WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3-d multi-lag cross-correlation

  1. Scanning cross-correlator for monitoring uniform 3D ellipsoidal laser beams

    Zelenogorskii, V V; Gacheva, E I; Gelikonov, G V; Krasilnikov, M; Mart'yanov, M A; Mironov, S Yu; Potemkin, A K; Syresin, E M; Stephan, F; Khazanov, E A

    2014-01-01

    The specific features of experimental implementation of a cross-correlator with a scan rate above 1600 cm s(-1) and a spatial delay amplitude of more than 15 mm are considered. The possibility of measuring the width of femtosecond pulses propagating in a train 300 mu s in duration with a repetition rate of 1 MHz is demonstrated. A time resolution of 300 fs for the maximum time window of 50 ps is attained.The cross-correlator is aimed at testing 3D pulses of a laser driver of an electron photo-injector.

  2. Modulated 3D cross-correlation light scattering: Improving turbid sample characterization

    Block, Ian D.; Scheffold, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization using static light scattering (SLS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods mandates the measurement and analysis of singly-scattered light. In turbid samples, the suppression of multiple scattering is therefore required to obtain meaningful results. One powerful technique for achieving this, known as 3D cross-correlation, uses two simultaneous light scattering experiments performed at the same scattering vector on the same sample volume in order to extract only t...

  3. The cross-correlation between 3D cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    Zieser, Britta; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first calculation of the cross-correlation between 3D cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW) effect. Both signals are combined in a single formalism, which permits the computation of the full covariance matrix. In order to avoid the uncertainties presented by the non-linear evolution of the matter power spectrum and intrinsic alignments of galaxies, our analysis is restricted to large scales, i.e. multipoles below ℓ = 1000. We demonstrate in a Fisher analysis that this reduction compared to other studies of 3D weak lensing extending to smaller scales is compensated by the information that is gained if the additional iSW signal and in particular its cross-correlation with lensing data are considered. Given the observational standards of upcoming weak-lensing surveys like Euclid, marginal errors on cosmological parameters decrease by 10 per cent compared to a cosmic shear experiment if both types of information are combined without a cosmic wave background (CMB) prior. Once the constraining power of CMB data is added, the improvement becomes marginal.

  4. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts.

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  5. Fully automated prostate segmentation in 3D MR based on normalized gradient fields cross-correlation initialization and LOGISMOS refinement

    Yin, Yin; Fotin, Sergei V.; Periaswamy, Senthil; Kunz, Justin; Haldankar, Hrishikesh; Muradyan, Naira; Cornud, François; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Manual delineation of the prostate is a challenging task for a clinician due to its complex and irregular shape. Furthermore, the need for precisely targeting the prostate boundary continues to grow. Planning for radiation therapy, MR-ultrasound fusion for image-guided biopsy, multi-parametric MRI tissue characterization, and context-based organ retrieval are examples where accurate prostate delineation can play a critical role in a successful patient outcome. Therefore, a robust automated full prostate segmentation system is desired. In this paper, we present an automated prostate segmentation system for 3D MR images. In this system, the prostate is segmented in two steps: the prostate displacement and size are first detected, and then the boundary is refined by a shape model. The detection approach is based on normalized gradient fields cross-correlation. This approach is fast, robust to intensity variation and provides good accuracy to initialize a prostate mean shape model. The refinement model is based on a graph-search based framework, which contains both shape and topology information during deformation. We generated the graph cost using trained classifiers and used coarse-to-fine search and region-specific classifier training. The proposed algorithm was developed using 261 training images and tested on another 290 cases. The segmentation performance using mean DSC ranging from 0.89 to 0.91 depending on the evaluation subset demonstrates state of the art performance. Running time for the system is about 20 to 40 seconds depending on image size and resolution.

  6. Relocations and 3-D Velocity Structure for Aftershocks of the 2000 W. Tottori (Japan) Earthquake and 2001 Gujarat (India) Earthquake, Using Waveform Cross-correlations

    Enescu, B.; Mori, J.

    2004-12-01

    The newly developed double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber,2003) makes use of both absolute and relative arrival times to produce an improved velocity model and highly accurate hypocenter locations. By using this technique, we relocate the aftershocks of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mw 6.7) and 2001 Gujarat (Mw 7.7) earthquake and obtain a 3D-velocity model of the aftershock region. The first data set consists of 1035 aftershocks recorded at 62 stations during a period of about a month following the mainshock (Shibutani et al.,2002). In order to get the best arrival times a cross-correlation analysis was used to align the waveforms. The epicentral distribution of the relocated events reveals clear earthquake lineations, some of them close to the mainshock, and an increased clustering. The aftershocks' depth distribution shows a mean shift of the hypocenters' centroid of about 580m; a clear upper cutoff of the seismic activity and some clustering can be also seen. The final P-wave velocity model shows higher-value anomalies in the vicinity of the mainshock's hypocenter, in good agreement with the results of Shibutani et al.(2004). The second data set consists of about 1300 earthquakes, recorded during one week of observations by a Japanese-Indian research team in the aftershock region of the Gujarat earthquake (Sato et al.,2001). Using the double-difference algorithm and waveform cross-correlations, we were able to identify a more clear alignment of hypocenters that define the mainshock's fault and an area of relatively few aftershocks in the region of the mainshock's hypocenter. Both studies demonstrate that the cross-correlation techniques applied for events with inter-event distances as large as 10km and cross correlation coefficients as low as 50% can produce more accurate locations than those determined from catalog phase data. We are going to discuss briefly the critical role of frequency filtering and of the time window used for cross-correlation

  7. 3-D Shear Wave Velocity Model of Mexico and South US: Bridging Seismic Networks with Ambient Noise Cross-Correlations (C1) and Correlation of Coda of Correlations (C3).

    Spica, Zack; Perton, Mathieu; Calò, Marco; Legrand, Denis; Córdoba Montiel, Francisco; Iglesias, Arturo

    2016-07-01

    This work presents an innovative strategy to enhance the resolution of surface wave tomography obtained from ambient noise cross-correlation (C1) by bridging asynchronous seismic networks through the correlation of coda of correlations (C3). Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves show consistent results between synchronous and asynchronous stations. Rayleigh wave group travel times are inverted to construct velocity-period maps with unprecedented resolution for a region covering Mexico and the southern United States. The resulting period maps are then used to regionalize dispersion curves in order to obtain local 1-D shear velocity models (VS) of the crust and uppermost mantle in every cell of a grid of 0.4°. The 1-D structures are obtained by iteratively adding layers until reaching a given misfit, and a global tomography model is considered as an input for depths below 150 km. Finally, a high-resolution 3-D VS model is obtained from these inversions. The major structures observed in the 3-D model are in agreement with the tectonic-geodynamic features and with previous regional and local studies. It also offers new insights to understand the present and past tectonic evolution of the region.

  8. 3-D shear wave velocity model of Mexico and South US: bridging seismic networks with ambient noise cross-correlations (C1) and correlation of coda of correlations (C3)

    Spica, Zack; Perton, Mathieu; Calò, Marco; Legrand, Denis; Córdoba-Montiel, Francisco; Iglesias, Arturo

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an innovative strategy to enhance the resolution of surface wave tomography obtained from ambient noise cross-correlation (C1) by bridging asynchronous seismic networks through the correlation of coda of correlations (C3). Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves show consistent results between synchronous and asynchronous stations. Rayleigh wave group traveltimes are inverted to construct velocity-period maps with unprecedented resolution for a region covering Mexico and the southern United States. The resulting period maps are then used to regionalize dispersion curves in order to obtain local 1-D shear velocity models (VS) of the crust and uppermost mantle in every cell of a grid of 0.4°. The 1-D structures are obtained by iteratively adding layers until reaching a given misfit, and a global tomography model is considered as an input for depths below 150 km. Finally, a high-resolution 3-D VS model is obtained from these inversions. The major structures observed in the 3-D model are in agreement with the tectonic-geodynamic features and with previous regional and local studies. It also offers new insights to understand the present and past tectonic evolution of the region.

  9. Adaptive Multi-Lag for Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    ulti- lag method, which is performed in synthetic aperture vector flow data. Measurements are made on laminar and pulsatile, transverse flow profiles. A 7 MHz linear array is connected to t he SARUS research, and acquisitions are made on a vessel phanto m with recirculating blood mimicking fluid driven...... by a softwar e controlled pump. A multi-lag velocity estimation is perfor med, and a lag is adaptively selected for every estimation point. Results from the constant flow compared to a true parabolic profile sho w an improvement in relative bias from 76.99% to 0.91% and standard deviation from 13...

  10. Cross-correlation laser scattering.

    Kam, Z; Rigler, R

    1982-01-01

    Cross-correlation between two detectors was applied to analyze laser light-scattering fluctuations. Laser scattering from random concentration fluctuations is spatially coherent over small angular areas that are inversely proportional in size to the dimension of the scattering volume. By cross-correlating scattering intensity fluctuations in different angles, the correlation due to relaxation of concentration fluctuations is practically eliminated, and correlations reflecting changes in the s...

  11. Detrended cross-correlation analysis of electroencephalogram

    In the paper we use detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to study the electroencephalograms of healthy young subjects and healthy old subjects. It is found that the cross-correlation between different leads of a healthy young subject is larger than that of a healthy old subject. It was shown that the cross-correlation relationship decreases with the aging process and the phenomenon can help to diagnose whether the subject's brain function is healthy or not. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Refined Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis

    Oświȩcimka, Paweł; Forczek, Marcin; Jadach, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    We propose a modified algorithm - Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis (MFCCA) - that is able to consistently identify and quantify multifractal cross-correlations between two time series. Our motivation for introducing this algorithm is that the already existing methods like MF-DXA have serious limitations for most of the signals describing complex natural processes. The principal component of the related improvement is proper incorporation of the sign of fluctuations. We present a broad analysis of the model fractal stochastic processes as well as of the real-world signals and show that MFCCA is a robust tool and allows a reliable quantification of the cross-correlative structure of analyzed processes. We, in particular, analyze a relation between the generalized Hurst exponent and the MFCCA parameter $\\lambda_q$. This relation provides information about the character of potential multifractality in cross-correlations of the processes under study and thus enables selective insight into their dynamics. Us...

  13. Combining spectroscopic and photometric surveys using angular cross-correlations I: Algorithm and modelling

    Eriksen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Weak lensing (WL) clustering is studied using 2D (angular) coordinates, while redshift space distortions (RSD) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) use 3D coordinates, which requires a model dependent conversion of angles and redshifts into comoving distances. This is the first paper of a series, which explore modelling multi-tracer galaxy clustering (of WL, BAO and RSD), using only angular (2D) cross-correlations in thin redshift bins. This involves evaluating many thousands cross-correlations, each a multidimensional integral, which is computationally demanding. We present a new algorithm that performs these calculations as matrix operations. Nearby narrow redshift bins are intrinsically correlated, which can be used to recover the full (radial) 3D information. We show that the Limber approximation does not work well for this task. In the exact calculation, both the clustering amplitude and the RSD effect increase when decreasing the redshift bin width. For narrow bins, the cross-correlations has a larger...

  14. Cross correlations of the cosmic infrared background

    Zhang, Pengjie

    2003-01-01

    The cosmic infrared background (CIB) is a sensitive measure of the star formation history. But this background is overwhelmed by foregrounds, which bias the CIB mean flux and auto correlation measurement severely. Since dominant foregrounds do not correlate with the large scale structure, the cross correlation of CIB with galaxies is free of such foregrounds and presents as an unbiased measure of the star formation history. This also allows the measurement of CIB based on integrated intensity...

  15. Cross Correlation versus Mutual Information for Image Mosaicing

    Sherin Ghannam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of image mosaicing and presents a comparison between two of the most common image mosaicing techniques. The first technique is based on normalized cross correlation (NCC for registering overlapping 2D images of a 3D scene. The second is based on mutual information (MI. The experimental results demonstrate that the two techniques have a similar performance in most cases but there are some interesting differences. The choice of a distinctive template is critical when working with NCC. On the other hand, when using MI, the registration procedure was able to provide acceptable performance even without distinctive templates. But generally the performance when using MI with large rotation angles was not accurate as with NCC.

  16. Capacity enhancement of wavelength/time/space asynchronous optical CDMA with relaxed cross-correlation

    Singh, Jaswinder

    2013-12-01

    The analysis of a three-dimensional (3-D) wavelength/time/space (W-T-S) asynchronous optical CDMA code family is presented considering MAI only under relaxed cross-correlation (λc ⩾ 1). Based on the code performance, it is shown that for code-limited systems (when W and/or T are non-prime), the number of generated codes and hence the supported users can be significantly increased by relaxing the cross-correlation constraint if a slight degradation in code performance can be tolerated.

  17. Cross-correlation studies with seismic noise

    Hoffmann, H; Cheng, Y; Blair, D G

    2002-01-01

    Ocean waves interacting in shallow water at the shore generate land waves propagating inland. To study these waves vertical, horizontal and tilt seismic noise were measured simultaneously at one location. Vibration isolators designed for gravitational wave research were used for detection. Cross-correlation between the above components was calculated. We found correlations between all of them. However, only the correlation between horizontal and vertical motions could be addressed to land waves, and other correlations are thought to be due to local rigid body motion of the large building in which the experiments were located.

  18. Multifractal Height Cross-Correlation Analysis

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    Prague: Proffesional publishing, 2011, s. 1-19. ISBN 978-80-7431-058-4. [Mathematical Methods in Economics 2011. Jánska Dolina (SK), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965; GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Grant ostatní: GAUK(CZ) 118310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : cross-correlations * multifractality * long-range dependence Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/kristoufek-0367954.pdf

  19. Sidescan Sonar Image Matching Using Cross Correlation

    Thisen, Erik; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Stage, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    viewpoints. This paper presents a novel approach for matching two sidescan sonar images. The method first registers the two images to ground, then uses the cross correlation of the object positions on the seabed to find the correct displacement between the two images. In order to correct any minor...... displacements of the relative objects position as a result of the ground registration, the object position is given an area of influence. The method is compared to an existing method for matching sidescan sonar images based on hypothetical reasoning. The two methods are compared on a number of real sidescan......When surveying an area for sea mines with a sidescan sonar, the ability to find the same object in two different sonar images is helpful to determine the nature of the object. The main problem with matching two sidescan sonar images is that a scene changes appearance when viewed from different...

  20. Non-Stationary Effects and Cross Correlations in Solar Activity

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Panischev, Oleg; Demin, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    information about cross correlation dynamics between the signals from separate points of the studied system. The 3D cross correlators and their plain projections allow revealing the periodic laws of solar evolution. Work was supported by grants RFBR 15-02-01638-a and 16-02-00496-a.

  1. Multiscale Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of STOCK Markets

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we employ the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate the cross-correlations between different stock markets. We report the results of cross-correlated behaviors in US, Chinese and European stock markets in period 1997-2012 by using DCCA method. The DCCA shows the cross-correlated behaviors of intra-regional and inter-regional stock markets in the short and long term which display the similarities and differences of cross-correlated behaviors simply and roughly and the persistence of cross-correlated behaviors of fluctuations. Then, because of the limitation and inapplicability of DCCA method, we propose multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MSDCCA) method to avoid "a priori" selecting the ranges of scales over which two coefficients of the classical DCCA method are identified, and employ MSDCCA to reanalyze these cross-correlations to exhibit some important details such as the existence and position of minimum, maximum and bimodal distribution which are lost if the scale structure is described by two coefficients only and essential differences and similarities in the scale structures of cross-correlation of intra-regional and inter-regional markets. More statistical characteristics of cross-correlation obtained by MSDCCA method help us to understand how two different stock markets influence each other and to analyze the influence from thus two inter-regional markets on the cross-correlation in detail, thus we get a richer and more detailed knowledge of the complex evolutions of dynamics of the cross-correlations between stock markets. The application of MSDCCA is important to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of financial markets and helps to forecast the stock indices based on our current results demonstrated the cross-correlations between stock indices. We also discuss the MSDCCA methods of secant rolling window with different sizes and, lastly, provide some relevant implications and

  2. Cross correlation for debris flow velocity measurement

    Arattano, M.

    2003-04-01

    The velocity of debris-flows cannot be easily measured through the classic techniques employed in hydraulics. In hydraulics velocity measurements are made through the use of current meters, through methods that appeal to the principle of critical flow (weirs, Venturi flumes, Parshall flumes etc.) or that make use of chemical tracers. Debris-flow fronts contain large boulders and their tails, which are certainly more fluid, remain charged with pebble-sized fragments. This impedes the use of current meters, weirs and flumes that would be damaged or destroyed by the passage of the flow. Thus debris flow velocity measurements require the use of remote sensors. A pair of ultrasonic sensors placed at a known distance from each other along the torrent have been used as a method to obtain mean front velocity of debris-flows. Also seismic and acoustic sensors have been employed to measure debris-flow front velocity and discharge in the same manner. However these methods require the presence of a well identifiable and defined main front in the debris flow wave. In fact the time lag between the recordings of the front of the wave at two consecutive stations allows an estimation of its mean velocity. When the front is not present cross correlation may help in identifying the mean velocity of the flow. This has been proved using the field data recorded through seismic and ultrasonic sensors in a small instrumented catchment on the Italian Alps.

  3. Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Nikulin, Vadim V.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-06-01

    We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram.

  4. Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of agricultural futures markets

    Highlights: → We investigated cross-correlations between China's and US agricultural futures markets. → Power-law cross-correlations are found between the geographically far but correlated markets. → Multifractal features are significant in all the markets. → Cross-correlation exponent is less than averaged GHE when q 0. - Abstract: We investigated geographically far but temporally correlated China's and US agricultural futures markets. We found that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the markets. It is very interesting that the geographically far markets show strong cross-correlations and share much of their multifractal structure. Furthermore, we found that for all the agricultural futures markets in our studies, the cross-correlation exponent is less than the averaged generalized Hurst exponents (GHE) when q 0.

  5. A New Methodology of Spatial Cross-Correlation Analysis

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    Spatial correlation modeling comprises both spatial autocorrelation and spatial cross-correlation processes. The spatial autocorrelation theory has been well-developed. It is necessary to advance the method of spatial cross-correlation analysis to supplement the autocorrelation analysis. This paper presents a set of models and analytical procedures for spatial cross-correlation analysis. By analogy with Moran’s index newly expressed in a spatial quadratic form, a theoretical framework is deri...

  6. Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers

    Zebende, G. F.; Filho, A. Machado

    2009-12-01

    We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity. Here in this paper we show that is possible to discriminate cross-correlation between vehicles and passengers and also identify seasonal components.

  7. Multifractal cross-correlation spectra analysis on Chinese stock markets

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shang, Pengjian; Shi, Wenbin

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the long-range cross-correlation of Chinese stock indices is systematically studied. The multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) appears to be one of the most effective methods in detecting long-range cross-correlation of two non-stationary variables. The Legendre spectrum and the large deviations spectrum are extended to the cross-correlation case, so as to present multifractal structure of stock return and volatility series. It is characterized of the multifractality in Chinese stock markets, partly due to clusters of local detrended covariance with large and small magnitudes.

  8. Multifractal cross-correlation analysis in electricity spot market

    Fan, Qingju; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the multiscale cross-correlations between electricity price and trading volume in Czech market based on a newly developed algorithm, called Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis (MFCCA). The new algorithm is a natural multifractal generalization of the Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and is sensitive to cross-correlation structure and free from limitations of other algorithms. By considering the original sign of the cross-covariance, it allows us to properly quantify and detect the subtle characteristics of two simultaneous recorded time series. First, the multifractality and the long range anti-persistent auto-correlations of price return and trading volume variation are confirmed using Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA). Furthermore, we show that there exist long-range anti-persistent cross-correlations between price return and trading volume variation by MFCCA. And we also identify that the cross-correlations disappear on the level of relative small fluctuations. In order to obtain deeper insight into the dynamics of the electricity market, we analyze the relation between generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent λq. We find that the difference between the generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent is significantly different for smaller fluctuation, which indicates that the multifractal character of cross-correlations resembles more each other for electricity price and trading volume on the level of large fluctuations and weakens for the smaller ones.

  9. The influence of noise sources on cross-correlation amplitudes

    Hanasoge, Shravan M

    2012-01-01

    We use analytical examples and asymptotic forms to examine the mathematical structure and physical meaning of the seismic cross correlation measurement. We show that in general, cross correlations are not Green's functions of medium, and may be very different depending on the source distribution. The modeling of noise sources using spatial distributions as opposed to discrete collections of sources is emphasized. When stations are illuminated by spatially complex source distributions, cross correlations show arrivals at a variety of time lags, from zero to the maximum surface-wave arrival time. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of inverting for the source distribution using the energy of the full cross-correlation waveform. The interplay between the source distribution and wave attenuation in determining the functional dependence of cross correlation energies on station-pair distance is quantified. Without question, energies contain information about wave attenuation. However, the accurate interpretation o...

  10. Intermittency induced long-range cross-correlations

    Diakonos, Fotis K; Schmelcher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cross-correlations are usually considered to emerge through interaction between particles. Here we present a mechanism capable to generate power-law cross-correlations between non-interacting particles exposed to an external potential. This phenomenon can occur as an ensemble property when the external potential induces intermittent dynamics, providing laminar and stochastic phases of motion. We have strong indications that the divergence of the mean residence time in the laminar phase of the single particle motion - sporadic dynamics - is a sufficient condition for the emergence of long-range cross-correlations. We argue that this mechanism may be relevant for the occurrence of collective behaviour in critical systems.

  11. Reprint of : Cross-correlations of coherent multiple Andreev reflections

    Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Badiane, Driss M.; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2016-08-01

    We use the Landauer-Büttiker scattering theory for electronic transport to calculate the current cross-correlations in a voltage-biased three-terminal junction with all superconducting leads. At low bias voltage, when charge transport is due to coherent multiple Andreev reflections, we find large cross-correlations compared with their normal-state value. Furthermore, depending on the parameters that characterize the properties of the scattering region between the leads, the cross-correlations can reverse their sign with respect to the case of non-interacting fermionic systems.

  12. Crustal tomography of the Aegean-Anatolian domain using noise cross-correlations

    Hubans, Fabien; Paul, Anne; Campillo, Michel; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis

    2010-05-01

    Data of more than 150 temporary and permanent broadband seismological stations deployed in the Aegean-Anatolian domain between May 2007 and May 2009 are grouped in the SIMBAAD (Seismic Imaging of the Mantle Across the Anatolian Domain) dataset. We compute noise cross-correlations between all station pairs on a 1.5-yr duration. We obtain more than 11.000 correlations for each component of the cross-correlation tensor. We apply a MFA (Multiple Filter Analysis) method to measure group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves on 4 components of the correlation tensor (ZZ, ZR, RZ, RR) and of Love waves on the TT component, both in positive and negative times. According to the theory, a noise cross-correlation converges to the Green function if noise sources are randomly distributed around the station pair. If this condition is fulfilled, the cross-correlation should be symmetrical in time. We compare group velocity measurements between positive and negative times to evaluate the convergence of each cross-correlation to the Green function. The quality of the symmetry is used to weight the time measurements in the inversion for group velocity maps. In the last step, Rayleigh wave group velocity data are inverted for a 3-D model of S-wave velocity. This processing gives an image of the crustal structure in the area [37-41°N ; 23-33°E] with a horizontal resolution of 60 to 200 km depending on depth and station coverage. The shallowest layers clearly display the present-day thick sedimentary basins (Axios, Thrace, Marmara, Bay of Antalya, ...) and older sedimentary nappes (Lycian nappes, Miocene sediments in the Kirsehir block) as strong low velocity anomalies. At larger depth, Southwestern Anatolia is characterized by a broad low velocity anomaly which contrasts with the higher velocities of the Aegean Sea. We clearly image a West to East increase of Moho depth from 20-25 km in the Aegean Sea to 35 km in the Anatolian plateau. This increase located between 27°E and

  13. F2DPR: a fast and robust cross-correlation technique for volumetric PIV

    Earl, Thomas; Jeon, Young Jin; Lecordier, Bertrand; David, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    The current state-of-the-art in cross-correlation based time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are the fluid trajectory correlation, FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013) and the fluid trajectory evaluation based on an ensemble-averaged cross-correlation, FTEE (Jeon et al 2014a). These techniques compute the velocity vector as a polynomial trajectory Γ in space and time, enabling the extraction of beneficial quantities such as material acceleration whilst significantly increasing the accuracy of the particle displacement prediction achieved by standard two-frame PIV. In the context of time-resolved volumetric PIV, the drawback of trajectory computation is the computational expense of the three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation, exacerbated by the requirement to perform N  ‑  1 cross-correlations, where N (for typically 5≤slant N≤slant 9 ) is the number of sequential particle volumes, for each velocity field. Therefore, the acceleration of this calculation is highly desirable. This paper re-examines the application of two-dimensional (2D) cross-correlation methods to three-dimensional (3D) datasets by Bilsky et al (2011) and the binning techniques of Discetti and Astarita (2012). A new and robust version of the 2D methods is proposed and described, called fast 2D projection—re-projection (f2dpr). Performance tests based on computational time and accuracy for both two-frame and multi-frame PIV are carried out on synthetically generated data. The cases presented herein include uniaxial uniform linear displacements and shear, and simulated turbulence data. The proposed algorithm is shown to be in the order of 10 times faster than a standard 3D FFT without loss of precision for a wide range of synthetic test cases, while combining with the binning technique can yield 50 times faster computation. The algorithm is also applied to reconstructed synthetic turbulent particle fields to investigate reconstruction noise on its performance and no

  14. Low-power Cross-Correlator ASIC Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pacific MicroCHIP Corporation offers to design an ASIC that includes a cross-correlation unit together with the interfaces to be connected to the output of the...

  15. Cosmology from cross correlation of CMB lensing and galaxy surveys

    Pearson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    In recent years cross correlation of lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with other large scale structure (LSS) tracers has been used as a method to detect CMB lensing. Current experiments are also becoming sensitive enough to measure CMB lensing without the help of auxiliary tracers. As data quality improves rapidly, it has been suggested that the CMB lensing-LSS cross correlation may provide new insights into parameters describing cosmological structure growth. In this work we perform forecasts that combine the lensing potential auto power spectrum from various future CMB experiments, the galaxy power spectrum from galaxy surveys, as well as the cross power spectrum between the two, marginalizing over a number galactic and non-galactic cosmological parameters. We find that the CMB lensing-LSS cross correlation contains significant information on parameters such as the redshift distribution and bias of LSS tracers. We also find that the cross correlation information will lead to independent prob...

  16. The Galaxy-Absorber Cross-Correlation Function

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Webb, John K.; Barcons, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We describe an analysis of the galaxy-absorber cross-correlation function as a function of velocity separation, impact parameter separation, and absorber Lyman alpha equivalent width on impact parameter scales that extend up to 1 Mpc.

  17. Testing power-law cross-correlations: Rescaled covariance test

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 10 (2013), 418-1-418-15. ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : power-law cross-correlations * testing * long-term memory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-testing power-law cross-correlations rescaled covariance test.pdf

  18. Modeling Complex System Correlation Using Detrended Cross-Correlation Coefficient

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of complex systems has become an area of active research for physicists because such systems exhibit interesting dynamical properties such as scale invariance, volatility correlation, heavy tails, and fractality. We here focus on traffic dynamic as an example of a complex system. By applying the detrended cross-correlation coefficient method to traffic time series, we find that the traffic fluctuation time series may exhibit cross-correlation characteristic. Further, we show...

  19. Microscopic realization of cross-correlated noise processes

    Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Banik, Suman Kumar; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2010-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory of cross-correlated noise processes, starting from a Hamiltonian system-reservoir description. In the proposed model, the system is nonlinearly coupled to a reservoir composed of harmonic oscillators, which in turn is driven by an external fluctuating force. We show that the resultant Langevin equation derived from the composite system (system+reservoir+external modulation) contains the essential features of cross-correlated noise processes.

  20. Microscopic realization of cross-correlated noise processes.

    Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Banik, Suman Kumar; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2010-06-01

    We present a microscopic theory of cross-correlated noise processes, starting from a Hamiltonian system-reservoir description. In the proposed model, the system is nonlinearly coupled to a reservoir composed of harmonic oscillators, which in turn is driven by an external fluctuating force. We show that the resultant Langevin equation derived from the composite system (system+reservoir+external modulation) contains the essential features of cross-correlated noise processes. PMID:20590326

  1. Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes.

    Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-12-01

    For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρ(DCCA)(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρ(DCCA)(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1 ≤ ρ(DCCA)(T,n) ≤ 1. Here we derive -1 ≤ ρ DCCA)(T,n) ≤ 1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρ(DCCA) within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine-and for nonoverlapping windows we derive--that the standard deviation of ρ(DCCA)(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρ(DCCA)(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series. PMID:22304166

  2. Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes

    Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-12-01

    For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρDCCA(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρDCCA(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1. Here we derive -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρDCCA within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine—and for nonoverlapping windows we derive—that the standard deviation of ρDCCA(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρDCCA(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series.

  3. 3D video

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  4. 3D Animation Essentials

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  5. Cross-correlation of the cosmic 21-cm signal and Lyman α emitters during reionization

    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Mesinger, Andrei; Greig, Bradley

    2016-07-01

    Interferometry of the cosmic 21-cm signal is set to revolutionize our understanding of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), eventually providing 3D maps of the early Universe. Initial detections however will be low signal to noise, limited by systematics. To confirm a putative 21-cm detection, and check the accuracy of 21-cm data analysis pipelines, it would be very useful to cross-correlate against a genuine cosmological signal. The most promising cosmological signals are wide-field maps of Lyman α emitting galaxies (LAEs), expected from the Subaru Hyper-Suprime Cam ultradeep field (UDF). Here we present estimates of the correlation between LAE maps at z ˜ 7 and the 21-cm signal observed by both the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the planned Square Kilometre Array Phase 1 (SKA1). We adopt a systematic approach, varying both: (i) the prescription of assigning LAEs to host haloes; and (ii) the large-scale structure of neutral and ionized regions (i.e. EoR morphology). We find that the LAE-21cm cross-correlation is insensitive to (i), thus making it a robust probe of the EoR. A 1000 h observation with LOFAR would be sufficient to discriminate at ≳ 1σ a fully ionized Universe from one with a mean neutral fraction of bar{x}_{H I}≈ 0.50, using the LAE-21 cm cross-correlation function on scales of R ≈ 3-10 Mpc. Unlike LOFAR, whose detection of the LAE-21 cm cross-correlation is limited by noise, SKA1 is mostly limited by ignorance of the EoR morphology. However, the planned 100 h wide-field SKA1-Low survey will be sufficient to discriminate an ionized Universe from one with bar{x}_{H I}=0.25, even with maximally pessimistic assumptions.

  6. Cross correlation of Cosmic Microwave background and Weak Lensing

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2015-01-01

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect and its non-linear extension Rees-Sciama (RS) effect provide us the information of the time evolution of gravitational potential. The cross-correlation between the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the large scale structure (LSS) is known as a promising way to extract the ISW (RS) effect. It is known that the RS effect shows the unique behavior by changing the anti-correlated cross correlation between the CMB and the mass tracer into the positively correlated cross correlation compared to the linear ISW effect. We show that the dependence of this flipping scale of the cross-correlation between RS and weak lensing on dark energy models. However, there exists the degeneracy between DE and $\\Omega_{\\rm{m}0}$ which might be broken by redshift dependent observables. The cross-correlation between the momentum field and the density field might be served as the better observable to be used for this purpose.

  7. Empirics Versus RMT in Financial Cross-Correlations

    In order to pursue the issue of the relation between the financial cross-correlations and the conventional Random Matrix Theory we analyse several characteristics of the stock market correlation matrices like the distribution of eigenvalues, the cross-correlations among signs of the returns, the volatility cross-correlations, and the multifractal characteristics of the principal values. The results indicate that the stock market dynamics is not simply decomposable into ' market ', ' sectors ', and the Wishart random bulk. This clearly is seen when the time series used to construct the correlation matrices are sufficiently long and thus the measurement noise suppressed. Instead, a hierarchically convoluted and highly nonlinear organization of the market emerges and indicates that the relevant information about the whole market is encoded already in its constituents. (author)

  8. Computationally efficient storage of 3D particle intensity and position data for use in 3D PIV and 3D PTV

    Three-dimensional (3D) volumetric velocity measurement techniques, such as tomographic or holographic particle image velocimetry (PIV), rely upon the computationally intensive formation, storage and localized interrogation of multiple 3D particle intensity fields. Calculation of a single velocity field typically requires the extraction of particle intensities into tens of thousands of 3D sub-volumes or discrete particle clusters, the processing of which can significantly affect the performance of 3D cross-correlation based PIV and 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). In this paper, a series of popular and customized volumetric data formats are presented and investigated using synthetic particle volumes and experimental data arising from tomographic PIV measurements of a turbulent boundary layer. Results show that the use of a sub-grid ordered non-zero intensity format with a sub-grid size of 16 × 16 × 16 points provides the best performance for cross-correlation based PIV analysis, while a particle clustered non-zero intensity format provides the best format for PTV applications. In practical tomographic PIV measurements the sub-grid ordered non-zero intensity format offered a 29% improvement in reconstruction times, while providing a 93% reduction in volume data requirements and a 28% overall improvement in cross-correlation based velocity analysis and validation times. (paper)

  9. Computationally efficient storage of 3D particle intensity and position data for use in 3D PIV and 3D PTV

    Atkinson, C.; Buchmann, N. A.; Soria, J.

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volumetric velocity measurement techniques, such as tomographic or holographic particle image velocimetry (PIV), rely upon the computationally intensive formation, storage and localized interrogation of multiple 3D particle intensity fields. Calculation of a single velocity field typically requires the extraction of particle intensities into tens of thousands of 3D sub-volumes or discrete particle clusters, the processing of which can significantly affect the performance of 3D cross-correlation based PIV and 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). In this paper, a series of popular and customized volumetric data formats are presented and investigated using synthetic particle volumes and experimental data arising from tomographic PIV measurements of a turbulent boundary layer. Results show that the use of a sub-grid ordered non-zero intensity format with a sub-grid size of 16 × 16 × 16 points provides the best performance for cross-correlation based PIV analysis, while a particle clustered non-zero intensity format provides the best format for PTV applications. In practical tomographic PIV measurements the sub-grid ordered non-zero intensity format offered a 29% improvement in reconstruction times, while providing a 93% reduction in volume data requirements and a 28% overall improvement in cross-correlation based velocity analysis and validation times.

  10. CROSS-CORRELATIONS AS A COSMOLOGICAL CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of large-scale structure (LSS), the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other LSS tracers offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. We propose a novel use of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data set. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 6 and 7, respectively. We are unable to detect a cross-correlation signal with either CO(1-0) or CO(2-1) lines, mainly due to the instrumental noise in the WMAP data. However, we are able to rule out models more than three times greater than our more optimistic model. We discuss the cross-correlation signal from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and dust as potential contaminants, and quantify their impact for our CO measurements. We discuss forecasts for current CMB experiments and a hypothetical future CO-focused experiment, and propose to cross-correlate CO temperature data with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Lyα-emitter sample, for which a signal-to-noise ratio of 58 is possible.

  11. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  12. Solid works 3D

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  13. Antisymmetric galaxy cross-correlations as a cosmological probe

    Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely D.; Raccanelli, Alvise; Shiraishi, Maresuke

    2016-01-01

    The autocorrelation between two members of a galaxy population is symmetric under the interchange of the two galaxies being correlated. The cross-correlation between two different types of galaxies, separated by a vector r , is not necessarily the same as that for a pair separated by -r . Local anisotropies in the two-point cross-correlation function may thus indicate a specific direction which when mapped as a function of position trace out a vector field. This vector field can then be decomposed into longitudinal and transverse components, and those transverse components written as positive- and negative-helicity components. A locally asymmetric cross-correlation of the longitudinal type arises naturally in halo clustering, even with Gaussian initial conditions, and could be enhanced with local-type non-Gaussianity. Early-Universe scenarios that introduce a vector field may also give rise to such effects. These antisymmetric cross-correlations also provide a new possibility to seek a preferred cosmic direction correlated with the hemispherical power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background and to seek a preferred location associated with the cosmic microwave background cold spot. New ways to seek cosmic parity breaking are also possible.

  14. Antisymmetric galaxy cross-correlations as a cosmological probe

    Dai, Liang; Kovetz, Ely D; Raccanelli, Alvise; Shiraishi, Maresuke

    2016-01-01

    The auto-correlation between two members of a galaxy population is symmetric under the interchange of the two galaxies being correlated. The cross-correlation between two different types of galaxies, separated by a vector $\\bf{r}$, is not necessarily the same as that for a pair separated by $-\\bf{r}$. Local anisotropies in the two-point cross-correlation function may thus indicate a specific direction which when mapped as a function of position trace out a vector field. This vector field can then be decomposed into longitudinal and transverse components, and those transverse components written as positive- and negative-helicity components. A locally asymmetric cross-correlation of the longitudinal type arises naturally in halo clustering, even with Gaussian initial conditions, and could be enhanced with local-type non-Gaussianity. Early-Universe scenarios that introduce a vector field may also give rise to such effects. These antisymmetric cross-correlations also provide a new possibility to seek a preferred ...

  15. Audio Quality Assurance : An Application of Cross Correlation

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl

    2012-01-01

    We describe algorithms for automated quality assurance on content of audio files in context of preservation actions and access. The algorithms use cross correlation to compare the sound waves. They are used to do overlap analysis in an access scenario, where preserved radio broadcasts are used in...

  16. Atmospheric pollution measurement by optical cross correlation methods - A concept

    Fisher, M. J.; Krause, F. R.

    1971-01-01

    Method combines standard spectroscopy with statistical cross correlation analysis of two narrow light beams for remote sensing to detect foreign matter of given particulate size and consistency. Method is applicable in studies of generation and motion of clouds, nuclear debris, ozone, and radiation belts.

  17. Open 3D Projects

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  18. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  19. Multifractal detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2011-07-01

    There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross correlations. The multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MFDCCA) approaches can be used to quantify such cross correlations, such as the MFDCCA based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (MFXDFA) method. We develop in this work a class of MFDCCA algorithms based on the detrending moving-average analysis, called MFXDMA. The performances of the proposed MFXDMA algorithms are compared with the MFXDFA method by extensive numerical experiments on pairs of time series generated from bivariate fractional Brownian motions, two-component autoregressive fractionally integrated moving-average processes, and binomial measures, which have theoretical expressions of the multifractal nature. In all cases, the scaling exponents hxy extracted from the MFXDMA and MFXDFA algorithms are very close to the theoretical values. For bivariate fractional Brownian motions, the scaling exponent of the cross correlation is independent of the cross-correlation coefficient between two time series, and the MFXDFA and centered MFXDMA algorithms have comparative performances, which outperform the forward and backward MFXDMA algorithms. For two-component autoregressive fractionally integrated moving-average processes, we also find that the MFXDFA and centered MFXDMA algorithms have comparative performances, while the forward and backward MFXDMA algorithms perform slightly worse. For binomial measures, the forward MFXDMA algorithm exhibits the best performance, the centered MFXDMA algorithms performs worst, and the backward MFXDMA algorithm outperforms the MFXDFA algorithm when the moment order q0. We apply these algorithms to the return time series of two stock market indexes and to their volatilities. For the returns, the centered MFXDMA algorithm gives the best estimates of hxy(q) since its hxy(2) is closest to 0.5, as expected, and the

  20. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  1. 3D and Education

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  2. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: cross correlation with Planck maps

    We present the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by cross-correlating maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and 218 GHz with maps from the Planck satellite at 143 and 217 GHz, in two overlapping regions covering 592 square degrees. We find excellent agreement between the two datasets at both frequencies, quantified using the variance of the residuals between the ACT power spectra and the ACT × Planck cross-spectra. We use these cross-correlations to measure the calibration of the ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz relative to Planck, to 0.7% and 2% precision respectively. We find no evidence for anisotropy in the calibration parameter. We compare the Planck 353 GHz power spectrum with the measured amplitudes of dust and cosmic infrared background (CIB) of ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz. We also compare planet and point source measurements from the two experiments

  3. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: cross correlation with Planck maps

    Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Næss, Sigurd [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Addison, Graeme E.; Hincks, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, U.S.A (United States); Dünner, Rolando; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Huffenberger, Kevin [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Keen Physics Building, 77 Chieftan Way, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Niemack, Michael D., E-mail: Thibaut.Louis@astro.ox.ac.uk [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    We present the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by cross-correlating maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and 218 GHz with maps from the Planck satellite at 143 and 217 GHz, in two overlapping regions covering 592 square degrees. We find excellent agreement between the two datasets at both frequencies, quantified using the variance of the residuals between the ACT power spectra and the ACT × Planck cross-spectra. We use these cross-correlations to measure the calibration of the ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz relative to Planck, to 0.7% and 2% precision respectively. We find no evidence for anisotropy in the calibration parameter. We compare the Planck 353 GHz power spectrum with the measured amplitudes of dust and cosmic infrared background (CIB) of ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz. We also compare planet and point source measurements from the two experiments.

  4. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cross Correlation with Planck maps

    Louis, Thibaut; Hasselfield, Matthew; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Gralla, Megan; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin; Infante, Leopoldo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Moodley, Kavilan; Næss, Sigurd; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jonathan L; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Walter, Benjamin Z; Wollack, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    We present the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by cross-correlating maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and 218 GHz with maps from the Planck satellite at 143 and 217 GHz, in two overlapping regions covering 592 square degrees. We find excellent agreement between the two datasets at both frequencies, quantified using the variance of the residuals between the ACT power spectra and the ACTxPlanck cross-spectra. We use these cross-correlations to calibrate the ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz, to 0.7% and 2% precision respectively. We find no evidence for anisotropy in the calibration parameter. We compare the Planck 353 GHz power spectrum with the measured amplitudes of dust and cosmic infrared background (CIB) of ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz. We also compare planet and point source measurements from the two experiments.

  5. Cosmological constraints from $\\mu E$ cross-correlations

    Ota, Atsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    We have derived general expressions of the $\\mu T$ and the $\\mu E$ cross-correlation functions and discussed the potential to detect these quantities. The cross-correlations are known as new tests for the extremely squeezed shape of primordial non-Gaussianity, which is inaccessible through the direct observations of the temperature 3-point functions. Our analysis is based on an experiment like PIXIE, and we found that the joint analysis improves the signal-to-noise ratio by $8.8\\%$ compared with that from the $\\mu T$ alone. Assuming that $f^{\\rm loc}_{\\rm NL}(k_1,k_2,k_3) = \\left(k_1k_2k_3\\right)^{1/3} k_0^{-1} F_0$, we also found that the scale dependent non-Gaussianity can be detectable at 2-$\\sigma$ level, even if $F_0 \\sim \\mathcal O(1)$ with $k_0=0.05{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$.

  6. Cross-correlation markers in stochastic dynamics of complex systems

    Panischev, O Yu; Bhattacharya, J; 10.1016/j.physa.2010.06.026

    2010-01-01

    The neuromagnetic activity (magnetoencephalogram, MEG) from healthy human brain and from an epileptic patient against chromatic flickering stimuli has been earlier analyzed on the basis of a memory functions formalism (MFF). Information measures of memory as well as relaxation parameters revealed high individuality and unique features in the neuromagnetic brain responses of each subject. The current paper demonstrates new capabilities of MFF by studying cross-correlations between MEG signals obtained from multiple and distant brain regions. It is shown that the MEG signals of healthy subjects are characterized by well-defined effects of frequency synchronization and at the same time by the domination of low-frequency processes. On the contrary, the MEG of a patient is characterized by a sharp abnormality of frequency synchronization, and also by prevalence of high-frequency quasi-periodic processes. Modification of synchronization effects and dynamics of cross-correlations offer a promising method of detectin...

  7. 3D super-virtual refraction interferometry

    Lu, Kai

    2014-08-05

    Super-virtual refraction interferometry enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of far-offset refractions. However, when applied to 3D cases, traditional 2D SVI suffers because the stationary positions of the source-receiver pairs might be any place along the recording plane, not just along a receiver line. Moreover, the effect of enhancing the SNR can be limited because of the limitations in the number of survey lines, irregular line geometries, and azimuthal range of arrivals. We have developed a 3D SVI method to overcome these problems. By integrating along the source or receiver lines, the cross-correlation or the convolution result of a trace pair with the source or receiver at the stationary position can be calculated without the requirement of knowing the stationary locations. In addition, the amplitudes of the cross-correlation and convolution results are largely strengthened by integration, which is helpful to further enhance the SNR. In this paper, both synthetic and field data examples are presented, demonstrating that the super-virtual refractions generated by our method have accurate traveltimes and much improved SNR.

  8. Phases of scaling and cross-correlation behavior in traffic

    Kantelhardt, Jan W.;Fullerton, Matthew;Kämpf, Mirko;Beltran-Ruiz, Cristina;Busch, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    While many microscopic models of traffic flow describe transitions between different traffic phases, such transitions are difficult to quantify in measured traffic data. Here we study long-term traffic recordings consisting of ≈2900 days of flow, density, and velocity time series with minute resolution from a Spanish motorway. We calculate fluctuations, cross-correlations, and long-term persistence properties of these quantities in the flow–density diagram. This leads to a data-driven definit...

  9. Low power bitstream running cross-correlator / convolver

    2009-01-01

    Cross-correlation gives a measure of the similarity between two signals in the time domain and is desirable in pattern matching and recognition, but other solutions are often sought after due to the heavy computational load. The work includes processing of signals in their oversampled delta sigma domain, bitstream processing, and asynchronous techniques. Employing these techniques resulted in a novel signal processing solution. This master thesis presents a power efficient implementation ...

  10. Cross-correlations as a carbon monoxide detector

    Pullen, Anthony; Dore, Olivier; Lidz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of the large-scale structure (LSS) itself, the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other tracers of LSS offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the formalism and model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. As an illustration, we propose a novel use of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) dataset. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 6 and 7 respectively. We are not able ...

  11. Waveform cross correlation applied to earthquakes in the Atlantic Ocean

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    We assess the level of cross correlation between P-waves generated by earthquakes in the Atlantic Ocean and measured by 22 array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). There are 931 events with 6,411 arrivals in 2011 and 2012. Station TORD was the most sensitive and detected 868 from 931 events. We constructed several 931 by 931 matrices of cross correlation coefficients (CCs) for individual stations and also for average and cumulative CCs. These matrices characterize the detection performance of the involved stations and the IMS. Sixty earthquakes located in the northern hemisphere were selected as master events for signal detection and building of events populating a cross correlation Standard Event List (XSEL) for the first halves of 2009 and 2012. High-quality signals (SNR>5.0) recorded by 10 most sensitive stations were used as waveform templates. In order to quantitatively estimate the gain in the completeness and resolution of the XSEL we compared it with the Reviewed Event Bulletin (RE...

  12. Waveform Cross-Correlation for Improved North Texas Earthquake Locations

    Phillips, M.; DeShon, H. R.; Oldham, H. R.; Hayward, C.

    2014-12-01

    In November 2013, a sequence of earthquakes began in Reno and Azle, TX, two communities located northwest of Fort Worth in an area of active oil and gas extraction. Only one felt earthquake had been reported within the area before the occurrence of probable injection-induced earthquakes at the Dallas-Fort Worth airport in 2008. The USGS National Earthquakes Information Center (NEIC) has reported 27 felt earthquakes in the Reno-Azle area through January 28, 2014. A temporary seismic network was installed beginning in December 2013 to acquire data to improve location and magnitude estimates and characterize the earthquake sequence. Here, we present high-resolution relative earthquake locations derived using differential time data from waveform cross-correlation. Cross-correlation is computed using the GISMO software suite and event relocation is done using double difference relocation techniques. Waveform cross-correlation of the local data indicates high (>70%) similarity between 4 major swarms of events lasting between 18 and 24 hours. These swarms are temporal zones of high event frequency; 1.4% of the time series data accounts for 42.1% of the identified local earthquakes. Local earthquakes are occurring along the Newark East Fault System, a NE-SW striking normal fault system previously thought inactive at depths between 2 and 8 km in the Ellenburger limestone formation and underlying Precambrian basement. Data analysis is ongoing and continued characterization of the associated fault will provide improved location estimates.

  13. Cross-correlation of the cosmic 21-cm signal and Lyman Alpha Emitters during reionization

    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Greig, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Interferometry of the cosmic 21-cm signal is set to revolutionize our understanding of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), eventually providing 3D maps of the early Universe. Initial detections however will be low signal-to-noise, limited by systematics. To confirm a putative 21-cm detection, and check the accuracy of 21-cm data analysis pipelines, it would be very useful to cross-correlate against a genuine cosmological signal. The most promising cosmological signals are wide-field maps of Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs), expected from the Subaru Hyper-Suprime Cam (HSC) Ultra-Deep field. Here we present estimates of the correlation between LAE maps at z~7 and the 21-cm signal observed by both the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the planned Square Kilometer Array Phase 1 (SKA1). We adopt a systematic approach, varying both: (i) the prescription of assigning LAEs to host halos; and (ii) the large-scale structure of neutral and ionized regions (i.e. EoR morphology). We find that the LAE-21cm cross-correlation...

  14. 3D virtuel udstilling

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  15. Underwater 3D filming

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  16. Cross-correlating Planck CMB lensing with SDSS: Lensing-lensing and galaxy-lensing cross-correlations

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Brownstein, Joel R

    2016-01-01

    We present first results from cross-correlating Planck CMB lensing maps with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxy lensing shape catalog and BOSS galaxy catalogs. For galaxy position vs. CMB lensing cross-correlations, we measure the convergence signal around the galaxies in configuration space, using the BOSS LOWZ ($z\\sim0.30$) and CMASS ($z\\sim0.57$) samples. With fixed Planck 2015 cosmology, doing a joint fit with the galaxy clustering measurement, for the LOWZ (CMASS) sample we find a galaxy bias $b_g=1.75\\pm0.04$ ($1.95\\pm 0.02$) and galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient $r_{cc}=1.0\\pm0.2$ ($0.8\\pm 0.1$) using $20

  17. Blender 3D cookbook

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  18. Study of cross-correlation in a self-affine time series of taxi accidents

    Zebende, G. F.; da Silva, P. A.; Machado Filho, A.

    2011-05-01

    We study in this paper the cross-correlation between self-affine time series of real variables recorded simultaneously in cases of taxi accidents. For this purpose, we apply the DCCA method and show that the cross-correlation can be divided into three distinct groups, if we look for the detrended covariance function, i.e., long-range cross-correlations, short-range cross-correlations and no cross-correlations. Finally, it will be seen that the detrended covariance function is robust, if compared with other methods, in identifying these types of cross-correlations.

  19. Acoustic cross-correlation flowmeter for solid-gas flow

    Sheen, S. H.; Raptis, A. C.

    1984-05-01

    An apparatus for measuring particle velocity in a solid-gas flow within a pipe is described. It includes: first and second transmitting transducers for transmitting first and second ultrasonic signals into the pipe at first and second locations, respectively, along the pipe; an acoustic decoupler, positioned between said first and second transmitting transducers, for acoustically isolating said first and second signals from one another; first and second detecting transducers for detecting said first and second signals and for generating first and second detected signals; and means for cross-correlating said first and second output signals.

  20. Bunch Length Measurements With Laser/SR Cross-Correlation

    Miller, Timothy; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Daranciang, Dan; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Lindenberg, Aaron; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC; Goodfellow, John; /SLAC; Huang, Xiaobiao; /SLAC; Mok, Walter; /SLAC; Safranek, James; /SLAC; Wen, Haidan; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    By operating SPEAR3 in low-{alpha} mode the storage ring can generate synchrotron radiation pulses of order 1ps. Applications include pump-probe x-ray science and the production of THz radiation in the CSR regime. Measurements of the bunch length are difficult, however, because the light intensity is low and streak cameras typically provide resolution of only a few ps. Tests are now underway to resolve the short bunch length using cross-correlation between a 60-fs Ti:Sapphire laser and the visible SR beam in a BBO crystal. In this paper we report on the experimental setup, preliminary measurements and prospects for further improvement.

  1. Axion inflation with cross-correlated axion isocurvature perturbations

    Kadota, Kenji [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Otsuka, Hajime [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2016-01-25

    We study the inflation scenarios, in the framework of superstring theory, where the inflaton is an axion producing the adiabatic curvature perturbations while there exists another light axion producing the isocurvature perturbations. We discuss how the non-trivial couplings among string axions can generically arise, and calculate the consequent cross-correlations between the adiabatic and isocurvature modes through concrete examples. Based on the Planck analysis on the generally correlated isocurvature perturbations, we show that there is a preference for the existence of the correlated isocurvature modes for the axion monodromy inflation while the natural inflation disfavors such isocurvature modes.

  2. 3D Digital Modelling

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  3. Professional Papervision3D

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  4. Cross-correlations between Renminbi and four major currencies in the Renminbi currency basket

    Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the cross-correlations between Renminbi (CNY) and four major currencies (USD, EUR, JPY, and KRW) in the Renminbi currency basket, i.e., the cross-correlations of CNY-USD, CNY-EUR, CNY-JPY, and CNY-KRW. Qualitatively, using a statistical test in analogy to the Ljung-Box test, we find that cross-correlations significantly exist in CNY-USD, CNY-EUR, CNY-JPY, and CNY-KRW. Quantitatively, employing the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method, we find that the cross-correlations of CNY-USD, CNY-EUR, CNY-JPY, and CNY-KRW are weakly persistent. We use the DCCA cross-correlation coefficient ρ to quantify the level of cross-correlations and find the currency weight in the Renminbi currency basket is arranged in the order of USD>EUR>JPY >KRW. Using the method of rolling windows, which can capture the time-varying cross-correlation scaling exponents, we find that: (i) CNY and USD are positively cross-correlated over time, but the cross-correlations of CNY-USD are anti-persistent during the US sub-prime crisis and the European debt crisis. (ii) The cross-correlation scaling exponents of CNY-EUR have the cyclical fluctuation with a nearly two-year cycle. (iii) CNY-JPY has long-term negative cross-correlations, during the European debt crisis, but CNY and KRW are positively cross-correlated.

  5. Structure of a financial cross-correlation matrix under attack

    Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Kim, Junghwan; Kim, Pyungsoo; Kang, Yoonjong; Park, Sanghoon; Park, Inho; Park, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kyungsik

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the structure of a perturbed stock market in terms of correlation matrices. For the purpose of perturbing a stock market, two distinct methods are used, namely local and global perturbation. The former involves replacing a correlation coefficient of the cross-correlation matrix with one calculated from two Gaussian-distributed time series while the latter reconstructs the cross-correlation matrix just after replacing the original return series with Gaussian-distributed time series. Concerning the local case, it is a technical study only and there is no attempt to model reality. The term ‘global’ means the overall effect of the replacement on other untouched returns. Through statistical analyses such as random matrix theory (RMT), network theory, and the correlation coefficient distributions, we show that the global structure of a stock market is vulnerable to perturbation. However, apart from in the analysis of inverse participation ratios (IPRs), the vulnerability becomes dull under a small-scale perturbation. This means that these analysis tools are inappropriate for monitoring the whole stock market due to the low sensitivity of a stock market to a small-scale perturbation. In contrast, when going down to the structure of business sectors, we confirm that correlation-based business sectors are regrouped in terms of IPRs. This result gives a clue about monitoring the effect of hidden intentions, which are revealed via portfolios taken mostly by large investors.

  6. Phases of scaling and cross-correlation behavior in traffic

    Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Fullerton, Matthew; Kämpf, Mirko; Beltran-Ruiz, Cristina; Busch, Fritz

    2013-11-01

    While many microscopic models of traffic flow describe transitions between different traffic phases, such transitions are difficult to quantify in measured traffic data. Here we study long-term traffic recordings consisting of ≈2900 days of flow, density, and velocity time series with minute resolution from a Spanish motorway. We calculate fluctuations, cross-correlations, and long-term persistence properties of these quantities in the flow-density diagram. This leads to a data-driven definition of (local) traffic states based on the dynamical properties of the data, which differ from those given in standard guidelines. We find that detrending techniques must be used for persistence analysis because of non-stationary daily and weekly traffic flow patterns. We compare our results for the measured data with analysis results for a microscopic traffic model, finding good agreement in most quantities. However, the simulations cannot easily reproduce the congested traffic states observed in the data. We show how fluctuations and cross-correlations in traffic data may be used for prediction, i.e., as indications of increasing or decreasing velocities.

  7. In Vivo Fluorescence Correlation and Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy

    Mütze, Jörg; Ohrt, Thomas; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Schwille, Petra

    In this manuscript, we describe the application of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy (FCCS), and scanning FCS (sFCS) to two in vivo systems. In the first part, we describe the application of two-photon standard and scanning FCS in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The differentiation of a single fertilized egg into a complex organism in C. elegans is regulated by a number of protein-dependent processes. The oocyte divides asymmetrically into two daughter cells of different developmental fate. Two of the involved proteins, PAR-2 and NMY-2, are studied. The second investigated system is the mechanism of RNA interference in human cells. An EGFP based cell line that allows to study the dynamics and localization of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) with FCS in vivo is created, which has so far been inaccessible with other experimental methods. Furthermore, Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy is employed to highlight the asymmetric incorporation of labeled siRNAs into RISC.

  8. Detrending moving-average cross-correlation coefficient: Measuring cross-correlations between non-stationary series

    Ladislav Kristoufek

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we introduce a new measure of correlation between possibly non-stationary series. As the measure is based on the detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA), we label it as the DMCA coefficient $\\rho_{DMCA}(\\lambda)$ with a moving average window length $\\lambda$. We analytically show that the coefficient ranges between -1 and 1 as a standard correlation does. In the simulation study, we show that the values of $\\rho_{DMCA}(\\lambda)$ very well correspond to the tr...

  9. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis between PM2.5 and meteorological factors

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Zhiwei; Ni, Liping

    2015-11-01

    PM2.5 pollution has become one of the most serious air pollution in China. The cross-correlations between PM2.5 concentration and meteorological factors (i.e., temperature, air pressure, relative humidity and wind speed) in Beijing and Hong Kong are discussed in this paper. We use the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) to analyze the cross-correlations, and study further the asymmetric characteristics of cross-correlations by multifractal asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-ADCCA). The experimental results show that the cross-correlations between PM2.5 concentration and four meteorological factors are multifractal and anti-persistent, and the strength of multifractality of Beijing is stronger than that of Hong Kong. Meanwhile, the cross-correlations between PM2.5 concentration and meteorological factors are asymmetric, and the asymmetric cross-correlations are multifractal.

  10. Cross-correlations between Baltic Dry Index and crude oil prices

    Ruan, Qingsong; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xinsheng; Qin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the cross-correlation properties of Baltic Dry Index (BDI) and crude oil prices using cross-correlation statistics test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between BDI and crude oil prices are significantly multifractal. By introducing the concept of a "crossover", we find that the cross-correlations are strongly persistent in the short term and weakly anti-persistent in the long term. Moreover, cross-correlations of all kinds of fluctuations are persistent in the short time while cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent and those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent in the long term. We have also verified that the multifractality of the cross-correlations of BDI and crude oil prices is both attributable to the persistence of fluctuations of time series and fat-tailed distributions.

  11. Finite sample properties of power-law cross-correlations estimators

    Ladislav Kristoufek

    2014-01-01

    We study finite sample properties of estimators of power-law cross-correlations -- detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), height cross-correlation analysis (HXA) and detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) -- with a special focus on short-term memory bias as well as power-law coherency. Presented broad Monte Carlo simulation study focuses on different time series lengths, specific methods' parameter setting, and memory strength. We find that each method is best suite...

  12. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  13. 3D Projection Installations

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  14. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  15. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  16. Interaktiv 3D design

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  17. 3D Dental Scanner

    Kotek, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about 3D scan of plaster dental casts. The main aim of the work is a hardware and software proposition of 3D scan system for scanning of dental casts. There were used camera, projector and rotate table for this scanning system. Surface triangulation was used, taking benefits of projections of structured light on object, which is being scanned. The rotate table is controlled by PC. The camera, projector and rotate table are synchronized by PC. Controlling of stepper motor is prov...

  18. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-01-01

    In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot o...

  19. Cross-correlation analysis of CMB with foregrounds for residuals

    Aluri, Pavan K.; Rath, Pranati K.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we try to probe whether a clean cosmic microwave background (CMB) map obtained from the raw satellite data using a cleaning procedure is sufficiently clean. Specifically, we study if there are any foreground residuals still present in the cleaned data using a cross-correlation statistic. Residual contamination is expected to be present, primarily, in the Galactic plane due to the high emission from our own Galaxy. A foreground mask is applied conventionally to avoid biases in the estimated quantities of interest due to foreground leakage. Here, we map foreground residuals, if present, in the unmasked region i.e. outside a CMB analysis mask. Further locally extended foreground-contaminated regions, found eventually, are studied to understand them better. The few contaminated regions thus identified may be used to slightly extend the available masks to make them more stringent.

  20. Cross correlation method application to prompt fission neutron investigation

    Zeynalova, O. V.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Nazarenko, M. A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2012-10-01

    Do The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying cross correlation method and digital signal processing algorithms. A new mathematical approach for neutron/gamma pulse shape separation was developed and implemented for prompt fission neutron (PFN) time-of-flight measurement. The main goal was development of automated data analysis algorithms and procedures for data analysis with minimum human intervention. Experimental data was taken with a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in an experimental setup similar to well work of C. Budtz-Jorgensen and H.-H. Knitter [1]. About 2*107 fission events were registered with 2*105 neutron/gamma detection in coincidence with fission fragments. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer.

  1. Accelerating Radio Astronomy Cross-Correlation with Graphics Processing Units

    Clark, M A; Greenhill, L J

    2011-01-01

    We present a highly parallel implementation of the cross-correlation of time-series data using graphics processing units (GPUs), which is scalable to hundreds of independent inputs and suitable for the processing of signals from "Large-N" arrays of many radio antennas. The computational part of the algorithm, the X-engine, is implementated efficiently on Nvidia's Fermi architecture, sustaining up to 79% of the peak single precision floating-point throughput. We compare performance obtained for hardware- and software-managed caches, observing significantly better performance for the latter. The high performance reported involves use of a multi-level data tiling strategy in memory and use of a pipelined algorithm with simultaneous computation and transfer of data from host to device memory. The speed of code development, flexibility, and low cost of the GPU implementations compared to ASIC and FPGA implementations have the potential to greatly shorten the cycle of correlator development and deployment, for case...

  2. Cross-correlation cosmography with HI intensity mapping

    Pourtsidou, Alkistis; Crittenden, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The cross-correlation of a foreground density field with two different background convergence fields can be used to measure cosmographic distance ratios and constrain dark energy parameters. We investigate the possibility of performing such measurements using a combination of optical galaxy surveys and HI intensity mapping surveys, with emphasis on the performance of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Using HI intensity mapping to probe the foreground density tracer field and/or the background source fields has the advantage of excellent redshift resolution and a longer lever arm achieved by using the lensing signal from high redshift background sources. Our results show that, for our best SKA-optical configuration of surveys, a constant equation of state for dark energy can be constrained to $\\simeq 8\\%$ for a sky coverage $f_{\\rm sky}=0.5$ and assuming a $\\sigma(\\Omega_{\\rm DE})=0.03$ prior for the dark energy density parameter.

  3. Cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by accelerometers.

    Rábade García, S. E.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the ambient noise cross-correlations obtained by using properly corrected accelerometric recordings, and determine velocity structure in central Mexico based on a dispersion analysis. The data used comprise ten months of continuous recordings - from April 2013 to January 2014 - of ambient seismic noise at stations operated by the National Seismological Service of Mexico and the Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The vertical component of ambient noise was base-line corrected, filtered, and properly integrated before extracting Green's functions (GF), which were compared successfully against GF obtained using recordings from broadband velocity sensors. In order to obtain dispersion curves, we estimated group and phase velocities applying the FTAN analysis technique and obtained s-wave velocity profiles at selected regions. We conclude and highlight that the use of widely deployed accelerographs to conduct regional studies using ambient noise tomography is feasible

  4. Cross-correlation Aided Transport in Stochastically Driven Accretion Flows

    Nath, Sujit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Origin of linear instability resulting in rotating sheared accretion flows has remained a controversial subject for long. While some explanations of such non-normal transient growth of disturbances in the Rayleigh stable limit were available for magnetized accretion flows, similar instabilities in absence of magnetic perturbations remained unexplained. This dichotomy was resolved in two recent publications by Chattopadhyay, {\\it et al} where it was shown that such instabilities, especially for non-magnetized accretion flows, were introduced through interaction of the inherent stochastic noise in the system (even a \\enquote{cold} accretion flow at 3000K is too \\enquote{hot} in the statistical parlance and is capable of inducing strong thermal modes) with the underlying Taylor-Couette flow profiles. Both studies, however, excluded the additional energy influx (or efflux) that could result from nonzero cross-correlation of a noise perturbing the velocity flow, say, with the noise that is driving the vorticity fl...

  5. Microseism source direction from noise cross-correlation

    Chen, Zhao; Gerstoft, Peter; Bromirski, Peter D.

    2016-05-01

    Inhomogeneous noise sources surrounding stations produce asymmetric amplitudes in cross-correlation functions that yield preferential source directions. Here we show that preprocessing biases the dominant source direction estimate towards the source producing long-duration signals by down-weighting high-amplitude signals. Tests with both synthetic data and observations show that conventional preprocessing, where only earthquakes and local transients (e.g. trawling, fish impacts) are removed, is more sensitive to coherent energy, while one-bit preprocessing and running-absolute-mean preprocessing are more influenced by signal duration. Comparisons between different preprocessing methods are made on data from the Cascadia Initiative ocean bottom seismometer array, where we find that the total energy arriving from pelagic and coastal areas is similar. Moreover, pelagic-generated signals tend to be weaker but have longer duration, in contrast to coastal-generated signals that tend to be stronger but have shorter duration.

  6. Experimental investigation of transverse velocity estimation using cross-correlation

    Bjerngaard, Rasmus; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    .23 m/s. The volume flow was determined by a Danfoss MAG 1100 flow meter. The velocity profiles were measured for different beam-to-flow angles of 90, 65, and 45 degrees. A Harming apodized beam focused at the vessel was transmitted using 64 elements and the received signals on all elements were sampled......A technique for estimating the full flow velocity vector has previously been presented by our group. Unlike conventional estimators, that only detect the axial component of the flow, this new method is capable of estimating the transverse velocity component. The method uses focusing along the flow...... direction to produce signals that are influenced by the shift of the scatterer's position. The signals are then cross-correllated to find the shift in position and thereby the velocity. The performance of the method is investigated using both a flow phantom and in-vivo measurements. A flow phantom capable...

  7. Imaging the Yellowstone Magmatic System Using Multi-Component Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation and Tomography

    Farrell, J.; Lin, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new S-wave velocity model for the Yellowstone magmatic system derived from the inversion of Rayleigh- and Love-wave phase velocity measurements from periods from 6 to 35 s. All available data from 2007-2014 within and near the Yellowstone region was downloaded for the USArray TA network (TA), the Yellowstone Seismic Network (WY), the NOISY array (Z2), the USGS Intermountain West network (IW), the Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network (PB), and the USGS National Seismic Network (US). For each station, we perform daily noise pre-processing (temporal normalization and spectrum whitening) simultaneously for all three components before multi-component noise cross-correlations are calculated. Results for both Rayleigh- and Love-wave phase velocity inversions clearly show the low velocity anomaly associated with the upper-crustal magma reservoir seen previously using body wave tomography. In addition, low-velocity anomalies associated with sediment-filled basins are visible in Wyoming. Short period low Love-wave velocities are seen along the Snake River Plain, the track of the Yellowstone hotspot likely related to the shallow sediment layer. Based on the surface wave phase velocity maps, we invert for a 3D S-wave crustal model. The resulting model will be compared to previous, but spatially limited, body wave S-wave models as well as recent body wave P-wave velocity models to better constrain Vp/Vs ratios as well as the melt fraction of the magma chamber. Preliminary results using amplitude information of noise cross-correlations to calculate Rayleigh-wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh-wave H/V (horizontal to vertical) amplitude ratios to better constrain the shallow velocity structure will also be discussed.

  8. Tangible 3D Modelling

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...

  9. Shaping 3-D boxes

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  10. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    M.M. Voormolen

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  11. 3D animace

    Klusoň, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Computer animation has a growing importance and application in the world. With expansion of technologies increases quality of the final animation as well as number of 3D animation software. This thesis is currently mapped animation software for creating animation in film, television industry and video games which are advisable users requirements. Of them were selected according to criteria the best - Autodesk Maya 2011. This animation software is unique with tools for creating special effects...

  12. The use of synthetic master events for waveform cross correlation

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    It has been clearly demonstrated that waveform cross correlation substantially improves signal detection, phase association and event building. These processes are inherently related to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The workhorse of cross correlation is the set of seismic master events (earthquakes or explosions) with high quality waveform templates recorded at array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). For the monitoring to be globally uniform, these master events have to be evenly distributed and their template waveforms should be representative and pure. However, global seismicity is characterized by a non-uniform distribution. Therefore, the master events selected from the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) produced by the International Data Centre (IDC) can be found in the areas constrained by the global seismicity. There are two principal possibilities to populate the globe with master events: to replicate real REB events or to build synthetic events. Here we compare the performance of these two approaches as applied to the aftershock sequence of the April 11, 2012 Sumatera earthquake. To compute synthetic waveforms, we use AK135 teleseismic velocity model and local CRUST-2 models for source and receiver, and four different source functions representing three different source mechanisms for earthquakes and one for explosion. The synthetic modeling is performed for teleseismic events and based on the stationary phase approximation to a wave equation solution developed by J. Hudson. The grid covering the aftershock area consists of 16 points. For each grid point, we find detections associated with real, replicated, and four versions of synthetic master events at seven IMS array stations, and then build event hypothesis using the Local Association (LA) procedure based on the clustering of origin times as estimated by back projection of the relevant arrival times with known master/station travel times. Then all

  13. Noise cross correlation functions in a noisy region

    Gaudot, I.; Beucler, E.; Mocquet, A.; Schimmel, M.; Le Feuvre, M.; Leparoux, D.; Côte, P.

    2013-12-01

    The geology of the western France can be roughly split into two main domains: the Armorican massif that contains imprints of the old Cadomian and Variscan orogens; and the Bay of Biscay which present signatures of more recent tectonic events closely related to the opening of North Atlantic ocean. Due to the lack of seismic stations deployment, it exists very few pictures of the deep structures below the Armorican Massif and the Bay of Biscay. Recently, a broadband array of seismometers has been deployed over the south and west of France, providing a good opportunity to get reliable images at depth. Since the region is surrounded by the seas, the seismic ambient noise tomography technique has been proposed to reveal the crustal and uppermost mantle features beneath this area. The first step consists in the computation of noise correlation functions (NCFs) between each station pairs. The ability to obtain empirical Green's functions from NCFs relies on the efficiency of the randomization. Classic ambient noise tomography studies use long-time series (typically several months) to help the randomization including all the scattering effects due to Earth's heterogeneities. However, additionnal signal processing steps such as temporal and/or spectral whitening are most often required for the signals to be representative of a random wavefield. These techniques rely on nonlinear operations which corrupt the integrity of the original record. In the literature, alternatives have been proposed to avoid, at least partially, such non linear operations. One of them is the instantaneous phase cross correlation (PCC). This correlation technique is intrinsically little sensitive to large amplitude transient signals. Using a set of data from a temporary broad band array, we explore the features of the PCC as compared to the time domain geometrically normalized cross correlation (CCGN). In the 0.02Hz-1Hz frequency band, different time series are extracted to investigate the effects of

  14. Experimental Study of the Convergence of Two-Point Cross-Correlation Toward the Green's Function

    Gouedard, P.; Roux, P.; Campillo, M.; Verdel, A.; Campman, X.

    2007-12-01

    It has been shown theoretically by several authors that cross-correlation of the seismic motion recorded at two points could yield the Green's Function (GF) between these points. Convergence of cross-correlations toward the GF depends on sources positions and/or the nature of the wavefield. Direct waves from an even distribution of sources can be used to retrieve the GF. On the other hand, in an inhomogeneous medium, recording the diffuse field (coda) is theoretically sufficient to retrieve the GF whatever the sources distribution is. Since none of these two conditions (even distribution of sources or a perfectly diffuse field) is satisfied in practice, the question of convergence toward the GF has to be investigated with real data. A 3D exploration survey with sources and receivers on a dense grid offers such an opportunity. We used a high- resolution survey recorded by Petroleum Development Oman in North Oman. The data have been obtained in a 1x1~km area covered with 1600 geophones located on a 25x25~m-cell grid. Records are 4-seconds long. A unique feature of this survey is that vibrators (working in the [8-120~Hz] frequency band), were located on a similar grid shifted with respect to the receiver grid by half a cell (12.5~m) in both directions. This allows us to compare estimated GF's with measured direct waves (GF's) between the geophones. The shallow subsurface is highly heterogeneous and records include seismic coda. From this dataset, we selected two receiver locations (Ra and Rb) distant from d=158~m. We used both different sets of source locations and time windows to compute the cross-correlation between these two receivers. Then we compared the derivatives of correlation functions with the actual GF measured in Rb (resp.~Ra) for a source close to Ra (resp.~Rb). By doing so, we show the actual influence of source locations and scattering (governed by the records' selected time window) on the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed GF. When using

  15. Accelerating radio astronomy cross-correlation with graphics processing units

    Clark, M. A.; LaPlante, P. C.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a highly parallel implementation of the cross-correlation of time-series data using graphics processing units (GPUs), which is scalable to hundreds of independent inputs and suitable for the processing of signals from 'large-Formula' arrays of many radio antennas. The computational part of the algorithm, the X-engine, is implemented efficiently on NVIDIA's Fermi architecture, sustaining up to 79% of the peak single-precision floating-point throughput. We compare performance obtained for hardware- and software-managed caches, observing significantly better performance for the latter. The high performance reported involves use of a multi-level data tiling strategy in memory and use of a pipelined algorithm with simultaneous computation and transfer of data from host to device memory. The speed of code development, flexibility, and low cost of the GPU implementations compared with application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations have the potential to greatly shorten the cycle of correlator development and deployment, for cases where some power-consumption penalty can be tolerated.

  16. Blind Cartography for Side Channel Attacks: Cross-Correlation Cartography

    Laurent Sauvage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Side channel and fault injection attacks are major threats to cryptographic applications of embedded systems. Best performances for these attacks are achieved by focusing sensors or injectors on the sensible parts of the application, by means of dedicated methods to localise them. Few methods have been proposed in the past, and all of them aim at pinpointing the cryptoprocessor. However it could be interesting to exploit the activity of other parts of the application, in order to increase the attack's efficiency or to bypass its countermeasures. In this paper, we present a localisation method based on cross-correlation, which issues a list of areas of interest within the attacked device. It realizes an exhaustive analysis, since it may localise any module of the device, and not only those which perform cryptographic operations. Moreover, it also does not require a preliminary knowledge about the implementation, whereas some previous cartography methods require that the attacker could choose the cryptoprocessor inputs, which is not always possible. The method is experimentally validated using observations of the electromagnetic near field distribution over a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. The matching between areas of interest and the application layout in the FPGA floorplan is confirmed by correlation analysis.

  17. Massive 3D Supergravity

    Andringa, Roel; de Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2009-01-01

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered `massive 3D gravity'. Another is a `new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  18. Massive 3D supergravity

    Andringa, Roel; Bergshoeff, Eric A; De Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Sezgin, Ergin [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.n, E-mail: O.Hohm@rug.n, E-mail: sezgin@tamu.ed, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-21

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered 'massive 3D gravity'. Another is a 'new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  19. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  20. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of carbon and crude oil markets

    Zhuang, Xiaoyang; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Bangzheng

    2014-04-01

    The complex dynamics between carbon and crude oil markets have been an increasingly interesting area of research. In this paper, we try to take a fresh look at the cross-correlations between carbon and crude oil markets as well as their dynamic behavior employing multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis. First, we find that the return series of carbon and crude oil markets are significantly cross-correlated. Second, we confirm the existence of multifractality for the return series of carbon and crude oil markets by the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Third, based on the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, we find the existence of power-law cross-correlations between carbon and crude oil markets. The cross-correlated behavior of small fluctuations is found to be more persistent than that of large fluctuations. At last, some relevant discussions and implications of the empirical results are presented.

  1. Parameterization of real-time 3D speckle tracking framework for cardiac strain assessment.

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Duan, Qi; Po, Ming Jack; Angelini, Elsa; Homma, Shunichi; Laine, Andrew F

    2011-01-01

    Cross-correlation based 3D speckle tracking algorithm can be used to automatically track myocardial motion on three dimensional real-time (RT3D) echocardiography. The goal of this study was to experimentally investigate the effects of different parameters associated with such algorithm to ensure accurate cardiac strain measurements. The investigation was performed on 10 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease RT3DE cardiac ultrasound images. The following two parameters were investigated: 1) the gradient threshold of the anisotropic diffusion pre-filtering and 2) the window size of the cross correlation template matching in the speckle tracking. Results suggest that the optimal gradient threshold of the anisotropic filter depends on the average gradient of the background speckle noise, and that an optimal pair of template size and search window size can be identified determines the cross-correlation level and computational cost. PMID:22254887

  2. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters III: Mass-to-light Ratios

    Sheldon, Erin S; Masjedi, Morad; McKay, Timothy A; Blanton, Michael R; Scranton, Ryan; Wechsler, Risa H; Koester, Ben P; Hansen, Sarah M; Frieman, Joshua A; Annis, James

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio (M/L) measured around MaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the SDSS. Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean \\Delta \\rho(r) = \\rho(r) - \\bar{\\rho} for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess ^{0.25}i-band luminosity density \\Delta l(r) = l(r) - \\bar{l}. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce 3D mass and light profiles over scales from 25 kpc/h to 22 Mpc/h. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass \\Delta M(r) and excess light \\Delta L(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where \\rho(r) >> \\bar{\\rho}, the integrated M/L profile may be interpreted as the cluster M/L. We find the (\\Delta M/\\Delta L)_{200}, the M/L within r_{200}, scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33+/-0.02. On large scales, where \\rho(r) . We find /b^2_{ml} = 362+/-54 h measured in the ^{0.25}i-bandpass...

  3. Cross-correlation of output fluctuation and system-balancing cost in photovoltaic integration

    Yuichi Ikeda; Kazuhiko Ogimoto

    2014-01-01

    The authors analysed the cross-correlation of photovoltaic (PV) output fluctuation for the actual PV output time series data in both the Tokyo area and the whole of Japan using the principal component analysis with the random matrix theory. Based on the obtained cross-correlation coefficients, the forecast error for PV output was estimated with/without considering the cross-correlations. Then the operation schedule of thermal plants is calculated to integrate PV output using the proposed unit...

  4. Detrended fluctuation analysis made flexible to detect range of cross-correlated fluctuations

    Jaroslaw Kwapien; Pawel Oswiecimka; Stanislaw Drozdz

    2015-01-01

    The detrended cross-correlation coefficient $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ has recently been proposed to quantify the strength of cross-correlations on different temporal scales in bivariate, non-stationary time series. It is based on the detrended cross-correlation and detrended fluctuation analyses (DCCA and DFA, respectively) and can be viewed as an analogue of the Pearson coefficient in the case of the fluctuation analysis. The coefficient $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ works well in many practical situations but ...

  5. Development of a New Class of Zero Cross Correlation Codes for Optical CDMA Systems

    Rashidi, Che Bin Mohd; Aljunid, S. A.; Ghani, F.; Anuar, M. S.

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents a method for the development of a new class of zero cross correlation optical code for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system using Spectral Amplitude Coding. The proposed code is called Modified Zero Cross Correlation Code (MZCC). The code has minimum length and can be constructed quite simply for any number of users and for any code weights. The code has better spectrum slicing properties and noise performance in term of Bit Error Rate. The Modified Zero Cross Correlation Code will be demonstrated in simulation using OptiSys. 6.0 to observe noise performance which is better as compared to the existing Zero Cross Correlation Code.

  6. Random matrix theory analysis of cross-correlations in the US stock market: Evidence from Pearson’s correlation coefficient and detrended cross-correlation coefficient

    Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Chen, Shou; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Yang, Ming-Yan

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we first build two empirical cross-correlation matrices in the US stock market by two different methods, namely the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detrended cross-correlation coefficient (DCCA coefficient). Then, combining the two matrices with the method of random matrix theory (RMT), we mainly investigate the statistical properties of cross-correlations in the US stock market. We choose the daily closing prices of 462 constituent stocks of S&P 500 index as the research objects and select the sample data from January 3, 2005 to August 31, 2012. In the empirical analysis, we examine the statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients, the distribution of eigenvalues, the distribution of eigenvector components, and the inverse participation ratio. From the two methods, we find some new results of the cross-correlations in the US stock market in our study, which are different from the conclusions reached by previous studies. The empirical cross-correlation matrices constructed by the DCCA coefficient show several interesting properties at different time scales in the US stock market, which are useful to the risk management and optimal portfolio selection, especially to the diversity of the asset portfolio. It will be an interesting and meaningful work to find the theoretical eigenvalue distribution of a completely random matrix R for the DCCA coefficient because it does not obey the Marčenko-Pastur distribution.

  7. Big Data Solution for CTBT Monitoring Using Global Cross Correlation

    Gaillard, P.; Bobrov, D.; Dupont, A.; Grenouille, A.; Kitov, I. O.; Rozhkov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the mismatch between data volume and the performance of the Information Technology infrastructure used in seismic data centers, it becomes more and more difficult to process all the data with traditional applications in a reasonable elapsed time. To fulfill their missions, the International Data Centre of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO/IDC) and the Département Analyse Surveillance Environnement of Commissariat à l'Energie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA/DASE) collect, process and produce complex data sets whose volume is growing exponentially. In the medium term, computer architectures, data management systems and application algorithms will require fundamental changes to meet the needs. This problem is well known and identified as a "Big Data" challenge. To tackle this major task, the CEA/DASE takes part during two years to the "DataScale" project. Started in September 2013, DataScale gathers a large set of partners (research laboratories, SMEs and big companies). The common objective is to design efficient solutions using the synergy between Big Data solutions and the High Performance Computing (HPC). The project will evaluate the relevance of these technological solutions by implementing a demonstrator for seismic event detections thanks to massive waveform correlations. The IDC has developed an expertise on such techniques leading to an algorithm called "Master Event" and provides a high-quality dataset for an extensive cross correlation study. The objective of the project is to enhance the Master Event algorithm and to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) network thanks to a dedicated HPC infrastructure operated by the "Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie" at the CEA of Bruyères-le-Châtel. The dataset used for the demonstrator includes more than 300,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and more than 30 terabytes of continuous seismic data

  8. 3D printing for dummies

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  9. CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: Testing Photometric Redshift Distributions Using Angular Cross-Correlations with Spectroscopic Galaxy Surveys

    Choi, A.; Heymans, C.; Blake, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Duncan, C. A. J.; Erben, T.; Nakajima, R.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Viola, M.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions p(z). Our method utilises measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin j into a spectroscopic redshift bin i using the sum of the p(z) for the galaxies residing in bin j. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when i ≠ j as a function of the measured angular cross-correlation when i = j. We also account for enhanced clustering arising from lensing magnification using a halo model. The comparison of this prediction with the measured signal provides a consistency check on the validity of using the summed p(z) to determine galaxy redshift distributions in cosmological analyses, as advocated by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We present an analysis of the photometric redshifts measured by CFHTLenS, which overlaps the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We also analyse the Red-sequence Cluster Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), which overlaps both BOSS and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We find that the summed p(z) from both surveys are generally biased with respect to the true underlying distributions. If unaccounted for, this bias would lead to errors in cosmological parameter estimation from CFHTLenS by less than ˜4%. For photometric redshift bins which spatially overlap in 3-D with our spectroscopic sample, we determine redshift bias corrections which can be used in future cosmological analyses that rely on accurate galaxy redshift distributions.

  10. 3D monitor

    Szkandera, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá návrhem a realizací systému, který umožní obraz scény zobrazovaný na ploše vnímat prostorově. Prostorové vnímání 2D obrazové informace je umožněno jednak stereopromítáním a jednak tím, že se obraz mění v závislosti na poloze pozorovatele. Tato práce se zabývá hlavně druhým z těchto problémů. This Bachelor's thesis goal is to design and realize system, which allows user to perceive 2D visual information as three-dimensional. 3D visual preception of 2D image i...

  11. Mobile 3D tomograph

    Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm

  12. An analysis of the intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements using DPCCA

    Shen, Chen-hua; Li, Cao-ling

    2016-03-01

    In order to reveal the intrinsic cross-correlations between air pollution index (API) records and synchronously meteorological elements data, the detrended partial cross-correlation (DPCC) coefficients are analyzed using a detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA). DPCC coefficients for different spatial locations and seasons are calculated and compared. The results show that DPCCA can uncover intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and most of their interactional mechanisms can be explained. DPCC coefficients are either positive or negative, and vary with spatial locations and seasons, with consistently interactional mechanisms. More remarkable, we find that detrended cross-correlation analysis can present the cross-correlations between the fluctuations in two nonstationary time series, but this cross-correlation does not always fully reflect the interactional mechanism for the original time series. Despite this, DPCCA is recommended as a comparatively reliable method for revealing intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and it can also be useful for our understanding of their interactional mechanisms.

  13. Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies

    Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.

  14. Cross-Correlation Properties of Costas Arrays and Their Images under Horizontal and Vertical Flips

    Konstantinos Drakakis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the cross-correlation of a Costas array with its image under a horizontal and/or a vertical flip. We propose and prove several bounds on the maximal cross-correlation and on its value at the origin, for both general Costas arrays and for algebraically constructed ones.

  15. Artifacts in blood velocity estimation using ultrasound and cross-correlation

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    Estimation of blood velocities using ultrasound and time-domain cross-correlation is investigated. The measurement principle is introduced, and the basic properties of the cross-correlation function are discussed. Expressions for the variance of the estimates of the peak location are given, showing...

  16. Cross-correlations between price and volume in Chinese gold markets

    Ruan, Qingsong; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Guofeng

    2016-06-01

    We apply the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlation behaviors between price and volume in Chinese gold spot and futures markets. Qualitatively, we find that the price and volume series are significantly cross-correlated using the cross-correlation test statistics Qcc(m) and the ρDCCA coefficients. Quantitatively, by employing the MF-DCCA analysis, we find that there is a power-law cross-correlation and significant multifractal features between price and volume in gold spot and futures markets. Furthermore, by comparing the multifractality of the original series to the shuffled and surrogated series, we find that, for the gold spot market, the main contribution of multifractality is fat-tail distribution; for the gold futures market, both long-range correlations and fat-tail distributions play important roles in the contribution of multifractality. Finally, by employing the method of rolling windows, we undertake further investigation into the time-varying features of the cross-correlations between price and volume. We find that for both spot and futures markets, the cross-correlations are anti-persistent in general. In the short term, the cross-correlation shows obvious fluctuations due to exogenous shocks while, in the long term, the relationship tends to be at a metastable level due to the dynamic mechanism.

  17. Implementation of ultrasound time-domain cross-correlation blood velocity estimators

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1993-01-01

    The implementation of real-time blood velocity estimators using time-domain cross-correlation is investigated. The basic algorithm for stationary echo canceling, cross-correlation estimation and subsequent velocity estimation is presented. Sampled data acquired at rates of approximately 20 MHz are...

  18. Stationary echo canceling in velocity estimation by time-domain cross-correlation

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1993-01-01

    The application of stationary echo canceling to ultrasonic estimation of blood velocities using time-domain cross-correlation is investigated. Expressions are derived that show the influence from the echo canceler on the signals that enter the cross-correlation estimator. It is demonstrated that...

  19. Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between the Chinese exchange market and stock market

    Cao, Guangxi; Xu, Longbing; Cao, Jie

    2012-10-01

    Based on the daily price data of the Chinese Yuan (RMB)/US dollar exchange rate and the Shanghai Stock Composite Index, we conducted an empirical analysis of the cross-correlations between the Chinese exchange market and stock market using the multifractal cross-correlation analysis method. The results demonstrate the overall significance of the cross-correlation based on the analysis of a statistic. Multifractality exists in cross-correlations, and the cross-correlated behavior of small fluctuations is more persistent than that of large fluctuations. Moreover, using the rolling windows method, we find that the cross-correlations between the Chinese exchange market and stock market vary with time and are especially sensitive to the reform of the RMB exchange rate regime. The previous reduction in the flexibility of the RMB exchange rate in July 2008 strengthened the persistence of cross-correlations and decreased the degree of multifractality, whereas the enhancement of the flexibility of the RMB exchange rate in June 2010 weakened the persistence of cross-correlations and increased the multifractality. Finally, several relevant discussions are provided to verify the robustness of our empirical analysis.

  20. X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics Standard

    Daly, Leonard; Brutzman, Don

    2007-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2007.905889 Extensible 3D (X3D) is the open standard for Web-delivered three-dimensional (3D) graphics. It specifies a declarative geometry definition language, a run-time engine, and an application program interface (API) that provide an interactive, animated, real-time environment for 3D graphics. The X3D specification documents are freely available, the standard can be used without paying any royalties,...

  1. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  2. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  3. 3D modelling and recognition

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Robinson, Alan; Alboul, Lyuba; Brink, Willie

    2006-01-01

    3D face recognition is an open field. In this paper we present a method for 3D facial recognition based on Principal Components Analysis. The method uses a relatively large number of facial measurements and ratios and yields reliable recognition. We also highlight our approach to sensor development for fast 3D model acquisition and automatic facial feature extraction.

  4. Cross-Correlations between Energy and Emissions Markets: New Evidence from Fractal and Multifractal Analysis

    Gang-Jin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We supply a new perspective to describe and understand the behavior of cross-correlations between energy and emissions markets. Namely, we investigate cross-correlations between oil and gas (Oil-Gas, oil and CO2 (Oil-CO2, and gas and CO2 (Gas-CO2 based on fractal and multifractal analysis. We focus our study on returns of the oil, gas, and CO2 during the period of April 22, 2005–April 30, 2013. In the empirical analysis, by using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA method, we find that cross-correlations for Oil-Gas, Oil-CO2, and Gas-CO2 obey a power-law and are weakly persistent. Then, we adopt the method of DCCA cross-correlation coefficient to quantify cross-correlations between energy and emissions markets. The results show that their cross-correlations are diverse at different time scales. Next, based on the multifractal DCCA method, we find that cross-correlated markets have the nonlinear and multifractal nature and that the multifractality strength for three cross-correlated markets is arranged in the order of Gas-CO2 > Oil-Gas > Oil-CO2. Finally, by employing the rolling windows method, which can be used to investigate time-varying cross-correlation scaling exponents, we analyze short-term and long-term market dynamics and find that the recent global financial crisis has a notable influence on short-term and long-term market dynamics.

  5. 3-D contextual Bayesian classifiers

    Larsen, Rasmus

    distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is made of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend these algorithms to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3......-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distributions within the 3-D cross given in 2-D algorithms. The new 3-D algorithms are tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset....

  6. Taming Supersymmetric Defects in 3d-3d Correspondence

    Gang, Dongmin; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group $SL(N,\\mathbb{C})$, in the context of its relation with 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d $(2,0)$ theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold $\\hat{M}$. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d $SL(N,\\mathbb{C})$ Chern-Simons theory, in 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theory, in 5d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper, which contains more details and more results.

  7. Detrended partial cross-correlation analysis of two nonstationary time series influenced by common external forces

    Qian, Xi-Yuan; Liu, Ya-Min; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-06-01

    When common factors strongly influence two power-law cross-correlated time series recorded in complex natural or social systems, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) without considering these common factors will bias the results. We use detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPXA) to uncover the intrinsic power-law cross correlations between two simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity after removing the effects of other time series acting as common forces. The DPXA method is a generalization of the detrended cross-correlation analysis that takes into account partial correlation analysis. We demonstrate the method by using bivariate fractional Brownian motions contaminated with a fractional Brownian motion. We find that the DPXA is able to recover the analytical cross Hurst indices, and thus the multiscale DPXA coefficients are a viable alternative to the conventional cross-correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the advantage of the DPXA coefficients over the DCCA coefficients by analyzing contaminated bivariate fractional Brownian motions. We calculate the DPXA coefficients and use them to extract the intrinsic cross correlation between crude oil and gold futures by taking into consideration the impact of the U.S. dollar index. We develop the multifractal DPXA (MF-DPXA) method in order to generalize the DPXA method and investigate multifractal time series. We analyze multifractal binomial measures masked with strong white noises and find that the MF-DPXA method quantifies the hidden multifractal nature while the multifractal DCCA method fails.

  8. Cross-correlation between thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    Creque-Sarbinowski, Cyril; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Large-angle fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature induced by the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect and Compton-y distortions from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect are both due to line-of-sight density perturbations. Here we calculate the cross-correlation between these two signals. Measurement of this cross-correlation can be used to test the redshift distribution of the tSZ distortion. We also evaluate the detectability of a yT cross-correlation from exotic early-Universe sources in the presence of this late-time effect.

  9. Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis of Market Clearing Price of electricity and SENSEX in India

    Ghosh, Dipak; Dutta, Srimonti; Chakraborty, Sayantan

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports a study on the cross-correlation between the electric bid price and SENSEX using Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis (MF-DXA). MF-DXA is a very rigorous and robust technique for assessment of cross-correction between two non-linear time series. The study reveals power law cross-correlation between Market Clearing Price (MCP) and SENSEX which suggests that a change in the value of one can create a subjective change in the value of the other.

  10. An automatic approach for 3D registration of CT scans

    Hu, Yang; Saber, Eli; Dianat, Sohail; Vantaram, Sreenath Rao; Abhyankar, Vishwas

    2012-03-01

    CT (Computed tomography) is a widely employed imaging modality in the medical field. Normally, a volume of CT scans is prescribed by a doctor when a specific region of the body (typically neck to groin) is suspected of being abnormal. The doctors are required to make professional diagnoses based upon the obtained datasets. In this paper, we propose an automatic registration algorithm that helps healthcare personnel to automatically align corresponding scans from 'Study' to 'Atlas'. The proposed algorithm is capable of aligning both 'Atlas' and 'Study' into the same resolution through 3D interpolation. After retrieving the scanned slice volume in the 'Study' and the corresponding volume in the original 'Atlas' dataset, a 3D cross correlation method is used to identify and register various body parts.

  11. 3D Printing Functional Nanocomposites

    Leong, Yew Juan

    2016-01-01

    3D printing presents the ability of rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing. Techniques such as stereolithography (SLA) and fused deposition molding (FDM) have been developed and utilized since the inception of 3D printing. In such techniques, polymers represent the most commonly used material for 3D printing due to material properties such as thermo plasticity as well as its ability to be polymerized from monomers. Polymer nanocomposites are polymers with nanomaterials composited into the ...

  12. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  13. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  14. 3D for Graphic Designers

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  15. A 3-D Contextual Classifier

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    . This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is m ade of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend this algorithm to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian...... distr ibution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distribution within the 3-D cross. The algorithm is tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset....

  16. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  17. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  18. 3-D printers for libraries

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  19. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie;

    2012-01-01

    We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one...... method involves the time-domain cross-correlation of signal recorded at different stations; the other is based on frequency-domain cross-correlation, and requires finding the zero-crossings of the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum. Furthermore, the time-domain method, as implemented here and in...... the literature, practically involves the important approximation that interstation distance be large compared to seismic wavelength. In both cases, cross-correlations are ensemble-averaged over a relatively long period of time (1 yr). We verify that the two algorithms give consistent results, and...

  20. A New Method For Mitigation Of Cross Correlation In GPS Receiver

    2010-01-01

    <正>An algorithm for GPS receiver performing to mitigate cross correlations between weak satellite signal and strong satellite signals is presented.By using the tracking result of strong signal,the cross-correlation and cross correlation sequence between weak signals and strong signal can be computed,further modifying the local generate C/A code to drive the cross correlation to zero. The advantage of this method is that it does not require estimation of the strong signal amplitude and it partially independent of the data bit value.Simulation result shows it can eliminate the interference of 75%,and this method is at the cost of sensitivity loss of 0.28dB.

  1. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station-station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie; Ekström, Göran; Zunino, Andrea; Giardini, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    International audience We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one method involves the time-domain cross-correlation of signal recorded at different stations; the other is based on frequency-domain cross-correlation, and requires finding the ze...

  2. Vector velocity estimation using directional beam forming and cross-correlation

    2000-01-01

    The two-dimensional velocity vector using a pulsed ultrasound field can be determined with the invention. The method uses a focused ultrasound field along the velocity direction for probing the moving medium under investigation. Several pulses are emitted and the focused received fields along the...... velocity direction are cross-correlated. The time shift between received signals is found from the peak in the cross-correlation function and the velocity is thereby determined....

  3. Cross-correlation between the cosmic microwave and infrared backgrounds for integrated Sachs-Wolfe detection

    Ilic, S.; Douspis, M.; Langer, M.; Pénin, A.; Lagache, G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the cross-correlation between the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies due to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. We first describe the CIB anisotropies using a linearly biased power spectrum, valid on the angular scales of interest. From this, we derive the theoretical angular power spectrum of the CMB-CIB cross-correlation for different instruments and frequencies. Our cross-spectra show similarities in shape with usual CMB/...

  4. Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis for Large-Scale Warehouse-Out Behaviors

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Zheng, Xu-Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Based on cross-correlation algorithm, we analyze the correlation property of warehouse-out quantity of different warehouses, respectively, and different products of each warehouse. Our study identifies that significant cross-correlation relationship for warehouse-out quantity exists among different warehouses and different products of a warehouse. Further, we take multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis for warehouse-out quantity among different warehouses and different products of a warehouse. The results show that for the warehouse-out behaviors of total amount, different warehouses and different products of a warehouse significantly follow multifractal property. Specifically for each warehouse, the coupling relationships of rebar and wire rod reveal long-term memory characteristics, no matter for large fluctuation or small one. The cross-correlation effect on long-range memory property among warehouses probably has less to do with product types,and the long-term memory of YZ warehouse is greater than others especially in total amount and wire rod product. Finally, we shuffle and surrogate data to explore the source of multifractal cross-correlation property in logistics system. Taking the total amount of warehouse-out quantity as example, we confirm that the fat-tail distribution of warehouse-out quantity sequences is the main factor for multifractal cross-correlation. Through comparing the performance of the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), centered multifractal detrending moving average cross-correlation analysis (MF-X-DMA) algorithms, the forward and backward MF-X-DMA algorithms, we find that the forward and backward MF-X-DMA algorithms exhibit a better performance than the other ones.

  5. Construction Zero Cross Correlation Code using Permutation Matrix for SAC-OCDMA Systems

    Nisar, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper present a new method for constructing zero cross correlation code with the help of permutation matrices. The benefits of this newly proposed code are easy way code construction, the code weight exist for every natural number and the code length is acceptable. The numerical comparison shows that the proposed code has better or compatible code length compared with other existing zero cross correlation code in Optical Spectrum Code Division Multiple Access (OSCDMA) systems.

  6. Investigation of interface roughness cross-correlation properties of optical thin films from total scattering losses

    The interface roughness and interface roughness cross-correlation properties affect the scattering losses of high-quality optical thin films. In this paper, the theoretical models of light scattering induced by surface and interface roughness of optical thin films are concisely presented. Furthermore, influence of interface roughness cross-correlation properties to light scattering is analyzed by total scattering losses. Moreover, single-layer TiO2 thin film thickness, substrate roughness of K9 glass and ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique effect on interface roughness cross-correlation properties are studied by experiments, respectively. A 17-layer dielectric quarter-wave high reflection multilayer is analyzed by total scattering losses. The results show that the interface roughness cross-correlation properties depend on TiO2 thin film thickness, substrate roughness and deposition technique. The interface roughness cross-correlation properties decrease with the increase of film thickness or the decrease of substrates roughness. Furthermore, ion beam assisted deposition technique can increase the interface roughness cross-correlation properties of optical thin films. The measured total scattering losses of 17-layer dielectric quarter-wave high reflection multilayer deposited with IBAD indicate that completely correlated interface model can be observed, when substrate roughness is about 2.84 nm.

  7. Improvement of 3D Scanner

    2003-01-01

    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  8. 3D Printing for Bricks

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  9. Modular 3-D Transport model

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  10. Using 3D in Visualization

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen;

    2005-01-01

    The notion of three-dimensionality is applied to five stages of the visualization pipeline. While 3D visulization is most often associated with the visual mapping and representation of data, this chapter also identifies its role in the management and assembly of data, and in the media used...... to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  12. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  13. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  14. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  15. 5-axis 3D Printer

    Grutle, Øyvind Kallevik

    2015-01-01

    3D printers have in recent years become extremely popular. Even though 3D printing technology have existed since the late 1980's, it is now considered one of the most significant technological breakthroughs of the twenty-first century. Several different 3D printing processes have been invented during the years. But it is the fused deposition modeling (FDM) which was one of the first invented that is considered the most popular today. Even though the FDM process is the most popular, it still s...

  16. Handbook of 3D integration

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  17. Exploration of 3D Printing

    Lin, Zeyu

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  18. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    Pihlajamäki, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  19. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  20. 3-D neutron transport benchmarks

    A set of 3-D neutron transport benchmark problems proposed by the Osaka University to NEACRP in 1988 has been calculated by many participants and the corresponding results are summarized in this report. The results of Keff, control rod worth and region-averaged fluxes for the four proposed core models, calculated by using various 3-D transport codes are compared and discussed. The calculational methods used were: Monte Carlo, Discrete Ordinates (Sn), Spherical Harmonics (Pn), Nodal Transport and others. The solutions of the four core models are quite useful as benchmarks for checking the validity of 3-D neutron transport codes

  1. 3D on the internet

    Puntar, Matej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the presentation of already established and new technologies of displaying 3D content in a web browser. The thesis begins with a short presentation of the history of 3D content available on the internet and its development together with advantages and disadvantages of individual technologies. The latter two are described in detail as well is their use and the differences among them. Special emphasis has been given to WebGL, the newest technology of 3D conte...

  2. Upper bound for the time derivative of entropy for a dynamical system driven by coloured cross-correlated white noises

    Xie Wen-Xian; Xu Wei; Cai Li; Jin Yan-Fei

    2005-01-01

    It is shown how the cross-correlation time and strength of coloured cross-correlated white noises can set an upper bound for the time derivative of entropy in a nonequilibrium system. The value of upper bound can be calculateddirectly based on the Schwartz inequality principle and the Fokker-Planck equation of the dynamical system driven by coloured cross-correlated white noises. The present calculations can be used to interpret the interplay of the dissipative constant and cross-correlation time and strength of coloured cross-correlated white noises on the upper bound.

  3. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  4. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi;

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...

  5. Main: TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D [PLACE

    Full Text Available TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D S000256 01-August-2006 (last modified) kehi TATCCAY motif found in rice (O. ... otif and G motif (see S000130) are responsible for sugar ... repression (Toyofuku et al. 1998); GATA; amylase; ...

  6. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  7. 3D Face Appearance Model

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  8. 3D Face Apperance Model

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  9. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  10. Detrended fluctuation analysis made flexible to detect range of cross-correlated fluctuations

    Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Drozdz, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    The detrended cross-correlation coefficient $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ has recently been proposed to quantify the strength of cross-correlations on different temporal scales in bivariate, non-stationary time series. It is based on the detrended cross-correlation and detrended fluctuation analyses (DCCA and DFA, respectively) and can be viewed as an analogue of the Pearson coefficient in the case of the fluctuation analysis. The coefficient $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ works well in many practical situations but by construction its applicability is limited to detection of whether two signals are generally cross-correlated, without possibility to obtain information on the amplitude of fluctuations that are responsible for those cross-correlations. In order to introduce some related flexibility, here we propose an extension of $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ that exploits the multifractal versions of DFA and DCCA: MFDFA and MFCCA, respectively. The resulting new coefficient $\\rho_q$ not only is able to quantify the strength of correlations, but ...

  11. Cross-correlation measurements with the EJ-299-33 plastic scintillator

    New organic–plastic scintillation compositions have demonstrated pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) of neutrons and gamma rays. We present cross-correlation measurements of 252Cf and mixed uranium–plutonium oxide (MOX) with the EJ-299-33 plastic scintillator. For comparison, equivalent measurements were performed with an EJ-309 liquid scintillator. Offline, digital PSD was applied to each detector. These measurements show that EJ-299-33 sacrifices a factor of 5 in neutron–neutron efficiency relative to EJ-309, but could still utilize the difference in neutron–neutron efficiency and neutron single-to-double ratio to distinguish 252Cf from MOX. These measurements were modeled with MCNPX-PoliMi, and MPPost was used to convert the detailed collision history into simulated cross-correlation distributions. MCNPX-PoliMi predicted the measured 252Cf cross-correlation distribution for EJ-309 to within 10%. Greater photon uncertainty in the MOX sample led to larger discrepancy in the simulated MOX cross-correlation distribution. The modeled EJ-299-33 plastic also gives reasonable agreement with measured cross-correlation distributions, although the MCNPX-PoliMi model appears to under-predict the neutron detection efficiency

  12. Cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC

    Ma, Feng; Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the cross-correlation properties between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC. We use not only the qualitative analysis of the cross-correlation test, but also take the quantitative analysis of the MF-DXA, confirming the cross-correlation relationship between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) respectively, which have strongly multifractal features, and the cross-correlations are more strongly multifractal in the short term than in the long term. Furthermore, based on the multifractal spectrum, we also find the multifractality strength between the crude oil WTI and Chinese stock market is stronger than the multifractality strength of other pairs. Based on the Iraq war (Mar 20, 2003) and the Financial crisis in 2008, we divide sample period into four segments to research the degree of the multifractal (ΔH) and the market efficiency (and the risk). Finally, we employ the technique of the rolling window to calculate the time-varying EI (efficiency index) and dependent on the EI, we can easily observe the change of stock markets. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between bivariate cross-correlation exponents (Hxy(q)) and the generalized Hurst exponents.

  13. Long-range cross-correlation between urban impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua; Man, Wang

    2016-03-01

    The thermal effect of urban impervious surfaces (UIS) is a complex problem. It is thus necessary to study the relationship between UIS and land surface temperatures (LST) using complexity science theory and methods. This paper investigates the long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST with detrended cross-correlation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, utilizing data from downtown Shanghai, China. UIS estimates were obtained from linear spectral mixture analysis, and LST was retrieved through application of the mono-window algorithm, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data for 1997-2010. These results highlight a positive long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST across People's Square in Shanghai. LST has a long memory for a certain spatial range of UIS values, such that a large increment in UIS is likely to be followed by a large increment in LST. While the multifractal long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST was observed over a longer time period in the W-E direction (2002-2010) than in the N-S (2007-2010), these observed correlations show a weakening during the study period as urbanization increased.

  14. From 3D view to 3D print

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  15. Evaluation of the cross-correlation method and the size of AGN emission-line regions

    A probablistic way to evaluate the significance of the cross-correlation method, as applied to the measurement of active galactic nuclei (AGN) emission-line region sizes has been developed. The distribution function, denoted CCPD (cross-correlation peak distribution) is calculated numerically for any continuum light curve and gas distribution. It enables us to estimate the probability of getting a certain value for the broad line region (BLR) dimensions from cross-correlation. We apply the method to the published data for Akn 120 and NGC 4151 and investigate the results obtained so far. In contrast to previous studies of this kind, we find that the significance of the results depends strongly on the assumptions concerning the BLR geometry and the continuum variability time-scale. (author)

  16. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of genome sequences using chaos-game representation

    Pal, Mayukha; Kiran, V. Satya; Rao, P. Madhusudana; Manimaran, P.

    2016-08-01

    We characterized the multifractal nature and power law cross-correlation between any pair of genome sequence through an integrative approach combining 2D multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis and chaos game representation. In this paper, we have analyzed genomes of some prokaryotes and calculated fractal spectra h(q) and f(α) . From our analysis, we observed existence of multifractal nature and power law cross-correlation behavior between any pair of genome sequences. Cluster analysis was performed on the calculated scaling exponents to identify the class affiliation and the same is represented as a dendrogram. We suggest this approach may find applications in next generation sequence analysis, big data analytics etc.

  17. Cross-correlation of output fluctuation and system-balancing cost in photovoltaic integration

    Yuichi Ikeda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors analysed the cross-correlation of photovoltaic (PV output fluctuation for the actual PV output time series data in both the Tokyo area and the whole of Japan using the principal component analysis with the random matrix theory. Based on the obtained cross-correlation coefficients, the forecast error for PV output was estimated with/without considering the cross-correlations. Then the operation schedule of thermal plants is calculated to integrate PV output using the proposed unit commitment model with the estimated forecast error. The system-balancing cost of PV system was also estimated with or without demand response. Finally, validity of the concept of ‘local production for local consumption of renewable energy’ and alternative policy implications were discussed.

  18. Baryon acoustic oscillations with the cross-correlation of spectroscopic and photometric samples

    Nishizawa, Atsushi J; Takada, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) experiment requires a sufficiently dense sampling of large-scale structure tracers with spectroscopic redshift, which is observationally expensive especially at high redshifts $z\\simgt 1$. Here we present an alternative route of the BAO analysis that uses the cross-correlation of sparse spectroscopic tracers with a much denser photometric sample, where the spectroscopic tracers can be quasars or bright, rare galaxies that are easier to access spectroscopically. We show that measurements of the cross-correlation as a function of the transverse comoving separation rather than the angular separation avoid a smearing of the BAO feature without mixing the different scales at different redshifts in the projection, even for a wide redshift slice $\\Delta z\\simeq 1$. The bias, scatter, and catastrophic redshift errors of the photometric sample affect only the overall normalization of the cross-correlation which can be marginalized over when constraining the angular diameter distan...

  19. Needlet estimation of cross-correlation between CMB lensing maps and LSS

    Bianchini, Federico; Marinucci, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop a novel needlet-based estimator to investigate the cross-correlation between cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing maps and large-scale structure (LSS) data. We compare this estimator with its harmonic counterpart and, in particular, we analyze the bias effects of different forms of masking. In order to address this bias, we also implement a MASTER-like technique in the needlet case. The resulting estimator turns out to have an extremely good signal-to-noise performance. Our analysis aims at expanding and optimizing the operating domains in CMB-LSS cross-correlation studies, similarly to CMB needlet data analysis. It is motivated especially by next generation experiments (such as Euclid) which will allow us to derive much tighter constraints on cosmological and astrophysical parameters through cross-correlation measurements between CMB and LSS.

  20. One-factor model for the cross-correlation matrix in the Vietnamese stock market

    Nguyen, Quang

    2013-07-01

    Random matrix theory (RMT) has been applied to the analysis of the cross-correlation matrix of a financial time series. The most important findings of previous studies using this method are that the eigenvalue spectrum largely follows that of random matrices but the largest eigenvalue is at least one order of magnitude higher than the maximum eigenvalue predicted by RMT. In this work, we investigate the cross-correlation matrix in the Vietnamese stock market using RMT and find similar results to those of studies realized in developed markets (US, Europe, Japan) [9-18] as well as in other emerging markets[20,21,19,22]. Importantly, we found that the largest eigenvalue could be approximated by the product of the average cross-correlation coefficient and the number of stocks studied. We demonstrate this dependence using a simple one-factor model. The model could be extended to describe other characteristics of the realistic data.

  1. A phenomenological model for the interpretation of velocities measured in BWRs by cross-correlation techniques

    We present a simple phenomenological analytical model for the interpretation of the velocities measured in BWR rod bundles by cross-correlation techniques. Additionally, we shall show that the peaks of the cross-correlation function can give a better estimate of the velocities than the slope(s) of the phase. The model is based on the assumption that at a given axial elevation, the radial two-phase flow velocity profile is due to the different independent velocities in the different types of subchannels, rather than to a radially continuously changing profile. This assumption is realistic, and helps us to formulate a simple analytical model and understand the experimental results, which is the main scope of the present work. Our model can explain qualitatively the origin of the velocities measured either by neutron or gamma cross-correlation techniques as well as interpret a number of experimental results. (author)

  2. Velocity Distribution Measurement Using Pixel-Pixel Cross Correlation of Electrical Tomography

    DENGXiang; PENGLihui; YAODanya; ZHANGBaofen

    2004-01-01

    Electrical tomography (ET) provides a novel means of visualizing the internal behavior of twophase flow in industrial process. Using a dual-sensingplane Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) or Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system, the raw data of two different section images can be acquired synchronously and the two images reflecting the inner medium distribution respectively can also be reconstructed by using imaging algorithm. Further, the analysis of pixel-pixel cross correlation is able to be setup and the measurement of velocity distribution of two-phase flow could be achieved. The principle is described in the paper. The FFT algorithm for gray value computation and cross correlation function calculation is also introduced. Some experimental results of velocity distribution measurement using pixelpixel cross correlation in vertical slug flow are presented.

  3. Nonlinear Analysis on Cross-Correlation of Financial Time Series by Continuum Percolation System

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun

    We establish a financial price process by continuum percolation system, in which we attribute price fluctuations to the investors’ attitudes towards the financial market, and consider the clusters in continuum percolation as the investors share the same investment opinion. We investigate the cross-correlations in two return time series, and analyze the multifractal behaviors in this relationship. Further, we study the corresponding behaviors for the real stock indexes of SSE and HSI as well as the liquid stocks pair of SPD and PAB by comparison. To quantify the multifractality in cross-correlation relationship, we employ multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis method to perform an empirical research for the simulation data and the real markets data.

  4. Cross-correlation analysis of stock markets using EMD and EEMD

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2016-01-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is a data-driven signal analysis method for nonlinear and nonstationary data. Since it is intuitive, direct, posterior and adaptive, EMD is widely applied to various fields of study. In this paper, EMD and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), a modified method of EMD, are applied to financial time series. Through analyzing the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of EMD and EEMD, we find EEMD method performs better on the orthogonality of IMFs than EMD. With clustering the ordered frequencies of IMFs, the IMFs obtained from EEMD method are grouped into high-, medium-, and low-frequency components, representing the short-, medium-, and long-term volatilities of the index sequences, respectively. With the cross-correlation analysis of DCCA cross-correlation coefficient, our findings allow us to gain further and detailed insight into the cross-correlations of stock markets.

  5. Cross-Correlation Earthquake Precursors in the Hydrogeochemical and Geoacoustic Signals for the Kamchatka Peninsula

    Ryabinin, G V; Polyakov, Yu S; Timashev, S F

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new type of earthquake precursor based on the analysis of correlation dynamics between geophysical signals of different nature. The precursor is found using a two-parameter cross-correlation function introduced within the framework of flicker-noise spectroscopy, a general statistical physics approach to the analysis of time series. We consider an example of cross-correlation analysis for water salinity time series, an integral characteristic of the chemical composition of groundwater, and geoacoustic emissions recorded at the G-1 borehole on the Kamchatka peninsula in the time frame from 2001 to 2003, which is characterized by a sequence of three groups of significant seismic events. We found that cross-correlation precursors took place 27, 31, and 35 days ahead of the strongest earthquakes for each group of seismic events, respectively. At the same time, precursory anomalies in the signals themselves were observed only in the geoacoustic emissions for one group of earthquakes.

  6. Statistical analysis on multifractal detrended cross-correlation coefficient for return interval by oriented percolation

    Deng, Wei; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    We investigate and quantify the multifractal detrended cross-correlation of return interval series for Chinese stock markets and a proposed price model, the price model is established by oriented percolation. The return interval describes the waiting time between two successive price volatilities which are above some threshold, the present work is an attempt to quantify the level of multifractal detrended cross-correlation for the return intervals. Further, the concept of MF-DCCA coefficient of return intervals is introduced, and the corresponding empirical research is performed. The empirical results show that the return intervals of SSE and SZSE are weakly positive multifractal power-law cross-correlated, and exhibit the fluctuation patterns of MF-DCCA coefficients. The similar behaviors of return intervals for the price model is also demonstrated.

  7. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  8. Detrended fluctuation analysis made flexible to detect range of cross-correlated fluctuations

    Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświecimka, Paweł; DroŻdŻ, Stanisław

    2015-11-01

    The detrended cross-correlation coefficient ρDCCA has recently been proposed to quantify the strength of cross-correlations on different temporal scales in bivariate, nonstationary time series. It is based on the detrended cross-correlation and detrended fluctuation analyses (DCCA and DFA, respectively) and can be viewed as an analog of the Pearson coefficient in the case of the fluctuation analysis. The coefficient ρDCCA works well in many practical situations but by construction its applicability is limited to detection of whether two signals are generally cross-correlated, without the possibility to obtain information on the amplitude of fluctuations that are responsible for those cross-correlations. In order to introduce some related flexibility, here we propose an extension of ρDCCA that exploits the multifractal versions of DFA and DCCA: multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, respectively. The resulting new coefficient ρq not only is able to quantify the strength of correlations but also allows one to identify the range of detrended fluctuation amplitudes that are correlated in two signals under study. We show how the coefficient ρq works in practical situations by applying it to stochastic time series representing processes with long memory: autoregressive and multiplicative ones. Such processes are often used to model signals recorded from complex systems and complex physical phenomena like turbulence, so we are convinced that this new measure can successfully be applied in time-series analysis. In particular, we present an example of such application to highly complex empirical data from financial markets. The present formulation can straightforwardly be extended to multivariate data in terms of the q -dependent counterpart of the correlation matrices and then to the network representation.

  9. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  10. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  11. Novel 3D media technologies

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  12. 3D future internet media

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  13. The cross-correlation analysis in Z source GX 349+2

    Ding, G. Q.; Zhang, W. Y.; Y. N. Wang; Z.B. Li; Qu, J. L.; Huang, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Using all the observations from Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer for Z source GX 349+2, we systematically carry out cross-correlation analysis between its soft and hard X-ray light curves. During the observations from January 9 to January 29, 1998, GX 349+2 traced out the most extensive Z track on its hardness-intensity diagram, making a comprehensive study of cross-correlation on the track. The positive correlations and positively correlated time lags are detected throughout the Z track. Outside ...

  14. Influence of cross correlations on interdiffusion in Al-rich Al-Ni melts

    Sondermann, Elke; Kargl, Florian; Meyer, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The relation of self- and interdiffusion in a liquid metal, particularly the influence of cross correlations at low concentrations, is studied experimentally. Accurate interdiffusion data are obtained by a combination of x-ray radiography with the shear-cell method on the ground and on the sounding rocket MAPHEUS under microgravity conditions. Self-diffusion coefficients, measured by quasielastic neutron scattering, increase with decreasing Ni concentration, whereas interdiffusion coefficients are about constant. We show that cross correlations influence interdiffusion even at concentrations as low as 2 at. % Ni. Consequently, Darken's equation is not valid in this case.

  15. Increasing market efficiency: Evolution of cross-correlations of stock returns

    Tóth, B; Toth, Bence; Kertesz, Janos

    2005-01-01

    We analyse the temporal changes in the cross correlations of returns on the New York Stock Exchange. We show that lead-lag relationships between daily returns of stocks vanished in less than twenty years. We have found that even for high frequency data the asymmetry of time dependent cross-correlation functions has a decreasing tendency, the position of their peaks are shifted towards the origin while these peaks become sharper and higher, resulting in a diminution of the Epps effect. All these findings indicate that the market becomes increasingly efficient.

  16. Theoretical basis of non-intrusive ultrasonic cross correlation flow measurement technology

    The non-intrusive ultrasonic cross correlation flow meter CROSSFLOW, developed and manufactured by Advanced Measurement and Analysis Group Inc. (AMAG) is installed in nuclear reactors in Canada and around the world. AMAG and De Montfort University (UK) are cooperating in an ongoing research project to develop a theoretical basis for cross correlation flow measurement technology, with the goal of improving measurement accuracy. The project involves theoretical development, laboratory testing, and computational flow simulations. This paper describes the recent progress of this project. (author)

  17. Seismicity of the North Atlantic as measured by the International Data Centre using waveform cross correlation

    Kitov, Ivan; Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The Technical Secretariat (TS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) will carry out the verification of the CTBT which obligates each State Party not to carry out nuclear explosions. The International Data Centre (IDC) receives, collects, processes, analyses, reports on and archives data from the International Monitoring System. The IDC is responsible for automatic and interactive processing of the International Monitoring System (IMS) data and for standard IDC products. The IDC is also required by the Treaty to progressively enhance its technical capabilities. In this study, we use waveform cross correlation as a technique to improve the detection capability and reliability of the seismic part of the IMS. In order to quantitatively estimate the gain obtained by cross correlation on the current sensitivity of automatic and interactive processing we compared seismic bulletins built for the North Atlantic (NA), which is a seismically isolated region with earthquakes concentrating around the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This allows avoiding the spill-over of mislocated events between adjacent seismic regions and biases in the final bulletins: the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued by the IDC and the cross correlation Standard Event List (XSEL). To begin with, we cross correlated waveforms recorded at 18 IMS array stations from ~1500 events reported in the REB between 2009 and 2011. The resulting cross correlation matrix revealed the best candidates for master events. We have selected 60 master events evenly distributed over the seismically active zone in the NA. High-quality signals (SNR>5.0) recorded by 10 most sensitive array stations were used as waveform templates. These templates are used for a continuous calculation of cross correlation coefficients in the first half of 2012. All detections obtained by cross-correlation are then used to build events according to the current IDC definition: at least three primary stations with accurate

  18. The Velocity Analysis of Woven Glass Fiber Composites Using Cross-correlation Properties

    This paper discusses experimental results obtained by the potentiality of cross-correlation function as a tool for analyzing propagation of wave in an aluminum and a woven glass fiber composite. Each propagated wave has its own characteristic time delay, and examination of the cross-correlation of input and output signal give the most proper wave velocity and significant path. Using the above distinctive features, we observed the propagation velocity for the aluminum alloy and a woven glass fiber composite more accurately and easily then the common methods. The fiber locations of this composite also determined by the basis of these results

  19. Tentative Detection of Quasar Feedback from WMAP and SDSS Cross-Correlation

    Chatterjee, Suchetana; Ho, Shirley; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    We perform a cross-correlation analysis of microwave data from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and photometric quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, testing for Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect from quasars. A statistically significant (2.5 $\\sigma$) temperature decrement exists in the 41 GHz microwave band. A two-component fit to the cross-correlation spectrum incorporating both dust emission and SZ yields a best-fit $y$ parameter of $(7.0 \\pm 3.4)\\times 10^{-7}$. A similar cross-corr...

  20. The Virgo - MiniGRAIL cross correlation for the detection of scalar gravitational waves

    Corda, Christian

    2007-01-01

    After a review of the frequency - dependent angular pattern of interferometers in the TT gauge for scalar gravitational waves (SGWs), which has been recently analysed by Capozziello and Corda, in this letter the result is used to study the cross correlation between the Virgo interferometer and the MiniGRAIL resonant sphere. It is shown that the overlap reduction function for the cross correlation bewteen Virgo and the monopole mode of MiniGRAIL is very small, but a maximum is also found in th...

  1. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    Halamíček, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  2. 3D Imager and Method for 3D imaging

    Kumar, P.; Staszewski, R.; Charbon, E.

    2013-01-01

    3D imager comprising at least one pixel, each pixel comprising a photodetectorfor detecting photon incidence and a time-to-digital converter system configured for referencing said photon incidence to a reference clock, and further comprising a reference clock generator provided for generating the re

  3. Validation of TRAB-3D

    TRAB-3D is a reactor dynamics code with three-dimensional neutronics coupled to core and circuit thermal-hydraulics. The code, entirely developed at VTT, can be used in transient and accident analyses of boiling (BWR) and pressurized water (PWR) reactors with rectangular fuel bundle geometry. The validation history of TRAB-3D includes calculation of international benchmark exercises, as well as comparisons with measured data from real plant transients. The most recent validation case is a load rejection test performed at the Olkiluoto 1 nuclear power plant in 1998 in connection with the power uprating project. The fact that there is local power measurement data available from this test makes it a suitable case for three-dimensional core model validation. The agreement between the results of the TRAB-3D calculation and the measurements is very good. (orig.)

  4. Crowded Field 3D Spectroscopy

    Becker, T; Roth, M M; Becker, Thomas; Fabrika, Sergei; Roth, Martin M.

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative spectroscopy of stellar objects in complex environments is mainly limited by the ability of separating the object from the background. Standard slit spectroscopy, restricting the field of view to one dimension, is obviously not the proper technique in general. The emerging Integral Field (3D) technique with spatially resolved spectra of a two-dimensional field of view provides a great potential for applying advanced subtraction methods. In this paper an image reconstruction algorithm to separate point sources and a smooth background is applied to 3D data. Several performance tests demonstrate the photometric quality of the method. The algorithm is applied to real 3D observations of a sample Planetary Nebula in M31, whose spectrum is contaminated by the bright and complex galaxy background. The ability of separating sources is also studied in a crowded stellar field in M33.

  5. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich;

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  6. 3D vector flow imaging

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  7. 3D-grafiikkamoottori mobiililaitteille

    Vahlman, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä käydään läpi mobiililaitteille suunnatun yksinkertaisen 3D-grafiikkamoottorin suunnittelu ja toteutus käyttäen OpenGL ES -rajapintaa. Työssä esitellään grafiikkamoottorin toteutuksessa käytettyjä tekniikoita sekä tutustutaan moottorin rakenteeseen ja toteutuksellisiin yksityiskohtiin. Työn alkupuolella tutustutaan myös modernin 3D-grafiikan yleisiin periaatteisiin ja toimintaan sekä käydään läpi 3D-grafiikkaan liittyviä suorituskykyongelmia. Työn loppupuolella esitel...

  8. 3D Computations and Experiments

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  9. 3D proton beam micromachining

    Focused high energy ion beam micromachining is the newest of the micromachining techniques. There are about 50 scanning proton microprobe facilities worldwide, but so far only few of them showed activity in this promising field. High energy ion beam micromachining using a direct-write scanning MeV ion beam is capable of producing 3D microstructures and components with well defined lateral and depth geometry. The technique has high potential in the manufacture of 3D molds, stamps, and masks for X-ray lithography (LIGA), and also in the rapid prototyping of microcomponents either for research purposes or for components testing prior to batch production. (R.P.)

  10. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  11. 3D Face Appearance Model

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}

  12. 3D Face Apperance Model

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations

  13. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  14. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu;

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  15. Viewing galaxies in 3D

    Krajnović, Davor

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to a technique that reveals galaxies in 3D, astronomers can now show that many galaxies have been wrongly classified. Davor Krajnovi\\'c argues that the classification scheme proposed 85 years ago by Edwin Hubble now needs to be revised.

  16. Characteristics of angular cross correlations studied by light scattering from two-dimensional microsphere films

    Schroer, M. A.; Gutt, C.; Grübel, G.

    2014-07-01

    Recently the analysis of scattering patterns by angular cross-correlation analysis (CCA) was introduced to reveal the orientational order in disordered samples with special focus to future applications on x-ray free-electron laser facilities. We apply this CCA approach to ultra-small-angle light-scattering data obtained from two-dimensional monolayers of microspheres. The films were studied in addition by optical microscopy. This combined approach allows to calculate the cross-correlations of the scattering patterns, characterized by the orientational correlation function Ψl(q), as well as to obtain the real-space structure of the monolayers. We show that CCA is sensitive to the orientational order of monolayers formed by the microspheres which are not directly visible from the scattering patterns. By mixing microspheres of different radii the sizes of ordered monolayer domains is reduced. For these samples it is shown that Ψl(q) quantitatively describes the degree of hexagonal order of the two-dimensional films. The experimental CCA results are compared with calculations based on the microscopy images. Both techniques show qualitatively similar features. Differences can be attributed to the wave-front distortion of the laser beam in the experiment. This effect is discussed by investigating the effect of different wave fronts on the cross-correlation analysis results. The so-determined characteristics of the cross-correlation analysis will be also relevant for future x-ray-based studies.

  17. Polymer Segmental Cross-Correlations from Dielectric Relaxation Spectra of Block Copolymers

    Phillies, George D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectra of block polymers containing sequential type-A dipoles are considered. Spectra of a specific set of block copolymers can be combined to isolate the dynamic cross-correlation between the motions of two distinct parts of the same polymer chain. Unlike past treatments of this problem, no model is assumed for the underlying polymer dynamics.

  18. Retrieving electric resistivity data from self-potential measurements by cross-correlation

    Slob, E.C.; Snieder, R.; Revil, A.

    2010-01-01

    We show that the two-point cross-correlation of self-potential field recordings is equal to the electric resistivity between the two points. This holds under the condition that spatially and temporally uncorrelated noise sources exist throughout the volume. These sources should have a known amplitud

  19. Earthquake-explosion discrimination using waveform cross-correlation technique for mines in southeast of Tehran

    Kahbasi, A.; Moradi, A.

    2016-04-01

    The presence of man-made explosions in a seismic catalogue leads to errors in statistical analyses of seismicity. Recently, the need to monitor man-made explosions used for mining, road excavating, and other constructional applications has been become a demanding challenge for the seismologists. In this way, we gain new insight into the cross-correlation technique and conduct this approach to discriminate explosions from seismic datasets. Following this, improved P-wave arrival times are used for more precise relocation. In this study, the waveform cross-correlation technique provides a reliable means for discriminating explosions which have cross-correlation coefficients (CC) of 0.6 or greater with their own corresponding stacked waveforms. The results illustrate that approximately 80 % of seismicity of southeast of Tehran, recorded by the Iranian Seismological Center (IRSC), includes events which have cross-correlation coefficients of ≥0.6 with their corresponding stacked waveforms. Furthermore, with improved P-wave arrival time, there is a better chance to relocate explosions precisely in the region under study.

  20. Cross-correlations between 21 cm,X-ray and infrared backgrounds

    Huan-Yuan Shan; Bo Qin

    2009-01-01

    The history of the cosmological reionization is still unclear. Two ionizing sources, stars and QSOs, are believed to play important roles during this epoch. Besides the 21 cm signals, the infrared emission from Pop Ⅲ stars and X-ray photons from QSOs can be powerful probes of the reionization. Here we present a cross-correlation study of the 21 cm, infrared and X-ray backgrounds. The advantage of doing such cross-correlations is that we could highlight the correlated signals and eliminate irrelevant fore-grounds. We develop a shell model to describe the 21 cm signals and find that PopⅢ stars can provide higher 21 cm signals than QSOs. Using the ROSAT data for X-ray and AKARI data for infrared, we predict various cross power spectra analytically and dis-cuss prospects for detecting these cross-correlation signals in future low frequency radio surveys. We find that, although these cross-correlational signals have distinct features, so far, they have been difficult to detect due to the high noise of the soft X-ray and infrared backgrounds given by ROSAT and AKARI.

  1. The importance of transport parameter cross correlations in natural systems radioactive transport models

    Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-03

    Transport parameter cross correlations are rarely considered in models used to predict radionuclide transport in natural systems. In this paper, it is shown that parameter cross correlations could have a significant impact on radionuclide transport predictions in saturated media. In fractured rock, the positive correlation between fracture apertures and groundwater residence times is shown to result in significantly less retardation due to matrix diffusion than is predicted without the correlation. The suppression of matrix diffusion is further amplified by a tendency toward larger apertures, smaller matrix diffusion coefficients, and less sorption capacity in rocks of lower matrix porosity. In a hypothetical example, strong cross correlations between these parameters result in a decrease in predicted radionuclide travel times of an order of magnitude or more relative to travel times calculated with uncorrelated parameters. In porous media, expected correlations between permeability, porosity, and sorption capacity also result in shorter predicted travel times than when the parameters are assumed to be uncorrelated. Individual parameter standard deviations can also have a significant influence on predicted radionuclide travel times, particularly when cross correlations are considered.

  2. Waveform cross-correlation and relocations for seismic events in the San Jacinto Fault Zone

    Galipchak, E.; Kurzon, I.; Vernon, F.; Pavlis, G. L.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a new approach for the relocation of local seismic events using waveform cross-correlation and automatic detection algorithm. This approach is developed and implemented for the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ), where recent cross-correlation and double-difference relocation methods (e.g., Hauksson et al. 2011) account up to ~75% of the seismic events, due to the complex nature of the SJFZ. The fault zone complexity features include a mismatch between the fault traces and seismicity clusters and strong heterogeneity of focal mechanisms. Our goal is to develop an efficient relocation method in which ~90% of the seismic events would be considered. The 'dbxcor' tool of the Antelope software package (e.g., Pavlis & Vernon 2010) is a graphic cross-correlation method involving an active reviewing of the cross-correlation process by a seismic analyst. The method is adjusted here for the analysis of local events from the original algorithm developed mainly for the processing of teleseismic events. The advantage of this approach is that the analyst may keep many of the waveforms that would have been dropped out due to the cross-correlation threshold, thereby increasing the percentage of events considered in the process. Moreover, the method allows an interactive demonstration and identification of different nearby source mechanisms, thus helping to examine the heterogeneity of the fault zone. A pre-request of the cross-correlation algorithm is the existence of arrivals for each waveform in the process. This required tuning a set of efficient automated detectors for grasping the specific nature of seismicity in the SJFZ. Applying such detectors we manage to increase the catalogue by up to 40% of additional events not reviewed previously by analysts. This improvement allows incorporating not only more events into the relocation process, but also additional stations, which were missed by previous automatic or manual picking of P and S arrivals. The relocated events

  3. Priprava 3D modelov za 3D tisk

    Pikovnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Po mnenju nekaterih strokovnjakov bo aditivna proizvodnja (ali 3D tiskanje) spremenila proizvodnjo industrijo, saj si bo vsak posameznik lahko natisnil svoj objekt po želji. V diplomski nalogi so predstavljene nekatere tehnologije aditivne proizvodnje. V nadaljevanju diplomske naloge je predstavljena izdelava makete hiše v merilu 1:100, vse od modeliranja do tiskanja. Poseben poudarek je posvečen predelavi modela, da je primeren za tiskanje, kjer je razvit pristop za hitrejše i...

  4. Post processing of 3D models for 3D printing

    Pikovnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    According to the opinion of some experts the additive manufacturing or 3D printing will change manufacturing industry, because any individual could print their own model according to his or her wishes. In this graduation thesis some of the additive manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore in the production of house scale model in 1:100 is presented, starting from modeling to printing. Special attention is given to postprocessing of the building model elements us...

  5. 3D Cameras: 3D Computer Vision of Wide Scope

    May, Stefan; Pervoelz, Kai; Surmann, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    First of all, a short comparison of range sensors and their underlying principles was given. The chapter further focused on 3D cameras. The latest innovations have given a significant improvement for the measurement accuracy, wherefore this technology has attracted attention in the robotics community. This was also the motivation for the examination in this chapter. On this account, several applications were presented, which represents common problems in the domain of autonomous robotics. For...

  6. DYNA3D2000*, Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D2000 is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation. 2 - Method of solution: Discretization of a continuous model transforms partial differential equations into algebraic equations. A numerical solution is then obtained by solving these algebraic equations through a direct time marching scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Recent software improvements have eliminated most of the user identified limitations with dynamic memory allocation and a very large format description that has pushed potential problem sizes beyond the reach of most users. The dominant restrictions remain in code execution speed and robustness, which the developers constantly strive to improve

  7. Intensity mapping cross-correlations: connecting the largest scales to galaxy evolution

    Wolz, L.; Tonini, C.; Blake, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-05-01

    Intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen (H I) is a new observational tool to efficiently map the large-scale structure over wide redshift ranges. The cross-correlation of intensity maps with galaxy surveys is a robust measure of the cosmological power spectrum and the H I content of galaxies which diminishes systematics caused by instrumental effects and foreground removal. We examine the cross-correlation signature at redshift 0.9 using a semi-analytical galaxy formation model in order to model the H I gas of galaxies as well as their optical magnitudes. We determine the scale-dependent clustering of the cross-correlation power for different types of galaxies determined by their colours, which act as a proxy for their star formation activity. We find that the cross-correlation coefficient with H I density for red quiescent galaxies falls off more quickly on smaller scales k > 0.2 h Mpc-1 than for blue star-forming galaxies. Additionally, we create a mock catalogue of highly star-forming galaxies to mimic the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, and use this to predict existing and future measurements using data from the Green Bank telescope and Parkes telescope. We find that the cross-power of highly star-forming galaxies shows a higher clustering on small scales than any other galaxy type and that this significantly alters the power spectrum shape on scales k > 0.2 h Mpc-1. We show that the cross-correlation coefficient is not negligible when interpreting the cosmological cross-power spectrum and additionally contains information about the H I content of the optically selected galaxies.

  8. Body Waves Revealed by Spatial Stacking on Long-Term Cross-Correlation of Ambient Noise

    Kai Wang; Yinhe Luo; Kaifeng Zhao; Limeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRCT: Theoretical and experimental studies indicate that complete Green’s Function can be retrieved from cross-correlation in a diffuse field. High SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) surface waves have been extracted from cross-correlations of long-duration ambient noise across the globe. Body waves, not extracted in most of ambient noise studies, are thought to be more difficult to retrieve from regular ambient noise data processing. By stacking cross-correlations of ambient noise in 50 km inter-station distance bins in China, western United States and Europe, we observed coherent 20–100 s core phases (ScS, PKIKPPKIKP, PcPPKPPKP) and crustal-mantle phases (Pn, P, PL, Sn, S, SPL, SnSn, SS, SSPL) at distances ranging from 0 to 4 000 km. Our results show that these crustal-mantle phases show diverse characteristics due to different substructure and sources of body waves beneath different regions while the core phases are relatively robust and can be retrieved as long as stations are available. Further analysis indicates that the SNR of these body-wave phases depends on a compromise between stacking fold in spatial domain and the coherence of pre-stacked cross-correlations.Spatially stacked cross-correlations of seismic noise can provide new virtual seismograms for paths that complement earthquake data and that contain valuable information on the structure of the Earth. The extracted crustal-mantle phases can be used to study lithospheric heterogeneities and the robust core phases are significantly useful to study the deep structure of the Earth, such as detecting fine heterogeneities of the core-mantle boundary and constraining differential rotation of the inner core.

  9. Estimating error cross-correlations in soil moisture data sets using extended collocation analysis

    Gruber, A.; Su, C.-H.; Crow, W. T.; Zwieback, S.; Dorigo, W. A.; Wagner, W.

    2016-02-01

    Global soil moisture records are essential for studying the role of hydrologic processes within the larger earth system. Various studies have shown the benefit of assimilating satellite-based soil moisture data into water balance models or merging multisource soil moisture retrievals into a unified data set. However, this requires an appropriate parameterization of the error structures of the underlying data sets. While triple collocation (TC) analysis has been widely recognized as a powerful tool for estimating random error variances of coarse-resolution soil moisture data sets, the estimation of error cross covariances remains an unresolved challenge. Here we propose a method—referred to as extended collocation (EC) analysis—for estimating error cross-correlations by generalizing the TC method to an arbitrary number of data sets and relaxing the therein made assumption of zero error cross-correlation for certain data set combinations. A synthetic experiment shows that EC analysis is able to reliably recover true error cross-correlation levels. Applied to real soil moisture retrievals from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) C-band and X-band observations together with advanced scatterometer (ASCAT) retrievals, modeled data from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)-Noah and in situ measurements drawn from the International Soil Moisture Network, EC yields reasonable and strong nonzero error cross-correlations between the two AMSR-E products. Against expectation, nonzero error cross-correlations are also found between ASCAT and AMSR-E. We conclude that the proposed EC method represents an important step toward a fully parameterized error covariance matrix for coarse-resolution soil moisture data sets, which is vital for any rigorous data assimilation framework or data merging scheme.

  10. Investigations concerning the application of the cross-correlation method in cardiac output measurements

    Gawlikowski Maciej

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of numerous non-invasive examinations the “gold clinical standard” of cardiac output measurements is the invasive pulmonary artery catheterization by means of the Swan-Ganz catheter and the application of the thermodilution method to estimate the blood flow. The results obtained by means of thermodilution are sensitive to many physical and biological disturbances. The unreliability of this method amounts to 20-45% and depends on the given variant of the method. Therefore some other method, more accurate and resistant to disturbances, was looked for. This paper presents a new approach to cardiac output measurements, based on cross-correlation signal analysis. The goal of investigations was to verify experimentally the application of the cross-correlation method of cardiac output measurements. Results In 99.2% of the examined cases the extreme of the cross-correlation function was easy to be estimated by numerical algorithms. In 0,8% of the remaining cases (with a plateau region adjacent to the maximum point numerical detection of the extreme was inaccurate. The typical unreliability of the investigated method amounted o 5.1% (9.8% in the worst case. Investigations performed on a physical model revealed that the unreliability of cardiac output measurements by means of the cross-correlation method is 3–5 times better than in the case of thermodilution. Conclusions The performed investigations and theoretical analysis have shown, that the cross-correlation method may be applied in cardiac output measurements. This kind of measurements seems to be more accurate and disturbance-resistant than clinically applied thermodilution.

  11. Multi-component based cross correlation beat detection in electrocardiogram analysis

    Owens Frank J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first stage in computerised processing of the electrocardiogram is beat detection. This involves identifying all cardiac cycles and locating the position of the beginning and end of each of the identifiable waveform components. The accuracy at which beat detection is performed has significant impact on the overall classification performance, hence efforts are still being made to improve this process. Methods A new beat detection approach is proposed based on the fundamentals of cross correlation and compared with two benchmarking approaches of non-syntactic and cross correlation beat detection. The new approach can be considered to be a multi-component based variant of traditional cross correlation where each of the individual inter-wave components are sought in isolation as opposed to being sought in one complete process. Each of three techniques were compared based on their performance in detecting the P wave, QRS complex and T wave in addition to onset and offset markers for 3000 cardiac cycles. Results Results indicated that the approach of multi-component based cross correlation exceeded the performance of the two benchmarking techniques by firstly correctly detecting more cardiac cycles and secondly provided the most accurate marker insertion in 7 out of the 8 categories tested. Conclusion The main benefit of the multi-component based cross correlation algorithm is seen to be firstly its ability to successfully detect cardiac cycles and secondly the accurate insertion of the beat markers based on pre-defined values as opposed to performing individual gradient searches for wave onsets and offsets following fiducial point location.

  12. Cross-Correlation of Photovoltaic Output Fluctuation in Power System Operation for Large-Scale Photovoltaic Integration

    Ikeda, Yuichi; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the cross-correlation of Photovoltaic (PV) output fluctuation for the actual PV output time series data in both the Tokyo area and the whole of Japan using the principal component analysis with the random matrix theory. Based on the obtained cross-correlation coefficients, the forecast error for PV output was estimated with/without considering the cross-correlations. Then operation schedule of thermal plants is calculated to integrate PV output using our unit commitment model with...

  13. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  14. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  15. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  16. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  17. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  18. Dose fractionation theorem in 3-D reconstruction (tomography)

    Glaeser, R.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    It is commonly assumed that the large number of projections for single-axis tomography precludes its application to most beam-labile specimens. However, Hegerl and Hoppe have pointed out that the total dose required to achieve statistical significance for each voxel of a computed 3-D reconstruction is the same as that required to obtain a single 2-D image of that isolated voxel, at the same level of statistical significance. Thus a statistically significant 3-D image can be computed from statistically insignificant projections, as along as the total dosage that is distributed among these projections is high enough that it would have resulted in a statistically significant projection, if applied to only one image. We have tested this critical theorem by simulating the tomographic reconstruction of a realistic 3-D model created from an electron micrograph. The simulations verify the basic conclusions of high absorption, signal-dependent noise, varying specimen contrast and missing angular range. Furthermore, the simulations demonstrate that individual projections in the series of fractionated-dose images can be aligned by cross-correlation because they contain significant information derived from the summation of features from different depths in the structure. This latter information is generally not useful for structural interpretation prior to 3-D reconstruction, owing to the complexity of most specimens investigated by single-axis tomography. These results, in combination with dose estimates for imaging single voxels and measurements of radiation damage in the electron microscope, demonstrate that it is feasible to use single-axis tomography with soft X-ray microscopy of frozen-hydrated specimens.

  19. Waveform cross correlation for seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions. Part II: Synthetic master events

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Waveform cross correlation is an efficient tool for detection and characterization of seismic signals. The efficiency critically depends on the availability of master events. For the purposes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, cross correlation can globally reduce the threshold monitoring by 0.3 to 0.4 magnitude units. In seismically active regions, the optimal choice of master events is straightforward. There are two approaches to populate the global grid in aseismic areas: the replication of real masters and synthetic seismograms calculated for seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System. Synthetic templates depend on the accuracy of shape and amplitude predictions controlled by focal depth and mechanism, source function, velocity structure and attenuation along the master/station path. As in Part I, we test three focal mechanisms (explosion, thrust fault, and actual Harvard CMT solution for one of the April 11, 2012 Sumatera aftershocks) and two velocity structures (ak135 and CRUST 2.0...

  20. Time Evolution of Financial Cross-Correlation Coefficients across Market Crisis

    Tacchella, Andrea; Cristelli, Matthieu; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    We investigate the time evolution of financial cross-correlation coefficients during financial crises and compare them to what is observed in periods of stability. We choose three main events, the Dot.Com Bubble, the market crisis which followed the attacks at the Twin Towers in 2001 and the recent subprime crisis. Each of them has a different nature and a different impact on the market, which we analyze by studying separately different economic sectors. As a general trend, we observe an increase of correlation during these high volatility periods and a broadening of the distributions of correlation coefficients. We then compare the spectra of the cross-correlation matrices, calculated in different periods of three years, with the distribution of eigenvalues predicted by the Random Matrix Theory. We find that these spectra are markedly perturbated during crisis periods. Finally we show how a simple stochastic model can produce similar results.

  1. Cosmic microwave and infrared backgrounds cross-correlation for ISW detection

    We have investigated the cross-correlation between the cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds (CIB and CMB) anisotropies through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We have first described the CIB anisotropies using a linearly biased power spectrum, then derive the theoretical angular power spectrum of the CMB-CIB cross-correlation for different instruments and frequencies. We have discussed the detectability of the ISW signal by performing a signal-to-noise (SNR) analysis with our predicted spectra. The significances obtained range from 6σ to 7σ in an ideal case, depending on the frequency; in realistic cases which account for the presence of noise including astrophysical contaminants, the results span the range 2 – 5σ, depending strongly on the major contribution to the noise term

  2. Cosmic Microwave and Infrared Backgrounds cross-correlation for ISW detection

    Ilic, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the cross-correlation between the cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds (CIB & CMB) anisotropies through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We first describe the CIB anisotropies using a linearly biased power spectrum, then derive the theoretical angular power spectrum of the CMB-CIB cross-correlation for different instruments and frequencies. We discuss the detectability of the ISW signal by performing a signal-to-noise (SNR) analysis with our predicted spectra. The significances obtained range from 6{\\sigma} to 7{\\sigma} in an ideal case, depending on the frequency ; in realistic cases which account for the presence of noise including astrophysical contaminants, the results span the range 2-5{\\sigma}, depending strongly on the major contribution to the noise term.

  3. Cross-correlation Based Synchronization Mechanism of LDDoS Attacks

    Zhijun WU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A success Low-rate Distributed Denial of Service (LDDoS attack is composed of many single sources of Low-rate Denial of Service (LDoS attacks, which are well-organized in time synchronization to aggregate the attack flow at the end of target router. This paper addresses time synchronization and flow aggregation in LDDoS attacks for the purpose of exploring the attack performance. A cross-correlation algorithm is proposed to guarantee all network-wide distributed attack pulses aggregate at the victim end with a strict time limitation to form a powerful attack pulse. Experiments on the attack performance of LDoS and LDDoS attack are performed in NS-2 simulation platform. Experiment results show that the LDDoS attack effects can be improved significantly by using cross-correlation algorithm to coordinate attack pulses, which obtain better attack performance than many single dependent attack pulses. 

  4. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    Shen, Chen-Hua

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems.

  5. Accuracy of cross-correlation estimates of quasar emission-line region sizes

    The use of cross-correlation analyses of emission-line and optical continuum fluxes to determine broad-line region (BLR) sizes in low-luminosity quasars is examined in detail. Uncertainties associated with this method are discussed, and analytic formulas for estimating errors and determining confidence levels are presented. It is pointed out that systematic correlated errors between continuum and line fluxes are particularly dangerous and can lead to BLR sizes that may be too small. The results of some Monte Carlo simulations which are matched as closely as possible to real situations are presented. They indicate that the very small BLR size estimated by the cross-correlation method is not highly reliable. 15 references

  6. Multiplexed multiple-{\\tau} auto- and cross- correlators on a single FPGA

    Mocsár, Gábor; Buchholz, Jan; Krieger, Jan Wolfgang; Langowski, Jörg; Vámosi, György

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation and cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCS, FCCS) are widely used techniques to study the diffusion properties and interactions of fluorescent molecules. Autocorrelation (ACFs) and cross-correlation functions (CCFs) are typically acquired with fast hardware correlators. Here we introduce a new multiple-{\\tau} hardware correlator design for computing ACFs and CCFs in real time. A scheduling algorithm minimizes the use of hardware resources by calculating the different segments of the correlation function on a single correlator block. The program was written in LabVIEW, enabling computation of two multiple-{\\tau} ACFs and two CCFs on a National Instruments FPGA card (NI 7833R) in real time with a minimal sampling time of 400 ns. Raw data are also stored with a time resolution of 50 ns for later analysis. The design can be adapted to other FPGA cards with only minor changes and extended to evaluate more inputs and correlation functions.

  7. Interpreting Cross-correlations of One-bit Filtered Seismic Noise

    Hanasoge, Shravan

    2013-01-01

    Seismic noise, generated by oceanic microseisms and other sources, illuminates the crust in a manner different from tectonic sources, and therefore provides independent information. The primary measurable is the two-point cross-correlation, evaluated using traces recorded at a pair of seismometers over a finite-time interval. However, raw seismic traces contain intermittent large-amplitude perturbations arising from tectonic activity and instrumental errors, which may corrupt the estimated cross-correlations of microseismic fluctuations. In order to diminish the impact of these perturbations, the recorded traces are filtered using the nonlinear one-bit digitizer, which replaces the measurement by its sign. Previous theory shows that for stationary Gaussian-distributed seismic noise fluctuations one-bit and raw correlation functions are related by a simple invertible transformation. Here we extend this to show that the simple correspondence between these two correlation techniques remains valid for {\\it non-st...

  8. Three dimensional winds: A maximum cross-correlation application to elastic lidar data

    Buttler, W.T.

    1996-05-01

    Maximum cross-correlation techniques have been used with satellite data to estimate winds and sea surface velocities for several years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently using a variation of the basic maximum cross-correlation technique, coupled with a deterministic application of a vector median filter, to measure transverse winds as a function of range and altitude from incoherent elastic backscatter lidar (light detection and ranging) data taken throughout large volumes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Hourly representations of three-dimensional wind fields, derived from elastic lidar data taken during an air-quality study performed in a region of complex terrain near Sunland Park, New Mexico, are presented and compared with results from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved laser doppler velocimeter. The wind fields showed persistent large scale eddies as well as general terrain-following winds in the Rio Grande valley.

  9. Spatially varying cross-correlation coefficients in the presence of nugget effects

    Kleiber, William

    2012-11-29

    We derive sufficient conditions for the cross-correlation coefficient of a multivariate spatial process to vary with location when the spatial model is augmented with nugget effects. The derived class is valid for any choice of covariance functions, and yields substantial flexibility between multiple processes. The key is to identify the cross-correlation coefficient matrix with a contraction matrix, which can be either diagonal, implying a parsimonious formulation, or a fully general contraction matrix, yielding greater flexibility but added model complexity. We illustrate the approach with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature dataset in Colorado, allowing the two variables to be positively correlated at low elevations and nearly independent at high elevations, while still yielding a positive definite covariance matrix. © 2012 Biometrika Trust.

  10. Active ultrasonic cross-correlation flowmeters for mixed-phase pipe flows

    Sheen, S. H.; Raptis, A. C.

    Two ultrasonic flowmeters which employ the active cross-correlation technique and use a simple clamp-on transducer arrangement are discussed. The flowmeter for solid/liquid flows was tested over a wide range of coal concentration in water and oil. The measured velocity based on the peak position of the cross-correlation function is consistently higher by about 15% than the average velocity measured by flow diversion. The origin of the difference results mainly from the flow velocity profiles and the transit-time probability distribution. The flowmeter that can measure particle velocity in a solid/gas flow requires acoustic decoupling arrangement between two sensing stations. The measured velocity is mainly associated with the particles near the wall. Performance of both flowmeters is presented.

  11. Perspectives of Cross-Correlation in Seismic Monitoring at the International Data Centre

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan; Zerbo, Lassina

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that several techniques based on waveform cross-correlation are able to significantly reduce the detection threshold of seismic sources worldwide and to improve the reliability of arrivals by a more accurate estimation of their defining parameters. A master event and the events it can find using waveform cross-correlation at array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) have to be close. For the purposes of the International Data Centre (IDC), one can use the spatial closeness of the master and slave events in order to construct a new automatic processing pipeline: all qualified arrivals detected using cross-correlation are associated with events matching the current IDC event definition criteria (EDC) in a local association procedure. Considering the repeating character of global seismicity, more than 90 % of events in the reviewed event bulletin (REB) can be built in this automatic processing. Due to the reduced detection threshold, waveform cross-correlation may increase the number of valid REB events by a factor of 1.5-2.0. Therefore, the new pipeline may produce a more comprehensive bulletin than the current pipeline—the goal of seismic monitoring. The analysts' experience with the cross correlation event list (XSEL) shows that the workload of interactive processing might be reduced by a factor of two or even more. Since cross-correlation produces a comprehensive list of detections for a given master event, no additional arrivals from primary stations are expected to be associated with the XSEL events. The number of false alarms, relative to the number of events rejected from the standard event list 3 (SEL3) in the current interactive processing—can also be reduced by the use of several powerful filters. The principal filter is the difference between the arrival times of the master and newly built events at three or more primary stations, which should lie in a narrow range of a few seconds. In this study, one event at a

  12. Cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based axion and weakly interacting slim particle searches

    Parker, Stephen R; Ivanov, Eugene N; Tobar, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), such as axions, are highly motivated dark matter candidates. The most sensitive experimental searches for these particles exploit WISP-to-photon conversion mechanisms and use resonant cavity structures to enhance the resulting power signal. For WISPs to constitute Cold Dark Matter their required masses correspond to photons in the microwave spectrum. As such, searches for these types of WISPs are primarily limited by the thermal cavity noise and the broadband first-stage amplifier noise. In this work we propose and then verify two cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based WISP searches. These are two channel measurement schemes where the cross-spectrum is computed, rejecting uncorrelated noise sources while still retaining correlated signals such as those generated by WISPs. The first technique allows for the cavity thermal spectrum to be observed with an enhanced resolution. The second technique cross-correlates two individual cavity/amplifier system...

  13. Efficiency and cross-correlation in equity market during global financial crisis: Evidence from China

    Ma, Pengcheng; Li, Daye; Li, Shuo

    2016-02-01

    Using one minute high-frequency data of the Shanghai Composite Index (SHCI) and the Shenzhen Composite Index (SZCI) (2007-2008), we employ the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the detrended cross correlation analysis (DCCA) with rolling window approach to observe the evolution of market efficiency and cross-correlation in pre-crisis and crisis period. Considering the fat-tail distribution of return time series, statistical test based on shuffling method is conducted to verify the null hypothesis of no long-term dependence. Our empirical research displays three main findings. First Shanghai equity market efficiency deteriorated while Shenzhen equity market efficiency improved with the advent of financial crisis. Second the highly positive dependence between SHCI and SZCI varies with time scale. Third financial crisis saw a significant increase of dependence between SHCI and SZCI at shorter time scales but a lack of significant change at longer time scales, providing evidence of contagion and absence of interdependence during crisis.

  14. Cross-correlation between head acceleration and stabilograms in humans in orthostatic posture.

    Teixeira, Felipe G; Jesus, Igor R T; Mello, Roger G T; Nadal, Jurandir

    2012-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the role of the vestibular system in the postural sway control using the cross correlation function. A sample of 19 young, healthy male adults was monitored with a three axial accelerometer placed over the head during a stabilometric test, standing on a force platform during 3 min in four conditions: eyes closed and open, and feet apart and together. The normalized cross correlation (NCCF) function and the Monte Carlo simulation were used to correlate changes in body sway with head accelerations. Significant NCCF was rarely observed in conditions with opened eyes, and occurred in six subjects with eyes closed and reduced support basis. These results are inconclusive. As no delayed response was observed, the classical negative feedback appears to be absent, and either phasic displacements of the center of pressure and the head or anticipatory control could be occurring. PMID:23366680

  15. MEASUREMENT OF 21 cm BRIGHTNESS FLUCTUATIONS AT z ∼ 0.8 IN CROSS-CORRELATION

    In this Letter, 21 cm intensity maps acquired at the Green Bank Telescope are cross-correlated with large-scale structure traced by galaxies in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. The data span the redshift range 0.6 HI bHI r = [0.43 ± 0.07(stat.) ± 0.04(sys.)] × 10–3, where ΩHI is the neutral hydrogen (H I) fraction, r is the galaxy-hydrogen correlation coefficient, and bHI is the H I bias parameter. This is the most precise constraint on neutral hydrogen density fluctuations in a challenging redshift range. Our measurement improves the previous 21 cm cross-correlation at z ∼ 0.8 both in its precision and in the range of scales probed.

  16. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  17. INGRID, 3-D Mesh Generator for Program DYNA3D and NIKE3D and FACET and TOPAZ3D

    1 - Description of program or function: INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D (NESC 9909), NIKE3D (NESC 9725), FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The most important new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition. 2 - Method of solution: Geometries are described primarily using the index space notation of the INGEN program (NESC 975) with an additional type of notation, index progression. Index progressions provide a concise and simple method for describing complex structures; the concept was developed to facilitate defining multiple regions in index space. Rather than specifying the minimum and maximum indices for a region, one specifies the progression of indices along the I, J and K directions, respectively. The index progression method allows the analyst to describe most geometries including nodes and elements with roughly the same amount of input as a solids modeler

  18. Tehokas 3D-animaatiotuotanto

    Järvinen, Manu

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin tehokasta tapaa toteuttaa minuutin mittainen animaatio Scene.org Awards -tapahtuman avajaisseremoniaan. Kyseinen video toteutettiin osana opinnäytetyötä. Työhön osallistui tekijän lisäksi 3D-mallintaja sekä muusikko. Työkaluina käytettiin pääasiassa Autodesk 3ds Max-, sekä Adobe After Effects- ja Adobe Photoshop -ohjelmia. Opinnäytetyö koostuu animaatioprojektin tuotantoputken ja tiedostonhallintamallin perinpohjaisesta läpikäymisestä sekä sen asian tutkimisesta...

  19. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  20. How 3-D Movies Work

    吕铁雄

    2011-01-01

    难度:★★★★☆词数:450 建议阅读时间:8分钟 Most people see out of two eyes. This is a basic fact of humanity,but it’s what makes possible the illusion of depth(纵深幻觉) that 3-D movies create. Human eyes are spaced about two inches apart, meaning that each eye gives the brain a slightly different perspective(透视感)on the same object. The brain then uses this variance to quickly determine an object’s distance.

  1. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  2. A Fast Normalized Cross-Correlation Calculation Method for Motion Estimation

    Luo, Jianwen; Elisa E Konofagou

    2010-01-01

    High-precision motion estimation has become essential in ultrasound-based techniques such as time-domain Doppler and elastography. Normalized cross-correlation (NCC) has been shown as one of the best motion estimators. However, a significant drawback is its associated computational cost, especially when RF signals are used. In this paper, a method based on sum tables developed elsewhere is adapted for fast NCC calculation in ultrasound-based motion estimation, and is tested with respect to th...

  3. Finite sample properties of power-law cross-correlations estimators

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 419, č. 1 (2015), s. 513-525. ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Keywords : power-law cross-correlations * long-term memory * econophysics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.732, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kristoufek-0433530.pdf

  4. Cross-correlation of gravitational lensing from DES Science Verification data with SPT and Planck lensing

    Kirk, D.; Omori, Y.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Cawthon, R.; Chang, C.; Larsen, P.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Crawford, T. M.; Dodelson, S.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Holder, G.; Jain, B.; Kacprzak, T.; Lahav, O.; MacCrann, N.; Nicola, A.; Refregier, A.; Sheldon, E.; Story, K. T.; Troxel, M. A.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reichardt, C. L.; Roodman, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Simard, G.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the cross-correlation between weak lensing of galaxy images and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The effects of gravitational lensing on different sources will be correlated if the lensing is caused by the same mass fluctuations. We use galaxy shape measurements from 139 deg2 of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and overlapping CMB lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. The DES source galaxies have a median redshift of zmed ˜ 0.7, while the CMB lensing kernel is broad and peaks at z ˜ 2. The resulting cross-correlation is maximally sensitive to mass fluctuations at z ˜ 0.44. Assuming the Planck 2015 best-fitting cosmology, the amplitude of the DES×SPT cross-power is found to be ASPT = 0.88 ± 0.30 and that from DES×Planck to be APlanck = 0.86 ± 0.39, where A = 1 corresponds to the theoretical prediction. These are consistent with the expected signal and correspond to significances of 2.9σ and 2.2σ, respectively. We demonstrate that our results are robust to a number of important systematic effects including the shear measurement method, estimator choice, photo-z uncertainty and CMB lensing systematics. We calculate a value of A = 1.08 ± 0.36 for DES×SPT when we correct the observations with a simple intrinsic alignment model. With three measurements of this cross-correlation now existing in the literature, there is not yet reliable evidence for any deviation from the expected LCDM level of cross-correlation. We provide forecasts for the expected signal-to-noise ratio of the combination of the five-year DES survey and SPT-3G.

  5. Phase resolved cross-correlation spectroscopy on surface barrier discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    Brandenburg, R; Grosch, H; Hoder, T.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Microdischarges in a surface barrier discharge with special asymmetric needle-needle arrangement were investigated by means of cross-correlation spectroscopy (with sub-ns and sub-mm resolution) and an intensified CCD camera equipped with a far field microscope. The surface barrier discharge was driven at conditions (overvoltage) resulting in several microdischarges per half period of the applied sinusoidal voltage. At these conditions and in this arrangement regular patter...

  6. Cross-correlation cosmic shear with the SDSS and VLA FIRST surveys

    Demetroullas, C.; Brown, M. L.

    2016-03-01

    We measure the cosmic shear power spectrum on large angular scales by cross-correlating the shapes of ˜9 million galaxies measured in the optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with the shapes of ˜2.7 × 105 radio galaxies measured by the overlapping Very Large Array FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimetres) survey. Our measurements span the multipole range 10 measurement of the shear power spectrum from either survey alone. Conversely, we demonstrate that a power spectrum measured by cross-correlating the two surveys is unbiased, reducing the impact of the systematics by at least an order of magnitude. We measure an E-mode power spectrum from the data that is inconsistent with zero signal at the 99 per cent confidence (˜2.7σ) level. The B-mode and EB cross-correlations are both found to be consistent with zero (within 1σ). These constraints are obtained after a careful error analysis that accounts for uncertainties due to cosmic variance, random galaxy shape noise and shape measurement errors, as well as additional errors associated with the observed large-scale systematic effects in the two surveys. Our constraints are consistent with the expected signal in the concordance cosmological model assuming recent estimates of the cosmological parameters from the Planck satellite, and literature values for the median redshifts of the SDSS and FIRST galaxy populations. The cross-correlation approach will be ideal for extracting robust results, with the exquisite control of systematics required, from future cosmic shear surveys with the Square Kilometre Array, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA.

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Applications of Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy

    Staroske, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analyzes the fluctuations in the fluorescence intensity, which is emitted from a tiny excition volume, to obtain information about the concentration, the mobility, and the molecular interactions of labeled molecules. The more advanced fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) increases the precision in the determination of fl ow velocities and binding constants compared to standard FCS. The miniaturization in biomedical and chemical e...

  8. Perception of head-position-dependent variations in interaural cross-correlation coefficient

    Mason, R.; Kim, C.; Brookes, T

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to elicit the perceived effects of head-position-dependent variations in the interaural cross-correlation coefficient of a range of signals. A graphical elicitation experiment showed that the variations in the IACC strongly affected the perceived width and depth of the reverberant environment, as well as the perceived width and distance of the sound source. A verbal experiment gave similar results, and also indicated that the head-position-dependent IACC variations...

  9. Cross-correlation video recording of gas-vapor-droplet two-phase flows

    Volkov Roman S.; Vysokomornaya Olga V.; Zhdanova Alyona O.; Strizhak Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental investigations of gas-vapor-droplet two-phase flow formation during single water droplets and their aggregate motion through high-temperature (more than 1000 K) combustion products have been conducted with usage of cross-correlation measuring facility and optical methods of “tracer” visualization (“Particle Image Velocimetry” and “Interferometric Particle Imaging”). Modes of droplet motion in high-temperature gases area have been established. It has been determined the influe...

  10. Effect of distance on trade under slope heterogeneity and cross-correlated effects

    Lugovskyy, Oleksandr; Skiba, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The authors argue that endogeneity of transportation costs needs to be taken into account when estimating the effect of distance on trade. Otherwise, the estimates of the distance effect may be biased and inconsistent. Endogenous transportation can introduce slope heterogeneity and spatial correlation. Both issues can be accommodated with the help of Pesaran's cross-correlated effects mean-group (CCEMG) estimator. After applying this methodology, the authors uncover significant compression of...

  11. Towards identifying the world stock market cross-correlations: DAX versus Dow Jones

    S. Drozdz; Gruemmer, F.; Ruf, F.; Speth, J.(Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, D-52425, Germany)

    2000-01-01

    Effects connected with the world globalization affect also the financial markets. On a way towards quantifying the related characteristics we study the financial empirical correlation matrix of the 60 companies which both the Deutsche Aktienindex (DAX) and the Dow Jones (DJ) industrial average comprised during the years 1990-1999. The time-dependence of the underlying cross-correlations is monitored using a time window of 60 trading days. Our study shows that if the time-zone delays are prope...

  12. Measuring Two Phase Flow Parameters Using Impedance Cross-Correlation and Electromagnetic Flow meters

    Muhamedsalih, Yousif; Lucas, Gary

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an impedance cross correlation flow meter which can be used in solids-water pipe flows to measure the local solids volume fraction distribution and the local solids velocity distribution. The system is composed of two arrays of electrodes, separated by an axial distance of 50 mm and each array contains eights electrodes mounted over the internal circumference of the pipe carrying the flow. Furthermore every electrode in each array...

  13. Using the Cross-Correlation Function to Evaluate the Quality of Eddy-Covariance Data

    Qi, Yongfeng; Shang, Xiaodong; Chen, Guiying; Gao, Zhiqiu; Bi, Xueyan

    2015-11-01

    A cross-correlation test is proposed for evaluating the quality of 30-min eddy-covariance data. Cross-correlation as a function of time lag is computed for vertical velocity paired with temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide concentration. High quality data have a dominant peak at zero time lag and approach zero within a time lag of 20 s. Poor quality data have erratic cross-correlation functions, which indicates that the eddy flux may no longer represent the energy and mass exchange between the atmospheric surface layer and the canopy, and such data should be rejected in post-data analyses. Eddy-covariance data over grassland in July 2004 are used to evaluate the proposed test. The results show that 17, 29, and 36 % of the available data should be rejected because of poor quality measurements of sensible heat, latent heat, and CO2 fluxes, respectively. The rejected data mainly occurred on calm nights and day/night transitions when the atmospheric surface layer became stable or neutrally stratified. We found no friction velocity (u_*) threshold below which all data should be rejected, a test that many other studies have implemented for rejecting questionable data. We instead found that some data with low u_* were reliable, whereas other data with higher u_* were not. The poor quality measurements collected under less than ideal conditions were replaced by using the mean diurnal variation gap-filling method. The correction for poor quality data shifted the daily average CO2 flux by +0.34 g C m^{-2} day^{-1}. After applying the quality-control test, the eddy CO2 fluxes did not display a clear dependence on u_*. The results suggest that the cross-correlation test is a potentially valuable step in evaluating the quality of eddy-covariance data.

  14. Waveform cross correlation for seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions. Part I: Grand master events

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty using waveform cross correlation requires a uniform coverage of the globe with master events well recorded at array stations of the International Monitoring System. The essence of cross correlation as a monitoring tool consists in a continuous comparison of digital waveforms at a given station with waveform templates from the global set of master events. At array stations, cross correlation demonstrates a higher resolution because the time delays at individual sensors from master and slave events are the same but they may differ from theoretical ones used in standard beamforming. In the regions where master events and thus waveform templates are available, one can reduce the amplitude threshold of signal detection by a factor of 2 to 3 relative to standard beamforming and STA/LTA detector used at the International Data Centre. The gain in sensitivity corresponds to a body wave magnitude reduction by 0.3 to 0.4 units and doubles the number of dete...

  15. Cross-correlation asymmetries and causal relationships between stock and market risk.

    Stanislav S Borysov

    Full Text Available We study historical correlations and lead-lag relationships between individual stock risk (volatility of daily stock returns and market risk (volatility of daily returns of a market-representative portfolio in the US stock market. We consider the cross-correlation functions averaged over all stocks, using 71 stock prices from the Standard & Poor's 500 index for 1994-2013. We focus on the behavior of the cross-correlations at the times of financial crises with significant jumps of market volatility. The observed historical dynamics showed that the dependence between the risks was almost linear during the US stock market downturn of 2002 and after the US housing bubble in 2007, remaining at that level until 2013. Moreover, the averaged cross-correlation function often had an asymmetric shape with respect to zero lag in the periods of high correlation. We develop the analysis by the application of the linear response formalism to study underlying causal relations. The calculated response functions suggest the presence of characteristic regimes near financial crashes, when the volatility of an individual stock follows the market volatility and vice versa.

  16. Passive dispersion analysis on a sea dike using cross-correlations and beamforming

    Le Feuvre, Mathieu; Joubert, Anaëlle; Leparoux, Donatienne; Côte, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    In order to passively infer the velocities of surface waves beneath a receiver array, we propose to apply beamforming on cross-correlated noise records. We test the method with synthetic signals generated for a variety of array geometries and noise distributions. We show that the use of cross-correlations cleans the dispersion diagram that would be obtained from a phase-shift analysis alone, by resolving ambiguities between the location of noise sources and the wave velocities. In particular, when nearby noise sources are present, accurate dispersion curves can be inferred from arrays possessing poor azimuthal coverages. This passive method is therefore appropriate for the monitoring of stiffness at the civil-engineering scale, where multiple isolated noise sources may be present and where the field geometry does not always allow to deploy circular arrays. We apply the method to field data obtained from a linear array installed on top of a sea dike. The seismic noise, recorded at high tide during 8 minutes, is essentially generated by impacts of sea waves. In contrast to a phase-shift analysis performed on the noise itself, we show that the use of cross-correlations allow to infer a dispersion curve consistent with an active hammer-shot measurement, in a larger frequency band, ranging from 5 to 55 Hz. This result opens the possibility of following passively the mechanical evolution of embankments on a daily basis.

  17. Detection of Thermal SZ -- CMB Lensing Cross-Correlation in Planck Nominal Mission Data

    Hill, J Colin

    2013-01-01

    The nominal mission maps from the Planck satellite contain a wealth of information about secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), including those induced by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and gravitational lensing. As both the tSZ and CMB lensing signals trace the large-scale matter density field, the anisotropies sourced by these processes are expected to be correlated. We report the first detection of this cross-correlation signal, which we measure at 6.2 sigma significance using the Planck data. We take advantage of Planck's multifrequency coverage to construct a tSZ map using internal linear combination techniques, which we subsequently cross-correlate with the publicly-released Planck CMB lensing potential map. [Abridged] We interpret the signal using halo model calculations, which indicate that the tSZ -- CMB lensing cross-correlation is a unique probe of the physics of intracluster gas in high-redshift, low-mass groups and clusters. Our results are consistent with e...

  18. Modeling Lyman-\\alpha\\ Forest Cross-Correlations with LyMAS

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We use the Ly-$\\alpha$ Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS; Peirani et al. 2014) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter halos and transmitted flux in the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest, and we compare these predictions to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Ly-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. (2012, 2013). We calibrate and test LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a $(100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc})^3$ comoving volume with and without AGN feedback. We apply this calibration to a $(1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc})^3$ simulation realized with $2048^3$ dark matter particles for our primary predictions. In the $100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc}$ box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution essentially perfectly. In the $1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc}$ box, the amplitude of the cross-correlation tracks the halo bias as expected, and the correlation for a halo sample with a distributio...

  19. Cross-Correlation of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background with Luminous Red Galaxies

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the cross-correlation between the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) and large-scale structure provide a novel probe of dark matter on extragalactic scales. We focus on luminous red galaxies (LRGs) as optimal targets to search for the signal of dark matter annihilation. We measure the cross-correlation function of the EGB taken from the Fermi Large Area Telescope with the LRGs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Statistical errors are calculated using a large set of realistic mock LRG catalogs. The amplitude of the measured cross-correlation is consistent with null detection. Based on an accurate theoretical model of the distribution of dark matter associated with LRGs, we exclude dark matter annihilation cross-sections over $\\langle \\sigma v\\rangle =3\\times10^{-25}-10^{-26}\\, {\\rm cm}^3 \\,{\\rm s}^{-1}$ for a 10 GeV dark matter. We further investigate systematic effects due to uncertainties in the Galactic gamma-ray foreground emission, which we find to be an order of magnitude smaller th...

  20. Low-frequency interaural cross correlation discrimination in stereophonic reproduction of musical tones

    Kim, Sungyoung; Martens, William L.

    2005-04-01

    By industry standard (ITU-R. Recommendation BS.775-1), multichannel stereophonic signals within the frequency range of up to 80 or 120 Hz may be mixed and delivered via a single driver (e.g., a subwoofer) without significant impairment of stereophonic sound quality. The assumption that stereophonic information within such low-frequency content is not significant was tested by measuring discrimination thresholds for changes in interaural cross-correlation (IACC) within spectral bands containing the lowest frequency components of low-pitch musical tones. Performances were recorded for three different musical instruments playing single notes ranging in fundamental frequency from 41 Hz to 110 Hz. The recordings, made using a multichannel microphone array composed of five DPA 4006 pressure microphones, were processed to produce a set of stimuli that varied in interaural cross-correlation (IACC) within a low-frequency band, but were otherwise identical in a higher-frequency band. This correlation processing was designed to have minimal effect upon other psychoacoustic variables such as loudness and timbre. The results show that changes in interaural cross correlation (IACC) within low-frequency bands of low-pitch musical tones are most easily discriminated when decorrelated signals are presented via subwoofers positioned at extreme lateral angles (far from the median plane). [Work supported by VRQ.

  1. Dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chinese stock market.

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of cross-correlations is extensively applied for the understanding of interconnections in stock markets and the portfolio risk estimation. Current studies of correlations in Chinese market mainly focus on the static correlations between return series, and this calls for an urgent need to investigate their dynamic correlations. Our study aims to reveal the dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chinese stock market, and offer an exact interpretation for the evolution behavior. The correlation matrices constructed from the return series of 367 A-share stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange from January 4, 1999 to December 30, 2011 are calculated over a moving window with a size of 400 days. The evolutions of the statistical properties of the correlation coefficients, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors of the correlation matrices are carefully analyzed. We find that the stock correlations are significantly increased in the periods of two market crashes in 2001 and 2008, during which only five eigenvalues significantly deviate from the random correlation matrix, and the systemic risk is higher in these volatile periods than calm periods. By investigating the significant contributors of the deviating eigenvectors in different time periods, we observe a dynamic evolution behavior in business sectors such as IT, electronics, and real estate, which lead the rise (drop) before (after) the crashes. Our results provide new perspectives for the understanding of the dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chines stock markets, and the result of risk estimation is valuable for the application of risk management. PMID:24867071

  2. MEASUREMENT OF 21 cm BRIGHTNESS FLUCTUATIONS AT z {approx} 0.8 IN CROSS-CORRELATION

    Masui, K. W.; Switzer, E. R.; Calin, L.-M.; Pen, U.-L.; Shaw, J. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Banavar, N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Bandura, K. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Blake, C. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Chang, T.-C.; Liao, Y.-W. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, X.; Li, Y.-C. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Natarajan, A.; Peterson, J. B.; Voytek, T. C. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    In this Letter, 21 cm intensity maps acquired at the Green Bank Telescope are cross-correlated with large-scale structure traced by galaxies in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. The data span the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1 over two fields totaling {approx}41 deg. sq. and 190 hr of radio integration time. The cross-correlation constrains {Omega}{sub HI} b{sub HI} r = [0.43 {+-} 0.07(stat.) {+-} 0.04(sys.)] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, where {Omega}{sub HI} is the neutral hydrogen (H I) fraction, r is the galaxy-hydrogen correlation coefficient, and b{sub HI} is the H I bias parameter. This is the most precise constraint on neutral hydrogen density fluctuations in a challenging redshift range. Our measurement improves the previous 21 cm cross-correlation at z {approx} 0.8 both in its precision and in the range of scales probed.

  3. Fluctuations in the cross-correlation for fields lacking full diffusivity: The statistics of spurious features.

    Yoritomo, John Y; Weaver, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Inasmuch as ambient noise fields are often not fully diffuse the question arises as to how, or whether, noise cross-correlations converge to Green's function in practice. Well-known theoretical estimates suggest that the quality of convergence scales with the square root of the product of integration time and bandwidth. However, correlations from natural environments often show random features too large to be consistent with fluctuations from insufficient integration time. Here it is argued that empirical seismic correlations suffer in practice from spurious arrivals due to scatterers, and not from insufficient integration time. Estimates are sought for differences by considering a related problem consisting of waves from a finite density of point sources. The resulting cross-correlations are analyzed for their mean and variance. The mean is, as expected, Green's function with amplitude dependent on noise strength. The variance is found to have support for all times up to its maximum at the main arrival. The signal-to-noise ratio there scales with the square root of source density. Numerical simulations support the theoretical estimates. The result permits estimates of spurious arrivals' impact on identification of cross-correlations with Green's function and indicates that spurious arrivals may affect estimates of amplitudes, complicating efforts to infer attenuation. PMID:27475191

  4. Intensity Mapping Cross-Correlations: Connecting the Largest Scales to Galaxy Evolution

    Wolz, L; Blake, C; Wyithe, J S B

    2015-01-01

    Intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen (HI) is a new observational tool that can be used to efficiently map the large-scale structure of the Universe over wide redshift ranges. The power spectrum of the intensity maps contains cosmological information on the matter distribution and probes galaxy evolution by tracing the HI content of galaxies at different redshifts and the scale-dependence of HI clustering. The cross-correlation of intensity maps with galaxy surveys is a robust measure of the power spectrum which diminishes systematics caused by instrumental effects and foreground removal. We examine the cross-correlation signature at redshift z=0.9 using a variant of the semi-analytical galaxy formation model SAGE (Croton et al. 2016) applied to the Millennium simulation in order to model the HI gas of galaxies as well as their optical magnitudes based on their star-formation history. We determine the clustering of the cross-correlation power for different types of galaxies determined by their colours, ac...

  5. Contamination of early-type galaxy alignments to galaxy lensing-CMB lensing cross-correlation

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Dunkley, Joanna; Miller, Lance; Allison, Rupert

    2015-10-01

    Galaxy shapes are subject to distortions due to the tidal field of the Universe. The cross-correlation of galaxy lensing with the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) cannot easily be separated from the cross-correlation of galaxy intrinsic shapes with CMB lensing. Previous work suggested that the intrinsic alignment contamination can be 15 per cent of this cross-spectrum for the CFHT Stripe 82 (CS82) and Atacama Cosmology Telescope surveys. Here we re-examine these estimates using up-to-date observational constraints of intrinsic alignments at a redshift more similar to that of CS82 galaxies. We find an ≈10 per cent contamination of the cross-spectrum from red galaxies, with ≈3 per cent uncertainty due to uncertainties in the redshift distribution of source galaxies and the modelling of the spectral energy distribution. Blue galaxies are consistent with being unaligned, but could contaminate the cross-spectrum by an additional 9.5 per cent within current 95 per cent confidence levels. While our fiducial estimate of alignment contamination is similar to previous work, our work suggests that the relevance of alignments for CMB lensing-galaxy lensing cross-correlation remains largely unconstrained. Little information is currently available about alignments at z > 1.2. We consider the upper limiting case where all z > 1.2 galaxies are aligned with the same strength as low-redshift luminous red galaxies, finding as much as ≈60 per cent contamination.

  6. International Data Centre: Reviewed Event Bulletin vs. Waveform Cross Correlation Bulletin

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Given, Jeffrey; Khukhuudei, Urtnasan; Kitov, Ivan; Sitnikov, Kirill; Spiliopoulos, Spilio; Zerbo, Lassina

    2012-01-01

    Our objective is to assess the performance of waveform cross-correlation technique, as applied to automatic and interactive processing of the aftershock sequence of the 2012 Sumatera earthquake relative to the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued by the International Data Centre. The REB includes 1200 aftershocks between April 11 and May 25 with body wave magnitudes from 3.05 to 6.19. To automatically recover the sequence, we selected sixteen aftershocks with mb between 4.5 and 5.0. These events evenly but sparsely cover the area of the most intensive aftershock activity as recorded during the first two days after the main shock. In our study, waveform templates from only seven IMS array stations with the largest SNRs estimated for the signals from the main shock were used to calculate cross-correlation coefficients over the entire period of 44 days. Approximately 1000000 detections obtained using cross-correlation were then used to build events according to the IDC definition. After conflict resolution betwe...

  7. Quantitative analysis of the cross-correlation ultrasonic flow meter by means of system theory

    Schneider, F.; Peters, F.; Merzkirch, W.

    2003-05-01

    The physical principles of the ultrasound cross-correlation flow meter are described quantitatively by means of an approach based on system analysis. We extend an earlier theoretical model of Shu (1987 PhD Thesis Universität Karlsruhe) by accounting for additional characteristics of the turbulent pipe flow and making use of characteristic turbulence parameters. The velocity obtained by cross-correlation of the phase-modulated ultrasound signals can be predicted with the theoretical model as a function of the Reynolds number. These theoretical predictions agree favourably with experimental results. It is shown that the velocity determined by cross-correlation is nearly the 'modal value' of the turbulent velocity profile and, thereby, higher than the bulk velocity in the pipe. The investigations include studies of the influence of a number of parameters that can be varied in a practical set-up. It is shown that a calibration of the system, as it is done in practice, is only valid for a specific set of values of these parameters and restricted to fully developed flow in the pipe.

  8. Stochastic Models to Generate Geospatial-, Temporal-, and Cross-Correlated Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperatures

    Guillermo A. Baigorria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather generators are tools used to downscale monthly to seasonal climate forecasts, from numerical climate models to daily values for use as inputs for crop and other environmental models. One main limitation of most of weather generators is that they do not incorporate neither the spatial/temporal correlations between/within sites nor the cross-correlations between variables, characteristics specially important when aggregating, for example, simulated crop yields, freeze events, or heat waves in a watershed or region. Three models were developed to generate realization of daily maximum and minimum temperatures for multiple sites. The first model incorporates only spatial correlation, whereas temporal correlation using a 1-day lag and cross-correlation between variables were added to model one, respectively, by the other two models. Vectors of correlated random numbers were rescaled to temperature values by multiplying each element with the standard deviation and adding the mean of the corresponding weather station. An extension of Crout's algorithm was developed to enable the factorization of nonpositive definite matrices. Monthly spatial correlations of generated daily maximum and minimum temperatures between all pairs of weather stations closely matched their observed counterparts. Performance was analyzed by comparing the root mean squared error, temporal semivariograms, correlation/cross-correlation matrices, multiannual monthly means, and standard deviations.

  9. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  10. Resolution improvement by 3D particle averaging in localization microscopy

    Inspired by recent developments in localization microscopy that applied averaging of identical particles in 2D for increasing the resolution even further, we discuss considerations for alignment (registration) methods for particles in general and for 3D in particular. We detail that traditional techniques for particle registration from cryo electron microscopy based on cross-correlation are not suitable, as the underlying image formation process is fundamentally different. We argue that only localizations, i.e. a set of coordinates with associated uncertainties, are recorded and not a continuous intensity distribution. We present a method that owes to this fact and that is inspired by the field of statistical pattern recognition. In particular we suggest to use an adapted version of the Bhattacharyya distance as a merit function for registration. We evaluate the method in simulations and demonstrate it on 3D super-resolution data of Alexa 647 labelled to the Nup133 protein in the nuclear pore complex of Hela cells. From the simulations we find suggestions that for successful registration the localization uncertainty must be smaller than the distance between labeling sites on a particle. These suggestions are supported by theoretical considerations concerning the attainable resolution in localization microscopy and its scaling behavior as a function of labeling density and localization precision. (paper)

  11. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  12. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  13. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  14. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  15. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  16. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  17. A novel pitch evaluation of one-dimensional gratings based on a cross-correlation filter

    If one-dimensional (1D), p-period and arbitrarily structured grating position-related topographical signals coexist with noise, it is difficult to evaluate the pitch practically using the center-of-gravity (CG) method. The Fourier-transform-based (FT) method is the most precise to evaluate pitches; nevertheless, it cannot give the uniformity of pitches. If a cross-correlation filter—a half period of sinusoidal waveform sequence (pT period), cross-correlates with the signals, the noise can be eliminated if pT ≈ p. After cross-correlation filtering, the distance between any two adjacent waveform peaks along the direction perpendicular to 1D grating lines is one pitch value. The pitch evaluation based on the cross-correlation filtering together with the detection of the peak's position is described as the peak detection (PD) method in this paper. The pitch average and uniformity can be calculated by using the PD method. The computer simulation has indicated that the average of pitch deviations from the true pitch and the pitch variations are less than 0.2% and 0.2% for the sinusoidal and rectangular waveform signals with up to 50% uniform white noise, less than 0.1% and 1% for the sinusoidal and rectangular waveform signals and 0.6% and 2.5% for the triangular waveform signal if three waveform signals are mixed with Gaussian white, binomial and Bernoulli noise up to 50% in standard deviation, one probability and trial probability, respectively. As examples, a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) with a 0.246 nm distance between second nearest neighbour atoms and a 1D grating with 3000 nm nominal pitch are measured by a ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (UHV STM) and a metrological atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. After the position-related topographical signals are cross-correlation filtered, the 0.240 and 3004.11 nm pitches calculated by using the PD method are very close to the 0.240 and 3003.34 nm results evaluated by the

  18. Cross-correlation of gravitational lensing from DES Science Verification data with SPT and Planck lensing

    Kirk, D.; et al.

    2015-12-14

    We measure the cross-correlation between weak lensing of galaxy images and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The effects of gravitational lensing on different sources will be correlated if the lensing is caused by the same mass fluctuations. We use galaxy shape measurements from 139 deg$^{2}$ of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and overlapping CMB lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. The DES source galaxies have a median redshift of $z_{\\rm med} {\\sim} 0.7$, while the CMB lensing kernel is broad and peaks at $z{\\sim}2$. The resulting cross-correlation is maximally sensitive to mass fluctuations at $z{\\sim}0.44$. Assuming the Planck 2015 best-fit cosmology, the amplitude of the DES$\\times$SPT cross-power is found to be $A = 0.88 \\pm 0.30$ and that from DES$\\times$Planck to be $A = 0.86 \\pm 0.39$, where $A=1$ corresponds to the theoretical prediction. These are consistent with the expected signal and correspond to significances of $2.9 \\sigma$ and $2.2 \\sigma$ respectively. We demonstrate that our results are robust to a number of important systematic effects including the shear measurement method, estimator choice, photometric redshift uncertainty and CMB lensing systematics. Significant intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes would increase the cross-correlation signal inferred from the data; we calculate a value of $A = 1.08 \\pm 0.36$ for DES$\\times$SPT when we correct the observations with a simple IA model. With three measurements of this cross-correlation now existing in the literature, there is not yet reliable evidence for any deviation from the expected LCDM level of cross-correlation, given the size of the statistical uncertainties and the significant impact of systematic errors, particularly IAs. We provide forecasts for the expected signal-to-noise of the combination of the five-year DES survey and SPT-3G.

  19. Photopolymers in 3D printing applications

    Pandey, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    3D printing is an emerging technology with applications in several areas. The flexibility of the 3D printing system to use variety of materials and create any object makes it an attractive technology. Photopolymers are one of the materials used in 3D printing with potential to make products with better properties. Due to numerous applications of photopolymers and 3D printing technologies, this thesis is written to provide information about the various 3D printing technologies with particul...

  20. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  1. Automated reconstruction algorithm for identification of 3D architectures of cribriform ductal carcinoma in situ.

    Kerri-Ann Norton

    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS is a pre-invasive carcinoma of the breast that exhibits several distinct morphologies but the link between morphology and patient outcome is not clear. We hypothesize that different mechanisms of growth may still result in similar 2D morphologies, which may look different in 3D. To elucidate the connection between growth and 3D morphology, we reconstruct the 3D architecture of cribriform DCIS from resected patient material. We produce a fully automated algorithm that aligns, segments, and reconstructs 3D architectures from microscopy images of 2D serial sections from human specimens. The alignment algorithm is based on normalized cross correlation, the segmentation algorithm uses histogram equilization, Otsu's thresholding, and morphology techniques to segment the duct and cribra. The reconstruction method combines these images in 3D. We show that two distinct 3D architectures are indeed found in samples whose 2D histological sections are similarly identified as cribriform DCIS. These differences in architecture support the hypothesis that luminal spaces may form due to different mechanisms, either isolated cell death or merging fronds, leading to the different architectures. We find that out of 15 samples, 6 were found to have 'bubble-like' cribra, 6 were found to have 'tube-like' criba and 3 were 'unknown.' We propose that the 3D architectures found, 'bubbles' and 'tubes', account for some of the heterogeneity of the disease and may be prognostic indicators of different patient outcomes.

  2. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... and removes the need to integrate custom made electronics into the probe. A downside of row-column addressing 2-D arrays is the creation of secondary temporal lobes, or ghost echoes, in the point spread function. In the second part of the scientific contributions, row-column addressing of 2-D arrays...... was investigated. An analysis of how the ghost echoes can be attenuated was presented.Attenuating the ghost echoes were shown to be achieved by minimizing the first derivative of the apodization function. In the literature, a circular symmetric apodization function was proposed. A new apodization layout...

  3. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  4. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    2009-01-01

    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  5. A new approach to quantify power-law cross-correlation and its application to commodity markets

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2011-10-01

    We proposed a new method: Detrended Moving-average Cross-correlation Analysis (DMCA) to detect the power-law cross-correlation between two correlated non-stationary time series by combining Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA) and Detrended Moving Average (DMA). In order to compare the performance of DMCA and DCCA in the detection of cross-correlation, and to estimate the influence of periodic trend, we generate two cross-correlated time series x(i) and y(i) by a periodic two-component fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) process. Then we apply both methods to quantify the cross-correlations of the generated series, whose theoretical values are already known to us. By comparing the results we obtained, we find that the performance of this new approach is comparable to DCCA with less calculating amounts; our method can also reduce the impact of trends; furthermore, DMCA (for background and forward moving average case) outperforms DCCA in more accurate estimation when the analyzed times series are short in length. To provide an example, we also apply this new method to the time series of the real-world data from Brent and WTI crude oil spot markets, to investigate the complex cross-market correlation between these commodity markets. In all, our method is another practical choice to detect the cross-correlation between two short period non-stationary time series, and has potential application to real world problems.

  6. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  7. Improvements in magnitude precision, using the statistics of relative amplitudes measured by cross correlation

    Schaff, David P.; Richards, Paul G.

    2014-04-01

    Standard processing of seismic events for reporting in bulletins is usually done one-at-a time. State-of-the-art relative event methods, often involving cross correlation, are increasingly used and have improved estimates of event parameters for event detection, location and magnitude. This is because relative event techniques can simultaneously reduce measurement error and effects of model error. We show how cross correlation can be used to assign relative magnitudes for neighbouring seismic events distributed over a large region in east Asia and quantify to what extent the uncertainty in these values increases as waveform similarity breaks down. We find that cross correlation works well for magnitude comparison of two events when it is expected that they generate very similar signals even if these may be almost buried in large amounts of noise. This may be the case when investigating repeating earthquakes or nuclear explosions within a few kilometres of each other. Cross correlation is the optimal detector in these cases assuming noise is white and Gaussian, and also provides the least-squares solution for the relative amplitudes. However, when the waveform similarity of the underlying signals breaks down, due to interevent separation distance, source time function differences or focal mechanism differences, these assumptions are no longer valid and a bias is introduced into the relative magnitude measurement. This bias due to degradation of waveform similarity is modelled here with synthetics and an analytic expression for it is derived based on three terms-the cross-correlation coefficient (CC), and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the larger and smaller events. The analytic expression is a good match to the observed bias in the data. If the equation for relative magnitude is rewritten to correct for the bias due to the CC, a new equation results which is simply the log of the ratio of the L2 norms. The bias due to SNRs is still present because the observed

  8. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  9. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  10. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  11. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  12. Cross-correlation analysis between Chinese TF contracts and treasury ETF based on high-frequency data

    Zhou, Yu; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the high-frequency cross-correlation relationship between Chinese treasury futures contracts and treasury ETF. We analyze the logarithmic return of these two price series, from which we can conclude that both return series are not normally distributed and the futures markets have greater volatility. We find significant cross-correlation between these two series. We further confirm the relationship using the DCCA coefficient and the DMCA coefficient. We quantify the long-range cross-correlation with DCCA method, and we further show that the relationship is multifractal. An arbitrage algorithm based on DFA regression with stable return is proposed in the last part.

  13. Method of Removing the Cross-correlation Noise for Dual-input and Dual-output SAR

    Huang Ping-ping

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to analysis of separating the mixed echo by suppressing the cross-correlation noise in dual-input and dual-output SAR system, a new method based on threshold filter and inverse filter was proposed. The method can eliminate the most energy of cross-correlation noise by threshold filter, which can suppress the cross-correlation noise well. The principle and implementation steps are presented in detail. The computer simulation and account for the integrated sidelobe ratio showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. The large-scale quasar-Lyman α forest cross-correlation from BOSS

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyα forest absorption in redshift space, using ∼ 60000 quasar spectra from Data Release 9 (DR9) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is detected over a wide range of scales, up to comoving separations r of 80 h−1Mpc. For r > 15 h−1Mpc, we show that the cross-correlation is well fitted by the linear theory prediction for the mean overdensity around a quasar host halo in the standard ΛCDM model, with the redshift distortions indicative of gravitational evolution detected at high confidence. Using previous determinations of the Lyα forest bias factor obtained from the Lyα autocorrelation, we infer the quasar bias factor to be bq = 3.64+0.13−0.15 at a mean redshift z = 2.38, in agreement with previous measurements from the quasar auto-correlation. We also obtain a new estimate of the Lyα forest redshift distortion factor, βF = 1.1±0.15, slightly larger than but consistent with the previous measurement from the Lyα forest autocorrelation. The simple linear model we use fails at separations r −1Mpc, and we show that this may reasonably be due to the enhanced ionization due to radiation from the quasars. We also provide the expected correction that the mass overdensity around the quasar implies for measurements of the ionizing radiation background from the line-of-sight proximity effect

  15. Dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chinese stock market.

    Fei Ren

    Full Text Available The analysis of cross-correlations is extensively applied for the understanding of interconnections in stock markets and the portfolio risk estimation. Current studies of correlations in Chinese market mainly focus on the static correlations between return series, and this calls for an urgent need to investigate their dynamic correlations. Our study aims to reveal the dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chinese stock market, and offer an exact interpretation for the evolution behavior. The correlation matrices constructed from the return series of 367 A-share stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange from January 4, 1999 to December 30, 2011 are calculated over a moving window with a size of 400 days. The evolutions of the statistical properties of the correlation coefficients, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors of the correlation matrices are carefully analyzed. We find that the stock correlations are significantly increased in the periods of two market crashes in 2001 and 2008, during which only five eigenvalues significantly deviate from the random correlation matrix, and the systemic risk is higher in these volatile periods than calm periods. By investigating the significant contributors of the deviating eigenvectors in different time periods, we observe a dynamic evolution behavior in business sectors such as IT, electronics, and real estate, which lead the rise (drop before (after the crashes. Our results provide new perspectives for the understanding of the dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chines stock markets, and the result of risk estimation is valuable for the application of risk management.

  16. Extracting seismic attenuation coefficients from cross-correlations of ambient noise at linear triplets of stations

    Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Zigone, Dimitri

    2015-11-01

    We develop and apply an algorithm for deriving interstation seismic attenuation from cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by linear arrays. Theoretical results on amplitude decay due to attenuation are used to form a linear least-square inversion for interstation QR values of Rayleigh surface waves propagating along linear arrays having three or more stations. The noise wave field is assumed stationary within each day and the interstation distances should be greater than the employed wavelength. The inversion uses differences of logarithmic amplitude decay curves measured at different stations from cross-correlation functions within a given frequency band. The background attenuation between noise sources and receivers is effectively cancelled with this method. The site amplification factors are assumed constant (or following similar patterns) in the frequency band of interest. The inversion scheme is validated with synthetic tests using ambient noise generated by ray-theory-based calculations with heterogeneous attenuation and homogenous velocity structure. The interstation attenuation and phase velocity dispersion curves are inverted from cross-correlations of the synthetic data. The method is then applied to triplets of stations from the regional southern California seismic network crossing the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault, and a dense linear array crossing the southern San Jacinto Fault zone. Bootstrap technique is used to derive empirical mean and confidence interval for the obtained inverse Q values. The results for the regional stations yield QR values around 25 for a frequency band 0.2-0.36 Hz. The results for the San Jacinto fault zone array give QR values of about 6-30 for frequencies in the range 15-25 Hz.

  17. Measuring distance ratios with CMB-galaxy lensing cross-correlations

    We propose a method for cosmographic measurements by combining gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with cosmic shear surveys. We cross-correlate the galaxy counts in the lens plane with two different source planes: the CMB at z∼1100 and galaxies at an intermediate redshift. The ratio of the galaxy count/CMB lensing cross-correlation to the galaxy count/galaxy lensing cross-correlation is shown to be a purely geometric quantity, depending only on the distribution function of the source galaxies. By combining Planck, the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, the ratio can be measured to ∼4% accuracy, whereas a future polarization-based experiment like CMBPOL can make a more precise (∼1%) measurement. For cosmological models where the curvature and the equation of state parameter are allowed to vary, the direction of degeneracy defined by the measurement of this ratio is different from that traced out by baryon acoustic oscillation measurements. Combining this method with the stacked cluster mass reconstruction cosmography technique as proposed by Hu, Holz, and Vale (2007), the uncertainty in the ratio can be further reduced, improving the constraints on cosmological parameters. We also study the implications of the lensing-ratio measurement for early dark energy models, in the context of the parametrization proposed by Doran and Robbers (2006). For models which are degenerate with respect to the CMB, we find both baryon acoustic oscillation and lensing-ratio measurements to be insensitive to the early component of the dark energy density.

  18. Cross-correlations between three units in cat primary auditory cortex.

    Eggermont, Jos J; Munguia, Raymundo; Shaw, Gregory

    2013-10-01

    Here we use a modification of the Joint-Peri-Stimulus-Time histogram (JPSTH) to investigate triple correlations between cat auditory cortex neurons. The modified procedure allowed the decomposition of the xy-pair correlation into a part that is due to the correlation of the x and y units with the trigger unit, and a remaining 'pair correlation'. We analyzed 16 sets of 15-minute duration stationary spontaneous recordings in primary auditory cortex (AI) with between 11 and 14 electrodes from 2 arrays of 8 electrodes each that provided spontaneous firing rates above 0.22 sp/s and for which reliable frequency-tuning curves could be obtained and the characteristic frequency (CF) was estimated. Thus we evaluated 11,282 conditional cross-correlation functions. The predictor for the conditional cross-correlation, calculated on the assumption that the trigger unit had no effect on the xy-pair correlation but using the same fraction of xy spikes, was equal to the conventional pair-wise correlation function between units xy. The conditional correlation of the xy-pair due to correlation of the x and/or y unit with the trigger unit decreased with the geometric mean distance of the xy pair to the trigger unit, but was independent of the pair cross-correlation coefficient. The conditional pair correlation coefficient was estimated at 78% of the measured pair correlation coefficient. Assuming a geometric decreasing effect of activities of units on other electrodes on the conditional correlation, we estimated the potential contribution of a large number of contributing units on the measured pair correlation at 35-50 of that correlation. This suggests that conventionally measured pair correlations in auditory cortex under ketamine anesthesia overestimate the 'true pair correlation', likely resulting from massive common input, by potentially up to a factor 2. PMID:23933479

  19. Liquid sodium flow rate measurement by means of fluctuating signal cross correlation

    Liquid sodium flow rate measurement by means of transit time calculation is a method whose development could be amplified by progresses in design of digital correlators. Transit time between two sensors separated by a known distance is measured with a cross correlation of two flow-dependant fluctuations and is generally estimated by the maximum of the correlation function. In the study discussed below one used signals provided by either thermocouples or electromagnetic flowmeters. This work has been done at the LISOR laboratory (Laboratoire d'Instrumentation Sodium des Renardieres)

  20. Efficient focusing scheme for transverse velocity estimation using cross-correlation

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    The blood velocity can be estimated by cross-correlation of received RE signals, but only the velocity component along the beam direction is found. A previous paper showed that the complete velocity vector can be estimated, if received signals are focused along lines parallel to the direction of...... the flow. Here a weakly focused transmit field was used along with a simple delay-sum beamformer. A modified method for performing the focusing by employing a special calculation of the delays is introduced, so that a focused emission can be used. The velocity estimation was studied through extensive...

  1. Towards a global-scale ambient noise cross-correlation data base

    Ermert, Laura; Fichtner, Andreas; Sleeman, Reinoud

    2014-05-01

    We aim to obtain a global-scale data base of ambient seismic noise correlations. This database - to be made publicly available at ORFEUS - will enable us to study the distribution of microseismic and hum sources, and to perform multi-scale full waveform inversion for crustal and mantle structure. Ambient noise tomography has developed into a standard technique. According to theory, cross-correlations equal inter-station Green's functions only if the wave field is equipartitioned or the sources are isotropically distributed. In an attempt to circumvent these assumptions, we aim to investigate possibilities to directly model noise cross-correlations and invert for their sources using adjoint techniques. A data base containing correlations of 'gently' preprocessed noise, excluding preprocessing steps which are explicitly taken to reduce the influence of a non-isotropic source distribution like spectral whitening, is a key ingredient in this undertaking. Raw data are acquired from IRIS/FDSN and ORFEUS. We preprocess and correlate the time series using a tool based on the Python package Obspy which is run in parallel on a cluster of the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre. Correlation is done in two ways: Besides the classical cross-correlation function, the phase cross-correlation is calculated, which is an amplitude-independent measure of waveform similarity and therefore insensitive to high-energy events. Besides linear stacks of these correlations, instantaneous phase stacks are calculated which can be applied as optional weight, enhancing coherent portions of the traces and facilitating the emergence of a meaningful signal. The _STS1 virtual network by IRIS contains about 250 globally distributed stations, several of which have been operating for more than 20 years. It is the first data collection we will use for correlations in the hum frequency range, as the STS-1 instrument response is flat in the largest part of the period range where hum is observed, up to a

  2. Interpretation of cross-correlation transit time from LPRM signals in a BWR

    In a commercial BWR, the cross correlation between two noise signals from Local Power Range Monitors is performed. As a consequence, a transit time is determined. There is not yet a wide acceptation of what exactly this transit time means. Four different techniques for the noise analysis are used; the results were alike, but the Rehocence method stood out as the most robust. Noise measurements were performed in a commercial BWR. Understanding what the transit time means, an attempt is made. Comparison with the output of a detailed thermohydraulic code shows agreement with the transit time measurements. (authors)

  3. Active drift stabilization in three dimensions via image cross-correlation

    Koo, P. K.; Setru, S. U.; Mochrie, S. G. J.

    2013-10-01

    By monitoring stage drift via the normalized cross-correlation of an image of a stuck bead, obtained in real-time, with an out-of-focus "template" image of a similar immobile bead, stored in memory, we implement a simple approach to actively stabilize drift in all three dimensions for existing video microscopy setups. We demonstrate stability to 0.0062 nm along the Z-axis and 0.0031 nm along the X- and Y-axes for long (100 s) timescales.

  4. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Calibration with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Using Cross-Correlations

    Hajian, Amir; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, John R.; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Bertrand Doriese, W.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Moseley, Harvey; Wollack, Ed

    2011-01-01

    We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and mapmaking procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.

  5. Enhancement of time-domain acoustic imaging based on generalized cross-correlation and spatial weighting

    Quaegebeur, Nicolas; Padois, Thomas; Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Masson, Patrice

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an alternative formulation of the time-domain beamforming is proposed using the generalized cross-correlation of measured signals. This formulation uses spatial weighting functions adapted to microphone positions and imaging points. The proposed approach is demonstrated for acoustic source localization using a microphone array, both theoretically and experimentally. An increase in accuracy of acoustic imaging results is shown for both narrow and broadband sources, while a factor of reduction up to 20 in the computation time can be achieved, allowing real-time or volumetric source localization over very large grids.

  6. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  7. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  8. Reconstructing the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in 3D

    Pratten, Geraint; Munshi, Dipak

    2014-07-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect measures the line-of-sight projection of the thermal pressure of free electrons and lacks any redshift information. By cross-correlating the tSZ effect with an external cosmological tracer, we can recover a good fraction of this lost information. Weak lensing (WL) is thought to provide an unbiased probe of the dark Universe, with many WL surveys having sky coverage that overlaps with tSZ surveys. Generalizing the tomographic approach, we advocate the use of the spherical Fourier-Bessel expansion to perform an analysis of the cross-correlation between the projected (2D) tSZ Compton y-parameter maps and 3D WL convergence maps. We use redshift-dependent linear biasing and the halo model as a tool to investigate the tSZ-WL cross-correlations in 3D. We use the Press-Schechter and the Sheth-Tormen mass functions in our calculations, finding that the results are quite sensitive to detailed modelling. We provide detailed analysis of surveys with photometric and spectroscopic redshifts. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the cross-spectra {C}_{ℓ} (k) for individual 3D modes, defined by the radial and tangential wave numbers (k; ℓ), remains comparable to, but below, unity though optimal binning is expected to improve this. The results presented can be generalized to analyse other cosmic microwave background secondaries, such as the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect.

  9. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  10. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  11. 3D Printing Making the Digital Real .

    Miss Prachi More

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is quickly expanding field, with the popularity and uses for 3D printers growing every day. 3D printing can be used to prototype, create replacement parts, and is even versatile enough to print prostheses and medical implants. It will have a growing impact on our world, as more and more people gain access to these amazing machines.[1] In this article, we would like to attempt to give an introduction of the technology. 3Dimensions printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D model into a physical object. 3D printing is a category of rapid prototyping technology. 3D printers typically work by printing successive layers on top of the previous to build up a three dimensional object. 3D printing is a revolutionary method for creating 3D models with the use of inkjet technology.[7

  12. Sliding Adjustment for 3D Video Representation

    Galpin Franck

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with video coding of static scenes viewed by a moving camera. We propose an automatic way to encode such video sequences using several 3D models. Contrary to prior art in model-based coding where 3D models have to be known, the 3D models are automatically computed from the original video sequence. We show that several independent 3D models provide the same functionalities as one single 3D model, and avoid some drawbacks of the previous approaches. To achieve this goal we propose a novel algorithm of sliding adjustment, which ensures consistency of successive 3D models. The paper presents a method to automatically extract the set of 3D models and associate camera positions. The obtained representation can be used for reconstructing the original sequence, or virtual ones. It also enables 3D functionalities such as synthetic object insertion, lightning modification, or stereoscopic visualization. Results on real video sequences are presented.

  13. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  14. 3D Additive Manufacturing Symposium & Workshop

    Unver, Ertu; Taylor, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The IMI /3M BIC 3D Additive Manufacturing Symposium and Workshop was hosted by 3M Buckley Innovation Centre on March 17th 2015. The event was attended by the major players in precision engineering, 3D additive design and manufacturing: Representatives from EOS, Renishaw, HK 3D Printing IMI Plc Senior Management team, design engineers, programmers and academics from the University of Huddersfield School of Art Design & Architecture, 3M Buckley centre 3D printing management and designers shared...

  15. Face Detection with a 3D Model

    Barbu, Adrian; Lay, Nathan; Gramajo, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a part-based face detection approach where the spatial relationship between the face parts is represented by a hidden 3D model with six parameters. The computational complexity of the search in the six dimensional pose space is addressed by proposing meaningful 3D pose candidates by image-based regression from detected face keypoint locations. The 3D pose candidates are evaluated using a parameter sensitive classifier based on difference features relative to the 3D pose. A...

  16. 3D PHOTOGRAPHS IN CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Schuhr, W.; J. D. Lee; Kiel, St.

    2013-01-01

    This paper on providing "oo-information" (= objective object-information) on cultural monuments and sites, based on 3D photographs is also a contribution of CIPA task group 3 to the 2013 CIPA Symposium in Strasbourg. To stimulate the interest in 3D photography for scientists as well as for amateurs, 3D-Masterpieces are presented. Exemplary it is shown, due to their high documentary value ("near reality"), 3D photography support, e.g. the recording, the visualization, the interpret...

  17. High-throughput 3D tracking of bacteria on a standard phase contrast microscope

    Taute, K. M.; Gude, S.; Tans, S. J.; Shimizu, T. S.

    2015-11-01

    Bacteria employ diverse motility patterns in traversing complex three-dimensional (3D) natural habitats. 2D microscopy misses crucial features of 3D behaviour, but the applicability of existing 3D tracking techniques is constrained by their performance or ease of use. Here we present a simple, broadly applicable, high-throughput 3D bacterial tracking method for use in standard phase contrast microscopy. Bacteria are localized at micron-scale resolution over a range of 350 × 300 × 200 μm by maximizing image cross-correlations between their observed diffraction patterns and a reference library. We demonstrate the applicability of our technique to a range of bacterial species and exploit its high throughput to expose hidden contributions of bacterial individuality to population-level variability in motile behaviour. The simplicity of this powerful new tool for bacterial motility research renders 3D tracking accessible to a wider community and paves the way for investigations of bacterial motility in complex 3D environments.

  18. Study of the normalized intensity correlation function of a single-mode laser system with colored cross-correlated noises

    Bing Wang; Xiuqing Wu

    2007-01-01

    A single-mode laser system with colored cross-correlated additive and multiplicative noise terms is considered. By the means of projection operator method, we study the effects of the cross-correlation time τ and the cross-correlation intensity λ between noises on the normalized intensity correlation function C(s). It is found that if λ> 0 (λ< 0), the normalized intensity correlation function C(s) increases (decreases) with increasing the cross-correlation time τ, and at large value of τ, the variation of the normalized intensity correlation function C(s) becomes small. With the increase of the net gain a0, C(s) exhibits a maximum when λ is larger. However, a minimum and a maximum appear on C(s) curves with the increase of a0 when λ becomes smaller and smaller.

  19. Perspectives of cross correlation in seismic monitoring at the International Data Centre

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Zerbo, Lassina

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that several techniques based on cross correlation are able to significantly reduce the detection threshold of seismic sources worldwide and to improve the reliability of IDC arrivals by a more accurate estimation of their defining parameters. More than ninety per cent of smaller REB events can be built in automatic processing while completely fitting the REB event definition criteria. The rate of false alarms, as compared to the events rejected from the SEL3 in the current interactive processing, has also been dramatically reduced by several powerful filters. The principal filter is the difference of arrival times between the master events and newly built events at three or more primary stations, which should lie in a narrow range of a few seconds. Two effective pre-filters are f-k analysis and Fprob based on correlation traces instead of original waveforms. As a result, cross correlation may reduce the overall workload related to IDC interactive analysis and provide a precise tool for quality...

  20. Investigation of cosmic ray penetration with wavelet cross-correlation analysis

    Yang, Rui-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We use Fermi and Planck data to calculate the cross correlation between gamma ray signal and gas distribution in different scales in giant molecular clouds (GMC). Then we investigate the cosmic rays (CRs) penetration in GMCs with these informations. Methods.We use the wavelet technique to decompose both the gamma ray and dust opacity maps in different scales, then we calculate the wavelet cross correlation functions in these scales. We also define wavelet response as an analog to the impulsive response in Fourier transform and calculate that in different scales down to Fermi angular resolution. Results. The gamma ray maps above 2 GeV show strong correlation with the dust opacity maps, the correlation coefficient is larger than 0.9 above a scale of 0.4 degree.The derived wavelet response is uniform in different scales. Conclusions. We argue that the CR above 10 GeV can penetrate the giant molecular cloud freely and the CRs distributions in the same energy range are uniform down to parsec scale.

  1. The cross-correlation analysis in Z source GX 349+2

    Ding, G. Q.; Zhang, W. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Li, Z. B.; Qu, J. L.; Huang, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Using all the observations from Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer for Z source GX 349+2, we systematically carry out cross-correlation analysis between its soft and hard X-ray light curves. During the observations from 1998 January 9 to January 29, GX 349+2 traced out the most extensive Z track on its hardness-intensity diagram, making a comprehensive study of cross-correlation on the track. The positive correlations and positively correlated time lags are detected throughout the Z track. Outside the Z track, anti-correlations and anti-correlated time lags are found, but the anti-correlated time lags are much longer than the positively correlated time lags, which might indicate different mechanisms for producing the two types of time lags. We argue that neither the short-term time lag models nor the truncated accretion disc model can account for the long-term time lags in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs). We suggest that the extended accretion disc corona model could be an alternative model to explain the long-term time lags detected in NS-LMXBs.

  2. The cross-correlation analysis in Z source GX 349+2

    Ding, G Q; Wang, Y N; Li, Z B; Qu, J L; Huang, C P

    2015-01-01

    Using all the observations from Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer for Z source GX 349+2, we systematically carry out cross-correlation analysis between its soft and hard X-ray light curves. During the observations from January 9 to January 29, 1998, GX 349+2 traced out the most extensive Z track on its hardness-intensity diagram, making a comprehensive study of cross-correlation on the track. The positive correlations and positively correlated time lags are detected throughout the Z track. Outside the Z track, anti-correlations and anti-correlated time lags are found, but the anti-correlated time lags are much longer than the positively correlated time lags, which might indicate different mechanisms for producing the two types of time lags. We argue that neither the short-term time lag models nor the truncated accretion disk model can account for the long-term time lags in neutron star low mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs). We suggest that the extended accretion disk corona model could be an alternative model to expla...

  3. On using angular cross-correlations to determine source redshift distributions

    McQuinn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how well the redshift distribution of a population of extragalactic objects can be reconstructed using angular cross-correlations with a sample whose redshifts are known. We derive the minimum variance quadratic estimator, which has simple analytic representations in very applicable limits and is significantly more sensitive than earlier proposed estimation procedures. This estimator is straightforward to apply to observations, it robustly finds the likelihood maximum, and it conveniently selects angular scales at which fluctuations are well approximated as independent between redshift bins and at which linear theory applies. We find that the linear bias times number of objects in a redshift bin generally can be constrained with cross-correlations to fractional error (10^2 n/N)^1/2, where N is the total number of spectra per dz and n is the number of redshift bins spanned by the bulk of the unknown population. The error is often independent of the sky area and sampling fraction. Furthermore, we...

  4. Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers.

    Hashisaka, Masayuki; Ota, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Muraki, Koji

    2014-05-01

    We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements. PMID:24880392

  5. Cross-correlating the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect and the Distribution of Galaxy Clusters

    Fang, Wenjuan; Takada, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    We present the analytical formulas, derived based on the halo model, to compute the cross-correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect and the distribution of galaxy clusters. By binning the clusters according to their redshift and mass, this cross-correlation, the so-called stacked SZ signal, reveals the average SZ profile around these clusters. The stacked SZ signal is available by combining arcminute-resolution cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments with optical surveys. We derive the error covariance matrix for measuring the stacked SZ signal, and then study forecasts for its detection from ongoing and forthcoming combined CMB-optical surveys. We find that, over a wide range of mass and redshift, the stacked SZ signal can be detected with a significant signal to noise ratio (S/N), whose value peaks for the clusters with intermediate mass and redshift. Our calculation also shows that the stacking method allows one to probe the clusters' SZ profiles over a wide range of scales, even...

  6. Extending the Galaxy Intrinsic Alignment Self-Calibration to the GII cross-correlation

    Troxel, M A

    2012-01-01

    We extend the 3-point intrinsic alignment self-calibration technique to the gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity-intrinsic ellipticity (GII) bispectrum. The proposed technique will allow the measurement and removal of the GII intrinsic alignment contamination from the cross-correlation weak lensing signal. While significantly decreased from using cross-correlations instead of auto-correlation in a single photo-z bin, the GII contamination persists in adjacent photo-z bins and must be accounted for and removed from the lensing signal. We relate the GII and galaxy density-intrinsic ellipticity-intrinsic ellipticity (gII) bispectra through use of the galaxy bias, and develop the estimator necessary to isolate the gII bispectrum from observations. We find that the GII self-calibration technique performs at a level comparable to that of the gravitational shear-gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity correlation (GGI) self-calibration technique, with measurement error introduced through the gII estimator gen...

  7. A cross-correlation objective function for least-squares migration and visco-acoustic imaging

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2014-08-05

    Conventional acoustic least-squares migration inverts for a reflectivity image that best matches the amplitudes of the observed data. However, for field data applications, it is not easy to match the recorded amplitudes because of the visco-elastic nature of the earth and inaccuracies in the estimation of source signature and strength at different shot locations. To relax the requirement for strong amplitude matching of least-squares migration, we use a normalized cross-correlation objective function that is only sensitive to the similarity between the predicted and the observed data. Such a normalized cross-correlation objective function is also equivalent to a time-domain phase inversion method where the main emphasis is only on matching the phase of the data rather than the amplitude. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data show that such an objective function can be used as an alternative to visco-acoustic least-squares reverse time migration (Qp-LSRTM) when there is strong attenuation in the subsurface and the estimation of the attenuation parameter Qp is insufficiently accurate.

  8. Quasar-Lyman $\\alpha$ Forest Cross-Correlation from BOSS DR11 : Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; Busca, Nicolas; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Ross, Nicholas P; Slosar, Anže; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bautista, Julian; Beutler, Florian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blomqvist, Michael; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R; Carithers, Bill; Dawson, Kyle S; Delubac, Timothée; Ebelke, Garrett; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Ge, Jian; Kinemuchi, Karen; Lee, Khee-Gan; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Marchante, Moses; Margala, Daniel; Muna, Demitri; Myers, Adam D; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Oravetz, Daniel; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P; Simmons, Audrey; Viel, Matteo; Yeche, Christophe; York, Donald G

    2013-01-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyman alpha forest absorption, using over 164,000 quasars from Data Release 11 of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We extend the previous study of roughly 60,000 quasars from Data Release 9 to larger separations, allowing a measurement of the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale along the line of sight $c/(H(z=2.36) ~ r_s) = 9.0 \\pm 0.3$ and across the line of sight $D_A(z=2.36)~ / ~ r_s = 10.8 \\pm 0.4$, consistent with CMB and other BAO data. Using the best fit value of the sound horizon from Planck data ($r_s=147.49 Mpc$), we can translate these results to a measurement of the Hubble parameter of $H(z=2.36) = 226 \\pm 8 km/s$ and of the angular diameter distance of $D_A(z=2.36) = 1590 \\pm 60 Mpc$. The measured cross-correlation function and an update of the code to fit the BAO scale (baofit) are made publicly available.

  9. Cross-correlation of gravitational lensing from DES Science Verification data with SPT and Planck lensing

    Kirk, D; Benoit-Lévy, A; Cawthon, R; Chang, C; Larsen, P; Amara, A; Bacon, D; Crawford, T M; Dodelson, S; Fosalba, P; Giannantonio, T; Holder, G; Jain, B; Kacprzak, T; Lahav, O; MacCrann, N; Nicola, A; Refregier, A; Sheldon, E; Story, K T; Troxel, M A; Vieira, J D; Vikram, V; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Becker, M R; Benson, B A; Bernstein, G M; Bernstein, R A; Bleem, L E; Bonnett, C; Bridle, S L; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Carlstrom, J E; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Crocce, M; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Goldstein, D A; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Jarvis, M; Kent, S; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lima, M; March, M; Martini, P; Melchior, P; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Nichol, R C; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Reichardt, C L; Roodman, A; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E S; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Simard, G; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Wechsler, R H; Weller, J

    2015-01-01

    We measure the cross-correlation between weak lensing of galaxy images and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The effects of gravitational lensing on different sources will be correlated if the lensing is caused by the same mass fluctuations. We use galaxy shape measurements from 139 deg$^{2}$ of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and overlapping CMB lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. The DES source galaxies have a median redshift of $z_{\\rm med} {\\sim} 0.7$, while the CMB lensing kernel is broad and peaks at $z{\\sim}2$. The resulting cross-correlation is maximally sensitive to mass fluctuations at $z{\\sim}0.44$. Assuming the Planck 2015 best-fit cosmology, the amplitude of the DES$\\times$SPT cross-power is found to be $A = 0.88 \\pm 0.30$ and that from DES$\\times$Planck to be $A = 0.86 \\pm 0.39$, where $A=1$ corresponds to the theoretical prediction. These are consistent with the expected signal and correspond to significances of $2.9 \\sigma$ and $2.2 \\sigma$ re...

  10. Cross-correlation method for intermediate duration gravitational wave searches associated with gamma-ray bursts

    Coyne, Robert; Owen, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    Several models of gamma-ray burst progenitors suggest that the gamma-ray event may be followed by gravitational wave signals of $10^3$-$10^4$ seconds duration (possibly accompanying the so-called X-ray afterglow "plateaus"). We term these signals "intermediate duration" because they are shorter than continuous wave signals but longer than signals traditionally considered as gravitational wave bursts, and are difficult to detect with most burst and continuous wave methods. The cross-correlation technique proposed by [S. Dhurandhar et al., Phys. Rev. D 77, 082001 (2008)], which so far has been used only on continuous wave signals, in principle unifies both burst and continuous wave (as well as matched filtering and stochastic background) methods, reducing them to different choices of which data to correlate on which time scales. Here we perform the first tuning of this cross-correlation technique to intermediate duration signals. We derive theoretical estimates of sensitivity in Gaussian noise in different limi...

  11. Lensing reconstruction of cluster-mass cross correlation with cosmic microwave background polarization

    We extend our maximum likelihood method for reconstructing the cluster-mass cross correlation from cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies and develop new estimators that utilize six different quadratic combinations of CMB temperature and polarization fields. Our maximum likelihood estimators are constructed with delensed CMB temperature and polarization fields by using an assumed model of the convergence field, and they can be iteratively applied to a set of clusters, approaching the optimal condition for the lensing reconstruction as the assumed initial model is refined. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, we create a catalog of realistic clusters obtainable from the current Sunyaev-Zel'dovich surveys, and we demonstrate the ability of the maximum likelihood estimators to reconstruct the cluster-mass cross correlation from the massive clusters. The iTT temperature estimator provides a signal-to-noise ratio of a factor of 3 larger than the iEB polarization estimator, unless the detector noise for measuring polarization anisotropies is controlled under 3 μK.

  12. Herschel-ATLAS/GAMA: SDSS cross-correlation induced by weak lensing

    González-Nuevo, J; Negrello, M; Danese, L; De Zotti, G; Amber, S; Baes, M; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bourne, N; Brough, S; Bussmann, R S; Cai, Z -Y; Cooray, A; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Ibar, E; Ivison, R; Liske, J; Loveday, J; Maddox, S; Michałowski, M J; Schneider, M D; Scott, D; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E; Xia, J -Q

    2014-01-01

    We report a highly significant ($>10\\sigma$) spatial correlation between galaxies with $S_{350\\mu\\rm m}\\ge 30\\,$mJy detected in the equatorial fields of the \\textsl{Herschel} Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) with estimated redshifts $\\gtrsim 1.5$, and SDSS or GAMA galaxies at $0.2\\le z\\le 0.6$. The significance of the cross-correlation is much higher than those reported so far for samples with non-overlapping redshift distributions selected in other wavebands. Extensive, realistic simulations of clustered sub-mm galaxies amplified by foreground structures confirm that the cross-correlation is explained by weak gravitational lensing ($\\mu<2$). The simulations also show that the measured amplitude and range of angular scales of the signal are larger than can be accounted for by galaxy-galaxy weak lensing. However, for scales $\\lesssim 2\\,$arcmin, the signal can be reproduced if SDSS/GAMA galaxies act as signposts of galaxy groups/clusters with halo masses in the range ~$10^{13.2}$--$10^{14...

  13. A group-galaxy cross-correlation function analysis in zCOSMOS

    Knobel, C; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Fevre, O Le; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Borgne, J -F Le; Brun, V Le; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Presotto, V; Silverman, J; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Barnes, L; Bordoloi, R; Cappi, A; Cimatti, A; Coppa, G; Koekemoer, A M; López-Sanjuan, C; McCracken, H J; Moresco, M; Nair, P; Pozzetti, L; Welikala, N

    2012-01-01

    We present a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis using a group catalog produced from the 16,500 spectra from the optical zCOSMOS galaxy survey. Our aim is to perform a consistency test in the redshift range 0.2 \\leq z \\leq 0.8 between the clustering strength of the groups and mass estimates that are based on the richness of the groups. We measure the linear bias of the groups by means of a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis and convert it into mass using the bias-mass relation for a given cosmology, checking the systematic errors using realistic group and galaxy mock catalogs. The measured bias for the zCOSMOS groups increases with group richness as expected by the theory of cosmic structure formation and yields masses that are reasonably consistent with the masses estimated from the richness directly, considering the scatter that is obtained from the 24 mock catalogs. An exception are the richest groups at high redshift (estimated to be more massive than 10^13.5 M\\odot), for which the measured bias ...

  14. Analysis of cross-correlations between financial markets after the 2008 crisis

    Sensoy, A.; Yuksel, S.; Erturk, M.

    2013-10-01

    We analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of the index returns of the main financial markets after the 2008 crisis using methods of random matrix theory. We test the eigenvalues of C for universal properties of random matrices and find that the majority of the cross-correlation coefficients arise from randomness. We show that the eigenvector of the largest deviating eigenvalue of C represents a global market itself. We reveal that high volatility of financial markets is observed at the same times with high correlations between them which lowers the risk diversification potential even if one constructs a widely internationally diversified portfolio of stocks. We identify and compare the connection and cluster structure of markets before and after the crisis using minimal spanning and ultrametric hierarchical trees. We find that after the crisis, the co-movement degree of the markets increases. We also highlight the key financial markets of pre and post crisis using main centrality measures and analyze the changes. We repeat the study using rank correlation and compare the differences. Further implications are discussed.

  15. A GROUP-GALAXY CROSS-CORRELATION FUNCTION ANALYSIS IN zCOSMOS

    Knobel, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Caputi, K. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Contini, T. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, CNRS, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova (Italy); Scodeggio, M.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B. [INAF-IASF Milano, Milano (Italy); Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Bongiorno, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milan (Italy); De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH93HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-08-10

    We present a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis using a group catalog produced from the 16,500 spectra from the optical zCOSMOS galaxy survey. Our aim is to perform a consistency test in the redshift range 0.2 {<=} z {<=} 0.8 between the clustering strength of the groups and mass estimates that are based on the richness of the groups. We measure the linear bias of the groups by means of a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis and convert it into mass using the bias-mass relation for a given cosmology, checking the systematic errors using realistic group and galaxy mock catalogs. The measured bias for the zCOSMOS groups increases with group richness as expected by the theory of cosmic structure formation and yields masses that are reasonably consistent with the masses estimated from the richness directly, considering the scatter that is obtained from the 24 mock catalogs. Some exceptions are the richest groups at high redshift (estimated to be more massive than 10{sup 13.5} M{sub Sun }), for which the measured bias is significantly larger than for any of the 24 mock catalogs (corresponding to a 3{sigma} effect), which is attributed to the extremely large structure that is present in the COSMOS field at z {approx} 0.7. Our results are in general agreement with previous studies that reported unusually strong clustering in the COSMOS field.

  16. V S Profiles from Noise Cross Correlation at Local and Small Scale

    de Nisco, G.; Nunziata, C.

    2011-03-01

    Ambient noise measurements have been performed at local and small scales in the Neapolitan and surrounding areas (Campania, southern Italy) by employing two broad-band Kinemetrics Q330 stations, equipped with Episensor ES-T three component accelerometers. In both experiments frequency time analysis (FTAN method) has been performed on the vertical and radial components of noise cross correlations to retrieve the Rayleigh wave dispersion (Green's function). At local scale, over an interstation distance of about 26 km, the group velocity dispersion values have been compared with those obtained from FTAN analysis on recordings of two earthquakes with similar path. At small scale, measurements have been carried out over an interstation distance of about 440 m in the public gardens of Scampia, the northernmost quarter of Naples. The Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion data obtained from noise cross correlation, have been combined with those from active seismic experiment along the same alignment, but shorter (120 m offset). The non linear inversion of such a dispersion curve has allowed the definition of V S models to depths of 100 m, in agreement with nearby stratigraphy. Moreover, a good agreement has resulted for the resonance frequency among the H/V ratio, the ellipticity of the fundamental mode computed for the chosen V S model, and the average two-dimensional (2D) spectral amplification computed along a cross section representative of the Scampia quarter.

  17. Contamination of early-type galaxy alignments to galaxy lensing-CMB lensing cross-correlation

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Miller, Lance; Allison, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy shapes are subject to distortions due to the tidal field of the Universe. The cross-correlation of galaxy lensing with the lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) cannot easily be separated from the cross-correlation of galaxy intrinsic shapes with CMB lensing. Previous work suggested that the intrinsic alignment contamination can be $15\\%$ of this cross-spectrum for the CFHT Stripe 82 (CS82) and Atacama Cosmology Telescope surveys. Here we re-examine these estimates using up-to-date observational constraints of intrinsic alignments at a redshift more similar to that of CS82 galaxies. We find a $\\approx$ $10\\%$ contamination of the cross-spectrum from red galaxies, with $\\approx$ $3\\%$ uncertainty due to uncertainties in the redshift distribution of source galaxies and the modelling of the spectral energy distribution. Blue galaxies are consistent with being unaligned, but could contaminate the cross-spectrum by an additional $9.5\\%$ within current $95\\%$ confidence levels. While our fiducial ...

  18. Measurement of the dipole in the cross-correlation function of galaxies

    Gaztanaga, Enrique; Hui, Lam

    2015-01-01

    It is usually assumed that in the linear regime the two-point correlation function of galaxies contains only a monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole. Looking at cross-correlations between different populations of galaxies, this turns out not to be the case. In particular, the cross-correlations between a bright and a faint population of galaxies contain also a dipole. In this paper we present the first measurement of this dipole. We discuss the three types of effects that contribute to the dipole: relativistic distortions, evolution effects and wide-angle effects. We show that the relativistic distortions and the evolution effects are too small to be detected in the LOWz and CMASS sample of the BOSS survey. We discuss the convention-dependent nature of the wide-angle effect and we show that with the appropriate choice of kernel, a particular version of the wide-angle effect (that we call large-angle effect) can be significantly enhanced. We measure this effect in the dipole with a signal-to-noise of 50, which...

  19. In-vessel fluid flow measurements using thermocouples cross-correlation

    Fluid flow rate in high temperature and pressure vessels can be difficult to measure due to the associated harsh environment, inaccessible locations and pressure boundary integrity concerns. However, by using quick response miniature thermocouples to measure the naturally occurring temperature variations within the flow, the fluid velocity can be inferred from the transit time analysis. This flow measurement technique has other advantages such as the flow profile is not significantly disturbed, no additional flow restrictions introduced and the system fiction factor is not increased. Furthermore, since the measured flow rate is generally unaffected by the global system dynamics, such as heat increases or losses, as well as changes in the flow regimes, the location of the thermocouple pairs is extremely flexible. Due to the mentioned advantages, the thermocouple cross-correlation flow measurement method has been developed for use at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA). Currently, thermocouple cross-correlation technique is used to measure the Reactor Pressure Vessel downcomer fluid velocity and the suppression pool in-vessel natural circulation velocity

  20. Dissecting the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich-gravitational lensing cross-correlation with hydrodynamical simulations

    Hojjati, Alireza; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Hinshaw, Gary; Brun, Amandine M C Le

    2014-01-01

    We use the cosmo-OWLS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which includes different galactic feedback models, to predict the cross-correlation signal between weak gravitational lensing and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) $y$-parameter. The predictions are compared to the recent detection reported by van Waerbeke and collaborators. The simulations reproduce the weak lensing-tSZ cross-correlation, $\\xi_{y\\kappa}(\\theta)$, well. The uncertainty arising from different possible feedback models appears to be important on small scales only ($\\theta \\lesssim 10$ arcmin), while the amplitude of the correlation on all scales is sensitive to cosmological parameters that control the growth rate of structure (such as $\\sigma_8$, $\\Omega_m$ and $\\Omega_b$). This study confirms our previous claim (in Ma et al.) that a significant proportion of the signal originates from the diffuse gas component in low-mass ($M_{\\rm{halo}} \\lesssim 10^{14} M_{\\odot}$) clusters as well as from the region beyond the virial ra...

  1. Wavelet-based cross-correlation analysis of structure scaling in turbulent clouds

    Arshakian, T G

    2015-01-01

    We propose a statistical tool to compare the scaling behaviour of turbulence in pairs of molecular cloud maps. Using artificial maps with well defined spatial properties, we calibrate the method and test its limitations to ultimately apply it to a set of observed maps. We develop the wavelet-based weighted cross-correlation (WWCC) method to study the relative contribution of structures of different sizes and their degree of correlation in two maps as a function of spatial scale, and the mutual displacement of structures in the molecular cloud maps. We test the WWCC for circular structures having a single prominent scale and fractal structures showing a self-similar behavior without prominent scales. Observational noise and a finite map size limit the scales where the cross-correlation coefficients and displacement vectors can be reliably measured. For fractal maps containing many structures on all scales, the limitation from the observational noise is negligible for signal-to-noise ratios >5. (abbrev). Applic...

  2. Cross-correlation spin noise spectroscopy of heterogeneous interacting spin systems

    Interacting multi-component spin systems are ubiquitous in nature and in the laboratory. As such, investigations of inter-species spin interactions are of vital importance. Traditionally, they are studied by experimental methods that are necessarily perturbative: e.g., by intentionally polarizing or depolarizing one spin species while detecting the response of the other(s). Here, we describe and demonstrate an alternative approach based on multi-probe spin noise spectroscopy, which can reveal inter-species spin interactions - under conditions of strict thermal equilibrium - by detecting and cross-correlating the stochastic fluctuation signals exhibited by each of the constituent spin species. Specifically, we consider a two-component spin ensemble that interacts via exchange coupling, and we determine cross-correlations between their intrinsic spin fluctuations. The model is experimentally confirmed using 'two-color' optical spin noise spectroscopy on a mixture of interacting Rb and Cs vapors. Noise correlations directly reveal the presence of inter-species spin exchange, without ever perturbing the system away from thermal equilibrium. These non-invasive and noise-based techniques should be generally applicable to any heterogeneous spin system in which the fluctuations of the constituent components are detectable

  3. Optimal CMB map-making in presence of cross-correlated noise

    de Gasperis, Giancarlo; Cabella, Paolo; de Bernardis, Paolo; Vittorio, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We present an extension of the ROMA map-making algorithm for the generation of optimal CMB temperature and polarization maps. The new code takes into account a possible cross-correlated noise component among the detectors of a CMB experiment. A promising application is the forthcoming LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of CMB polarization at large angular scales. To check the reliability of the code, we tested the extended ROMA algorithm on real and simulated data of the BOOMERanG(2003) mission, in order to compare our conclusions with already established results. Hence, we performed a preliminary forecast of the LSPE/SWIPE instrument. We found that considering the cross-correlation among the detectors results in a more realistic estimate of the angular power spectra. In particular, the extended ROMA map-making algorithm provides a strong reduction of the spectra error bars. We expect that this improvement will be crucial in constraining the B component of CMB polarization at the largest scal...

  4. A GROUP-GALAXY CROSS-CORRELATION FUNCTION ANALYSIS IN zCOSMOS

    We present a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis using a group catalog produced from the 16,500 spectra from the optical zCOSMOS galaxy survey. Our aim is to perform a consistency test in the redshift range 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 0.8 between the clustering strength of the groups and mass estimates that are based on the richness of the groups. We measure the linear bias of the groups by means of a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis and convert it into mass using the bias-mass relation for a given cosmology, checking the systematic errors using realistic group and galaxy mock catalogs. The measured bias for the zCOSMOS groups increases with group richness as expected by the theory of cosmic structure formation and yields masses that are reasonably consistent with the masses estimated from the richness directly, considering the scatter that is obtained from the 24 mock catalogs. Some exceptions are the richest groups at high redshift (estimated to be more massive than 1013.5 M☉), for which the measured bias is significantly larger than for any of the 24 mock catalogs (corresponding to a 3σ effect), which is attributed to the extremely large structure that is present in the COSMOS field at z ∼ 0.7. Our results are in general agreement with previous studies that reported unusually strong clustering in the COSMOS field.

  5. Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers

    We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements

  6. 3D textiles for composite reinforcements

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Mingxing, Z.; Hong, H; Soutinho, Hélder Filipe Cunha; Gonçalves, P.; Araújo, Mário Duarte de

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the last developments on 3D textile structures for composite reinforcements. The application of innovative 3D shaped weft-knitted preforms in GFRP tube joints is presented and discussed. Moreover, the mechanical behaviour of 3D hybrid basalt fiber reinforced composite material sis also presented and discussed.

  7. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  8. On the interplay between short and long term memory in the power-law cross-correlations setting

    Ladislav Kristoufek

    2014-01-01

    We focus on emergence of the power-law cross-correlations from processes with both short and long term memory properties. In the case of correlated error-terms, the power-law decay of the cross-correlation function comes automatically with the characteristics of separate processes. Bivariate Hurst exponent is then equal to an average of separate Hurst exponents of the analyzed processes. Strength of short term memory has no effect on these asymptotic properties. Implications of these findings...

  9. On the interplay between short and long term memory in the power-law cross-correlations setting

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    We focus on emergence of the power-law cross-correlations from processes with both short and long term memory properties. In the case of correlated error-terms, the power-law decay of the cross-correlation function comes automatically with the characteristics of the separate processes. The bivariate Hurst exponent is then equal to an average of the separate Hurst exponents of the analysed processes. Strength of the short term memory has no effect on these asymptotic properties.

  10. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  11. Esiselvitys elintarvikkeiden 3D-tulostamisesta

    Teva, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli laatia esiselvitys 3D-tulostamisesta elintarvikealalla. 3D-tulostaminen on uusi ja jatkuvasti kehittyvä ala, joka tulee vaikuttamaan myös elintarvikealan kehittymiseen. Työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää elintarvikenäkökulmasta 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tekijöitä. Aiheen toimeksiantajana oli Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulu ja kohderyhmänä elintarvikealan Pk-yritykset. Opinnäytetyössä esitellään yleisimpiä 3D-tulostusmenetelmiä ja selvitetään 3D-tulostamista tietokone...

  12. PRIPRAVA MODELOV ZA 3D - TISK

    Črešnik, Igor

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu predstavljamo pripravo modela na 3D-tisk. V prvem delu smo preleteli zgodovino tiska. Predstavili smo tehnologijo 3D-tiska ter različne tehnike tiskanja, ki jih uporabljajo določeni tiskalniki. V nadaljevanju smo pregledali različne tipe 3D-tiskalnikov, ki se uporabljajo za domačo ali komercialno uporabo ter izpostavili njihove prednosti in slabosti. V zadnjem delu diplomskega dela smo na praktičnem primeru 3D-modela hiše prikazali proces priprave modela za 3D-tisk. Pri delu...

  13. 3D-tulostimien tutkiminen painotalolle

    Toivonen, Aleksi

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli perehtyä 3D-tulostamiseen ja tutkia painotaloon sopivia 3D-tulostimia ja 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tekniikoita. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli myös pohtia painotalolle mahdollisia 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tuotekonsepteja yrityksille ja yksityisille kuluttajille. Painoalan yrityksen tarkoituksena on sijoittaa lähitulevaisuudessa 3D-tulostimeen, joten opinnäytetyö oli ajankohtainen tutkimustyö yritykselle. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi painoalan yritys. ...

  14. BUILDING A HOMEMADE 3D PRINTER

    Tunc, Baran

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been attracted much attention around the world due to its high potential of new application fields. In this respect, developing and inventing new filament materials for 3D printers or new techniques of 3D printing are the main interest of the many materials scientists. This paper reports a comprehensive overview of 3D printing followed by a summary of my ongoing study of building a composite homemade 3D printer. At this stage of this study, a CNC router was successfully conver...

  15. 3D Printing our future: Now

    Taylor, Andrew; Unver, Ertu

    2015-01-01

    This 3D Printing our Future:Now talk and visual presentation was given to delegates at the IMI 3D Workshop held at 3M Buckley Innovation Centre on 17th March 2015. The event was hosted by 3Mbuckley Innovation Centre for IMI plc a global engineering company, 3M, and leading 3D additive manufacturing technology providers: EOS, Renishaw and HK 3D printing to disseminate and share their experience on the latest 3D additive design and manufacturing technologies available to the engineering an...

  16. Investigating Mobile Stereoscopic 3D Touchscreen Interaction

    Colley, Ashley; Hakkila, Jonna; SCHOENING, Johannes; Posti, Maaret

    2013-01-01

    3D output is no longer limited to large screens in cinemas or living rooms. Nowadays more and more mobile devices are equipped with autostereoscopic 3D (S3D) touchscreens. As a consequence interaction with 3D content now also happens whilst users are on the move. In this paper we carried out a user study with 27 participants to assess how mobile interaction, i.e. whilst walking, with mobile S3D devices, differs from interaction with 2D mobile touchscreens. We investigate the difference in tou...

  17. ViHAP3D - Final report

    Scopigno, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Nearly all of our cultural heritage is inherently three-dimensional. Recent hard- and software developments enabled 3D computer graphics to be one of the most powerful means to represent complex data sets. The ViHAP3D project (ViHAP3D is an acronym for Virtual Heritage - High Quality 3D Acquisition and Presentation) aimed therefore at preserving, presenting, accessing, and promoting cultural heritage using interactive, high-quality 3D graphics. The vision of the project was to create an exact...

  18. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  19. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  20. Web-based interactive visualization of 3D video mosaics using X3D standard

    CHON Jaechoon; LEE Yang-Won; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke

    2006-01-01

    We present a method of 3D image mosaicing for real 3D representation of roadside buildings, and implement a Web-based interactive visualization environment for the 3D video mosaics created by 3D image mosaicing. The 3D image mosaicing technique developed in our previous work is a very powerful method for creating textured 3D-GIS data without excessive data processing like the laser or stereo system. For the Web-based open access to the 3D video mosaics, we build an interactive visualization environment using X3D, the emerging standard of Web 3D. We conduct the data preprocessing for 3D video mosaics and the X3D modeling for textured 3D data. The data preprocessing includes the conversion of each frame of 3D video mosaics into concatenated image files that can be hyperlinked on the Web. The X3D modeling handles the representation of concatenated images using necessary X3D nodes. By employing X3D as the data format for 3D image mosaics, the real 3D representation of roadside buildings is extended to the Web and mobile service systems.

  1. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  2. 3D laptop for defense applications

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  3. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    3D Geovisualisation is a multidisciplinary science mainly utilizing geographically related data, developing software systems for 3D visualisation and producing relevant models. In this paper the connection between geoinformation stored as 3D objects and the end user is of special interest....... In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality....... The conceptual level is used to structure and organise user-centered 3D Geovisualisation into four categories: representation, rendering, interface and interaction. The categories reflect a process of development of 3D Geovisualisation where objects can be represented verisimilar to the real world...

  4. 3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption

    Pawan N. Khade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substitution to the encrypted image. The Chebyshev map is used for public key encryption and distribution of generated private keys.

  5. RECONSTRUCTING REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH CROSS-CORRELATIONS: TESTS AND AN OPTIMIZED RECIPE

    Many of the cosmological tests to be performed by planned dark energy experiments will require extremely well-characterized photometric redshift measurements. Current estimates for cosmic shear are that the true mean redshift of the objects in each photo-z bin must be known to better than 0.002(1 + z), and the width of the bin must be known to ∼0.003(1 + z) if errors in cosmological measurements are not to be degraded significantly. A conventional approach is to calibrate these photometric redshifts with large sets of spectroscopic redshifts. However, at the depths probed by Stage III surveys (such as DES), let alone Stage IV (LSST, JDEM, and Euclid), existing large redshift samples have all been highly (25%-60%) incomplete, with a strong dependence of success rate on both redshift and galaxy properties. A powerful alternative approach is to exploit the clustering of galaxies to perform photometric redshift calibrations. Measuring the two-point angular cross-correlation between objects in some photometric redshift bin and objects with known spectroscopic redshift, as a function of the spectroscopic z, allows the true redshift distribution of a photometric sample to be reconstructed in detail, even if it includes objects too faint for spectroscopy or if spectroscopic samples are highly incomplete. We test this technique using mock DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift survey light cones constructed from the Millennium Simulation semi-analytic galaxy catalogs. From this realistic test, which incorporates the effects of galaxy bias evolution and cosmic variance, we find that the true redshift distribution of a photometric sample can, in fact, be determined accurately with cross-correlation techniques. We also compare the empirical error in the reconstruction of redshift distributions to previous analytic predictions, finding that additional components must be included in error budgets to match the simulation results. This extra error contribution is small for surveys that sample

  6. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  7. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    My Abdellah Kassimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

  8. Treatment of Calibration Uncertainty in Multi-Baseline Cross-Correlation Searches for Gravitational Waves

    Whelan, John T; Romano, Joseph D; Thrane, Eric H

    2012-01-01

    Residual uncertainty in the calibration of gravitational wave (GW) detector data leads to systematic errors which must be accounted for in setting limits on the strength of GW signals. When cross-correlation measurements are made using data from a pair of instruments, as in searches for a stochastic GW background, the calibration uncertainties associated with the two instruments can be combined into an uncertainty associated with the pair. With the advent of multi-baseline GW observation (e.g., networks consisting of multiple detectors such as the LIGO observatories and Virgo), a more sophisticated treatment is called for. We describe how the correlations between calibration factors associated with different pairs can be taken into account by marginalizing over the uncertainty associated with each instrument, defining two methods known as per-baseline and per-instrument marginalization.

  9. Determination of velocity vector angles using the directional cross-correlation method

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    A method for determining both velocity magnitude and angle in any direction is suggested. The method uses focusing along the velocity direction and cross-correlation for finding the correct velocity magnitude. The angle is found from beamforming directional signals in a number of directions and...... then select the angle with the highest normalized correlation between directional signals. The approach is investigated using Field II simulations and data from the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and with a parabolic flow having a peak velocity of 0.3 m/s. A 7 MHz linear array transducer is...... ( correlation-time ) between signals to correlate, and a proper choice varies with flow angle and flow velocity. One performance example is given with a fixed value of k tprf for all flow angles. The angle estimation on measured data for flow at 60 ◦ to 90 ◦ , yields a probability of valid estimates between 68...

  10. Estimation of velocity vector angles using the directional cross-correlation method

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    A method for determining both velocity magnitude and angle in any direction is suggested. The method uses focusing along the velocity direction and cross-correlation for finding the correct velocity magnitude. The angle is found from beamforming directional signals in a number of directions and...... then select the angle with the highest normalized correlation between directional signals. The approach is investigated using Field II simulations and data from the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and a circulating flow rig with a parabolic flow having a peak velocity of 0.3 m/s. A 7 MHz linear...... estimated with a high precision. The angle estimation performance is highly dependent on the choice of the time ktprf Tprf (correlation-time) between signals to correlate. One performance example is given with a fixed value of ktprf for all flow angles. The angle estimation on measured data for flow at 60...

  11. Graphene thermal transport studies via radio-frequency, cross-correlated Johnson noise thermometry

    Crossno, Jesse; Liu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Ke; Harzheim, Achim; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ohki, Thomas; Fong, Kin Chung; Kim, Philip

    2015-03-01

    The electronic temperature of a dissipative, mesoscale device can be determined by monitoring the Johnson noise power emitted over a wide frequency range. Using radiometry techniques, we have developed a high-frequency, wide bandwidth, cross-correlation Johnson noise thermometer operating from room temperature to cryogenic levels that is compatible with strong magnetic fields. Precisions ranging from 2 to 25 mK are demonstrated over the temperature range of 3 to 300 K with 1 second of integration time. This non-invasive thermometer has enabled us to perform sensitive electronic thermal transport studies in boron nitride encapsulated monolayer graphene over two orders of magnitude in temperature. This versatile technique also enables precision Fano factor measurements as well as studies of correlated noise phenomena, such as those found in layered Van der Waals heterostructures.

  12. Waveform modeling and inversion of ambient noise cross-correlation functions in a coastal ocean environment.

    Zang, Xiaoqin; Brown, Michael G; Godin, Oleg A

    2015-09-01

    Theoretical studies have shown that cross-correlation functions (CFs) of time series of ambient noise measured at two locations yield approximations to the Green's functions (GFs) that describe propagation between those locations. Specifically, CFs are estimates of weighted GFs. In this paper, it is demonstrated that measured CFs in the 20-70 Hz band can be accurately modeled as weighted GFs using ambient noise data collected in the Florida Straits at ∼100 m depth with horizontal separations of 5 and 10 km. Two weighting functions are employed. These account for (1) the dipole radiation pattern produced by a near-surface source, and (2) coherence loss of surface-reflecting energy in time-averaged CFs resulting from tidal fluctuations. After describing the relationship between CFs and GFs, the inverse problem is considered and is shown to result in an environmental model for which agreement between computed and simulated CFs is good. PMID:26428771

  13. Probing the diffuse baryon distribution with the lensing-tSZ cross-correlation

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Hinshaw, Gary; Hojjati, Alireza; Scott, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half of the Universe's baryons are in a form that has been hard to detect directly. However, the missing component can be traced through the cross-correlation of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect with weak gravitational lensing. We build a model for this correlation and use it to constrain the extended baryon component, employing data from the Canada France Hawaii Lensing Survey and the Planck satellite. The measured correlation function is consistent with an isothermal $\\beta$-model for the halo gas pressure profile, and the 1- and 2- halo terms are both detected at the 4$\\sigma$ level. The effective virial temperature of the gas is found to be in the range ($7\\times10^{5}$--$3 \\times10^{8}$) K, with approximately $50%$ of the baryons appearing to lie beyond the virial radius of the halos, consistent with current expectations for the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

  14. Changes in Cross-Correlations as an Indicator for Systemic Risk

    Zheng, Zeyu; Podobnik, Boris; Feng, Ling; Li, Baowen

    2012-11-01

    The 2008-2012 global financial crisis began with the global recession in December 2007 and exacerbated in September 2008, during which the U.S. stock markets lost 20% of value from its October 11 2007 peak. Various studies reported that financial crisis are associated with increase in both cross-correlations among stocks and stock indices and the level of systemic risk. In this paper, we study 10 different Dow Jones economic sector indexes, and applying principle component analysis (PCA) we demonstrate that the rate of increase in principle components with short 12-month time windows can be effectively used as an indicator of systemic risk--the larger the change of PC1, the higher the increase of systemic risk. Clearly, the higher the level of systemic risk, the more likely a financial crisis would occur in the near future.

  15. Treatment of calibration uncertainty in multi-baseline cross-correlation searches for gravitational waves

    Uncertainty in the calibration of gravitational wave (GW) detector data leads to systematic errors, which must be accounted for in setting limits on the strength of GW signals. When cross-correlation measurements are made using data from a pair of instruments, as in searches for a stochastic GW background, the calibration uncertainties of the individual instruments can be combined into an uncertainty associated with the pair. With the advent of multi-baseline GW observation (e.g., networks consisting of multiple detectors such as the LIGO observatories and Virgo), a more sophisticated treatment is called for. We have described how the correlations between calibration factors associated with different pairs can be taken into account by marginalizing over the uncertainty associated with each instrument

  16. Cross-correlation video recording of gas-vapor-droplet two-phase flows

    Volkov Roman S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigations of gas-vapor-droplet two-phase flow formation during single water droplets and their aggregate motion through high-temperature (more than 1000 K combustion products have been conducted with usage of cross-correlation measuring facility and optical methods of “tracer” visualization (“Particle Image Velocimetry” and “Interferometric Particle Imaging”. Modes of droplet motion in high-temperature gases area have been established. It has been determined the influence of the main droplet (sizes, composition, temperature, dispersability, form, velocity and gas (temperature and velocity characteristics on parameters of forming gas-vapor-droplet mixtures. The main elements of advanced firefighting technologies with the usage of time and space apportioned polydisperse composition water droplet flows have been formulated. Physical and predictive mathematical models have been developed to determine the basic parameters of equipment which is necessary for operation with these technology usage.

  17. Spin-state selection for increased confidence in cross-correlation rates measurements

    Vasos, Paul R.; Hall, Jennifer B.; Fushman, David [University of Maryland, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for Biomolecular Structure and Organization (United States)], E-mail: fushman@umd.edu

    2005-02-15

    A new approach is described for measuring chemical shift anisotropy (CSA)/dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CCR) rates based on the selection of the individual {sup 15}N doublet components prior to the relaxation period. The method uses the spin-state-selective element (S{sup 3}E) of Sorensen and co-authors [Meissner et al. (1997) J. Mag. Reson., 128, 92-97]. The main advantage of the new method compared to other J-resolved experiments is that it does not create problems of additional signal overlap encountered in coupled spectra. At the same time, this approach allows a simpler control of magnetization pathways than the indirect methods. The method is demonstrated for the B3 domain of protein G.

  18. Spin-state selection for increased confidence in cross-correlation rates measurements

    A new approach is described for measuring chemical shift anisotropy (CSA)/dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CCR) rates based on the selection of the individual 15N doublet components prior to the relaxation period. The method uses the spin-state-selective element (S3E) of Sorensen and co-authors [Meissner et al. (1997) J. Mag. Reson., 128, 92-97]. The main advantage of the new method compared to other J-resolved experiments is that it does not create problems of additional signal overlap encountered in coupled spectra. At the same time, this approach allows a simpler control of magnetization pathways than the indirect methods. The method is demonstrated for the B3 domain of protein G

  19. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Calibration with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Using Cross-Correlations

    Hajian, Amir; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, John R.; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Bertrand Doriese, W.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Moseley, Harvey; Wollack, Ed

    2011-01-01

    We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and mapmaking procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 < I < 1000, we determine the absolute calibration with an uncertainty of 2% in temperature. The precise measurement of the calibration error directly impacts the uncertainties in the cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.

  20. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: CALIBRATION WITH THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE USING CROSS-CORRELATIONS

    We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and map-making procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 < l < 1000, we determine the absolute calibration with an uncertainty of 2% in temperature. The precise measurement of the calibration error directly impacts the uncertainties in the cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.

  1. Development of cross-correlation spectrometry and the coherent structures of maser sources

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new method of data processing for radio telescope observation data to measure time-dependent temporal coherence, and we named it cross-correlation spectrometry (XCS). XCS is an autocorrelation procedure that expands time lags over the integration time and is applied to data obtained from a single-dish observation. The temporal coherence property of received signals is enhanced by XCS. We tested the XCS technique using the data of strong H2O masers in W3 (H2O), W49N and W75N. We obtained the temporal coherent lengths of the maser emission to be 17.95 $\\pm$ 0.33 {\\mu}s, 26.89 $\\pm$ 0.49 {\\mu}s and 15.95 $\\pm$ 0.46 {\\mu}s for W3 (H2O), W49N and W75N, respectively. These results may indicate the existence of a coherent astrophysical maser.

  2. Flow measurements in hydrotransport units using gamma scattering and cross-correlation techniques

    The proposal of this research was to develop a methodology using gamma radiation and cross-correlation techniques to measure the speed of ore pellets in a hydrotransport duct. An experimental unit was designed and built to be used in a two-phase flows transport simulation It was used to measure the velocity of the solid pellets. The flowmeter system consists in two independent systems, each one composed by a NaI (1 x 1″) scintillators detector- 241Am gamma source, installed outside the tube, both systems were located in the same vertical plane and separated by 18.0 cm. As pellets, were produced a variety of specimens with different compositions in order to verify the methodology. Using this flowmeter was possible to calculate the solid phase velocity. (author)

  3. Analysis of cross-correlations in electroencephalogram signals as an approach to proactive diagnosis of schizophrenia

    Timashev, Serge F; Polyakov, Yuriy S; Demin, Sergey A; Kaplan, Alexander Ya

    2011-01-01

    We apply flicker-noise spectroscopy (FNS), a time series analysis method operating on structure functions and power spectrum estimates, to study the clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded in children/adolescents (11 to 14 years of age) with diagnosed schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms at the National Center for Psychiatric Health (NCPH) of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The EEG signals for these subjects were compared with the signals for a control sample of chronically depressed children/adolescents. The purpose of the study is to look for diagnostic signs of subjects' susceptibility to schizophrenia in the FNS parameters for specific electrodes and cross-correlations between the signals simultaneously measured at different points on the scalp. Our analysis of EEG signals from scalp-mounted electrodes at locations F3 and F4, which are symmetrically positioned in the left and right frontal areas of cerebral cortex, respectively, demonstrates an essential role of frequency-phase synchroniz...

  4. Dynamic cross correlation studies of wave particle interactions in ULF phenomena

    Mcpherron, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic field observations made by satellites in the earth's magnetic field reveal a wide variety of ULF waves. These waves interact with the ambient particle populations in complex ways, causing modulation of the observed particle fluxes. This modulation is found to be a function of species, pitch angle, energy and time. The characteristics of this modulation provide information concerning the wave mode and interaction process. One important characteristic of wave-particle interactions is the phase of the particle flux modulation relative to the magnetic field variations. To display this phase as a function of time a dynamic cross spectrum program has been developed. The program produces contour maps in the frequency time plane of the cross correlation coefficient between any particle flux time series and the magnetic field vector. This program has been utilized in several studies of ULF wave-particle interactions at synchronous orbit.

  5. Cross-correlated imaging of single-mode photonic crystal rod fiber with distributed mode filtering

    Laurila, Marko; Barankov, Roman; Jørgensen, Mette Marie;

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal bandgap fibers employing distributed mode filtering design provide near diffraction-limited light outputs, a critical property of fiber-based high-power lasers. Microstructure of the fibers is tailored to achieve single-mode operation at specific wavelength by resonant mode...... coupling of higher-order modes. We analyze the modal regimes of the fibers having a mode field diameter of 60 µm by the cross-correlated (C2) imaging method in different wavelength ranges and evaluate the sensitivity of the modal content to various input-coupling conditions. As a result, we experimentally...... identify regimes of resonant coupling between higher-order core modes and cladding band. We demonstrate a passive fiber design in which the higher-order modal content inside the single-mode guiding regime is suppressed by at least 20 dB even for significantly misaligned input-coupling configurations....

  6. Applying Massive Waveform Cross Correlation and Double-Difference Location to Northern California and China

    Schaff, D. P.; Waldhauser, F.; Richards, P. G.

    2003-12-01

    In recent years substantial advances in earthquake location have realized one to two orders of magnitude improvement over seismically broad areas due to the complementary benefits of waveform cross correlation and double-difference (DD) relative location in reducing both measurement and velocity model errors respectively. We report on results from applying these techniques on a massive scale to locally recorded seismic data across all of Northern California and to regional and teleseismic data in China. We are in the process of performing 2.5 billion correlation measurements on 280,000 events in Northern California from 1984 to present. The waveforms comprise the entire digital archive at the NCEDC recorded by 900 short period vertical component stations totaling 225 GB of data. We use a correlation detector instead of a correlation function to allow lags greater than 1/2 of the window length (typically 1 to 2 s) to be searched. At station JST, which includes 35,000 events from Bay area faults such as the Hayward, the Calaveras, and the San Andreas faults, 40% of the events have at least one other event with cross correlation coefficients (CC) greater than 0.9 (62% for CC > 0.8, 77% for CC > 0.7). These percentages of similar events are surprisingly high, but they include known areas of repeating events on the Calaveras and San Andreas Faults. For a station in Long Valley Caldera recording 72,000 events, the distribution is 18% for CC > 0.9, 43% for CC > 0.8, and 67% for CC > 0.7. A station including 20,000 events in the different tectonic settings of Mendocino Triple Junction and Geysers Geothermal Fields has 16% of the events with CC > 0.9 with at least one other event, 32% have CC > 0.8, and 49% have CC > 0.7. The lower numbers of correlated events observed at the latter two stations most likely reflect the different faulting processes that take place in these areas, compared to the (mostly) strike-slip events recorded at JST. To improve the accuracy of inter

  7. Towards a cross-correlation approach to strong-field dynamics in Black Hole spacetimes

    Jaramillo, J L; Moesta, P; Rezzolla, L

    2012-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative understanding of near-horizon gravitational dynamics in the strong-field regime represents a challenge both at a fundamental level and in astrophysical applications. Recent advances in numerical relativity and in the geometric characterization of black hole horizons open new conceptual and technical avenues into the problem. We discuss here a research methodology in which spacetime dynamics is probed through the cross-correlation of geometric quantities constructed on the black hole horizon and on null infinity. These two hypersurfaces respond to evolving gravitational fields in the bulk, providing canonical "test screens" in a "scattering"-like perspective onto spacetime dynamics. More specifically, we adopt a 3+1 Initial Value Problem approach to the construction of generic spacetimes and discuss the role and properties of dynamical trapping horizons as canonical inner "screens" in this context. We apply these ideas and techniques to the study of the recoil dynamics in post-...

  8. Calibration of a gas sensor based on cross-correlation spectroscopy

    Vargas-Rodriguez, E.; Rutt, H. N.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Alvarado-Mendez, E.

    2008-10-01

    In this work an analysis of some calibration effects in the overall response of a gas sensor based on cross-correlation spectroscopy is presented. For this analysis we considered that an Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with long cavity length (>500 µm) acting as a modulator and a pyroelectric detector is used. Moreover we assumed that the cavity length of the FPI is scanned by driving a PZT with a triangular waveform. Here it is shown that the harmonic composition of the overall sensor response can be affected by small FPI cavity length differences. These effects are due to the pyroelectric responsivity and the triangular waveform used to scan the PZT. Moreover it is shown that the effects over the harmonic composition can be used to calibrate the sensor. Finally simulation results and experimental measurements are provided.

  9. Auto- and cross-correlation analysis of the QSOs radio wave intensity

    Demin, S. A.; Panischev, O. Yu; Nefedyev, Yu A.

    2015-12-01

    We discuss here the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy approach to studying astrophysical systems, for example the radio wave intensity of quasi-stellar object (QSO) 1641+399 and BL Lacertae (BL Lac) 0215+015 in different frequency ranges. The presented method allows to parameterize the study dynamics using a short set of characteristics. The considering sources have a significant differences in manifesting the non-stationary effects, dynamical intermittency and synchronization. The radio wave intensity dynamics of the BL Lac 0215+015 is characterized by well-defined set of natural frequencies, persistent behavior with low effects of non-stationarity and high level of frequency-phase synchronization. For dynamics of the QSO 1641+399 reverse occurs including the asymmetrical structure of cross-correlator. Our findings show that using the flicker-noise spectroscopy approach to studying astrophysical objects allows to carry out the more detail analysis of their behavior and evolution.

  10. Towards 3C-3D digital holographic fluid velocity vector field measurement—tomographic digital holographic PIV (Tomo-HPIV)

    Most unsteady and/or turbulent flows of geophysical and engineering interest have a highly three-dimensional (3D) complex topology and their experimental investigation is in pressing need of quantitative velocity measurement methods that are robust and can provide instantaneous 3C-3D velocity field data over a significant volumetric domain of the flow. This paper introduces and demonstrates a new method that uses multiple digital CCD array cameras to record in-line digital holograms of the same volume of seed particles from multiple orientations. This technique uses the same basic equipment as Tomo-PIV minus the camera lenses, it overcomes the depth-of-field problem of digital in-line holography and does not require the complex optical calibration of Tomo-PIV. The digital sensors can be oriented in an optimal manner to overcome the depth-of-field limitation of in-line holograms recorded using digital CCD or CMOS array cameras, resulting in a 3D reconstruction of the seed particles within the volume of interest, which can subsequently be analysed using 3D cross-correlation PIV analysis to yield a 3C-3D velocity field. A demonstration experiment of Tomo-HPIV using uniform translation with nominally 11 µm diameter seed particles shows that the 3D displacement derived from 3D cross-correlation Tomo-HPIV analysis can be measured within 5% of the imposed uniform translation, where the imposed uniform translation has an estimated standard uncertainty of 4.3%. So this paper proposes a multi-camera digital holographic imaging 3C-3D PIV method, which is identified as tomographic digital holographic PIV or Tomo-HPIV

  11. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρ D X A , contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  12. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics. PMID:21599254

  13. Analysis of cross-correlations in electroencephalogram signals as an approach to proactive diagnosis of schizophrenia

    Timashev, Serge F.; Panischev, Oleg Yu.; Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Demin, Sergey A.; Kaplan, Alexander Ya.

    2012-02-01

    We apply flicker-noise spectroscopy (FNS), a time series analysis method operating on structure functions and power spectrum estimates, to study the clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded in children/adolescents (11 to 14 years of age) with diagnosed schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms at the National Center for Psychiatric Health (NCPH) of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The EEG signals for these subjects were compared with the signals for a control sample of chronically depressed children/adolescents. The purpose of the study is to look for diagnostic signs of subjects' susceptibility to schizophrenia in the FNS parameters for specific electrodes and cross-correlations between the signals simultaneously measured at different points on the scalp. Our analysis of EEG signals from scalp-mounted electrodes at locations F3 and F4, which are symmetrically positioned in the left and right frontal areas of cerebral cortex, respectively, demonstrates an essential role of frequency-phase synchronization, a phenomenon representing specific correlations between the characteristic frequencies and phases of excitations in the brain. We introduce quantitative measures of frequency-phase synchronization and systematize the values of FNS parameters for the EEG data. The comparison of our results with the medical diagnoses for 84 subjects performed at NCPH makes it possible to group the EEG signals into 4 categories corresponding to different risk levels of subjects' susceptibility to schizophrenia. We suggest that the introduced quantitative characteristics and classification of cross-correlations may be used for the diagnosis of schizophrenia at the early stages of its development.

  14. Wavelet-based cross-correlation analysis of structure scaling in turbulent clouds

    Arshakian, Tigran G.; Ossenkopf, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We propose a statistical tool to compare the scaling behaviour of turbulence in pairs of molecular cloud maps. Using artificial maps with well-defined spatial properties, we calibrate the method and test its limitations to apply it ultimately to a set of observed maps. Methods: We develop the wavelet-based weighted cross-correlation (WWCC) method to study the relative contribution of structures of different sizes and their degree of correlation in two maps as a function of spatial scale, and the mutual displacement of structures in the molecular cloud maps. Results: We test the WWCC for circular structures having a single prominent scale and fractal structures showing a self-similar behaviour without prominent scales. Observational noise and a finite map size limit the scales on which the cross-correlation coefficients and displacement vectors can be reliably measured. For fractal maps containing many structures on all scales, the limitation from observational noise is negligible for signal-to-noise ratios ≳5. We propose an approach for the identification of correlated structures in the maps, which allows us to localize individual correlated structures and recognize their shapes and suggest a recipe for recovering enhanced scales in self-similar structures. The application of the WWCC to the observed line maps of the giant molecular cloud G 333 allows us to add specific scale information to the results obtained earlier using the principal component analysis. The WWCC confirms the chemical and excitation similarity of 13CO and C18O on all scales, but shows a deviation of HCN at scales of up to 7 pc. This can be interpreted as a chemical transition scale. The largest structures also show a systematic offset along the filament, probably due to a large-scale density gradient. Conclusions: The WWCC can compare correlated structures in different maps of molecular clouds identifying scales that represent structural changes, such as chemical and phase transitions

  15. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and it

  16. 3D-tulostus : case Printrbot

    Arvekari, Lassi

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää 3D-tulostustekniikan perusteita ja 3D-tulostuksen nykytilannetta. 3D-tulostukseen sopivien mallien luomista tutkitaan ja mallin tekemiseen on etsitty toimivia ohjesääntöjä. Tärkeä osa työtä on tutkia mitä vaiheita 3D-tulostimen hankinnassa kotikäyttöön tulee vastaan. Käytännön kokeita varten opinnäytetyössä on case Printrbot, jossa on tutustuttu edulliseen 3D-tulostuslaitteeseen kokoonpanosta lähtien. Työn kuluessa selvisi että edulliset 3D-tulos...

  17. Identification of the transition arrays 3d74s-3d74p in Br X and 3d64s-3d64p in Br XI

    We report a beam-foil study of multiply ionized bromine in the region 400-1300A, performed with 6 and 8 MeV Br ions from a tandem accelerator. At these energies transitions belonging to Fe-like Br X and Mn-like Br XI are expected to be prominent. We have identified 31 lines as 3d74s-3d74p transitions in Br X, from which 16 levels of the previously unknown 3d74s configuration could be established. We have also added 6 new 3d74p levels to the 99 previously known. For Br XI we have classified 9 lines as 3d64s-3d64p combinations. The line identifications have been corroborated by isoelectronic comparisons and theoretical calculations using the superposition-of-configurations technique. (orig.)

  18. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  19. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; DUPLESSIS KERGOMARD, Yann; Dau, Frédéric; MALHERBE, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic o...

  20. Spatial data modelling for 3D GIS

    Abdul-Rahman, Alias

    2007-01-01

    This book covers fundamental aspects of spatial data modelling specifically on the aspect of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and structuring. Realisation of ""true"" 3D GIS spatial system needs a lot of effort, and the process is taking place in various research centres and universities in some countries. The development of spatial data modelling for 3D objects is the focus of this book.

  1. MMDB: 3D structures and macromolecular interactions

    Madej, Thomas; Addess, Kenneth J.; Fong, Jessica H.; Geer, Lewis Y.; Geer, Renata C.; Lanczycki, Christopher J; Liu, Chunlei; Lu, Shennan; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Panchenko, Anna R.; Chen, Jie; Thiessen, Paul A; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Dachuan; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    Close to 60% of protein sequences tracked in comprehensive databases can be mapped to a known three-dimensional (3D) structure by standard sequence similarity searches. Potentially, a great deal can be learned about proteins or protein families of interest from considering 3D structure, and to this day 3D structure data may remain an underutilized resource. Here we present enhancements in the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB) and its data presentation, specifically pertaining to biologically...

  2. Compression of 3D models with NURBS

    Santa Cruz Ducci, Diego; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2005-01-01

    With recent progress in computing, algorithmics and telecommunications, 3D models are increasingly used in various multimedia applications. Examples include visualization, gaming, entertainment and virtual reality. In the multimedia domain 3D models have been traditionally represented as polygonal meshes. This piecewise planar representation can be thought of as the analogy of bitmap images for 3D surfaces. As bitmap images, they enjoy great flexibility and are particularly well suited to des...

  3. Volume-Rendering-Based Interactive 3D Measurement for Quantitative Analysis of 3D Medical Images

    Yakang Dai; Jian Zheng; Yuetao Yang; Duojie Kuai; Xiaodong Yang

    2013-01-01

    3D medical images are widely used to assist diagnosis and surgical planning in clinical applications, where quantitative measurement of interesting objects in the image is of great importance. Volume rendering is widely used for qualitative visualization of 3D medical images. In this paper, we introduce a volume-rendering-based interactive 3D measurement framework for quantitative analysis of 3D medical images. In the framework, 3D widgets and volume clipping are integrated with volume render...

  4. Reconstructing the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect in 3D

    Pratten, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect is one of the most promising tools we have for probing the baryonic Universe. Unfortunately, the tSZ effect is defined as a line of sight projection of the thermal pressure fluctuations of free-electrons, compromising our ability to probe the thermal history of the Universe by smearing out the tSZ observables. This results in a loss of redshift information diminishing the power of tSZ observations. It is hoped that by cross-correlating the tSZ effect with external tracers we can recover a good fraction of the lost information. Weak lensing (WL) is thought to provide a relatively unbiased probe of the dark Universe in 3D with many upcoming WL surveys having sky coverage that overlaps with current tSZ surveys. Generalising the commonly used tomographic approach, we advocate the use of the spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) expansion as a means to perform a full analysis of cross-correlations between the projected (2D) tSZ Compton y-parameter maps and 3D WL-convergence kap...

  5. 3D Printing Making the Digital Real .

    Miss Prachi More

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is quickly expanding field, with the popularity and uses for 3D printers growing every day. 3D printing can be used to prototype, create replacement parts, and is even versatile enough to print prostheses and medical implants. It will have a growing impact on our world, as more and more people gain access to these amazing machines.[1] In this article, we would like to attempt to give an introduction of the technology. 3Dimensions printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D mod...

  6. 3D-tulostuksen viipalointiohjelmien vertailu

    Virolainen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selventää 3D-tulostamisen prosessia yksityisen käyttäjän näkökulmasta sekä luoda testitulostuksia, joiden perusteella pystytään vertailemaan prosessissa käytettävien viipalointiohjelmien toimintaa keskenään. Työssä perehdytään aluksi 3D-tulostuksen teoriataustaan, jonka jälkeen suoritetaan 3D-tulostimella testitulostukset käyttäen kolmea eri viipalointiohjelmaa. 3D-tulostamisella tarkoitetaan prosessia, jonka tarkoituksena on luoda kolmiulotteinen objekti käyt...

  7. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  8. BIM tietomalli ja 3D-tulostus

    Myllykoski, Joonas; Palonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää miten Tekla Structures ohjelmalla luotu 3D-malli saadaan tulostettua koulun 3D-tulostimella sekä tutkittiin voidaanko Tekla Structuresin ominaisuuksia hyödyntää 3D-tulostamisessa ja miten tulostus onnistuu autocadilla. Selvitimme myös mahdollisia 3D-tulostusteknologian sovelluksia tulevaisuuden rakennustuotannossa ja sen näkymiä rakennusteollisuudessa sekä erilaisia tulostus menetelmiä joita voitaisiin mahdollisesti hyödyntää rakennusteollisuudess...

  9. A 3d game in python

    Xu, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    3D game has widely been accepted and loved by many game players. More and more different kinds of 3D games were developed to feed people’s needs. The most common programming language for development of 3D game is C++ nowadays. Python is a high-level scripting language. It is simple and clear. The concise syntax could speed up the development cycle. This project was to develop a 3D game using only Python. The game is about how a cat lives in the street. In order to live, the player need...

  10. Interaktiivinen 3D HTML5-selaimissa

    Aaltonen, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Insinöörityön tavoitteena oli tutkia Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulun mahdollisuuksia tuottaa interaktiivista 3D:tä verkkoselaimiin WebGL:n avulla ja käyttäen ammattikorkeakoulun 3D-mallinnusohjelmaa. WebGL on ohjelmointirajapinta, jolla saadaan luotua 3D-grafiikkaa verkkoselaimeen ilman ylimääräisiä liitännäisiä. Insinöörityö tehtiin Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoululle, ja sen tuloksia käytetään sekä osana opetusta että mahdollisesti 3D-sisällön tuottamiseen ammattikorkeakoulua varten. Työssä...

  11. Calibration for 3D Structured Light Measurement

    2007-01-01

    A calibration procedure was developed for three-dimensional(3D) binocular structured light measurement systems. In virtue of a specially designed pattern, matching points in stereo images are extracted. And then sufficient 3D space points are obtained through pairs of images with the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera estimated prior and consequently some lights are calibrated by means of multi point fitting. Finally, a mathematical model is applied to interpolate and approximate all dynamic scanning lights based on geometry. The process of calibration method is successfully used in the binocular 3D measurement system based on structured lights and the 3D reconstruction results are satisfying.

  12. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  13. Can 3D Printing change your business?

    Unver, Ertu

    2013-01-01

    This presentation is given to businesses / companies with an interest in 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing in West Yorkshire, UK Organised by the Calderdale and Kirklees Manufacturing Alliance. http://www.ckma.co.uk/ by Dr Ertu Unver Senior Lecturer / Product Design / MA 3D Digital Design / University of Huddersfield Location : 3M BIC, Date : 11th April, Time : 5.30 – 8pm Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making a three-dimensional (3D) objects from...

  14. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  15. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; P. J. M. Van Oosterom; T. C. Hua; Sharkawi, K.H.; E. E. Duncan; Azri, N.; Hassan, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D cadastre since more and more related agencies attempt to develop or embed 3D components into the MPC. We also intend to describe the initiative by Malaysian national mapping and cadastral agency (...

  16. Interuser Interference Analysis for Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems Part I: Partial-Period Cross-Correlation

    Ni, Jianjun (David)

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses an analysis approach to evaluate the interuser interference for Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum (DSSS) Systems for Space Network (SN) Users. Part I of this analysis shows that the correlation property of pseudo noise (PN) sequences is the critical factor which determines the interuser interference performance of the DSSS system. For non-standard DSSS systems in which PN sequence s period is much larger than one data symbol duration, it is the partial-period cross-correlation that determines the system performance. This study reveals through an example that a well-designed PN sequence set (e.g. Gold Sequence, in which the cross-correlation for a whole-period is well controlled) may have non-controlled partial-period cross-correlation which could cause severe interuser interference for a DSSS system. Since the analytical derivation of performance metric (bit error rate or signal-to-noise ratio) based on partial-period cross-correlation is prohibitive, the performance degradation due to partial-period cross-correlation will be evaluated using simulation in Part II of this analysis in the future.

  17. Detrended cross-correlations between returns, volatility, trading activity, and volume traded for the stock market companies

    Rak, Rafał; Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł

    2015-11-01

    We consider a few quantities that characterize trading on a stock market in a fixed time interval: logarithmic returns, volatility, trading activity (i.e., the number of transactions), and volume traded. We search for the power-law cross-correlations among these quantities aggregated over different time units from 1 min to 10 min. Our study is based on empirical data from the American stock market consisting of tick-by-tick recordings of 31 stocks listed in Dow Jones Industrial Average during the years 2008-2011. Since all the considered quantities except the returns show strong daily patterns related to the variable trading activity in different parts of a day, which are the most evident in the autocorrelation function, we remove these patterns by detrending before we proceed further with our study. We apply the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis with sign preserving (MFCCA) and show that the strongest power-law cross-correlations exist between trading activity and volume traded, while the weakest ones exist (or even do not exist) between the returns and the remaining quantities. We also show that the strongest cross-correlations are carried by those parts of the signals that are characterized by large and medium variance. Our observation that the most convincing power-law cross-correlations occur between trading activity and volume traded reveals the existence of strong fractal-like coupling between these quantities.

  18. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  19. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  20. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  1. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability. (fast track communication)

  2. Intensity Correlation Function of a Single-Mode Laser Driven by Two Colored Noises with Colored Cross-Correlation

    HANLi-Bo; CAOLi; WUDa-Jin; WANGJun

    2004-01-01

    By using the linear approximation method, the intensity correlation function and the intensity correlation time are calculated in a gain-noise model of a single-mode laser driven by colored cross-correlated pump noise and quantum noise, each of which is colored. We detect that, when the cross-correlation between both noises is negative, the behavior of the intensity correlation function C(t) versus time t, in addition to decreasing monotonously, also exhibits several other cases, such as one maximum, one minimum, and two extrema (one maximum and one minimum), i.e., some parameters of the noises can greatly change the dependence of the intensity correlation function upon time. Moreover, we find that there is a minimum Tmin in the curve of the intensity correlation time versus the pump noise intensity, and the depth and position of Train strongly depend on the quantum noise self-correlation time T2 and cross-correlation time T3.

  3. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    Steffen, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  4. 3D printing of functional structures

    Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be deve

  5. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  6. Perception of detail in 3D images

    Heyndrickx, I.; Kaptein, R.

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads t

  7. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Peter Izak; Milan Smetana; Libor Hargas; Miroslav Hrianka; Pavol Spanik

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  8. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  9. 3D, or Not to Be?

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  10. The 3D-city model

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....

  11. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  12. Parametrizable cameras for 3D computational steering

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van

    1997-01-01

    We present a method for the definition of multiple views in 3D interfaces for computational steering. The method uses the concept of a point-based parametrizable camera object. This concept enables a user to create and configure multiple views on his custom 3D interface in an intuitive graphical man

  13. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  14. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    2002-01-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...

  15. 3D directional coupler for impulse UWB

    Le Kernec, Julien; KLEPAL, Martin; Sokol, Vratislav

    2011-01-01

    The AWS Group developed a UWB radar and UWB transceiver for indoor people location and tracking. A radar concept has been developed. This paper will describe step by step the realization of a UWB directional coupler with a novel 3-D architecture. This paper gives a walkthrough of our design of the 3-D directional coupler.

  16. Limited Feedback for 3D Massive MIMO under 3D-UMa and 3D-UMi Scenarios

    Zheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For three-dimensional (3D massive MIMO utilizing the uniform rectangular array (URA in the base station (BS, we propose a limited feedback transmission scheme in which the channel state information (CSI feedback operations for horizontal domain and vertical domain are separate. Compared to the traditional feedback scheme, the scheme can reduce the feedback overhead, code word index search complexity, and storage requirement. Also, based on the zenith of departure angle (ZoD distribution in 3D-Urban Macro Cell (3D-UMa and 3D-Urban Micro Cell (3D-UMi scenarios, we propose the angle quantization codebook for vertical domain, while the codebook of long term evolution-advanced (LTE-Advanced is still adopted in horizontal domain to preserve compatibility with the LTE-Advanced. Based on the angle quantization codebook, the subsampled 3-bit DFT codebook is designed for vertical domain. The system-level simulation results reveal that, to compromise the feedback overhead and system performance, 2-bit codebook for 3D-UMa scenario and 3-bit codebook for 3D-UMi scenario can meet requirements in vertical domain. The feedback period for vertical domain can also be extended appropriately to reduce the feedback overhead.

  17. Terajets produced by 3D dielectric cuboids

    Pacheco-Peña, V; Minin, I V; Minin, O V

    2014-01-01

    The capability of generating terajets using 3D dielectric cuboids working at terahertz (THz) frequencies (as analogues of nanojets in the infrared band) are introduced and studied numerically. The focusing performance of the terajets are evaluated in terms of the transversal full width at half maximum along x- and y- directions using different refractive indexes for a 3D dielectric cuboid with a fixed geometry, obtaining a quasi-symmetric terajet with a subwavelength resolution of ~0.46{\\lambda}0 when the refractive index is n = 1.41. Moreover, the backscattering enhancement produced when metal particles are introduced in the terajet region is demonstrated for a 3D dielectric cuboid and compared with its 2D counterpart. The results of the jet generated for the 3D case are experimentally validated at sub-THz waves, demonstrating the ability to produce terajets using 3D cuboids.

  18. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  19. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  20. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  1. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    Herfray, Yannick; Scarinci, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern-Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any SU(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal SU(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  2. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  3. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  4. CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: Testing Photometric Redshift Distributions Using Angular Cross-Correlations with Spectroscopic Galaxy Surveys

    Choi, Ami; Blake, Chris; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Duncan, Christopher A J; Erben, Thomas; Nakajima, Reiko; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Viola, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions $p(z)$. Our method utilises measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin $j$ into a spectroscopic redshift bin $i$ using the sum of the $p(z)$ for the galaxies residing in bin $j$. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when $i \

  5. Effects of cross-correlated noises on the intensity fluctuation of the single-mode laser system

    Bing Wang; Shuwen Dai; Shuping Ge

    2006-01-01

    @@ A single-mode laser model with cross-correlated additive and multiplicative noise terms is considered, and the effects of correlation between noises on the relaxation time and the intensity correlation function are studied. Using the projection operator method and taking into account the effects of the memory kernels of the intensity correlation function, the analytic expressions for the relaxation time and the correlation function are derived. Based on numerical computations, it is found that the self-correlation time and the cross-correlation time have the same effects on the single-mode laser system.

  6. Knowledge Transfer from Detailed 3-D CFD Codes to System Simulation Tools – CCV Modeling in SI Engine

    Vítek Oldřich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with CCV knowledge transfer from reference data (either experiments or 3-D CFD data into system simulation SW tools (based on 0-D/1-D CFD. It was verified that CCV phenomenon can be modeled by means of combustion model perturbations. The proposed methodology consists of two major steps. First, individual cycle data have to be matched with the 0-D/1-D model, i.e., combustion model parameters are varied to achieve the best possible match of in-cylinder pressure traces. Second, the combustion model parameters (obtained in previous step are statistically evaluated to obtain PDFs and cross-correlations. Then such information is imposed to the 0-D/1-D tool to mimic pressure traces CCV. Good correspondence with the reference data is achieved only if both PDFs and cross-correlations are imposed simultaneously.

  7. Semi- and virtual 3D dosimetry in clinical practice

    Korreman, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, 3D dosimetry is divided in three categories; "true" 3D, semi-3D and virtual 3D. Virtual 3D involves the use of measurement arrays either before or after beam entry in the patient/phantom, whereas semi-3D involves use of measurement arrays in phantoms mimicking the patient. True 3D...

  8. Cross-correlation matrix analysis of Chinese and American bank stocks in subprime crisis

    Zhu, Shi-Zhao; Li, Xin-Li; Nie, Sen; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Yu, Gao-Feng; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-05-01

    In order to study the universality of the interactions among different markets, we analyze the cross-correlation matrix of the price of the Chinese and American bank stocks. We then find that the stock prices of the emerging market are more correlated than that of the developed market. Considering that the values of the components for the eigenvector may be positive or negative, we analyze the differences between two markets in combination with the endogenous and exogenous events which influence the financial markets. We find that the sparse pattern of components of eigenvectors out of the threshold value has no change in American bank stocks before and after the subprime crisis. However, it changes from sparse to dense for Chinese bank stocks. By using the threshold value to exclude the external factors, we simulate the interactions in financial markets. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275186, 91024026, and FOM2014OF001) and the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology (USST) of Humanities and Social Sciences, China (Grant Nos. USST13XSZ05 and 11YJA790231).

  9. Photoplethysmogram signal quality estimation using repeated Gaussian filters and cross-correlation

    Pulse oximeters are monitors that noninvasively measure heart rate and blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). Unfortunately, pulse oximetry is prone to artifacts which negatively impact the accuracy of the measurement and can cause a significant number of false alarms. We have developed an algorithm to segment pulse oximetry signals into pulses and estimate the signal quality in real time. The algorithm iteratively calculates a signal quality index (SQI) ranging from 0 to 100. In the presence of artifacts and irregular signal morphology, the algorithm outputs a low SQI number. The pulse segmentation algorithm uses the derivative of the signal to find pulse slopes and an adaptive set of repeated Gaussian filters to select the correct slopes. Cross-correlation of consecutive pulse segments is used to estimate signal quality. Experimental results using two different benchmark data sets showed a good pulse detection rate with a sensitivity of 96.21% and a positive predictive value of 99.22%, which was equivalent to the available reference algorithm. The novel SQI algorithm was effective and produced significantly lower SQI values in the presence of artifacts compared to SQI values during clean signals. The SQI algorithm may help to guide untrained pulse oximeter users and also help in the design of advanced algorithms for generating smart alarms. (paper)

  10. Damage Detection of Structures for Ambient Loading Based on Cross Correlation Function Amplitude and SVM

    Lin-sheng Huo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective method for the damage detection of skeletal structures which combines the cross correlation function amplitude (CCFA with the support vector machine (SVM is presented in this paper. The proposed method consists of two stages. Firstly, the data features are extracted from the CCFA, which, calculated from dynamic responses and as a representation of the modal shapes of the structure, changes when damage occurs on the structure. The data features are then input into the SVM with the one-against-one (OAO algorithm to classify the damage status of the structure. The simulation data of IASC-ASCE benchmark model and a vibration experiment of truss structure are adopted to verify the feasibility of proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is suitable for the damage identification of skeletal structures with the limited sensors subjected to ambient excitation. As the CCFA based data features are sensitive to damage, the proposed method demonstrates its reliability in the diagnosis of structures with damage, especially for those with minor damage. In addition, the proposed method shows better noise robustness and is more suitable for noisy environments.

  11. Environment degradation, economic growth and energy consumption nexus: A wavelet-windowed cross correlation approach

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker

    2015-10-01

    This paper analyzes the interactive linkages between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (EG) using a novel approach namely wavelet windowed cross correlation (WWCC) for six oil-exporting countries from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region over the period 1980-2012. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EC and EG. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EG and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between EC and EG in order to maintain sustainable EG in the GCC region. Our findings will be useful for GCC countries to better evaluate its situation in the future climate negotiations. The overall findings will help GCC countries assess its position better in future climate change negotiations.

  12. Improving the galaxy clustering Fisher matrix: window function, bin cross-correlation, and bin redshift uncertainty

    Bailoni, Alberto; Amendola, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The Fisher matrix is a widely used tool to forecast the performance of future experiments and approximate the likelihood of large data sets. Most of the forecasts for cosmological parameters in galaxy clustering studies rely on the Fisher matrix approach for large-scale experiments like DES, Euclid, or SKA. Here we improve upon the standard method by taking into account three effects: the finite window function, the correlation between redshift bins, and the uncertainty on the bin redshift. The first two effects are negligible only in the limit of infinite surveys. The third effect, on the contrary, is negligible for infinitely small bins. Here we show how to take into account these effects and what the impact on forecasts of a Euclid-type experiment will be. The main result of this article is that the windowing and the bin cross-correlation induce a considerable change in the forecasted errors, of the order of 10-30% for most cosmological parameters, while the redshift bin uncertainty can be neglected for bi...

  13. Environmental Quenching and Galactic Conformity in the Galaxy Cross-Correlation Signal

    Hatfield, P W

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that environment has a large effect on star formation in galaxies. There are several known plausible mechanisms to remove the cool gas needed for star formation, such as strangulation, harassment and ram-pressure stripping. It is unclear which process is dominant, and over what range of stellar mass. In this paper, we find evidence for suppression of the cross-correlation function between massive galaxies and less massive star-forming galaxies, giving a measure of how less likely a galaxy is to be star-forming in the vicinity of a more massive galaxy. We develop a formalism for modelling environmental quenching mechanisms within the Halo Occupation Distribution formalism. We find that at $z \\sim 2$ environment is not a significant factor in determining quenching of star-forming galaxies, and that galaxies are quenched with similar probabilities in group environments as they are globally. However, by $z \\sim 0.5$ galaxies are much less likely to be star forming when in a group environmen...

  14. Statistical Study of 2XMMi-DR3/SDSS-DR8 Cross-correlation Sample

    Yan-Xia, Zhang; Yong-Heng, Zhao; Xue-Bing, Wu; 10.1088/0004-6256/145/2/42

    2013-01-01

    Cross-correlating the XMM-Newton 2XMMi-DR3 catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8, we obtain one of the largest X-ray/optical catalogs and explore the distribution of various classes of X-ray emitters in the multidimensional photometric parameter space. Quasars and galaxies occupy different zones while stars scatter in them. However, X-ray active stars have a certain distributing rule according to spectral types. The earlier the type of stars, the stronger X-ray emitting. X-ray active stars have a similar distribution to most of stars in the g-r versus r-i diagram. Based on the identified samples with SDSS spectral classification, a random forest algorithm for automatic classification is performed. The result shows that the classification accuracy of quasars and galaxies adds up to more than 93.0% while that of X-ray emitting stars only amounts to 45.3%. In other words, it is easy to separate quasars and galaxies, but it is difficult to discriminate X-ray active stars from quasars and...

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cross-Correlation of Cosmic Microwave Background Lensing and Quasars

    Sherwin, Blake D; Das, Sudeep; Haijian, Amir; Addison, Graeme; Bond, Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Gralla, Megan B.; Halpern, Mark; Hill, J. Colin; Hincks, Adam D.; Hughes, John P.; Huffenberger, Kevin; Hlozek, Renee; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Reese. Erik D.; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Sifon, Cristobal; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Switzer, Eric R.; Wollack, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    We measure the cross-correlation of Atacama cosmology telescope cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing convergence maps with quasar maps made from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 SDSS-XDQSO photometric catalog. The CMB lensing quasar cross-power spectrum is detected for the first time at a significance of 3.8 sigma, which directly confirms that the quasar distribution traces the mass distribution at high redshifts z > 1. Our detection passes a number of null tests and systematic checks. Using this cross-power spectrum, we measure the amplitude of the linear quasar bias assuming a template for its redshift dependence, and find the amplitude to be consistent with an earlier measurement from clustering; at redshift z ap 1.4, the peak of the distribution of quasars in our maps, our measurement corresponds to a bias of b = 2.5 +/- 0.6. With the signal-to-noise ratio on CMB lensing measurements likely to improve by an order of magnitude over the next few years, our results demonstrate the potential of CMB lensing crosscorrelations to probe astrophysics at high redshifts.

  16. Electromagnetic flowmeter in-situ calibration by the flow fluctuation cross correlation method

    Electromagnetic flowmeters are used widely in the sodium test loops and fast breeder reactor plants, and recognized to be one of the most reliable ones. But it is possible that the electromotive force of the flowmeters decreases by the decrease of magnetic flux density and by the increase of sodium inpurity. From these reasons, there is the cross correlation with flow fluctuation signals as one of the in-situ calibration methods. For the establishment of this method, sodium flow measurement tests were conducted using the 6 inches electromagnetic flowmeter. And for the flow range of 1 ∼ 5 m/s, calibration was confirmed to be possible within the accuracy of ± 4 %. These results were found to be realized under the following conditions; (1) Electrods are settled at the direction of 45 deg from the center of the pipe, (2) Flow fluctuation frequency of 15 ∼ 20 Hz are used by the band pass filter, (3) Distance between electrods is 150 mm, (4) Correction coefficient to the flowmeter output is 1.00. In future, effectiveness of this method would be confirmed for larger flow pipe. (author)

  17. Two-dimensional structure from random multiparticle X-ray scattering images using cross-correlations

    Pedrini, B.; Menzel, A.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Guzenko, V. A.; Gorelick, S.; David, C.; Patterson, B. D.; Abela, R.

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the structure of biological macromolecules, especially in their native environment, is crucial because of the close structure-function relationship. X-ray small-angle scattering is used to determine the shape of particles in solution, but the achievable resolution is limited owing to averaging over particle orientations. In 1977, Kam proposed to obtain additional structural information from the cross-correlation of the scattering intensities. Here we develop the method in two dimensions, and give a procedure by which the single-particle diffraction pattern is extracted in a model-independent way from the correlations. We demonstrate its application to a large set of synchrotron X-ray scattering images on ensembles of identical, randomly oriented particles of 350 or 200 nm in size. The obtained 15 nm resolution in the reconstructed shape is independent of the number of scatterers. The results are discussed in view of proposed ‘snapshot’ scattering by molecules in the liquid phase at X-ray free-electron lasers.

  18. SKA Weak Lensing I: Cosmological Forecasts and the Power of Radio-Optical Cross-Correlations

    Harrison, Ian; Zuntz, Joe; Brown, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    We construct forecasts for cosmological parameter constraints from weak gravitational lensing surveys involving the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Considering matter content, dark energy and modified gravity parameters, we show that the first phase of the SKA (SKA1) can be competitive with other Stage III experiments such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and that the full SKA (SKA2) can potentially form tighter constraints than Stage IV optical weak lensing experiments, such as those that will be conducted with LSST or Euclid-like facilities. Using weak lensing alone, going from SKA1 to SKA2 represents improvements by factors of $\\sim10$ in matter, $\\sim8$ in dark energy and $\\sim5$ in modified gravity parameters. We also show, for the first time, the powerful result that comparably tight constraints (within $\\sim5\\%$) for both Stage III and Stage IV experiments, can be gained from cross-correlating shear maps between the optical and radio wavebands, a process which will also eliminate a number of potential sou...

  19. A Bayesian estimate of the CMB-large scale structure cross-correlation

    Santos, E Moura; Penna-Lima, M; Novaes, C P; Wuensche, C A

    2015-01-01

    Evidences for late-time acceleration of the Universe are provided by multiple complementary probes, such as observations of distant Type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), large scale structure (LSS), and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. In this work we shall focus on the ISW effect, which consists of small secondary fluctuations in the CMB produced whenever the gravitational potentials evolve due to transitions between dominating fluids, e.g., matter to dark energy dominated phase. Therefore, if we assume a flat universe, as supported by primary CMB data, then a detection of the ISW effect can be correlated to a measurement of dark energy and its properties. In this work, we present a Bayesian estimate of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation signal. As local tracers of the matter distribution at large scales we have used the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) galaxy catalog and, for the CMB temperature fluctuations, the nine-year data release of the W...

  20. On the Reliability of Cross Correlation Function Lag Determinations in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Welsh, W F

    1999-01-01

    Many AGN exhibit a highly variable luminosity. Some AGN also show a pronounced time delay between variations seen in their optical continuum and in their emission lines. In effect, the emission lines are light echoes of the continuum. This light travel-time delay provides a characteristic radius of the region producing the emission lines. The cross correlation function (CCF) is the standard tool used to measure the time lag between the continuum and line variations. For the few well-sampled AGN, the lag ranges from 1-100 days, depending upon which line is used and the luminosity of the AGN. In the best sampled AGN, NGC 5548, the H_beta lag shows year-to-year changes, ranging from about 8.7 days to about 22.9 days over a span of 8 years. In this paper it is demonstrated that, in the context of AGN variability studies, the lag estimate using the CCF is biased too low and subject to a large variance. Thus the year-to-year changes of the measured lag in NGC 5548 do not necessarily imply changes in the AGN structu...