of the delays and to determine how alternans develops in that setting, and we discuss the mathematical and physiological implications of our findings. In future work, we aim to apply our approach to induce alternans in models that do not naturally exhibit such dynamics. PMID:27302910

  18. Preadipocyte factor 1 induces pancreatic ductal cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells.

    Rhee, Marie; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Won; Ham, Dong-Sik; Park, Heon-Seok; Yang, Hae Kyung; Shin, Ju-Young; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Kim, Young-Bum; Youn, Byung-Soo; Sul, Hei Sook; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) is involved in the proliferation and differentiation of various precursor cells. However, the intracellular signaling pathways that control these processes and the role of Pref-1 in the pancreas remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that Pref-1 induces insulin synthesis and secretion via two independent pathways. The overexpression of Pref-1 activated MAPK signaling, which induced nucleocytoplasmic translocation of FOXO1 and PDX1 and led to the differentiation of human pancreatic ductal cells into β-like cells and an increase in insulin synthesis. Concurrently, Pref-1 activated Akt signaling and facilitated insulin secretion. A proteomics analysis identified the Rab43 GTPase-activating protein as a downstream target of Akt. A serial activation of both proteins induced various granular protein syntheses which led to enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In a pancreatectomised diabetic animal model, exogenous Pref-1 improved glucose homeostasis by accelerating pancreatic ductal and β-cell regeneration after injury. These data establish a novel role for Pref-1, opening the possibility of applying this molecule to the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27044861

  19. Structurally Distinct Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Induce Differential Transcriptional Responses in Developing Zebrafish

    Goodale, Britton; Tilton, Susan C.; Corvi, Margaret M.; Wilson, Glenn V.; Janszen, Derek B.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components of fossil fuels and by-products of combustion. These multi-ring chemicals differentially activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in a structurally dependent manner, and induce toxicity via both AHR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PAH exposure is known to induce developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos, and recent studies have shown cardiac toxicity induced by compounds with low AHR affinity. Unraveling the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms of PAH toxicity is essential for understanding the hazard posed by complex PAH mixtures present in the environment. We analyzed transcriptional responses to PAH exposure in zebrafish embryos exposed to benz(a)anthracene (BAA), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and pyrene (PYR) at concentrations that induced developmental malformations by 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Whole genome microarray analysis of mRNA expression at 24 and 48 hpf identified genes that were differentially regulated over time and in response to the three PAH structures. PAH body burdens were analyzed at both time points using GC-MS, and demonstrated differences in PAH uptake into the embryos. This was important for discerning dose-related differences from those that represented unique molecular mechanisms. While BAA misregulated the least number of transcripts, it caused strong induction of cyp1a and other genes known to be downstream of the AHR, which were not induced by the other two PAHs. Analysis of functional roles of misregulated genes and their predicted regulatory transcription factors also distinguished the BAA response from regulatory networks disrupted by DBT and PYR exposure. These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures.

  20. Creating an Animal Model of Tendinopathy by Inducing Chondrogenic Differentiation with Kartogenin.

    Ting Yuan

    Full Text Available Previous animal studies have shown that long term rat treadmill running induces over-use tendinopathy, which manifests as proteoglycan accumulation and chondrocytes-like cells within the affected tendons. Creating this animal model of tendinopathy by long term treadmill running is however time-consuming, costly and may vary among animals. In this study, we used a new approach to develop an animal model of tendinopathy using kartogenin (KGN, a bio-compound that can stimulate endogenous stem/progenitor cells to differentiate into chondrocytes. KGN-beads were fabricated and implanted into rat Achilles tendons. Five weeks after implantation, chondrocytes and proteoglycan accumulation were found at the KGN implanted site. Vascularity as well as disorganization in collagen fibers were also present in the same site along with increased expression of the chondrocyte specific marker, collagen type II (Col. II. In vitro studies confirmed that KGN was released continuously from KGN-alginate in vivo beads and induced chondrogenic differentiation of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs suggesting that chondrogenesis after KGN-bead implantation into the rat tendons is likely due to the aberrant differentiation of TSCs into chondrocytes. Taken together, our results showed that KGN-alginate beads can be used to create a rat model of tendinopathy, which, at least in part, reproduces the features of over-use tendinopathy model created by long term treadmill running. This model is mechanistic (stem cell differentiation, highly reproducible and precise in creating localized tendinopathic lesions. It is expected that this model will be useful to evaluate the effects of various topical treatments such as NSAIDs and platelet-rich plasma (PRP for the treatment of tendinopathy.

  1. Creating an Animal Model of Tendinopathy by Inducing Chondrogenic Differentiation with Kartogenin.

    Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Jianying; Zhao, Guangyi; Zhou, Yiqin; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Wang, James H-C

    2016-01-01

    Previous animal studies have shown that long term rat treadmill running induces over-use tendinopathy, which manifests as proteoglycan accumulation and chondrocytes-like cells within the affected tendons. Creating this animal model of tendinopathy by long term treadmill running is however time-consuming, costly and may vary among animals. In this study, we used a new approach to develop an animal model of tendinopathy using kartogenin (KGN), a bio-compound that can stimulate endogenous stem/progenitor cells to differentiate into chondrocytes. KGN-beads were fabricated and implanted into rat Achilles tendons. Five weeks after implantation, chondrocytes and proteoglycan accumulation were found at the KGN implanted site. Vascularity as well as disorganization in collagen fibers were also present in the same site along with increased expression of the chondrocyte specific marker, collagen type II (Col. II). In vitro studies confirmed that KGN was released continuously from KGN-alginate in vivo beads and induced chondrogenic differentiation of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) suggesting that chondrogenesis after KGN-bead implantation into the rat tendons is likely due to the aberrant differentiation of TSCs into chondrocytes. Taken together, our results showed that KGN-alginate beads can be used to create a rat model of tendinopathy, which, at least in part, reproduces the features of over-use tendinopathy model created by long term treadmill running. This model is mechanistic (stem cell differentiation), highly reproducible and precise in creating localized tendinopathic lesions. It is expected that this model will be useful to evaluate the effects of various topical treatments such as NSAIDs and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the treatment of tendinopathy. PMID:26848746

  2. Neurogenic differentiation factor NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    Li, Ming; Du, Aonan; Xu, Jing; Ma, Yanchao; Cao, Han; Yang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine, is particularly sensitive to radiation, and is prone to radiation-induced injury as a result. Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is an evolutionarily-conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. NeuroD contains a protein transduction domain (PTD), which allows it to be exogenously delivered across the membrane of mammalian cells, whereupon its transcription activity can be unleashed. Whether NeuroD has therapeutic effects for radiation-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, we prepared a NeuroD-EGFP recombinant protein, and explored its protective effects on the survival and intestinal damage induced by ionizing radiation. Our results showed that NeuroD-EGFP could be transduced into small intestine epithelial cells and tissues. NeuroD-EGFP administration significantly increased overall survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation (TBI). This recombinant NeuroD also reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis, and improved crypt survival. Expression profiling of NeuroD-EGFP-treated mice revealed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells. In conclusion, NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury, and provides a novel therapeutic clinical option for the prevention of intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and the treatment of victims of incidental exposure. PMID:27436572

  3. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  4. The endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol induces adipocyte differentiation and promotes obesity in mice

    Epidemiology studies indicate that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental “window” contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Implication of endocrine disruptor such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. Here we evaluated the effects of DES on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and explored potential mechanism involved in its action. DES induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, and activated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-acivated receptor (PPAR) γ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. ER mediated the enhancement of DES-induced PPARγ activity. Moreover, DES perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to low dose of DES significantly increased body weight, liver weight and fat mass in female offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60. In addition, serum triglyceride and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to DES may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. -- Highlights: ► DES induced adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells. ► DES activated adipogenic critical regulators and markers in vitro and in vivo. ► Perinatal exposure to DES led to the obese phenotype in female offspring. ► DES might be a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  5. The endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol induces adipocyte differentiation and promotes obesity in mice

    Hao, Chan-Juan; Cheng, Xue-Jia; Xia, Hong-Fei, E-mail: hongfeixia@yahoo.com.cn; Ma, Xu

    2012-08-15

    Epidemiology studies indicate that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental “window” contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Implication of endocrine disruptor such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. Here we evaluated the effects of DES on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and explored potential mechanism involved in its action. DES induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, and activated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-acivated receptor (PPAR) γ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. ER mediated the enhancement of DES-induced PPARγ activity. Moreover, DES perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to low dose of DES significantly increased body weight, liver weight and fat mass in female offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60. In addition, serum triglyceride and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to DES may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. -- Highlights: ► DES induced adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells. ► DES activated adipogenic critical regulators and markers in vitro and in vivo. ► Perinatal exposure to DES led to the obese phenotype in female offspring. ► DES might be a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  6. Changes in binding of staphylococcal leukocidin to HL-60 cells during differentiation induced by dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Morinaga, N; Nagamori, M; Kato, I.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of HL-60 cells to the cytotoxic activity of leukocidin increased depending on the degree of differentiation induced by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). To compare binding characteristics of two components (S and F) of leukocidin to HL-60 and DMSO-treated HL-60 cells, the S and F components were labeled with 125I. Scatchard analysis of the binding curve of the 125I-labeled S component to HL-60 cells showed two classes of binding sites. The binding sites with higher affinity had a ...

  7. Δn89β-Catenin Induces Precocious Development, Differentiation, and Neoplasia in Mammary Gland

    Imbert, Alexandra; Eelkema, Rachel; Jordan, Sara; Feiner, Helen; Cowin, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the role of β-catenin in mammary gland development and neoplasia, we expressed a stabilized, transcriptionally active form of β-catenin lacking the NH2-terminal 89 amino acids (ΔN89β-catenin) under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat. Our results show that ΔN89β-catenin induces precocious lobuloalveolar development and differentiation in the mammary glands of both male and female mice. Virgin ΔN89β-catenin mammary glands resemble those found in wil...

  8. Using the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the differentiation between normal and neoplastichuman breast tissue.

    Hage, R; Galhanone, P R; Zângaro, R A; Rodrigues, K C; Pacheco, M T T; Martin, A A; Netto, M M; Soares, F A; da Cunha, I W

    2003-01-01

    This article reports results of the in vitro study for potential evaluation of the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the differentiation between normal and neoplastic human breast tissue. A coumarine dye laser pumped by nitrogen laser generated an excitation light centered at 458 nm. In order to collect the fluorescence signal was used an optical fiber catheter coupled to a spectrometer and CCD detector. Fluorescence spectra were recorded from normal and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissue, adding up 94 different areas. The discrimination between normal and neoplasm groups reach a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. PMID:14505202

  9. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Induce Macrophage-Like Differentiation in Human Leukemia THP-1 Cells via Caspase and p53 Activation

    Jia-Wei Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation therapy by induction of tumor cells is an important method in the treatment of hematological cancers such as leukemia. Tumor cell differentiation ends cancer cells' immortality, thus stopping cell growth and proliferation. In our previous study, we found that fucose-containing polysaccharide fraction F3 extracted from Ganoderma lucidum can bring about cytokine secretion and cell death in human leukemia THP-1 cells. This prompted us to further investigate on how F3 induces the differentiation in human leukemia cells. We integrated time-course microarray analysis and network modeling to study the F3-induced effects on THP-1 cells. In addition, we determined the differentiation effect using Liu's staining, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction assay, flow cytometer, western blotting and Q-PCR. We also examined the modulation and regulation by F3 during the differentiation process. Dynamic gene expression profiles showed that cell differentiation was induced in F3-treated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, F3-treated THP-1 cells exhibited enhanced macrophage differentiation, as demonstrated by changes in cell adherence, cell cycle arrest, NBT reduction and expression of differentiation markers including CD11b, CD14, CD68, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and myeloperoxidase. In addition, caspase cleavage and p53 activation were found to be significantly enhanced in F3-treated THP-1 cells. We unraveled the role of caspases and p53 in F3-induced THP-1 cells differentiation into macrophages. Our results provide a molecular explanation for the differentiation effect of F3 on human leukemia THP-1 cells and offer a prospect for a potential leukemia differentiation therapy.

  10. Non-coding RNAs change their expression profile after Retinoid induced differentiation of the promyelocytic cell line NB4

    Caporaso Maria G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs as fine regulators of eukaryotic gene expression has emerged by several studies focusing on microRNAs (miRNAs. miRNAs represent a newly discovered family of non coding-RNAs. They are thought to be crucial players of human hematopoiesis and related tumorigenesis and to represent a potential tool to detect the early stages of cancer. More recently, the expression regulation of numerous long ncRNAs has been linked to cell growth, differentiation and cancer although the molecular mechanism of their function is still unknown. NB4 cells are promyelocytic cells that can be induced to differentiation upon retinoic acid (ATRA treatment and represent a feasible model to study changes of non coding RNAs expression between cancer cells and their terminally differentiated counterpart. Findings we screened, by microarray analysis, the expression of 243 miRNAs and 492 human genes transcribing for putative long ncRNAs different from miRNAs in NB4 cells before and after ATRA induced differentiation. Our data show that 8 miRNAs, and 58 long ncRNAs were deregulated by ATRA induced NB4 differentiation. Conclusion our data suggest that ATRA-induced differentiation lead to deregulation of a large number of the ncRNAs that can play regulatory roles in both tumorigenesis and differentiation.

  11. Comparative Neuronal Differentiation of Self-Renewing Neural Progenitor Cell Lines Obtained from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Chiara Verpelli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most human neuronal disorders are associated with genetic alterations that cause defects in neuronal development and induce precocious neurodegeneration. In order to fully characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of these devastating diseases, it is important to establish in vitro models able to recapitulate the human pathology as closely as possible. Here we compared three different differentiation protocols for obtaining functional neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs: human neural progenitors (hNPs obtained from hiPSCs were differentiated by co-culturing them with rat primary neurons, glial cells or simply by culturing them on matrigel in neuronal differentiation medium, and the differentiation level was compared using immunofluorescence, biochemical and electrophysiological methods.We show that the differentiated neurons displayed distinct maturation properties depending on the protocol used and the faster morphological and functional maturation was obtained when hNPs were co-cultured with rat primary neurons.

  12. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is required for the differentiation of C6 glioma cells induced by cholera toxin

    Dong XU; Yi-jun HUANG; Yan LI; Wei YIN; Guang-mei YAN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a possible regulator gene involved in the cholera toxin-induced differentiation of rat C6 glioma cells. Methods: The global changes in the mRNA expression pattern induced by cholera toxin were analyzed using gene chip microarray. The selected gene was then silenced by RNA interference or overexpressed with an ORF plasmid to determine its necessity in this process. Results: Nur77, a member of the orphan nuclear receptor family (NR4A), was markedly up-regulated during the process of differentiation. Furthermore, RNAi of nur77 attenuated the induction effect of cholera toxin on C6 cells, whereas overexpression of nur77 led to similarly differentiated behavior, including morphologic and biomarker changes, as well as cell cycle arrest. Conclusion: Nur77 participated actively and essentially as an important regulator in the cholera toxin-induced differentiation of C6 cells.

  13. Glyphosate Inhibits PPAR Gamma Induction and Differentiation of Preadipocytes and is able to Induce Oxidative Stress.

    Martini, Claudia N; Gabrielli, Matías; Brandani, Javier N; Vila, María Del C

    2016-08-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GF) are extensively used for weed control. Thus, it is important to investigate their putative toxic effects. We have reported that GF at subagriculture concentrations inhibits proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. In this investigation, we evaluated the effect of GF on genes upregulated during adipogenesis. GF was able to inhibit the induction of PPAR gamma, the master gene in adipogenesis but not C/EBP beta, which precedes PPAR gamma activation. GF also inhibited differentiation and proliferation of another model of preadipocyte: mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In exponentially growing 3T3-L1 cells, GF increased lipid peroxidation and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. We also found that proliferation was inhibited with lower concentrations of GF when time of exposure was extended. Thus, GF was able to inhibit proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and to induce oxidative stress, which is indicative of its ability to alter cellular physiology. PMID:27044015

  14. Donor Dependent Variations in Hematopoietic Differentiation among Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

    Féraud, Olivier; Valogne, Yannick; Melkus, Michael W.; Zhang, Yanyan; Oudrhiri, Noufissa; Haddad, Rima; Daury, Aurélie; Rocher, Corinne; Larbi, Aniya; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Divers, Dominique; Gobbo, Emilie; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe; Louache, Fawzia; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Mitjavila-Garcia, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoiesis generated from human embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are unprecedented resources for cell therapy. We compared hematopoietic differentiation potentials from ES and iPS cell lines originated from various donors and derived them using integrative and non-integrative vectors. Significant differences in differentiation toward hematopoietic lineage were observed among ES and iPS. The ability of engraftment of iPS or ES-derived cells in NOG mice varied among the lines with low levels of chimerism. iPS generated from ES cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) reproduce a similar hematopoietic outcome compared to their parental ES cell line. We were not able to identify any specific hematopoietic transcription factors that allow to distinguish between good versus poor hematopoiesis in undifferentiated ES or iPS cell lines. There is a relatively unpredictable variation in hematopoietic differentiation between ES and iPS cell lines that could not be predicted based on phenotype or gene expression of the undifferentiated cells. These results demonstrate the influence of genetic background in variation of hematopoietic potential rather than the reprogramming process. PMID:26938212

  15. Differential protein expression in the midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes induced by the insecticide temephos.

    Games, P D; Alves, S N; Katz, B B; Tomich, J M; Serrão, J E

    2016-09-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors for pathogens of malaria, lymphatic filariasis, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis. Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) is a known vector of lymphatic filariasis. Its control in Brazil has been managed using the organophosphate temephos. Studies examining the proteins of Cx. quinquefasciatus that are differentially expressed in response to temephos further understanding of the modes of action of the insecticide and may potentially identify resistance factors in the mosquito. In the present study, a comparative proteomic analysis, using 2-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF)/TOF mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics analyses were performed to identify midgut proteins in Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae that were differentially expressed in response to exposure to temephos relative to those in untreated controls. A total of 91 protein spots were differentially expressed; 40 were upregulated and 51 were downregulated by temephos. A total of 22 proteins, predominantly upregulated, were identified as known to play a role in the immune response, whereas the downregulated proteins were involved in energy and protein catabolism. This is the first proteome study of the midgut of Cx. quinquefasciatus and it provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of insecticide-induced responses in the mosquito. PMID:27072633

  16. Wnt signaling induces differentiation of progenitor cells in organotypic keratinocyte cultures

    Liu Bob Y

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interfollicular skin develops normally only when the activity of the progenitor cells in the basal layer is counterbalanced by the exit of cells into the suprabasal layers, where they differentiate and cornify to establish barrier function. Distinct stem and progenitor compartments have been demonstrated in hair follicles and sebaceous glands, but there are few data to describe the control of interfollicular progenitor cell activity. Wnt signaling has been shown to be an important growth-inducer of stem cell compartments in skin and many other tissues. Results Here, we test the effect of ectopic Wnt1 expression on the behavior of interfollicular progenitor cells in an organotypic culture model, and find that Wnt1 signaling inhibits their growth and promotes terminal differentiation. Conclusion These results are consistent with the phenotypes reported for transgenic mice engineered to have gain or loss of function of Wnt signaling in skin, which would recommend our culture model as an accurate one for molecular analysis. Since it is known that canonical ligands are expressed in skin, it is likely that this pathway normally regulates the balance of growth and differentiation, and suggests it could be important to pathogenesis.

  17. Mechanisms of all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells

    Ji-Wang Zhang; Jian Gu; Zhen-Yi Wang; Sai-Juan Chen; Zhu Chen

    2000-09-01

    Retinoic acids (RA) play a key role in myeloid differentiation through their agonistic nuclear receptors (RAR/RXR) to modulate the expression of target genes. In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells with rearrangement of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) (including: PML-RAR, PLZF-RAR, NPM-RAR, NuMA-RAR or STAT5b-RAR) as a result of chromosomal translocations, the RA signal pathway is disrupted and myeloid differentiation is arrested at the promyelocytic stage. Pharmacologic dosage of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) directly modulates PML-RAR and its interaction with the nuclear receptor co-repressor complex, which restores the wild-type RAR/RXR regulatory pathway and induces the transcriptional expression of downstream genes. Analysing gene expression profiles in APL cells before and after ATRA treatment represents a useful approach to identify genes whose functions are involved in this new cancer treatment. A chronologically well coordinated modulation of ATRA-regulated genes has thus been revealed which seems to constitute a balanced functional network underlying decreased cellular proliferation, initiation and progression of maturation, and maintenance of cell survival before terminal differentiation.

  18. Centrifuge model test on earthquake-induced differential settlement of foundation on cohesive ground

    SHAMOTO; Yasuhiro; HOTTA; Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic centrifuge model test was conducted to study the earthquake-induced differential settlement of foundation on cohesive ground, and the influence of asymmetry of building was investigated. During the experiment, the overconsolidated kaolin clay ground with a three-dimensional asymmetrical structure model was shaken by a basically balanced input motion, and bender elements were used to measure shear wave velocities of model ground to reveal the soil fabric evolution during and after shaking. The test results show that, the total seismic settlement of foundation is composed of instantaneous and long-term post-earthquake settlements, and most of the differential settlement occurs immediately after the earthquake while the post-earthquake settlement is relatively uniform despite its large amplitude. The asymmetry of building affects the settlement behavior considerably. Compared with 1-or 2-dimensional structures, more evident differential settlement occurs under threedimensional asymmetrical building during shaking, which accounts for one-half of the total seismic settlements and results in complex spatial tilting effects of foundation.

  19. Potato suberin induces differentiation and secondary metabolism in the genus Streptomyces.

    Lerat, Sylvain; Forest, Martin; Lauzier, Annie; Grondin, Gilles; Lacelle, Serge; Beaulieu, Carole

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are soil microorganisms with a saprophytic life cycle. Previous studies have revealed that the phytopathogenic agent S. scabiei undergoes metabolic and morphological modifications in the presence of suberin, a complex plant polymer. This paper investigates morphological changes induced by the presence of potato suberin in five species of the genus Streptomyces, with emphasis on S. scabiei. Streptomyces scabiei, S. acidiscabies, S. avermitilis, S. coelicolor and S. melanosporofaciens were grown both in the presence and absence of suberin. In all species tested, the presence of the plant polymer induced the production of aerial hyphae and enhanced resistance to mechanical lysis. The presence of suberin in liquid minimal medium also induced the synthesis of typical secondary metabolites in S. scabiei and S. acidiscabies (thaxtomin A), S. coelicolor (actinorhodin) and S. melanosporofaciens (geldanamycin). In S. scabiei, the presence of suberin modified the fatty acid composition of the bacterial membrane, which translated into higher membrane fluidity. Moreover, suberin also induced thickening of the bacterial cell wall. The present data indicate that suberin hastens cellular differentiation and triggers the onset of secondary metabolism in the genus Streptomyces. PMID:22129602

  20. A Sphingolipid Inhibitor Induces a Cytokinesis Arrest and Blocks Stage Differentiation in Giardia lamblia▿

    Sonda, Sabrina; Štefanić, Saša; Hehl, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Sphingolipid biosynthesis pathways have recently emerged as a promising target for therapeutic intervention against pathogens, including parasites. A key step in the synthesis of complex sphingolipids is the glucosylation of ceramide, mediated by glucosylceramide (GlcCer) synthase, whose activity can be inhibited by PPMP (1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol). In this study, we investigated whether PPMP inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of the pathogenic parasite Giardia lamblia, the major cause of parasite-induced diarrhea worldwide. PPMP was found to block in vitro parasite replication in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 3.5 μM. The inhibition of parasite replication was irreversible at 10 μM PPMP, a concentration that did not affect mammalian cell metabolism. Importantly, PPMP inhibited the completion of cell division at a specific stage in late cytokinesis. Microscopic analysis of cells incubated with PPMP revealed the aberrant accumulation of cellular membranes belonging to the endoplasmic reticulum network in the caudal area of the parasites. Finally, PPMP induced a 90% reduction in G. lamblia differentiation into cysts, the parasite stage responsible for the transmission of the disease. These results show that PPMP is a powerful inhibitor of G. lamblia in vitro and that as-yet-uncharacterized sphingolipid biosynthetic pathways are potential targets for the development of anti-G. lamblia agents. PMID:18086854

  1. A sphingolipid inhibitor induces a cytokinesis arrest and blocks stage differentiation in Giardia lamblia.

    Sonda, Sabrina; Stefanic, Sasa; Hehl, Adrian B

    2008-02-01

    Sphingolipid biosynthesis pathways have recently emerged as a promising target for therapeutic intervention against pathogens, including parasites. A key step in the synthesis of complex sphingolipids is the glucosylation of ceramide, mediated by glucosylceramide (GlcCer) synthase, whose activity can be inhibited by PPMP (1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol). In this study, we investigated whether PPMP inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of the pathogenic parasite Giardia lamblia, the major cause of parasite-induced diarrhea worldwide. PPMP was found to block in vitro parasite replication in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 3.5 muM. The inhibition of parasite replication was irreversible at 10 muM PPMP, a concentration that did not affect mammalian cell metabolism. Importantly, PPMP inhibited the completion of cell division at a specific stage in late cytokinesis. Microscopic analysis of cells incubated with PPMP revealed the aberrant accumulation of cellular membranes belonging to the endoplasmic reticulum network in the caudal area of the parasites. Finally, PPMP induced a 90% reduction in G. lamblia differentiation into cysts, the parasite stage responsible for the transmission of the disease. These results show that PPMP is a powerful inhibitor of G. lamblia in vitro and that as-yet-uncharacterized sphingolipid biosynthetic pathways are potential targets for the development of anti-G. lamblia agents. PMID:18086854

  2. Neural stem cells was induced to differentiate into cholinergic neurons in vitro

    The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on isolated and cultivated rat's cerebral neural stem cells (NSCs) was examined. NSCs which were isolated from two month's old rat's brain region like hippocampus and striatum were cultivated in a medium containing EGF and bFGF, and were identified with morphological character by microscope and nestin immunocytochemistry test. After 24 hours, half NSCs were cultivated with a BMP4-added medium as a experimental group instead of the primary medium, while the an other half NSCs being cultivated with the primary medium as a control group. After 8 days the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) of the cultivated cells was observated by indirect immunofluorescence test. Results showed that more positive cells were found in the experimental group, and the fluorescence intensity were stronger; while less positive cells were found in the control group, and the fluorescence intensity was weaker. The differentiational efficiency of the NSCs was examined by FITC-labelled Flow Cytometry. The results showed that about 16% cells of the experimental group appeared ChAT-positive, while that of control group only 7%. So BMP4 may have the function of inducing NSCs to differentiate into neurons with cholinergic characteristic. (authors)

  3. The inhibitory effect of vitamin K on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Kim, Min Seuk; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the correlation between vitamin K and bone metabolism, the effects of vitamins K1, menaquinone-4 (MK-4), and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were comparatively investigated. Vitamin K2 groups (MK-4 and MK-7) were found to significantly inhibit RANKL-medicated osteoclast cell formation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner, without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as c-Fos, NFATc1, OSCAR, and TRAP, as well as NFATc1 protein expression and TRAP activity in RANKL-treated BMMs were inhibited by vitamin K2, although MK-4 exhibited a significantly greater efficiency compared to MK-7. In contrast, the same dose of vitamin K1 had no inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast cell formation, but increased the expression of major osteoclastogenic genes. Interestingly, vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 all strongly inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption (p vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 have anti-osteoporotic properties, while their regulation effects on osteoclastogenesis are somewhat different. PMID:26267519

  4. Preparation of an antibody that recognizes and neutralizes Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factor-1.

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Koji; Matsuo, Yusuke; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2010-05-28

    In the development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, the differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1; 1-(3,5-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)hexan-1-one) plays an important role in the regulation of cell differentiation and chemotaxis; however, the cellular signaling systems involving DIF-1 remain to be elucidated. To obtain a probe for DIF-1, we synthesized a DIF derivative (DIF-1-NH(2); 6-amino-1-(3,5-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)hexan-1-one), and prepared an anti-DIF-1 antibody using a DIF-1-NH(2)-conjugated macromolecule as the immunogen. A 100-fold dilution of the antibody bound to DIF-1-NH(2)-conjugated resin, and this binding was inhibited by co-addition of 20 microM DIF-1 or DIF-1-NH(2). In a monolayer culture of HM44 cells, a DIF-deficient D. discoideum strain, 0.5 nM exogenous DIF-1 induced stalk cell formation in approximately 60% of the cells; this induction was dose-dependently inhibited by the antibody (diluted 12.5- or 25-fold). Furthermore, this inhibition by the antibody was recovered by co-addition of 2.5 or10 nM DIF-1. The results indicate that the anti-DIF-1 antibody recognizes DIF-1 and neutralizes its function. PMID:20416278

  5. Spirulina phycocyanin induces differential protein expression and apoptosis in SKOV-3 cells.

    Pan, Ruowang; Lu, Rongmao; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Mei; Zhu, Wen; Yang, Rongrong; Zhang, Enyong; Ying, Jun; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Jinsong; Shi, Mengru; Zhou, Li; Xu, Zuyuan; Li, Peizhen; Bao, Qiyu

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of phycocyanin (PC) on Human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. The inhibitory effects of PC on the cell proliferation were detected by MTT assay. The IC50 values of PC were 182.0μM and 133.6μM for 24h and 48h exposure, respectively. PC induced apoptosis in SKOV-3 cells was observed by electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The apoptosis rate was increased from 1.6% to 19.8% after PC exposure. The fluorescence intensity of ROS and the activities of Caspase-3, Caspase-8, and Caspase-9 were increased. Differentiated expression protein spots were selected and identified using proteomic techniques. There were 698±73 and 683±79 protein spots resolved in untreated and PC-treated cells, respectively. Forty five differential protein spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS, including mtSSB, PSME3, and nucleolin. The mRNA expression profiles determined by RT-PCR were consistent with that of the two-dimensional electrophoresis. The decreased proteins such as HSP60, nucleolin, PPase, peroxiredoxin-4 and the increased protein (mtSSB) were identified in SKOV-3 cells after PC treatment, indicating that the effects of PC on tumor cell apoptosis may be relate to multiple target proteins. And the mitochondrial pathway may be the main pathway for PC-induced apoptosis. PMID:26410814

  6. Current-induced forces: a new mechanism to induce negative differential resistance and current-switching effect in molecular junctions

    Gu, Lei; Fu, Hua-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Current-induced forces can excite molecules, polymers and other low-dimensional materials, which in turn leads to an effective gate voltage through Holstein interaction. Here, by taking a short asymmetric DNA junction as an example, and using the Langevin approach, we find that when suppression of charge transport by the effective gate voltage surpasses the current increase from an elevated voltage bias, the current-voltage (I-V) curves display strong negative differential resistance (NDR) and perfect current-switching characteristics. The asymmetric DNA chain differs in mechanical stability under inverse voltages and the I-V curve is asymmetric about inverse biases, which can be used to understand recent transport experiments on DNA chains, and meanwhile provides a new strategy to realize NDR in molecular junctions and other low-dimensional quantum systems.

  7. Role of SP-1 in SDS-Induced Adipose Differentiation Related Protein Synthesis in Human Keratinocytes

    Emanuela Corsini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin irritation is a complex phenomenon, and keratinocytes play an important role in it. We have recently characterized the expression and protective role of adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP in skin irritation. In particular, ADRP expression is induced to recover functional cell membrane following the cell damage caused by skin irritants. The purpose of this study was to characterize in a human keratinocyte cells line (NCTC 2544 the biochemical events that lead to ADRP expression following SDS treatment, and in particular, to investigate the role of transcription factor SP-1. Analysis of ADRP promoter region revealed the presence of a potential binding site for the transcription factor SP-1 close to the start site. Evaluated by measuring the DNA binding activity, we found that SDS induced a dose and time related SP-1 activation, which was correlated with SDS-induced ADRP mRNA expression. Furthermore, SDS-induced SP-1 activation, ADRP mRNA expression and lipid droplets accumulation could be modulated by mithramycin A, an antibiotic that selectively binds to the GC box preventing SP-1 binding and gene expression. This demonstrated that SDS-induced ADRP expression was mediated in part through the transcription factor SP-1. In addition, SDS-induced SP-1 activation and ADRP expression could be modulated by the calcium chelator BAPTA, indicating a role of calcium in ADRP-induction. Thus, every time an irritant perturbs the membrane barrier, it renders the membrane leaky and allows extracellular calcium to enter the cells, an event that provides the upstream mechanisms initiating the signaling cascade that triggers the activation of SP-1 and culminates in the enhancement of ADRP expression, which helps to restore the normal homeostasis and ultimately repairs the to membrane.

  8. High and Low LET Radiation Differentially Induce Normal Tissue Damage Signals

    Purpose: Radiotherapy using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is aimed at efficiently killing tumor cells while minimizing dose (biological effective) to normal tissues to prevent toxicity. It is well established that high LET radiation results in lower cell survival per absorbed dose than low LET radiation. However, whether various mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be regulated differentially is not known. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether two actions related to normal tissue toxicity, p53-induced apoptosis and expression of the profibrotic gene PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), are differentially induced by high and low LET radiation. Methods and Materials: Cells were irradiated with high LET carbon ions or low LET photons. Cell survival assays were performed, profibrotic PAI-1 expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was assayed by annexin V staining. Activation of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 315 and serine 37 was monitored by Western blotting. Transfections of plasmids expressing p53 mutated at serines 315 and 37 were used to test the requirement of these residues for apoptosis and expression of PAI-1. Results: As expected, cell survival was lower and induction of apoptosis was higher in high -LET irradiated cells. Interestingly, induction of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene was similar with high and low LET radiation. In agreement with this finding, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 315 involved in PAI-1 expression was similar with high and low LET radiation, whereas phosphorylation of p53 at serine 37, involved in apoptosis induction, was much higher after high LET irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that diverse mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be differentially affected by high and low LET radiation. This may have consequences for the development and manifestation of normal tissue damage.

  9. BMP7 transfection induces in-vitro osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells

    Ka Po John Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether in-vitro osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells can be induced by transient transfection with the gene encoding human bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7. Materials and Methods: A mesenchymal stem cell population was isolated from the dental pulp of two extracted permanent premolars, expanded and characterized. The human BMP7 gene, as a recombinant pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO-BMP7 plasmid, was transfected into the cells. Three negative controls were used: No plasmid, empty vector, and an unrelated vector encoding green fluorescent protein. After the interval of 24 and 48 h, mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as markers of in-vitro osteogenic differentiation were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and standardized against β-actin mRNA levels. Results: The level of alkaline phosphatase mRNA was significantly higher for the BMP7 group than for all three negative controls 48 h after transfection (706.9 vs. 11.24 for untransfected cells, 78.05 for empty vector, and 73.10 for green fluorescent protein vector. The level of osteocalcin mRNA was significantly higher for the BMP7 group than for all three negative controls 24 h after transfection (1.0, however, decreased after another 24 h. Conclusions: In-vitro osteoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells, as indicated by expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, can be induced by transient transfection with the BMP7 gene.

  10. DNA-damage response gene GADD45A induces differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells without inhibiting cell cycle or survival.

    Wingert, Susanne; Thalheimer, Frederic B; Haetscher, Nadine; Rehage, Maike; Schroeder, Timm; Rieger, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood cell production life-long by their unique abilities of self-renewal and differentiation into all blood cell lineages. Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 alpha (GADD45A) is induced by genotoxic stress in HSCs. GADD45A has been implicated in cell cycle control, cell death and senescence, as well as in DNA-damage repair. In general, GADD45A provides cellular stability by either arresting the cell cycle progression until DNA damage is repaired or, in cases of fatal damage, by inducing apoptosis. However, the function of GADD45A in hematopoiesis remains controversial. We revealed the changes in murine HSC fate control orchestrated by the expression of GADD45A at single cell resolution. In contrast to other cellular systems, GADD45A expression did not cause a cell cycle arrest or an alteration in the decision between cell survival and apoptosis in HSCs. Strikingly, GADD45A strongly induced and accelerated the differentiation program in HSCs. Continuous tracking of individual HSCs and their progeny via time-lapse microscopy elucidated that once GADD45A was expressed, HSCs differentiate into committed progenitors within 29 hours. GADD45A-expressing HSCs failed to long-term reconstitute the blood of recipients by inducing multilineage differentiation in vivo. Importantly, γ-irradiation of HSCs induced their differentiation by upregulating endogenous GADD45A. The differentiation induction by GADD45A was transmitted by activating p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and allowed the generation of megakaryocytic-erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid lineages. These data indicate that genotoxic stress-induced GADD45A expression in HSCs prevents their fatal transformation by directing them into differentiation and thereby clearing them from the system. Stem Cells 2016;34:699-710. PMID:26731607

  11. Extended passaging increases the efficiency of neural differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Koehler Karl R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs for the functional replacement of damaged neurons and in vitro disease modeling is of great clinical relevance. Unfortunately, the capacity of iPSC lines to differentiate into neurons is highly variable, prompting the need for a reliable means of assessing the differentiation capacity of newly derived iPSC cell lines. Extended passaging is emerging as a method of ensuring faithful reprogramming. We adapted an established and efficient embryonic stem cell (ESC neural induction protocol to test whether iPSCs (1 have the competence to give rise to functional neurons with similar efficiency as ESCs and (2 whether the extent of neural differentiation could be altered or enhanced by increased passaging. Results Our gene expression and morphological analyses revealed that neural conversion was temporally delayed in iPSC lines and some iPSC lines did not properly form embryoid bodies during the first stage of differentiation. Notably, these deficits were corrected by continual passaging in an iPSC clone. iPSCs with greater than 20 passages (late-passage iPSCs expressed higher expression levels of pluripotency markers and formed larger embryoid bodies than iPSCs with fewer than 10 passages (early-passage iPSCs. Moreover, late-passage iPSCs started to express neural marker genes sooner than early-passage iPSCs after the initiation of neural induction. Furthermore, late-passage iPSC-derived neurons exhibited notably greater excitability and larger voltage-gated currents than early-passage iPSC-derived neurons, although these cells were morphologically indistinguishable. Conclusions These findings strongly suggest that the efficiency neuronal conversion depends on the complete reprogramming of iPSCs via extensive passaging.

  12. Preliminary Study on in Vitro Induced Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Neurons

    JianGe; ShunongLi; 等

    2002-01-01

    Purpose;To study preliminarily in vitro induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells into neurons for further investigation of an alternative for the treatment of glaumatous neuropathy.Materials and methods:Supernatant of cultured Buffalo rat liver cells (buffalorat liver cell-conditioned medium,BRL-CM)was used for culturing embryonic stem cells(ES-D3 cell line)..Morphological features of undifferentiated ES cells were studied by HE staining and electron microscopy.Based on the methods used by Bain et al,we modified the methods and used retinoic,acid(RA) as an inducer to differentiate ES-D3 cells and cytosine arabinoside(Ara-C) as inhibitor of proliferative cells.The growth of the cells was observed under phase contrast microscope.Reuslts:ES-D3 cells cultured by BRL-CM grew in aggregates and remained undifferentiated.Electromicroscopy showed large nucleus and a large amount of mitochondria in undifferentiated ES cells and many processes on the surfaces.In the first day after the adding of retinoic acid,some neuron-like cells with one,two or more processes were present.In the second day after adding RA and the first day after the plus of 10μm Ara-C,a large amount of neuron-like cells appeared,with the formation of neuron-like networks.Conclusions:Combined use of RA and Ara-C can induce ES cells to different into neuron-like cells.Our present preliminary study might provide insights into an alternative for the treatment of glaucomatous neuropathy by the transplantation of embryonic stem cells.Eye Science 2000;16:1-6.

  13. Simvastatin induces differentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes via the ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase pathways.

    Han, Yohan; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-08-15

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, a key enzyme involved in the conversion of HMG-CoA to the cholesterol precursor mevalonate. Some statins, such as simvastatin (simvastatin), have been shown to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects, reducing cartilage degradation in osteoarthritic rabbits in vivo. However, the regulatory mechanisms undergirding simvastatin mediated chondrocyte differentiation have not been well elucidated. Thus, we investigated the action and mechanism of simvastatin on differentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes through western blot analyses, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining. Simvastatin treatment was found to induce type II collagen expression and sulfated-proteoglycan synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indeed, RT-PCR revealed increased expression of type II collagen on treatment with simvastatin. Both IHC and IF staining indicated differentiation of chondrocytes. Simvastatin treatment reduced activation of ERK-1/2 and stimulated activation of p38 kinase. Inhibition of ERK-1/2 with PD98059 enhanced simvastatin induced differentiation, whereas inhibition of p38 kinase with SB203580 inhibited simvastatin induced differentiation. Simvastatin treatment also inhibits loss of type II collagen in serial monolayer culture. Collectively, our results indicate that ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase regulate simvastatin-induced differentiation of chondrocytes in opposing manners. Thus, these findings suggest that simvastatin may be a potential therapeutic drug for osteoarthritis. PMID:27475840

  14. NGF induces adult stem Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate during Leydig cell regeneration

    Highlights: •Nerve growth factor has shown significant changes on mRNA levels during Adult Leydig cells regeneration. •We established the organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules with ethane dimethyl sulphonate (EDS) treatment. •Nerve growth factor has shown proliferation and differentiation-promoting effects on Adult stem Leydig cells. •Nerve growth factor induces progenitor Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate and immature Leydig cells to proliferate. -- Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been reported to be involved in male reproductive physiology. However, few reports have described the activity of NGF during Leydig cell development. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of NGF during stem-Leydig-cell (SLC) regeneration. We investigated the effects of NGF on Leydig-cell (LC) regeneration by measuring mRNA levels in the adult rat testis after ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) treatment. Furthermore, we used the established organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules to examine the regulation of NGF during SLC proliferation and differentiation using EdU staining, real-time PCR and western blotting. Progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs) and immature Leydig cells (ILCs) were also used to investigate the effects of NGF on LCs at different developmental stages. NGF mRNA levels changed significantly during Leydig-cell regeneration in vivo. In vitro, NGF significantly promoted the proliferation of stem Leydig cells and also induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and 3β-HSD protein expression. The data from PLCs and ILCs showed that NGF could increase Cyclin D1 and Hsd 17b3 mRNA levels in PLCs and Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in ILCs. These results indicate that NGF may play an important role during LC regeneration by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of LCs at different developmental stages, from SLCs to PLCs and from PLCs to ILCs. The discovery of this effect of NGF on Leydig cells will provide useful

  15. NGF induces adult stem Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate during Leydig cell regeneration

    Zhang, Lei [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Wang, Huaxi [Southern Medical University, 510515 Guangzhou (China); Yang, Yan [College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Liu, Hui [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Qihao; Xiang, Qi [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Ge, Renshan [Population Council, Rockefeller University, 10065 New York (United States); Su, Zhijian, E-mail: tjnuszj@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Huang, Yadong, E-mail: tydhuang@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, 510632 Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Nerve growth factor has shown significant changes on mRNA levels during Adult Leydig cells regeneration. •We established the organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules with ethane dimethyl sulphonate (EDS) treatment. •Nerve growth factor has shown proliferation and differentiation-promoting effects on Adult stem Leydig cells. •Nerve growth factor induces progenitor Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate and immature Leydig cells to proliferate. -- Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been reported to be involved in male reproductive physiology. However, few reports have described the activity of NGF during Leydig cell development. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of NGF during stem-Leydig-cell (SLC) regeneration. We investigated the effects of NGF on Leydig-cell (LC) regeneration by measuring mRNA levels in the adult rat testis after ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) treatment. Furthermore, we used the established organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules to examine the regulation of NGF during SLC proliferation and differentiation using EdU staining, real-time PCR and western blotting. Progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs) and immature Leydig cells (ILCs) were also used to investigate the effects of NGF on LCs at different developmental stages. NGF mRNA levels changed significantly during Leydig-cell regeneration in vivo. In vitro, NGF significantly promoted the proliferation of stem Leydig cells and also induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and 3β-HSD protein expression. The data from PLCs and ILCs showed that NGF could increase Cyclin D1 and Hsd 17b3 mRNA levels in PLCs and Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in ILCs. These results indicate that NGF may play an important role during LC regeneration by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of LCs at different developmental stages, from SLCs to PLCs and from PLCs to ILCs. The discovery of this effect of NGF on Leydig cells will provide useful

  16. Pristane-induced effects on cytochrome P-4501A, ornithine decarboxylase and putrescine in rats.

    Harper, C M; Soni, M G; Mehendale, H M; Cuchens, M A

    1995-08-16

    The effects of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) on cytochrome P-4501A (cP4501A) activity in microsomes, as well as on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and concomitant putrescine levels were examined in Copenhagen rats. In general, pristane treatment led to increased cP4501A levels when compared to basal levels, while co-treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and pristane elicited augmented cP4501A responses when compared to responses induced by 3-MC alone. Increases in both ODC activity and putrescine levels were also observed in pristane treated rats. Collectively, these results indicate that pristane influences cP4501A activity and elicits promoter-like responses as reflected in elevated ODC activity and increased amount of putrescine. PMID:7656217

  17. Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are a primary source of induced pluripotent stem cells in human fibroblasts

    Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Shigemoto, Taeko; Matsuse, Dai; Akashi, Hideo; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Kikuchi, Tomohiko; Goda, Makoto; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Dezawa, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic and elite models have been proposed for the mechanism of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell generation. In this study we report a system that supports the elite model. We previously identified multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in human dermal fibroblasts that are characterized by stress tolerance, expression of pluripotency markers, self-renewal, and the ability to differentiate into endodermal-, mesodermal-, and ectodermal-lineage cells from a single c...

  18. Bladder cancer cell in co-culture induces human stem cell differentiation to urothelial cells through paracrine FGF10 signaling

    Chung, Seyung S.; Koh, Chester J.

    2013-01-01

    FGF10 is required for embryonic epidermal morphogenesis including brain development, lung morphogenesis, and initiation of limb bud formation. In this study, we investigated the role of FGF10 as a lead induction factor for stem cell differentiation toward urothelial cell. To this end, human multi-potent stem cell in vitro system was employed. Human amniotic fluid stem cells were co-cultured with immortalized bladder cancer lines to induce directed differentiation into urothelial cells. Urothe...

  19. Differential gene expression induced by high LET charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    We investigated differential gene expression of normal human skin HSF42 fibroblasts induced by heavy ions using cDNA microarray technology. Irradiation with 3 types of heavy ions was performed at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility. Out of 7458 genes, we found 61 significant genes (40 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated) that distinguished between human skin fibroblast HSF42 cells non-irradiated and irradiated with 1 Gy of neon particles and 62 significant genes (48 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated) that distinguished between HSF42 cells non-irradiated and irradiated with 1 Gy of silicon particles. Furthermore, we are going to analyze profiles of HSF42 cells exposed to carbon particles and compare those profiles between different types of beams. (author)

  20. Neuronal Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells on Surfactant Templated Chitosan Hydrogels.

    Worthington, Kristan S; Green, Brian J; Rethwisch, Mary; Wiley, Luke A; Tucker, Budd A; Guymon, C Allan; Salem, Aliasger K

    2016-05-01

    The development of effective tissue engineering materials requires careful consideration of several properties beyond biocompatibility, including permeability and mechanical stiffness. While surfactant templating has been used for over a decade to control the physical properties of photopolymer materials, the potential benefit of this technique with regard to biomaterials has yet to be fully explored. Herein we demonstrate that surfactant templating can be used to tune the water uptake and compressive modulus of photo-cross-linked chitosan hydrogels. Interestingly, templating with quaternary ammonium surfactants also hedges against property fluctuations that occur with changing pH. Further, we demonstrate that, after adequate surfactant removal, these materials are nontoxic, support the attachment of induced pluripotent stem cells and facilitate stem cell differentiation to neuronal phenotypes. These results demonstrate the utility of surfactant templating for optimizing the properties of biomaterials intended for a variety of applications, including retinal regeneration. PMID:27008004

  1. On the algebra of deformed differential operators, and induced integrable Toda field theory

    We build in this paper the algebra of q-deformed pseudo-differential operators shown to be an essential step towards setting a q-deformed integrability program. In fact, using the results of this q-deformed algebra, we derive the q-analogues of the generalised KdV hierarchy. We focus in particular the first leading orders of this q-deformed hierarchy namely the q-KdV and q-Boussinesq integrable systems. We also present the q-generalisation of the conformal transformations of the currents un, n ≥ 2 and discuss the primary condition of the fields wn, n ≥ 2 by using the Volterra gauge group transformations for the q-covariant Lax operators. An induced su(n)-Toda(su(2)-Liouville) field theory construction is discussed and other important features are presented. (author)

  2. Development of a system of measuring double-differential cross sections for proton-induced reactions

    Harada, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Sato, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Meigo, S.

    1997-03-01

    We report the present status of a counter telescope and a data acquisition system which are being developed for the measurement of double-differential cross sections of all light-charged particles emitted from proton-induced reactions on {sup 12}C at incident energies less than 90 MeV. The counter telescope consists of an active collimator made of a plastic scintillator, two thin silicon {Delta}E-detectors and a CsI(Tl) E-detectors with photo-diode readout. Signals from each detector are processed using the data acquisition system consisting of the front-end electronics (CAMAC) and two computers connected with the ethernet LAN: a personal computer as the data collector and server, and a UNIX workstation as the monitor and analyzer. (author)

  3. 5-Azacytidine Induces Cardiac Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Activating Extracellular Regulated Kinase

    Qian, Qian; Qian, Hui; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Wei; Yan, Yongmin; Ye, Shengqin; Peng, Xiujuan; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhe; Sun, Lingyun

    2012-01-01

    5-Azacytidine (5-Aza) induces differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cardiomyocytes. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Our previous work showed that 5-Aza induces human bone marrow-derived MSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Here, we demonstrated that 5-Aza induced cardiac differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hucMSCs) and explored the potential signaling pathway. Our results showed that hucMSCs had cardiomyocyte phenotypes after 5-Aza treatment. In addition, myogenic cells differentiated from hucMSCs were positive for mRNA and protein of desmin, β-myosin heavy chain, cardiac troponin T, A-type natriuretic peptide, and Nkx2.5. Human diploid lung fibroblasts treated with 5-Aza expressed no cardiac-specific genes. 5-Aza did not induce hucMSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts. Further study revealed that 5-Aza treatment activated extracellular signal related kinases (ERK) in hucMSCs, but protein kinase C showed no response to 5-Aza administration. U0126, a specific inhibitor of ERK, could inhibit 5-Aza-induced expression of cardiac-specific genes and proteins in hucMSCs. Increased phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3, and up-regulation of myocyte enhancer-binding factor-2c and myogenic differentiation antigen in 5-Aza-treated hucMSCs were also suppressed by U0126. Taken together, these results suggested that sustained activation of ERK by 5-Aza contributed to the induction of the differentiation of hucMSCs into cardiomyocytes in vitro. PMID:21476855

  4. Differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) induces gene and protein expression of the Dictyostelium nuclear calmodulin-binding protein nucleomorphin.

    O'Day, Danton H; Poloz, Yekaterina; Myre, Michael A

    2009-02-01

    The nucleomorphin gene numA1 from Dictyostelium codes for a multi-domain, calmodulin binding protein that regulates nuclear number. To gain insight into the regulation of numA, we assessed the effects of the stalk cell differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), an extracellular signalling molecule, on the expression of numA1 RNA and protein. For comparison, the extracellular signalling molecules cAMP (mediates chemotaxis, prestalk and prespore differentiation) and ammonia (NH(3)/NH(4)(+); antagonizes DIF) were also studied. Starvation, which is a signal for multicellular development, results in a greater than 80% decrease in numA1 mRNA expression within 4 h. Treatment with ammonium chloride led to a greater than 90% inhibition of numA1 RNA expression within 2 h. In contrast, the addition of DIF-1 completely blocked the decrease in numA1 gene expression caused by starvation. Treatment of vegetative cells with cAMP led to decreases in numA1 RNA expression that were equivalent to those seen with starvation. Western blotting after various morphogen treatments showed that the maintenance of vegetative levels of numA1 RNA by DIF-1 in starved cells was reflected in significantly increased numA1 protein levels. Treatment with cAMP and/or ammonia led to decreased protein expression and each of these morphogens suppressed the stimulatory effects of DIF-1. Protein expression levels of CBP4a, a calcium-dependent binding partner of numA1, were regulated in the same manner as numA1 suggesting this potential co-regulation may be related to their functional relationship. NumA1 is the first calmodulin binding protein shown to be regulated by developmental morphogens in Dictyostelium being upregulated by DIF-1 and down-regulated by cAMP and ammonia. PMID:19000924

  5. Differential gene expression and lipid metabolism in fatty liver induced by acute ethanol treatment in mice

    Ethanol induces cumulative liver damage including steatosis, steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the global intrahepatic gene expression profile in the mouse liver treated with ethanol. A single oral dose of 0.5 or 5 g/kg ethanol was administered to male ICR mice, and liver samples were obtained after 6, 24 and 72 h. Histopathological evaluation showed typical fatty livers in the high-dose group at 24 h. Microarray analysis identified 28 genes as being ethanol responsive (two-way ANOVA; p < 0.05), after adjustment by the Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction; these genes displayed ≥ 2-fold induction or repression. The expression of genes that are known to be involved in fatty acid synthesis was examined. The transcript for lipogenic transcription factor, sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding factor 1 (Srebf1), was upregulated by acute ethanol exposure. Of the genes known to contain SRE or SRE-like sequences and to be regulated by SRE-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), those encoding malic enzyme (Mod1), ATP-citrate lyase (Acly), fatty acid synthase (Fasn) and stearyl-CoA desaturase (Scd1) were induced by ethanol. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the changes in the expression levels of the selected genes. The change in the Srebf1 mRNA level correlates well with that of the SREBP1 protein expression as well as its binding to the promoters of the target genes. The present study identifies differentially expressed genes that can be applied to the biomarkers for alcohol-binge-induced fatty liver. These results support the hypothesis by which ethanol-induced steatosis in mice is mediated by the fatty acid synthetic pathway regulated by SREBP1

  6. Oligonucleotide microarray identifies genes differentially expressed during tumorigenesis of DMBA-induced pancreatic cancer in rats.

    Jun-Chao Guo

    Full Text Available The extremely dismal prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC is attributed, at least in part, to lack of early diagnosis. Therefore, identifying differentially expressed genes in multiple steps of tumorigenesis of PC is of great interest. In the present study, a 7,12-dimethylbenzanthraene (DMBA-induced PC model was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The gene expression profile was screened using an oligonucleotide microarray, followed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining validation. A total of 661 differentially expressed genes were identified in stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis. According to GO classification, these genes were involved in multiple molecular pathways. Using two-way hierarchical clustering analysis, normal pancreas, acute and chronic pancreatitis, PanIN, early and advanced pancreatic cancer were completely discriminated. Furthermore, 11 upregulated and 142 downregulated genes (probes were found by Mann-Kendall trend Monotone test, indicating homologous genes of rat and human. The qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis of CXCR7 and UBe2c, two of the identified genes, confirmed the microarray results. In human PC cell lines, knockdown of CXCR7 resulted in decreased migration and invasion. Collectively, our data identified several promising markers and therapeutic targets of PC based on a comprehensive screening and systemic validation.

  7. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  8. Understanding Cell Shape Phenotypes Associated with Stem Cell Differentiation Induced by Topographical Cues of Nanofiber Microenvironment

    Chen, Desu; Sarkar, Sumona; Losert, Wolfgang

    It is increasingly important to understand cell responses to bioinspired material structures and topographies designed to guide cell functional alterations. In this study, we investigated association between early stage cell morphological response and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) induced by poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds (PCL-NF). Accounting for both multi-parametric complexity and biological heterogeneity, we developed an analysis framework based on support vector machines and a multi-cell level averaging method (supercell) to determine the most pronounced cell shape features describing shape phenotypes of cells in PCL-NF compared to cells on flat PCL films. We found that smaller size and more dendritic shape were the major morphological responses of hBMSCs to PCL-NF on day 1 of cell culture. Further, we investigated the shape phenotypes of hBMSCs in PCL-NF of different fiber densities to monitor the transition between 2-D and 3-D topographies. We tracked the genotypic, phenotypic and morphological responses of hBMSCs to different fiber densities at multiple time points to identify correlations between hBMSCs differentiation and early stage morphology in PCL-NF scaffolds.

  9. D609 induces vascular endothelial cells and marrow stromal cells differentiation into neuron-like cells

    Nan WANG; Chun-qing DU; Shao-shan WANG; Kun XIE; Shang-li ZHANG; Jun-ying MIAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of tricyclodecane-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) on cell differentiation in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and marrow stromal cells (MSCs). METHODS: Morphological changes were observed under phase contrast microscope. Electron microscope and immunostaining were used for VECs identification. The expressions of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were examined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: After 6 h of induction with D609, some VECs showed morphological changes characteristic of neurones. 9 h later, more VECs became neuron-like cells. About 30.8 % of VECs displayed positive NSE (P<0.01), while the expression of GFAP was negative. When MSCs were exposed to D609, the cells displayed neuronal morphologies, such as pyramidal cell bodies and processes formed extensive networks at 3 h. 6 h later, almost all of the cells exhibited a typical neuronal appearance, and 85.6 % of MSCs displayed intensive positive NSE, but GFAP did not express. CONCLUSION: D609 induces VECs and MSCs differentiation into neuron-like cells.

  10. [Solarium-induced pseudoporphyria and variegate porphyria as rare differential diagnoses of porphyria cutanea tarda].

    Kochs, C; Mühlenstädt, E; Neumann, N J; Hanneken, S

    2009-10-01

    Three patients presented with typical porphyria cutanea tarda-like vesicles, erosions and scars as well as increased fragility, primarily on the back of the hands. In two of the three, porphyrin workup was normal. Skin biopsy was compatible with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) or pseudoporphyria. The common aspect in the patients' history was the frequent use of solaria for many years, so that UV-induced pseudoporphyria was diagnosed. Treatment was strict abstention from UV radiation and regular dermatologic controls for signs of skin damage. Porphyrin analysis in the third patient showed normal excretion of total urine porphyrins and precursors; however, fecal porphyrins were elevated with dominating coproporphyrins in HPLC and the plasma fluorescence scan yielded a peak at 625 nm. Subsequent mutation analysis showed a mutation in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene, thereby confirming the diagnosis of variegate porphyria. Five months after the initial diagnosis the patient presented with the first acute attack. Further investigations revealed a metastasized carcinoma of the colon, which probably triggered the acute attack. Our cases show rare differential diagnoses in patients presenting with typical PCT-like skin lesions. The discrimination between porphyria cutanea tarda and its differential diagnoses is very important since it has an important impact not only on the treatment modality but also on the course and the prognosis of the disease. PMID:19756434

  11. The BRPF2/BRD1-MOZ complex is involved in retinoic acid-induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    Cho, Hye In; Kim, Min Seong; Jang, Yeun Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The scaffold protein BRPF2 (also called BRD1), a key component of histone acetyltransferase complexes, plays an important role in embryonic development, but its function in the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether BRPF2 is involved in mouse ESC differentiation. BRPF2 depletion resulted in abnormal formation of embryoid bodies, downregulation of differentiation-associated genes, and persistent maintenance of alkaline phosphatase activity even after retinoic acid-induced differentiation, indicating impaired differentiation of BRPF2-depleted ESCs. We also found reduced global acetylation of histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14) in BRPF2-depleted ESCs, irrespective of differentiation status. Further, co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed a physical association between BRPF2 and the histone acetyltransferase MOZ in differentiated ESCs, suggesting the role of BRPF2-MOZ complexes in ESC differentiation. Together, these results suggest that BRPF2-MOZ complexes play an important role in the differentiation of ESCs via H3K14 acetylation. PMID:27256846

  12. Effects of the phytoestrogen coumestrol on RANK-ligand-induced differentiation of osteoclasts

    Phytoestrogens, which have structural similarity to 17β-estradiol, have been reported to act as agonists/antagonists of estrogen in animals and humans. Estrogen is known to have an important role in maintaining bone mass, because the concentration of serum estrogen decreases after menopause and the estrogen deficiency causes bone loss. In this study, we investigated the effects of coumestrol and other phytoestrogens on osteoclast differentiation using estrogen receptor α-transfected RAW264.7 (RAW264.7-ERα) cells. When the cells were cultured with the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B-ligand (RANKL), both formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive multinucleated cells and TRAP activity were increased compared with control cells that were cultured in the absence of RANKL. Coumestrol decreased RANKL-induced formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and TRAP activity dose-dependently. RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7-ERα cells formed resorption pits on calcium phosphate films and the pit formation was inhibited by coumestrol in a dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR analyses revealed that coumestrol (10 μM) decreased mRNA levels of calcitonin receptor (CTR) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) in RANKL-treated cells. In addition, pretreatment of coumestrol decreased RANKL-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases/p44/42 (ERK1/2). These results suggest that coumestrol has an inhibitory effect on the differentiation of osteoclasts, at least partially via ERK1/2 pathway

  13. Multiple Differential Networks Strategy Reveals Carboplatin and Melphalan-Induced Dynamic Module Changes in Retinoblastoma.

    Chen, Cui; Ma, Feng-Wei; Du, Cui-Yun; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common malignant tumor of the eye in childhood. The objective of this paper was to investigate carboplatin (CAR)- and melphalan (MEL)-induced dynamic module changes in RB based on multiple (M) differential networks, and to generate systems-level insights into RB progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS To achieve this goal, we constructed M-differential co-expression networks (DCNs), assigned a weight to each edge, and identified seed genes in M DCNs by ranking genes based on their topological features. Starting with seed genes, a module search was performed to explore candidate modules in CAR and MEL condition. M-DMs were detected according to significance evaluations of M-modules, which originated from refinement of candidate modules. Further, we revealed dynamic changes in M-DM activity and connectivity on the basis of significance of Module Connectivity Dynamic Score (MCDS). RESULTS In the present study, M=2, a total of 21 seed genes were obtained. By assessing module search, refinement, and evaluation, we gained 18 2-DMs. Moreover, 3 significant 2-DMs (Module 1, Module 2, and Module 3) with dynamic changes across CAR and MEL condition were determined, and we denoted them as dynamic modules. Module 1 had 27 nodes of which 6 were seed genes and 56 edges. Module 2 was composed of 28 nodes and 54 edges. A total of 28 nodes interacted with 45 edges presented in Module 3. CONCLUSIONS We have identified 3 dynamic modules with changes induced by CAR and MEL in RB, which might give insights in revealing molecular mechanism for RB therapy. PMID:27144687

  14. Coal mining induced land subsidence monitoring using multiband spaceborne differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar data

    Yue, Huanyin; Liu, Guang; Guo, Huadong; Li, Xinwu; Kang, Zhizhong; Wang, Runfeng; Zhong, Xuelian

    2011-01-01

    The differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR)(DInSAR) technique has been applied to the earth surface deformation monitoring in many areas. In this paper, the DInSAR technique is used to process the spaceborne SAR data including C band ENVISAT ASAR, L band JERS SAR, and ALOS PALSAR data to derive the temporal land subsidence information in the Fengfeng coal mine area, Hebei province in China. Since JERS and ALOS do not have precise orbit, an orbit adjustment must be accomplished before the DInSAR interferogram was formed. Twenty-three differential interferograms are derived to show the temporal change of the land subsidence range and position. At the acquisition time of ENVISAT ASAR, the leveling in the Dashucun coal mine in Fengfeng area was carried, the historical excavation data in 8 coal mines in Fengfeng area from 1992 to 2007 were collected as well. In our analysis, the DInSAR results are compared with leveling data and historical excavation data. The comparison results show the DInSAR subsidence results are consistent with the leveling results and the historical excavation data, and the L band DInSAR shows more advantages than C band in the coal mining induced subsidence monitoring in a rural area. The feasibility and limitations in coal mining induced subsidence monitoring with DInSAR are analyzed, and the possibility of underground mining activity monitoring by spaceborne InSAR data is evaluated. The experimental results show that both C and L band can accomplish monitoring mining area subsidence, but C band has more restricted conditions of its perpendicular baseline. In order to get a satisfactory outcome in mining area subsidence by the DInSAR method, the time series of SAR images of every visit and SAR deformation interferograms should be archived.

  15. Transforming growth factor-β1 induces intestinal myofibroblast differentiation and modulates their migration

    Julia Brenmoehl; Sandra Nicole Miller; Claudia Hofmann; Daniela Vogl; Werner Falk; Jürgen Scholmerich; Gerhard Rogler

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) on the differentiation of colonic lamina propria fibroblasts (CLPF) into myofibroblasts in vitro. METHODS:Primary CLPF cultures were incubated with TGF-β1 and analyzed for production of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin (FN) and FN isoforms. Migration assays were performed in a modified 48-well Boyden chamber. Levels of total and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in CLPF were analyzed after induction of migration. RESULTS:Incubation of CLPF with TGF-β1 for 2 d did not change α-SMA levels, while TGF-β1 treatment for 6 d significantly increased α-SMA production. Short term incubation (6 h) with TGF-β1 enhanced CLPF migration, while long term treatment (6 d) of CLPF with TGF-β1 reduced migration to 15%-37% compared to untreated cells. FN and FN isoform mRNA expression were increased after short term incubation with TGF-β1 (2 d) in contrast to long term incubation with TGF-β1 for 6 d. After induction of migration, TGF-β1-preincubated CLPF showed higher amounts of FN and its isoforms and lower levels of total and phosphorylated FAK than untreated cells. CONCLUSION:Long term incubation of CLPF with TGF-β1 induced differentiation into myofibroblasts with enhanced α-SMA, reduced migratory potential and FAK phosphorylation, and increased FN production. In contrast, short term contact (6 h) of fibroblasts with TGF-β1 induced a dose-dependent increase of cell migration and FAK phosphorylation without induction of α-SMA production.

  16. Differentiation of bone marrow derived Thy-1+β2M-cells into hepatocytes induced by coculture with transgenic CFSCs

    WANG Yunfang; NAN Xue; ZHANG Rui; LI Yanhua; YUE Wen; YAN Fang; PEI Xuetao

    2004-01-01

    Studies of transplantation in vivo indicted that bone marrow derived stem cells had a potential to differentiate into mature hepatocytes. However, there are lots of doubts and uncertainties in the influencing factors and control agents of effectively inducing stem cell differentiation in vitro, the efficiency of stem cells' differentiation into hepatocytes and differentiated cells' life-span and functional state,etc. In this study, rat bone marrow derived Thy-1+β2M- cells (BDTCs) were induced to differentiate into hepatocytes by co-culturing with CFSC/HGF feeder layers which expressed hHGF efficiently and stably. RT-PCR and immunofluorescent texts proved induced BDTCs expressed infant and adult hepatocyte specific genes. Further more, these cells displayed functions of indocyanine green (ICG) uptake, ammonium metabolism and albumin production. It was shown that growth factors together with hepatic nonparenchyma cells provided a feasible microenvironment for differentiation of bone marrow stem cells into hepatocytes. The studies not only provided a significant biological model for going deep into the mechanism of stem cell plasticity, but also offered a theoretical and technical foundation of gene and stem cell engineering-based regenerative medicine for end-stage liver diseases.

  17. Ectopic expression of neurogenin 2 alone is sufficient to induce differentiation of embryonic stem cells into mature neurons.

    Eva C Thoma

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that combinations of defined key developmental transcription factors (TFs can reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency or induce cell conversion of one somatic cell type to another. However, it is not clear if single genes can define a cell̀s identity and if the cell fate defining potential of TFs is also operative in pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the neural TF Neurogenin2 (Ngn2 is sufficient to induce rapid and efficient differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs into mature glutamatergic neurons. Ngn2-induced neuronal differentiation did not require any additional external or internal factors and occurred even under pluripotency-promoting conditions. Differentiated cells displayed neuron-specific morphology, protein expression, and functional features, most importantly the generation of action potentials and contacts with hippocampal neurons. Gene expression analyses revealed that Ngn2-induced in vitro differentiation partially resembled neurogenesis in vivo, as it included specific activation of Ngn2 target genes and interaction partners. These findings demonstrate that a single gene is sufficient to determine cell fate decisions of uncommitted stem cells thus giving insights into the role of key developmental genes during lineage commitment. Furthermore, we present a promising tool to improve directed differentiation strategies for applications in both stem cell research and regenerative medicine.

  18. An ester extract of Cochinchina momordica seeds induces differentiation of melanoma B16 F1 cells via MAPKs signaling.

    Zhao, Lian-Mei; Han, Li-Na; Ren, Feng-Zhi; Chen, Shu-Hong; Liu, Li-Hua; Wang, Ming-Xia; Sang, Mei-Xiang; Shan, Bao-En

    2012-01-01

    Cochinchina momordica seeds (CMS) have been widely used due to antitumor activity by Mongolian tribes of China. However, the details of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, we found that an EtOAc (ethyl ester) extract of CMS (CMSEE) induced differentiation and caused growth inhibition of melanoma B16 F1 cells. CMSEE at the concentration of 5-200 μg/ml exhibited strongest anti-proliferative effects on B16 F1 cells among other CMS fractions (water or petroleum ether). Moreover, CMSEE induced melanoma B16 F1 cell differentiation, characterized by dendrite-like outgrowth, increasing melanogenesis production, as well as enhancing tyrosinase activity. Western blot analysis showed that sustained phosphorylation of p38 MAP accompanied by decrease in ERK1/2 and JNK dephosphorylation were involved in CMSEE-induced B16 F1 cell differentiation. Notably, 6 compounds that were isolated and identified may be responsible for inducing differentiation of CMSEE. These results indicated that CMSEE contributes to the differentiation of B16 F1 cells through modulating MAPKs activity, which may throw some light on the development of potentially therapeutic strategies for melanoma treatment. PMID:23098473

  19. Purple Sweet Potato Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Reduces Inflammatory Adipokine Expression in 3T3-L1 Differentiated Adipocytes

    Shou-Lun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Purple sweet potato leaves (PSPL are widely grown and are considered a healthy vegetable in Taiwan. PSPL contain a high content of flavonoids, and the boiling water-extracted PSPL (PSPLE is believed to prevent metabolic syndrome. However, its efficacy has not yet been verified. Therefore, we investigated the effect of PSPLE on adipocytes. Methods. The differentiated 3T3-L1 cells used in this study were derived from preadipocytes that were differentiated into adipocytes using an adipogenic agent (insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine; approximately 90% of the cells were differentiated using this method. Results. Treating the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with PSPLE caused a dose-dependent decrease in the number of adipocytes rather than preadipocytes. In addition, treatment with PSPLE resulted in apoptosis of the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells as determined by DAPI analysis and flow cytometry. PSPLE also increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. Furthermore, PSPLE induced downregulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α gene expression in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that PSPLE not only induced apoptosis but also downregulated inflammation-associated genes in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells.

  20. Soluble Jagged 1/Fc chimera protein induces the differentiation and maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells

    XING FeiYue; LIU Jing; YU Zhe; JI YuHua

    2008-01-01

    A soluble Jagged 1/Fc chimera protein (Jagged 1/Fc) was directly used to induce differentiation and maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in mice in vitro. A model of inducing and am-plifying DCs in vitro was established. The effect of Jagged 1/Fc on morphology of DCs induced by both rmGM-CSF and rmlL-4 was observed under a confocal microscope. A fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody staining combined with flow cytometry was applied to detect the effect of Jagged 1/Fc on the expression of CD11c, MHC-Ⅱ, CD86, CD80 and CD40 molecules on the surface of DCs. The results showed that Jagged 1/Fc did not affect the morphological properties of DC differentiation induced by both rmGM-CSF and rmlL-4. But it could promote the differentiation and maturation of DCs induced by both. The effect of it was strikingly different in the expression profile of co-stimulating molecules and the morphologic properties of DCs from lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The levels of MHC-Ⅱ and CD40 molecule expression on the surface of DCs stimulated by Jagged 1/Fc were significantly lower than those stimulated by LPS, and the level of CD80 expression on the surface of DCs induced by Jagged 1/Fc was near to that induced by LPS. Jagged 1/Fc had no influence on the expression of CD86 mole-cule on the surface of DCs. Jagged 1/Fc when used alone could not maintain the growth, differentiation and maturation of DCs. All the findings indicate that Jagged 1/Fc influences the differentiation and maturation of DCs, which is not markedly similar to LPS, providing important evidence for its devel-opment and application as a novel immunosuppressant.

  1. Modulation of the retinoic acid-induced cell apoptosis and differentiation by the human TR4 orphan nuclear receptor

    In our previous studies, the TR4 orphan nuclear receptor (TR4) has been demonstrated to suppress retinoic acid (RA)-induced transactivation via a negative feedback control mechanism and in situ analysis showed that TR4 is extensively expressed in mouse brain, especially in regions where the cells are proliferating. To further study the potential roles of TR4 during cell differentiation, a tetracycline-inducible system with anti-sense TR4 in teratocarcinoma P19 cell lines was generated to analyze the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of these cells. The results indicated that the expression of TR4 reduced by doxycycline anti-sense TR4 would alter the retinoic acid-induced differentiation pathway that results in the changes of cell morphology and cell cycle profile. Unexpectedly, our data further indicated that the RA-induced apoptosis, judging by DNA fragmentation, could also be altered by the induction of anti-sense TR4. Together, these findings provide the first in vivo evidence that an orphan nuclear receptor, such as TR4, may play major roles in the RA-mediated apoptosis or differentiation in P19 cells

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial-induced neuroglial cell differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Xiaoguang Luo; Chunlin Ge; Yan Ren; Hongmei Yu; Zhe Wu; Qiushuang Wang; Chaodong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microglia are very sensitive to environmental changes, often becoming activated by pathological conditions. Activated microglia can exert a dual role in injury and repair in various diseases of the central nervous system, including cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: An immortal microglial cell line, BV2, was treated with varying concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce a pathological situation. Supernatant was harvested and incubated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and, concomitantly, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation was observed. DESIGN: A controlled observation, in vitro experiment. SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. MATERIALS: Five male 2-3-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were purchased from Animal Laboratory Center of China Medical University and included in this study. The protocol was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals. The microglial cell line BV2 was produced by Cell Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences. LPS was produced by Sigma Company, USA. METHODS: This study was performed in the Central Laboratory of China Medical University from September 2006 to March 2007. Rat femoral and tibial bone marrow was collected for separation and primary culture of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell cultures were divided into 5 groups: control group, non-activated group, as well as low-, medium-, and high-dose LPS groups. In the control group, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (volume fraction 0.1). In the non-activated group, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were incubated with non-activated BV2 supernatant. In the low-, medium-, and high-dose LPS groups, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were incubated with LPS (0.01, 0.1 and 1

  3. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Induced by Ammonium Nitrogen in Rice Using mRNA Differential Display

    ZHU Guo-hui; HUANG Zhuo-lie

    2008-01-01

    RNAs isolated from ammonium- and nitrate-treated rice leaves were used to screen differentially expressed genes through mRNA differential display. A total of 72 bands appeared significant differences and some of them were further confirmed by reverse Northern and Northem blot. The results showed that two genes, A-02 (Oryza sativa drought stress related mRNA) and A-03 (Zea mays partial mRNA for TFIIB-related protein) were highly up-regulated in the ammonium-fed rice leaves. The enzyme assays showed that the activities of the two anti-oxidative enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, and the content of a non-enzymic antioxidant, glutathione, were significantly higher in the ammonium-fed rice leaves than those in the nitrate-fed ones, indicating that the ammonium nutrition might be beneficial for rice plants to improve the stress resistance during growth and development.

  4. Novel analogs targeting histone deacetylase suppress aggressive thyroid cancer cell growth and induce re-differentiation.

    Jang, S; Yu, X-M; Odorico, S; Clark, M; Jaskula-Sztul, R; Schienebeck, C M; Kupcho, K R; Harrison, A D; Winston-McPherson, G N; Tang, W; Chen, H

    2015-08-01

    To develop novel therapies for aggressive thyroid cancers, we have synthesized a collection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor analogs named AB1 to AB13, which have different linkers between a metal chelating group and a hydrophobic cap. The purpose of this study was to screen out the most effective compounds and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. AB2, AB3 and AB10 demonstrated the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in one metastatic follicular and two anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. Treatment with each of the three ABs resulted in an increase in apoptosis markers, including cleaved poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP) and cleaved caspase 3. Additionally, the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins p21(WAF1) and p27(Kip1) increased with the treatment of ABs while cyclin D1 decreased. Furthermore, AB2, AB3 and AB10 were able to induce thyrocyte-specific genes in the three thyroid cancer cell lines indicated by increased expression levels of sodium iodide symporter, paired box gene 8, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), TTF2 and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors. AB2, AB3 and AB10 suppress thyroid cancer cell growth via cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. They also induce cell re-differentiation, which could make aggressive cancer cells more susceptible to radioactive iodine therapy. PMID:26251030

  5. Nanopit-induced osteoprogenitor cell differentiation: The effect of nanopit depth.

    Davison, Martin J; McMurray, Rebecca J; Smith, Carol-Anne; Dalby, Matthew J; Meek, Rm Dominic

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess osteogenesis in osteoprogenitor cells by nanopits and to assess optimal feature depth. Topographies of depth 80, 220 and 333 nm were embossed onto polycaprolactone discs. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells were seeded onto polycaprolactone discs, suspended in media and incubated. Samples were fixed after 3 and 28 days. Cells were stained for the adhesion molecule vinculin and the osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2 after 3 days. Adhesion was lowest on planar controls and it was the shallowest, and 80-nm-deep pits supported optimal adhesion formation. Deep pits (80 and 220 nm) induced most RUNX2 accumulation. After 28 days, osteocalcin and osteopontin expression were used as markers of osteoblastic differentiation. Deep pits (220 nm) produced cells with the highest concentrations of osteopontin and osteocalcin. All topographies induced higher expression levels than controls. We demonstrated stimulation of osteogenesis in a heterogeneous population of mesenchymal stromal cells. All nanopit depths gave promising results with an optimum depth of 220 nm after 28 days. Nanoscale modification of implant surfaces could optimise fracture union or osteointegration. PMID:27298716

  6. Differential responses in pear and quince genotypes induced by Fe deficiency and bicarbonate.

    Donnini, Silvia; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Zocchi, Graziano

    2009-07-15

    Most of the studies carried out on Fe deficiency condition in arboreous plants have been performed, with the exception of those carried out on plants grown in the field, in hydroponic culture utilizing a total iron depletion growth condition. This can cause great stress to plants. By introducing Fe deficiency induced by the presence of bicarbonate, we found significant differences between Pyrus communis L. cv. Conference and Cydonia oblonga Mill. BA29 and MA clones, characterized by different levels of tolerance to chlorosis. Pigment content and the main protein-pigment complexes were investigated by HPLC and protein gel blot analysis, respectively. While similar changes in the structural organization of photosystems (PSs) were observed in both species under Fe deficiency, a different reorganization of the photosynthetic apparatus was found in the presence of bicarbonate between tolerant and susceptible genotypes, in agreement with the photosynthetic electron transport rate measured in isolated thylakoids. In order to characterize the intrinsic factors determining the efficiency of iron uptake in a tolerant genotype, the main mechanisms induced by Fe deficiency in Strategy I species, such as Fe3+-chelate reductase (EC 1.16.1.7) and H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.6) activities, were also investigated. We demonstrate that physiological and biochemical root responses in quince and pear are differentially affected by iron starvation and bicarbonate supply, and we show a high correlation between tolerance and Strategy I activation. PMID:19269060

  7. Ram ion scattering caused by space shuttle v x B induced differential charging

    Observations of secondary, high-inclination ions streams have been reported in the literature. The authors of these previous papers attributed the source of the secondary ions to a disturbed region in the plasma about 10 m form the space shuttle Orbiter. A new theory has been developed which shows how v x B induces differential charging on the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) can scatter the ram ion flux. Some of these ions are reflected back to the PDP and may be the source of the observed ion distributions. The effect is unique to large spacecraft; it occurs only when the magnitude of the induced v x B potentials are much larger than the electron thermal energy and of the order of the ion ram energy. That the ion streams observed at large angles must have been reflected from the PDP surface is demonstrated with three-dimensional sheath and particle trajectory calculations using the low earth orbit version of the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP/LEO)

  8. UV-induced DNA excision repair in rat fibroblasts during immortalization and terminal differentiation in vitro

    UV-induced DNA excision repair was studied as DNA repair synthesis and dimer removal in rat fibroblast cultures, initiated from either dense or sparse inocula of primary cells grown from skin biopsies. During passaging in vitro an initial increase in DNA repair synthesis, determined both autoradiographically as unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and by means of the BrdU photolysis assay as the number and average size of repair patches, was found to be associated with a morphological shift from small spindle-shaped to large pleiomorphic cells observed over the first twenty generations. In cell populations in growth crisis, a situation exclusively associated with thin-inoculum cultures in which the population predominantly consisted of large pleiomorphic cells, UDS was found to occur at a low level. After development of secondary cultures into immortal cell lines, both repair synthesis and morphology appeared to be the same as in the original primary spindle-shaped cells. At all passages the capacity to remove UV-induced pyrimidine dimers was found to be low, as indicated by the persistence of Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease-sensitive sites. These results are discussed in the context of terminal differentiation and immortalization of rat fibroblasts upon establishment in vitro

  9. Anticancer chemotherapy-induced intratumoral recruitment and differentiation of antigen-presenting cells.

    Ma, Yuting; Adjemian, Sandy; Mattarollo, Stephen R; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Aymeric, Laetitia; Yang, Heng; Portela Catani, João Paulo; Hannani, Dalil; Duret, Helene; Steegh, Kim; Martins, Isabelle; Schlemmer, Frederic; Michaud, Mickaël; Kepp, Oliver; Sukkurwala, Abdul Qader; Menger, Laurie; Vacchelli, Erika; Droin, Nathalie; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Krzysiek, Roman; Gordon, Siamon; Taylor, Philip R; Van Endert, Peter; Solary, Eric; Smyth, Mark J; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2013-04-18

    The therapeutic efficacy of anthracyclines relies on antitumor immune responses elicited by dying cancer cells. How chemotherapy-induced cell death leads to efficient antigen presentation to T cells, however, remains a conundrum. We found that intratumoral CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) cells, which displayed some characteristics of inflammatory dendritic cells and included granulomonocytic precursors, were crucial for anthracycline-induced anticancer immune responses. ATP released by dying cancer cells recruited myeloid cells into tumors and stimulated the local differentiation of CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) cells. Such cells efficiently engulfed tumor antigens in situ and presented them to T lymphocytes, thus vaccinating mice, upon adoptive transfer, against a challenge with cancer cells. Manipulations preventing tumor infiltration by CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) cells, such as the local overexpression of ectonucleotidases, the blockade of purinergic receptors, or the neutralization of CD11b, abolished the immune system-dependent antitumor activity of anthracyclines. Our results identify a subset of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes as therapy-relevant antigen-presenting cells. PMID:23562161

  10. Differential Effects of Olanzapine and Haloperidol on MK-801-induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Song, Jae Chun; Seo, Mi Kyoung; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Jung Goo; Kim, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the differential effects of the antipsychotic drugs olanzapine and haloperidol on MK-801-induced memory impairment and neurogenesis in mice. Methods MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) was administered 20 minutes prior to behavioral testing over 9 days. Beginning on the sixth day of MK-801 treatment, either olanzapine (0.05 mg/kg) or haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg) was administered 40 minutes prior to MK-801 for the final 4 days. Spatial memory performance was measured using a Morris water maze (MWM) test for 9 days (four trials/day). Immunohistochemistry with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to identify newborn cells labeled in tissue sections from the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Results MK-801 administration over 9 days significantly impaired memory performance in the MWM test compared to untreated controls (p<0.05) and these deficits were blocked by treatment with olanzapine (p<0.05) but not haloperidol. The administration of MK-801 also resulted in a decrease in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus (28.6%; p<0.01), which was prevented by treatment with olanzapine (p<0.05) but not haloperidol. Conclusion These results suggest that olanzapine has a protective effect against cognitive impairments induced by MK-801 in mice via the stimulating effects of neurogenesis. PMID:27489382

  11. Co-expression analysis of differentially expressed genes in hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Song, Qingfeng; Zhao, Chang; Ou, Shengqiu; Meng, Zhibin; Kang, Ping; Fan, Liwei; Qi, Feng; Ma, Yilong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the expression profiles of HCV-infected Huh7 cells at different time points. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified with the Samr package in R software once the data were normalized. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis of the identified DEGs was also performed. Subsequently, MCODE in Cytoscape software was applied to conduct module analysis of the constructed co-expression networks. A total of 1,100 DEGs were identified between the HCV-infected and control samples at 12, 18, 24 and 48 h post-infection. DEGs at 24 and 48 h were involved in the same signaling pathways and biological processes, including sterol biosynthetic processes and tRNA amino-acylation. There were 22 time series genes which were clustered into 3 expression patterns, and the demarcation point of the 2 expression patterns that 401 overlapping DEGs at 24 and 48 h clustered into was 24 h post-infection. tRNA synthesis-related biological processes emerged at 24 and 48 h. Replication and assembly of HCV in HCV-infected Huh7 cells occurred mainly at 24 h post-infection. In view of this, the screened time series genes have the potential to become candidate target molecules for monitoring, diagnosing and treating HCV-induced HCC. PMID:25339452

  12. Lapatinib induces autophagic cell death and differentiation in acute myeloblastic leukemia

    Chen YJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jen Chen,1–4 Li-Wen Fang,5 Wen-Chi Su,6,7 Wen-Yi Hsu,1 Kai-Chien Yang,1 Huey-Lan Huang8 1Department of Medical Research, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, 3Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 4Institute of Pharmacology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 5Department of Nutrition, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 6Research Center for Emerging Viruses, China Medical University Hospital, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 8Department of Bioscience Technology, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Lapatinib is an oral-form dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB/Her superfamily members with anticancer activity. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanism of action of lapatinib on several human leukemia cells lines, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL cells. We found that lapatinib inhibited the growth of human AML U937, HL-60, NB4, CML KU812, MEG-01, and ALL Jurkat T cells. Among these leukemia cell lines, lapatinib induced apoptosis in HL-60, NB4, and Jurkat cells, but induced nonapoptotic cell death in U937, K562, and MEG-01 cells. Moreover, lapatinib treatment caused autophagic cell death as shown by positive acridine orange staining, the massive formation of vacuoles as seen by electronic microscopy, and the upregulation of LC3-II, ATG5, and ATG7 in AML U937 cells. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and knockdown of ATG5, ATG7, and Beclin-1 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA partially rescued lapatinib-induced cell death. In addition, the induction of phagocytosis and ROS production as well as the upregulation of surface markers CD14 and CD68 was detected in lapatinib-treated U937 cells, suggesting the induction of

  13. Differentiation between glioma recurrence and radiation-induced brain injuries using perfusion-weighted MR imaging

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in the differentiation of recurrent glioma and radiation-induced brain injuries. Methods: Fifteen patients with previously resected and irradiated glioma, presenting newly developed abnormal enhancement, were included in the study. The final diagnosis was determined either histologically or clinicoradiologically. PWI was obtained with a gradient echo echo-planar-imaging (GRE-EPI) sequence. The normalized rCBV ratio [CBV (abnormal enhancement)/CBV (contralateral tissue)], rCBF ratio [CBF (abnormal enhancement)/CBF (contralateral tissue)] and rMTT ratio [(MTT abnormal enhancement)/MTT (contralateral tissue)] were calculated, respectively. The regions of interest (ROIs) consisting of 20-40 mm2 were placed in the abnormal enhanced areas on postcontrast T1-weighted images. Ten to fifteen ROIs measurements were performed in each lesion and the mean value was obtained. Mann-Whitney test was used to determine whether there was a difference in the rCBV/rCBF/MTT ratios between glioma recurrence and radiated injuries. Results: Nine of the 15 patients were proved recurrent glioma, 6 were proved radiation-induced brain injuries. The mean rCBV ratio [2.87 (0.70-4.91)] in glioma recurrence was markedly higher than that [0.70 (0.12-1.62)] in radiation injuries (Z=-2.55, P<0.05). The mean rCBF ratio [1.89 (0.64-3.96)] in glioma recurrence was markedly higher than that [0.56 (0.12-2.08)] in radiation injuries (Z=-2.08, P<0.05). The areas under rCBV and rCBF ROC curve were 0.893 and 0.821. If the rCBV ratio ≤ 0.77, the diagnosis sensitivity of radiation-induced brain injuries was 100.0%; If ≥ 2.44, the diagnosis specificity of recurrent glioma was 100.0%. Conclusion: PWI was an effective technique in distinguishing glioma recurrence from radiation injuries and rCBV and rCBF ratios were of great value in the differentiation. (authors)

  14. Copper induced immunotoxicity promote differential apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus

    proliferated. Apart from the role of inflammation, our findings also have identified the role of other partially responsible apoptotic molecules like p27, p73, p62, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) that differentially changed due to copper treatment in spleen and thymus of Swiss albino mice. Present study firstly demonstrates how apoptotic pathways differentially regulate copper induced immunosuppression

  15. The tankyrase-specific inhibitor JW74 affects cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis and differentiation in osteosarcoma cell lines

    Wnt/β-catenin is a major regulator of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation and this signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in a several cancers, including osteosarcoma (OS). Attenuation of Wnt/β-catenin activity by tankyrase inhibitors is an appealing strategy in treatment of OS. The efficacy of the tankyrase inhibitor JW74 was evaluated in three OS cell lines (KPD, U2OS, and SaOS-2) both at the molecular and functional level. At the molecular level, JW74 induces stabilization of AXIN2, a key component of the β-catenin destruction complex, resulting in reduced levels of nuclear β-catenin. At the functional level, JW74 induces reduced cell growth in all three tested cell lines, in part due to a delay in cell cycle progression and in part due to an induction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, JW74 induces differentiation in U2OS cells, which under standard conditions are resistant to osteogenic differentiation. JW74 also enhances differentiation of OS cell lines, which do not harbor a differentiation block. Interestingly, microRNAs (miRNAs) of the let-7 family, which are known tumor suppressors and inducers of differentiation, are significantly upregulated following treatment with JW74. We demonstrate for the first time that tankyrase inhibition triggers reduced cell growth and differentiation of OS cells. This may in part be due to an induction of let-7 miRNA. The presented data open for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of malignant OS

  16. Ascorbic acid enhances the cardiac differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells through promoting the proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells

    Nan Cao; Bin Wei; Liu Wang; Ying Jin; Huang-Tian Yang; Zumei Liu; Zhongyan Chen; Jia Wang; Taotao Chen; Xiaoyang Zhao; Yu Ma; Lianju Qin; Jiuhong Kang

    2012-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened new avenues for the investigation of heart diseases,drug screening and potential autologous cardiac regeneration.However,their application is hampered by inefficient cardiac differentiation,high interline variability,and poor maturation of iPSC-derived cardiomyoeytes (iPS-CMs).To identify efficient inducers for cardiac differentiation and maturation of iPSCs and elucidate the mechanisms,we systematically screened sixteen cardiomyocyte inducers on various murine (m) iPSCs and found that only ascorbic acid (AA) consistently and robustly enhanced the cardiac differentiation of eleven lines including eight without spontaneous cardiogenic potential.We then optimized the treatment conditions and demonstrated that differentiation day 2-6,a period for the specification of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs),was a critical time for AA to take effect.This was further confirmed by the fact that AA increased the expression of cardiovascular but not mesodermal markers.Noteworthily,AA treatment led to approximately 7.3-fold (miPSCs) and 30.2-fold (human iPSCs) augment in the yield of iPS-CMs.Such effect was attributed to a specific increase in the proliferation of CPCs via the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway by promoting collagen synthesis.In addition,AA-induced cardiomyocytes showed better sareomerie organization and enhanced responses of action potentials and calcium transients to β-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulations.These findings demonstrate that AA is a suitable cardiomyocyte inducer for iPSCs to improve cardiac differentiation and maturation simply,universally,and efficiently.These findings also highlight the importance of stimulating CPC proliferation by manipulating extracellular microenvironment in guiding cardiac differentiation of the pluripotent stem cells.

  17. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    Yin, Xinhua [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Wang, Xiaoyuan [Department of Nephrology, Xi An Honghui Hospital, Xi an (China); Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Zhang, Hongqi, E-mail: zhq9699@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China)

    2015-07-01

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression.

  18. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression

  19. Variation of radiation sensitivity of Friend Erythroleukemia cells cultured in the presence of the differentiation inducer DMSO

    Differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells (FELC) was induced with 1.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the culture medium. Cell growth, erythroid differentiation, and radiosensitivity of the proliferative capacity of the cells were measured and compared to a noninduced control culture of identical age. Induced cells first appeared on Day 2 after DMSO addition, and increased to a maximum of 80 to 90% of the cell population on Day 5, whereas in the control culture, induction was less than 2% of the cells. Radiosensitivity of the cells in the induced culture relative to that of cells in the control culture, showed an age-dependent variation. On days 1 and 2 after DMSO addition, the cells in the induced culture were less radiosensitive than those in the control culture. At later times, this relationship was reversed, and between days 3 and 5 the clonable cells in the induced culture were less radiosensitive than those in the control culture. These results suggest that the metabolic events associated with commitment of FELC to differentiate affect their ability to cope with the radiation-induced lesions underlying the loss of division capacity

  20. Cholinergic activation enhances retinoic acid-induced differentiation in the human NB-4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line.

    Chotirat, Sadudee; Suriyo, Tawit; Hokland, Marianne; Hokland, Peter; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Auewarakul, Chirayu U

    2016-07-01

    The non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS) has been shown to play a role in regulating hematopoietic differentiation. We determined the expression of cholinergic components in leukemic cell lines by Western blotting and in normal leukocyte subsets by flow cytometry and found a heterogeneous expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline transporter (CHT), M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-mAChR) and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR). We then evaluated NNCS role in differentiation of human NB-4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line and discovered a dramatic induction of M3-mAChR after all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment (p<0.0001). Adding carbachol which is a cholinergic agonist to the ATRA treatment resulted in an increase of a granulocytic differentiation marker (CD11b) as compared with ATRA treatment alone (p<0.05), indicating that cholinergic activation enhanced ATRA in inducing NB-4 maturation. The combination of carbachol and ATRA treatment for 72h also resulted in decreased viability and increased cleaved caspase-3 expression when compared with ATRA treatment alone (p<0.05). However, this combination did not cause poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Overall, we have shown that NB-4 cells expressed M3-mAChR in a differentiation-dependent manner and cholinergic stimulation induced maturation and death of ATRA-induced differentiated NB-4 cells. PMID:27282572

  1. A comparison of the chemical and liver extract-induced hepatic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells.

    Nhung, Truong Hai; Nam, Nguyen Hai; Nguyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Nghia, Huynh; Van Thanh, Nguyen; Ngoc, Phan Kim; Van Pham, Phuc

    2015-11-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been put forward as promising therapeutics for end-stage liver disease (ESLD). In the present study, we compared the effects of defined chemicals and liver extract on the hepatic differentiation of ADSCs. ADSCs were isolated according to the method described in our previously published study. Subsequently, the differentiation of ADSCs was induced separately by chemicals (including hepatic growth factor (HGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and oncostatin M (OSM)) and liver extract (30 μg/ml) in a total period of 21 d. The efficiency of hepatic differentiation was evaluated by changes in the cell morphology, gene expression, and cellular function. The results showed that the liver extract promoted the hepatic differentiation of ADSCs to a significantly greater extent than the chemicals. In the group of ADSCs treated with liver extract, changes in the cell morphology began sooner, and the expression of alpha-FP and albumin genes was higher than that in the chemically treated group. The ADSCs in both the groups stained positive for anti-alpha trypsin (AAT) and albumin markers. The cells also exhibited glycogen storage capacity. Therefore, we concluded that the liver extract could efficiently induce the differentiation of ADSCs into hepatocyte-like cells. This study reveals the potential of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in the liver extract, which supports further preclinical and clinical research on the application of ADSCs in ESLD treatment. PMID:26275888

  2. Inhibitory effect of leptin on rosiglitazone-induced differentiation of primary adipocytes prepared from TallyHO/Jng mice

    Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Joo Young; Sung, Yoon-Young; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee-Youn; Park, Ji Seon; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong [Medicinal Science Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong, 305-600 Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Sang Dal, E-mail: sdrhee@krict.re.kr [Medicinal Science Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong, 305-600 Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study, we investigated the effects of leptin on adipocyte differentiation prepared from subcutaneous fat of TallyHo mice. {yields} Leptin inhibited the adipocytes differentiation at physiological concentration via inhibition of PPAR{gamma} expression. {yields} Inhibitors of ERK and STAT1 restored the leptin's inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: The effects of leptin on rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation were investigated in the primary adipocytes prepared from subcutaneous fat of TallyHO/Jng (TallyHO) mouse, a recently developed model animal for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The treatment of leptin inhibited the rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation with a decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) a key adipogenic transcription factor, both in mRNA and protein levels. Leptin (10 nM) was sufficient to inhibit the adipocyte differentiation, which seemed to come from increased expression of leptin receptor genes in the fat of TallyHO mice. The inhibition of adipogenesis by leptin was restored by the treatment of inhibitors for extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (PD98059) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) (fludarabine). Furthermore, in vivo intraperitoneal administration of PD98059 and fludarabine increased the PPAR{gamma} expression in the subcutaneous fat of TallyHO mice. These data suggest that leptin could inhibit the PPAR{gamma} expression and adipocyte differentiation in its physiological concentration in TallyHO mice.

  3. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β attenuates glucocorticoid-induced suppression of myogenic differentiation in vitro.

    Zhenyu Ma

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are the only therapy that has been demonstrated to alter the progress of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, the most common muscular dystrophy in children. However, glucocorticoids disturb skeletal muscle metabolism and hamper myogenesis and muscle regeneration. The mechanisms involved in the glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of myogenic differentiation are not fully understood. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β is considered to play a central role as a negative regulator in myogenic differentiation. Here, we showed that glucocorticoid treatment during the first 48 h in differentiation medium decreased the level of phosphorylated Ser9-GSK-3β, an inactive form of GSK-3β, suggesting that glucocorticoids affect GSK-3β activity. We then investigated whether GSK-3β inhibition could regulate glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of myogenic differentiation in vitro. Two methods were employed to inhibit GSK-3β: pharmacological inhibition with LiCl and GSK-3β gene knockdown. We found that both methods resulted in enhanced myotube formation and increased levels of muscle regulatory factors and muscle-specific protein expression. Importantly, GSK-3β inhibition attenuated glucocorticoid-induced suppression of myogenic differentiation. Collectively, these data suggest the involvement of GSK-3β in the glucocorticoid-mediated impairment of myogenic differentiation. Therefore, the inhibition of GSK-3β may be a strategy for preventing glucocorticoid-induced muscle degeneration.

  4. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Ninomiya, Yuichi [Translational Research Center, Saitama International Medical, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi [Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Nishiyama, Masahiko, E-mail: yamacho@saitama-med.ac.jp [Translational Research Center, Saitama International Medical, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan)

    2010-04-02

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-{beta}1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  5. Inhibitory effect of leptin on rosiglitazone-induced differentiation of primary adipocytes prepared from TallyHO/Jng mice

    Research highlights: → In this study, we investigated the effects of leptin on adipocyte differentiation prepared from subcutaneous fat of TallyHo mice. → Leptin inhibited the adipocytes differentiation at physiological concentration via inhibition of PPARγ expression. → Inhibitors of ERK and STAT1 restored the leptin's inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: The effects of leptin on rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation were investigated in the primary adipocytes prepared from subcutaneous fat of TallyHO/Jng (TallyHO) mouse, a recently developed model animal for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The treatment of leptin inhibited the rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation with a decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) a key adipogenic transcription factor, both in mRNA and protein levels. Leptin (10 nM) was sufficient to inhibit the adipocyte differentiation, which seemed to come from increased expression of leptin receptor genes in the fat of TallyHO mice. The inhibition of adipogenesis by leptin was restored by the treatment of inhibitors for extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (PD98059) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) (fludarabine). Furthermore, in vivo intraperitoneal administration of PD98059 and fludarabine increased the PPARγ expression in the subcutaneous fat of TallyHO mice. These data suggest that leptin could inhibit the PPARγ expression and adipocyte differentiation in its physiological concentration in TallyHO mice.

  6. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-β1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  7. Social defeat during adolescence and adulthood differentially induce BDNF-regulated immediate early genes

    Caroline M. Coppens

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressful life events generally enhance the vulnerability for the development of human psychopathologies such as anxiety disorders and depression. The incidence rates of adult mental disorders steeply rises during adolescence in parallel with a structural and functional reorganization of the neural circuitry underlying stress reactivity. However, the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to stress and manifestation of mental disorders during adolescence are little understood. We hypothesized that heightened sensitivity to stress during adolescence reflects age-dependent differences in the expression of activity-dependent genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we compared the effect of social stress during adolescence with social stress in adulthood on the expression of a panel of genes linked to induction of long-term potentiation (LTP and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. We show that social defeat during adolescence and adulthood differentially regulates expression of the immediate early genes BDNF, Arc, Carp, and Tieg1, as measured by qPCR in tissue lysates from prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. In the hippocampus, mRNA levels for all four genes were robustly elevated following social defeat in adolescence, whereas none were induced by defeat in adulthood. The relationship to coping style was also examined using adult reactive and proactive coping rats. Gene expression levels of reactive and proactive animals were similar in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. However, a trend toward a differential expression of BDNF and Arc mRNA in the nucleus accumbens was detected. BDNF mRNA was increased in the nucleus accumbens of proactive defeated animals, whereas the expression level in reactive defeated animals was comparable to control animals. The results demonstrate striking differences in immediate early gene expression in response to social defeat in adolescent and adult rats.

  8. Dexamethasone Induces Cardiomyocyte Terminal Differentiation via Epigenetic Repression of Cyclin D2 Gene.

    Gay, Maresha S; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Li, Yong; Kanna, Angela; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-08-01

    Dexamethasone treatment of newborn rats inhibited cardiomyocyte proliferation and stimulated premature terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. Yet mechanisms remain undetermined. The present study tested the hypothesis that the direct effect of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated epigenetic repression of cyclin D2 gene in the cardiomyocyte plays a key role in the dexamethasone-mediated effects in the developing heart. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from 2-day-old rats. Cells were stained with a cardiomyocyte marker α-actinin and a proliferation marker Ki67. Cyclin D2 expression was evaluated by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Promoter methylation of CcnD2 was determined by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). Overexpression of Cyclin D2 was conducted by transfection of FlexiCcnD2 (+CcnD2) construct. Treatment of cardiomyocytes isolated from newborn rats with dexamethasone for 48 hours significantly inhibited cardiomyocyte proliferation with increased binucleation and decreased cyclin D2 protein abundance. These effects were blocked with Ru486 (mifepristone). In addition, the dexamethasone treatment significantly increased cyclin D2 gene promoter methylation in newborn rat cardiomyocytes. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine inhibited dexamethasone-mediated promoter methylation, recovered dexamethasone-induced cyclin D2 gene repression, and blocked the dexamethasone-elicited effects on cardiomyocyte proliferation and binucleation. In addition, the overexpression of cyclin D2 restored the dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of proliferation and increase in binucleation in newborn rat cardiomyocytes. The results demonstrate that dexamethasone acting on glucocorticoid receptors has a direct effect and inhibits proliferation and stimulates premature terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart via epigenetic repression of cyclin D2 gene. PMID:27302109

  9. Vorinostat induces apoptosis and differentiation in myeloid malignancies: genetic and molecular mechanisms.

    Gabriela Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aberrant epigenetic patterns are central in the pathogenesis of haematopoietic diseases such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. Vorinostat is a HDACi which has produced responses in these disorders. The purpose of this study was to address the functional effects of vorinostat in leukemic cell lines and primary AML and MDS myeloid cells and to dissect the genetic and molecular mechanisms by which it exerts its action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Functional assays showed vorinostat promoted cell cycle arrest, inhibited growth, and induced apoptosis and differentiation of K562, HL60 and THP-1 and of CD33(+ cells from AML and MDS patients. To explore the genetic mechanism for these effects, we quantified gene expression modulation by vorinostat in these cells. Vorinostat increased expression of genes down-regulated in MDS and/or AML (cFOS, COX2, IER3, p15, RAI3 and suppressed expression of genes over-expressed in these malignancies (AXL, c-MYC, Cyclin D1 and modulated cell cycle and apoptosis genes in a manner which would favor cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis of neoplastic cells, consistent with the functional assays. Reporter assays showed transcriptional effect of vorinostat on some of these genes was mediated by proximal promoter elements in GC-rich regions. Vorinostat-modulated expression of some genes was potentiated by mithramycin A, a compound that interferes with SP1 binding to GC-rich DNA sequences, and siRNA-mediated SP1 reduction. ChIP assays revealed vorinostat inhibited DNA binding of SP1 to the proximal promoter regions of these genes. These results suggest vorinostat transcriptional action in some genes is regulated by proximal promoter GC-rich DNA sequences and by SP1. CONCLUSION: This study sheds light on the effects of vorinostat in AML and MDS and supports the implementation of clinical trials to explore the use of vorinostat in the treatment of these diseases.

  10. Adipogenic human adenovirus Ad-36 induces commitment, differentiation, and lipid accumulation in human adipose-derived stem cells

    Pasarica, Magdalena; Mashtalir, Nazar; McAllister, Emily J;

    2008-01-01

    Human adenovirus Ad-36 is causatively and correlatively linked with animal and human obesity, respectively. Ad-36 enhances differentiation of rodent preadipocytes, but its effect on adipogenesis in humans is unknown. To indirectly assess the role of Ad-36-induced adipogenesis in human obesity, the...

  11. Angle-differential observation of plasmon electrons in the double-differential cross-section spectra of fast-ion-induced electron ejection from C60

    Kelkar, A. H.; Gulyás, L.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the measurement of double-differential distribution of soft electron emission from C60 fullerene, induced by a fast-moving Coulomb field of 76 MeV energy bare fluorine ions. A broad "plasmon-electron" peak, riding on the Coulomb-ionization continuum, is observed due to the deexcitation of the giant dipole plasmon resonance state in C60. The angular distribution of the plasmon electrons goes through a dip around 90°, which is contrary to that observed in ion-atom collisions measured in situ, indicating the alignment of the induced dipole moment along the projectile beam direction. A model based on the photoelectron angular distribution which is modified due to the ion-induced postcollisional interaction provides an excellent agreement with the observed asymmetric distribution. The distribution smoothly changes from a dip at 90° to a peak with the variation of ejected electron energy indicating transition from a collective plasmon behavior of the whole system to a single ion-atom interaction. The single-differential cross section was also derived, which preserves the signature of the collective excitation.

  12. Naringin protects human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation.

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ge; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Long-Fei; Zhang, Yuan-Min

    2015-12-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of osteoporosis. We show that naringin, a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, effectively protects human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. Naringin increased viability of hAMDSCs and attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Naringin also reversed H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 inhibits osteogenic differentiation by decreasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium content and mRNA expression levels of osteogenesis marker genes RUNX2 and OSX in hADMSCs. However, addition of naringin leads to a significant recovery, suggesting the protective effects of naringin against H2O2-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the H2O2-induced decrease of protein expressions of β-catenin and clyclin D1, two important transcriptional regulators of Wnt-signaling, was successfully rescued by naringin treatment. Also, in the presence of Wnt inhibitor DKK-1, naringin is no longer effective in stimulating ALP activity, increasing calcium content and mRNA expression levels of RUNX2 and OSX in H2O2-exposed hADMSCs. These data clearly demonstrates that naringin protects hADMSCs against oxidative stress-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation, which may involve Wnt signaling pathway. Our work suggests that naringin may be a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for osteoporosis and activation of Wnt signaling may represent attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of degenerative disease of bone tissue. PMID:26482937

  13. Capsaicin induces "brite" phenotype in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Ritesh K Baboota

    Full Text Available Targeting the energy storing white adipose tissue (WAT by pharmacological and dietary means in order to promote its conversion to energy expending "brite" cell type holds promise as an anti-obesity approach. Present study was designed to investigate/revisit the effect of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation with special reference to induction of "brite" phenotype during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.Multiple techniques such as Ca2+ influx assay, Oil Red-O staining, nutrigenomic analysis in preadipocytes and matured adipocytes have been employed to understand the effect of capsaicin at different doses. In addition to in-vitro experiments, in-vivo studies were carried out in high-fat diet (HFD fed rats treated with resiniferatoxin (RTX (a TRPV1 agonist and in mice administered capsaicin.TRPV1 channels are expressed in preadipocytes but not in adipocytes. In preadipocytes, both capsaicin and RTX stimulate Ca2+ influx in dose-dependent manner. This stimulation may be prevented by capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist. At lower doses, capsaicin inhibits lipid accumulation and stimulates TRPV1 gene expression, while at higher doses it enhances accumulation of lipids and suppresses expression of its receptor. In doses of 0.1-100 µM, capsaicin promotes expression of major pro-adipogenic factor PPARγ and some of its downstream targets. In concentrations of 1 µM, capsaicin up-regulates anti-adipogenic genes. Low-dose capsaicin treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiating into adipocytes results in increased expression of brown fat cell marker genes. In white adipose of mice, capsaicin administration leads to increase in browning-specific genes. Global TRPV1 ablation (i.p. by RTX administration leads to increase in locomotor activity with no change in body weight.Our findings suggest the dual modulatory role of capsaicin in adipogenesis. Capsaicin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 via TRPV1 activation and induces brown-like phenotype whereas

  14. Effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into mesodermal progenitor cells

    Highlights: ► Treatment with angiotensin II enhanced LIF-induced DNA synthesis of mouse iPS cells. ► Angiotensin II may enhance the DNA synthesis via induction of superoxide. ► Treatment with angiotensin II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. ► Angiotensin II enhanced differentiation into mesodermal progenitor cells. ► Angiotensin II may enhance the differentiation via activation of p38 MAPK. -- Abstract: Previous studies suggest that angiotensin receptor stimulation may enhance not only proliferation but also differentiation of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the involvement of the angiotensin receptor in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) significantly increased DNA synthesis in mouse iPS cells cultured in a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Pretreatment of the cells with either candesartan (a selective Ang II type 1 receptor [AT1R] antagonist) or Tempol (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger) significantly inhibited Ang II-induced DNA synthesis. Treatment with Ang II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with candesartan significantly inhibited Ang II- induced JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. In contrast, induction of mouse iPS cell differentiation into Flk-1-positive mesodermal progenitor cells was performed in type IV collagen (Col IV)- coated dishes in a differentiation medium without LIF. When Col IV-exposed iPS cells were treated with Ang II for 5 days, the expression of Flk-1 was significantly increased compared with that in the cells treated with the vehicle alone. Pretreatment of the cells with both candesartan and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the Ang II- induced increase in Flk-1 expression. Treatment with Ang II enhanced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in Col IV- exposed iPS cells. These results suggest that the stimulation of

  15. Beta-mecaptoethanol suppresses inflammation and induces adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-F442A murine preadipocytes.

    Wen Guo

    Full Text Available Preadipocytes are present in adipose tissues throughout adult life that can proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes in response to environmental cues. Abnormal increase in adipocyte number or size leads to fat tissue expansion. However, it is now recognized that adipocyte hypertrophy is a greater risk factor for metabolic syndrome whereas fat tissue that continues to produce newer and smaller fat cells through preadipocyte differentiation is "metabolically healthy". Because adipocyte hypertrophy is often associated with increased oxidant stress and low grade inflammation, both are linked to disturbed cellular redox, we tested how preadipocyte differentiation may be regulated by beta-mercaptoethanol (BME, a pharmacological redox regulator and radical scavenger, using murine 3T3-F442A preadipocytes as the cell model. Effects of BME on adipogenesis were measured by microphotography, real-time PCR, and Western analysis. Our data demonstrated that preadipocyte differentiation could be regulated by extracellular BME. At an optimal concentration, BME enhanced expression of adipogenic gene markers and lipid accumulation. This effect was associated with BME-mediated down-regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression during early differentiation. BME also attenuated TNFalpha-induced activation of NFkappaB in differentiating preadipocytes and partially restored TNFalpha-mediated suppression on adipogenesis. Using a non-adipogenic HEK293 cell line transfected with luciferase reporter genes, we demonstrated that BME reduced basal and TNFalpha-induced NFkappaB activity and increased basal and ciglitazone-induced PPARgamma activity; both may contribute to the pro-adipogenic effect of BME in differentiating F442A preadipocytes.

  16. A PU.1 suppressive target gene, metallothionein 1G, inhibits retinoic acid-induced NB4 cell differentiation.

    Naomi Hirako

    Full Text Available We recently revealed that myeloid master regulator SPI1/PU.1 directly represses metallothionein (MT 1G through its epigenetic activity of PU.1, but the functions of MT1G in myeloid differentiation remain unknown. To clarify this, we established MT1G-overexpressing acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 (NB4MTOE cells, and investigated whether MT1G functionally contributes to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that the inductions of CD11b and CD11c and reductions in myeloperoxidase and c-myc by ATRA were significantly attenuated in NB4MTOE cells. Morphological examination revealed that the percentages of differentiated cells induced by ATRA were reduced in NB4MTOE cells. Since G1 arrest is a hallmark of ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation, we observed a decrease in G1 accumulation, as well as decreases in p21WAF1/CIP1 and cyclin D1 inductions, by ATRA in NB4MTOE cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction assays revealed that the proportions of NBT-positive cells were decreased in NB4MTOE cells in the presence of ATRA. Microarray analyses showed that the changes in expression of several myeloid differentiation-related genes (GATA2, azurocidin 1, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, matrix metallopeptidase -8, S100 calcium-binding protein A12, neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 and oncostatin M induced by ATRA were disturbed in NB4MTOE cells. Collectively, overexpression of MT1G inhibits the proper differentiation of myeloid cells.

  17. Neutrophils Are Required for 3-Methylcholanthrene-Initiated, Butylated Hydroxytoluene-Promoted Lung Carcinogenesis

    Vikis, Haris G.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Franklin, Andrew; Stein, Lauren; Rymaszewski, Amy; Zhu, Jihong; Liu, Pengyuan; Tichelaar, Jay W.; Krupnick, Alexander S.; You, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown a link between chronic inflammation and lung tumorigenesis. Inbred mouse strains vary in their susceptibility to methylcholanthrene (MCA)-initiated butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-promoted lung carcinogenesis. In the present study we investigated whether neutrophils play a role in strain dependent differences in susceptibility to lung tumor promotion. We observed a significant elevation in homeostatic levels of neutrophils in the lungs of tumor-susceptible BALB/cByJ...

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and retinoic acid trigger bovine VASA homolog expression in differentiating bovine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Sumer, Huseyin; Jain, Kanika; Verma, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest identifiable and completely committed progenitors of female and male gametes. They are obvious targets for genome editing because they assure the transmission of desirable or introduced traits to future generations. PGCs are established at the earliest stages of embryo development and are difficult to propagate in vitro--two characteristics that pose a problem for their practical application. One alternative method to enrich for PGCs in vitro is to differentiate them from pluripotent stem cells derived from adult tissues. Here, we establish a reporter system for germ cell identification in bovine pluripotent stem cells based on green fluorescent protein expression driven by the minimal essential promoter of the bovine Vasa homolog (BVH) gene, whose regulatory elements were identified by orthologous modelling of regulatory units. We then evaluated the potential of bovine induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSC) lines carrying the reporter construct to differentiate toward the germ cell lineage. Our results showed that biPSCs undergo differentiation as embryoid bodies, and a fraction of the differentiating cells expressed BVH. The rate of differentiation towards BVH-positive cells increased up to tenfold in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein 4 or retinoic acid. Finally, we determined that the expression of key PGC genes, such as BVH or SOX2, can be modified by pre-differentiation cell culture conditions, although this increase is not necessarily mirrored by an increase in the rate of differentiation. PMID:26660942

  19. Marek’s disease virus infection induces widespread differential chromatin marks in inbred chicken lines

    Mitra Apratim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marek’s disease (MD is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV. Successful vaccine development against MD has resulted in increased virulence of MDV and the understanding of genetic resistance to the disease is, therefore, crucial to long-term control strategies. Also, epigenetic factors are believed to be one of the major determinants of disease response. Results Here, we carried out comprehensive analyses of the epigenetic landscape induced by MDV, utilizing genome-wide histone H3 lysine 4 and lysine 27 trimethylation maps from chicken lines with varying resistance to MD. Differential chromatin marks were observed on genes previously implicated in the disease such as MX1 and CTLA-4 and also on genes reported in other cancers including IGF2BP1 and GAL. We detected bivalent domains on immune-related transcriptional regulators BCL6, CITED2 and EGR1, which underwent dynamic changes in both lines as a result of MDV infection. In addition, putative roles for GAL in the mechanism of MD progression were revealed. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of widespread epigenetic differences induced by MD in chicken lines with different levels of genetic resistance. A majority of observed epigenetic changes were indicative of increased levels of viral infection in the susceptible line symptomatic of lowered immunocompetence in these birds caused by early cytolytic infection. The GAL system that has known anti-proliferative effects in other cancers is also revealed to be potentially involved in MD progression. Our study provides further insight into the mechanisms of MD progression while revealing a complex landscape of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that varies depending on host factors.

  20. Varicella-Zoster Virus glycoprotein expression differentially induces the unfolded protein response in infected cells.

    John Earl Carpenter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV is a human herpesvirus that spreads to children as varicella or chicken pox. The virus then establishes latency in the nervous system and re-emerges, typically decades later, as zoster or shingles. We have reported previously that VZV induces autophagy in infected cells as well as exhibiting evidence of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR: XBP1 splicing, a greatly expanded Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER and CHOP expression. Herein we report the results of a UPR specific PCR array that measures the levels of mRNA of 84 different components of the UPR in VZV infected cells as compared to tunicamycin treated cells as a positive control and uninfected, untreated cells as a negative control. Tunicamycin is a mixture of chemicals that inhibits N-linked glycosylation in the ER with resultant protein misfolding and the UPR. We found that VZV differentially induces the UPR when compared to tunicamycin treatment. For example, tunicamycin treatment moderately increased (8 fold roughly half of the array elements while downregulating only three (one ERAD and two FOLD components. VZV infection on the other hand upregulated 33 components including a little described stress sensor CREB-H (64 fold as well as ER membrane components INSIG and gp78, which modulate cholesterol synthesis while downregulating over 20 components mostly associated with ERAD and FOLD. We hypothesize that this expression pattern is associated with an expanding ER with downregulation of active degradation by ERAD and apoptosis as the cell attempts to handle abundant viral glycoprotein synthesis.

  1. Varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein expression differentially induces the unfolded protein response in infected cells.

    Carpenter, John E; Grose, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that spreads to children as varicella or chicken pox. The virus then establishes latency in the nervous system and re-emerges, typically decades later, as zoster or shingles. We have reported previously that VZV induces autophagy in infected cells as well as exhibiting evidence of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR): XBP1 splicing, a greatly expanded Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and CHOP expression. Herein we report the results of a UPR specific PCR array that measures the levels of mRNA of 84 different components of the UPR in VZV infected cells as compared to tunicamycin treated cells as a positive control and uninfected, untreated cells as a negative control. Tunicamycin is a mixture of chemicals that inhibits N-linked glycosylation in the ER with resultant protein misfolding and the UPR. We found that VZV differentially induces the UPR when compared to tunicamycin treatment. For example, tunicamycin treatment moderately increased (8-fold) roughly half of the array elements while downregulating only three (one ERAD and two FOLD components). VZV infection on the other hand upregulated 33 components including a little described stress sensor CREB-H (64-fold) as well as ER membrane components INSIG and gp78, which modulate cholesterol synthesis while downregulating over 20 components mostly associated with ERAD and FOLD. We hypothesize that this expression pattern is associated with an expanding ER with downregulation of active degradation by ERAD and apoptosis as the cell attempts to handle abundant viral glycoprotein synthesis. PMID:25071735

  2. Proteomic identification of novel differentiation plasma protein markers in hypobaric hypoxia-induced rat model.

    Yasmin Ahmad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypobaric hypoxia causes complex changes in the expression of genes, including stress related genes and corresponding proteins that are necessary to maintain homeostasis. Whereas most prior studies focused on single proteins, newer methods allowing the simultaneous study of many proteins could lead to a better understanding of complex and dynamic changes that occur during the hypobaric hypoxia. METHODS: In this study we investigated the temporal plasma protein alterations of rat induced by hypobaric hypoxia at a simulated altitude of 7620 m (25,000 ft, 282 mm Hg in a hypobaric chamber. Total plasma proteins collected at different time points (0, 6, 12 and 24 h, separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and identified using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF. Biological processes that were enriched in the plasma proteins during hypobaric hypoxia were identified using Gene Ontology (GO analysis. According to their properties and obvious alterations during hypobaric hypoxia, changes of plasma concentrations of Ttr, Prdx-2, Gpx -3, Apo A-I, Hp, Apo-E, Fetub and Nme were selected to be validated by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Bioinformatics analysis of 25 differentially expressed proteins showed that 23 had corresponding candidates in the database. The expression patterns of the eight selected proteins observed by Western blot were in agreement with 2-DE results, thus confirming the reliability of the proteomic analysis. Most of the proteins identified are related to cellular defense mechanisms involving anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Their presence reflects the consequence of serial cascades initiated by hypobaric hypoxia. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides information about the plasma proteome changes induced in response to hypobaric hypoxia and thus identification of the candidate proteins which can act as novel biomarkers.

  3. Salicylic acid induces differential antioxidant response in spring maize under high temperature stress.

    Khanna, Palak; Kaur, Kamaljit; Gupta, Anil K

    2016-06-01

    High temperature is one of the important stress factors that affect crops in tropical countries. Plants do evolve or adopt different mechanisms to overcome such stress for survival. It is an interesting subject and has attracted many researchers to work upon. Here, we studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on seedling growth and antioxidative defense system in two spring maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes viz., CML-32 (relatively heat tolerant) and LM-11 (relatively heat susceptible), under high temperature stress. High temperature induced greater reduction in dry biomass of LM-1 1 seedlings as compared to those of CML-32. There was a parallel increase in ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the roots of CML-32 seedlings. However, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased and the contents of H202, proline and malonaldialdehyde (MDA) increased in seedlings of both the genotypes. Application of SA (400 µM) led to increased dry biomass in heat stressed CML-32 seedlings. It improved the efficiency of Halliwell-Asada pathway in roots of CML-32 seedlings as was evidenced by the enhanced ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase increased in both the tissues of LM-11 seedlings, whereas in CML-32, it was only in shoots, after SA application. Peroxidase activity increased in SA treated seedlings of both the genotypes, though the increase was comparatively higher in CML-32. The contents of H₂O₂ and MDA decreased and that of proline increased in SA treated seedlings of both the genotypes, under stress conditions. It may be concluded that SA induced differential antioxidant response by upregulating Halliwell-Asada pathway in roots and attaining high POX activity in both the tissues of CML-32 seedlings, under high temperature stress. PMID:27468465

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DIFFERENTIATION HPV16 SUBGENES-IMMORTALIZED HUMAN ENDOCERVICAL CELLS INDUCED BY ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC ACID

    LI Yi-ming; ZHAO Yong; LIN Xiao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differentiation-inducing effects of all-trans-retinoic (ATRA) to HPV16 subgenesimmortalized human endocervical cells (H8 cell) in vitro. Methods: HPV16 subgenes-immortalized human endocervical cells(H8 cells) were cultured in vitro. After treated with ATRA, the proliferation of immortalized human endocervical cells was measured by MTT assay; morphological changes were observed using M and TEM; cell cycle was analyzed by FCM;expression of Ki67 was tested using immunocytochemistry and the activity of telomerase was tested using PCR-ELISA.Results: ATRA could inhibit proliferation of H8 cells significantly and induce their morphodifferentiation. According to FCM, H8 cells accumulated in G1 phase and expression of Ki67 and activity of telomerase reduced significantly after treatment with ATRA. Conclusion: ATRA could induce the differentiation of H8 cell line obviously, which might be achieved by inhibiting proliferation, blocking cell cycle, and reducing activity of telomerase.

  5. A Case of Habitual Neck Compression Induced Electroencephalogram Abnormalities: Differentiating from Epileptic Seizures Using a Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT

    Choi, Hongyoon; Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Youngsoo; Yun, Changho; Kim, Sangeun; Park, Sungho [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Self-induced hypoxia has been reported particularly in adolescents, and it can result in neurological injury. Here, we present a case of electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities induced by habitual neck compression differentiated from epileptic seizures by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. A 19-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of recurrent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. No interictal EEG abnormality was detected; however, abnormal slow delta waves were found immediately after habitual right neck compression. To differentiate EEG abnormalities due to a hemodynamic deficit induced by habitual neck compression from an epileptic seizure, Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed immediately after right carotid artery compression. Abnormal delta waves were triggered, and cerebral hypoperfusion in the right internal carotid artery territory was detected on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. The slow delta wave detected on the EEG resulted from the cerebral hypoperfusion because of the habitual neck compression.

  6. A Case of Habitual Neck Compression Induced Electroencephalogram Abnormalities: Differentiating from Epileptic Seizures Using a Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT

    Self-induced hypoxia has been reported particularly in adolescents, and it can result in neurological injury. Here, we present a case of electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities induced by habitual neck compression differentiated from epileptic seizures by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. A 19-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of recurrent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. No interictal EEG abnormality was detected; however, abnormal slow delta waves were found immediately after habitual right neck compression. To differentiate EEG abnormalities due to a hemodynamic deficit induced by habitual neck compression from an epileptic seizure, Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed immediately after right carotid artery compression. Abnormal delta waves were triggered, and cerebral hypoperfusion in the right internal carotid artery territory was detected on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. The slow delta wave detected on the EEG resulted from the cerebral hypoperfusion because of the habitual neck compression

  7. Bone morphogenic protein-2 regulates the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Cui, Jian; Ning, Jiao-nin [Department of Anesthesia, Southwest Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang, Guan-song [Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Belguise, Karine; Wang, Xiaobo [Université P. Sabatier Toulouse III and CNRS, LBCMCP, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Qian, Gui-sheng [Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Lu, Kai-zhi [Department of Anesthesia, Southwest Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yi, Bin, E-mail: yibin1974@163.com [Department of Anesthesia, Southwest Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect induced by intrapulmonary vasodilation (IPVD) that increases morbidity and mortality. In our previous study, it was determined that both the proliferation and the myogenic differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) play a key role in the development of IPVD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between IPVD and the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs remains unknown. Additionally, it has been shown that bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2), via the control of protein expression, may regulate cell differentiation including cardiomyocyte differentiation, neuronal differentiation and odontoblastic differentiation. In this study, we observed that common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-rat serum induced the upregulation of the expression of several myogenic proteins (SM-α-actin, calponin, SM-MHC) and enhanced the expression levels of BMP2 mRNA and protein in PMVECs. We also observed that both the expression levels of Smad1/5 and the activation of phosphorylated Smad1/5 were significantly elevated in PMVECs following exposure to CBDL-rat serum, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of Smurf1. The blockage of the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway with Noggin inhibited the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs, a process that was associated with relatively low expression levels of both SM-α-actin and calponin in the setting of CBDL-rat serum exposure, although SM-MHC expression was not affected. These findings suggested that the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the myogenic differentiation of the PMVECs. In conclusion, our data highlight the pivotal role of BMP2 in the CBDL-rat serum-induced myogenic differentiation of PMVECs via the activation of both Smad1 and Smad5 and the down-regulation of Smurf1, which may represent a potential therapy for HPS-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • CBDL-rat serum promotes the myogenic

  8. Bone morphogenic protein-2 regulates the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect induced by intrapulmonary vasodilation (IPVD) that increases morbidity and mortality. In our previous study, it was determined that both the proliferation and the myogenic differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) play a key role in the development of IPVD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between IPVD and the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs remains unknown. Additionally, it has been shown that bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2), via the control of protein expression, may regulate cell differentiation including cardiomyocyte differentiation, neuronal differentiation and odontoblastic differentiation. In this study, we observed that common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-rat serum induced the upregulation of the expression of several myogenic proteins (SM-α-actin, calponin, SM-MHC) and enhanced the expression levels of BMP2 mRNA and protein in PMVECs. We also observed that both the expression levels of Smad1/5 and the activation of phosphorylated Smad1/5 were significantly elevated in PMVECs following exposure to CBDL-rat serum, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of Smurf1. The blockage of the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway with Noggin inhibited the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs, a process that was associated with relatively low expression levels of both SM-α-actin and calponin in the setting of CBDL-rat serum exposure, although SM-MHC expression was not affected. These findings suggested that the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the myogenic differentiation of the PMVECs. In conclusion, our data highlight the pivotal role of BMP2 in the CBDL-rat serum-induced myogenic differentiation of PMVECs via the activation of both Smad1 and Smad5 and the down-regulation of Smurf1, which may represent a potential therapy for HPS-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • CBDL-rat serum promotes the myogenic

  9. Berberine Sulfate Attenuates Osteoclast Differentiation through RANKL Induced NF-κB and NFAT Pathways

    Lin Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, is characterized by an excessive formation and activation of osteoclasts. Anti-catabolic treatment using natural compounds has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy against the osteoclast related osteolytic diseases. In this study, the activity of berberine sulfate (an orally available form of berberine on osteoclast differentiation and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action were investigated. Using bone marrow macrophages (BMMs derived osteoclast culture system, we showed that berberine sulfate at the dose of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μM significantly inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Notably, berberine sulfate at these doses did not affect the BMM viability. In addition, we observed that berberine sulfate inhibited the expression of osteoclast marker genes, including cathepsin K (Ctsk, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP, Acp5 and Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase V0 subunit D2 (V-ATPase d2. Luciferase reporter gene assay and Western blot analysis further revealed that berberine sulfate inhibits receptor for activation of nuclear factor ligand (RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFAT activity. Taken together, our results suggest that berberine sulfate is a natural compound potentially useful for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  10. Light-induced negative differential resistance in graphene/Si-quantum-dot tunneling diodes.

    Lee, Kyeong Won; Jang, Chan Wook; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Soo Seok; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Euyheon

    2016-01-01

    One of the interesing tunneling phenomena is negative differential resistance (NDR), the basic principle of resonant-tunneling diodes. NDR has been utilized in various semiconductor devices such as frequency multipliers, oscillators, relfection amplifiers, logic switches, and memories. The NDR in graphene has been also reported theoretically as well as experimentally, but should be further studied to fully understand its mechanism, useful for practical device applications. Especially, there has been no observation about light-induced NDR (LNDR) in graphene-related structures despite very few reports on the LNDR in GaAs-based heterostructures. Here, we report first observation of LNDR in graphene/Si quantum dots-embedded SiO2 (SQDs:SiO2) multilayers (MLs) tunneling diodes. The LNDR strongly depends on temperature (T) as well as on SQD size, and the T dependence is consistent with photocurrent (PC)-decay behaviors. With increasing light power, the PC-voltage curves are more structured with peak-to-valley ratios over 2 at room temperature. The physical mechanism of the LNDR, governed by resonant tunneling of charge carriers through the minibands formed across the graphene/SQDs:SiO2 MLs and by their nonresonant phonon-assisted tunneling, is discussed based on theoretical considerations. PMID:27465107

  11. Combinations of Ashwagandha leaf extracts protect brain-derived cells against oxidative stress and induce differentiation.

    Navjot Shah

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays.We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach.Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health.

  12. Electrospun tilapia collagen nanofibers accelerating wound healing via inducing keratinocytes proliferation and differentiation.

    Zhou, Tian; Wang, Nanping; Xue, Yang; Ding, Tingting; Liu, Xin; Mo, Xiumei; Sun, Jiao

    2016-07-01

    The development of biomaterials with the ability to induce skin wound healing is a great challenge in biomedicine. In this study, tilapia skin collagen sponge and electrospun nanofibers were developed for wound dressing. The collagen sponge was composed of at least two α-peptides. It did not change the number of spleen-derived lymphocytes in BALB/c mice, the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocytes, and the level of IgG or IgM in Sprague-Dawley rats. The tensile strength and contact angle of collagen nanofibers were 6.72±0.44MPa and 26.71±4.88°, respectively. They also had good thermal stability and swelling property. Furthermore, the nanofibers could significantly promote the proliferation of human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and stimulate epidermal differentiation through the up-regulated gene expression of involucrin, filaggrin, and type I transglutaminase in HaCaTs. The collagen nanofibers could also facilitate rat skin regeneration. In the present study, electrospun biomimetic tilapia skin collagen nanofibers were succesfully prepared, were proved to have good bioactivity and could accelerate rat wound healing rapidly and effectively. These biological effects might be attributed to the biomimic extracellular matrix structure and the multiple amino acids of the collagen nanofibers. Therefore, the cost-efficient tilapia collagen nanofibers could be used as novel wound dressing, meanwhile effectively avoiding the risk of transmitting animal disease in the future clinical apllication. PMID:27037778

  13. Inhibition of GSK-3 induces differentiation and impaired glucose metabolism in renal cancer.

    Pal, Krishnendu; Cao, Ying; Gaisina, Irina N; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Dutta, Shamit K; Wang, Enfeng; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Kozikowski, Alan P; Billadeau, Daniel D; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2014-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a constitutively active serine/threonine kinase, is a key regulator of numerous cellular processes ranging from glycogen metabolism to cell-cycle regulation and proliferation. Consistent with its involvement in many pathways, it has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including type II diabetes, Alzheimer disease, bipolar disorder, inflammation, and cancer. Consequently, it is recognized as an attractive target for the development of new drugs. In the present study, we investigated the effect of both pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of GSK-3 in two different renal cancer cell lines. We have shown potent antiproliferative activity of 9-ING-41, a maleimide-based GSK-3 inhibitor. The antiproliferative activity is most likely caused by G(0)-G(1) and G(2)-M phase arrest as evident from cell-cycle analysis. We have established that inhibition of GSK-3 imparted a differentiated phenotype in renal cancer cells. We have also shown that GSK-3 inhibition induced autophagy, likely as a result of imbalanced energy homeostasis caused by impaired glucose metabolism. In addition, we have demonstrated the antitumor activity of 9-ING-41 in two different subcutaneous xenograft renal cell carcinoma tumor models. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing autophagy induction due to GSK-3 inhibition in renal cancer cells. PMID:24327518

  14. Gap state charge induced spin-dependent negative differential resistance in tunnel junctions

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, X.-G.; Han, X. F.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate through first-principles calculation a new spin-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) mechanism in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) with cubic cation disordered crystals (CCDC) AlO x or Mg1‑x Al x O as barrier materials. The CCDC is a class of insulators whose band gap can be changed by cation doping. The gap becomes arched in an ultrathin layer due to the space charge formed from metal-induced gap states. With an appropriate combination of an arched gap and a bias voltage, NDR can be produced in either spin channel. This mechanism is applicable to 2D and 3D ultrathin junctions with a sufficiently small band gap that forms a large space charge. It provides a new way of controlling the spin-dependent transport in spintronic devices by an electric field. A generalized Simmons formula for tunneling current through junction with an arched gap is derived to show the general conditions under which ultrathin junctions may exhibit NDR.

  15. Material properties of the cell dictate stress-induced spreading and differentiation in embryonic stem cells

    Chowdhury, Farhan; Na, Sungsoo; Li, Dong; Poh, Yeh-Chuin; Tanaka, Tetsuya S.; Wang, Fei; Wang, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that physical microenvironments and mechanical stresses, in addition to soluble factors, help direct mesenchymal-stem-cell fate. However, biological responses to a local force in embryonic stem cells remain elusive. Here we show that a local cyclic stress through focal adhesions induced spreading in mouse embryonic stem cells but not in mouse embryonic stem-cell-differentiated cells, which were ten times stiffer. This response was dictated by the cell material property (cell softness), suggesting that a threshold cell deformation is the key setpoint for triggering spreading responses. Traction quantification and pharmacological or shRNA intervention revealed that myosin II contractility, F-actin, Src or cdc42 were essential in the spreading response. The applied stress led to oct3/4 gene downregulation in mES cells. Our findings demonstrate that cell softness dictates cellular sensitivity to force, suggesting that local small forces might have far more important roles in early development of soft embryos than previously appreciated.

  16. Shear stress induced by an interstitial level of slow flow increases the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through TAZ activation.

    Kyung Min Kim

    Full Text Available Shear stress activates cellular signaling involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. However, the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation under interstitial flow are not fully understood. Here, we show the increased osteogenic differentiation of MSCs under exposure to constant, extremely low shear stress created by osmotic pressure-induced flow in a microfluidic chip. The interstitial level of shear stress in the proposed microfluidic system stimulated nuclear localization of TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, a transcriptional modulator of MSCs, activated TAZ target genes such as CTGF and Cyr61, and induced osteogenic differentiation. TAZ-depleted cells showed defects in shear stress-induced osteogenic differentiation. In shear stress induced cellular signaling, Rho signaling pathway was important forthe nuclear localization of TAZ. Taken together, these results suggest that TAZ is an important mediator of interstitial flow-driven shear stress signaling in osteoblast differentiation of MSCs.

  17. Interleukin-17A Differentially Induces Inflammatory and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Adipose Tissues of Lean and Obese Mice

    Yine Qu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The functions of interleukin-17A (IL-17A in adipose tissues and adipocytes have not been well understood. In the present study, male mice were fed with a regular diet (n = 6, lean mice or a high-fat diet (n = 6, obese mice for 30 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT were analyzed for IL-17A levels. SAT and VAT were treated with IL-17A and analyzed for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. Mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, followed with IL-17A treatment and analysis for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. We found that IL-17A levels were higher in obese SAT than lean SAT; the basal expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes was different between SAT and VAT and between lean and obese adipose tissues. IL-17A differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes, such as tumor necrosis factor α, Il-6, Il-1β, leptin, and glucose transporter 4, in adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. IL-17A also differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes in pre-adipocytes and adipocytes, and IL-17A selectively activated signaling pathways in adipose tissues and adipocytes. These findings suggest that IL-17A differentially induces inflammatory and metabolic gene expression in the adipose tissues of lean and obese mice.

  18. Interleukin-17A Differentially Induces Inflammatory and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Adipose Tissues of Lean and Obese Mice.

    Qu, Yine; Zhang, Qiuyang; Ma, Siqi; Liu, Sen; Chen, Zhiquan; Mo, Zhongfu; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    The functions of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in adipose tissues and adipocytes have not been well understood. In the present study, male mice were fed with a regular diet (n = 6, lean mice) or a high-fat diet (n = 6, obese mice) for 30 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were analyzed for IL-17A levels. SAT and VAT were treated with IL-17A and analyzed for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. Mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, followed with IL-17A treatment and analysis for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. We found that IL-17A levels were higher in obese SAT than lean SAT; the basal expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes was different between SAT and VAT and between lean and obese adipose tissues. IL-17A differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes, such as tumor necrosis factor α, Il-6, Il-1β, leptin, and glucose transporter 4, in adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. IL-17A also differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes in pre-adipocytes and adipocytes, and IL-17A selectively activated signaling pathways in adipose tissues and adipocytes. These findings suggest that IL-17A differentially induces inflammatory and metabolic gene expression in the adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. PMID:27070576

  19. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare differential domains from orthologous surface proteins induce distinct cellular immune responses in mice.

    Leal, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos; Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2016-07-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare are two genetically close species found in the swine respiratory tract. Despite their similarities, while M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Genomic and transcriptional comparative analyses so far failed to explain the difference in pathogenicity between these two species. We then hypothesized that such difference might be, at least in part, explained by amino acid sequence and immunological or functional differences between ortholog surface proteins. In line with that, it was verified that approximately 85% of the ortholog surface proteins from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and M. flocculare present one or more differential domains. To experimentally assess possible immunological implications of this kind of difference, the extracellular differential domains from one pair of orthologous surface proteins (MHP7448_0612, from M. hyopneumoniae, and MF_00357, from M. flocculare) were expressed in E. coli and used to immunize mice. The recombinant polypeptides (rMHP61267-169 and rMF35767-196, respectively) induced distinct cellular immune responses. While, rMHP61267-169 induced both Th1 and Th2 responses, rMF35767-196 induced just an early pro-inflammatory response. These results indicate that immunological properties determined by differential domains in orthologous surface protein might play a role in pathogenicity, contributing to elicit specific and differential immune responses against each species. PMID:27283856

  20. Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells into Neural-Like Cells Induced by Sodium Ferulate in vitro

    Yang Wang; Zhifeng Deng; Xianliang Lai; Wei Tu

    2005-01-01

    Human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotential stem cells, capable of differentiating into bone, cartilage,fat and muscle. Several recent reports demonstrated that hMSCs have been also differentiated into neural cells.However, only a few reported inducers are applicable for clinical use. This work is to explore the effects of sodium ferulate (SF) on differentiation of hMSCs into neural cells in vitro. We found that hMSCs could be induced to the cells with typical neural morphology when cultured with SF. The cells express neural proteins, such as nestin,neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). About 30% of the hMSC-derived cells expressed nestin when cultured with SF for 3 h, but no expression was detected after 24 h. The percentages of positive cells for NSE or GFAP were about 67% and 39% separately at 6 h, and reached the plateau phage after treatment with SF for 3 days. The data suggest that SF can induce hMSCs to differentiate into neural-like cells in vitro.

  1. Ectopic Myf5 or MyoD prevents the neuronal differentiation program in addition to inducing skeletal muscle differentiation, in the chick neural tube.

    Delfini, Marie-Claire; Duprez, Delphine

    2004-02-01

    Forced expression of the bHLH myogenic factors, Myf5 and MyoD, in various mammalian cell lines induces the full program of myogenic differentiation. However, this property has not been extensively explored in vivo. We have taken advantage of the chick model to investigate the effect of electroporation of the mouse Myf5 and MyoD genes in the embryonic neural tube. We found that misexpression of either mouse Myf5 or MyoD in the chick neural tube leads to ectopic skeletal muscle differentiation, assayed by the expression of the myosin heavy chains in the neural tube and neural crest derivatives. We also showed that the endogenous neuronal differentiation program is inhibited under the influence of either ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD. We used this new system to analyse, in vivo, the transcriptional regulation between the myogenic factors. We found that MyoD and Myogenin expression can be activated by ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD, while Myf5 expression cannot be activated either by mouse MyoD or by itself. We also analysed the transcriptional regulation between the myogenic factors and the different genes involved in myogenesis, such as Mef2c, Pax3, Paraxis, Six1, Mox1, Mox2 and FgfR4. We established the existence of an unexpected regulatory loop between MyoD and FgfR4. The consequences for myogenesis are discussed. PMID:14724123

  2. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells in Phenotypic Screening: A Transforming Growth Factor-β Type 1 Receptor Kinase Inhibitor Induces Efficient Cardiac Differentiation.

    Drowley, Lauren; Koonce, Chad; Peel, Samantha; Jonebring, Anna; Plowright, Alleyn T; Kattman, Steven J; Andersson, Henrik; Anson, Blake; Swanson, Bradley J; Wang, Qing-Dong; Brolen, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    Several progenitor cell populations have been reported to exist in hearts that play a role in cardiac turnover and/or repair. Despite the presence of cardiac stem and progenitor cells within the myocardium, functional repair of the heart after injury is inadequate. Identification of the signaling pathways involved in the expansion and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) will broaden insight into the fundamental mechanisms playing a role in cardiac homeostasis and disease and might provide strategies for in vivo regenerative therapies. To understand and exploit cardiac ontogeny for drug discovery efforts, we developed an in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CPC model system using a highly enriched population of KDR(pos)/CKIT(neg)/NKX2.5(pos) CPCs. Using this model system, these CPCs were capable of generating highly enriched cultures of cardiomyocytes under directed differentiation conditions. In order to facilitate the identification of pathways and targets involved in proliferation and differentiation of resident CPCs, we developed phenotypic screening assays. Screening paradigms for therapeutic applications require a robust, scalable, and consistent methodology. In the present study, we have demonstrated the suitability of these cells for medium to high-throughput screens to assess both proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Using this CPC model system and a small directed compound set, we identified activin-like kinase 5 (transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor kinase) inhibitors as novel and potent inducers of human CPC differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Significance: Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with no treatment available that can result in functional repair. This study demonstrates how differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells can be used to identify and isolate cell populations of interest that can translate to the adult human heart. Two separate examples of phenotypic

  3. IGF1 potentiates BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells through the enhancement of BMP/Smad signaling

    Chen, Liang; Zou, Xiang; Zhang, Ran-Xi; Pi, Chang-Jun; Wu, Nian; Yin, Liang-Jun; Deng, Zhong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Engineered bone tissue is thought to be the ideal alternative for bone grafts in the treatment of related bone diseases. BMP9 has been demonstrated as one of the most osteogenic factors, and enhancement of BMP9-induced osteogenesis will greatly accelerate the development of bone tissue engineering. Here, we investigated the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation, and unveiled a possible molecular mechanism underling this process. We found that IGF1 and BMP9 are both detectable in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Exogenous expression of IGF1 potentiates BMP9-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP), matrix mineralization, and ectopic bone formation. Similarly, IGF1 enhances BMP9-induced endochondral ossification. Mechanistically, we found that IGF1 increases BMP9-induced activation of BMP/Smad signaling in MSCs. Our findings demonstrate that IGF1 can enhance BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation in MSCs, and that this effect may be mediated by the enhancement of the BMP/Smad signaling transduction triggered by BMP9. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(2): 122-127] PMID:26645636

  4. Canstatin inhibits isoproterenol-induced apoptosis through preserving mitochondrial morphology in differentiated H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.

    Okada, Muneyoshi; Morioka, Suiri; Kanazawa, Hiroki; Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    Canstatin, a non-collagenous fragment, is cleaved from type IV collagen α2 chain, an essential component of basement membrane surrounding cardiomyocytes. Although canstatin is known as an endogenous anti-angiogenic factor, its effects on cardiomyocytes have not been clarified. This study examined the effects of canstatin on isoproterenol-induced apoptosis in differentiated H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Retinoic acid was used to differentiate H9c2 myoblast to cardiomyocyte-like phenotype. Cell viability was determined by a cell counting assay. Western blotting was performed to detect expression of cleaved casepase-3 and phosphorylation of dynamin related protein (Drp)1 at Ser637 which regulates mitochondrial fission. Mito Sox Red staining was performed to examine a mitochondria-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial morphology was detected by Mito Tracker Red staining. Isoproterenol (100 μM, 48 h) significantly decreased cell viability and increased cleaved caspase-3 expression, which were inhibited by canstatin (10-250 ng/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. Canstatin suppressed the isoproterenol-induced mitochondrial fission but not ROS. Canstatin also inhibited the isoproterenol-induced dephosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser637. In conclusion, canstatin inhibits isoproterenol-induced apoptosis through the inhibition of mitochondrial fission via the suppression of dephosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser637 in differentiated H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. PMID:27315818

  5. α2 Integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 act sequentially to induce differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into odontoblast-like cells

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Kawai, Rie; Hase, Naoko; Hiyama, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Kondo, Ayami [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan); Nakata, Kazuhiko [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Mogi, Makio, E-mail: makio@dpc.agu.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that interleukin 1β acts via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 to regulate cell proliferation and suppress apoptosis in α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we characterize the signal cascade underpinning odontoblastic differentiation in mouse ES cells. The expression of α2 integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin), and MMP-3 mRNA and protein were all potently increased during odontoblastic differentiation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) disruption of the expression of these effectors potently suppressed the expression of the odontoblastic biomarkers dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1 and alkaline phosphatase, and blocked odontoblast calcification. Our siRNA, western blot and blocking antibody analyses revealed a unique sequential cascade involving α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 that drives ES cell differentiation into odontoblasts. This cascade requires the interaction between α2 integrin and Emmprin and is potentiated by exogenous MMP-3. Finally, although odontoblast-like cells potently express α2, α6, αV, β1, and β3, integrins, we confirmed that β1 integrin acts as the trigger for ES cell differentiation, apparently in complex with α2 integrin. These results demonstrate a unique and unanticipated role for an α2 integrin-, Emmprin-, and MMP-3-mediated signaling cascade in driving mouse ES cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Odontoblast differentiation requires activation of α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3. • α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 form a sequential signaling cascade. • β1 integrin acts a specific trigger for odontoblast differentiation. • The role of these effectors is highly novel and unanticipated.

  6. α2 Integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 act sequentially to induce differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into odontoblast-like cells

    We previously reported that interleukin 1β acts via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 to regulate cell proliferation and suppress apoptosis in α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we characterize the signal cascade underpinning odontoblastic differentiation in mouse ES cells. The expression of α2 integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin), and MMP-3 mRNA and protein were all potently increased during odontoblastic differentiation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) disruption of the expression of these effectors potently suppressed the expression of the odontoblastic biomarkers dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1 and alkaline phosphatase, and blocked odontoblast calcification. Our siRNA, western blot and blocking antibody analyses revealed a unique sequential cascade involving α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 that drives ES cell differentiation into odontoblasts. This cascade requires the interaction between α2 integrin and Emmprin and is potentiated by exogenous MMP-3. Finally, although odontoblast-like cells potently express α2, α6, αV, β1, and β3, integrins, we confirmed that β1 integrin acts as the trigger for ES cell differentiation, apparently in complex with α2 integrin. These results demonstrate a unique and unanticipated role for an α2 integrin-, Emmprin-, and MMP-3-mediated signaling cascade in driving mouse ES cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Odontoblast differentiation requires activation of α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3. • α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 form a sequential signaling cascade. • β1 integrin acts a specific trigger for odontoblast differentiation. • The role of these effectors is highly novel and unanticipated

  7. Emergence of nuclear heparanase induces differentiation of human mammary cancer cells

    The study of epithelial differentiation touches upon many modern aspects of biology. The epithelium is in constant dialogue with the underlying mesenchyme to control stem cell activity, proliferation in transit-amplifying compartments, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation and, ultimately, cell death. There are spatially distinct compartments dedicated to each of these events. Recently we reported that heparanase is expressed in nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm and that nuclear heparanase seems to be related to cell differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of nuclear heparanase in differentiation by transducing human mammary epithelial cancer cells with heparanase which was delivered specifically into nucleus. We observed that expression of nuclear heparanase allowed the cells to differentiate with the appearance of lipid droplets. This finding supports the idea that heparanase plays a novel role in epithelial cell differentiation apart from its known enzymatic function

  8. Differential expression of genes during aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrews

    Yuan Li; Dan Luo; Hui-Fen Yue; Li-Sheng Zhang; Jian-Ren Gu; Da-Fang Wan; Jian-Jia Su; Ji Cao; Chao Ou; Xiao-Kun Qiu; Ke-Chen Ban; Chun Yang; Liu-Liang Qin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Through exploring the regulation of gene expression during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1),to find out the responsible genes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to further understand the underlying molecular mechanism.METHODS: Tree shrews ( 7upaia belangeri chinensis)were treated with or without AFB1 for about 90 weeks. Liver biopsies were performed regularly during the animal experiment. Eight shares of total RNA were respectively isolated from 2 HCC tissues, 2 HCC-surrounding noncancerous liver tissues, 2 biopsied tissues at the early stage (30th week) of the experiment from the same animals as above, 1 mixed sample of three liver tissues biopsied at the beginning (0th week) of the experiment, and another 1 mixed sample of two liver tissues from the untreated control animals biopsied at the 90th week of the experiment. The samples were then tested with the method of AtlasTM cDNA microarray assay. The levels of gene expression in these tissues taken at different time points during hepatocarcinogenesis were compared.RESULTS: The profiles of differently expressed genes were quite different in different ways of comparison. At the same period of hepatocarcinogenesis, the genes in the same function group usually had the same tendency for up- or down-regulation. Among the checked 588 genes that were known to be related to human cancer, 89 genes (15.1%) were recognized as "important genes" because they showed frequent changes in different ways of comparison. The differentially expressed genes during hepatocarcinogenesis could be classified into four categories: genes up-regulated in HCC tissue, genes with similar expressing levels in both HCC and HCC-surrounding liver tissues which were higher than that in the tissues prior to the development of HCC,genes down-regulated in HCC tissue, and genes up-regulated prior to the development of HCC but down-regulated after the development of HCC.CONCLUSION: A considerable number of genes could change

  9. Cardiomyocytes induce endothelial cells to trans-differentiate into cardiac muscle: Implications for myocardium regeneration

    Condorelli, G.; Borello, U; De Angelis, L.; Latronico, M.; D. Sirabella; Coletta, M; Galli, R; Balconi, G.; Follenzi, A.; Frati, G.; M. G. Cusella De Angelis; Gioglio, L.; Amuchastegui, S.; Adorini, L; Naldini, L

    2001-01-01

    The concept of tissue-restricted differentiation of postnatal stem cells has been challenged by recent evidence showing pluripotency for hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neural stem cells. Furthermore, rare but well documented examples exist of already differentiated cells in developing mammals that change fate and trans-differentiate into another cell type. Here, we report that endothelial cells, either freshly isolated from embryonic vessels or established as homogenous cells in culture, dif...

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 induces cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Torii, D; Tsutsui, T W; Watanabe, N; Konishi, K

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) is a multifunctional differentiation factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor superfamily. BMP-7 induces gene expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-like, member A/cementum attachment protein (PTPLA/CAP) and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1), both of which are markers of cementoblasts and cementocytes. In the previous study, we reported that BMP-7 treatment enhanced PTPLA/CAP and CEMP1 expression in both normal and immortal human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the gene expression of these molecules, in this study, we identified a functional transcription activator binding region in the promoter region of PTPLA/CAP and CEMP1 that is responsive to BMP signals. Here, we report that some short motifs termed GC-rich Smad-binding elements (GC-SBEs) that are located in the human PTPLA/CAP promoter and CEMP1 promoter are BMP-7 responsive as analyzed with luciferase promoter assays. On the other hand, we found that transcription of Sp7/Osterix and PTPLA/CAP was up-regulated after 1 week of BMP-7 treatment on purified normal human PDL cells as a result of gene expression microarray analysis. Furthermore, transcription of Sp7/Osterix, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was up-regulated after 2 weeks of BMP-7 treatment, whereas gene expression of osteo/odontogenic markers such as integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP), collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) was not up-regulated in purified normal or immortal human PDL cells as a result of qRT-PCR. The results suggest that BMP-7 mediates cementogenesis via GC-SBEs in human PDL cells and that its molecular mechanism is different from that for osteo/odontogenesis. PMID:25464857

  11. Pathological Analysis of Cell Differentiation in Cholesterol Granulomas Experimentally Induced in Mice

    Sakai, Kenzo; Nakano, Keisuke; Matsuda, Saeka; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Ochiai, Takanaga; Shoumura, Masahito; Osuga, Naoto; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, cholesterin was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue in mice to induce the formation of cholesterol granuloma. Histological examination was carried out to determine the type and source of cells. The tissue surrounding the embedded cholesterin was examined histologically within the period of 6 months. Cell differentiation in cholesterol granulomas was investigated using ddY mice and GFP bone marrow transplanted mice. Cholesterin was embedded in mice subcutaneously and histopathological examination was carried out in a period of 6 months. Results showed that at 2 weeks, cholesterin was replaced partly by granulation tissues. The majority of cells in the granulation tissues were macrophages and foreign body giant cells and the center consists of small amount of fibroblasts, collagen fibers and capillaries. At 3 months, more granulation tissue was observed compared to 2 weeks. Similar cells were observed, however, there were more fibroblasts, collagen bundles and capillaries present compared to 2 weeks. At 6 months, the cholesterin was mostly substituted by fibrous tissues consisting mainly of fibroblasts and collagen fibers with some macrophages and foreign body giant cells. Specifically, the outer part of the tissue consists of fibroblasts, collagen bundles and capillaries and the inner portion is filled with collagen bundles. Immunohistochemistry revealed that macrophages and foreign body giant cells were positive to GFP and CD68 although the fibroblasts and capillaries in the outer portion of cholesterol granulomas were GFP negative. Some spindle shape fibroblasts were also GFP positive. Immunofluorescent double staining revealed that cells lining the blood vessels were both positive to GFP and CD31 indicating that those were endothelial cells and were actually derived from the transplanted bone marrow cells. The results suggest that macrophages, foreign body giant cells as well as fibroblasts and capillary endothelial cells are bone marrow derived

  12. Proliferation, differentiation, and possible radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities in circulating hemopoietic stem cells

    The effects of atomic bomb radiation on hemopoietic stem cells were studied cytogenetically and from the aspect of differentiation and proliferation, using single colonies derived from human hemopoietic stem cells. The subjects studied were A-bomb survivors in the high dose exposure group (T65D 100 + rad) with a high incidence (10 % or more) of radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities in their peripheral lymphocytes, and their controls. Examinations were performed on 21 A-bomb survivors (10 males and 11 females) and 11 controls (5 males and 6 females). Colony formation of hemopoietic stem cells (granulocyte/monocyte-colony-forming cells, GM-CFC and burst-forming unit-erythrocytes, BFU-E) was made by the methylcellulose method patterned after the methods of Iscove et al and Ogawa et al using 5 - 10 ml of peripheral blood. Chromosome specimens were prepared from single colonies by the micromethod which we have reported elsewhere. The total number of colonies analyzed in the exposed group was 131 GM-CFC and 75 BFU-E. Chromosome abnormalities were observed in 15 (11.5 %) and 9 (12.0 %) colonies, respectively. In the control group, the total number of colonies analyzed was 61 GM-CFC and 41 BFU-E, but none of the colonies showed chromosome abnormalities. A highly significant difference in chromosome abnormalities was demonstrated by an exact test with a probability of 0.3 % for GM-CFC and 1.7 % for BFU-E. The karyotypes of chromosome abnormalities obtained from the colonies of hemopoietic stem cells in the exposed group were mostly translocations, but deletion and marker chromosomes were also observed. In two individuals, such karyotypic abnormalities as observed in the peripheral lymphocytes were seen also in the hemopoietic precursor cells. This finding suggests that radiation may produce an effect even on relatively undifferentiated hemopoietic stem cells. (author)

  13. Cardiomyocytes induce endothelial cells to trans-differentiate into cardiac muscle: implications for myocardium regeneration.

    Condorelli, G; Borello, U; De Angelis, L; Latronico, M; Sirabella, D; Coletta, M; Galli, R; Balconi, G; Follenzi, A; Frati, G; Cusella De Angelis, M G; Gioglio, L; Amuchastegui, S; Adorini, L; Naldini, L; Vescovi, A; Dejana, E; Cossu, G

    2001-09-11

    The concept of tissue-restricted differentiation of postnatal stem cells has been challenged by recent evidence showing pluripotency for hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neural stem cells. Furthermore, rare but well documented examples exist of already differentiated cells in developing mammals that change fate and trans-differentiate into another cell type. Here, we report that endothelial cells, either freshly isolated from embryonic vessels or established as homogeneous cells in culture, differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes and express cardiac markers when cocultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes or when injected into postischemic adult mouse heart. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells also differentiate into cardiomyocytes under similar experimental conditions and transiently coexpress von Willebrand factor and sarcomeric myosin. In contrast, neural stem cells, which efficiently differentiate into skeletal muscle, differentiate into cardiomyocytes at a low rate. Fibroblast growth factor 2 and bone morphogenetic protein 4, which activate cardiac differentiation in embryonic cells, do not activate cardiogenesis in endothelial cells or stimulate trans-differentiation in coculture, suggesting that different signaling molecules are responsible for cardiac induction during embryogenesis and in successive periods of development. The fact that endothelial cells can generate cardiomyocytes sheds additional light on the plasticity of endothelial cells during development and opens perspectives for cell autologous replacement therapies. PMID:11535818

  14. ERK1 and ERK2 are involved in recruitment and maturation of human mesenchymal stem cells induced to adipogenic differentiation

    Elisabetta Donzelli; Caterina Lucchini; Elisa Ballarini; Arianna Scuteri; Fabrizio Carini; Giovanni Tredici; Mariarosaria Miloso

    2011-01-01

    Adipocytes' biology and the mechanisms that control adipogenesis have gained importance because of the need to develop therapeutic strategies to control obesity and the related pathologies. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), undifferentiated stem cells present in the bone marrow that are physiological precursors of adipocytes, were induced to adipogenic differentiation. The molecular mechanisms on the basis of the adipogenesis were evaluated, focusing on the MAPKinases ERK1 and ERK2, which are involved in many biological and cellular processes. ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation was reduced with different timing and intensity for the two isoforms in treated hMSCs in comparison with control cells until day 10 and then at 14-28 days, it reached the level of untreated cultures. The total amount of ERK1 was also decreased up to day 10 and then was induced to the level of untreated cultures, whereas the expression of ERK2 was not changed following adipogenic induction. Treatment with the specific ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 during the whole differentiation period hampered hMSCs' adipogenic differentiation, as lipid droplets appeared in very few cells and were reduced in number and size. When U0126 was administered only during the initial phase of differentiation, the number of hMSCs recruited to adipogenesis was reduced while, when it was administered later, hMSCs did not acquire a mature adipocytic phenotype. ERK1 and ERK2 are important for hMSC adipogenic differentiation since any alteration to the correct timing of their phosphorylation affects either the recruitment into the differentiation program and the extent of their maturation.

  15. Recent Developments in β-Cell Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced by Small and Large Molecules

    S. Suresh Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs, hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4, epidermal growth factor (EGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α, and WNT3A are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation.

  16. Osteoblastic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth induced by thermosensitive hydrogels with strontium phosphate

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are a novel source of multi-potential stem cells for tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Strontium exhibits an important function in bone remodeling because it can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. Hydrogels can mimic the natural cellular environment. The association of hydrogels with cell viability is determined using biological tests, including rheological experiments. In this study, osteogenic differentiation was investigated through SHED encapsulation in hydrogels containing strontium phosphate. Results of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence staining indicated that the cells grew well and SHEDs proliferated in the hydrogels. Strontium-loaded chitosan-based hydrogels induced the biomineralization and high expression of alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, the expression levels of bone-related genes, including type-I collagen, Runx2, osteopontin (OP), and osteonectin (ON), were up-regulated during the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. This study demonstrated that strontium can be an effective inducer of osteogenesis for SHEDs. Elucidating the function of bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering. • Strontium phosphate can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. • Hydrogels can mimic the natural cellular environment. • Bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering

  17. Osteoblastic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth induced by thermosensitive hydrogels with strontium phosphate

    Su, Wen-Ta, E-mail: f10549@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wei-Ling [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chih-Ming [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are a novel source of multi-potential stem cells for tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Strontium exhibits an important function in bone remodeling because it can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. Hydrogels can mimic the natural cellular environment. The association of hydrogels with cell viability is determined using biological tests, including rheological experiments. In this study, osteogenic differentiation was investigated through SHED encapsulation in hydrogels containing strontium phosphate. Results of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence staining indicated that the cells grew well and SHEDs proliferated in the hydrogels. Strontium-loaded chitosan-based hydrogels induced the biomineralization and high expression of alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, the expression levels of bone-related genes, including type-I collagen, Runx2, osteopontin (OP), and osteonectin (ON), were up-regulated during the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. This study demonstrated that strontium can be an effective inducer of osteogenesis for SHEDs. Elucidating the function of bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering. • Strontium phosphate can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. • Hydrogels can mimic the natural cellular environment. • Bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  18. Nuclear factor kappa B-inducing kinase and Ikappa B kinase-alpha signal skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

    Canicio, J; Ruiz-Lozano, P; Carrasco, M; Palacin, M; Chien, K; Zorzano, A; Kaliman, P

    2001-06-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-inducing kinase (NIK), IkappaB kinase (IKK)-alpha and -beta, and IkappaBalpha are common elements that signal NF-kappaB activation in response to diverse stimuli. In this study, we analyzed the role of this pathway during insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)-induced myoblast differentiation. L6E9 myoblasts differentiated with IGF-II showed an induction of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity that correlated in time with the activation of IKKalpha, IKKbeta, and NIK. Moreover, the activation of IKKalpha, IKKbeta, and NIK by IGF-II was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, a key regulator of myogenesis. Adenoviral transduction with the IkappaBalpha(S32A/S36A) mutant severely impaired both IGF-II-dependent NF-kappaB activation and myoblast differentiation, indicating that phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha at Ser-32 and Ser-36 is an essential myogenic step. Adenoviral transfer of wild-type or kinase-deficient forms of IKKalpha or IKKbeta revealed that IKKalpha is required for IGF-II-dependent myoblast differentiation, whereas IKKbeta is not essential for this process. Finally, overexpression of kinase-proficient wild-type NIK showed that the activation of NIK is sufficient to generate signals that trigger myogenin expression and multinucleated myotube formation in the absence of IGF-II. PMID:11279241

  19. A novel PPARγ agonist, KR62776, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting MAP kinase pathways

    We investigated the effects of a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, KR62776, on osteoclast differentiation and function, and on the underlying signaling pathways. KR62776 markedly suppressed differentiation into osteoclasts in various osteoclast model systems, including bone marrow mononuclear (BMM) cells and a co-culture of calvarial osteoblasts and BMM cells. KR62776 suppressed the activation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, such as TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). Furthermore, KR62776 reduced resorption pit formation in osteoclasts, and down-regulated genes essential for osteoclast activity, such as Src and αvβ3 integrin. An analysis of a signaling pathway showed that KR62776 inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Together, these results demonstrate that KR62776 negatively affects osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of MAP kinases and NF-κB.

  20. Factors inducing human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neuron-like cells

    Nawei Zhang; Fengqing Ji

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUCB-derived MSCs)can differentiate into neuron-like cells,which can be used to treat some central nervous system(CNS)diseases.To investigate the factors,which can induce HUCB-derived MSCs to differentiate into neuron-like cells,so as to find effective methods for future clinical application.DATA SOURCES:Using the key terms"human umbilical cord blood"combined with"mesenchymal stem cells,neuron-like cells,neural cells"respectively,the relevant articles in English published during the period from January 1999 to June 2006 were searched from the Medline database.Meanwhile,relevant Chinese articles published from January 1999 to June 2006 were searched Using the same key terms.STUDY SELECTION: All articles associated with the differentiation from human umbilical cord blood into neuron-like cells were selected firstly.Then the full texts were looked up by searchling Ovid medical Journals full-text database and Elsevier Electrical Journals Full-text Database.Articles with full expeiments,enrolled in inducible factors or involved inducible mechanism were retdeved.DATA EXTRACTION:Among 119 collected correlative articles,29 were involved and 90 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS:The inducible factors of HUCB-derived MSCs differentiatling into neuron-like cells included renal endothelial growth factors,fibroblasts,β-mercaptoethanol,dimethyl sulfoxide,butyl hydroxyl anisol,brain-derived neurotrophic factor,Danshen,retinoic acid,sodium ferulate and so on,but its mechanism was unclear.CONCLUSION:Human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs can differentiate into neuron-like cells,with varied inductors.

  1. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Differentiation into Oligodendrocyte Progenitors and Transplantation in a Rat Model of Optic Chiasm Demyelination

    Pouya, Alireza; Satarian, Leila; Kiani, Sahar; Javan1, Mohammad; Baharvand, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aims to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into oligodendrocyte precursors and assess their recovery potential in a demyelinated optic chiasm model in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated a cell population of oligodendrocyte progenitors from hiPSCs by using embryoid body formation in a defined medium supplemented with a combination of factors, positive selection and mechanical enrichment. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immun...

  2. Single-step protocol for the differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatic progenitor-like cells

    Tomizawa, Minoru; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Sueishi, Makoto; YOSHIDA, TAKANOBU

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are ideal sources of hepatocyte for transplantation into patients experiencing hepatic failure. Growth and transcription factors were analyzed to design a single-step protocol for the differentiation of iPS cells into hepatocytes. The expression of transcription factors was analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and compared among iPS cells, as well as fetal and adult liver cells. iPS cells were cultured with growth factors...

  3. Green tea phenolics inhibit butyrate-induced differentiation of colon cancer cells by interacting with monocarboxylate transporter 1

    Sánchez-Tena, S.; Vizán, P.; Dudeja, P.K.; Centelles, J.J.; Cascante, M.

    2016-01-01

    Diet has a significant impact on colorectal cancer and both dietary fiber and plant-derived compounds have been independently shown to be inversely related to colon cancer risk. Butyrate (NaB), one of the principal products of dietary fiber fermentation, induces differentiation of colon cancer cell lines by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs). On the other hand, (−)-epicatechin (EC) and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), two abundant phenolic compounds of green tea, have been shown to exhibit antitumoral properties. In this study we used colon cancer cell lines to study the cellular and molecular events that take place during co-treatment with NaB, EC and EGCG. We found that (i) polyphenols EC and EGCG fail to induce differentiation of colon adenocarcinoma cell lines; (ii) polyphenols EC and EGCG reduce NaB-induced differentiation; (iii) the effect of the polyphenols is specific for NaB, since differentiation induced by other agents, such as trichostatin A (TSA), was unaltered upon EC and EGCG treatment, and (iv) is independent of the HDAC inhibitory activity of NaB. Also, (v) polyphenols partially reduce cellular NaB; and (vi) on a molecular level, reduction of cellular NaB uptake by polyphenols is achieved by impairing the capacity of NaB to relocalize its own transporter (monocarboxylate transporter 1, MCT1) in the plasma membrane. Our findings suggest that beneficial effects of NaB on colorectal cancer may be reduced by green tea phenolic supplementation. This valuable information should be of assistance in choosing a rational design for more effective diet-driven therapeutic interventions in the prevention or treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:23994611

  4. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid–type III polyketide synthase

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E.; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S.; Kay, Robert R.; Noel, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two ~3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed ‘steely’, as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid syntha...

  5. Involvement of Prolonged Ras Activation in Thrombopoietin-Induced Megakaryocytic Differentiation of a Human Factor-Dependent Hematopoietic Cell Line

    Matsumura, Itaru; Nakajima, Koichi; Wakao, Hiroshi; Hattori, Seisuke; Hashimoto, Koji; Sugahara, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takashi; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Toshio; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    1998-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a hematopoietic growth factor that plays fundamental roles is both megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis through binding to its receptor, c-mpl. Although TPO has been shown to activate various types of intracellular signaling molecules, such as the Janus family of protein tyrosine kinases, signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), and ras, the precise mechanisms underlying TPO-induced proliferation and differentiation remain unknown. In an effort to cla...

  6. Differential inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced phenomena by anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody.

    Vogel, S N; Havell, E A

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been implicated as a major mediator of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phenomena. Administration to mice of a polyclonal, monospecific antibody prepared against recombinant murine TNF alpha abolished detection of LPS-induced TNF alpha activity and significantly reduced levels of LPS-induced colony-stimulating factor but failed to reduce the production of LPS-induced interferon, corticosterone, or LPS-induced hypoglycemia.

  7. Olig2 overexpression induces the in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells into mature oligodendrocytes

    Copray, Sjef; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Levenga, Josien; Liem, Robert; Boddeke, Erik; de Bruijn, Joost D.

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation induction of neural stem cells (NSCs) into oligodendrocytes during embryogenesis is the result of a complex interaction between local induction factors and intracellular transcription factors. At the early stage of differentiation, in particular, the helix-loop-helix transcription fa

  8. Epac2 contributes to PACAP-induced astrocytic differentiation through calcium ion influx in neural precursor cells.

    Seo, Hyunhyo; Lee, Kyungmin

    2016-02-01

    Astrocytes play a critical role in normal brain functions and maintaining the brain microenvironment, and defects in astrocytogenesis during neurodevelopment could give rise to severe mental illness and psychiatric disorders. During neuro-embryogenesis, astrocytogenesis involves astrocytic differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) induced by signals from ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). However, in contrast to the CNTF signaling pathway, the exact mechanism underlying astrocytic differentiation induced by PACAP is unknown. In the present study, we aimed to verify a signaling pathway specific to PACAP-induced astrocytogenesis, using exchange protein directly activated by cAMP2 (Epac2)-knockout mice. We found that PACAP could trigger astrocytic differentiation of NPCs via Epac2 activation and an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration via a calcium ion influx. Taken together, we concluded that astrocytogenesis stimulated by PACAP occurs through a novel signaling pathway independent from CNTF-JAK/STAT signaling, that is the well-known pathway of astrocytogenesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(2): 128-133]. PMID:26645637

  9. Dissecting the calcium-induced differentiation of human primary keratinocytes stem cells by integrative and structural network analyses.

    Kiana Toufighi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecular details underlying the time-dependent assembly of protein complexes in cellular networks, such as those that occur during differentiation, are largely unexplored. Focusing on the calcium-induced differentiation of primary human keratinocytes as a model system for a major cellular reorganization process, we look at the expression of genes whose products are involved in manually-annotated protein complexes. Clustering analyses revealed only moderate co-expression of functionally related proteins during differentiation. However, when we looked at protein complexes, we found that the majority (55% are composed of non-dynamic and dynamic gene products ('di-chromatic', 19% are non-dynamic, and 26% only dynamic. Considering three-dimensional protein structures to predict steric interactions, we found that proteins encoded by dynamic genes frequently interact with a common non-dynamic protein in a mutually exclusive fashion. This suggests that during differentiation, complex assemblies may also change through variation in the abundance of proteins that compete for binding to common proteins as found in some cases for paralogous proteins. Considering the example of the TNF-α/NFκB signaling complex, we suggest that the same core complex can guide signals into diverse context-specific outputs by addition of time specific expressed subunits, while keeping other cellular functions constant. Thus, our analysis provides evidence that complex assembly with stable core components and competition could contribute to cell differentiation.

  10. Dissecting the Calcium-Induced Differentiation of Human Primary Keratinocytes Stem Cells by Integrative and Structural Network Analyses

    Toufighi, Kiana; Yang, Jae-Seong; Luis, Nuno Miguel; Aznar Benitah, Salvador; Lehner, Ben; Serrano, Luis; Kiel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The molecular details underlying the time-dependent assembly of protein complexes in cellular networks, such as those that occur during differentiation, are largely unexplored. Focusing on the calcium-induced differentiation of primary human keratinocytes as a model system for a major cellular reorganization process, we look at the expression of genes whose products are involved in manually-annotated protein complexes. Clustering analyses revealed only moderate co-expression of functionally related proteins during differentiation. However, when we looked at protein complexes, we found that the majority (55%) are composed of non-dynamic and dynamic gene products (‘di-chromatic’), 19% are non-dynamic, and 26% only dynamic. Considering three-dimensional protein structures to predict steric interactions, we found that proteins encoded by dynamic genes frequently interact with a common non-dynamic protein in a mutually exclusive fashion. This suggests that during differentiation, complex assemblies may also change through variation in the abundance of proteins that compete for binding to common proteins as found in some cases for paralogous proteins. Considering the example of the TNF-α/NFκB signaling complex, we suggest that the same core complex can guide signals into diverse context-specific outputs by addition of time specific expressed subunits, while keeping other cellular functions constant. Thus, our analysis provides evidence that complex assembly with stable core components and competition could contribute to cell differentiation. PMID:25946651

  11. Magnetorheological elastomer with stiffness-variable characteristics based on induced current applied to differential mount of vehicles

    A differential mount with elastomers is installed to insulate vibration transmitted from the engine to the body through the propeller shaft. Since existing differential mounts adopt an elastomer of uniform stiffness, it is difficult to meet both the requirements for steering performance and driving comfort at the same time. In order to overcome this limitation, this study suggests a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE)-based stiffness-variable differential mount which allows the mount’s stiffness to vary reversibly or instantly. The stiffness-variable differential mount was designed with a new inner structure where a magnetic field can be induced in the MRE. Further, the geometry of the MRE was optimized by means of the response surface method to achieve a targeted level of stiffness. The variable performance of the stiffness-variable differential mount was evaluated with the dynamic stiffness when a current of 3 A (0.287 T) was applied. As a result, it was found that the average increase in dynamic stiffness was 4.41 kgf mm−1 over an excitation frequency range of 60–100 Hz, a critical point of variation for dynamic stiffness, and 3.60 kgf mm−1 over an excitation frequency range of less than 100 Hz. (paper)

  12. Magnetorheological elastomer with stiffness-variable characteristics based on induced current applied to differential mount of vehicles

    Jeong, Un-Chang; Yoon, Ji-Hyun; Yang, In-Hyung; Jeong, Jae-Eun; Kim, Jin-Su; Chung, Kyung-Ho; Oh, Jae-Eung

    2013-11-01

    A differential mount with elastomers is installed to insulate vibration transmitted from the engine to the body through the propeller shaft. Since existing differential mounts adopt an elastomer of uniform stiffness, it is difficult to meet both the requirements for steering performance and driving comfort at the same time. In order to overcome this limitation, this study suggests a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE)-based stiffness-variable differential mount which allows the mount’s stiffness to vary reversibly or instantly. The stiffness-variable differential mount was designed with a new inner structure where a magnetic field can be induced in the MRE. Further, the geometry of the MRE was optimized by means of the response surface method to achieve a targeted level of stiffness. The variable performance of the stiffness-variable differential mount was evaluated with the dynamic stiffness when a current of 3 A (0.287 T) was applied. As a result, it was found that the average increase in dynamic stiffness was 4.41 kgf mm-1 over an excitation frequency range of 60-100 Hz, a critical point of variation for dynamic stiffness, and 3.60 kgf mm-1 over an excitation frequency range of less than 100 Hz.

  13. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Hee [Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ji Hye; Lee, Eun Ji; Jin, Sun Woo [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Taken together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. - Highlights: • CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. • CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. • CAPE induced HIF-1α induction. • CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 expression.

  14. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Taken together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. - Highlights: • CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. • CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. • CAPE induced HIF-1α induction. • CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 expression

  15. Methylsulfonylmethane enhances BMP‑2‑induced osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells.

    Kim, Don Nam; Joung, Youn Hee; Darvin, Pramod; Kang, Dong Young; Sp, Nipin; Byun, Hyo Joo; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Kyung Do; Lee, Hak Kyo; Yang, Young Mok

    2016-07-01

    As human lifespans have increased, the incidence of osteoporosis has also increased. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) affects the process of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into osteoblasts via the Janus kinase 2 (Jak2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5b signaling pathway, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP‑2) is also known to significantly affect bone health. In addition, the phosphorylation of small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad)1/5/8 regulates the Runt‑related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) gene, which encodes a transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation markers. In the present study, the differentiation of MSCs treated with MSM, BMP‑2, and their combination were examined. The differentiation of osteoblasts was demonstrated through observation of morphological changes and mineralization, using alizarin red and Von Kossa staining. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the combination of MSM and BMP-2 increased the phosphorylation of the BMP signaling-associated protein, Smad1/5/8. Combination of MSM and BMP-2 significantly increased osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of the MSCs compared with either MSM or BMP-2 alone. Additionally, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that combination of MSM and BMP-2 increased the expression level of the Runx2 gene and the osteoblast differentiation marker genes, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, in MSCs compared with controls. Thus, the combination of MSM and BMP-2 may promote the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. PMID:27175741

  16. Changes in morphology and spatial position of coiled bodies during NGF-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    Janevski, J; Park, P C; De Boni, U

    1997-11-01

    Interphase nuclei are organized into structural and functional domains. The coiled body, a nuclear organelle of unknown function, exhibits cell type-specific changes in number and morphology. Its association with nucleoli and with small nuclear ribonucleo-proteins (snRNPs) indicates that it functions in RNA processing. In cycling cells, coiled bodies are round structures not associated with nucleoli. In contrast, in neurons, they frequently present as nucleolar "caps." To test the hypothesis that neuronal differentiation is accompanied by changes in the spatial association of coiled bodies with nucleoli and in their morphology, PC12 cells were differentiated into a neuronal phenotype with nerve growth factor (NGF) and coiled bodies detected by immunocytochemical localization of p80-coilin and snRNPs. The fraction of cells that showed coiled bodies as nucleolar caps increased from 1.6 +/- 0.9% (mean +/- SEM) in controls to 16.5 +/- 1.6% in NGF-differentiated cultures. The fraction of cells with ring-like coiled bodies increased from 17.2 +/- 5.0% in controls to 57.8 +/- 4.4% in differentiated cells. This was accompanied by a decrease, from 81.2 +/- 5.7% to 25.7 +/- 3.1%, in the fraction of cells with small, round coiled bodies. SnRNPs remained associated with typical coiled bodies and with ring-like coiled bodies during NGF-induced recruitment of snRNPs to the nuclear periphery. Together with the observation that coiled bodies are also present as nucleolar caps in sensory neurons, the results indicate that coiled bodies alter their morphology and increase their association with nucleoli during NGF-induced neuronal differentiation. PMID:9358854

  17. Gravity-induced differentiations and deficiency in flower formation observed on Columbus experiment WAICO1

    Scherer, Günther; Pietrzyk, Peter

    formation. When mutants and wt only grown in the 1G centrifuge were compared the mutant leaves and cotyledons were smaller than in wt and hypocotyls were longer, but when the plants in µG for 12d were compared this difference was not found. Hence, gravity had an influence on leaf expansion and hypocotyl length in the mutant. The samples grown for 12d in 1G were kept in µG after 12d on due to a technical failure of the 1G centrifuge. They were retrieved about a year later. They had grown to full senescence and were preserved in a beautiful state as "straw". The observations on the root patterns by the astronaut photos at day 12 could be confirmed but plants had grown on and newer roots made coils just as the plants grown µG. Leaf sizes were different for wt and mutant. The most striking observation was that the mutants had developed small flower stems with a few flower buds but many flowers were incomplete, without the proper sepal or petal number or without gynaecium. The wild type plants had not developed any clear flower stem but only several malformed cell clumps shortly above the rosette. In ground laboratory experiments the mutants flower earlier which might explain why they developed flowers to some extent whereas the wt not at all. Microgravity might be a "stress" for flower formation. Taken together, several gravity-induced (or microgravity-induced) changes in differentiation occurred.

  18. Molecular Mechanism of Differentiation and Apoptosis of U937 Cells Induced by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate

    Ying Luo; Yunpeng Liu; Kezuo Hou; Su Wang; Yan Wang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on differentiation, apoptosis and related molecular mechanisms in U937 myelomonocytic leukemia cells.METHODS Morphological changes were analyzed by phase contrast and light microscopy, expression of the monocytic differentiation maker CD11b by direct immunofluorescence staining, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and expression of bcl-2, Bax, survivin and p21Cip1/Waf1proteins by Western analysis.RESULTS Treatment of U937 cells with 10 nmol/L TPA induced cell adherence. The adherent cells showed G0/G1 cell cycle arrest (69.0% at 24h vs 52.1% control; P< 0.01),and morphologic changes and increased expression of the monocytic differentiation marker CD11b (63.0% at 72 h vs15.3% control; P< 0.01 ). In addition to these effects, about 20% of the cells still remained in suspension and exhibited a time-dependent increasing apoptosis, which reached 70.3% after 72 h of treatment ( P< 0.01 ). TPA treatment for 24 h induced expression of p21Cip1/Waf1 in the adherent cells, but not in the non-adherent cells. Furthermore, bcl-2 and survivin expression declined in 24 h-TPA-treated non-adherent cells compared with untreated control and adherent cells, whereas no change in the expression of Bax was detected.CONCLUSION TPA induces both differentiation and apoptosis in U937 cells,which may be related to the upregulation of p21Cip1/Waf1 and downregulation of bcl-2 and survivin expression.

  19. Equine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells have a Reduced Tendon Differentiation Capacity Compared to Embryonic Stem Cells

    Bavin, Emma P.; Smith, Olivia; Arabella E. G. Baird; Lawrence C. Smith; Guest, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to ...

  20. Equine induced pluripotent stem cells have a reduced tendon differentiation capacity compared to embryonic stem cells

    Emma Patricia Bavin; Olivia eSmith; Arabella E. G. Baird; Lawrence C. Smith; Guest, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to ...

  1. Resveratrol Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation through Stimulation of SirT1 and AMPK

    Anne Marie Thompson; Martin, Kathleen A.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is necessary for vessel maintenance, repair and adaptation to vascular changes associated with aging. De-differentiated VSMC contribute to pathologies including atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. As resveratrol has been reported to have cardio- protective effects, we investigated its role in VSMC phenotypic modulation. We demonstrated the novel finding that resveratrol promoted VSMC differentiation as measured by contractile p...

  2. Patterns of thymocyte differentiation markers on virus and radiation induced lymphomas of C57-BL/Ka mice

    To better understand the biology of tumorigenesis in virus and radiation lymphomas of C57Bl/Ka mice, the authors examined the cell surface phenotypes of a large series of primary tumors induced by both agents. Data derived using flow cytometry and recently available monoclonal antibodies to thymocyte differentiation antigens supports three major conclusions. First, tumor cell populations are unimodal for staining with most antibodies and are probably of clonal origin. Second, many, but not all, tumor cells show surface phenotypes similar to those of previously defined subpopulations of normal thymocytes. Third, at the cell surface level, no major differences between virus- and radiation-induced lymphomas can be discerned. Our data thus further define the relationship between thymomas induced by these two agents

  3. [Differentiation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-secreting cells induced by regenerating pancreatic extract].

    Zhang, Yanmei; Wang, Dianliang; Zeng, Hongyan; Wang, Lieming; Sun, Jinwei; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Shasha

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the natural biological inducer, rat regenerating pancreatic extract (RPE), was used to induce human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) into insulin-secreting cells. We excised 60% of rat pancreas in order to stimulate pancreatic regeneration. RPE was extracted and used to induce hAMSCs at a final concentration of 20 microg/mL. The experiment methods used were as follows: morphological-identification, dithizone staining, immumofluorescence analysis, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose. The results show that the cell morphology of passge3 hAMSCs changed significantly after the induction of RPE, resulting in cluster shape after induction for 15 days. Dithizone staining showed that there were scarlet cell masses in RPE-treated culture. Immumofluorescence analysis indicated that induced cells were insulin-positive expression. RT-PCR showed the positive expression of human islet-related genes Pdx1 and insulin in the induced cells. The result of insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose indicated that insulin increasingly secreted and then kept stable with prolongation of high glucose stimulation. In conclusion, hAMSCs had the potential to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells induced by RPE in vitro. PMID:22667123

  4. Functionalizing Ascl1 with Novel Intracellular Protein Delivery Technology for Promoting Neuronal Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Robinson, Meghan; Chapani, Parv; Styan, Tara; Vaidyanathan, Ranjani; Willerth, Stephanie Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Pluripotent stem cells can become any cell type found in the body. Accordingly, one of the major challenges when working with pluripotent stem cells is producing a highly homogenous population of differentiated cells, which can then be used for downstream applications such as cell therapies or drug screening. The transcription factor Ascl1 plays a key role in neural development and previous work has shown that Ascl1 overexpression using viral vectors can reprogram fibroblasts directly into neurons. Here we report on how a recombinant version of the Ascl1 protein functionalized with intracellular protein delivery technology (Ascl1-IPTD) can be used to rapidly differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into neurons. We first evaluated a range of Ascl1-IPTD concentrations to determine the most effective amount for generating neurons from hiPSCs cultured in serum free media. Next, we looked at the frequency of Ascl1-IPTD supplementation in the media on differentiation and found that one time supplementation is sufficient enough to trigger the neural differentiation process. Ascl1-IPTD was efficiently taken up by the hiPSCs and enabled rapid differentiation into TUJ1-positive and NeuN-positive populations with neuronal morphology after 8 days. After 12 days of culture, hiPSC-derived neurons produced by Ascl1-IPTD treatment exhibited greater neurite length and higher numbers of branch points compared to neurons derived using a standard neural progenitor differentiation protocol. This work validates Ascl1-IPTD as a powerful tool for engineering neural tissue from pluripotent stem cells. PMID:27138845

  5. Effects of differential-inducing agents on the radiation response of human colon adenocarcinoma cells in vitro

    This study was undertaken to investigate, in depth, the radiation responses of two tumor subpopulations obtained from a heterogeneous human colon adenocarcinoma. Of particular interest were the effects of differentiation-inducing agents on these tumor cells in vitro. These two subpopulations were found to differ significantly in their intrinsic sensitivity to x-irradiation when exponentially growing control cells were irradiated with single doses of x-rays. However, no significant differences were found between the radiation responses of these two subpopulations in the plateau phase of growth. Clone D cells always expressed a greater amount of PLDR than clone a cells regardless of the nutritional state examined. The magnitude of expression of sublethal damage recovery (SLDR) was the same for both cell lines. The effects of the differentiating agents, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), sodium butyrate (NaB), 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR), and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) on intrinsic radiosensitivity and recovery processes were investigated in plateau phase cultures treated with the agents for three passages in vitro. Using a typical clinical radiation dose of 2 Gy for comparison, both DMF and NaB enhanced radiation cell killing in the low dose (shoulder) region of the survival curves for both of the tumor subpopulations. These studies indicate that differentiation-inducing agents can significantly modify the radiation response of human tumor cells in vitro and the nature of these changes may impact strongly on any combined modality therapy involving their use

  6. The effects of LSD1 inhibition on self-renewal and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Yan, Hong-Jie; Zhou, Shu-Yan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Chun-Yan; Qi, Hui; Li, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-15

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are capable of unlimited self-renewal and can generate nearly all cells in the body. Changes induced by different LSD1 activities on the regulation of hiPSC self-renewal and differentiation and the mechanism underlying such changes were determined. We used two different LSD1 inhibitors (phenelzine sulfate and tranylcypromine) and RNAi technique to inhibit LSD1 activity, and we obtained hiPSCs showing 71.3%, 53.28%, and 31.33% of the LSD1 activity in normal hiPSCs. The cells still maintained satisfactory self-renewal capacity when LSD1 activity was at 71.3%. The growth rate of hiPSCs decreased and cells differentiated when LSD1 activity was at approximately 53.28%. The hiPSCs were mainly arrested in the G0/G1 phase and simultaneously differentiated into endodermal tissue when LSD1 activity was at 31.33%. Teratoma experiments showed that the downregulation of LSD1 resulted in low teratoma volume. When LSD1 activity was below 50%, pluripotency of hiPSCs was impaired, and the teratomas mainly comprised endodermal and mesodermal tissues. This phenomenon was achieved by regulating the critical balance between histone methylation and demethylation at regulatory regions of several key pluripotent and developmental genes. PMID:26748182

  7. The effect of an alendronate-eluting titanium system to induce osteogenic differentiation in human buccal fat cells (HBFCs)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Su-Young; Yun, Young-Pil; Lee, Jae Yong; Park, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Deok-Won; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop alendronate (Aln)-eluting Ti substrates to induce osteogenic differentiation of human buccal fat cells (HBFCs). The surface of pristine Ti was modified by dopamine (DOPA) and then heparin was grafted onto the aminated Ti surfaces to achieve the Aln-eluting Ti system. Aln was subsequently immobilized on the surface of heparinized Ti (Hep-Ti). Pristine Ti and surface-modified-Ti were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle. Osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs on the surface of pristine-Ti, Hep-Ti, Aln (1 mg)/Hep-Ti, and Aln (5 mg)/Hep-Ti was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. Successful immobilization of Aln on Hep-Ti was confirmed by XPS and contact angle. Aln/Hep-Ti showed the sustained release for up to 28 days. Additionally, HBFCs cultured on Aln/Hep-Ti substrates showed significantly induced ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. These results suggest that Aln-eluting Ti substrates have a potential effect on osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs and will be a promising material for bone regeneration.

  8. Control of ductal vs. alveolar differentiation of mammary clonogens and susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary cancer

    We have developed an in vitro-in vivo transplantation assay for measuring the concentration of clonogenic epithelial cells in cell suspensions of rat mammary tissue. Rat mammary clonogens from organoid cultures are capable of the same degree of PLDR as clonogens in vivo. The growth and differentiation of mammary clonogens to alveolar colonies or ductal colonies is regulated as follows: a) in the presence of E2 and high prolactin (Prl), cortisol induces mammary clonogens to proliferate and differentiate to form alveolar colonies which secrete milk and begin losing clonogenic potential, b) in cortisol deficient rats, Prl and E2 synergistically stimulate non-secretory ductal colonies, formation of which retain clonogenic potential, c) E2 without progesterone stimulates alveolar colony formation in the presence of cortical and high Prl, d) progesterone inhibits mammary clonogen differentiation to milk-producing cells and induces ductogenesis in a dose responsive fashion in the presence of E2, cortisol and high Prl. High prolactin levels coupled with glucocorticoid deficiency increases the susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis following low dose radiation exposure by increasing the number of total mammary clonogens which are the presumptive target cells and by stimulating their proliferation after exposure. (author)

  9. Differentially expressed genes in repairing irradiation-induced damage in mouse intestinal tract by foreign mouse small intestinal RNA

    To study the differentially expressed genes correlative to irradiation-induced damage in mouse intestinal tract and its repair by foreign mouse small intestinal RNA. Divide 90 mice into 4 groups randomly. For the experimental groups, each mouse was given 40μg foreign mouse small intestinal RNA, and for the control groups, 0.4 mL of 0.9% NaCl. The intestinal specimens were collected form each group 6h, 12h, 24h, 4d and 8d after 60Co γ-rays irradiation respectively. The differentially expressed genes in the tested and control groups were checked and cloned by long-distance PCR based on subtractive hybridization. 165 differential gene clones were obtained, of which 75 named as AXCZI-75 maybe were correlated with the irradiation-induced damage in mouse intestinal tract; and 90 named as XCZ1-90 maybe were correlated with repairing of the damaged mouse intestinal tract by foreign mouse small intestinal RNA

  10. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  11. Acupuncture Induces the Proliferation and Differentiation of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells in Rats with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Jiang, Shuting; Chen, Weihao; Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yujuan; Chen, Ailian; Dai, Qiufu; Lin, Shujun; Lin, Hanyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether acupuncture induced the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods. 104 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal, model, and acupuncture groups. Each group was subdivided into three-day (3 d), seven-day (7 d), and fourteen-day (14 d) groups. The rat TBI model was established using Feeney's freefall epidural impact method. The rats in the acupuncture group were treated at acupoints (Baihui, Shuigou, Fengfu, Yamen, and bilateral Hegu). The normal and model groups did not receive acupuncture. The establishment of the rat TBI model and the therapeutic effect of acupuncture were assessed using neurobehavioral scoring and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in TBI rats were analyzed using immunofluorescence microscopy. Results. The levels of nestin-expressing cells and bromodeoxyuridine/glial fibrillary acidic protein- (BrdU/GFAP-) and BrdU/S100 calcium-binding protein B-positive and BrdU/microtubule-associated protein 2- and BrdU/galactocerebrosidase-positive cells were more significantly increased at various time points in the acupuncture group than in the model group (P Acupuncture induced the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs, thereby promoting neural repair in the TBI rats. PMID:27313641

  12. Human induced pluripotent stem cells differentiation into oligodendrocyte progenitors and transplantation in a rat model of optic chiasm demyelination.

    Alireza Pouya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs into oligodendrocyte precursors and assess their recovery potential in a demyelinated optic chiasm model in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated a cell population of oligodendrocyte progenitors from hiPSCs by using embryoid body formation in a defined medium supplemented with a combination of factors, positive selection and mechanical enrichment. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analyses showed that stage-specific markers, Olig2, Sox10, NG2, PDGFRα, O4, A2B5, GalC, and MBP were expressed following the differentiation procedure, and enrichment of the oligodendrocyte lineage. These results are comparable with the expression of stage-specific markers in human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Transplantation of hiPSC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into the lysolecithin-induced demyelinated optic chiasm of the rat model resulted in recovery from symptoms, and integration and differentiation into oligodendrocytes were detected by immunohistofluorescence staining against PLP and MBP, and measurements of the visual evoked potentials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results showed that oligodendrocyte progenitors generated efficiently from hiPSCs can be used in future biomedical studies once safety issues have been overcome.

  13. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naive T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  14. Photo-induced in situ crosslinking of polymer brushes with dimethyl maleimide moieties for dynamically stimulating stem cell differentiation.

    Arisaka, Yoshinori; Nishijima, Yuka; Yusa, Shin-Ichi; Takeda, Naoya

    2016-09-01

    We designed photo-crosslinkable polymer brushes with dimethylmaleimide moieties, in order to demonstrate dynamic stimulation of cell differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The polymer brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using dimethylmaleimide ethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate on a chain transfer agent-immobilized glass surface. The polymer brushes were crosslinked by photodimerization of the dimethylmaleimide moieties within polymer chains with stem cells present on the surface. In order to evaluate the effects of in situ photo-induced crosslinking of the polymer brushes on gene expression of stem cells, human bone marrow MSCs were cultured under static and dynamic culture conditions for 7 days. Expression of the osteocalcin (Ocn) gene in MSCs was used as an indicator of osteoblast differentiation under dynamic culture conditions. Structural conversion from non-crosslinked polymer brushes to crosslinked polymer brushes increased the expression of Ocn by 1.4-fold in the presence of adhered cells, compared with non-crosslinked polymer brushes under static culture conditions. These results suggest that MSCs recognized surface conversion from non-crosslinked to crosslinked structures, which resulted in altered differentiation lineages. Therefore, photo-crosslinkable surfaces with dimethyl maleimide moieties are potential novel materials for dynamically stimulating MSC differentiation. PMID:27255343

  15. Retinoic acid and dexamethasone induce differentiation and maturation of somatotroph cells at different stages in vitro

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of retinoic acid (RA) and/or dexamethasone and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) in the induction of somatotroph cell differentiation. Immunohistochemistry, radioimmunoassay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-1,2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and immune electron microscopy were employed to determine the effect of incubation with these constituents on the differentiation into somatotrophs of cells isolated from the rat embryonic pituitary gland. RA administration increased the proportion of growth hormone (GH) positive somatotroph cells and GH secretion in embryonic pituitary cells (P0.05). However, addition of GHRH to treatment with RA plus dexamethasone significantly increased both the proportion of somatotroph cells and the secretion of GH compared to treatment with RA or dexamethasone alone or RA plus dexamethasone (P<0.01). RA promoted the early differentiation of somatotroph cells, dexamethasone promoted the differentiation and maturation of somatotroph cells and in addition, RA, dexamethasone and GHRH together exerted synergistic effects that markedly promoted somatotroph cell differentiation, maturation and GH secretion. (author)

  16. Downregulation of Col1a1 induces differentiation in mouse spermatogonia

    Sun-Hong Chen; Ding Li; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    Col1a1 (one of the subunit of collagen type Ⅰ) is a collagen,which belongs to a family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that play an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation.However,the role of Col1a1 in spermatogenesis,especially in the control of proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs),remains unknown.In this study,we explored effects of downregulation of Col1a1 on differentiation and proliferation of mouse spermatogonia.Loss-of-function study revealed that Oct4 and Plzf,markers of SSC self-renewal,were significantly decreased,whereas the expression of c-kit and haprin,hallmarks of SSC differentiation,was enhanced after Col1a1 knockdown.Cell cycle analyses indicated that two-thirds of spermatogonia were arrested in S phase after Col1a1 knockdown.In vivo experiments,DNA injection and electroporation of the testes showed that spermatogonia self-renewal ability was impaired remarkably with the loss-of-function of Col1a1.Our data suggest that silencing of Col1a1 can suppress spermatogonia self-renewal and promote spermatogonia differentiation.

  17. Tamoxifen enhances the differentiation-inducing and growth-inhibitory effects of all-trans retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    Adachi, Koji; Honma, Yoshio; Miyake, Takaaki; Kawakami, Koshi; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzumiya, Junji

    2016-03-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is valuable in differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, ATRA has had limited success as a single agent, due to the development of resistance. We found that tamoxifen effectively enhanced the differentiation-inducing effect of ATRA. Tamoxifen alone inhibited the proliferation of myeloid leukemia cell lines while only slightly increasing morphologic differentiation. Tamoxifen effectively enhanced the growth-inhibiting actions of various differentiation-inducing agents. ATRA in the presence of tamoxifen increased NBT reduction and the expression of CD11b in HL-60 cells more effectively than ATRA alone. Tamoxifen also enhanced the differentiation induced by the other inducers tested. ATRA induced the differentiation of APL cell lines NB4 and HT93 and APL cells in primary culture, and this differentiation was also enhanced by tamoxifen. Tamoxifen is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of cancer and has few side effects. The combination of ATRA and tamoxifen might be considered for the treatment of APL patients in whom it can be difficult to apply arsenic trioxide or anthracyclines. PMID:26797574

  18. Neurospheres induced from bone marrow stromal cells are multipotent for differentiation into neuron, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte phenotypes

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be expanded rapidly in vitro and have the potential to be differentiated into neuronal, glial and endodermal cell types. However, induction for differentiation does not always have stable result. We present a new method for efficient induction and acquisition of neural progenitors, neuronal- and glial-like cells from MSCs. We demonstrate that rat MSCs can be induced to neurospheres and most cells are positive for nestin, which is an early marker of neuronal progenitors. In addition, we had success in proliferation of these neurospheres with undifferentiated characteristics and finally we could obtain large numbers of neuronal and glial phenotypes. Many of the cells expressed β-tubulin III when they were cultivated with our method. MSCs can become a valuable cell source as an autograft for clinical application involving regeneration of the central nervous system

  19. Differential effects of the ascorbyl and tocopheryl derivative on the methamphetamine-induced toxic behavior and toxicity

    A previous study showed that high doses of methamphetamine induce self-injurious behavior (SIB) in rodents. Furthermore, the combination of methamphetamine and morphine increased lethality in mice. We recently surmised that the rise in SIB and mortality induced by methamphetamine and/or morphine may be related to oxidative stress. The present study was designed to determine whether an antioxidant could inhibit SIB or mortality directly induced by methamphetamine and/or morphine. The SIB induced by 20 mg/kg of methamphetamine was abolished by the administration of Na L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS: 300 mg/kg), but not Na DL-α-tocopheryl phosphate (TPNa: 200 mg/kg). In contrast, APS (300 mg/kg) and TPNa (200 mg/kg) each significantly attenuated the lethality induced by methamphetamine and morphine. The present study showed that the signal intensity of superoxide adduct was increased by 20 mg/kg of methamphetamine in the heart and lungs, and methamphetamine plus morphine tended to increase superoxide adduct in all of the tissues measured by ESR spin trap methods. Adduct signal induced in brain by methamphetamine administration increased in significance, but in mouse administrated methamphetamine plus morphine. There are differential effects of administration of methamphetamine and coadministration of methamphetamine plus morphine on adduct signal. These results suggest that APS and TPNa are effective for reducing methamphetamine-induced toxicity and/or toxicological behavior. While APS and TPNa each affected methamphetamine- and/or morphine-induced toxicology and/or toxicological behavior, indicating that both drugs have antioxidative effects, their effects differed

  20. Fibroblast growth factor-2 induces osteogenic differentiation through a Runx2 activation in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Expression of bone-associated proteins and osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2 in arterial cells has been implicated in the development of vascular calcification. However, the signaling upstream of the Runx2-mediated activation of osteoblastic program in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is poorly understood. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), an important regulator of bone formation, on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC. Stimulation of cultured rat aortic SMC (RASMC) with FGF-2 induced the expression of the osteoblastic markers osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin. Luciferase assays showed that FGF-2 induced osteocyte-specific element (OSE)-dependent transcription. Downregulation of Runx2 by siRNA repressed the basal and FGF-2-stimulated expression of the OPN gene in RASMC. FGF-2 produced hydrogen peroxide in RASMC, as evaluated by fluorescent probe. Induction of OPN expression by FGF-2 was inhibited not only by PD98059 (MEK1 inhibitor) and PP1 (c-Src inhibitor), but also by an antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Nuclear extracts from FGF-2-treated RASMC exhibited increased DNA-binding of Runx2 to its target sequence. Immunohistochemistry of human coronary atherectomy specimens and calcified aortic tissues showed that expression of FGF receptor-1 and Runx2 was colocalized. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGF-2 plays a role in inducing osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC by activating Runx2 through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent- and oxidative stress-sensitive-signaling pathways.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor-2 induces osteogenic differentiation through a Runx2 activation in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Nakahara, Takehiro; Sato, Hiroko; Shimizu, Takehisa; Tanaka, Toru; Matsui, Hiroki; Kawai-Kowase, Keiko; Sato, Mahito; Iso, Tatsuya; Arai, Masashi [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Kurabayashi, Masahiko, E-mail: mkuraba@med.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)

    2010-04-02

    Expression of bone-associated proteins and osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2 in arterial cells has been implicated in the development of vascular calcification. However, the signaling upstream of the Runx2-mediated activation of osteoblastic program in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is poorly understood. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), an important regulator of bone formation, on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC. Stimulation of cultured rat aortic SMC (RASMC) with FGF-2 induced the expression of the osteoblastic markers osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin. Luciferase assays showed that FGF-2 induced osteocyte-specific element (OSE)-dependent transcription. Downregulation of Runx2 by siRNA repressed the basal and FGF-2-stimulated expression of the OPN gene in RASMC. FGF-2 produced hydrogen peroxide in RASMC, as evaluated by fluorescent probe. Induction of OPN expression by FGF-2 was inhibited not only by PD98059 (MEK1 inhibitor) and PP1 (c-Src inhibitor), but also by an antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Nuclear extracts from FGF-2-treated RASMC exhibited increased DNA-binding of Runx2 to its target sequence. Immunohistochemistry of human coronary atherectomy specimens and calcified aortic tissues showed that expression of FGF receptor-1 and Runx2 was colocalized. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGF-2 plays a role in inducing osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC by activating Runx2 through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent- and oxidative stress-sensitive-signaling pathways.

  2. Electrospun fibrous scaffolds combined with nanoscale hydroxyapatite induce osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells

    Wu XN

    2014-08-01

    extended gradually with stretched filopodia, indicating an ability to fill the fiber pores. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that both scaffolds supported cell proliferation. However, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that expression of the bone-related markers, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, was upregulated only on the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold, indicating that this scaffold had the ability to induce osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. In this study, COL/PCL/nHA-SBF produced by electrospinning followed by biomimetic mineralization had combined electrospun fibers with nHA in it. This scaffold has good biocompatibility and osteoinductive ability as a result of the characteristics of nHA, so could be innovatively applied to periodontal tissue engineering as a potential scaffold. Keywords: nanoscale hydroxyapatite, electrospinning, periodontal ligament cells 

  3. Carbon monoxide induced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells mimics the central macrophage milieu in erythroblastic islands.

    Shlomi Toobiak

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports the role of erythroblastic islands (EI as microenvironmental niches within bone marrow (BM, where cell-cell attachments are suggested as crucial for erythroid maturation. The inducible form of the enzyme heme oxygenase, HO-1, which conducts heme degradation, is absent in erythroblasts where hemoglobin (Hb is synthesized. Yet, the central macrophage, which retains high HO-1 activity, might be suitable to take over degradation of extra, harmful, Hb heme. Of these enzymatic products, only the hydrophobic gas molecule--CO can transfer from the macrophage to surrounding erythroblasts directly via their tightly attached membranes in the terminal differentiation stage.Based on the above, the study hypothesized CO to have a role in erythroid maturation. Thus, the effect of CO gas as a potential erythroid differentiation inducer on the common model for erythroid progenitors, K562 cells, was explored. Cells were kept under oxygen lacking environment to mimic BM conditions. Nitrogen anaerobic atmosphere (N₂A served as control for CO atmosphere (COA. Under both atmospheres cells proliferation ceased: in N₂A due to cell death, while in COA as a result of erythroid differentiation. Maturation was evaluated by increased glycophorin A expression and Hb concentration. Addition of 1%CO only to N₂A, was adequate for maintaining cell viability. Yet, the average Hb concentration was low as compared to COA. This was validated to be the outcome of diversified maturation stages of the progenitor's population.In fact, the above scenario mimics the in vivo EI conditions, where at any given moment only a minute portion of the progenitors proceeds into terminal differentiation. Hence, this model might provide a basis for further molecular investigations of the EI structure/function relationship.

  4. Estrogen induced concentration dependent differential gene expression in human breast cancer (MCF7) cells: Role of transcription factors

    Chandrasekharan, Sabarinath, E-mail: csab@bio.psgtech.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Kandasamy, Krishna Kumar [Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing, Cologne (Germany); Dayalan, Pavithra; Ramamurthy, Viraragavan [Department of Biotechnology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004 (India)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •Estradiol (E2) at low dose induced cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. •E2 at high concentration induced cell stress in breast cancer cells. •Estrogen receptor physically interacts only with a few transcription factors. •Differential expression of genes with Oct-1 binding sites increased under stress. •Transcription factor binding sites showed distinct spatial distribution on genes. -- Abstract: Background: Breast cancer cells respond to estrogen in a concentration dependent fashion, resulting in proliferation or apoptosis. The mechanism of this concentration dependent differential outcome is not well understood yet. Methodology: Meta-analysis of the expression data of MCF7 cells treated with low (1 nM) or high (100 nM) dose of estradiol (E2) was performed. We identified genes differentially expressed at the low or the high dose, and examined the nature of regulatory elements in the vicinity of these genes. Specifically, we looked for the difference in the presence, abundance and spatial distribution of binding sites for estrogen receptor (ER) and selected transcription factors (TFs) in the genomic region up to 25 kb upstream and downstream from the transcription start site (TSS) of these genes. Results: It was observed that at high dose E2 induced the expression of stress responsive genes, while at low dose, genes involved in cell cycle were induced. We found that the occurrence of transcription factor binding regions (TFBRs) for certain factors such as Sp1 and SREBP1 were higher on regulatory regions of genes expressed at low dose. At high concentration of E2, genes with a higher frequency of Oct-1 binding regions were predominantly involved. In addition, there were differences in the spatial distribution pattern of the TFBRs in the genomic regions among the two sets of genes. Discussion: E2 induced predominantly proliferative/metabolic response at low concentrations; but at high concentration, stress–rescue responses were induced

  5. Estrogen induced concentration dependent differential gene expression in human breast cancer (MCF7) cells: Role of transcription factors

    Highlights: •Estradiol (E2) at low dose induced cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. •E2 at high concentration induced cell stress in breast cancer cells. •Estrogen receptor physically interacts only with a few transcription factors. •Differential expression of genes with Oct-1 binding sites increased under stress. •Transcription factor binding sites showed distinct spatial distribution on genes. -- Abstract: Background: Breast cancer cells respond to estrogen in a concentration dependent fashion, resulting in proliferation or apoptosis. The mechanism of this concentration dependent differential outcome is not well understood yet. Methodology: Meta-analysis of the expression data of MCF7 cells treated with low (1 nM) or high (100 nM) dose of estradiol (E2) was performed. We identified genes differentially expressed at the low or the high dose, and examined the nature of regulatory elements in the vicinity of these genes. Specifically, we looked for the difference in the presence, abundance and spatial distribution of binding sites for estrogen receptor (ER) and selected transcription factors (TFs) in the genomic region up to 25 kb upstream and downstream from the transcription start site (TSS) of these genes. Results: It was observed that at high dose E2 induced the expression of stress responsive genes, while at low dose, genes involved in cell cycle were induced. We found that the occurrence of transcription factor binding regions (TFBRs) for certain factors such as Sp1 and SREBP1 were higher on regulatory regions of genes expressed at low dose. At high concentration of E2, genes with a higher frequency of Oct-1 binding regions were predominantly involved. In addition, there were differences in the spatial distribution pattern of the TFBRs in the genomic regions among the two sets of genes. Discussion: E2 induced predominantly proliferative/metabolic response at low concentrations; but at high concentration, stress–rescue responses were induced

  6. Reducing VDAC1 expression induces a non-apoptotic role for pro-apoptotic proteins in cancer cell differentiation.

    Arif, Tasleem; Krelin, Yakov; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2016-08-01

    Proteins initially identified as essential for apoptosis also mediate a wide range of non-apoptotic functions that include cell cycle progression, differentiation and metabolism. As this phenomenon was mostly reported with non-cancer cells, we considered non-conventional roles for the apoptotic machinery in the cancer setting. We found that treating glioblastoma (GBM) tumors with siRNA against VDAC1, a mitochondrial protein found at the crossroads of metabolic and survival pathways and involved in apoptosis, inhibited tumor growth while leading to differentiation of tumor cells into neuronal-like cells, as reflected in the expression of specific markers. Although VDAC1 depletion did not induce apoptosis, the expression levels of several pro-apoptotic regulatory proteins were changed. Specifically, VDAC1 deletion led to up-regulation of caspases, p53, cytochrome c, and down-regulation of SMAC/Diablo, AIF and TSPO. The down-regulated group was highly expressed in U-87MG xenografts, as well as in GBMs from human patients. We also showed that the rewired cancer-cell metabolism resulting from VDAC1 depletion reinforced cell growth arrest and differentiation via alterations in the transcription factors p53, c-Myc, HIF-1α and NF-κB. The decrease in c-Myc, HIF-1α and NF-κB levels was in accord with reduced cell proliferation, whereas increased p53 expression promoted differentiation. Thus, upon metabolic re-programing induced by VDAC1 depletion, the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins associated with cell growth decreased, while those connected to cell differentiation increased, converting GBM cells into astrocyte- and neuron-like cells. The results reveal that in tumors, pro-apoptotic proteins can perform non-apoptotic functions, acting as regulators of cell growth and differentiation, making these molecules potential new targets for cancer therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy

  7. Elemental analysis of tissue pellets for the differentiation of epidermal lesion and normal skin by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Moon, Youngmin; Han, Jung Hyun; Shin, Sungho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2016-05-01

    By laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of epidermal lesion and dermis tissue pellets of hairless mouse, it is shown that Ca intensity in the epidermal lesion is higher than that in dermis, whereas Na and K intensities have an opposite tendency. It is demonstrated that epidermal lesion and normal dermis can be differentiated with high selectivity either by univariate or multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra with an intensity ratio difference by factor of 8 or classification accuracy over 0.995, respectively. PMID:27231610

  8. Interleukin 5, a T-cell-derived B-cell differentiation factor also induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Takatsu, K; Kikuchi, Y; Takahashi, T.; Honjo, T; Matsumoto, M.; Harada, N.; Yamaguchi, N.; Tominaga, A

    1987-01-01

    We describe an interleukin, termed interleukin 5, that is the recombinant product previously referred to as T-cell-replacing factor (TRF), B-cell growth factor II (BCGF II), or killer-helper factor (KHF). TRF has been defined as a T-cell-derived lymphokine that acts on activated B cells as a B-cell differentiation factor. We have previously demonstrated that TRF is identical to BCGF II and induces expression of receptors for interleukin 2 (IL-2) on activated B cells. We also have reported tha...

  9. Efficient keratinocyte differentiation strictly depends on JNK-induced soluble factors in fibroblasts.

    Schumacher, Marion; Schuster, Christian; Rogon, Zbigniew M; Bauer, Tobias; Caushaj, Nevisa; Baars, Sebastian; Szabowski, Sibylle; Bauer, Christine; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina; Hess, Jochen; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Wagner, Erwin F; Eils, Roland; Angel, Peter; Hartenstein, Bettina

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that fibroblast-derived and JUN-dependent soluble factors have a crucial role on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation during cutaneous wound healing. Furthermore, mice with a deficiency in Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) , JNK1 or JNK2, showed impaired skin development and delayed wound closure. To decipher the role of dermal JNK in keratinocyte behavior during these processes, we used a heterologous coculture model combining primary human keratinocytes and murine fibroblasts. Although cocultured JNK1/JNK2-deficient fibroblasts did not affect keratinocyte proliferation, temporal monitoring of the transcriptome of differentiating keratinocytes revealed that efficient keratinocyte differentiation not only requires the support by fibroblast-derived soluble factors, but is also critically dependent on JNK1 and JNK2 signaling in these cells. Moreover, we showed that the repertoire of fibroblast transcripts encoding secreted proteins is severely disarranged upon loss of JNK under the coculture conditions applied. Finally, our data demonstrate that efficient keratinocyte terminal differentiation requires constant presence of JNK-dependent and fibroblast-derived soluble factors. Taken together, our results imply that mesenchymal JNK has a pivotal role in the paracrine cross talk between dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes during wound healing. PMID:24335928

  10. High-resolution cytometry of selected genetic elements in human adenocarcinoma cells induced to differentiate

    Harničarová, Andrea; Bártová, Eva; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 5 (2006), s. 362-362. ISSN 0960-7722. [Cytomics Emerging from Cytometry 16th Annual Meeting of the german Society for cytometry. 18.10.2006-21.10.2006, Heidelberg] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : adenocarcinoma * NaBt * differentiation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  11. Chromatin condensation and differential sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to DNA strand breaks induced by bleomycin

    Lopez-Larraza, Daniel M. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: danielop@imbice.org.ar; Padron, Juan [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ronci, Natalia E. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Vidal Rioja, Lidia A. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2006-08-30

    Bleomycin (BLM) induces DNA damage in living cells. In this report we analyzed the role of chromatin compactness in the differential response of mosquito (ATC-15) and mammalian (CHO) cells to DNA strand breaks induced by BLM. We used cells unexposed and exposed to sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces chromatin decondensation. By nucleoid sedimentation assay and digestions of nuclei with DNAse I, untreated mosquito cells (no BLM; no NaB) were shown to have more chromatin condensation than untreated CHO cells. By alkaline unwinding ATC-15 cells treated with NaB showed more BLM-induced DNA strand breaks than NaB-untreated CHO cells. The time-course of BLM-induced DNA damage to nuclear DNA was similar for NaB-untreated mammalian and insect cells, but with mosquito cells showing less DNA strand breaks, both at physiological temperatures and at 4 {sup o}C. However, when DNA repair was inhibited by low temperatures and chromatin was decondensed by NaB treatments, differences in BLM-induced DNA damage between these cells lines were no longer observed. In both cell lines, NaB did not affect BLM action on cell growth and viability. On the other hand, the low sensitivity of ATC-15 cells to BLM was reflected in their better growth efficiency. These cells exhibited a satisfactory growth at BLM doses that produced a permanent arrest of growth in CHO cells. The data suggest that mosquito cells might have linker DNAs shorter than those of mammalian cells, which would result in the observed both greater chromatin condensation and greater resistance to DNA damage induced by BLM as compared to CHO cells.

  12. Bias changing molecule–lead couple and inducing low bias negative differential resistance for electrons acceptor predicted by first-principles study

    A first-principles study of the transport properties of 3,13-dimercaptononacene–6,21-dione molecule sandwiched between two gold leads is reported. The strong effect of negative differential resistance with large peak-to-valley ratio of 710% is present under low bias. We found that bias can change molecule–lead couple and induce low bias negative differential resistance for electrons acceptor, which may promise the potential applications in molecular devices with low-power dissipation in the future. - Highlights: • Acceptor is constructed to negative differential resistor (NDR). • NDR effect is present under low bias. • Bias change molecule–lead couple and induce NDR effect

  13. Chiral-index resolved length mapping of carbon nanotubes in solution using electric-field induced differential absorption spectroscopy

    Li, Wenshan; Hennrich, Frank; Flavel, Benjamin S.; Kappes, Manfred M.; Krupke, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    The length of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is an important metric for the integration of SWCNTs into devices and for the performance of SWCNT-based electronic or optoelectronic applications. In this work we propose a rather simple method based on electric-field induced differential absorption spectroscopy to measure the chiral-index-resolved average length of SWCNTs in dispersions. The method takes advantage of the electric-field induced length-dependent dipole moment of nanotubes and has been verified and calibrated by atomic force microscopy. This method not only provides a low cost, in situ approach for length measurements of SWCNTs in dispersion, but due to the sensitivity of the method to the SWCNT chiral index, the chiral index dependent average length of fractions obtained by chromatographic sorting can also be derived. Also, the determination of the chiral-index resolved length distribution seems to be possible using this method.

  14. Effects of Huangqi (Hex) on Inducing Cell Differentiation and Cell Death in K562 and HEL Cells

    Xaio-Dong CHENG; Chun-Hui HOU; Xue-Jun ZHANG; Heng-Yue XIE; Wei-Ying ZHOU; Lei YANG; Shu-Bing ZHANG; Ruo-Lan QIAN

    2004-01-01

    Huangqi(Astragalus membranaceus),a traditional Chinese medicine,has been used to ameliorate side effects of cancer chemotherapy in China.However,little is known about its molecular mechanisms.Here we show that induction ofK562 or HEL cells with 1.5 mg/mi of Huangqi(Hex)(Components extracted from Huangqi)for 3-5 d results in the expression of ?-globin gene in both cell lines and leads to terminal differentiation.Moreover,the apoptosis in HEL cells can be induced by increasing concentration of Huangqi(Hex)to 4.5 mg/ml for 3-5 d.Upregulation ofApaf-1,caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase(AChE)in HEL cells may playa crucial role in the process of apoptosis.The prospect of inducing expression of adult(β)globin gene and apoptosis selectively in cancer cells is obviously attractive from a therapeutic point of view.

  15. Combined effects of flow-induced shear stress and electromagnetic field on neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Mascotte-Cruz, Juan Uriel; Ríos, Amelia; Escalante, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neural phenotype has been induced by either flow-induced shear stress (FSS) or electromagnetic fields (EMF). However, procedures are still expensive and time consuming. In the present work, induction for 1 h with the combination of both forces showed the presence of the neural precursor nestin as early as 9 h in culture after treatment and this result lasted for the following 6 d. In conclusion, the use of a combination of FSS and EMF for a short-time renders in neurite-like cells, although further investigation is required to analyze cell functionality. PMID:26325339

  16. Effect of radiation on CBFα1 expression in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells

    In order to investigate the changes of the Notch signaling pathway in osteoclast after radiation the mechanism radiation-induced bone loss, the gene expression of CBFα1, the important signal molecular in Notch signaling pathway was measured by real-time PCR, respectively. The osteoclast was obtained by RANKL-dependent differentiation in the RAW264.7 cell line. It was found that the 2 Gy 137Cs γ-rays enhanced the CBFα1 expression in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Taken together, the higher expression of CBFα1 might reinforce the effect of promoting osteoclastogenesis by Notch signaling pathway, increase both of the number and activity of osteoclasts while the bone loss, osteoporosis and fracture occur. (authors)

  17. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Chilling-Induced Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.); a Data Analysis Study.

    Koc, I; Vatansever, R; Ozyigit, I I; Filiz, E

    2015-10-01

    Cold stress, as chilling (potato. Under cold stress, plants differentially modulate their gene expression to develop a cold tolerance/acclimation. In the present study, we aimed to identify the overall gene expression profile of chilling-stressed (+4 °C) potato at four time points (4, 8, 12, and 48 h), with a particular emphasis on the genes related with transcription factors (TFs), phytohormones, lipid metabolism, signaling pathway, and photosynthesis. A total of 3504 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at four time points of chilling-induced potato, of which 1397 were found to be up-regulated while 2107 were down-regulated. Heatmap showed that genes were mainly up-regulated at 4-, 8-, and 12-h time points; however, at 48-h time point, they inclined to down-regulate. Seventy five up-regulated TF genes were identified from 37 different families/groups, including mainly from bHLH, WRKY, CCAAT-binding, HAP3, and bZIP families. Protein kinases and calcium were major signaling molecules in cold-induced signaling pathway. A collaborated regulation of phytohormones was observed in chilling-stressed potato. Lipid metabolisms were regulated in a way, highly probably, to change membrane composition to avoid cold damage and render in signaling. A down-regulated gene expression profile was observed in photosynthesis pathway, probably resulting from chilling-induced reduced enzyme activity or light-triggered ROSs damage. The findings of this study will be a valuable theoretical knowledge in terms of understanding the chilling-induced tolerance mechanisms in cultivated potato plants as well as in other Solanum species. PMID:26260485

  18. Differential gene expression before and after ionizing radiation of subcutaneous fibroblasts identifies breast cancer patients resistant to radiation-induced fibrosis

    Alsner, Jan; Rødningen, Olaug K.; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differentially gene expression between patients with either very low or very high risk of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) in patient-derived fibroblasts after irradiation has previously been reported. In the present study, we are investigating the robustness of radiation......-induced changes in gene expression in fibroblasts, whether differential expression is more pronounced when looking at the fold induction levels, taking into account the differences in background expression levels between patients, and whether there is a linear correlation between individual risk of RIF and......, there was no linear correlation between individual risk of RIF and differential expression of the genes investigated. Rather, differential gene expression could divide patients into two clearly separated groups, a larger, sensitive group and a smaller resistant group. CONCLUSIONS: Differential gene...

  19. Inhibition of p38 MAPK Phosphorylation Is Critical for Bestatin to Enhance ATRA-Induced Cell Differentiation in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia NB4 Cells.

    Qian, Xijun; He, Jingsong; Zhao, Yi; Lin, Maofang

    2016-01-01

    Bestatin has been known as an immunomodulating agent in anti-leukemia treatment. The mechanism by which Bestatin enhances all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced cell differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells is generally attributed to inhibition of cell surface CD13/aminopeptidase N activity. Bestatin also exerts its biological activities besides its ability to inhibit aminopeptidase N enzymatic activity. This article provides data to support an alternative mechanism regarding an important role of inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway in Bestatin's anti-leukemia effect. Bestatin enhanced ATRA-induced differentiation and inhibited ATRA-driven phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in ATRA-sensitive APL NB4 cells. In contrast, Bestatin could not reverse the differentiation block in ATRA-resistant APL MR2 cells, in which ATRA was unable to induce phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Moreover, CD13 ligation with anti-CD13 antibody WM-15 resulted in phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, reduced the inhibition of Bestatin on the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and completely abolished the enhancement of Bestatin on ATRA-inducing differentiation in NB4 cells. This study shows that inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation is critical for Bestatin to enhance ATRA-induced cell differentiation in ATRA-sensitive APL NB4 cells. Results suggested that pharmacological inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway might enhance ATRA-dependent differentiation. PMID:24141198

  20. Differential visually-induced gamma-oscillations in human cerebral cortex

    Asano, Eishi; Nishida, Masaaki; Fukuda, Miho; Rothermel, Robert; Juhasz, Csaba; Sood, Sandeep

    2008-01-01

    Using intracranial electrocorticography, we determined how cortical gamma-oscillations (50–150Hz) were induced by different visual tasks in nine children with focal epilepsy. In all children, full-field stroboscopic flash-stimuli induced gamma-augmentation in the anterior-medial occipital cortex (starting on average at 31-msec after stimulus presentation) and subsequently in the lateral-polar occipital cortex; minimal gamma-augmentation was noted in the inferior occipital-temporal cortex; occ...

  1. Berberine Sulfate Attenuates Osteoclast Differentiation through RANKL Induced NF-κB and NFAT Pathways

    Lin Zhou; Fangming Song; Qian Liu; Mingli Yang; Jinmin Zhao; Renxiang Tan; Jun Xu; Ge Zhang; Quinn, Julian M. W.; Jennifer Tickner; Jiake Xu

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, is characterized by an excessive formation and activation of osteoclasts. Anti-catabolic treatment using natural compounds has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy against the osteoclast related osteolytic diseases. In this study, the activity of berberine sulfate (an orally available form of berberine) on osteoclast differentiation and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action were investigated. Using bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) der...

  2. Aberrant expression of nuclear matrix proteins during HMBA-induced differentiation of gastric cancer cells

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the aberrant expression of nuclear matrix proteins in human gastric cancer cells before and after hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) treatment.METHODS: Proteomics analysis of differential nuclear matrix proteins was performed by two dimensional electrophoresis polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.The expression levels of three nuclear matrix proteins were further confirmed by Western blotting and their location...

  3. Overexpression of Bcl2 in osteoblasts inhibits osteoblast differentiation and induces osteocyte apoptosis.

    Takeshi Moriishi

    Full Text Available Bcl2 subfamily proteins, including Bcl2 and Bcl-X(L, inhibit apoptosis. As osteoblast apoptosis is in part responsible for osteoporosis in sex steroid deficiency, glucocorticoid excess, and aging, bone loss might be inhibited by the upregulation of Bcl2; however, the effects of Bcl2 overexpression on osteoblast differentiation and bone development and maintenance have not been fully investigated. To investigate these issues, we established two lines of osteoblast-specific BCL2 transgenic mice. In BCL2 transgenic mice, bone volume was increased at 6 weeks of age but not at 10 weeks of age compared with wild-type mice. The numbers of osteoblasts and osteocytes increased, but osteoid thickness and the bone formation rate were reduced in BCL2 transgenic mice with high expression at 10 weeks of age. The number of BrdU-positive cells was increased but that of TUNEL-positive cells was unaltered at 2 and 6 weeks of age. Osteoblast differentiation was inhibited, as shown by reduced Col1a1 and osteocalcin expression. Osteoblast differentiation of calvarial cells from BCL2 transgenic mice also fell in vitro. Overexpression of BCL2 in primary osteoblasts had no effect on osteoclastogenesis in co-culture with bone marrow cells. Unexpectedly, overexpression of BCL2 in osteoblasts eventually caused osteocyte apoptosis. Osteocytes, which had a reduced number of processes, gradually died with apoptotic structural alterations and the expression of apoptosis-related molecules, and dead osteocytes accumulated in cortical bone. These findings indicate that overexpression of BCL2 in osteoblasts inhibits osteoblast differentiation, reduces osteocyte processes, and causes osteocyte apoptosis.

  4. Control of thrombopoietin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Rouyez, M C; Boucheron, C; Gisselbrecht, S; Dusanter-Fourt, I; Porteu, F

    1997-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the major regulator of both growth and differentiation of megakaryocytes. We previously showed that both functions can be generated by TPO in the megakaryoblastic cell line UT7, in which murine Mpl was introduced, and are independently controlled by distinct regions of the cytoplasmic domain of Mpl. Particularly, residues 71 to 94 of this domain (deleted in the mutant mpl delta3) were found to be required for megakaryocytic maturation but dispensable for proliferation....

  5. Macrophage-conditioned medium inhibits differentiation-induced Rb phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    This study examines the mechanisms underlying the anti-adipogenic effect of macrophage-secreted products. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate over 8 days in medium conditioned by murine J774 macrophages (MacCM). The inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic markers was diminished when addition of MacCM was delayed to day 2 of differentiation. Clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, was reduced in the presence of MacCM (89%; n = 3; p kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. However, phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), required for cell cycle progression, was impaired by MacCM (94% inhibition; n = 3; p < 0.01). Differentiation-dependent expression, nuclear localization, and DNA binding ability of C/EBPβ were not inhibited by MacCM. Alterations in cell cycle-associated proteins may be important with respect to the anti-adipogenic action of MacCM

  6. Fonsecaea pedrosoi-induced Th17-cell differentiation in mice is fostered by Dectin-2 and suppressed by Mincle recognition.

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Wang, Huafeng; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Hardison, Sarah E; Brown, Gordon D; Klein, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic skin infection caused by the pigmented saprophytic mould Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Chronicity of infection can be broken by a coordinated innate recognition of the spores by pattern recognition receptors. While Mincle signaling via the Syk/Card9 pathway is required for fungal recognition by host cells, it is not sufficient for host control. Exogenously applied TLR agonists are necessary to promote the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and clearance of infection in vivo. Here, we investigated whether costimulation by TLR agonists fosters the development of adaptive immune responses, by examining the development of fungus-specific T cells. Subcutaneous infection of mice with F. pedrosoi spores induced the activation, expansion, and differentiation of Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells but TLR costimulation did not further augment these T-cell responses. The Dectin-2/FcRγ/Card9 signaling pathway promoted the differentiation of fungus-specific CD4(+) T cells into Th17 cells, whereas Mincle inhibited the development of this T-helper subset in infected mice. These results indicate differential roles for Dectin-2 and Mincle in the generation of adaptive immune responses to F. pedrosoi infection. PMID:26140582

  7. Lactic Acid is Elevated in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Induces Myofibroblast Differentiation Via pH-Dependent Activation of Transforming Growth Factor-β

    Kottman, R. M.; Kulkarni, Ajit A.; Smolnycki, Katie A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Dahanayake, Thinesh; Salibi, Rami; Honnons, Sylvie; Jones, Carolyn; Isern, Nancy G.; Hu, Jian Z.; Nathan, Steven D.; Grant, Geraldine; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2012-10-15

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease for which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we identified lactic acid as a metabolite that is elevated in the lung tissue of patients with IPF. Objectives: This study examines the effect of lactic acid on myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis. Methods:We used metabolomic analysis to examine cellular metabolism in lung tissuefrom patients with IPFanddeterminedthe effects of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH5) overexpression on myofibroblast differentiation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-b activation in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: Lactic acid concentrations from healthy and IPF lung tissue were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; a-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and LDH5 expression were assessed by Western blot of cell culture lysates. Lactic acid and LDH5 were significantly elevated in IPF lung tissue compared with controls. Physiologic concentrations of lactic acid induced myofibroblast differentiation via activation of TGF-b. TGF-b induced expression of LDH5 via hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a). Importantly, overexpression of both HIF1a and LDH5 in human lung fibroblasts induced myofibroblast differentiation and synergized with low dose TGF-b to induce differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of both HIF1a and LDH5 inhibited TGF-b–induced myofibroblast differentiation. Conclusions: We have identified the metabolite lactic acid as an important mediator of myofibroblast differentiation via a pHdependent activation of TGF-b. We propose that the metabolic milieu of the lung, and potentially other tissues, is an important driving force behind myofibroblast differentiation and potentially the initiation and progression of fibrotic disorders.

  8. Multiple Sclerosis Patient-Specific Primary Neurons Differentiated from Urinary Renal Epithelial Cells via Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Megan G Massa

    Full Text Available As multiple sclerosis research progresses, it is pertinent to continue to develop suitable paradigms to allow for ever more sophisticated investigations. Animal models of multiple sclerosis, despite their continuing contributions to the field, may not be the most prudent for every experiment. Indeed, such may be either insufficient to reflect the functional impact of human genetic variations or unsuitable for drug screenings. Thus, we have established a cell- and patient-specific paradigm to provide an in vitro model within which to perform future genetic investigations. Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells were isolated from multiple sclerosis patients' urine and transfected with pluripotency-inducing episomal factors. Subsequent induced pluripotent stem cells were formed into embryoid bodies selective for ectodermal lineage, resulting in neural tube-like rosettes and eventually neural progenitor cells. Differentiation of these precursors into primary neurons was achieved through a regimen of neurotrophic and other factors. These patient-specific primary neurons displayed typical morphology and functionality, also staining positive for mature neuronal markers. The development of such a non-invasive procedure devoid of permanent genetic manipulation during the course of differentiation, in the context of multiple sclerosis, provides an avenue for studies with a greater cell- and human-specific focus, specifically in the context of genetic contributions to neurodegeneration and drug discovery.

  9. Multiple Sclerosis Patient-Specific Primary Neurons Differentiated from Urinary Renal Epithelial Cells via Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Massa, Megan G.; Gisevius, Barbara; Hirschberg, Sarah; Hinz, Lisa; Schmidt, Matthias; Gold, Ralf; Prochnow, Nora; Haghikia, Aiden

    2016-01-01

    As multiple sclerosis research progresses, it is pertinent to continue to develop suitable paradigms to allow for ever more sophisticated investigations. Animal models of multiple sclerosis, despite their continuing contributions to the field, may not be the most prudent for every experiment. Indeed, such may be either insufficient to reflect the functional impact of human genetic variations or unsuitable for drug screenings. Thus, we have established a cell- and patient-specific paradigm to provide an in vitro model within which to perform future genetic investigations. Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells were isolated from multiple sclerosis patients’ urine and transfected with pluripotency-inducing episomal factors. Subsequent induced pluripotent stem cells were formed into embryoid bodies selective for ectodermal lineage, resulting in neural tube-like rosettes and eventually neural progenitor cells. Differentiation of these precursors into primary neurons was achieved through a regimen of neurotrophic and other factors. These patient-specific primary neurons displayed typical morphology and functionality, also staining positive for mature neuronal markers. The development of such a non-invasive procedure devoid of permanent genetic manipulation during the course of differentiation, in the context of multiple sclerosis, provides an avenue for studies with a greater cell- and human-specific focus, specifically in the context of genetic contributions to neurodegeneration and drug discovery. PMID:27158987

  10. Changes in microRNA expression during differentiation of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells to definitive endoderm.

    Francis, Natalie; Moore, Melanie; Asan, Simona G; Rutter, Guy A; Burns, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have the potential to treat type 1 diabetes through cell replacement therapy. However, the protocols used to generate insulin-expressing cells in vitro frequently result in cells which have an immature phenotype and are functionally restricted. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now known to be important in cell fate specification, and a unique miRNA signature characterises pancreatic development at the definitive endoderm stage. Several studies have described differences in miRNA expression between ESCs and iPSCs. Here we have used microarray analysis both to identify miRNAs up- or down-regulated upon endoderm formation, and also miRNAs differentially expressed between ESCs and iPSCs. Several miRNAs fulfilling both these criteria were identified, suggesting that differences in the expression of these miRNAs may affect the ability of pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into definitive endoderm. The expression of these miRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR, and the relationship between one of these miRNAs, miR-151a-5p, and its predicted target gene, SOX17, was investigated by luciferase assay, and suggested an interaction between miR-151a-5p and this key transcription factor. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate a unique miRNA expression pattern for definitive endoderm derived from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26277621

  11. Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis contributes to Wnt induced osteoblastic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells.

    An, Jee Hyun; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Ahn, Byung Yong; Cho, Sun Wook; Jung, Ju Yeon; Cho, Hwa Young; Cho, Young Min; Kim, Sang Wan; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Shin, Chan Soo

    2010-07-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in cell physiology including cell differentiation and proliferation. We investigated the changes of mitochondrial biogenesis during Wnt-induced osteoblastic differentiation of murine mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that activation of Wnt signaling by Wnt-3A conditioned medicum (CM) resulted in significant increase in the number of mitochondria in C3H10T1/2 cells. In addition, the induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities by Wnt-3A CM was accompanied by significant increase in mitochondrial mass (pactivities as well as mitochondrial biogenesis markers. Upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by overexpression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) significantly enhanced Wnt-induced osteogenesis as measured by ALP activities. In contrast, inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis by treatment with Zidovudine (AZT) resulted in significant inhibition of ALP activities. Finally, ALP activities in human osteosarcoma cell line devoid of mitochondrial DNA (rho(0) cells) was significantly suppressed both in basal and Wnt-3A stimulated state compared to those from mitochondria-intact cells (rho+ cells). As a mechanism for Wnt-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis, we found that Wnt increased the expression of PGC-1alpha, a critical molecules in mitochondrial biogenesis, through Erk and p38 MAPK pathway independent of beta-catenin signaling. We also found that increased mitochondrial biogenesis is in turn positively regulating TOPflash reporter activity as well as beta-catenin levels. To summarize, mitochodrial biogenesis is upregulated by Wnt signaling and this upregulation contributes to the osteoblastic differentiation of mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells. PMID:20399290

  12. ZNF804A Transcriptional Networks in Differentiating Neurons Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells of Human Origin.

    Jian Chen

    Full Text Available ZNF804A (Zinc Finger Protein 804A has been identified as a candidate gene for schizophrenia (SZ, autism spectrum disorders (ASD, and bipolar disorder (BD in replicated genome wide association studies (GWAS and by copy number variation (CNV analysis. Although its function has not been well-characterized, ZNF804A contains a C2H2-type zinc-finger domain, suggesting that it has DNA binding properties, and consequently, a role in regulating gene expression. To further explore the role of ZNF804A on gene expression and its downstream targets, we used a gene knockdown (KD approach to reduce its expression in neural progenitor cells (NPCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. KD was accomplished by RNA interference (RNAi using lentiviral particles containing shRNAs that target ZNF804A mRNA. Stable transduced NPC lines were generated after puromycin selection. A control cell line expressing a random (scrambled shRNA was also generated. Neuronal differentiation was induced, RNA was harvested after 14 days and transcriptome analysis was carried out using RNA-seq. 1815 genes were found to be differentially expressed at a nominally significant level (p<0.05; 809 decreased in expression in the KD samples, while 1106 increased. Of these, 370 achieved genome wide significance (FDR<0.05; 125 were lower in the KD samples, 245 were higher. Pathway analysis showed that genes involved in interferon-signaling were enriched among those that were down-regulated in the KD samples. Correspondingly, ZNF804A KD was found to affect interferon-alpha 2 (IFNA2-mediated gene expression. The findings suggest that ZNF804A may affect a differentiating neuron's response to inflammatory cytokines, which is consistent with models of SZ and ASD that support a role for infectious disease, and/or autoimmunity in a subgroup of patients.

  13. The effects of Lycii Radicis Cortex on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Bina; Min, Ju-Hee; Song, Dea-Uk; Lim, Jeong-Min; Eom, Ji Whan; Yeom, Mijung; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Sohn, Youngjoo

    2016-03-01

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a serious age-related disease. After the menopause, estrogen deficiency is common, and excessive osteoclast activity causes osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells generated from the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage precursor cells such as RAW 264.7 cells. The water extract of Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) is made from the dried root bark of Lycium chinense Mill. and is termed 'Jigolpi' in Korea. Its effects on osteoclastogenesis and post‑menopausal osteoporosis had not previously been tested. In the present study, the effect of LRC on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was demonstrated using a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay and pit formation assay. Moreover, in order to analyze molecular mechanisms, we studied osteoclastogenesis-related markers such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), TRAP, cathepsin K (CTK), matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), calcitonin receptor (CTR) and carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ (CAII) using RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Additionally, we also determined the effect of LRC on an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. We noted that LRC inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via suppressing osteoclastogenesis-related markers. It also inhibited osteoporosis in the OVX rat model by decreasing loss of bone density and trabecular area. These results suggest that LRC exerts a positive effect on menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26848104

  14. Retinoic Acid Induces Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation by Altering Both Encoding RNA and microRNA Expression.

    Jingcheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA is a vitamin A metabolite that is essential for early embryonic development and promotes stem cell neural lineage specification; however, little is known regarding the impact of RA on mRNA transcription and microRNA levels on embryonic stem cell differentiation. Here, we present mRNA microarray and microRNA high-output sequencing to clarify how RA regulates gene expression. Using mRNA microarray analysis, we showed that RA repressed pluripotency-associated genes while activating ectoderm markers in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. Moreover, RA modulated the DNA methylation of mESCs by altering the expression of epigenetic-associated genes such as Dnmt3b and Dnmt3l. Furthermore, H3K4me2, a pluripotent histone modification, was repressed by RA stimulation. From microRNA sequence data, we identified two downregulated microRNAs, namely, miR-200b and miR-200c, which regulated the pluripotency of stem cells. We found that miR-200b or miR-200c deficiency suppressed the expression of pluripotent genes, including Oct4 and Nanog, and activated the expression of the ectodermal marker gene Nestin. These results demonstrate that retinoid induces mESCs to differentiate by regulating miR-200b/200c. Our findings provide the landscapes of mRNA and microRNA gene networks and indicate the crucial role of miR-200b/200c in the RA-induced differentiation of mESCs.

  15. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Vitro

    Kevin Dzobo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs represent an area being intensively researched for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. MSCs may provide the opportunity to treat diseases and injuries that currently have limited therapeutic options, as well as enhance present strategies for tissue repair. The cellular environment has a significant role in cellular development and differentiation through cell–matrix interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of adipose-derived MSCs (ad-MSCs in the context of a cell-derived matrix so as to model the in vivo physiological microenvironment. The fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (fd-ECM did not affect ad-MSC morphology, but reduced ad-MSC proliferation. Ad-MSCs cultured on fd-ECM displayed decreased expression of integrins α2 and β1 and subsequently lost their multipotency over time, as shown by the decrease in CD44, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG gene expression. The fd-ECM induced chondrogenic differentiation in ad-MSCs compared to control ad-MSCs. Loss of function studies, through the use of siRNA and a mutant Notch1 construct, revealed that ECM-mediated ad-MSCs chondrogenesis requires Notch1 and β-catenin signaling. The fd-ECM also showed anti-senescence effects on ad-MSCs. The fd-ECM is a promising approach for inducing chondrogenesis in ad-MSCs and chondrogenic differentiated ad-MSCs could be used in stem cell therapy procedures.

  16. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Vitro.

    Dzobo, Kevin; Turnley, Taegyn; Wishart, Andrew; Rowe, Arielle; Kallmeyer, Karlien; van Vollenstee, Fiona A; Thomford, Nicholas E; Dandara, Collet; Chopera, Denis; Pepper, Michael S; Parker, M Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) represent an area being intensively researched for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. MSCs may provide the opportunity to treat diseases and injuries that currently have limited therapeutic options, as well as enhance present strategies for tissue repair. The cellular environment has a significant role in cellular development and differentiation through cell-matrix interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of adipose-derived MSCs (ad-MSCs) in the context of a cell-derived matrix so as to model the in vivo physiological microenvironment. The fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (fd-ECM) did not affect ad-MSC morphology, but reduced ad-MSC proliferation. Ad-MSCs cultured on fd-ECM displayed decreased expression of integrins α2 and β1 and subsequently lost their multipotency over time, as shown by the decrease in CD44, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), SOX2, and NANOG gene expression. The fd-ECM induced chondrogenic differentiation in ad-MSCs compared to control ad-MSCs. Loss of function studies, through the use of siRNA and a mutant Notch1 construct, revealed that ECM-mediated ad-MSCs chondrogenesis requires Notch1 and β-catenin signaling. The fd-ECM also showed anti-senescence effects on ad-MSCs. The fd-ECM is a promising approach for inducing chondrogenesis in ad-MSCs and chondrogenic differentiated ad-MSCs could be used in stem cell therapy procedures. PMID:27527147

  17. Retinoic Acid Induces Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation by Altering Both Encoding RNA and microRNA Expression

    Yu, Mengying; Wu, Haibo; Ai, Zhiying; Wu, Yongyan; Liu, Hongliang; Du, Juan; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A metabolite that is essential for early embryonic development and promotes stem cell neural lineage specification; however, little is known regarding the impact of RA on mRNA transcription and microRNA levels on embryonic stem cell differentiation. Here, we present mRNA microarray and microRNA high-output sequencing to clarify how RA regulates gene expression. Using mRNA microarray analysis, we showed that RA repressed pluripotency-associated genes while activating ectoderm markers in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Moreover, RA modulated the DNA methylation of mESCs by altering the expression of epigenetic-associated genes such as Dnmt3b and Dnmt3l. Furthermore, H3K4me2, a pluripotent histone modification, was repressed by RA stimulation. From microRNA sequence data, we identified two downregulated microRNAs, namely, miR-200b and miR-200c, which regulated the pluripotency of stem cells. We found that miR-200b or miR-200c deficiency suppressed the expression of pluripotent genes, including Oct4 and Nanog, and activated the expression of the ectodermal marker gene Nestin. These results demonstrate that retinoid induces mESCs to differentiate by regulating miR-200b/200c. Our findings provide the landscapes of mRNA and microRNA gene networks and indicate the crucial role of miR-200b/200c in the RA-induced differentiation of mESCs. PMID:26162091

  18. Enforced expression of E47 has differential effects on Lmo2-induced T-cell leukemias.

    Goodings, Charnise; Tripathi, Rati; Cleveland, Susan M; Elliott, Natalina; Guo, Yan; Shyr, Yu; Davé, Utpal P

    2015-01-01

    LIM domain only-2 (LMO2) overexpression in T cells induces leukemia but the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. In hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, Lmo2 is part of a protein complex comprised of class II basic helix loop helix proteins, Tal1and Lyl1. The latter transcription factors heterodimerize with E2A proteins like E47 and Heb to bind E boxes. LMO2 and TAL1 or LYL1 cooperate to induce T-ALL in mouse models, and are concordantly expressed in human T-ALL. Furthermore, LMO2 cooperates with the loss of E2A suggesting that LMO2 functions by creating a deficiency of E2A. In this study, we tested this hypothesis in Lmo2-induced T-ALL cell lines. We transduced these lines with an E47/estrogen receptor fusion construct that could be forced to homodimerize with 4-hydroxytamoxifen. We discovered that forced homodimerization induced growth arrest in 2 of the 4 lines tested. The lines sensitive to E47 homodimerization accumulated in G1 and had reduced S phase entry. We analyzed the transcriptome of a resistant and a sensitive line to discern the E47 targets responsible for the cellular effects. Our results suggest that E47 has diverse effects in T-ALL but that functional deficiency of E47 is not a universal feature of Lmo2-induced T-ALL. PMID:25499232

  19. Differential remodeling of a T-cell transcriptome following CD8-versus CD3-induced signaling

    S Hussain I Abidi; Tao Dong; Mai T Vuong; Vattipally B Sreenu; Sarah L Rowland-Jones; Edward J Evans; Simon J Davis

    2008-01-01

    CD8 engagement with class I major histocompatibility antigens greatly enhances T-cell activation,but it is not clear how this is achieved.We address the question of whether or not the antibody-mediated ligation of CD8 alone induces transcriptional remodeling in a T-cell clone,using serial analysis of gene expression.Even though it fails to induce overt phenotypic changes,we find that CD8 ligation profoundly alters transcription in the T-cell clone,at a scale comparable to that induced by antibody-mediated ligation of CD3.The character of the resulting changes is distinct,however,with the net effect ofCD8 ligation being substantially inhibitory.We speculate that ligating CD8 induces weak,T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated inhibitory signals reminiscent of the effects of TCR antagonists.Our results imply that CD8 ligation alone is incapable of activating the T-cell clone because it fails to fully induce NFAT-dependent transcription.

  20. Atherogenic Cytokines Regulate VEGF-A-Induced Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Endothelial Cells

    Izuagie Attairu Ikhapoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery stenting or angioplasty procedures frequently result in long-term endothelial dysfunction or loss and complications including arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction. Stem cell-based therapies have been proposed to support endothelial regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs in the presence of VEGF-A in vitro. Application of VEGF-A and MSC-derived ECs at the interventional site is a complex clinical challenge. In this study, we examined the effect of atherogenic cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, and Ang II on EC differentiation and function. MSCs (CD44+, CD73+, CD90+, CD14−, and CD45− were isolated from the bone marrow of Yucatan microswine. Naïve MSCs cultured in differentiation media containing VEGF-A (50 ng/mL demonstrated increased expression of EC-specific markers (vWF, PECAM-1, and VE-cadherin, VEGFR-2 and Sox18, and enhanced endothelial tube formation. IL-6 or TNFα caused a dose-dependent attenuation of EC marker expression in VEGF-A-stimulated MSCs. In contrast, Ang II enhanced EC marker expression in VEGF-A-stimulated MSCs. Addition of Ang II to VEGF-A and IL-6 or TNFα was sufficient to rescue the EC phenotype. Thus, Ang II promotes but IL-6 and TNFα inhibit VEGF-A-induced differentiation of MSCs into ECs. These findings have important clinical implications for therapies intended to increase cardiac vascularity and reendothelialize coronary arteries following intervention.

  1. Factor-Reduced Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Neurons Independent of the Number of Reprogramming Factors

    Andreas Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs by overexpression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-Myc holds great promise for the development of personalized cell replacement therapies. In an attempt to minimize the risk of chromosomal disruption and to simplify reprogramming, several studies demonstrated that a reduced set of reprogramming factors is sufficient to generate iPSC. We recently showed that a reduction of reprogramming factors in murine cells not only reduces reprogramming efficiency but also may worsen subsequent differentiation. To prove whether this is also true for human cells, we compared the efficiency of neuronal differentiation of iPSC generated from fetal human neural stem cells with either one (OCT4; hiPSC1F-NSC or two (OCT4, KLF4; hiPSC2F-NSC reprogramming factors with iPSC produced from human fibroblasts using three (hiPSC3F-FIB or four reprogramming factors (hiPSC4F-FIB. After four weeks of coculture with PA6 stromal cells, neuronal differentiation of hiPSC1F-NSC and hiPSC2F-NSC was as efficient as iPSC3F-FIB or iPSC4F-FIB. We conclude that a reduction of reprogramming factors in human cells does reduce reprogramming efficiency but does not alter subsequent differentiation into neural lineages. This is of importance for the development of future application of iPSC in cell replacement therapies.

  2. Loss of CRABP-II Characterizes Human Skin Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Favors DMBA/TPA-Induced Carcinogenesis.

    Passeri, Daniela; Doldo, Elena; Tarquini, Chiara; Costanza, Gaetana; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Agostinelli, Sara; Campione, Elena; Di Stefani, Alessandro; Giunta, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2016-06-01

    Retinol and its derivatives play an important role in epidermal growth and differentiation and represent chemopreventive agents in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABP-II) is a cytoplasmic receptor that critically regulates all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) trafficking. We documented the marked reduced expression of CRABP-II and its promoter methylation in human poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. To investigate the role of CRABP-II in skin carcinogenesis we used skin lesion induction by dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate in CRABP-II-knockout C57BL/6 mice. We observed earlier and more diffuse epidermal dysplasia, greater incidence and severity of tumors, reduced expression of cytokeratin 1/cytokeratin 10 and involucrin, increased proliferation, and impaired ATRA inhibition of tumor promotion compared with wild-type animals. CRABP-II-transfected HaCaT, FaDu, and A431 cells showed expression of differentiation markers, retinoic acid receptor-β/-γ signaling, ATRA sensitivity, and suppression of EGFR/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT) pathways in a fatty acid binding protein 5/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/-δ-independent manner. The opposite was true in keratinocytes isolated from CRABP-II-knockout mice. Finally, CRABP-II accumulation induced ubiquitination-associated reduction of EGFR. Our results showed reduced CRABP-II expression in human poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, and its gene deletion favored experimental skin carcinogenesis and impaired ATRA antitumor efficacy, likely modulating EGFR/AKT pathways and retinoic acid receptor-β/-γ signaling. Therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring CRABP-II-mediated signaling may amplify therapeutic retinoid efficacy in nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:26945879

  3. Blockade of LFA-1 augments in vitro differentiation of antigen-induced Foxp3+ Treg cells

    Verhagen, Johan; Wraith, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific, in vitro-induced Foxp3+ Treg (iTreg) cells protects against autoimmune disease. To generate antigen-specific iTreg cells at high purity, however, remains a challenge. Whereas polyclonal T cell stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibody yields Foxp3+ iTreg cells at a purity of 90–95%, antigen-induced iTreg cells typically do not exceed a purity of 65–75%, even in a TCR-transgenic model. In a similar vein to thymic Treg cell selection, iTreg cell dif...

  4. Differential and Reciprocal Regulation between Hypoxia-inducible Factor-α Subunits and Their Prolyl Hydroxylases in Pulmonary Arteries of Rat with Hypoxia-induced Hypertension

    Yun-Rong CHEN; Ai-Guo DAI; Rui-Cheng HU; Yong-Liang JIANG

    2006-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-α subunits (HIF-1 α, HIF-2α and HIF-3α), which play a pivotal role during the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH), are regulated through posttranslational hydroxylation by their three prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3). PHDs could also be regulated by HIF. But differential and reciprocal regulation between HIF-α and PHDs during the development of HPH remains unclear. To investigate this problem, a rat HPHmodel was established. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased significantly after 7 d of hypoxia. Pulmonary artery remodeling index and right ventricular hypertrophy became evident after 14 d of hypoxia. HIF-1α and HIF-2α mRNA increasedslightly after 7 d of hypoxia, but HIF-3α increased significantly after 3 d of hypoxia. The protein expression levels of all three HIF-α were markedly upregulated after exposure to hypoxia. PHD2 mRNA and protein expression levels were upregulated after 3 d of hypoxia; PHD 1 protein declined after 14 d of hypoxia without significant mRNA changes. PHD3 mRNA and protein were markedly upregulated after 3 d of hypoxia, then the mRNA remained at a high level, but the protein declined after 14 d of hypoxia. In hypoxic animals, HIF-1α proteins negatively correlated with PHD2 proteins, whereas HIF-2α and HIF-3α proteins showed negative correlations with PHD3 and PHD1 proteins, respectively. All three HIF-α proteins were positively correlated with PHD2 and PHD3 mRNA. In the present study, HIF-α subunits and PHDs showed differential and reciprocal regulation, and this might play a key pathogenesis role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

  5. Lipid emulsions differentially affect LPS-induced acute monocytes inflammation: in vitro effects on membrane remodeling and cell viability.

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Delabranche, Xavier; Klymchenko, Andrey; Drai, Jocelyne; Blond, Emilie; Zobairi, Fatiha; Mely, Yves; Hasselmann, Michel; Toti, Florence; Meziani, Ferhat

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how lipid emulsions for parenteral nutrition affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute monocyte inflammation in vitro. An 18 h long LPS induced human monocyte leukemia cell stimulation was performed and the cell-growth medium was supplemented with three different industrial lipid emulsions: Intralipid(®), containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT--soybean oil); Medialipid(®), containing LCT (soybean oil) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT--coconut oil); and SMOFlipid(®), containing LCT, MCT, omega-9 and -3 (soybean, coconut, olive and fish oils). Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by Trypan blue exclusion and flow cytometry respectively. Monocyte composition and membrane remodeling were studied using gas chromatography and NR12S staining. Microparticles released in supernatant were measured by prothrombinase assay. After LPS challenge, both cellular necrosis and apoptosis were increased (threefold and twofold respectively) and microparticle release was enhanced (sevenfold) after supplementation with Medialipid(®) compared to Intralipid(®), SMOFlipid(®) and monocytes in the standard medium. The monocytes differentially incorporated fatty acids after lipid emulsion challenge. Finally, lipid-treated cells displayed microparticles characterized by disrupted membrane lipid order, reflecting lipid remodeling of the parental cell plasma membrane. Our data suggest that lipid emulsions differentially alter cell viability, monocyte composition and thereby microparticle release. While MCT have deleterious effects, we have shown that parenteral nutrition emulsion containing LCT or LCT and MCT associated to n-3 and n-9 fatty acids have no effect on endotoxin-induced cell death and inflammation. PMID:25038627

  6. Sonic hedgehog and retinoic Acid induce bone marrow-derived stem cells to differentiate into glutamatergic neural cells.

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wu, Shixing; Liu, Zhen; Lin, Haiyan; Chen, Lei; Yuan, Xinli; Zhang, Zhiying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Chuansen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have showed that transplanted stem cells in the inner ear won't regenerate to replace the damaged sensory hair cells. They can spontaneously differentiate into mesenchymal cells and fibrocytes in the damaged inner ear. Only mature sensory cells of MSCs-derived possess the great potency for cell transplantation in the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. So, we try to establish an efficient generation of the glutamatergic sensory neural phenotype for the cell transplantation of the hearing loss. We isolated MSCs from femoral and tibial bones according to their adherence to culture dishes. After purification, proliferation, and passaged, cells became homogeneous in appearance, showing more uniformity and grew in a monolayer with a typical spindle-shape morphology. The cell surface markers were assessed using FACS to characterize the isolated cells. For neural induction to harvest the glutamatergic sensory neurons, passage 3 MSCs were incubated with preinduced medium for 24 hr, and neural-induced medium for an additional 14 days. The cells exhibit a typical neural shape. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of the neural cell marker nestin, Tau, MAP-2, β-tubulin III, GluR-3, and GluR-4 were higher compared with primary MSCs. Immunohistochemistry and western-blotting proofed that nestin, MAP-2, β-tubulin III, and GluR-4 proteins indeed exhibit their expression difference in the induced cells compared to the MSCs. We show an efficient protocol by the combined applications of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Retinoic Acid (RA) to induce MSCs to differentiate into the glutamatergic sensory neuron which were identified from the morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics. PMID:24547891

  7. Megakaryocytic differentiation in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells induced by ionizing radiation in combination with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

    Differentiation-induction therapy is an attractive approach in leukemia treatment. It has been suggested that the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in megakaryocytic differentiation induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in the K562 leukemia cell line. Therefore, a ROS-inducible technique could be a powerful method of differentiation induction. Accordingly, we hypothesized that ionizing radiation contributes to the acceleration of megakaryocytic differentiation through the accumulation of intracellular ROS in leukemia cells. In the present study, ionizing radiation was shown to promote PMA-induced megakaryocytic differentiation. Cells with high CD41 expression sustained intracellular ROS levels effectively. The enhancement of differentiation by ionizing radiation was found to be regulated through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, involving both extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK. Ionizing radiation also controlled mRNA expression of the oxidative stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO1). Consequently, we concluded that intracellular ROS, increased by ionizing radiation, modulate megakaryocytic differentiation downstream of the MAPK pathway

  8. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B (ANP32B) contributes to retinoic acid-induced differentiation of leukemic cells

    Yu, Yun; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Wu, Zhao-Xia; Han, Bin [Shanghai Universities E-Institute for Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Li-Shun, E-mail: jywangls@shsmu.edu.cn [Shanghai Universities E-Institute for Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B was down-regulated during ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of ANP32B enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of ANP32B inhibited ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B inhibited ATRA activated transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha}. -- Abstract: The acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32B (ANP32B) is a member of a conserved superfamily of nuclear proteins whose functions are largely unknown. In our previous work, ANP32B was identified as a novel direct substrate for caspase-3 and acted as a negative regulator for leukemic cell apoptosis. In this work, we provided the first demonstration that ANP32B expression was down-regulated during differentiation induction of leukemic cells by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Knockdown of ANP32B expression by specific shRNA enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation, while ectopic expression of ANP32B attenuated it, indicating an inhibitory role of ANP32B against leukemic cell differentiation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANP32B might exert this role through inhibiting the ATRA dependent transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptor (RAR{alpha}). These data will shed new insights into understanding the biological functions of ANP32B protein.

  9. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B (ANP32B) contributes to retinoic acid-induced differentiation of leukemic cells

    Highlights: ► ANP32B was down-regulated during ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. ► Knockdown of ANP32B enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. ► Ectopic expression of ANP32B inhibited ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. ► ANP32B inhibited ATRA activated transcriptional activity of RARα. -- Abstract: The acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32B (ANP32B) is a member of a conserved superfamily of nuclear proteins whose functions are largely unknown. In our previous work, ANP32B was identified as a novel direct substrate for caspase-3 and acted as a negative regulator for leukemic cell apoptosis. In this work, we provided the first demonstration that ANP32B expression was down-regulated during differentiation induction of leukemic cells by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Knockdown of ANP32B expression by specific shRNA enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation, while ectopic expression of ANP32B attenuated it, indicating an inhibitory role of ANP32B against leukemic cell differentiation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANP32B might exert this role through inhibiting the ATRA dependent transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptor (RARα). These data will shed new insights into understanding the biological functions of ANP32B protein.

  10. JAK2 and MPL protein levels determine TPO-induced megakaryocyte proliferation vs differentiation

    Besancenot, Rodolphe; Roos-Weil, Damien; Tonetti, Carole; Abdelouahab, Hadjer; Lacout, Catherine; Pasquier, Florence; Willekens, Christophe; Rameau, Philippe; Lecluse, Yann; Micol, Jean-Baptiste; Constantinescu, Stefan N.; Vainchenker, William; Solary, Eric; Giraudier, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    We propose that megakaryopoiesis is regulated by the expression levels of the TPO receptor MPL and the associated tyrosine kinase JAK2.This model could explain why suboptimal doses of JAK2 inhibitors can induce a paradoxical increase in platelet production.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis by isoenzymic differentiation of Treacher Collins' syndrome induced by retinoids in rats

    Granström, G; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    A series of branchial arch malformations was induced in 618 embryos from 72 pregnant rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg etretinate at 8.5 days of gestation. The litters developed several malformations, including microtia, low set and dorsally placed outer ears, defective middle...

  12. Differential effects of radical scavengers on X-ray-induced mutation and cytotoxicity in human cells

    The cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of X irradiation on a human lymphoblast cell line were examined in the presence of two radioprotective agents which modulate damage to DNA. The cells were treated with X rays alone or in the presence of either dimethyl sulfoxide or cysteamine. Surviving fraction and mutation to trifluorothymidine resistance (tk locus) and to 6-thioguanine resistance (hgprt locus) were measured. Survival was enhanced when the cells were irradiated in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide; the D0 rose from 58 to 107 rad. However, at both genetic loci the induced mutant fractions were identical in the presence or absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Survival was enhanced to a greater degree when the cells were irradiated in the presence of cysteamine; the D0 rose from 58 to 200 rad. Cysteamine also protected the cells from X-ray-induced mutation; the frequencies of X-ray-induced mutation at both the tk and hgprt loci were reduced by 50-75%. No protective effects were observed unless dimethyl sulfoxide or cysteamine was present during irradiation. These findings are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that, unlike for cell killing, radiation-induced mutagenesis in human lymphoblast cells is not mediated by the actions of aqueous free radicals, but rather by the direct effects of ionizing radiation

  13. Environmental stress-induced testis differentiation: androgen as a by-product of cortisol inactivation.

    Fernandino, Juan I; Hattori, Ricardo S; Moreno Acosta, Omar D; Strüssmann, Carlos A; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2013-10-01

    This review deals with the gonadal masculinization induced by thermal stress in fish with focus on the action of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) as this mechanism key transducer. High temperatures have been reported to produce male-skewed sex ratios in several species with TSD (temperature-dependent sex determination), and in some of them, this process was reported to be associated with high levels of cortisol, the hormone-related stress in vertebrates, during early gonad development. In addition, in pejerrey larvae reared at high-masculinizing temperatures, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), the main and most potent androgen in fish, was also detected at high levels. In testicular explants, cortisol induced the synthesis of 11-KT, suggesting that its synthesis could be under the control of the stress axis at the time of gonadal fate determination. 11β-HSD is one of the enzymes shared by the glucocorticoid and androgen pathways; this enzyme converts cortisol to cortisone and also participates in the finals steps of the synthesis of the 11-oxigenated androgens. Based on these data and literature information, here we propose that the masculinization induced by thermal stress can be considered as a consequence of cortisol inactivation and the concomitant synthesis of 11-KT and discussing this as a possible mechanism of masculinization induced by different types of environmental stressors. PMID:23770022

  14. Differential immunological responses induced by infection with female muscle larvae and newborn larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Asano, K; Liu, M Y; Takahashi, Y

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella pseudospiralis infection can modulate the immunological response of autoimmune and allergic diseases leading to the amelioration of these diseases. The present study was undertaken to compare immunity induced by adult worms and muscle larvae. Higher eosinophilia was observed from newborn larva (NBL) infection than from adult females while higher levels of IgE were observed in adult female infections over those induced by NBL. The IgG1 response to ES antigen was more prominent in infections with adult females. The IgG2 responses to larval crude antigen were prominent against NBL. The Th2 cytokine, IL-4 cytokine was elevated in adult female infection following re-stimulation with adult crude antigen and ES. Both infections induced strong IFN-γ responses. The present study demonstrates that adult female worms induced stronger Th2 responses (IgG1, IgE and IL-4 responses) than NBL. Further examination of the mechanisms involved in immune modulation may be helpful for identifying Trichinella-derived molecules responsible for regulating autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:23433605

  15. Proinflammatory Cytokines Induce Endocrine Differentiation in Pancreatic Ductal Cells via STAT3-Dependent NGN3 Activation

    Ivan Achel Valdez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of diabetes research is to develop strategies that replenish pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. One emerging strategy is to harness pancreatic plasticity—the ability of pancreatic cells to undergo cellular interconversions—a phenomenon implicated in physiological stress and pancreatic injury. Here, we investigate the effects of inflammatory cytokine stress on the differentiation potential of ductal cells in a human cell line, in mouse ductal cells by pancreatic intraductal injection, and during the progression of autoimmune diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse model. We find that inflammatory cytokine insults stimulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT as well as the endocrine program in human pancreatic ductal cells via STAT3-dependent NGN3 activation. Furthermore, we show that inflammatory cytokines activate ductal-to-endocrine cell reprogramming in vivo independent of hyperglycemic stress. Together, our findings provide evidence that inflammatory cytokines direct ductal-to-endocrine cell differentiation, with implications for beta cell regeneration.

  16. Identification of drought-inducible genes and differentially expressed sequence tags in barley.

    Diab, Ayman A; Teulat-Merah, Béatrice; This, Dominique; Ozturk, Neslihan Z; Benscher, David; Sorrells, Mark E

    2004-11-01

    Drought limits cereal yields in several regions of the world and plant water status plays an important role in tolerance to drought. To investigate and understand the genetic and physiological basis of drought tolerance in barley, differentially expressed sequence tags (dESTs) and candidate genes for the drought response were mapped in a population of 167 F8 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between "Tadmor" (drought tolerant) and "Er/Apm" (adapted only to specific dry environments). One hundred sequenced probes from two cDNA libraries previously constructed from drought-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L., var. Tokak) plants and 12 candidate genes were surveyed for polymorphism, and 33 loci were added to a previously published map. Composite interval mapping was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with drought tolerance including leaf relative water content, leaf osmotic potential, osmotic potential at full turgor, water-soluble carbohydrate concentration, osmotic adjustment, and carbon isotope discrimination. A total of 68 QTLs with a limit of detection score > or =2.5 were detected for the traits evaluated under two water treatments and the two traits calculated from both treatments. The number of QTLs identified for each trait varied from one to 12, indicating that the genome contains multiple genes affecting different traits. Two candidate genes and ten differentially expressed sequences were associated with QTLs for drought tolerance traits. PMID:15517148

  17. Proinflammatory Cytokines Induce Endocrine Differentiation in Pancreatic Ductal Cells via STAT3-Dependent NGN3 Activation.

    Valdez, Ivan Achel; Dirice, Ercument; Gupta, Manoj K; Shirakawa, Jun; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2016-04-19

    A major goal of diabetes research is to develop strategies that replenish pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. One emerging strategy is to harness pancreatic plasticity-the ability of pancreatic cells to undergo cellular interconversions-a phenomenon implicated in physiological stress and pancreatic injury. Here, we investigate the effects of inflammatory cytokine stress on the differentiation potential of ductal cells in a human cell line, in mouse ductal cells by pancreatic intraductal injection, and during the progression of autoimmune diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. We find that inflammatory cytokine insults stimulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as the endocrine program in human pancreatic ductal cells via STAT3-dependent NGN3 activation. Furthermore, we show that inflammatory cytokines activate ductal-to-endocrine cell reprogramming in vivo independent of hyperglycemic stress. Together, our findings provide evidence that inflammatory cytokines direct ductal-to-endocrine cell differentiation, with implications for beta cell regeneration. PMID:27068459

  18. Positional and expressive alteration of prohibitin during the induced differentiation of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Dong-Hui Xu; Jian Tang; Qi-Fu Li; Song-Lin Shi; Xiang-Feng Chen; Ying Liang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the existence and distribution of prohibitin (PHB) in nuclear matrix and its co-localization with products of some related genes during the differentiation of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721cells.METHODS: The nuclear matrix of the SHHC-7721 cells cultured with or without 5 x 10-3 mmol/L hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) was selectively extracted.Western blot was used to analyze the expression of PHB in nuclear matrix; imrnunofluorescence microscope observation was used to analyze the distribution of PHB in cell. LCSM was used to observe the co-localization of PHB with products of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.RESULTS: Western blot analysis showed that PHB existed in the composition of nuclear matrix proteins and was down-regulated by HMBA treatment.Immunofluorescence observation revealed that PHB existed in the nuclear matrix, and its distribution regions and expression levels were altered after HMBA treatment. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed the co-localization between PHB and the products of oncogenes or tumor repression genes including c-fos, c-myc, p53 and Rb and its alteration of distributive area in the cells treated by HMBA.CONCLUSION: These data confirm that PHB is a nuclear matrix protein, which is located in the nuclear matrix, and the distribution and expression of PHB and its relation with associated genes may play significant roles during the differentiation of SMHC-7721 cells.

  19. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in poplar leaves induced by Marssonina brunnea f. Sp. Multigermtubi

    2008-01-01

    Black spot disease in poplar is a disease of the leaf caused by fungus. The major pathogen is Marssonina brunnea f. sp. multigermtubi.To date, little is known about the molecular mechanism of poplar (M. brunnea) interaction. In order to identify the proteins related to disease resistance and understand its molecular basis, the clone "NL895" (P. euramericana CL"NL895"), which is highly resistant to M.brunnea f. sp. multigermtubi, was used in this study. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins in poplar leaves that were differentially expressed in response to black spot disease pathogen, M. brunnea f. sp. multigermtubi. Proteins extracted from poplar leaves at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after pathogen-inoculation were separated by 2-DE. About 500 reproducible protein spots were detected, of which 40 protein spots displayed differential expression in levels and were subjected to Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) followed by database searching. According to the function, the identified proteins were sorted into five categories, that is, protein synthesis, metabolism, defense response and unclassified proteins.

  20. Periostin differentially induces proliferation, contraction and apoptosis of primary Dupuytren's disease and adjacent palmar fascia cells

    Dupuytren's disease, (DD), is a fibroproliferative condition of the palmar fascia in the hand, typically resulting in permanent contracture of one or more fingers. This fibromatosis is similar to scarring and other fibroses in displaying excess collagen secretion and contractile myofibroblast differentiation. In this report we expand on previous data demonstrating that POSTN mRNA, which encodes the extra-cellular matrix protein periostin, is up-regulated in Dupuytren's disease cord tissue relative to phenotypically normal palmar fascia. We demonstrate that the protein product of POSTN, periostin, is abundant in Dupuytren's disease cord tissue while little or no periostin immunoreactivity is evident in patient-matched control tissues. The relevance of periostin up-regulation in DD was assessed in primary cultures of cells derived from diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia from the same patients. These cells were grown in type-1 collagen-enriched culture conditions with or without periostin addition to more closely replicate the in vivo environment. Periostin was found to differentially regulate the apoptosis, proliferation, α smooth muscle actin expression and stressed Fibroblast Populated Collagen Lattice contraction of these cell types. We hypothesize that periostin, secreted by disease cord myofibroblasts into the extra-cellular matrix, promotes the transition of resident fibroblasts in the palmar fascia toward a myofibroblast phenotype, thereby promoting disease progression.

  1. Differentiating climate- and human-induced drivers of grassland degradation in the Liao River Basin, China.

    He, Chunyang; Tian, Jie; Gao, Bin; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitatively distinguishing grassland degradation due to climatic variations from that due to human activities is of great significance to effectively governing degraded grassland and realizing sustainable utilization. The objective of this study was to differentiate these two types of drivers in the Liao River Basin during 1999-2009 using the residual trend (RESTREND) method and to evaluate the applicability of the method in semiarid and semihumid regions. The relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and each climatic factor was first determined. Then, the primary driver of grassland degradation was identified by calculating the change trend of the normalized residuals between the observed and the predicted NDVI assuming that climate change was the only driver. We found that the RESTREND method can be used to quantitatively and effectively differentiate climate and human drivers of grassland degradation. We also found that the grassland degradation in the Liao River Basin was driven by both natural processes and human activities. The driving factors of grassland degradation varied greatly across the study area, which included regions having different precipitation and altitude. The degradation in the Horqin Sandy Land, with lower altitude, was driven mainly by human activities, whereas that in the Kungl Prairie, with higher altitude and lower precipitation, was caused primarily by climate change. Therefore, the drivers of degradation and local conditions should be considered in an appropriate strategy for grassland management to promote the sustainability of grasslands in the Liao River Basin. PMID:25512244

  2. INDUCED EEG GAMMA OSCILLATION ALIGNMENT IMPROVES DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN AUTISM AND ADHD GROUP RESPONSES IN A FACIAL CATEGORIZATION TASK.

    Gross, Eric; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sokhadze, Guela E; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often lack the ability to recognize and properly respond to emotional stimuli. Emotional deficits also characterize children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in addition to exhibiting limited attention span. These abnormalities may effect a difference in the induced EEG gamma wave burst (35-45 Hz) peaked approximately 300-400 milliseconds following an emotional stimulus. Because induced gamma oscillations are not fixed at a definite point in time post-stimulus, analysis of averaged EEG data with traditional methods may result in an attenuated gamma burst power. METHODS: We used a data alignment technique to improve the averaged data, making it a better representation of the individual induced EEG gamma oscillations. A study was designed to test the response of a subject to emotional stimuli, presented in the form of emotional facial expression images. In a four part experiment, the subjects were instructed to identify gender in the first two blocks of the test, followed by differentiating between basic emotions in the final two blocks (i.e. anger vs. disgust). EEG data was collected from ASD (n=10), ADHD (n=9), and control (n=11) subjects via a 128 channel EGI system, and processed through a continuous wavelet transform and bandpass filter to isolate the gamma frequencies. A custom MATLAB code was used to align the data from individual trials between 200-600 ms post-stimulus, EEG site, and condition by maximizing the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between trials. The gamma power for the 400 ms window of maximum induced gamma burst was then calculated and compared between subject groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Condition (anger/disgust recognition, gender recognition) × Alignment × Group (ADHD, ASD, Controls) interaction was significant at most of parietal topographies (e.g., P3-P4, P7-P8). These interactions were better manifested in the aligned data set

  3. FHL2 mediates dexamethasone-induced mesenchymal cell differentiation into osteoblasts by activating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling-dependent Runx2 expression.

    Hamidouche, Zahia; Haÿ, Eric; Vaudin, Pascal; Charbord, Pierre; Schüle, Roland; Marie, Pierre J; Fromigué, Olivia

    2008-11-01

    The differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts is a crucial step in bone formation. However, the mechanisms involved in the early stages of osteogenic differentiation are not well understood. In this study, we identified FHL2, a member of the LIM-only subclass of the LIM protein superfamily, that is up-regulated during early osteoblast differentiation induced by dexamethasone in murine and human MSCs. Gain-of-function studies showed that FHL2 promotes the expression of the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, as well as in vitro extracellular matrix mineralization in murine and human mesenchymal cells. Knocking down FHL2 using sh-RNA reduces basal and dexamethasone-induced osteoblast marker gene expression in MSCs. We demonstrate that FHL2 interacts with beta-catenin, a key player involved in bone formation induced by Wnt signaling. FHL2-beta-catenin interaction potentiates beta-catenin nuclear translocation and TCF/LEF transcription, resulting in increased Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase expression, which was inhibited by the Wnt inhibitor DKK1. Reduction of Runx2 transcriptional activity using a mutant Runx2 results in inhibition of FHL2-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in MSCs. These findings reveal that FHL2 acts as an endogenous activator of mesenchymal cell differentiation into osteoblasts and mediates osteogenic differentiation induced by dexamethasone in MSCs through activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling- dependent Runx2 expression. PMID:18653765

  4. Induction and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into functional cardiomyocytes on a compartmented monolayer of gelatin nanofibers

    Tang, Yadong; Liu, Li; Li, Junjun; Yu, Leqian; Wang, Li; Shi, Jian; Chen, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop new substrates for culture and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) toward cardiac cell-based assays. A more exciting prospect is the construction of cardiac tissue for robust drug screening and cardiac tissue repairing. Here, we developed a patch method by electrospinning and crosslinking of monolayer gelatin nanofibers on a honeycomb frame made of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The monolayer of the nanofibrous structure can support cells with minimal exogenous contact and a maximal efficiency of cell-medium exchange whereas a single hiPSC colony can be uniformly formed in each of the honeycomb compartments. By modulating the treatment time of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, the shape of the hiPSC colony could be controlled from a flat layer to a hemisphere. Afterwards, the induction and differentiation of hiPSCs were achieved on the same patch, leading to a uniform cardiac layer with homogeneous contraction. This cardiac layer could then be used for extracellular recording with a commercial multi-electrode array, showing representative field potential waveforms of matured cardiac tissues with appropriate drug responses.Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop new substrates for culture and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) toward cardiac cell-based assays. A more exciting prospect is the construction of cardiac tissue for robust drug screening and cardiac tissue repairing. Here, we developed a patch method by electrospinning and crosslinking of monolayer gelatin nanofibers on a honeycomb frame made of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The monolayer of the nanofibrous structure can support cells with minimal exogenous contact and a maximal efficiency of cell-medium exchange whereas a single hiPSC colony can be uniformly formed in each of the honeycomb compartments. By modulating the treatment time of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, the shape

  5. Dendritic cells loaded with killed breast cancer cells induce differentiation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Early clinical trials, mostly in the setting of melanoma, have shown that dendritic cells (DCs) expressing tumor antigens induce some immune responses and some clinical responses. A major difficulty is the extension to other tumors, such as breast carcinoma, for which few defined tumor-associated antigens are available. We have demonstrated, using both prostate carcinoma and melanoma as model systems, that DCs loaded with killed allogeneic tumor cell lines can induce CD8+ T cells to differentiate into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for shared tumor antigens. The present study was designed to determine whether DCs would capture killed breast cancer cells and present their antigens to autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We show that killed breast cancer cells are captured by immature DCs that, after induced maturation, can efficiently present MHC class I and class II peptides to CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes. The elicited CTLs are able to kill the target cells without a need for pretreatment with interferon gamma. CTLs can be obtained by culturing the DCs loaded with killed breast cancer cells with unseparated peripheral blood lymphocytes, indicating that the DCs can overcome any potential inhibitory effects of breast cancer cells. Loading DCs with killed breast cancer cells may be considered a novel approach to breast cancer immunotherapy and to identification of shared breast cancer antigens

  6. Radiation-induced apoptosis in differentially modulated by PTK inhibitora in K562 cells

    The effect of PTK inhibitors (herbimycin A and genistein) on the induction of radiation-induced apoptosis in Ph-positive K562 leukemia cell line was investigated. K562 cells in exponential growth phase were irradiated with a linear accelerator at room temperature. For 6 MV X-ray irradiation and drug treatment, cultures were initiated at 2x106 cells/ml. The cells were irradiated with 10Gy. Stock solutions of herbimycin A and genistein were prepared in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). After incubation at 37 .deg. for 0-48 h, the extent of apoptosis was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis and TUNEL assay. The progression of cells through the cell cycle after irradiation and drug treatment was also determined with flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to monitor bcl-2, bcl-X-L and bax protein levels. Treatment with 10 Gy X-irradiation did not result in the induction of apoptosis. The HMA alone (500 nM) also failed to induce apoptosis. By contrast, incubation of K562 cells with HMA after irradiation resulted in a substantial induction of nuclear condensation and fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and TUNEL assay. Genistein failed to enhance the ability of X-irradiation to induce DNA fragmentation. Enhancement of apoptosis by HMA was not attributable to downregulation of the bcl-2 or bcl-X-L anti-apoptotic proteins. When the cells were irradiated and maintained with HMA, the percentage of cells in G2/M phase decreased to 30-40% at 48 h. On the other hand, cells exposed to 10 Gy X-irradiation alone or maintained with genistein did not show marked cell cycle redistribution. We have shown that nanomolar concentrations of the PTK inhibitor HMA synergize with X-irradiation in inducing the apoptosis in Ph (+) K562 leukemia cell line. While, genistein, a PTK inhibitor which is not selective for p210bcr/abl failed to enhance the radiation induced apoptosis in K562 cells. It is unlikely that the ability of HMA to enhance apoptosis in K562 cells is

  7. Autophagy pathway is required for IL-6 induced neuroendocrine differentiation and chemoresistance of prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

    Pei-Ching Chang

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa cells undergoing neuroendocrine differentiation (NED are clinically relevant to the development of relapsed castration-resistant PCa. Increasing evidences show that autophagy involves in the development of neuroendocrine (NE tumors, including PCa. To clarify the effect of autophagy on NED, androgen-sensitive PCa LNCaP cells were examined. Treatment of LNCaP cells with IL-6 resulted in an induction of autophagy. In the absence of androgen, IL-6 caused an even stronger activation of autophagy. Similar result was identified in NED induction. Inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine (CQ markedly decreased NED. This observation was confirmed by beclin1 and Atg5 silencing experiments. Further supporting the role of autophagy in NED, we found that LC3 was up-regulated in PCa tissue that had relapsed after androgen-deprivation therapy when compared with their primary tumor counterpart. LC3 staining in relapsed PCa tissue showed punctate pattern similar to the staining of chromogranin A (CgA, a marker for NED cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibition induced the apoptosis of IL-6 induced NE differentiated PCa cells. Consistently, inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of beclin1 or Atg5 sensitized NE differentiated LNCaP cells to etoposide, a chemotherapy drug. To identify the mechanisms, phosphorylation of IL-6 downstream targets was analyzed. An increase in phospho-AMPK and a decrease in phospho-mTOR were found, which implies that IL-6 regulates autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR pathway. Most important to this study is the discovery of REST, a neuronal gene-specific transcriptional repressor that is involved in autophagy activation. REST was down-regulated in IL-6 treatment. Knockdown experiments suggest that REST is critical to NED and autophagy activation by IL-6. Together, our studies imply that autophagy is involved in PCa progression and plays a cytoprotective role when NED is induced in PCa cells by IL-6 treatment. These results

  8. Magnetically induced electrostimulation of human osteoblasts results in enhanced cell viability and osteogenic differentiation.

    Hiemer, Bettina; Ziebart, Josefin; Jonitz-Heincke, Anika; Grunert, Philip Christian; Su, Yukun; Hansmann, Doris; Bader, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    The application of electromagnetic fields to support the bone-healing processes is a therapeutic approach for patients with musculoskeletal disorders. The ASNIS-III s-series screw is a bone stimulation system providing electromagnetic stimulation; however, its influence on human osteoblasts (hOBs) has not been extensively investigated. Therefore, in the present study, the impact of this system on the viability and differentiation of hOBs was examined. We used the ASNIS-III s screw system in terms of a specific experimental test set-up. The ASNIS-III s screw system was used for the application of electromagnetic fields (EMF, 3 mT, 20 Hz) and electromagnetic fields combined with an additional alternating electric field (EMF + EF) (3 mT, 20 Hz, 700 mV). The stimulation of primary hOBs was conducted 3 times per day for 45 min over a period of 72 h. Unstimulated cells served as the controls. Subsequently, the viability, the gene expression of differentiation markers and pro-collagen type 1 synthesis of the stimulated osteoblasts and corresponding controls were investigated. The application of both EMF and EMF + EF using the ASNIS-III s screw system revealed a positive influence on bone cell viability and moderately increased the synthesis of pro-collagen type 1 compared to the unstimulated controls. Stimulation with EMF resulted in a slightly enhanced gene expression of type 1 collagen and osteocalcin; however, stimulation with EMF + EF resulted in a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (1.4-fold) and osteocalcin (1.6-fold) levels, and a notable increase in the levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2; 1.54-fold). Our findings demonstrate that stimulation with electromagnetic fields and an additional alternating electric field has a positive influence on hOBs as regards cell viability and the expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers. PMID:27220915

  9. Differential analysis of the inactivation of yeast cells induced by irradiation with various ionization densities

    A quantitative investigation is presented on the radiation-induced inactivation of yeast cells in the first generations as a function of dose, repair, and various ionization densities. The study has been made to solve two main questions, i.e.: How do these cells reproduce, and how do they look like at the end of the investigation. Finding the answer to these questions, it was hoped, would lead to a description of survival in the colony test by defining the final fate of the cells which represent the stationary end state. The experiments were to clarify to what extent the dose-response curve yields only relatively general information on radiation-induced damage, or what kind of damage is mainly and best described. This supplementary information will help to improve the interpretation of many experiments having been made with this strain. (orig./MG)

  10. Differential effects of TRPV1 receptor ligands against nicotine-induced depression-like behaviors

    2011-01-01

    Background The contributions of brain cannabinoid (CB) receptors, typically CB1 (CB type 1) receptors, to the behavioral effects of nicotine (NC) have been reported to involve brain transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors, and the activation of candidate endogenous TRPV1 ligands is expected to be therapeutically effective. In the present study, the effects of TRPV1 ligands with or without affinity for CB1 receptors were examined on NC-induced depression-like behavioral alte...

  11. Differential effects of propranolol on conditioned hyperactivity and locomotor sensitization induced by morphine in rats

    Shuguang Wei; Xinwang Li

    2014-01-01

    According to memory reconsolidation theory, when long-term memory is reactivated by relevant clues, the memory traces become labile, which can be altered by pharmacological manipulations. Accumulating evidence reveals that memory related to drug abuse can be erased by disrupting reconsolidation process. We used an animal model that could simultaneously measure conditioned hyperactivity and locomotor sensitization induced by morphine. β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol or saline were admini...

  12. Creating an Animal Model of Tendinopathy by Inducing Chondrogenic Differentiation with Kartogenin

    Ting Yuan; Jianying Zhang; Guangyi Zhao; Yiqin Zhou; Chang-Qing Zhang; James H-C Wang

    2016-01-01

    Previous animal studies have shown that long term rat treadmill running induces over-use tendinopathy, which manifests as proteoglycan accumulation and chondrocytes-like cells within the affected tendons. Creating this animal model of tendinopathy by long term treadmill running is however time-consuming, costly and may vary among animals. In this study, we used a new approach to develop an animal model of tendinopathy using kartogenin (KGN), a bio-compound that can stimulate endogenous stem/p...

  13. Differential susceptibility on myosin heavy chain isoform following eccentric-induced muscle damage

    Choi, Seung Jun

    2014-01-01

    Based on myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform, human skeletal muscle fibers can be categorized into three fiber types, type I, IIa, IIx fibers, and each fiber type has different characteristics. Typical characteristics are difference in force production, shortening velocity, and fatigue resistance. When the muscle is contract and stretched by a force that is greater than the force generated by the muscle, contraction-induced muscle damage frequently occurs. Several experimental models involving b...

  14. Bimatoprost, latanoprost, and tafluprost induce differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Masahiko; Gosho, Masahiko; Kato, Tomohiro; Zako, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Differences in the increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and decrease in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) activity may contribute to the different characteristics observed clinically on decreased intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the expression profiles of MMPs and TIMPs induced by the prostaglandin analogs bimatoprost, latanoprost, and tafluprost in human non-pigmented...

  15. Varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein expression differentially induces the unfolded protein response in infected cells

    Carpenter, John E.; Grose, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that spreads to children as varicella or chicken pox. The virus then establishes latency in the nervous system and re-emerges, typically decades later, as zoster or shingles. We have reported previously that VZV induces autophagy in infected cells as well as exhibiting evidence of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR): XBP1 splicing, a greatly expanded Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and CHOP expression. Herein we report the results of a UPR specif...

  16. Varicella-Zoster Virus glycoprotein expression differentially induces the unfolded protein response in infected cells.

    John Earl Carpenter; Charles eGrose

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that spreads to children as varicella or chicken pox. The virus then establishes latency in the nervous system and re-emerges, typically decades later, as zoster or shingles. We have reported previously that VZV induces autophagy in infected cells as well as exhibiting evidence of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR): XBP1 splicing, a greatly expanded Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and CHOP expression. Herein we report the results of a UPR specif...

  17. Differential regulation of Aβ42-induced neuronal C1q synthesis and microglial activation

    Tenner Andrea J; Fan Rong

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Expression of C1q, an early component of the classical complement pathway, has been shown to be induced in neurons in hippocampal slices, following accumulation of exogenous Aβ42. Microglial activation was also detected by surface marker expression and cytokine production. To determine whether C1q induction was correlated with intraneuronal Aβ and/or microglial activation, D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, an NMDA receptor antagonist) and glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic a...

  18. Negative differential resistance and rectifying performance induced by doped graphene nanoribbons p-n device

    Zhou, Yuhong; Qiu, Nianxiang; Li, Runwei; Guo, Zhansheng; Zhang, Jian; Fang, Junfeng; Huang, Aisheng; He, Jian; Zha, Xianhu; Luo, Kan; Yin, Jingshuo; Li, Qiuwu; Bai, Xiaojing; Huang, Qing; Du, Shiyu

    2016-03-01

    Employing nonequilibrium Green's Functions in combination with density functional theory, the electronic transport properties of armchair graphene nanoribbon (GNR) devices with various widths are investigated in this work. In the adopted model, two semi-infinite graphene electrodes are periodically doped with boron or nitrogen atoms. Our calculations reveal that these devices have a striking nonlinear feature and show notable negative differential resistance (NDR). The results also indicate the diode-like properties are reserved and the rectification ratios are high. It is found the electronic transport properties are strongly dependent on the width of doped nanoribbons and the positions of dopants and three distinct families are elucidated for the current armchair GNR devices. The NDR as well as rectifying properties can be well explained by the variation of transmission spectra and the relative shift of discrete energy states with applied bias voltage. These findings suggest that the doped armchair GNR is a promising candidate for the next generation nanoscale device.

  19. Pre-conditioning induces the precocious differentiation of neonatal astrocytes to enhance their neuroprotective properties

    Sandra J Hewett

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic preconditioning reprogrammes the brain's response to subsequent H/I (hypoxia–ischaemia injury by enhancing neuroprotective mechanisms. Given that astrocytes normally support neuronal survival and function, the purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a hypoxic preconditioning stimulus would activate an adaptive astrocytic response. We analysed several functional parameters 24 h after exposing rat pups to 3 h of systemic hypoxia (8% O2. Hypoxia increased neocortical astrocyte maturation as evidenced by the loss of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells with radial morphologies and the acquisition of multipolar GFAP-positive cells. Interestingly, many of these astrocytes had nuclear S100B. Accompanying their differentiation, there was increased expression of GFAP, GS (glutamine synthetase, EAAT-1 (excitatory amino acid transporter-1; also known as GLAST, MCT-1 (monocarboxylate transporter-1 and ceruloplasmin. A subsequent H/I insult did not result in any further astrocyte activation. Some responses were cell autonomous, as levels of GS and MCT-1 increased subsequent to hypoxia in cultured forebrain astrocytes. In contrast, the expression of GFAP, GLAST and ceruloplasmin remained unaltered. Additional experiments utilized astrocytes exposed to exogenous dbcAMP (dibutyryl-cAMP, which mimicked several aspects of the preconditioning response, to determine whether activated astrocytes could protect neurons from subsequent excitotoxic injury. dbcAMP treatment increased GS and glutamate transporter expression and function, and as hypothesized, protected neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. Taken altogether, these results indicate that a preconditioning stimulus causes the precocious differentiation of astrocytes and increases the acquisition of multiple astrocytic functions that will contribute to the neuroprotection conferred by a sublethal preconditioning stress.

  20. MicroRNA gene expression during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Garzon, R; Pichiorri, F; Palumbo, T; Visentini, M; Aqeilan, R; Cimmino, A; Wang, H; Sun, H; Volinia, S; Alder, H; Calin, G A; Liu, C-G; Andreeff, M; Croce, C M

    2007-06-14

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides that are involved in the regulation of critical cell processes such as apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs in granulopoiesis. Here, we report the expression of miRNAs in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients and cell lines during all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment by using a miRNA microarrays platform and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We found upregulation of miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-16-1, let-7a-3, let-7c, let-7d, miR-223, miR-342 and miR-107, whereas miR-181b was downregulated. Among the upregulated miRNAs, miR-107 is predicted to target NFI-A, a gene that has been involved in a regulatory loop involving miR-223 and C/EBPa during granulocytic differentiation. Indeed, we have confirmed that miR-107 targets NF1-A. To get insights about ATRA regulation of miRNAs, we searched for ATRA-modulated transcription factors binding sites in the upstream genomic region of the let-7a-3/let-7b cluster and identified several putative nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) consensus elements. The use of reporter gene assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that one proximal NF-kappaB binding site is essential for the transactivation of the let-7a-3/let-7b cluster. Finally, we show that ATRA downregulation of RAS and Bcl2 correlate with the activation of known miRNA regulators of those proteins, let-7a and miR-15a/miR-16-1, respectively. PMID:17260024

  1. Strong electron donation induced differential nonradiative decay pathways for para and meta GFP chromophore analogues.

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Mandal, Mrinal; Gude, Venkatesh; Bag, Partha Pratim; Mandal, Prasun K

    2015-08-28

    Z-E Isomerisation because of rotation around the exocyclic double bond (known as the τ-twist) and not any other internal conversion has been reported to be the major nonradiative decay channel for non-hydroxylic unconstrained para and meta GFP chromophore analogues. The equation Φf + 2ΦZE = 1 has been shown to hold well for both para and meta GFP chromophore analogues. If the above equation holds true, then upon reducing the extent of Z-E isomerisation (ΦZE), the fluorescence quantum yield (Φf) should increase. To probe the above proposition two sets of non-hydroxylic unconstrained para and meta GFP chromophore analogues were synthesized. Quite interestingly by introducing the strongly electron donating -NEt2 group to the benzenic moiety these para and meta GFP chromophore analogues were shown to exhibit differential optical behaviour w.r.t. the extent of the solvatochromic shift, Φf, ΦZE, and τf. For the first time it has been shown that the well accepted equation Φf + 2ΦZE = 1 does not hold at all for these non-hydroxylic unconstrained meta analogues. Although ΦZE has been shown to be value for these meta analogues. After detailed investigation into the nonradiative excited state decay channel, contrary to literature reports, energy gap law governed internal conversion and not Z-E isomerisation was shown to be the major nonradiative decay channel for these meta analogues. Two models are put forward to understand the differential optical behaviour of these para and meta GFP chromophore analogues. Support from X-ray crystal structures, NMR experiments, and computational calculations has also been provided. PMID:26176350

  2. Cis-vaccenic acid induces differentiation and up-regulates gamma globin synthesis in K562, JK1 and transgenic mice erythroid progenitor stem cells.

    Aimola, Idowu A; Inuwa, Hajiya M; Nok, Andrew J; Mamman, Aisha I; Bieker, James J

    2016-04-01

    Gamma globin induction remains a promising pharmacological therapeutic treatment mode for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia, however Hydroxyurea remains the only FDA approved drug which works via this mechanism. In this regard, we assayed the γ-globin inducing capacity of Cis-vaccenic acid (CVA). CVA induced differentiation of K562, JK1 and transgenic mice primary bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor stem cells. CVA also significantly up-regulated γ-globin gene expression in JK-1 and transgenic mice bone marrow erythroid progenitor stem cells (TMbmEPSCs) but not K562 cells without altering cell viability. Increased γ-globin expression was accompanied by KLF1 suppression in CVA induced JK-1 cells. Erythropoietin induced differentiation of JK-1 cells 24h before CVA induction did not significantly alter CVA induced differentiation and γ-globin expression in JK-1 cells. Inhibition of JK-1 and Transgenic mice bone marrow erythroid progenitor stem cells Fatty acid elongase 5 (Elovl5) and Δ(9) desaturase suppressed the γ-globin inductive effects of CVA. CVA treatment failed to rescue γ-globin expression in Elovl5 and Δ(9)-desaturase inhibited cells 48h post inhibition in JK-1 cells. The data suggests that CVA directly modulates differentiation of JK-1 and TMbmEPSCs, and indirectly modulates γ-globin gene expression in these cells. Our findings provide important clues for further evaluations of CVA as a potential fetal hemoglobin therapeutic inducer. PMID:26879870

  3. Activin receptor-like kinase receptors ALK5 and ALK1 are both required for TGFβ-induced chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    L.M.G. De Kroon (Laurie M.G.); R. Narcisi (Roberto); E.N. Blaney Davidson (Esmeralda); M.A. Cleary (Mairéad); H.M. van Beuningen (Henk); W.J.L.M. Koevoet (Wendy J.L.M.); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); P.M. van der Kraan (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising for cartilage regeneration because BMSCs can differentiate into cartilage tissue-producing chondrocytes. Transforming Growth Factor beta; (TGFbeta;) is crucial for inducing chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs

  4. Activin Receptor-Like Kinase Receptors ALK5 and ALK1 Are Both Required for TGFbeta-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Kroon, L.M.G. de; Narcisi, R.; Davidson, E.N.; Cleary, M.A.; Beuningen, H.M. van; Koevoet, W.J.; Osch, G.J. van; Kraan, P.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising for cartilage regeneration because BMSCs can differentiate into cartilage tissue-producing chondrocytes. Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) is crucial for inducing chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs and is known

  5. Wnt-1-inducing factor-1: a novel G/C box-binding transcription factor regulating the expression of Wnt-1 during neuroectodermal differentiation.

    St-Arnaud, R.; Moir, J M

    1993-01-01

    The Wnt-1 proto-oncogene is essential for proper development of the midbrain and is expressed in a spatially and temporally restricted manner during central nervous system development in mice. In vitro, the gene is specifically transcribed during the retinoic acid (RA)-induced neuroectodermal differentiation of the P19 line of embryonal carcinoma cells. The P19 cells differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and fibroblast-like cells when treated with RA. Treatment of the cells with dimethyl su...

  6. Effect of sphingosine and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate on the growth and dimethylsulfoxide-induced differentiation in the insect trypanosomatid Herpetomonas samuelpessoai

    André Luis Souza dos Santos; Rosangela Maria de Araújo Soares

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two modulators of protein kinase C, sphingosine and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), on the growth and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation in Herpetomonas samuelpessoai. Sphingosine did not stimulate the transformation of undifferentiated-promastigotes in differentiated-paramastigotes. PMA alone or in association with DMSO increased the number of paramastigotes in comparison to control cells. DMSO inhibited the parasite growth (35%) and several...

  7. WNT16B from Ovarian Fibroblasts Induces Differentiation of Regulatory T Cells through β-Catenin Signal in Dendritic Cells

    Cong-Cong Shen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for cancer can induce a series of secreted factors into the tumor microenvironment, which can affect cancer progression. Wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus integration site 16B (WNT16B is a new member of the WNT family and has been reported to play growth-related roles in previous studies. In this study, we found WNT16B could be expressed and secreted into the microenvironment by human ovarian fibroblasts after DNA damage-associated treatment, including chemotherapy drugs and radiation. We also demonstrated that fibroblast-derived WNT16B could result in accumulation of β-catenin in dendritic cells and secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, which contributed to the differentiation of regulatory T cells in a co-culture environment. These results shed light on the roles of WNT16B in immune regulation, especially in regard to cancer treatment.

  8. Controllable low-bias negative differential resistance, switching, and rectifying behaviors of dipyrimidinyl–diphenyl induced by contact mode

    The negative differential resistance (NDR) and the rectifying behaviors of a molecular device induced by a saturated hydrogen atom and contact modes are investigated. Results reveal low-bias NDR behaviors of dipyrimidinyl–diphenyl (DD) molecule without saturated H atoms. NDR behavior can be eliminated depending on the contact sites. However, the rectifying behaviors of DD-molecule with saturated H atoms are apparent for all considered contact modes. In addition, the possible contact mode of the molecule in the experiment [12] was identified by examining the effect of molecular adsorption sites on gold electrodes and saturated hydrogen atom on conductance. The mechanism underlying various properties are analyzed with the highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, and transmission spectra

  9. Retinoic Acid Induces Ubiquitination-Resistant RIP140/LSD1 Complex to Fine-Tune Pax6 Gene in Neuronal Differentiation.

    Wu, Cheng-Ying; Persaud, Shawna D; Wei, Li-Na

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a wide-spectrum coregulator for hormonal regulation of gene expression, but its activity in development/stem cell differentiation is unknown. Here, we identify RIP140 as an immediate retinoic acid (RA)-induced dual-function chaperone for LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1). RIP140 protects LSD1's catalytic domain and antagonizes its Jade-2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. In RA-induced neuronal differentiation, the increased RIP140/LSD1 complex is recruited by RA-elevated Pit-1 to specifically reduce H3K4me2 modification on the Pax6 promoter, thereby repressing RA-induction of Pax6. This study reveals a new RA-induced gene repressive mechanism that modulates the abundance, enzyme quality, and recruitment of histone modifier LSD1 to neuronal regulator Pax6, which provides a homeostatic control for RA induction of neuronal differentiation. PMID:26372689

  10. Noise-induced transitions at a Hopf bifurcation in a first-order delay-differential equation

    The influence of colored noise on the Hopf bifurcation in a first-order delay-differential equation (DDE), a model paradigm for nonlinear delayed feedback systems, is considered. First, it is shown, using a stability analysis, how the properties of the DDE depend on the ratio R of system delay to response time. When this ratio is small, the DDE behaves more like a low-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations (ODE's); when R is large, one obtains a singular perturbation limit in which the behavior of the DDE approaches that of a discrete time map. The relative magnitude of the additive and multiplicative noise-induced postponements of the Hopf bifurcation are numerically shown to depend on the ratio R. Although both types of postponements are minute in the large-R limit, they are almost equal due to an equivalence of additive and parametric noise for discrete time maps. When R is small, the multiplicative shift is larger than the additive one at large correlation times, but the shifts are equal for small correlation times. In fact, at constant noise power, the postponement is only slightly affected by the correlation time of the noise, except when the noise becomes white, in which case the postponement drastically decreases. This is a numerical study of the stochastic Hopf bifurcation, in ODE's or DDE's, that looks at the effect of noise correlation time at constant power. Further, it is found that the slope at the fixed point averaged over the stochastic-parameter motion acts, under certain conditions, as a quantitative indicator of oscillation onset in the presence of noise. The problem of how properties of the DDE carry over to ODE's and to maps is discussed, along with the proper theoretical framework in which to study nonequilibrium phase transitions in this class of functional differential equations

  11. Wnt7b can replace Ihh to induce hypertrophic cartilage vascularization but not osteoblast differentiation during endochondral bone development.

    Joeng, Kyu Sang; Long, Fanxin

    2014-01-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is an essential signal that regulates endochondral bone development. We have previously shown that Wnt7b promotes osteoblast differentiation during mouse embryogenesis, and that its expression in the perichondrium is dependent on Ihh signaling. To test the hypothesis that Wnt7b may mediate some aspects of Ihh function during endochondral bone development, we activated Wnt7b expression from the R26-Wnt7b allele with Col2-Cre in the Ihh(-/-) mouse. Artificial expression of Wnt7b rescued vascularization of the hypertrophic cartilage in the Ihh(-/-) mouse, but failed to restore orthotopic osteoblast differentiation in the perichondrium. Similarly, Wnt7b did not recover Ihh-dependent perichondral bone formation in the Ihh(-/-); Gli3(-/-) embryo. Interestingly, Wnt7b induced bone formation at the diaphyseal region of long bones in the absence of Ihh, possibly due to increased vascularization in the area. Thus, Ihh-dependent expression of Wnt7b in the perichondrium may contribute to vascularization of the hypertrophic cartilage during endochondral bone development. PMID:26273517

  12. Wnt7b can replace Ihh to induce hypertrophic cartilage vascularization but not osteoblast differentiation during endochondral bone development

    Kyu Sang Joeng; Fanxin Long

    2014-01-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is an essential signal that regulates endochondral bone development. We have previously shown that Wnt7b promotes osteoblast differentiation during mouse embryogenesis, and that its expression in the perichondrium is dependent on Ihh signaling. To test the hypothesis that Wnt7b may mediate some aspects of Ihh function during endochondral bone development, we activated Wnt7b expression from the R26-Wnt7b allele with Col2-Cre in the Ihh2/2 mouse. Artificial expression of Wnt7b rescued vascularization of the hypertrophic cartilage in the Ihh2/2 mouse, but failed to restore orthotopic osteoblast differentiation in the perichondrium. Similarly, Wnt7b did not recover Ihh-dependent perichondral bone formation in the Ihh2/2;Gli32/2 embryo. Interestingly, Wnt7b induced bone formation at the diaphyseal region of long bones in the absence of Ihh, possibly due to increased vascularization in the area. Thus, Ihh-dependent expression of Wnt7b in the perichondrium may contribute to vascularization of the hypertrophic cartilage during endochondral bone development.

  13. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Is an Inductor of Transcription Factor Activating Protein 2 Epsilon Expression during Chondrogenic Differentiation

    Stephan Niebler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor AP-2ε (activating enhancer-binding protein epsilon is expressed in cartilage of humans and mice. However, knowledge about regulatory mechanisms influencing AP-2ε expression is limited. Using quantitative real time PCR, we detected a significant increase in AP-2ε mRNA expression comparing initial and late stages of chondrogenic differentiation processes in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in these samples the expression pattern of the prominent hypoxia marker gene angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4 strongly correlated with that of AP-2ε suggesting that hypoxia might represent an external regulator of AP-2ε expression in mammals. In order to show this, experiments directly targeting the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1, the complex mediating responses to oxygen deprivation, were performed. While the HIF1-activating compounds 2,2′-dipyridyl and desferrioxamine resulted in significantly enhanced mRNA concentration of AP-2ε, siRNA against HIF1α led to a significantly reduced expression rate of AP-2ε. Additionally, we detected a significant upregulation of the AP-2ε mRNA level after oxygen deprivation. In sum, these different experimental approaches revealed a novel role for the HIF1 complex in the regulation of the AP-2ε gene in cartilaginous cells and underlined the important role of hypoxia as an important external regulatory stimulus during chondrogenic differentiation modulating the expression of downstream transcription factors.

  14. Genistein induces adipogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and suppresses their osteogenic potential by upregulating PPARγ

    ZHANG, LI-YAN; XUE, HAO-GANG; CHEN, JI-YING; CHAI, WEI; NI, MING

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is a soy isoflavone that exists in the form of an aglycone. It is the primary active component in soy isoflavone and has a number of biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative). However, the specific effect of genistein on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains unclear. In the present study, the mechanism underlying the effect of genistein on the suppression of BMSC adipogenic differentiation and the enhancement of osteogenic potential was investigated using an MTT assay. It was observed that genistein significantly increased BMSC cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner (Pcell proliferation, suppress the expression of Runx2, Col I and OC mRNA, and reduce ALP and promote TG activity in BMSCs. Thus, the results of the present study conclude that genistein induces adipogenic differentiation in human BMSCs and suppresses their osteogenic potential by upregulating the expression of PPARγ. In conclusion, genistein may be a promising candidate drug for treatment against osteogenesis.

  15. Exposure to low level GSM 935 MHz radiofrequency fields does not induce apoptosis in proliferating or differentiated murine neuroblastoma cells

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiofrequency (RF) fields characteristic of mobile phones at non-thermal levels can induce apoptosis in murine neuroblastoma (N2a) cells in both proliferating and differentiated states. Cells were exposed continuously for 24 h to one of the three 935-MHz RF signals: global system for mobile communication (GSM) basic, GSM talk and a continuous wave, unmodulated signal; all at a specific energy absorption rate of 2 W kg-1. The measured increase in temperature of the cells due to the RF fields was around 0.06 deg. C. At a number of time points between 0 and 48 h post-exposure, the cells were assessed for apoptosis under a fluorescence microscope using three independent assays: Annexin V, caspase activation and in situ end-labelling. No statistically significant differences in apoptosis levels were observed between the exposed and sham-exposed cells using the three assays at any time point post-exposure. These data suggest that RF exposures, characteristic of GSM mobile phones, do not significantly affect the apoptosis levels in proliferating and differentiated murine neuroblastoma cell line N2a. (authors)

  16. Waveform analysis of tremor may help to differentiate Parkinson's disease from drug-induced parkinsonism

    In this study, we analyzed the waveform characteristics of resting tremor by accelerometer recordings in patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). We prospectively recruited 12 patients with tremulous PD and 12 patients with DIP presenting with resting tremor. Tremor was recorded from the more affected side and was recorded twice for a 60 s period in each patient. Peak frequency, amplitude and all harmonic peaks were obtained, and the asymmetry of the decay of the autocorrelation function, third momentum and time-reversal invariance were also computed using a mathematical algorithm. Among the parameters used in the waveform analysis, the harmonic ratio, time-reversal invariance and asymmetric decay of the autocorrelation function were different between PD and DIP at a statistically significant level (all p < 0.01). The total harmonic peak power and third momentum in the time series were not significantly different. The clinical characteristics of DIP patients may be similar to those of PD patients in some cases, which makes the clinical differentiation between DIP and PD challenging. Our study shows that the identification of parameters reflecting waveform asymmetry might be helpful in differentiating between DIP and PD. (note)

  17. The ROSA26-iPSC Mouse: A Conditional, Inducible, and Exchangeable Resource for Studying Cellular (DeDifferentiation

    Lieven Haenebalcke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Control of cellular (dedifferentiation in a temporal, cell-specific, and exchangeable manner is of paramount importance in the field of reprogramming. Here, we have generated and characterized a mouse strain that allows iPSC generation through the Cre/loxP conditional and doxycycline/rtTA-controlled inducible expression of the OSKM reprogramming factors entirely from within the ROSA26 locus. After reprogramming, these factors can be replaced by genes of interest—for example, to enhance lineage-directed differentiation—with the use of a trap-coupled RMCE reaction. We show that, similar to ESCs, Dox-controlled expression of the cardiac transcriptional regulator Mesp1 together with Wnt inhibition enhances the generation of functional cardiomyocytes upon in vitro differentiation of such RMCE-retargeted iPSCs. This ROSA26-iPSC mouse model is therefore an excellent tool for studying both cellular reprogramming and lineage-directed differentiation factors from the same locus and will greatly facilitate the identification and ease of functional characterization of the genetic/epigenetic determinants involved in these complex processes.

  18. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants. PMID:20390295

  19. Differential infection properties of three inducible prophages from an epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    James Chloe E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacterial pathogen infecting the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. The Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES is transmissible, capable of superseding other P. aeruginosa populations and is associated with increased morbidity. Previously, multiple inducible prophages have been found to coexist in the LES chromosome and to constitute a major component of the accessory genome not found in other sequenced P. aerugionosa strains. LES phages confer a competitive advantage in a rat model of chronic lung infection and may, therefore underpin LES prevalence. Here the infective properties of three LES phages were characterised. Results This study focuses on three of the five active prophages (LESφ2, LESφ3 and LESφ4 that are members of the Siphoviridae. All were induced from LESB58 by norfloxacin. Lytic production of LESφ2 was considerably higher than that of LESφ3 and LESφ4. Each phage was capable of both lytic and lysogenic infection of the susceptible P. aeruginosa host, PAO1, producing phage-specific plaque morphologies. In the PAO1 host background, the LESφ2 prophage conferred immunity against LESφ3 infection and reduced susceptibility to LESφ4 infection. Each prophage was less stable in the PAO1 chromosome with substantially higher rates of spontaneous phage production than when residing in the native LESB58 host. We show that LES phages are capable of horizontal gene transfer by infecting P. aeruginosa strains from different sources and that type IV pili are required for infection by all three phages. Conclusions Multiple inducible prophages with diverse infection properties have been maintained in the LES genome. Our data suggest that LESφ2 is more sensitive to induction into the lytic cycle or has a more efficient replicative cycle than the other LES phages.

  20. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Familial Alzheimer's Disease Patients Differentiate into Mature Neurons with Amyloidogenic Properties

    Mahairaki, Vasiliki; Ryu, Jiwon; PETERS, ANN; Chang, Qing; Li, Tong; Park, Tea Soon; Burridge, Paul W; Talbot, Conover C.; Asnaghi, Laura; Lee J Martin; Zambidis, Elias T.; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are sporadic, about 5% of cases are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern as familial AD (FAD) and manifest at an early age. Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene account for the majority of early-onset FAD. Here, we describe the generation of virus-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of patients harboring the FAD PSEN1 mutation A246E and fibroblasts from healthy age-matched controls usin...

  1. Inhibition of protein kinase C induces differentiation in Neuro-2a cells.

    Miñana, M D; Felipo, V.; Grisolía, S

    1990-01-01

    1-(5-Isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, induced neuritogenesis in Neuro-2a cells, whereas N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA 1004), which inhibits more efficiently cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, did not. The effect, noticeable after 3 hr, was maximum (13-fold increase at 500 microM H7) between 1 and 3 days and was maintained over 2 months. In controls, 90% of the cells were undifferentiated, whereas after 3 hr wit...

  2. EGF Prevents the Neuroendocrine Differentiation of LNCaP Cells Induced By Serum Deprivation: The Modulator Role of P13K/Akt

    Rosa M. Martín-Orozco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this investigation was to study the relationship between neuroendocrine (NE differentiation, epidermal growth factor (EGF because both have been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we used gefitinib, trastuzumab, which are inhibitors of EGF receptor (EGFR, ErbB2, respectively. EGF prevents NE differentiation induced by androgen depletion. This effect is prevented by gefitinib, which blocks the activation of EGFR, ErbB2, stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, cell proliferation induced by EGF. Conversely, trastuzumab does not inhibit the effect of EGF on EGFR phosphorylation, MAPK activity, cell proliferation, NE differentiation, although it reduces ErbB2 levels specifically, suggesting that ErbB2 is not necessary to inhibit NE differentiation. Prevention of NE differentiation by EGF is mediated by a MAPK-dependent mechanism, requires constitutive Akt activation. The abrogation of the PI3K/Akt pathway changes the role of EGF from inhibitor to inductor of NE differentiation. We show that EGFR tyrosine kinase, MAPK, PI3K inhibitors inhibit the cell proliferation stimulated by EGF but induce the acquisition of NE phenotype. Altogether, the present data should be borne in mind when designing new clinical schedules for the treatment of prostate cancer, including the use of ErbB receptors, associated signaling pathway inhibitors.

  3. LukS-PV induces differentiation by activating the ERK signaling pathway and c-JUN/c-FOS in human acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Dai, Chunyang; Zhang, Chengfang; Sun, Xiaoxi; Pan, Qing; Peng, Jing; Shen, Jilong; Ma, Xiaoling

    2016-07-01

    LukS-PV, a component of Panton-Valentine leukocidin, is a pore-forming cytotoxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus. Here we examined the potential effect of LukS-PV in differentiation of human leukemia cells and the underlying mechanism. We found that LukS-PV could induce differentiation of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, including AML cell lines and primary AML blasts, as determined by morphological changes, phagocytosis assay and expression of CD14 and CD11b surface antigens. In addition, LukS-PV activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and significantly upregulated the phosphorylation of c-JUN and c-FOS transcriptional factors in the process of differentiation. Inhibiting ERK pathway activation with U0126 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor) markedly blocked LukS-PV-induced differentiation and decreased the phosphorylation of c-JUN and c-FOS. These findings demonstrate an essential role for the ERK pathway together with c-JUN and c-FOS in the differentiation activity of LukS-PV. Taken together, our data suggest that LukS-PV could be a potential candidate as a differentiation-inducing agent for the therapeutic treatment of AML. PMID:27102414

  4. Advanced glycation end products induce differential structural modifications and fibrillation of albumin.

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Sankaranarayanan, Kamatchi; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-15

    Glycation induced amyloid fibrillation is fundamental to the development of many neurodegenerative and cardiovascular complications. Excessive non-enzymatic glycation in conditions such as hyperglycaemia results in the increased accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are highly reactive pro-oxidants, which can lead to the activation of inflammatory pathways and development of oxidative stress. Recently, the effect of non-enzymatic glycation on protein structure has been the major research area, but the role of specific AGEs in such structural alteration and induction of fibrillation remains undefined. In this study, we determined the specific AGEs mediated structural modifications in albumin mainly considering carboxymethyllysine (CML), carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and argpyrimidine (Arg-P) which are the major AGEs formed in the body. We studied the secondary structural changes based on circular dichroism (CD) and spectroscopic analysis. The AGEs induced fibrillation was determined by Congo red binding and examination of scanning and transmission electron micrographs. The amyloidogenic regions in the sequence of BSA were determined using FoldAmyloid. It was observed that CEL modification of BSA leads to the development of fibrillar structures, which was evident from both secondary structure changes and TEM analysis. PMID:27037764

  5. Differential regulation of Aβ42-induced neuronal C1q synthesis and microglial activation

    Tenner Andrea J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Expression of C1q, an early component of the classical complement pathway, has been shown to be induced in neurons in hippocampal slices, following accumulation of exogenous Aβ42. Microglial activation was also detected by surface marker expression and cytokine production. To determine whether C1q induction was correlated with intraneuronal Aβ and/or microglial activation, D-(--2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, an NMDA receptor antagonist and glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine-proline peptide (RGD, an integrin receptor antagonist, which blocks and enhances Aβ42 uptake, respectively, were assessed for their effect on neuronal C1q synthesis and microglial activation. APV inhibited, and RGD enhanced, microglial activation and neuronal C1q expression. However, addition of Aβ10–20 to slice cultures significantly reduced Aβ42 uptake and microglial activation, but did not alter the Aβ42-induced neuronal C1q expression. Furthermore, Aβ10–20 alone triggered C1q production in neurons, demonstrating that neither neuronal Aβ42 accumulation, nor microglial activation is required for neuronal C1q upregulation. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that multiple receptors are involved in Aβ injury and signaling in neurons. Some lead to neuronal C1q induction, whereas other(s lead to intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ and/or stimulation of microglia.

  6. Advanced glycation end products induce differential structural modifications and fibrillation of albumin

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Sankaranarayanan, Kamatchi; Saraswathi, N. T.

    2016-06-01

    Glycation induced amyloid fibrillation is fundamental to the development of many neurodegenerative and cardiovascular complications. Excessive non-enzymatic glycation in conditions such as hyperglycaemia results in the increased accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are highly reactive pro-oxidants, which can lead to the activation of inflammatory pathways and development of oxidative stress. Recently, the effect of non-enzymatic glycation on protein structure has been the major research area, but the role of specific AGEs in such structural alteration and induction of fibrillation remains undefined. In this study, we determined the specific AGEs mediated structural modifications in albumin mainly considering carboxymethyllysine (CML), carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and argpyrimidine (Arg-P) which are the major AGEs formed in the body. We studied the secondary structural changes based on circular dichroism (CD) and spectroscopic analysis. The AGEs induced fibrillation was determined by Congo red binding and examination of scanning and transmission electron micrographs. The amyloidogenic regions in the sequence of BSA were determined using FoldAmyloid. It was observed that CEL modification of BSA leads to the development of fibrillar structures, which was evident from both secondary structure changes and TEM analysis.

  7. Inflammasome priming is similar for francisella species that differentially induce inflammasome activation.

    Mohammed G Ghonime

    Full Text Available Inflammasome activation is a two-step process where step one, priming, prepares the inflammasome for its subsequent activation, by step two. Classically step one can be induced by LPS priming followed by step two, high dose ATP. Furthermore, when IL-18 processing is used as the inflammasome readout, priming occurs before new protein synthesis. In this context, how intracellular pathogens such as Francisella activate the inflammasome is incompletely understood, particularly regarding the relative importance of priming versus activation steps. To better understand these events we compared Francisella strains that differ in virulence and ability to induce inflammasome activation for their relative effects on step one vs. step two. When using the rapid priming model, i.e., 30 min priming by live or heat killed Francisella strains (step 1, followed by ATP (step 2, we found no difference in IL-18 release, p20 caspase-1 release and ASC oligomerization between Francisella strains (F. novicida, F. holarctica -LVS and F. tularensis Schu S4. This priming is fast, independent of bacteria viability, internalization and phagosome escape, but requires TLR2-mediated ERK phosphorylation. In contrast to their efficient priming capacity, Francisella strains LVS and Schu S4 were impaired in inflammasome triggering compared to F. novicida. Thus, observed differences in inflammasome activation by F. novicida, LVS and Schu S4 depend not on differences in priming but rather on their propensity to trigger the primed inflammasome.

  8. Thalidomide induces granuloma differentiation in sarcoid skin lesions associated with disease improvement.

    Oliver, Stephen J; Kikuchi, Toyoko; Krueger, James G; Kaplan, Gilla

    2002-03-01

    Sarcoidosis, a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, is treated with immune suppressive drugs such as corticosteroids. Sarcoidosis patients have been reported to benefit clinically from treatment with thalidomide. We administered thalidomide for 16 weeks to eight patients with chronic skin sarcoidosis and evaluated the drug's effects before and with treatment. After thalidomide treatment, all skin biopsies showed decreases in granuloma size and reduction in epidermal thickness. We also observed extensive T cell recruitment into the granulomas, the appearance of multinucleated giant cells, and increased numbers of dermal Langerhans cells (CD1a(+)) and mature dendritic cells (CD83(+) or DC-LAMP(+)). Plasma IL-12 levels increased and remained elevated during the treatment period. We noted increased HLA-DR expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes and a corresponding drop in the naive T cell marker CD45RA. Our data suggest that thalidomide treatment of sarcoidosis results in granuloma differentiation to a Th1-type cellular immune response usually associated with protective immunity to tuberculosis and tuberculoid leprosy. PMID:11890709

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Erythroid Differentiation Regulator 1 on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation

    Kyung Eun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common skin disease accompanied by chronic inflammation. In previous studies, erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (ERDR1 was shown to have a negative correlation with proinflammatory cytokine IL-18. However, the role of ERDR1 in the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis has not been evaluated. In this study, to investigate the role of ERDR1 in psoriasis, recombinant ERDR1 was injected intraperitoneally into a psoriasis mouse model. Recombinant ERDR1 (rERDR1 significantly alleviated the symptoms of psoriasis-like skin inflammation and reduced the mRNA of various psoriasis-related markers, including keratin 14, S100A8, and Th17-related cytokines IL-17 and IL-22, suggesting that rERDR1 exerts therapeutic effects on psoriasis via the regulation of Th17 functions. Additionally, the expression of CCL20, a well-known Th17 attracting chemokine, was determined. CCL20 expression significantly decreased in the rERDR1-injected group compared with the vehicle (PBS-injected group. CCR6 expression in the psoriatic lesional skin was also decreased by rERDR1 administration, implying the inhibition of CCR6-expressing Th17 cell chemotaxis via the downregulation of CCL20. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence that ERDR1 may be a potential therapeutic target for psoriasis.

  10. Differential expression of long non-coding RNAs in hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Bao, Tian-Ping; Wu, Rong; Cheng, Huai-Ping; Cui, Xian-Wei; Tian, Zhao-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of premature birth that seriously affects the survival rate and quality of life among preterm neonates. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many human diseases. However, the role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of BPD remains poorly understood. Here, we exposed neonatal C57BL/6J mice to 95% concentrations of ambient oxygen and established a mouse lung injury model that mimicked human BPD. Next, we compared lncRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles between BPD and normal lung tissues using a high-throughput mouse lncRNA + mRNA array system. Compared with the control group, 882 lncRNAs were upregulated, and 887 lncRNAs were downregulated in BPD lung tissues. We validated some candidate BPD-associated lncRNAs by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis in eight pairs of BPD and normal lung tissues. Gene ontology, pathway and bioinformatics analyses revealed that a downregulated lncRNA, namely AK033210, associated with tenascin C may be involved in the pathogenesis of BPD. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to reveal differential lncRNA expression in BPD, which provides a foundation for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of BPD development. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27137150

  11. Prediction and Validation of Gene Regulatory Elements Activated During Retinoic Acid Induced Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Simandi, Zoltan; Horvath, Attila; Nagy, Peter; Nagy, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development is a multistep process involving activation and repression of many genes. Enhancer elements in the genome are known to contribute to tissue and cell-type specific regulation of gene expression during the cellular differentiation. Thus, their identification and further investigation is important in order to understand how cell fate is determined. Integration of gene expression data (e.g., microarray or RNA-seq) and results of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based genome-wide studies (ChIP-seq) allows large-scale identification of these regulatory regions. However, functional validation of cell-type specific enhancers requires further in vitro and in vivo experimental procedures. Here we describe how active enhancers can be identified and validated experimentally. This protocol provides a step-by-step workflow that includes: 1) identification of regulatory regions by ChIP-seq data analysis, 2) cloning and experimental validation of putative regulatory potential of the identified genomic sequences in a reporter assay, and 3) determination of enhancer activity in vivo by measuring enhancer RNA transcript level. The presented protocol is detailed enough to help anyone to set up this workflow in the lab. Importantly, the protocol can be easily adapted to and used in any cellular model system. PMID:27403939

  12. The blood-brain barrier induces differentiation of migrating monocytes into Th17-polarizing dendritic cells.

    Ifergan, Igal; Kébir, Hania; Bernard, Monique; Wosik, Karolina; Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Cayrol, Romain; Arbour, Nathalie; Prat, Alexandre

    2008-03-01

    Trafficking of antigen-presenting cells into the CNS is essential for lymphocyte reactivation within the CNS compartment. Although perivascular dendritic cells found in inflammatory lesions are reported to polarize naive CD4+ T lymphocytes into interleukin-17-secreting-cells, the origin of those antigen-presenting cells remains controversial. We demonstrate that a subset of CD14+ monocytes migrate across the inflamed human blood-brain barrier (BBB) and differentiate into CD83+CD209+ dendritic cells under the influence of BBB-secreted transforming growth factor-beta and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We also demonstrate that these dendritic cells secrete interleukin-12p70, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-6 and promote the proliferation and expansion of distinct populations of interferon-gamma-secreting Th1 and interleukin-17-secreting Th17 CD4+ T lymphocytes. We further confirmed the abundance of such dendritic cells in situ, closely associated with microvascular BBB-endothelial cells within acute multiple sclerosis lesions, as well as a significant number of CD4+ interleukin-17+ T lymphocytes in the perivascular infiltrate. Our data support the notion that functional perivascular myeloid CNS dendritic cells arise as a consequence of migration of CD14+ monocytes across the human BBB, through the concerted actions of BBB-secreted transforming growth factor-beta and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. PMID:18156156

  13. Stress-induced growth-differentiation factor 15 plays an intriguing role in cardiovascular diseases

    LIU Hai-tao; WANG Hai-chang; TAO Ling; LI Cheng-xiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Yu-yang; LIU Bo-wu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the current knowledge of growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in heart disease.Data sources To identify relevant publications,we searched PubMED database combining the textual terms of heart,cardiac,cardiovascular disease with GDF-15.Study selection Well-controlled,relatively large-scale,retrospective studies as well as meaningful individual cases were all selected as materials.Results GDF-15 is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β cytokine superfamily.In myocardium,GDF-15 is weakly expressed under physiological conditions.However,its expression level is increased in response to pathological stress.Growing evidence indicate that elevated levels of GDF-15 is a promising prognostic biomarker in cardiovascular diseases.Moreover,GDF-15 exhibits the properties of endogenous anti-hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and protecting the heart suffering from ischemia and reperfusion insult.Conclusion Ve GDF-15 may be a promising biomarker for evaluation and management of patient with cardiovascular diseases,and have potential protective properties on myocardium.

  14. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid–stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), −2, and −3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5–20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC50 values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC50 values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. - Highlights: • LPA induces cell migration (invasion) in murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells. • DIFs are novel lead anti-tumor agents found in Dictyostelium discoideum. • We examined the effects of DIF derivatives on LPA-induced LM8 cell migration in vitro. • Some of the DIF derivatives inhibited LPA-induced LM8 cell migration

  15. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid–stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells

    Kubohara, Yuzuru, E-mail: ykuboha@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation (IMCR), Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Department of Health Science, Juntendo University Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Inzai 270-1695 (Japan); Komachi, Mayumi [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation (IMCR), Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Homma, Yoshimi [Department of Biomolecular Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295 (Japan); Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru [Laboratory of Natural Product Chemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aoba-yama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), −2, and −3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5–20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC{sub 50} values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC{sub 50} values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. - Highlights: • LPA induces cell migration (invasion) in murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells. • DIFs are novel lead anti-tumor agents found in Dictyostelium discoideum. • We examined the effects of DIF derivatives on LPA-induced LM8 cell migration in vitro. • Some of the DIF derivatives inhibited LPA-induced LM8 cell migration.

  16. Differential glucocorticoid-induced closure of the blood-milk barrier during lipopolysaccharide- and lipoteichoic acid-induced mastitis in dairy cows.

    Wall, Samantha K; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Ahmadpour, Amir; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Wellnitz, Olga

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria invading the mammary gland can cause pathogen-dependent differences in the permeability of the blood-milk barrier leading to the differential paracellular transfer of blood and milk components. Glucocorticoids such as prednisolone (PRED) are known to increase the integrity of the blood-milk barrier and quickly restore the decreased milk quality associated with mastitis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of intramammary PRED on the differential permeability of the blood-milk barrier during mastitis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus. Thirty-one dairy cows, divided into 6 groups, were injected via a teat canal with LPS, LTA, LPS and PRED, LTA and PRED, saline (control), or PRED. Milk and blood samples were collected 0 to 8h after challenge and analyzed for somatic cell count, IgG, serum albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase in milk, or α-lactalbumin in plasma. Somatic cell count was similarly elevated in LPS- and LTA-challenged quarters and was reduced to control quarter levels only in LTA-challenged quarters with PRED administration. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was highly elevated in LPS quarters and only slightly elevated in LTA quarters, but decreased to control quarter levels with PRED administration. For serum albumin and IgG, only LPS quarters showed an elevation in concentration and PRED treatment reduced the concentration to control quarter level. We found no differences in α-lactalbumin concentrations in plasma in PRED-treated cows compared with cows that only received LPS or LTA. In conclusion, the pathogen-specific appearance of blood constituents in milk during mastitis demonstrates a differential activation of the blood-milk barrier that, in turn, can be manipulated by intramammary glucocorticoids. The results show that the administration of PRED during mastitis increases the blood-milk barrier integrity but has implications in reducing the

  17. Differential antagonism of tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced seizures by agents acting at NMDA and GABAA receptors

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a highly lethal neuroactive rodenticide responsible for many accidental and intentional poisonings in mainland China. Ease of synthesis, water solubility, potency, and difficulty to treat make TMDT a potential weapon for terrorist activity. We characterized TMDT-induced convulsions and mortality in male C57BL/6 mice. TMDT (ip) produced a continuum of twitches, clonic, and tonic–clonic seizures decreasing in onset latency and increasing in severity with increasing dose; 0.4 mg/kg was 100% lethal. The NMDA antagonist, ketamine (35 mg/kg) injected ip immediately after the first TMDT-induced seizure, did not change number of tonic–clonic seizures or lethality, but increased the number of clonic seizures. Doubling the ketamine dose decreased tonic–clonic seizures and eliminated lethality through a 60 min observation period. Treating mice with another NMDA antagonist, MK-801, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg ip, showed similar effects as low and high doses of ketamine, respectively, and prevented lethality, converting status epilepticus EEG activity to isolated interictal discharges. Treatment with these agents 15 min prior to TMDT administration did not increase their effectiveness. Post-treatment with the GABAA receptor allosteric enhancer diazepam (5 mg/kg) greatly reduced seizure manifestations and prevented lethality 60 min post-TMDT, but ictal events were evident in EEG recordings and, hours post-treatment, mice experienced status epilepticus and died. Thus, TMDT is a highly potent and lethal convulsant for which single-dose benzodiazepine treatment is inadequate in managing electrographic seizures or lethality. Repeated benzodiazepine dosing or combined application of benzodiazepines and NMDA receptor antagonists is more likely to be effective in treating TMDT poisoning. -- Highlights: ► TMDT produces convulsions and lethality at low doses in mice. ► Diazepam pre- or post-treatments inhibit TMDT-induced convulsions and death.

  18. Glucagon like peptide-1-induced glucose metabolism in differentiated human muscle satellite cells is attenuated by hyperglycemia.

    Charlotte J Green

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas but also has extra-pancreatic effects. GLP-1 may stimulate glucose uptake in cultured muscle cells but the mechanism is not clearly defined. Furthermore, while the pancreatic effects of GLP-1 are glucose-dependent, the glucose-dependency of its extra-pancreatic effects has not been examined. METHODS: Skeletal muscle satellite cells isolated from young (22.5 ± 0.97 yr, lean (BMI 22.5 ± 0.6 kg/m(2, healthy males were differentiated in media containing either 22.5 mM (high or 5 mM (normal glucose for 7 days in the absence or presence of insulin and/or various GLP-1 concentrations. Myocellular effects of GLP-1, insulin and glucose were assessed by western-blot, glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. RESULTS: We firstly show that the GLP-1 receptor protein is expressed in differentiated human muscle satellite cells (myocytes. Secondly, we show that in 5 mM glucose media, exposure of myocytes to GLP-1 results in a dose dependent increase in glucose uptake, GLUT4 amount and subsequently glycogen synthesis in a PI3K dependent manner, independent of the insulin signaling cascade. Importantly, we provide evidence that differentiation of human satellite cells in hyperglycemic (22.5 mM glucose conditions increases GLUT1 expression, and renders the cells insulin resistant and interestingly GLP-1 resistant in terms of glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. Hyperglycemic conditions did not affect the ability of insulin to phosphorylate downstream targets, PKB or GSK3. Interestingly we show that at 5 mM glucose, GLP-1 increases GLUT4 protein levels and that this effect is abolished by hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: GLP-1 increases glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis into fully-differentiated human satellite cells in a PI3-K dependent mechanism potentially through increased GLUT4 protein levels. The latter occurs independently of the insulin signaling pathway. Attenuation

  19. DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates low-dose X-ray irradiation (LDI)-induced Akt activation and osteoblast differentiation

    Xu, Yong; Fang, Shi-ji [The Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215000 (China); Zhu, Li-juan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Translational Research and Therapy for Neuro-Psycho-Diseases and Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215021 (China); Zhu, Lun-qing, E-mail: xiaodongwangsz@163.com [The Center of Diagnosis and Treatment for Children’s Bone Diseases, The Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215000 (China); Zhou, Xiao-zhong, E-mail: zhouxz@suda.edu.cn [The Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215000 (China)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • LDI increases ALP activity, promotes type I collagen (Col I)/Runx2 mRNA expression. • LDI induces DNA–PKcs activation, which is required for osteoblast differentiation. • Akt activation mediates LDI-induced ALP activity and Col I/Runx2 mRNA increase. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation is important for osteoblast differentiation. - Abstract: Low-dose irradiation (LDI) induces osteoblast differentiation, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we explored the potential role of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA–PKcs)–Akt signaling in LDI-induced osteoblast differentiation. We confirmed that LDI promoted mouse calvarial osteoblast differentiation, which was detected by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as mRNA expression of type I collagen (Col I) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). In mouse osteoblasts, LDI (1 Gy) induced phosphorylation of DNA–PKcs and Akt (mainly at Ser-473). The kinase inhibitors against DNA–PKcs (NU-7026 and NU-7441) or Akt (LY294002, perifosine and MK-2206), as well as partial depletion of DNA–PKcs or Akt1 by targeted-shRNA, dramatically inhibited LDI-induced Akt activation and mouse osteoblast differentiation. Further, siRNA-knockdown of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), also inhibited LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation as well as ALP activity increase and Col I/Runx2 expression in mouse osteoblasts. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay results demonstrated that LDI-induced DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation, which was inhibited by NU-7441 or SIN1 siRNA-knockdown in mouse osteoblasts. In summary, our data suggest that DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation-mediated Akt activation (Ser-473 phosphorylation) is required for mouse osteoblast differentiation.

  20. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2016-06-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient’s own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers.

  1. Steroidal and Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists Cause Differential Cardiac Gene Expression in Pressure Overload-induced Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Grune, Jana; Benz, Verena; Brix, Sarah; Salatzki, Janek; Blumrich, Annelie; Höft, Beata; Klopfleisch, Robert; Foryst-Ludwig, Anna; Kolkhof, Peter; Kintscher, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacological blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) is known as an efficacious therapy in chronic heart failure. Therapy with steroidal MR antagonists such as spironolactone or eplerenone (EPL) is often limited because of side effects. Recently, a new highly selective and potent, nonsteroidal MR antagonist, finerenone (FIN), has been developed. To investigate the effects of FIN on pressure-induced cardiac hypertrophy, the transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model was used in C57BL/6 mice treated with FIN (10 mg·kg·d), EPL (200 mg·kg·d) or vehicle (VEH). First, we analyzed cardiac gene expression 4 weeks after TAC using a pathway-focused quantitative polymerase chain reaction array. FIN caused a distinct cardiac gene expression profile compared to VEH and EPL, including differential expression of BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) and Tnnt2 (troponin T type 2). FIN treatment led to a significant reduction of TAC-induced left ventricular (LV) wall thickening assessed by echocardiography. In accordance, FIN-treated mice showed a significant lower increase of calculated left ventricular mass compared with VEH- and EPL-treated mice (FIN: 28.4 ± 3.7 mg; EPL: 38.4 ± 4.3 mg; VEH: 39.3 ± 3.1 mg; P < 0.05). These data show beneficial effects of nonsteroidal MR antagonism by FIN on left ventricular mass development in pressure overload associated with a distinct cardiac gene expression profile. PMID:26859196

  2. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation.

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X

    2016-01-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient's own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers. PMID:27256519

  3. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages. PMID:27302865

  4. Generation and periodontal differentiation of human gingival fibroblasts-derived integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Yin, Xiaohui; Li, Yang; Li, Jingwen; Li, Peng; Liu, Yinan; Wen, Jinhua; Luan, Qingxian

    2016-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been recognized as a promising cell source for periodontal tissue regeneration. However, the conventional virus-based reprogramming approach is associated with a high risk of genetic mutation and limits their therapeutic utility. Here, we successfully generated iPSCs from readily accessible human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) through an integration-free and feeder-free approach via delivery of reprogramming factors of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, L-myc, Lin28 and TP53 shRNA with episomal plasmid vectors. The iPSCs presented similar morphology and proliferation characteristics as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and expressed pluripotent markers including Oct4, Tra181, Nanog and SSEA-4. Additionally, these cells maintained a normal karyotype and showed decreased CpG methylation ratio in the promoter regions of Oct4 and Nanog. In vivo teratoma formation assay revealed the development of tissues representative of three germ layers, confirming the acquisition of pluripotency. Furthermore, treatment of the iPSCs in vitro with enamel matrix derivative (EMD) or growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) significantly up-regulated the expression of periodontal tissue markers associated with bone, periodontal ligament and cementum respectively. Taken together, our data demonstrate that hGFs are a valuable cell source for generating integration-free iPSCs, which could be sequentially induced toward periodontal cells under the treatment of EMD and GDF-5. PMID:26456649

  5. Active and passive MDMA ('ecstasy') intake induces differential transcriptional changes in the mouse brain.

    Fernàndez-Castillo, N; Orejarena, M J; Ribasés, M; Blanco, E; Casas, M; Robledo, P; Maldonado, R; Cormand, B

    2012-02-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is a recreational drug widely used by adolescents and young adults. Although its rewarding effects are well established, there is controversy on its addictive potential. We aimed to compare the consequences of active and passive MDMA administration on gene expression in the mouse brain since all previous studies were based on passive MDMA administration. We used a yoked-control operant intravenous self-administration paradigm combined with microarray technology. Transcriptomic profiles of ventral striatum, frontal cortex, dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus were analysed in mice divided in contingent MDMA, yoked MDMA and yoked saline groups, and several changes were validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The comparison of contingent MDMA and yoked MDMA vs. yoked saline mice allowed the identification of differential expression in several genes, most of them with immunological and inflammatory functions, but others being involved in neuroadaptation. In the comparison of contingent MDMA vs. yoked MDMA administration, hippocampus and the dorsal raphe nucleus showed statistically significant changes. The altered expression of several genes involved in neuroadaptative changes and synapse function, which may be related to learning self-administration behaviour, could be validated in these two brain structures. In conclusion, our study shows a strong effect of MDMA administration on the expression of immunological and inflammatory genes in all the four brain regions studied. In addition, experiments on MDMA self-administration suggest that the dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus may be involved in active MDMA-seeking behaviour, and show specific alterations on gene expression that support the addictive potential of this drug. PMID:21951708

  6. Seizure-Induced Motility of Differentiated Dentate Granule Cells Is Prevented by the Central Reelin Fragment.

    Orcinha, Catarina; Münzner, Gert; Gerlach, Johannes; Kilias, Antje; Follo, Marie; Egert, Ulrich; Haas, Carola A

    2016-01-01

    Granule cell dispersion (GCD) represents a pathological widening of the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus and it is frequently observed in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Recent studies in human MTLE specimens and in animal epilepsy models have shown that a decreased expression and functional inactivation of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin correlates with GCD formation, but causal evidence is still lacking. Here, we used unilateral kainate (KA) injection into the mouse hippocampus, an established MTLE animal model, to precisely map the loss of reelin mRNA-synthesizing neurons in relation to GCD along the septotemporal axis of the epileptic hippocampus. We show that reelin mRNA-producing neurons are mainly lost in the hilus and that this loss precisely correlates with the occurrence of GCD. To monitor GCD formation in real time, we used organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) prepared from mice which express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) primarily in differentiated dentate granule cells. Using life cell microscopy we observed that increasing doses of KA resulted in an enhanced motility of eGFP-positive granule cells. Moreover, KA treatment of OHSC resulted in a rapid loss of Reelin-producing interneurons mainly in the hilus, as observed in vivo. A detailed analysis of the migration behavior of individual eGFP-positive granule cells revealed that the majority of these neurons actively migrate toward the hilar region, where Reelin-producing neurons are lost. Treatment with KA and subsequent addition of the recombinant R3-6 Reelin fragment significantly prevented the movement of eGFP-positive granule cells. Together, these findings suggest that GCD formation is indeed triggered by a loss of Reelin in hilar interneurons. PMID:27516734

  7. Increase of forage dryness induces differentiated anatomical response in the sheep rumen compartments.

    Scocco, Paola; Mercati, Francesca; Tardella, Federico Maria; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the Surface Enlargement Factor (SEF) and the epithelial keratinization degree of sheep rumen change in response to phytomass production, and to forage fiber and water content during the pasture vegetative cycle. The study used eighteen sheep nourished with dry hay and cereals during the winter season and with fresh hay during the pasture vegetative cycle. We collected samples from rumen indicative regions for two consecutive years characterized by different rainfall and pasture productivity values. We evaluated the densities (D) of rumen papillae to estimate the rumen SEF, and the keratinization percentage of the epithelial lining; these parameters showed differentiated modifications in the four ruminal analyzed compartments in response to pasture seasonal conditions. In addition, we performed Canonical Redundancy Analysis (RDA) on the "keratinization and SEF" matrix constrained by phytomass, water, and crude fiber contents of pasture at different time in the two considered years to highlight how rumen features answer to pasture conditions. Atrium (A) and ventral sac (VS) keratinization showed a strict positive correlation to crude fiber, while SEF of VS was positively related to phytomass and forage water content. The degree of keratinization of the rumen VS epithelium proved to be a useful parameter for evaluating anatomical variations in the short term period related to pasture features; in addition, its monitoring could be carried out through biopsy, thus avoiding the killing of animals. The study also leads to the application of the 3Rs (Replacement; Reduction; and Refinement). Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:738-743, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27271434

  8. Sexual differentiation of the brain: a model for drug-induced alterations of the reproductive system

    The process of the sexual differentiation of the brain represents a valuable model system for the study of the chemical modification of the mammalian brain. Although there are numerous functional and structural sex differences in the adult brain, these are imposed on an essentially feminine or bipotential brain by testicular hormones during a critical phase of perinatal development in the rat. It is suggested that a relatively marked structural sex difference in the rat brain, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA), is a morphological signature of the permanent or organizational action of estradiol derived from the aromatization of testicular testosterone. The SDN-POA of the male rat is severalfold larger in volume and is composed of more neurons than that of the female. The observation that the mitotic formation of the neurons of the SDN-POA is specifically prolonged has enabled us to identify the time course and pathway of neuronal migration into the nucleus. Study of the development of the SDN-POA suggests that estradiol in the male increases the number of neurons which survive a phase of neuronal death by exerting a neurite growth promoting action and/or a direct neuronotrophic action. Finally, although it is clear that gonadal hormones have dramatic permanent effects on the brain during perinatal development, even after puberty and in adulthood gonadal steroids can alter neuronal structure and, perhaps as a corollary to this, have permanent effects on reproductive function. Although the brain may be most sensitive to gonadal hormones or exogenous chemical factors during perinatal development, such as sensitivity does not appear limited to this period

  9. Genistein inhibits cell invasion and motility by inducing cell differentiation in murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8

    Nakamura Atsushi

    2012-09-01

    . Treatment of LM8 cells with genistein induced morphological changes, markedly decreased the formation of multilayer masses of cells, and markedly increased the expression of osteocalcin mRNA. Conclusions Genistein decreased invasive and motile potential by inducing cell differentiation in LM8 cells. Genistein may be useful as an anti-metastatic drug for osteosarcoma through its differentiation-inducing effects.

  10. Erk1/2 but not PI3K pathway is required for neurotrophin 3-induced oligodendrocyte differentiation of post-natal neural stem cells

    XinhuaHu; LuJin; LinyinFeng

    2005-01-01

    Neurotrophin 3 (NT3) induces mouse cortical stem cells to an asymmetric division from a symmetric division, suggesting that NT3 may work as an early differentiative signal for neural stem cells (NSCs). Here, using cultured post-natal hippocampal stem cells as a model, we demonstrated that NT3-stimulation causes NSCs to differentiate into oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs) through an extracellular signal-related kinasel/2 (Erkl/2)-dependent pathway. Following the treatment of NT3 for 24h, NSCs differentiated into more OLPs and fewer neurons, whereas the proliferation and survival of OLPs were not affected. NT3 induced a series of intracellular responses including enhancement of phosphorylation of Erk 1/2 or Akt and increase of expression of oligodendrocyte lineage gene (Olig)-1, a transcriptional factor known to participate in oligodendrocyte development. Application of U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK1/2 which are upstream to Erk1/2, blocked the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, suppressed the expression of Olig-1 and prevented NSC differentiation into OLPs in response to NT3 stimulation. Blockade of TrkC also inhibited the differentiation of NSCs to OLPs induced by NT3. However,administration of LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), blocked the phosphorylation of Akt but did not affect the effect of NT3 on the expression of Olig-1 and on NSC differentiation into OLPs. Taken together, these results suggest that NT3 induce NSCs to differentiate into OLPs by enhancing the expression of Olig-1 through an Erk1/2-dependent pathway.

  11. Staurosporine induces ganglion cell differentiation in part by stimulating urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression and activation in the developing chick retina

    Highlights: ► Staurosporine mediates stimulation of RGC differentiation in vitro cultured retinal neuroblasts. ► Staurosporine mediates uPA activation during RGC differentiation in vitro. ► Inhibition of uPA blocks the staurosporine mediated RGC differentiation both in vitro and in ovo. ► Thus, uPA may play a role in the staurosporine-mediated stimulation of RGC differentiation. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether staurosporine-mediated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activation is involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation. Retinal cells were isolated from developing chick retinas at embryonic day 6 (E6). Relatively few control cells grown in serum-free medium started to form processes by 12 h. In contrast, staurosporine-treated cells had processes within 3 h, and processes were evident at 8 h. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Tuj-1-positive cells with shorter neurites could be detected in control cultures at 18 h, whereas numerous Tuj-1 positive ganglion cells with longer neuritic extensions were seen in staurosporine-treated cultures. BrdU-positive proliferating cells were more numerous in control cultures than in staurosporine-treated cultures, and the BrdU staining was not detected in post-mitotic Tuj-1 positive ganglion cells. Western blotting of cell lysates showed that staurosporine induced high levels of the active form of uPA. The staurosporine-induced uPA signal was localized predominantly in the soma, neurites and axons of Tuj-1-positive ganglion cells. Amiloride, an inhibitor of uPA, markedly reduced staurosporine-induced Tuj-1 staining, neurite length, neurite number, and uPA staining versus controls. In developing retinas in ovo, amiloride administration remarkably reduced the staurosporine-induced uPA staining and RGC differentiation. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo data collectively indicate that uPA plays a role in the staurosporine-mediated stimulation of RGC differentiation.

  12. Screening for glutamate-induced and dexamethasone-downregulated epilepsy-related genes in rats by mRNA differential display

    2006-01-01

    Background It is known that excessive release of glutamate can induce excitotoxicity in neurons and lead to seizure. Dexamethasone has anti-seizure function. The aim of this study was to investigate glutamate- dexamethasone interaction in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, identify differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus of glutamate-induced epileptic rats by mRNA differential display, and observe the effects of dexamethasone on these genes expression.Methods Seizure models were established by injecting 5 μl (250 μg/μl) monosodium glutamate (MSG) into the lateral cerebral ventricle in rats. Dexamethasone (5 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after MSG inducing convulsion. The rats' behavior and electroencephalogram (EEG) were then recorded for 1 hour. The effects of dexamethasone on gene expression were observed in MSG-induced epileptic rats at 1 hour and 6 hours after the onset of seizure by mRNA differential display. The differentially expressed genes were confirmed by Dot blot.Results EEG and behaviors showed that MSG did induce seizure, and dexamethasone could clearly alleviate the symptom. mRNA differential display showed that MSG increased the expression of some genes in epileptic rats and dexamethasone could downregulate their expression. From more than 10 differentially expressed cDNA fragments, we identified a 226 bp cDNA fragment that was expressed higher in the hippocampus of epileptic rats than that in the control group. Its expression was reduced after the administration of dexamethasone. Sequence analysis and protein alignment showed that the predicted amino acid sequence of this cDNA fragment kept 43% identity to agmatinase, a member of the ureohydrolase superfamily. Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that the product of the 226 bp cDNA has a function similar to agmatinase. Dexamethasone might relax alleviate seizure by inhibiting expression of the gene.

  13. EDA-containing cellular fibronectin induces fibroblast differentiation through binding to alpha4beta7 integrin receptor and MAPK/Erk 1/2-dependent signaling.

    Kohan, Martin; Muro, Andres F; White, Eric S; Berkman, Neville

    2010-11-01

    Fibroblast differentiation is an essential step during wound healing and fibrosis. Fibronectin (FN) is a major component of the extracellular matrix and occurs in two main forms: plasma and cellular FN. The latter includes the alternatively spliced domain A (EDA). Although EDA-containing cellular fibronectin (EDA-FN) is associated with fibroblast differentiation, how EDA-FN promotes differentiation is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which EDA-FN contributes to fibroblast differentiation with emphasis on the characterization of the EDA-FN receptor. We show that EDA-FN increases α-SMA expression (immunofluorescence), collagen deposition, cell contractility, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation (immunoblotting); whereas plasma FN, a form lacking EDA, shows no effect. Primary lung fibroblasts constitutively express α(4)β(7) integrin receptor (FACS and RT-PCR). Blocking of α(4)β(7) reduces fibroblast adhesion to EDA-FN and inhibits α-SMA expression, collagen deposition, and FAK activation induced by EDA-FN. Using recombinant EDA-containing peptides, we demonstrate that the EDA segment is sufficient to induce fibroblast differentiation via binding to α(4)β(7). EDA-FN induces MAPK-Erk1/2 activation and inhibition of MEK1/2 attenuates EDA-FN-induced α-SMA expression. Our findings demonstrate that EDA-FN induces fibroblast differentiation by a mechanism that involves binding of EDA to α(4)β(7) integrin followed by activation of FAK and MAPK-associated signaling pathways. PMID:20643910

  14. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells.

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Komachi, Mayumi; Homma, Yoshimi; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-08-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), -2, and -3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5-20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC50 values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC50 values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. PMID:26056940

  15. Differential effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chishao on cytokine and chemokine expression inducible by mycobacteria

    Li James

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon initial infection with mycobacteria, macrophages secrete multiple cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, to mediate host immune responses against the pathogen. Mycobacteria also induce the production of IL-10 via PKR activation in primary human monocytes and macrophages. As an anti-inflammatory cytokine, over-expression of IL-10 may contribute to mycobacterial evasion of the host immunity. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR, Chishao, a Chinese medicinal herb with potentials of anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects, is used to treat tuberculosis. This study investigates the immunoregulatory effects of RPR on primary human blood macrophages (PBMac during mycobacterial infection. Methods The interaction of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG with PBMac was used as an experimental model. A series of procedures involving solvent extraction and fractionation were used to isolate bioactive constituents in RPR. RPR-EA-S1, a fraction with potent immunoregulatory effects was obtained with a bioactivity guided fractionation scheme. PBMac were treated with crude RPR extracts or RPR-EA-S1 before BCG stimulation. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured by qPCR and ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the effects of RPR-EA-S1 on signaling kinases and transcriptional factors in the BCG-activated PBMac. Results In BCG-stimulated macrophages, crude RPR extracts and fraction RPR-EA-S1 specifically inhibited IL-10 production while enhanced IL-8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels without affecting the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. Inhibition of BCG-induced IL-10 expression by RPR-EA-S1 occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RPR-EA-S1 did not affect the phosphorylation of cellular protein kinases including MAPK, Akt and GSK3β. Instead, it suppressed the degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm and inhibited the

  16. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant induces macrophage differentiation towards a specialized antigen-presenting cell type.

    Rimaniol, Anne-Cécile; Gras, Gabriel; Verdier, François; Capel, Francis; Grigoriev, Vladimir B; Porcheray, Fabrice; Sauzeat, Elisabeth; Fournier, Jean-Guy; Clayette, Pascal; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Dormont, Dominique

    2004-08-13

    Aluminum hydroxide (AlOOH) has been used for many years as a vaccine adjuvant, but little is known about its mechanism of action. We investigated in this study the in vitro effect of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant on isolated macrophages. We showed that AlOOH-stimulated macrophages contain large and persistent intracellular crystalline inclusions, a characteristic property of muscle infiltrated macrophages described in animal models of vaccine injection, as well as in the recently described macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) histological reaction in humans. AlOOH-loaded macrophages exhibited phenotypical and functional modifications, as they expressed the classical markers of myeloid dendritic cells (HLA-DR(high)/CD86(high)/CD83(+)/CD1a(-)/CD14(-)) and displayed potent ability to induce MHC-II-restricted antigen specific memory responses, but kept a macrophage morphology. This suggests a key role of macrophages, in the reaction to AlOOH-adjuvanted vaccines and these mature antigen-presenting macrophages may therefore be of particular importance in the establishment of memory responses and in vaccination mechanisms leading to long-lasting protection. PMID:15297065

  17. [Management of metabolic disorders induced by everolimus in patients with differentiated neuroendocrine tumors: expert proposals].

    Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Cariou, Bertrand; Vergès, Bruno; Coriat, Romain; N'guyen, Thierry; François, Eric; Hammel, Pascal; Niccoli, Patricia; Hentic, Olivia

    2014-02-01

    Medical management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors has recently been improved by new molecules of which the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. If digestive neuroendocrine tumors are rare, the incidence is in constant increase and the prevalence in digestive cancers put them right behind colorectal cancers. Everolimus has demonstrated efficacy in unresectable and progressive pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, by doubling the median progression free survival (11 versus 4.6 months), with a median time of exposure to everolimus of nine months. Everolimus is generally maintained until progression or intolerance and some patients are treated during several years. Potential metabolic disorders induced by everolimus (dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia) in patients with life expectancy of several years, justify monitoring of these parameters and accurate treatment management algorithm. These will avoid worsening patient's prognostic, but also prematurely discontinue potentially effective treatment or contraindicate other therapeutic weapons, in a pathology in which there are multiple therapeutic options in metastatic phase. We propose a standard practice in terms of initial assessment, monitoring, care threshold, and therapeutic objectives to manage metabolic disorders, fitted to our patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:24557872

  18. Identification of candidate SNPs for drug induced toxicity from differentially expressed genes in associated tissues.

    Hasmats, Johanna; Kupershmidt, Ilya; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Su, Qiaojuan Jane; Khan, Muhammad Suleman; Jara, Carlos; Mielgo, Xabier; Lundeberg, Joakim; Green, Henrik

    2012-09-10

    The growing collection of publicly available high-throughput data provides an invaluable resource for generating preliminary in silico data in support of novel hypotheses. In this study we used a cross-dataset meta-analysis strategy to identify novel candidate genes and genetic variations relevant to paclitaxel/carboplatin-induced myelosuppression and neuropathy. We identified genes affected by drug exposure and present in tissues associated with toxicity. From ten top-ranked genes 42 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in silico and genotyped in 94 cancer patients treated with carboplatin/paclitaxel. We observed variations in 11 SNPs, of which seven were present in a sufficient frequency for statistical evaluation. Of these seven SNPs, three were present in ABCA1 and ATM, and showed significant or borderline significant association with either myelosuppression or neuropathy. The strikingly high number of associations between genotype and clinically observed toxicity provides support for our data-driven computations strategy to identify biomarkers for drug toxicity. PMID:22759513

  19. Delineation of autoantibody repertoire through differential proteogenomics in hepatitis C virus-induced cryoglobulinemia.

    Ogishi, Masato; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Moriya, Kyoji; Koike, Kazuhiko